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Sample records for suboptimal guidance law

  1. Modeling and controlling a robotic convoy using guidance laws strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhouche, Fethi; Belkhouche, Boumediene

    2005-08-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling a robotic convoy. Guidance laws techniques are used to provide a mathematical formulation of the problem. The guidance laws used for this purpose are the velocity pursuit, the deviated pursuit, and the proportional navigation. The velocity pursuit equations model the robot's path under various sensors based control laws. A systematic study of the tracking problem based on this technique is undertaken. These guidance laws are applied to derive decentralized control laws for the angular and linear velocities. For the angular velocity, the control law is directly derived from the guidance laws after considering the relative kinematics equations between successive robots. The second control law maintains the distance between successive robots constant by controlling the linear velocity. This control law is derived by considering the kinematics equations between successive robots under the considered guidance law. Properties of the method are discussed and proven. Simulation results confirm the validity of our approach, as well as the validity of the properties of the method. Index Terms-Guidance laws, relative kinematics equations, robotic convoy, tracking.

  2. Adaptive internal model guidance law for weaving maneuvering target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiangfei; Liu, Xiangbin

    2017-09-01

    For the terminal phase guidance problem of the missile intercepting weaving maneuvering target, an adaptive internal model guidance laws in the three-dimensional (3-D) engagement space is proposed in this paper. The guidance law adopts the disturbance rejection theory by treating the target weaving maneuvering accelerations as external disturbance, which comprises of nominal part and adaptive part. The nominal part based on feedback linearization method ensures the whole guidance system stable and the adaptive part based on internal model principle is used to recover the disturbance signals on-line to reject the target maneuver asymptotically. The algorithm guarantees the whole guidance system with satisfying performance both in transient and steady state on the effect of target maneuver on guidance system. The stability analyses and theory proof are provided in this paper. At last, numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On the design of fuzzified trajectory shaping guidance law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Liang; Lin, Yu-Ping; Chen, Kai-Ming

    2009-04-01

    Midcourse guidance is commonly designed to save as much energy as possible so that the missile's final speed can be maximized while entering the homing stage. For this purpose, a competitive guidance design should be able to generate an admissible flight trajectory as to bring the interceptor to a superior altitude for a favorable target engagement. In this paper, a new adaptive trajectory shaping guidance scheme based on the adaptive fuzzy inference system, which is capable of generating a variety of trajectories for efficient target interception, is presented. The guidance law is developed with the aim of saving the interceptor's energy conservation while improving performance robustness. Applications of the presented approach have included a variety of mission oriented guidance, such as cruise missile guidance, anti-ballistic missile guidance, etc.

  4. A Three-Dimensional Cooperative Guidance Law of Multimissile System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to conduct saturation attacks on a static target, the cooperative guidance problem of multimissile system is researched. A three-dimensional guidance model is built using vector calculation and the classic proportional navigation guidance (PNG law is extended to three dimensions. Based on this guidance law, a distributed cooperative guidance strategy is proposed and a consensus protocol is designed to coordinate the time-to-go commands of all missiles. Then an expert system, which contains two extreme learning machines (ELM, is developed to regulate the local proportional coefficient of each missile according to the command. All missiles can arrive at the target simultaneously under the assumption that the multimissile network is connected. A simulation scenario is given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  5. A Terminal Guidance Law Based on Motion Camouflage Strategy of Air-to-Ground Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-sheng Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A guidance law for attacking ground target based on motion camouflage strategy is proposed in this paper. According to the relative position between missile and target, the dual second-order dynamics model is derived. The missile guidance condition is given by analyzing the characteristic of motion camouflage strategy. Then, the terminal guidance law is derived by using the relative motion of missile and target and the guidance condition. In the process of derivation, the three-dimensional guidance law could be designed in a two-dimensional plane and the difficulty of guidance law design is reduced. A two-dimensional guidance law for three-dimensional space is derived by bringing the estimation for target maneuver. Finally, simulation for the proposed guidance law is taken and compared with pure proportional navigation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed guidance law can be applied to air-to-ground missiles.

  6. UAV guidance control laws for autonomous coordinated tracking of a moving ground target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Richard

    This research develops the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) control guidance laws for two UAVs to track a moving ground target in a constant wind while maintaining position coordination with each other. The guidance control is intended to aid an independently controlled camera carried onboard the UAV that gathers data for visual position estimation. Two guidance law command sets are pursued. The performance of the coordination guidance laws are shown to be poor when communication is lost. Observers are formulated that significantly increase guidance law robustness due to communication loss and rate variability. The guidance laws are demonstrated to be viable using real-time, hardware-quality simulation and flight testing. To accommodate more advanced constraints, a tracking guidance law using evolutionary computation is developed from an existing strategic path planning algorithm. To demonstrate its capabilities, the UAV is required to avoid radar detection while tracking.

  7. Identification of missile guidance laws for missile warning systems applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Jason F.; Smith, Moira I.; Heather, Jamie P.

    2006-05-01

    The reliable detection and tracking of missile plumes in sequences of infrared images is a crucial factor in developing infrared missile warning systems for use in military and civil aircraft. This paper discusses the development of a set of algorithms that allow missile plumes to be detected, tracked and classified according to their perceived motion in the image plane. The aim is to classify the missile motion so as to provide an indication of the guidance law which is being used and, hence, to determine the type of missile that may be present and allow the appropriate countermeasures to be deployed. The algorithms allow for the motion of the host platform and they determine the missile motion relative to the fixed background provided by the scene. The tracks produced contain sufficient information to allow good discrimination between several standard missile types.

  8. Impact Time Guidance Law Considering Autopilot Dynamics Based on Variable Coefficients Strategy for Maneuvering Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the terminal guidance problem for the missile intercepting a maneuvering target with impact time constraint. An impact time guidance law based on finite time convergence control theory is developed regarding the target motion as an unknown disturbance. To further improve the performance of the guidance law, an autopilot dynamics which is considered as a first-order lag is taken into consideration. In the proposed method, the coefficients change with the relative distance between missile and target. This variable coefficient strategy ensures that the missile impacts the target at the desired time with little final miss distance. Then it is proved that states of the guidance system converge to sliding mode in finite time under the proposed guidance law. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the impact time guidance law with autopilot dynamics (ITGAD.

  9. Design of Second-Order Sliding Mode Guidance Law Based on the Nonhomogeneous Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibo Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the guidance problem of relative motion of missile target without the dynamic characteristics of missile autopilot in the interception planar, non-homogeneous disturbance observer is applied for finite-time estimation with respect to the target maneuvering affecting the guidance performance. Two guidance laws with finite-time convergence are designed by using a fast power rate reaching law and the prescribed sliding variable dynamics. The nonsingular terminal sliding mode surface is selected to improve dynamic characteristics of missile autopilot. Furthermore, the finite-time guidance law with dynamic delay characteristics is designed for the target maneuvering through adopting variable structure dynamic compensation. The simulation results demonstrate that, for different target maneuvering, the proposed guidance laws can restrain the sliding mode chattering problem effectively and make the missile hit the maneuvering target quickly and accurately with condition of corresponding assumptions.

  10. An Optimal t-{Delta}v Guidance Law for Intercepting a Boosting Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, L.C.; Breitfeller, E.; Ledebuhr, A.G.

    2002-06-30

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have developed a new missile guidance law for intercepting a missile during boost phase. Unlike other known missile guidance laws being used today, the new t-{Delta}v guidance law optimally trades an interceptor's onboard fuel capacity against time-to-go before impact. In particular, this guidance law allows a missile designer to program the interceptor to maximally impact a boosting missile before burnout or burn termination and thus negating its ability to achieve the maximum kinetic velocity. For an intercontinental range ballistic missile (ICBM), it can be shown that for every second of earlier intercept prior to burnout, the ICBM ground range is reduced by 350 km. Therefore, intercepting a mere 15 seconds earlier would result in amiss of 5,250 km from the intended target or approximately a distance across the continental US. This paper also shows how the t-{Delta}v guidance law can incorporate uncertainties in target burnout time, predicted intercept point (PIP) error, time-to-go error, and other track estimation errors. The authors believe that the t-{Delta}v guidance law is a step toward the development of a new and smart missile guidance law that would enhance the probability of achieving a boost phase intercept.

  11. Automatic guidance and control laws for helicopter obstacle avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Victor H. L.; Lam, T.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the implementation of a full-function guidance and control system for automatic obstacle avoidance in helicopter nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight. The guidance function assumes that the helicopter is sufficiently responsive so that the flight path can be readily adjusted at NOE speeds. The controller, basically an autopilot for following the derived flight path, was implemented with parameter values to control a generic helicopter model used in the simulation. Evaluation of the guidance and control system with a 3-dimensional graphical helicopter simulation suggests that the guidance has the potential for providing good and meaningful flight trajectories.

  12. Guidance Law Design for a Class of Dual-Spin Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-wei Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To minimize the cost and maximize the ease of use, a class of dual-spin mortars is designed which only rely on GPS receiver and geomagnetic measurements. However, there are some problems to be solved when the range is small, such as low correction authority and trajectory bending. Guidance law design for this mortar is detailed. Different guidance laws were designed for the ascending and descending segments, respectively. By taking variable parameter guidance law in the vertical plane and using compensation in the lateral plane, the problems mentioned above were resolved. Roll angle resolving algorithms with geomagnetic measurements were demonstrated and the experiment results proved to be effective. In order to verify the effectiveness, Seven-Degrees-of-Freedom (7-DOF rigid ballistic model were established and hardware in the loop simulation was introduced. After the transform function of the actuator was obtained, the control model of the shell was improved. The results of the Monte Carlo simulation demonstrate that the guidance law is suitable and the mortar can be effectively controlled.

  13. A Novel Guidance Law with Line-of-Sight Acceleration Feedback for Missiles against Maneuvering Targets

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    Kemao Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal guidance law design and its implementation are considered for homing missiles against maneuvering targets. The lateral acceleration dynamics are taken into account in the design. In the guidance law design, the line-of-sight acceleration signals are incorporated into the acceleration reference signals to compensate for the targets’ maneuvers. Then the commanded accelerations are designed and the convergent tracking of the lateral accelerations to these signals is proven theoretically. In the guidance implementation, a linear high-gain differentiator is used to estimate the line-of-sight rates and the line-of-sight acceleration signals. To avoid the magnifying effects of higher order differentiation, a practical design of commanded accelerations is given to realize approximate tracking of the lateral accelerations to the given reference signals. Simulation is conducted for both cases with and without measurement noises. The simulation results justify the feasibility of the design and the implementation.

  14. Continuous composite finite-time convergent guidance laws with autopilot dynamics compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shaoming; Lin, Defu

    2015-09-01

    This paper has proposed two continuous composite finite-time convergent guidance laws to intercept maneuvering targets in the presence of autopilot lag: one is for hit-to-kill and the other is for zeroing the line-of-sight (LOS) angular rate. More specifically, the nonlinear disturbance observer (NDOB) is used to estimate the lumped uncertainty online while the finite-time control technique is used to fulfill the design goal in finite time. The key feature in derivation of the proposed guidance law is that two integral-type Lyapunov functions are used to avoid analytic differentiation of virtual control law encountered with traditional backstepping. The finite-time stability of the closed-loop nonlinear observer-controller system is established using finite-time bounded (FTB) function and Lyapunov function methods. Numerical simulations with some comparisons are carried out to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the Defense Agencies Law Enforcement Divisions Compliance with the Lautenberg Amendment Requirements and Implementing Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-23

    Background Federal Law Public Law 104-208, “Domestic Violence Amendment to the Gun Control Act of 1968,” (Lautenberg Amendment...Report No. DODIG-2016-053 Inspector General U.S. Department of Defense F E B R U A R Y 2 3 , 2 0 1 6 Evaluation of the Defense Agencies’ Law ...Evaluation of the Defense Agencies’ Law Enforcement Divisions’ Compliance with the Lautenberg Amendment Requirements and Implementing Guidance February 23

  16. A new guidance law for a tactical surface-to-surface missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo V. Ćuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern tactical surface-to-surface missiles, equipped with strapdown inertial navigation systems, achieve very good accuracy compared with free-flight rockets. The probable range dispersion mainly depends on instruments errors and longitudinal disturbances such as rocket motor total-impulse deviation as well as differences between the estimated and actual values of the axial force and head wind. This paper gives an extension of the correlated velocity concept for surface-to-surface missiles without a thrust-terminating mechanism. The calculated parameters of the correlated velocity are stored into the memory of an onboard guidance computer. On the basis of the correlated velocity concept, the modified proportional navigation with the adjustment of the time-to-go of the missile to the target was proposed. It is shown that the new guidance law can compensate for the longitudinal disturbances of different levels successfully. The effectiveness of the proposed guidance method was confirmed by means of the calculated probable range and lateral dispersion for the anticipated disturbances in the guidance system.

  17. A guidance law for UAV autonomous aerial refueling based on the iterative computation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Delin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The rendezvous and formation problem is a significant part for the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV autonomous aerial refueling (AAR technique. It can be divided into two major phases: the long-range guidance phase and the formation phase. In this paper, an iterative computation guidance law (ICGL is proposed to compute a series of state variables to get the solution of a control variable for a UAV conducting rendezvous with a tanker in AAR. The proposed method can make the control variable converge to zero when the tanker and the UAV receiver come to a formation flight eventually. For the long-range guidance phase, the ICGL divides it into two sub-phases: the correction sub-phase and the guidance sub-phase. The two sub-phases share the same iterative process. As for the formation phase, a velocity coordinate system is created by which control accelerations are designed to make the speed of the UAV consistent with that of the tanker. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ICGL is effective and robust against wind disturbance.

  18. Terminal attack trajectories of peregrine falcons are described by the proportional navigation guidance law of missiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Caroline H; Thomas, Adrian L R; Taylor, Graham K

    2017-12-19

    The ability to intercept uncooperative targets is key to many diverse flight behaviors, from courtship to predation. Previous research has looked for simple geometric rules describing the attack trajectories of animals, but the underlying feedback laws have remained obscure. Here, we use GPS loggers and onboard video cameras to study peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus , attacking stationary targets, maneuvering targets, and live prey. We show that the terminal attack trajectories of peregrines are not described by any simple geometric rule as previously claimed, and instead use system identification techniques to fit a phenomenological model of the dynamical system generating the observed trajectories. We find that these trajectories are best-and exceedingly well-modeled by the proportional navigation (PN) guidance law used by most guided missiles. Under this guidance law, turning is commanded at a rate proportional to the angular rate of the line-of-sight between the attacker and its target, with a constant of proportionality (i.e., feedback gain) called the navigation constant ( N ). Whereas most guided missiles use navigation constants falling on the interval 3 ≤ N ≤ 5, peregrine attack trajectories are best fitted by lower navigation constants (median N drones designed to remove other drones from protected airspace. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  19. Midcourse Guidance Law Based on High Target Acquisition Probability Considering Angular Constraint and Line-of-Sight Angle Rate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Random disturbance factors would lead to the variation of target acquisition point during the long distance flight. To acquire a high target acquisition probability and improve the impact precision, missiles should be guided to an appropriate target acquisition position with certain attitude angles and line-of-sight (LOS angle rate. This paper has presented a new midcourse guidance law considering the influences of random disturbances, detection distance restraint, and target acquisition probability with Monte Carlo simulation. Detailed analyses of the impact points on the ground and the random distribution of the target acquisition position in the 3D space are given to get the appropriate attitude angles and the end position for the midcourse guidance. Then, a new formulation biased proportional navigation (BPN guidance law with angular constraint and LOS angle rate control has been derived to ensure the tracking ability when attacking the maneuvering target. Numerical simulations demonstrates that, compared with the proportional navigation guidance (PNG law and the near-optimal spatial midcourse guidance (NSMG law, BPN guidance law demonstrates satisfactory performances and can meet both the midcourse terminal angular constraint and the LOS angle rate requirement.

  20. Efficient guidance and control simulation of solar-electric orbital transfer vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, A. B.; McLain, M. G.; Zondervan, K. P.

    1992-08-01

    An efficient guidance and control simulation is developed to assist mission analysis and trade studies of solar-electric orbital transfer vehicles. This generates the vehicle trajectory and computes vehicle attitude profile, propellant requirement and control torque commands. A numerical example that demonstrates the utilization of the simulation to evaluate the implementation of a simple, analytic, suboptimal guidance law is presented.

  1. UAS stealth: target pursuit at constant distance using a bio-inspired motion camouflage guidance law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, Reuben; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2017-09-21

    The aim of this study is to derive a guidance law by which an unmanned aerial system(s) (UAS) can pursue a moving target at a constant distance, while concealing its own motion. We derive a closed-form solution for the trajectory of the UAS by imposing two key constraints: (1) the shadower moves in such a way as to be perceived as a stationary object by the shadowee, and (2) the distance between the shadower and shadowee is kept constant. Additionally, the theory presented in this paper considers constraints on the maximum achievable speed and acceleration of the shadower. Our theory is tested through Matlab simulations, which validate the camouflage strategy for both 2D and 3D conditions. Furthermore, experiments using a realistic vision-based implementation are conducted in a virtual environment, where the results demonstrate that even with noisy state information it is possible to remain well camouflaged using the constant distance motion camouflage technique.

  2. Deprivation of Liberty: Collected Guidance The Law Society Deprivation of Liberty: Collected Guidance 400pp £29.95 Law Society Publishing 9781784460433 1784460435 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Deprivation of liberty (DoL) is a complicated subject that healthcare professionals may find challenging. Understanding and applying safeguards against DoL can be difficult because regulations and guidance are complex and varied.

  3. Optimum Guidance Law and Information Management for a Large Number of Formation Flying Spacecrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yuichi; Nakasuka, Shinichi

    In recent years, formation flying technique is recognized as one of the most important technologies for deep space and orbital missions that involve multiple spacecraft operations. Formation flying mission improves simultaneous observability over a wide area, redundancy and reconfigurability of the system with relatively small and low cost spacecrafts compared with the conventional single spacecraft mission. From the viewpoint of guidance and control, realizing formation flying mission usually requires tight maintenance and control of the relative distances, speeds and orientations between the member satellites. This paper studies a practical architecture for formation flight missions focusing mainly on guidance and control, and describes a new guidance algorithm for changing and keeping the relative positions and speeds of the satellites in formation. The resulting algorithm is suitable for onboard processing and gives the optimum impulsive trajectory for satellites flying closely around a certain reference orbit, that can be elliptic, parabolic or hyperbolic. Based on this guidance algorithm, this study introduces an information management methodology between the member spacecrafts which is suitable for a large formation flight architecture. Routing and multicast communication based on the wireless local area network technology are introduced. Some mathematical analyses and computer simulations will be shown in the presentation to reveal the feasibility of the proposed formation flight architecture, especially when a very large number of satellites join the formation.

  4. Immigrant Families and Child Care Subsidies: What Federal Law and Guidance Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    One in four young children in the United States lives in an immigrant family. Federal law establishes policies on immigrant eligibility for child care assistance, yet questions regarding eligibility remain at the state and local level. Most child care assistance is funded through the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) and the Temporary…

  5. The BMA's guidance on conscientious objection may be contrary to human rights law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenitire, John Olusegun

    2017-04-01

    It is argued that the current policy of the British Medical Association (BMA) on conscientious objection is not aligned with recent human rights developments. These grant a right to conscientious objection to doctors in many more circumstances than the very few recognised by the BMA. However, this wide-ranging right may be overridden if the refusal to accommodate the conscientious objection is proportionate. It is shown that it is very likely that it is lawful to refuse to accommodate conscientious objections that would result in discrimination of protected groups. It is still uncertain, however, in what particular circumstances the objection may be lawfully refused, if it poses risks to the health and safety of patients. The BMA's policy has not caught up with these human rights developments and ought to be changed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. A Primer on Employment and Intellectual Property Law: Legal Guidance for Supervisors of Assessment and Institutional Research Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, William; Lugg, Elizabeth Timmerman

    2017-01-01

    Institutional research (IR) leaders rely on staff members to accomplish office missions and support institutional decisions. Like any supervisors in higher education, IR leaders must be familiar with a host of employment and intellectual property laws that guide the institution/employee relationship. This chapter offers insights into specific…

  7. A shooting approach to suboptimal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, David G.; Sheen, Jyh-Jong

    1991-01-01

    The shooting method is used to solve the suboptimal control problem where the control history is assumed to be piecewise linear. Suboptimal solutions can be obtained without difficulty and can lead to accurate approximate controls and good starting multipliers for the regular shooting method by increasing the number of nodes. Optimal planar launch trajectories are presented for the advanced launch system.

  8. The LawsAndFamilies questionnaire on legal family formats for same-sex and/or different-sex couples : Text of the questions and of the accompanying guidance document.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaldijk, C.; Lorenzo, Villaverde J.M.; Nikolina, N.; Zago, G.

    2016-01-01

    This Working Paper of the research project FamiliesAndSocieties contains the text of the LawsAndFamilies questionnaire, plus the text of the guidance document provided to legal experts answering this questionnaire. These texts are preceded by a brief introduction to the background, aims and

  9. Different (key)strokes for different folks: How standard and nonstandard typists balance Fitts' law and Hick's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Gordon D; Ulrich, Jana E; Lindsey, Dakota R B

    2016-12-01

    Fine motor skills like typing involve a mapping problem that trades Fitts' law against Hick's law. Eight fingers have to be mapped onto 26 keys. Movement time increases with distance, so Fitts' law is optimized by recruiting more fingers. Choice difficulty increases with the number of alternatives, so Hick's law is optimized by recruiting fewer fingers. The effect of the number of alternatives decreases with consistent practice, so skilled typists achieve a balance between Fitts' law and Hick's law through learning. We tested this hypothesis by comparing standard typists who use the standard QWERTY mapping consistently with nonstandard typists who use fewer fingers less consistently. Typing speed and accuracy were lower for nonstandard typists, especially when visual guidance was reduced by removing the letters from the keys or covering the keyboard. Regression analyses showed that accommodation to Fitts' law (number of fingers) and Hick's law (consistency) predicted typing speed and accuracy. We measured the automaticity of typing in both groups, testing for hierarchical control in 3 tasks: word priming, which measures parallel activation of keystrokes, keyboard recall, which measures explicit knowledge of letter locations, and hand cuing, which measures explicit knowledge of which hand types which letter. Standard and nonstandard typists showed similar degrees of hierarchical control in all 3 tasks, suggesting that nonstandard typists type as automatically as standard typists, but their suboptimal balance between Fitts' law and Hick's law limits their ability to type quickly and accurately. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Suboptimal glycemic control in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, F; Denollet, J

    2012-01-01

    , clinical, lifestyle and psychological factors between 2005 and 2009. The Edinburgh Depression Scale was used to assess symptoms of depressed mood, anhedonia and anxiety. Suboptimal glycemic control was defined as HbA(1c) values ≥7%, with 29.8% of the sample (n=1718) scoring above this cut......-off. In univariate logistic regression analyses, anhedonia was significantly associated with suboptimal glycemic control (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.09-1.52), while both depressed mood (OR 1.04, 0.88-1.22) and anxiety (OR 0.99, 0.83-1.19) were not. The association between anhedonia and glycemic control remained after...

  11. On Suboptimal Solution of Antagonistic Matrix Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryashko Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines resource allocation games such as Colonel Blotto and Colonel Lotto games with the goal to develop tractable method for building suboptimal solution in mixed strategies of these games without solving the relevant optimization problem. The foundation of proposed method lies in the specific combinatorial properties of the partition games. It turned out that as far as distribution of resource along battlefield is concerned that pure strategies participating in ε-optimal solution possessed specific structure. Numerical experiments showed that these specific structural peculiarities can be easily reproduced utilizing previously found combinatorial properties of partition. As a result, we get ε-optimal solution of partition games and support set mixed strategies can be computed in polynomial time.

  12. Adaptive suboptimal second-order sliding mode control for microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incremona, Gian Paolo; Cucuzzella, Michele; Ferrara, Antonella

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with the design of adaptive suboptimal second-order sliding mode (ASSOSM) control laws for grid-connected microgrids. Due to the presence of the inverter, of unpredicted load changes, of switching among different renewable energy sources, and of electrical parameters variations, the microgrid model is usually affected by uncertain terms which are bounded, but with unknown upper bounds. To theoretically frame the control problem, the class of second-order systems in Brunovsky canonical form, characterised by the presence of matched uncertain terms with unknown bounds, is first considered. Four adaptive strategies are designed, analysed and compared to select the most effective ones to be applied to the microgrid case study. In the first two strategies, the control amplitude is continuously adjusted, so as to arrive at dominating the effect of the uncertainty on the controlled system. When a suitable control amplitude is attained, the origin of the state space of the auxiliary system becomes attractive. In the other two strategies, a suitable blend between two components, one mainly working during the reaching phase, the other being the predominant one in a vicinity of the sliding manifold, is generated, so as to reduce the control amplitude in steady state. The microgrid system in a grid-connected operation mode, controlled via the selected ASSOSM control strategies, exhibits appreciable stability properties, as proved theoretically and shown in simulation.

  13. Image Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance that explains the process for getting images approved in One EPA Web microsites and resource directories. includes an appendix that shows examples of what makes some images better than others, how some images convey meaning more than others

  14. Application of laws, policies, and guidance from the United States and Canada to the regulation of food and feed derived from genetically modified crops: interpretation of composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, William D; Underhill, Lynne

    2013-09-04

    With the development of recombinant DNA techniques for genetically modifying plants to exhibit beneficial traits, laws and regulations were adopted to ensure the safety of food and feed derived from such plants. This paper focuses on the regulation of genetically modified (GM) plants in Canada and the United States, with emphasis on the results of the compositional analysis routinely utilized as an indicator of possible unintended effects resulting from genetic modification. This work discusses the mandate of Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency as well as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's approach to regulating food and feed derived from GM plants. This work also addresses how publications by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Codex Alimentarius fit, particularly with defining the importance and purpose of compositional analysis. The importance of study design, selection of comparators, use of literature, and commercial variety reference values is also discussed.

  15. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-03-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms applicable'' and relevant and appropriate'' is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

  16. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms ``applicable`` and ``relevant and appropriate`` is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

  17. Trajectory reshaping based guidance with impact time and angle constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel impact time and angle constrained guidance law for homing missiles. The guidance law is first developed with the prior-assumption of a stationary target, which is followed by the practical extension to a maneuvering target scenario. To derive the closed-form guidance law, the trajectory reshaping technique is utilized and it results in defining a specific polynomial function with two unknown coefficients. These coefficients are determined to satisfy the impact time and angle constraints as well as the zero miss distance. Furthermore, the proposed guidance law has three additional guidance gains as design parameters which make it possible to adjust the guided trajectory according to the operational conditions and missile’s capability. Numerical simulations are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law.

  18. Suboptimal light conditions influence source-sink metabolism during flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies eChristiaens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids. Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural and optimal (supplemental light light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions.

  19. Minimum-Jerk Guidance for Lunar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Kenji; Shimada, Yuzo; Ogawa, Kazuhiro

    An optimal guidance law derived by solving the minimum-acceleration problem has been reported for control of a lunar lander. In our past work, the guidance law was proved to enable vertical/soft landing. However, it was not robust against disturbance because there was a constraint condition relative to initial conditions in order to satisfy optimality. Therefore, if the constraint is not satisfied, the lunar lander must be controlled to track the reference trajectory generated by the optimal guidance law in order to be robust against disturbance. The control system makes the landing system complex and fuel consumption is increased in comparison to a guidance law without tracking control. Consequently, this study restructures the optimal control problem as a minimum-jerk problem to solve it. Jerk is a physical quantity defined as the time derivative of acceleration. The new optimal guidance law obtained has no constraints on the initial conditions. The results of computer simulation confirm the usefulness of the proposed guidance law.

  20. Suboptimal palliative sedation in primary care: an exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pype, Peter; Teuwen, Inge; Mertens, Fien; Sercu, Marij; De Sutter, An

    2017-06-05

    Palliative sedation is a therapeutic option to control refractory symptoms in terminal palliative patients. This study aims at describing the occurrence and characteristics of suboptimal palliative sedations in primary care and at exploring the way general practitioners (GPs) experience suboptimal palliative sedation in their practice. We conducted a mixed methods study with a quantitative prospective survey in primary care and qualitative semi-structured interviews with GPs. The research team defined suboptimal palliative sedation as a time interval until deep sleep >1.5 h and/ or >2 awakenings after the start of the unconsciousness. Descriptive statistics were calculated on the quantitative data. Thematic analysis was used to analyse interview transcripts. We registered 63 palliative sedations in 1181 home deaths, 27 forms were completed. Eleven palliative sedations were suboptimal: eight due to the long time span until deep sleep; three due the number of unintended awakenings. GPs' interview analysis revealed two major themes: the shifting perception of failure and the burden of responsibility. Suboptimal palliative sedation occurs frequently in primary palliative care. Efficient communication towards family members is needed to prevent them from having unrealistic expectations and to prevent putting pressure on the GP to hasten the procedure. Sharing the burden of decision-making during the procedure with other health care professionals might diminish the heavy responsibility as perceived by GPs.

  1. Suboptimal Rate Adaptive Resource Allocation for Downlink OFDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanam Sadr

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the performance of low complexity adaptive resource allocation in the downlink of OFDMA systems with fixed or variable rate requirements (with fairness consideration. Two suboptimal resource allocation algorithms are proposed using the simplifying assumption of transmit power over the entire bandwidth. The objective of the first algorithm is to maximize the total throughput while maintaining rate proportionality among the users. The proposed suboptimal algorithm prioritizes the user with the highest sensitivity to the subcarrier allocation, and the variance over the subchannel gains is used to define the sensitivity of each user. The second algorithm concerns rate adaptive resource allocation in multiuser systems with fixed rate constraints. We propose a suboptimal joint subchannel and power allocation algorithm which prioritizes the users with the highest required data rates. The main feature of this algorithm is its low complexity while achieving the rate requirements.

  2. Suboptimal care in stillbirths - a retrospective audit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saastad, Eli; Vangen, Siri; Frøen, J Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Stillbirth rates have decreased radically over the last decades. One reason for this is improved perinatal care. The aim of this study was to explore whether sub-optimal factors in stillbirths were more frequent among non-western than western women. Population-based perinatal audit of 356 stillbirths after gestational week 23, in 2 Norwegian counties during 1998-2003 (4.2 per 1,000 deliveries); of these 31% were born to non-western women. By audit, the stillbirths were attributed to optimal or sub-optimal care factors. Multivariate methods were used to analyse the data. Sub-optimal factors were identified in 37% of the deaths. When compared to western women, non-western women had an increased risk of stillbirth (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.8), and an increased risk of sub-optimal care (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5-3.9). More often, non-western women received sub-optimal obstetric care (plabour progression. A common failure in antenatal care for both groups was unidentified or inadequate management of intrauterine growth restriction or decreased fetal movements. Non-western women were less prone to attend the program for antenatal care or to take the consequences of recommendations from health professionals. Inadequate communication was documented in 47% of non-western mothers; an interpreter was used in 29% of these cases. Non-western women constituted a risk group for sub-optimal care factors in stillbirths. Possibilities for improvements include a reduction of language barriers, better identification and management of growth restriction for both origin groups, and adequate intervention in complicated vaginal births; with increased vigilance towards non-western women.

  3. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance to determine the applicable law for assessment of liability. (a) A claim is settled under the law and standards...

  4. Sacral Nerve Stimulation for Constipation: Suboptimal Outcome and Adverse Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Yasuko; Lundby, Lilli; Buntzen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation is an emerging treatment for patients with severe constipation. There has been no substantial report to date on suboptimal outcomes and complications. We report our experience of more than 6 years by focusing on incidents and the management of reportable events....

  5. Optimal and Suboptimal Noises Enhancing Mutual Information in Threshold System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Qiqing; Wang, Youguo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the efficacy of noise enhancing information transmission in a threshold system. At first, in the frame of stochastic resonance (SR), optimal noise (Opt N) is derived to maximize mutual information (MI) of this nonlinear system. When input signal is discrete (binary), the optimal SR noise is found to have a finite distribution. In contrast, when input signal is continuous, the optimal SR noise is a constant one. In addition, suboptimal SR noises are explored as well with optimization methods when the types of noise added into the system are predetermined. We find that for small thresholds, suboptimal noises do not exist. Only when thresholds reach some level, do suboptimal noises come into effect. Meanwhile, we have discussed the impact of tails in noise distribution on SR effect. Finally, this paper extends the single-threshold system to an array of multi-threshold devices and presents the corresponding efficacy of information transmission produced by optimal and suboptimal SR noises. These results may be beneficial to quantization and coding.

  6. Suboptimal Utilisation of Resources in Sub-Saharan African Higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suboptimal Utilisation of Resources in Sub-Saharan African Higher Education Institutions: the Case of Teaching Space at Makerere University. ... This means that the institutions need to evaluate their utilization of these resources—to pinpoint their need for the resources and potential for quality assurance. This paper reports ...

  7. When animals misbehave: analogs of human biases and suboptimal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R

    2015-03-01

    Humans tend to value rewards more if they have had to work hard to obtain them (justification of effort). Similarly they tend to persist in a task even when they would be better off beginning a new one (sunk cost). Humans also often give greater value to objects of good quality than the same objects together with objects of lesser quality (the less is more effect). Commercial gambling (lotteries and slot machines) is another example of suboptimal choice by humans because on average the rewards are less than the investment. In another example of a systematic bias, when humans try to estimate the probability of the occurrence of a low probability event, they often give too much weight to the results of a test, in spite of the fact that the known probability of a false alarm reduces the predictive value of the test (base rate neglect). In each of these examples, we have found that pigeons show a similar tendency to choose suboptimally. When one can show comparable findings of suboptimal choice in animals it suggests that whereas culture may reinforce certain suboptimal behavior, the behavior is likely to result from the overgeneralization of basic behavioral processes or predisposed heuristics that may have been appropriate in natural environments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Tribute to Tom Zentall." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and predictors of sub-optimal medication adherence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the levels of adherence, prevalence and the predictors of suboptimal adherence were assessed in a sub-Saharan African setting. Methods: Three hundred and seventy (370) respondents with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or severe depression were randomly enrolled and interviewed at the ...

  9. Visually suboptimal bananas: How ripeness affects consumer expectation and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    2017-10-07

    One reason for the significant amount of food that is wasted in developed countries is that consumers often expect visually suboptimal food as being less palatable. Using bananas as example, the objective of this study was to determine how appearance affects consumer overall liking, the rating of sensory attributes, purchase intention, and the intended use of bananas. The ripeness degree (RD) of the samples was adjusted to RD 5 (control) and RD 7 (more ripened, visually suboptimal). After preliminary experiments, a total of 233 participants were asked to judge their satisfaction with the intensity of sensory attributes that referred to flavor, taste, and texture using just-about-right scales. Subjects who received peeled samples were asked after tasting, whereas subjects who received unpeeled bananas judged expectation and, after peeling and tasting, perception. Expected overall liking and purchase intention were significantly lower for RD 7 bananas. Purchase intention was still significantly different between RD 5 and RD 7 after tasting, whereas no difference in overall liking was observed. Significant differences between RD 5 and RD 7 were observed when asking participants for their intended use of the bananas. Concerning the sensory attributes, penalty analysis revealed that only the firmness of the RD 7 bananas was still not just-about-right after tasting. The importance that consumers attribute to the shelf-life of food had a pronounced impact on purchase intention of bananas with different ripeness degree. In the case of suboptimal bananas, the results demonstrate a positive relationship between the sensory perception and overall liking and purchase intention. Convincing consumers that visually suboptimal food is still tasty is of high relevance for recommending different ways of communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Law without Law

    OpenAIRE

    Sidharth, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a model for spacetime in which there is an ubiquitous background Dark Energy which is the Zero Point Field. This is further modeled in terms of a Weiner process that leads to a Random or Brownian characterization. Nevertheless we are able to recover meaningful physics, very much in the spirit of Wheeler's Law without Law, that is laws emerging from an underpinning of lawlessness.

  11. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  12. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, MSE; Schmand, B; Wekking, EM; Hageman, G; Deelman, BG

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  13. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Moniek S. E.; Schmand, Ben; Wekking, Ellie M.; Hageman, Gerard; Deelman, Betto G.

    2003-01-01

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  14. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  15. Interventions via Social Influence for Emergent Suboptimal Restraint Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad KOBTI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although restraint use has increased primarily in developed countries, vehicle accident-related injuries and deaths continue to be a problem. Alongside lack of restraint use, studies involving suboptimal restraint use have gained recent popularity. In this study we investigate the use of social influence forinterventions to counter emerging suboptimal restraint use in groups of agents.A multi-agent simulation model is provided where dominant individuals use randomly assigned influence rates to repeatedly alter the knowledge of lessinfluential group members. Cultural influence is implemented via a cultural algorithm and used to simulate individuals affected by beliefs in the community. Objectives include investigating the emergence of patterns of restraint selection and use as well as interventions targeted at more influential agents. Results demonstrate that prominent patterns of behaviour similar to the influentialmembers of the groups do emerge. Furthermore, interventions targeted at influential group members outperform interventions targeted at a percentage of the population at large. Interventions succeed at some level both in the presence and absence of cultural influence.

  16. Optimal inference with suboptimal models: addiction and active Bayesian inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H B; Mathys, Christoph; Dolan, Ray; Wurst, Friedrich; Kronbichler, Martin; Friston, Karl

    2015-02-01

    When casting behaviour as active (Bayesian) inference, optimal inference is defined with respect to an agent's beliefs - based on its generative model of the world. This contrasts with normative accounts of choice behaviour, in which optimal actions are considered in relation to the true structure of the environment - as opposed to the agent's beliefs about worldly states (or the task). This distinction shifts an understanding of suboptimal or pathological behaviour away from aberrant inference as such, to understanding the prior beliefs of a subject that cause them to behave less 'optimally' than our prior beliefs suggest they should behave. Put simply, suboptimal or pathological behaviour does not speak against understanding behaviour in terms of (Bayes optimal) inference, but rather calls for a more refined understanding of the subject's generative model upon which their (optimal) Bayesian inference is based. Here, we discuss this fundamental distinction and its implications for understanding optimality, bounded rationality and pathological (choice) behaviour. We illustrate our argument using addictive choice behaviour in a recently described 'limited offer' task. Our simulations of pathological choices and addictive behaviour also generate some clear hypotheses, which we hope to pursue in ongoing empirical work. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Sliding mode predictive guidance for terminal rendezvous in eccentric orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaeian, Seyed Aliakbar; Assadian, Nima; Ebrahimi, Masoud

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a robust guidance algorithm for a chaser spacecraft to rendezvous with a target spacecraft in Earth orbit. The basis of the proposed guidance method is finding an appropriate set of states as close as possible to the current states that would lead the spacecraft to the target in the desired mission time. In order to provide the prediction of states, the relative dynamics equations of motion are solved analytically for the chaser spacecraft rendezvous considering constant acceleration. Although the equations are solved for rendezvous with circular orbit target, it is shown by several simulations that the proposed guidance algorithm is applicable in perturbed elliptical orbits rendezvous as well. The sliding mode method as a robust nonlinear method is utilized as the steering law. The robust steering law tracks the desired states computed by the predictive guidance method. The Lyapunov stability method proves the asymptotic stability of the integrated guidance and steering laws. Because the proposed closed-loop guidance is simple and computationally easy, it is suitable for implementation in real-time applications. Some numerical simulations are conducted to show the performance of the proposed guidance method in different conditions. It is illustrated that compared with other steering laws, the fuel consumption is reduced utilizing the proposed guidance approach. The results reveal that the sliding mode guarantees the tracking of the required states and minimum final errors even in the presence of uncertainties and disturbances.

  18. China suboptimal health cohort study: rationale, design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youxin; Ge, Siqi; Yan, Yuxiang; Wang, Anxin; Zhao, Zhongyao; Yu, Xinwei; Qiu, Jing; Alzain, Mohamed Ali; Wang, Hao; Fang, Honghong; Gao, Qing; Song, Manshu; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Wei

    2016-10-13

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) is a physical state between health and disease, characterized by the perception of health complaints, general weakness, chronic fatigue and low energy levels. SHS is proposed by the ancient concept of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the perspective of preservative, predictive and personalized (precision) medicine. We previously created the suboptimal health status questionnaire 25 (SHSQ-25), a novel instrument to measure SHS, validated in various populations. SHSQ-25 thus affords a window of opportunity for early detection and intervention, contributing to the reduction of chronic disease burdens. To investigate the causative effect of SHS in non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD), we initiated the China suboptimal health cohort study (COACS), a longitudinal study starting from 2013. Phase I of the study involved a cross-sectional survey aimed at identifying the risk/protective factors associated with SHS; and Phase II: a longitudinal yearly follow-up study investigating how SHS contributes to the incidence and pattern of NCD. (1) Cross-sectional survey: in total, 4313 participants (53.8 % women) aged from 18 to 65 years were included in the cohort. The prevalence of SHS was 9.0 % using SHS score of 35 as threshold. Women showed a significantly higher prevalence of SHS (10.6 % in the female vs. 7.2 % in the male, P differed significantly between subjects of SHS (SHS score ≥35) and those of ideal health (SHS score difference in prevalence of SHS might partly explain the gender difference of incidence of certain chronic diseases. The COACS will enable a thorough characterization of SHS and establish a cohort that will be used for longitudinal analyses of the interaction between the genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors that contribute to the onset and etiology of targeted chronic diseases. The study together with the designed prospective cohort provides a chance to characterize and evaluate the effect of SHS

  19. Feature-preserving surface mesh smoothing via suboptimal Delaunay triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhanheng; Yu, Zeyun; Holst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A method of triangular surface mesh smoothing is presented to improve angle quality by extending the original optimal Delaunay triangulation (ODT) to surface meshes. The mesh quality is improved by solving a quadratic optimization problem that minimizes the approximated interpolation error between a parabolic function and its piecewise linear interpolation defined on the mesh. A suboptimal problem is derived to guarantee a unique, analytic solution that is significantly faster with little loss in accuracy as compared to the optimal one. In addition to the quality-improving capability, the proposed method has been adapted to remove noise while faithfully preserving sharp features such as edges and corners of a mesh. Numerous experiments are included to demonstrate the performance of the method.

  20. Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

  1. Suboptimal Criterion Learning in Static and Dynamic Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyse H Norton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans often make decisions based on uncertain sensory information. Signal detection theory (SDT describes detection and discrimination decisions as a comparison of stimulus "strength" to a fixed decision criterion. However, recent research suggests that current responses depend on the recent history of stimuli and previous responses, suggesting that the decision criterion is updated trial-by-trial. The mechanisms underpinning criterion setting remain unknown. Here, we examine how observers learn to set a decision criterion in an orientation-discrimination task under both static and dynamic conditions. To investigate mechanisms underlying trial-by-trial criterion placement, we introduce a novel task in which participants explicitly set the criterion, and compare it to a more traditional discrimination task, allowing us to model this explicit indication of criterion dynamics. In each task, stimuli were ellipses with principal orientations drawn from two categories: Gaussian distributions with different means and equal variance. In the covert-criterion task, observers categorized a displayed ellipse. In the overt-criterion task, observers adjusted the orientation of a line that served as the discrimination criterion for a subsequently presented ellipse. We compared performance to the ideal Bayesian learner and several suboptimal models that varied in both computational and memory demands. Under static and dynamic conditions, we found that, in both tasks, observers used suboptimal learning rules. In most conditions, a model in which the recent history of past samples determines a belief about category means fit the data best for most observers and on average. Our results reveal dynamic adjustment of discrimination criterion, even after prolonged training, and indicate how decision criteria are updated over time.

  2. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  3. Inexpressive Law

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Parisi, Francesco; von Wangenheim, Georg

    2010-01-01

    According to expressive law theories, expression of values is an important function played by the law. Expressive laws affect behavior, not by threatening sanctions or promising rewards, but by changing individual preferences and tastes and, in some cases, by affecting social norms and values. New laws, however, can run against sticky social norms, failing to achieve their expressive effects. By developing a dynamic model, in this paper we show that inexpressive laws (laws whose expressive fu...

  4. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  5. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  6. Virtual Ultrasound Guidance for Inexperienced Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Timothy; Martin, David

    2012-01-01

    Medical ultrasound or echocardiographic studies are highly operator-dependent and generally require lengthy training and internship to perfect. To obtain quality echocardiographic images in remote environments, such as on-orbit, remote guidance of studies has been employed. This technique involves minimal training for the user, coupled with remote guidance from an expert. When real-time communication or expert guidance is not available, a more autonomous system of guiding an inexperienced operator through an ultrasound study is needed. One example would be missions beyond low Earth orbit in which the time delay inherent with communication will make remote guidance impractical. The Virtual Ultrasound Guidance system is a combination of hardware and software. The hardware portion includes, but is not limited to, video glasses that allow hands-free, full-screen viewing. The glasses also allow the operator a substantial field of view below the glasses to view and operate the ultrasound system. The software is a comprehensive video program designed to guide an inexperienced operator through a detailed ultrasound or echocardiographic study without extensive training or guidance from the ground. The program contains a detailed description using video and audio to demonstrate equipment controls, ergonomics of scanning, study protocol, and scanning guidance, including recovery from sub-optimal images. The components used in the initial validation of the system include an Apple iPod Classic third-generation as the video source, and Myvue video glasses. Initially, the program prompts the operator to power-up the ultrasound and position the patient. The operator would put on the video glasses and attach them to the video source. After turning on both devices and the ultrasound system, the audio-video guidance would then instruct on patient positioning and scanning techniques. A detailed scanning protocol follows with descriptions and reference video of each view along with

  7. Energy expenditures & physical activity in rats with chronic suboptimal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifshitz Fima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-optimally nourished rats show reduced growth, biochemical and physiological changes. However, no one has assessed metabolic rate adaptations in rats subjected to chronic suboptimal nutrition (CSN. In this study energy expenditure (EE; kcal/100 g body weight and physical activity (PA; oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight were assessed in rats subjected to three levels of CSN. Results Body weight gain was diminished (76.7 ± 12.0 and 61.6 ± 11.0 g in rats fed 70 and 60% of the ad-libitum fed controls which gained more weight (148.5 ± 32.3 g. The rats fed 80% gained weight similarly to controls (136.3 ± 10.5 g. Percent Fat-free body mass was reduced (143.8 ± 8.7 and 142.0 ± 7.6 g in rats fed 70 and 60% of ad-libitum, but not in those fed 80% (200.8 ± 17.5 g as compared with controls (201.6 ± 33.4 g. Body fat (g decreased in rats fed 80% (19.7 ± 5.3, 70% (15.3 ± 3.5 and 60% (9.6 ± 2.7 of ad-libitum in comparison to controls (26.0 ± 6.7. EE and PA were also altered by CSN. The control rats increased their EE and PA during the dark periods by 1.4 ± 0.8 and 1.7 ± 1.1 respectively, as compared with light the period; whereas CSN rats fed 80 and 70% of ad-libitum energy intake had reduced EE and PA during the dark periods as compared with the light period EE(7.5 ± 1.4 and 7.8 ± 0.6 vs. 9.0 ± 1.2 and 9.7 ± 0.8; p Conclusion CSN rats adapt to mild energy restriction by reducing body fat, EE and PA mainly during the dark period while growth proceeds and lean body mass is preserved. At higher levels of energy restrictions there is decreased growth, body fat and lean mass. Moreover EE and PA are also reduced during both light and dark periods.

  8. The Public Schools Contracts Law. Focus on School Law Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabreu, O. Lisa

    New Jersey's Public Schools Contracts Law, enacted on June 2, 1977, places limits on the authority of local and regional boards of education to make purchases and to enter into contracts, agreements, or leases for supplies or services. This publication is designed to provide information and guidance that will assist boards of education in meeting…

  9. Extension of suboptimal control theory for flow around a square cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yosuke; Fukagata, Koji

    2017-11-01

    We extend the suboptimal control theory to control of flow around a square cylinder, which has no point symmetry on the impulse response from the wall in contrast to circular cylinders and spheres previously studied. The cost functions examined are the pressure drag (J1), the friction drag (J2), the squared difference between target pressure and wall pressure (J3) and the time-averaged dissipation (J4). The control input is assumed to be continuous blowing and suction on the cylinder wall and the feedback sensors are assumued on the entire wall surface. The control law is derived so as to minimize the cost function under the constraint of linearized Navier-Stokes equation, and the impulse response field to be convolved with the instantaneous flow quanties are numerically obtained. The amplitide of control input is fixed so that the maximum blowing/suction velocity is 40% of the freestream velocity. When J2 is used as the cost function, the friction drag is reduced as expected but the mean drag is found to increase. In constast, when J1, J3, and J4 were used, the mean drag was found to decrease by 21%, 12%, and 22%, respectively; in addition, vortex shedding is suppressed, which leads to reduction of lift fluctuations.

  10. Treatment of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae: suboptimal efficacy of polymyxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, M S; de Assis, D B; Freire, M P; Boas do Prado, G V; Machado, A S; Abdala, E; Pierrotti, L C; Mangini, C; Campos, L; Caiaffa Filho, H H; Levin, A S

    2015-02-01

    Treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae infections (KPC-EI) remains a challenge. Combined therapy has been proposed as the best choice, but there are no clear data showing which combination therapy is superior. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial regimens for treating KPC-EI. This was a retrospective cohort study of KPC-EI nosocomial infections (based on CDC criteria) between October 2009 and June 2013 at three tertiary Brazilian hospitals. The primary outcomes were the 30-day mortality for all infections and the 30-day mortality for patients with bacteraemia. Risk factors for mortality were evaluated by comparing clinical variables of survivors and nonsurvivors. In this study, 118 patients were included, of whom 78 had bacteraemia. Catheter-related bloodstream infections were the most frequent (43%), followed by urinary tract infections (n = 27, 23%). Monotherapy was used in 57 patients and combined treatment in 61 patients. The most common therapeutic combination was polymyxin plus carbapenem 20 (33%). Multivariate analysis for all infections (n = 118) and for bacteremic infections (n = 78) revealed that renal failure at the end of treatment, use of polymyxin and older age were prognostic factors for mortality. In conclusion, polymyxins showed suboptimal efficacy and combination therapy was not superior to monotherapy. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Robust Adaptive LCMV Beamformer Based On An Iterative Suboptimal Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiansheng Guo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main drawback of closed-form solution of linearly constrained minimum variance (CF-LCMV beamformer is the dilemma of acquiring long observation time for stable covariance matrix estimates and short observation time to track dynamic behavior of targets, leading to poor performance including low signal-noise-ratio (SNR, low jammer-to-noise ratios (JNRs and small number of snapshots. Additionally, CF-LCMV suffers from heavy computational burden which mainly comes from two matrix inverse operations for computing the optimal weight vector. In this paper, we derive a low-complexity Robust Adaptive LCMV beamformer based on an Iterative Suboptimal solution (RAIS-LCMV using conjugate gradient (CG optimization method. The merit of our proposed method is threefold. Firstly, RAIS-LCMV beamformer can reduce the complexity of CF-LCMV remarkably. Secondly, RAIS-LCMV beamformer can adjust output adaptively based on measurement and its convergence speed is comparable. Finally, RAIS-LCMV algorithm has robust performance against low SNR, JNRs, and small number of snapshots. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of our proposed algorithms.

  12. Predictors of Suboptimal Follow-up in Pediatric Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Leana; Schwartz, David D; Frugé, Ernest; Laufman, Larry; Holm, Suzanne; Kamdar, Kala; Harris, Lynnette; Brackett, Julienne; Unal, Sule; Tanyildiz, Gulsah; Bryant, Rosalind; Suzawa, Hilary; Dreyer, Zoann; Okcu, M Fatih

    2017-04-01

    Attendance to follow-up care after completion of cancer treatment is an understudied area. We examined demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic predictors of follow-up by pediatric cancer patients at a large center in 442 newly diagnosed patients using multivariable logistic regression analyses. Patients who did not return to clinic for at least 1000 days were considered lost to follow-up. Two hundred forty-two (54.8%) patients were lost. In multivariable analyses, the following variables were independent predictors of being lost to follow-up: treatment with surgery alone (odds ratio [OR]=6.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1-14.9), older age at diagnosis (reference, 0 to 4; ages, 5 to 9: OR=1.8, 95% CI, 1.1-3; ages, 10 to 14: OR=3.3; CI, 1.8-6.1; and ages, 15 and above: OR=4.8; CI, 2.1-11.7), lack of history of stem cell transplantation (OR=2, 95% CI, 1.04-3.7) and lack of insurance (OR=3.4; CI, 1.2-9.2). Hispanic patients had the best follow-up rates (53.7%) compared to whites and blacks (P=0.03). Attendance to long-term follow-up care is suboptimal in childhood cancer survivors. Predictors that were associated with nonattendance can be used to design targeted interventions to improve follow-up care for survivors of pediatric cancer.

  13. Career guidance in communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie

    from a critical psychological standpoint the paper introduces a social practice theory of career guidance. The social practice theory of career guidance argues that career guidance can be seen as a collective practice in which people can join forces with career guidance practitioners to analyse...... their situation and based on these insights create new opportunities in relation to their future educational or vocational participation in society (Thomsen 2012). From this idea, the second part of the paper the paper moves on to consider the practical implications of taking the collective as the starting point...

  14. Competition law: private law, public law, regulatory or economic law?

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Lleras, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Let’s imagine that we want to establish a new law school in Colombia. How would we classify competition law within its curricular structure? By attempting to answer this apparently harmless question, this article shows the inherent difficulties in trying to classify competition law as private law, public law, regulation or “economic law”. This is due not only because such categories are very imprecise, but also because they depart significantly form our daily experiences with this field of la...

  15. Law Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tolstopiatenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972

  16. Determinants of suboptimal breast-feeding practices in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazir, Tabish; Akram, Dure-Samin; Nisar, Yasir Bin; Kazmi, Narjis; Agho, Kingsley E; Abbasi, Saleem; Khan, Amira M; Dibley, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding is estimated to reduce infant mortality in low-income countries by up to 13 %. The aim of the present study was to determine the risk factors associated with suboptimal breast-feeding practices in Pakistan. A cross-sectional study using data extracted from the multistage cluster sample survey of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006-2007. A nationally representative sample of households. Last-born alive children aged 0-23 months (total weighted sample size 3103). The prevalences of timely initiation of breast-feeding, bottle-feeding in children aged 0-23 months, exclusive breast-feeding and predominant breast-feeding in infants aged 0-5 months were 27·3 %, 32·1 %, 37·1 % and 18·7 %, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that working mothers (OR = 1·48, 95 % CI 1·16, 1·87; P = 0·001) and mothers who delivered by Caesarean section (OR = 1·95, 95 % CI 1·30, 2·90; P = 0·001) had significantly higher odds for no timely initiation of breast-feeding. Mothers from North West Frontier Province were significantly less likely (OR = 0·37, 95 % CI 0·23, 0·59; P feed their babies exclusively. Mothers delivered by traditional birth attendants had significantly higher odds to predominantly breast-feed their babies (OR = 1·96, 95 % CI 1·18, 3·24; P = 0·009). The odds of being bottle-fed was significantly higher in infants whose mothers had four or more antenatal clinic visits (OR = 1·93, 95 % CI 1·46, 2·55; P feeding practices. To gain the full benefits of breast-feeding for child health and nutrition, there is an urgent need to develop interventions to improve the rates of exclusive breast-feeding.

  17. Genotypic Variation in the Response to Suboptimal Temperature at Different Plant Densities in Cut Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der A.; Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.

    2009-01-01

    Energy efficiency of greenhouse cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) may be increased by breeding. In addition to breeding for cultivars with a shorter reaction time at suboptimal temperatures, an alternative approach would be to develop cultivars that are heavier at suboptimal

  18. lmbali Guidance Project: Facilitating Development among Guidance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A project to assist guidance educators in developing their skills, resources and confidence in providing a mental health service to the learners in their schools, was set up as part of a wider school-based reform initiative. The project was structured according to the principles of community psychology: community collaboration ...

  19. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  20. Federal Guidance for Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA produces federal guidance technical reports, which standardize dose and risk assessment and issues radiation protection guidance to federal agencies. This page provides links to federal guidance policy recommendations and technical reports.

  1. Factors associated with suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awachana Jiamsakul

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART plays an important role in treatment outcomes. It is crucial to identify factors influencing adherence in order to optimize treatment responses. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of, and factors associated with, suboptimal adherence (SubAdh in the first 24 months of ART in an Asian HIV cohort. Methods: As part of a prospective resistance monitoring study, the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance Monitoring Study (TASER-M collected patients’ adherence based on the World Health Organization-validated Adherence Visual Analogue Scale. SubAdh was defined in two ways: (i 14 days. Time was divided into four intervals: 0–6, 6–12, 12–18 and 18–24 months. Factors associated with SubAdh were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results: Out of 1316 patients, 32% ever reported 2 assessments per patient per year had an odds ratio (OR=0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI (0.55 to 0.90, p=0.006, compared to sites with ≤2 assessments per patient per year. Compared to heterosexual exposure, SubAdh was higher in injecting drug users (IDUs (OR=1.92, 95% CI (1.23 to 3.00, p=0.004 and lower in homosexual exposure (OR=0.52, 95% CI (0.38 to 0.71, p<0.001. Patients taking a nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor (NRTI+PI combination were less likely to report adherence <100% (OR=0.36, 95% CI (0.20 to 0.67, p=0.001 compared to patients taking an NRTI and non-nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI+NNRTI combination. SubAdh decreased with increasing time on ART (all p<0.001. Similar associations were found with adherence <95% as the outcome. Conclusions: We found that SubAdh, defined as either <100% and <95%, was associated with mode of HIV exposure, ART regimen, time on ART and frequency of adherence measurement. The more frequently sites assessed patients, the lower the SubAdh, possibly reflecting site resourcing for patient counselling. Although social

  2. Over-the-counter suboptimal dispensing of antibiotics in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukonzo JK

    2013-08-01

    : In Uganda, at least four in every ten individuals that visit a health-care facility are treated with an antibiotic. Antibiotics are largely given as over-the-counter drugs at community pharmacies. The number of antibiotic prescribed daily doses/1,000 antibiotic clients does not significantly differ between categories of health-care facilities except at community pharmacies, where lower doses are dispensed compared to other health-care facilities. Keywords: antibiotic, over-the-counter dispensing, suboptimal dosing, Uganda

  3. A system analysis of a suboptimal surgical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Michael

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background System analyses of incidents that occur in the process of health care delivery are rare. A case study of a series of incidents that one of the authors experienced after routine urologic surgery is presented. We interpret the sequence of events as a case of cascading incidents that resulted in outcomes that were suboptimal, although fortunately not fatal. Methods A system dynamics approach was employed to develop illustrative models (flow diagrams of the dynamics of the patient's interaction with surgery and emergency departments. The flow diagrams were constructed based upon the experience of the patient, chart review, discussion with the involved physicians as well as several physician colleagues, comparison of our diagrams with those developed by the hospital of interest for internal planning purposes, and an iterative process with one of the co-authors who is a system dynamics expert. A dynamic hypothesis was developed using insights gained by building the flow diagrams. Results The incidents originated in design flaws and many small innocuous system changes that have occurred incrementally over time, which by themselves may have no consequence but in conjunction with some system randomness can have serious consequences. In the patient's case, the incidents that occurred in preoperative assessment and surgery originated in communication and procedural failures. System delays, communication failures, and capacity issues contributed largely to the subsequent incidents. Some of these issues were controllable by the physicians and staff of the institution, whereas others were less controllable. To the system's credit, some of the more controllable issues were addressed, but systemic problems like overcrowding are unlikely to be addressed in the near future. Conclusion This is first instance that we are aware of in the literature where a system dynamics approach has been used to analyze a patient safety experience. The

  4. A system analysis of a suboptimal surgical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert C; Cooke, David L; Richards, Michael

    2009-01-06

    System analyses of incidents that occur in the process of health care delivery are rare. A case study of a series of incidents that one of the authors experienced after routine urologic surgery is presented. We interpret the sequence of events as a case of cascading incidents that resulted in outcomes that were suboptimal, although fortunately not fatal. A system dynamics approach was employed to develop illustrative models (flow diagrams) of the dynamics of the patient's interaction with surgery and emergency departments. The flow diagrams were constructed based upon the experience of the patient, chart review, discussion with the involved physicians as well as several physician colleagues, comparison of our diagrams with those developed by the hospital of interest for internal planning purposes, and an iterative process with one of the co-authors who is a system dynamics expert. A dynamic hypothesis was developed using insights gained by building the flow diagrams. The incidents originated in design flaws and many small innocuous system changes that have occurred incrementally over time, which by themselves may have no consequence but in conjunction with some system randomness can have serious consequences. In the patient's case, the incidents that occurred in preoperative assessment and surgery originated in communication and procedural failures. System delays, communication failures, and capacity issues contributed largely to the subsequent incidents. Some of these issues were controllable by the physicians and staff of the institution, whereas others were less controllable. To the system's credit, some of the more controllable issues were addressed, but systemic problems like overcrowding are unlikely to be addressed in the near future. This is first instance that we are aware of in the literature where a system dynamics approach has been used to analyze a patient safety experience. The qualitative system dynamics analysis was useful in understanding the

  5. Factors associated with suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiamsakul, Awachana; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Ditangco, Rossana; Li, Patrick CK; Phanuphak, Praphan; Sirisanthana, Thira; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Kantipong, Pacharee; Lee, Christopher KC; Mustafa, Mahiran; Merati, Tuti; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Singtoroj, Thida; Law, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) plays an important role in treatment outcomes. It is crucial to identify factors influencing adherence in order to optimize treatment responses. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of, and factors associated with, suboptimal adherence (SubAdh) in the first 24 months of ART in an Asian HIV cohort. Methods As part of a prospective resistance monitoring study, the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance Monitoring Study (TASER-M) collected patients’ adherence based on the World Health Organization-validated Adherence Visual Analogue Scale. SubAdh was defined in two ways: (i) 14 days. Time was divided into four intervals: 0–6, 6–12, 12–18 and 18–24 months. Factors associated with SubAdh were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results Out of 1316 patients, 32% ever reported 2 assessments per patient per year had an odds ratio (OR)=0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) (0.55 to 0.90), p=0.006), compared to sites with ≤2 assessments per patient per year. Compared to heterosexual exposure, SubAdh was higher in injecting drug users (IDUs) (OR=1.92, 95% CI (1.23 to 3.00), p=0.004) and lower in homosexual exposure (OR=0.52, 95% CI (0.38 to 0.71), p<0.001). Patients taking a nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor (NRTI+PI) combination were less likely to report adherence <100% (OR=0.36, 95% CI (0.20 to 0.67), p=0.001) compared to patients taking an NRTI and non-nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI+NNRTI) combination. SubAdh decreased with increasing time on ART (all p<0.001). Similar associations were found with adherence <95% as the outcome. Conclusions We found that SubAdh, defined as either <100% and <95%, was associated with mode of HIV exposure, ART regimen, time on ART and frequency of adherence measurement. The more frequently sites assessed patients, the lower the SubAdh, possibly reflecting site resourcing for patient counselling. Although social

  6. Suboptimal cytoreduction in ovarian carcinoma is associated with molecular pathways characteristic of increased stromal activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenqiu; Beach, Jessica A; Agadjanian, Hasmik; Jia, Dongyu; Aspuria, Paul-Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y; Orsulic, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal cytoreductive surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is associated with poor survival but it is unknown if poor outcome is due to the intrinsic biology of unresectable tumors or insufficient surgical effort resulting in residual tumor-sustaining clones. Our objective was to identify the potential molecular pathway(s) and cell type(s) that may be responsible for suboptimal surgical resection. By comparing gene expression in optimally and suboptimally cytoreduced patients, we identified a gene network associated with suboptimal cytoreduction and explored the biological processes and cell types associated with this gene network. We show that primary tumors from suboptimally cytoreduced patients express molecular signatures that are typically present in a distinct molecular subtype of EOC characterized by increased stromal activation and lymphovascular invasion. Similar molecular pathways are present in EOC metastases, suggesting that primary tumors in suboptimally cytoreduced patients are biologically similar to metastatic tumors. We demonstrate that the suboptimal cytoreduction network genes are enriched in reactive tumor stroma cells rather than malignant tumor cells. Our data suggest that the success of cytoreductive surgery is dictated by tumor biology, such as extensive stromal reaction and increased invasiveness, which may hinder surgical resection and ultimately lead to poor survival. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Laser Guidance Analysis Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility, which provides for real time, closed loop evaluation of semi-active laser guidance hardware, has and continues to be instrumental in the development...

  8. Coral Reef Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance prepared by EPA and Army Corps of Engineers concerning coral reef protection under the Clean Water Act, Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, Rivers and Harbors Act, and Federal Project Authorities.

  9. Pollinator Risk Assessment Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Guidance is part of a long-term strategy to advance the science of assessing the risks posed by pesticides to honey bees, giving risk managers the means to further improve pollinator protection in our regulatory decisions.

  10. Suboptimal care and maternal mortality among foreign-born women in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esscher, Annika; Binder-Finnema, Pauline; Bødker, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several European countries report differences in risk of maternal mortality between immigrants from low- and middle-income countries and host country women. The present study identified suboptimal factors related to care-seeking, accessibility, and quality of care for maternal deaths...... language and suboptimal interpreter system or usage. Inadequate care occurred more often among the foreign-born (p = 0.04), whereas delays in consultation/referral and miscommunication between health care providers where equally common between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal care factors, major...

  11. Patterns of marijuana and tobacco use associated with suboptimal self-rated health among US adult ever users of marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Tsai

    2017-06-01

    In conclusion, among adult ever users of marijuana, current tobacco use is high and strongly associated with suboptimal SRH; regular marijuana smoking with or without current tobacco use is significantly associated with suboptimal SRH.

  12. Approach and landing guidance design for reusable launch vehicle using multiple sliding surfaces technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong LIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An autonomous approach and landing (A&L guidance law is presented in this paper for landing an unpowered reusable launch vehicle (RLV at the designated runway touchdown. Considering the full nonlinear point-mass dynamics, a guidance scheme is developed in three-dimensional space. In order to guarantee a successful A&L movement, the multiple sliding surfaces guidance (MSSG technique is applied to derive the closed-loop guidance law, which stems from higher order sliding mode control theory and has advantage in the finite time reaching property. The global stability of the proposed guidance approach is proved by the Lyapunov-based method. The designed guidance law can generate new trajectories on-line without any specific requirement on off-line analysis except for the information on the boundary conditions of the A&L phase and instantaneous states of the RLV. Therefore, the designed guidance law is flexible enough to target different touchdown points on the runway and is capable of dealing with large initial condition errors resulted from the previous flight phase. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law in different scenarios.

  13. Lindy's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-11-01

    Aging means that as things grow old their remaining expected lifetimes lessen. Either faster or slower, most of the things we encounter in our everyday lives age with time. However, there are things that do quite the opposite - they anti-age: as they grow old their remaining expected lifetimes increase rather than decrease. A quantitative formulation of anti-aging is given by the so-called ;Lindy's Law;. In this paper we explore Lindy's Law and its connections to Pareto's Law, to Zipf's Law, and to socioeconomic inequality.

  14. Effect of Using Suboptimal Alignments in Template-Based Protein Structure Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Kihara, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Computational protein structure prediction remains a challenging task in protein bioinformatics. In the recent years, the importance of template-based structure prediction is increasing due to the growing number of protein structures solved by the structural genomics projects. To capitalize the significant efforts and investments paid on the structural genomics projects, it is urgent to establish effective ways to use the solved structures as templates by developing methods for exploiting remotely related proteins that cannot be simply identified by homology. In this work, we examine the effect of employing suboptimal alignments in template-based protein structure prediction. We showed that suboptimal alignments are often more accurate than the optimal one, and such accurate suboptimal alignments can occur even at a very low rank of the alignment score. Suboptimal alignments contain a significant number of correct amino acid residue contacts. Moreover, suboptimal alignments can improve template-based models when used as input to Modeller. Finally, we employ suboptimal alignments for handling a contact potential in a probabilistic way in a threading program, SUPRB. The probabilistic contacts strategy outperforms the partly thawed approach which only uses the optimal alignment in defining residue contacts and also the reranking strategy, which uses the contact potential in reranking alignments. The comparison with existing methods in the template-recognition test shows that SUPRB is very competitive and outperform existing methods. PMID:21058297

  15. Vocational Guidance and the Labour Market: Guidance to Transform or Guidance to Domesticate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Ulla

    1988-01-01

    Explores the conflict in guidance arising from the desire to consider the needs of society while guaranteeing individual freedom of choice. Discusses the theoretical basis of vocational guidance. Gives examples of "domestication" and "transformation" approaches to guidance and discusses the consequences of viewing guidance as a…

  16. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  17. Guidance, Navigation and Control of Unmanned Airships under Time-Varying Wind for Extended Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Atmeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the control of lighter-than-air vehicles, more specifically the design of an integrated guidance, navigation and control (GNC scheme that is capable of navigating an airship through a series of constant-altitude, planar waypoints. Two guidance schemes are introduced, a track-specific guidance law and a proportional navigation guidance law, that provide the required signals to the corresponding controllers based on the airship position relative to a target waypoint. A novel implementation of the extended Kalman filter, namely the scheduled extended Kalman filter, estimates the required states and wind speed to enhance the performance of the track-specific guidance law in the presence of time-varying wind. The performance of the GNC system is tested using a high fidelity nonlinear dynamic simulation for a variety of flying conditions. Representative results illustrate the performance of the integrated system for chosen flight conditions.

  18. "It's that law that's the problem": everyday with copyright

    OpenAIRE

    Titley, G

    2016-01-01

    Powerpoint Presentation. This paper outlines the basic principles of UK Copyright Law as applicable to librarians and document delivery staff and provides guidance based on everyday practice questions submitted by Forum for Interlending members prior to conference.

  19. Suboptimal asthma care for immigrant children: results of an audit study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klazinga Niek S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known on the scope and nature of ethnic inequalities in suboptimal asthma care for children. This study aimed to assess (1 ethnic differences in suboptimal asthma care for children with an asthma exacerbation who consulted a physician, and (2 ethnic differences in the nature of suboptimal care. Methods All children aged 6–16 years who during a period of six months consulted the paediatric department of the Academic Medical Centre-University of Amsterdam or one of the six regional primary care centres with an asthma exacerbation were included. Clinical guidelines were systematically converted to review criteria following the strategy as proposed by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Based upon these review criteria and their experience experts of two multidisciplinary panels retrospectively assessed the quality of care and its (possible failure to prevent the occurrence of asthma exacerbation. Results Only a small number of children (n = 35 were included in the analysis as a result of which the ethnic differences in suboptimal care were not significant. However, the results do indicate immigrant children, in particular 'other non-Western' children (n = 11, more frequently to receive suboptimal care related to the asthma exacerbation when compared to ethnic Dutch children. Furthermore, we found the nature of suboptimal care to differ with under-prescribing in the 'other non-Western' group (n = 11, lack of information exchange between physicians in the Surinamese/Antillean group (n = 12 and lack of education, and counselling of patients and parents in the ethnic Dutch (n = 12 as the most relevant factor. Conclusion Ethnic inequalities in the scope and nature of suboptimal asthma care for children in the Netherlands seem to exist. For the non-western immigrant groups the results indicate the importance of the prescription behaviour of the medical doctor, as well as the supervision by one health care

  20. Robust 3-D Algorithm for Flare Planning and Guidance for Impaired Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a robust nonlinear guidance law for planning and executing the flare-touchdown maneuver for impaired aircraft under adverse wind conditions is...

  1. New Trends in Astrodynamics and Applications: Optimal Trajectories for Space Guidance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    AZIMOV, DILMURAT; BISHOP, ROBERT

    2005-01-01

    A bstract : This paper represents recent results on the development of optimal analytic solutions to the variation problem of trajectory optimization and their application in the construction of on‐board guidance laws...

  2. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from consequ...

  3. Vocational Development and Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, W. Wesley; And Others

    The vocational education volume considers questions of career development, the role of guidance in the school, vocational training, the relation of self-concept to vocational choice, and occupational information. Twenty-six papers deal with theories of vocational behavior, the success of vocational education programs, and testing information.…

  4. Guidance on lobbying restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this guidance is to remind nonprofit organizations, universities, and other non-government recipients of EPA grants that, with very limited exceptions, you may not use Federal grant funds or cost-sharing funds to conduct lobbying activities.

  5. PIV Logon Configuration Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Glen Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-04

    This document details the configurations and enhancements implemented to support the usage of federal Personal Identity Verification (PIV) Card for logon on unclassified networks. The guidance is a reference implementation of the configurations and enhancements deployed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by Network and Infrastructure Engineering – Core Services (NIE-CS).

  6. Career guidance on the move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie

    2013-01-01

    This article is about how the notion of place can be used in an analysis of career guidance practices and their development. It is about how a focus on the context of career guidance can develop an awareness of the place where guidance is practiced and support the development of career guidance...... in new places. In this article I introduce an analytical perspective on place; I give the example of the guidance café a practice development that took place into serious consideration because it was an attempt to develop career guidance practice through relocating it....

  7. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  8. 76 FR 4360 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation of the Menu Labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ...; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the withdrawal of a draft guidance... provisions of section 4205 became requirements immediately upon enactment of the law. FDA recognized that... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding...

  9. Suboptimal maternal and paternal mental health are associated with child bullying perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-06-01

    This study examines associations between maternal and paternal mental health and child bullying perpetration among school-age children, and whether having one or both parents with suboptimal mental health is associated with bullying. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally-representative, random-digit-dial survey, was analyzed, using a parent-reported bullying measure. Suboptimal mental health was defined as fair/poor (vs. good/very good/excellent) parental self-reported mental and emotional health. Of the 61,613 parents surveyed, more than half were parents of boys and were white, 20% were Latino, 15% African American, and 7% other race/ethnicity. Suboptimal maternal (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.8) and paternal (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.2) mental health are associated with bullying. Compared with children with no parents with suboptimal mental health, children with only one or both parents with suboptimal mental health have higher bullying odds. Addressing the mental health of both parents may prove beneficial in preventing bullying.

  10. Islamic Guidance for Drug Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Supriyanto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Guidance is social rehabilitation program for Drug Addiction (resident. The goal of this research to know the Islamic guidance for resident at the Center for Rehabilitation of the National Narcotics Agency Lido Bogor. The methodology in this research is qualitative descriptive, with a sample two religious counselor. Can be concluded that Islamic guidance is implemented with the classical format, group format, and individual formats. The goal of the Islamic Guidance to develop religious mentally.

  11. Accuracy Analysis of Lunar Lander Terminal Guidance Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies a proposed analytical algorithm of the terminal guidance for the lunar lander. The analytical solution, which forms the basis of the algorithm, was obtained for a constant acceleration trajectory and thrust vector orientation programs that are essentially linear with time. The main feature of the proposed algorithm is a completely analytical solution to provide the lander terminal guidance to the desired spot in 3D space when landing on the atmosphereless body with no numerical procedures. To reach 6 terminal conditions (components of position and velocity vectors at the final time are used 6 guidance law parameters, namely time-to-go, desired value of braking deceleration, initial values of pitch and yaw angles and rates of their change. In accordance with the principle of flexible trajectories, this algorithm assumes the implementation of a regularly updated control program that ensures reaching terminal conditions from the current state that corresponds to the control program update time. The guidance law parameters, which ensure that terminal conditions are reached, are generated as a function of the current phase coordinates of a lander. The article examines an accuracy and reliability of the proposed analytical algorithm that provides the terminal guidance of the lander in 3D space through mathematical modeling of the lander guidance from the circumlunar pre-landing orbit to the desired spot near the lunar surface. A desired terminal position of the lunar lander is specified by the selenographic latitude, longitude and altitude above the lunar surface. The impact of variations in orbital parameters on the terminal guidance accuracy has been studied. By varying the five initial orbit parameters (obliquity, ascending node longitude, argument of periapsis, periapsis height, apoapsis height when the terminal spot is fixed the statistic characteristics of the terminal guidance algorithm error according to the terminal

  12. Not Noisy, Just Wrong: The Role of Suboptimal Inference in Behavioral Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey M.; Ma, Wei Ji; Pitkow, Xaq; Latham, Peter E.; Pouget, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Behavior varies from trial to trial even when the stimulus is maintained as constant as possible. In many models, this variability is attributed to noise in the brain. Here, we propose that there is another major source of variability: suboptimal inference. Importantly, we argue that in most tasks of interest, and particularly complex ones, suboptimal inference is likely to be the dominant component of behavioral variability. This perspective explains a variety of intriguing observations, including why variability appears to be larger on the sensory than on the motor side, and why our sensors are sometimes surprisingly unreliable. PMID:22500627

  13. Frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in an African diabetic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibirige D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Davis Kibirige,1 George Patrick Akabwai,2 Leaticia Kampiire,3 Daniel Ssekikubo Kiggundu,4 William Lumu5 1Department of Medicine/Diabetic and Hypertension Clinics, Our Lady of Consolota Hospital, Kisubi, 2Baylor College of Medicine, Children’s Foundation, 3Infectious Diseases Research Collaboration, Kampala, 4Nephrology Unit, Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital, Kampala, 5Department of Medicine and Diabetes/Endocrine Unit, Mengo Hospital, Mengo, Uganda Background: Persistent suboptimal glycemic control is invariably associated with onset and progression of acute and chronic diabetic complications in diabetic patients. In Uganda, studies documenting the magnitude and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult ambulatory diabetic patients are limited. This study aimed at determining the frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult diabetic patients attending three urban outpatient diabetic clinics in Uganda. Methods: In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, eligible ambulatory adult diabetic patients attending outpatient diabetic clinics of three urban hospitals were consecutively enrolled over 11 months. Suboptimal glycemic control was defined as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c level ≥7%. Multivariable analysis was applied to determine the predictors. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 52.2±14.4 years, and the majority of them were females (283, 66.9%. The median (interquartile range HbA1c level was 9% (6.8%–12.4%. Suboptimal glycemic control was noted in 311 study participants, accounting for 73.52% of the participants. HbA1c levels of 7%–8%, 8.1%–9.9%, and ≥10% were noted in 56 (13.24%, 76 (17.97%, and 179 (42.32% study participants, respectively. The documented predictors of suboptimal glycemic control were metformin monotherapy (odds ratio: 0.36, 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.63, p<0.005 and insulin therapy (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.41–4.12, p=0

  14. Guidance Laws, Obstacle Avoidance, Artificial Potential Functions (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Healey, Anthony J

    2006-01-01

    .... Lateral accelerations are commanded proportional to the rate of change of line of sight. So long as the chaser vehicle has a speed advantage over the non-maneuvering target, simply reducing the angle of line.

  15. Secrets Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

  16. Law in Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Law-Related Education Advisory Council, Cheyenne.

    This document is intended to give students an overview of laws in Wyoming. Subjects covered include civil and criminal law; courts in Wyoming; juvenile law, juvenile court procedure; rights of children; family law; employment law; automobile-related law; laws affecting the schools; and citizenship rights and responsibilities. The laws and courts…

  17. Are theoretical perspectives useful to explain nurses' tolerance of suboptimal care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Lesley; Duffy, Kathleen; McCallum, Jacqueline; Ness, Valerie

    2015-10-01

    This paper explores two theoretical perspectives that may help nurse managers understand why staff tolerate suboptimal standards of care. Standards of care have been questioned in relation to adverse events and errors for some years in health care across the western world. More recently, the focus has shifted to inadequate nursing standards with regard to care and compassion, and a culture of tolerance by staff to these inadequate standards. The theories of conformity and cognitive dissonance are analysed to investigate their potential for helping nurse managers to understand why staff tolerate suboptimal standards of care. The literature suggests that nurses appear to adopt behaviours consistent with the theory of conformity and that they may accept suboptimal care to reduce their cognitive dissonance. Nurses may conform to be accepted by the team. This may be confounded by nurses rationalising their care to reduce the cognitive dissonance they feel. The investigation into the Mid Staffordshire National Health Service called for a change in culture towards transparency, candidness and openness. Providing insights as to why some nursing staff tolerate suboptimal care may provide a springboard to allow nurse managers to consider the complexities surrounding this required transformation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Influence of sub-optimal temperature on tomato growth and yield : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der A.; Heuvelink, E.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of temperature on growth, development and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) are reviewed with special emphasis on cultivar differences. The focus is on sub-optimal temperatures, above the level where chilling injury occurs. Temperature has a large effect on all aspects of

  19. Suboptimal decision making by children with ADHD in the face of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lin; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Eichele, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Suboptimal decision making in the face of risk (DMR) in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be mediated by deficits in a number of different neuropsychological processes. We investigated DMR in children with ADHD using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT...

  20. High Current CD4+ T Cell Count Predicts Suboptimal Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasternak, Alexander O.; de Bruin, Marijn; Bakker, Margreet; Berkhout, Ben; Prins, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) are necessary for achieving and maintaining optimal virological suppression, as suboptimal adherence leads to therapy failure and disease progression. It is well known that adherence to ART predicts therapy response, but it is unclear whether

  1. Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale : Fourth Edition (WMS-IV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Z.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Schmand, B.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the

  2. High current CD4+ T cell count predicts suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasternak, A.O.; de Bruin, M.; Bakker, M.; Berkhout, B.; Prins, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) are necessary for achieving and maintaining optimal virological suppression, as suboptimal adherence leads to therapy failure and disease progression. It is well known that adherence to ART predicts therapy response, but it is unclear whether

  3. State Space Formulas for a Solution of the Suboptimal Nehari Problem on the Unit Disc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtain, Ruth F.; Opmeer, Mark R.

    We give state space formulas for a ("central") solution of the suboptimal Nehari problem for functions defined on the unit disc and taking values in the space of bounded operators in separable Hilbert spaces. Instead of assuming exponential stability, we assume a weaker stability concept (the

  4. Nuclear Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Admissibility of the action to set aside - possible violation of basic rights - preclusion - forfeiture of action - substantial modification of an installation - effects on the safety level - involvement of the public - violation of procedural rules - omitted interpretation. Guiding principles: It is a matter of substantial modification subject to authorization as defined by the Atomic Energy Law if and when this modification affects the safety level of the installation, unless it is obvious that these effects are insignificant. It cannot make any difference whether these modifications may have a positive or negative effect on the safety level. The provisions governing sect. 4 para. 1 and sect. 6 para. 1 of the AtVfV confer on a third party affected a right under public law to be involved in the licensing procedure as laid down in the Atomic Energy Law, with the result that its violation concedes the party affected a right to claim the annulment of the (partial) licence granted. The issue of licensing capacity under substantive law does not matter. An interpretation omitted by way of action can only be reproved successfully if the substantial modifications may negatively affect the rights of the complaining party, not if the operator takes protective measures which obviously improve the safety level. Arnsberg Administrative Court - 7 K 74/79 - Decision of January 27, 1981.

  5. School Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitt, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court upheld a California state law requiring employers to allow a pregnant woman up to four months of unpaid maternity leave if she claims pregnancy as a disability. A bill before Congress addresses parental leave and job protection for parents caring for a new baby or a sick child. (MLH)

  6. Adoption Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Joan Heifetz

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to achieve uniformity in state adoption laws are confronted by a lack of consensus on six major issues: (1) parental consent and interests; (2) children's interests; (3) the nature of the actual adoption transaction; (4) adoptive relationships as substitutes for biological relationships; (5) confidentiality and anonymity; and (6) the…

  7. Sub-optimal birth weight in newborns of a high socioeconomic status population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Aparecida de Mattos Segre

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare sub-optimal birth weight (2,500 to 2,999 g term newborns to appropriate for gestational age (birth weight ≥ 3,000 g term newborns, regarding maternal data and newborn morbidity and mortality. Methods: Single term newborns, appropriate for gestational age from a high socioeconomic population (n = 1,242 with birth weight ranging from 2,500 to 2,999 g (Group I were compared to 4,907 newborns with birth weight ≥ than 3,000 g (Group II. Maternal and newborn characteristics were compared between the groups. The Mann-Whitney test, χ2 test and multivariate analysis were used. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Rresults: The frequency of sub-optimal birth weight newborns in the population studied was 20.2%. There was a significant association between sub-optimal birth weight and maternal weight before pregnancy and body mass index, maternal weight gain, height, smoking habit and hypertension. Newborns’ 1-minute Apgar score, neonatal hypoglycemia, jaundice, transient tachypnea, congenital pneumonia and hospital stay were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05. A significant relationship could not be established with the 5-minute Apgar score and pulmonary hypertension in both groups. Neonatal mortality did not differ between the groups. Cconclusions: Socioeconomic status was not a risk factor for sub-optimal birth weight in the studied population. Genetic and environmental factors were associated to sub-optimal weight and neonatal diseases. According to these data, this group of newborns should receive special attention from the health team.

  8. PSD Increment Consumption Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  9. Integrated CLOS and PN Guidance for Increased Effectiveness of Surface to Air Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binte Fatima Tuz ZAHRA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach has been presented to integrate command to line-of-sight (CLOS guidance and proportional navigation (PN guidance in order to reduce miss distance and to increase the effectiveness of surface to air missiles. Initially a comparison of command to line-of-sight guidance and proportional navigation has been presented. Miss distance, variation of angle-of-attack, normal and lateral accelerations and error of missile flight path from direct line-of-sight have been used as noteworthy criteria for comparison of the two guidance laws. Following this comparison a new approach has been proposed for determining the most suitable guidance gains in order to minimize miss distance and improve accuracy of the missile in delivering the warhead, while using CLOS guidance. This proposed technique is based on constrained nonlinear minimization to optimize the guidance gains. CLOS guidance has a further limitation of significant increase in normal and lateral acceleration demands during the terminal phase of missile flight. Furthermore, at large elevation angles, the required angle-of-attack during the terminal phase increases beyond design specifications. Subsequently, a missile with optical sensors only and following just the CLOS guidance has less likelihood to hit high speed targets beyond 45º in elevation plane. A novel approach has thus been proposed to overcome such limitations of CLOS-only guidance for surface to air missiles. In this approach, an integrated guidance algorithm has been proposed whereby the initial guidance law during rocket motor burnout phase remains CLOS, whereas immediately after this phase, the guidance law is automatically switched to PN guidance. This integrated approach has not only resulted in slight increase in range of the missile but also has significantly improved its likelihood to hit targets beyond 30 degrees in elevation plane, thus successfully overcoming various limitations of CLOS

  10. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  11. A non-destructive selection method for faster growth at suboptimal temperature in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, E.; Oeveren, J.C. van; Jansen, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A non-destructive method has been developed to select common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants whose growth is less effected at a suboptimal temperature. Shoot weight was determined at a suboptimal (14°C) and optimal temperature (20°C), 38 days after sowing and accessions identified with a

  12. Statin therapy reduces the likelihood of suboptimal blood pressure control among Ugandan adult diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumu W

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available William Lumu,1 Leaticia Kampiire,2 George Patrick Akabwai,3 Daniel Ssekikubo Kiggundu,4 Davis Kibirige5 1Department of Medicine and Diabetes/Endocrine Unit, Mengo Hospital, 2Infectious Disease Research Collaboration, 3Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation, 4Nephrology Unit, Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital, 5Department of Medicine, Uganda Martyrs Hospital Lubaga, Kampala, Uganda Background: Hypertension is one of the recognized risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in adult diabetic patients. High prevalence of suboptimal blood pressure (BP control has been well documented in the majority of studies assessing BP control in diabetic patients in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, there is a dearth of similar studies. This study evaluated the prevalence and correlates of suboptimal BP control in an adult diabetic population in Uganda.Patients and methods: This was a cross-sectional study that enrolled 425 eligible ambulatory adult diabetic patients attending three urban diabetic outpatient clinics over 11 months. Data about their sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Suboptimal BP control was defined according to the 2015 American Diabetes Association standards of diabetes care guideline as BP levels ≥140/90 mmHg.Results: The mean age of the study participants was 52.2±14.4 years, with the majority being females (283, 66.9%. Suboptimal BP control was documented in 192 (45.3% study participants and was independently associated with the study site (private hospitals; odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.18–3.43, P=0.01 and use of statin therapy (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.26–0.96, P=0.037.Conclusion: Suboptimal BP control was highly prevalent in this study population. Strategies to improve optimal BP control, especially in the private hospitals, and the use of statin therapy should be encouraged in adult diabetic patients

  13. Peptide Suboptimal Conformation Sampling for the Prediction of Protein-Peptide Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiable, Alexis; Thévenet, Pierre; Eustache, Stephanie; Saladin, Adrien; Moroy, Gautier; Tuffery, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The blind identification of candidate patches of interaction on the protein surface is a difficult task that can hardly be accomplished without a heuristic or the use of simplified representations to speed up the search. The PEP-SiteFinder protocol performs a systematic blind search on the protein surface using a rigid docking procedure applied to a limited set of peptide suboptimal conformations expected to approximate satisfactorily the conformation of the peptide in interaction. All steps rely on a coarse-grained representation of the protein and the peptide. While simple, such a protocol can help to infer useful information, assuming a critical analysis of the results. Moreover, such a protocol can be extended to a semi-flexible protocol where the suboptimal conformations are directly folded in the vicinity of the receptor.

  14. A convex programming framework for optimal and bounded suboptimal well field management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorini, Gianluca Fabio; Thordarson, Fannar Ørn; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2012-01-01

    are often convex, hence global optimality can be attained by a wealth of algorithms. Among these, the Interior Point methods are extensively employed for practical applications, as they are capable of efficiently solving large-scale problems. Despite this, management models explicitly embedding both systems...... without simplifications are rare, and they usually involve heuristic techniques. The main limitation with heuristics is that neither optimality nor suboptimality bounds can be guarantee. This paper extends the proof of convexity to mixed management models, enabling the use of Interior Point techniques...... to compute globally optimal management solutions. If convexity is not achieved, it is shown how suboptimal solutions can be computed, and how to bind their deviation from the optimality. Experimental results obtained by testing the methodology in a well field located nearby Copenhagen (DK), show...

  15. Suboptimal investments and M&A deals in emerging capital markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkasova Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the efficiency of target-company investment decisions before and after Merger & Acquisition deals. We study whether M&A deals help to solve the problem of suboptimal investment after the acquisition. Using a sample of 145 target companies from BRICS countries that were acquired during the period 2004-2014, we outline those that had over- or underinvested before the deal and show that more than half the companies managed to optimize the investment level after the deal. We determine the key factors that improve the inefficiency of investment decisions and demonstrate that the industry and country have an impact on the degree of suboptimal investment.

  16. COMERCIAL LAW: EXCEPCIONAL OR SPECIAL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Arcila Salazar, Carlos Andrés; Megabanco Eje Cafetero del Banco de Bogotá S.A.

    2007-01-01

    For those who assert that Commercial Law is an exceptional law, because of the gaps within the commercial law, there is a need to refer to the Civil Law to strictly apply its exceptional elements. For those who understand the commercial law as a special law, legal gaps need to be integrated in first place with the system of formal sources that compose the Commercial Law and the referral to the Civil Law should constitute the ultimate ratio; the former cannot be understood as a source of the l...

  17. Rapid near-optimal aerospace plane trajectory generation and guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corban, J. E.; Calise, A. J.; Flandro, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Problems associated with onboard trajectory optimization, propulsion system cycle selection, and the synthesis of guidance laws are addressed for ascent to low earth orbit of an airbreathing, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle. A multicycle propulsion system is assumed that incorporates turbojet, ramjet, scramjet, and rocket engines. An energy state approximation is applied to a singularly perturbed, four-state dynamic model for flight of a point mass over a spherical nonrotating earth. An algorithm is then derived for generating both the fuel-optimal climb profile and the guidance commands required to follow that profile. In particular, analytic switching conditions are derived that, under appropriate assumptions, efficiently govern optimal transition from one propulsion cycle to another. The algorithm proves to be computationally efficient and suitable for real-time implementation. The paper concludes with the presentation of representative numerical results that illustrate the nature of the fuel-optimal climb paths and the tracking performance of the guidance algorithm.

  18. Mars entry guidance based on an adaptive reference drag profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zixuan; Duan, Guangfei; Ren, Zhang

    2017-08-01

    The conventional Mars entry tracks a fixed reference drag profile (FRDP). To improve the landing precision, a novel guidance approach that utilizes an adaptive reference drag profile (ARDP) is presented. The entry flight is divided into two phases. For each phase, a family of drag profiles corresponding to various trajectory lengths is planned. Two update windows are investigated for the reference drag profile. At each window, the ARDP is selected online from the profile database according to the actual range-to-go. The tracking law for the selected drag profile is designed based on the feedback linearization. Guidance approaches using the ARDP and the FRDP are then tested and compared. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ARDP approach achieves much higher guidance precision than the conventional FRDP approach.

  19. Self-care practices of Malaysian adults with diabetes and sub-optimal glycaemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming Yeong; Magarey, Judy

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the self-care practices of Malaysian adults with diabetes and sub-optimal glycaemic control. Using a one-to-one interviewing approach, data were collected from 126 diabetic adults from four settings. A 75-item questionnaire was used to assess diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices regarding, diet, medication, physical activity and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Most subjects had received advice on the importance of self-care in the management of their diabetes and recognised its importance. Sixty-seven subjects (53%) scored below 50% in their diabetes-related knowledge. Subjects who consumed more meals per day (80%), or who did not include their regular sweetened food intakes in their daily meal plan (80%), or who were inactive in daily life (54%), had higher mean fasting blood glucose levels (p=0.04). Subjects with medication non-adherence (46%) also tended to have higher fasting blood glucose levels. Only 15% of the subjects practiced SMBG. Predictors of knowledge deficit and poor self-care were low level of education (p = practices among the majority of diabetic patients with sub-optimal glycaemic control. This study should contribute to the development of effective education strategies to promote health for adults with sub-optimal diabetes control.

  20. Comparative Performance Analysis of G-RAKE Receivers with Suboptimal Finger Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Baltzis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Generalized RAKE (G-RAKE reception reduces the total amount of interference and provides enhanced diversity by comprising extra fingers to collect information about interference and further using channel and impairment correlation estimates for fingers allocation. However, the hardware complexity and the excessive computational requirements of GRAKE receivers may restrict their application in real systems; thus, suboptimal solutions are commonly used. In this paper, we propose and evaluate three maximum likelihood G-RAKE structures for colored noise with suboptimal finger placement. In all implementations, the fingers are optimally distributed within a time window that spans from several chip periods before the first arriving multipath to several chip periods after the latest one. The first receiver has its fingers at integer multiples of the chip period while in the rest two structures the search window is segmented in halves and tenths of the chip duration. This work also extends earlier studies by thoroughly investigating the impact of fractionally spaced finger placement on system performance. Our analysis shows that a suboptimal finger allocation reduces hardware complexity with negligible performance loss. The impact of channel delay spread and processing gain on system performance is also investigated and gives interesting results.

  1. Weighted Implementation of Suboptimal Paths (WISP): An Optimized Algorithm and Tool for Dynamical Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wart, Adam T; Durrant, Jacob; Votapka, Lane; Amaro, Rommie E

    2014-02-11

    Allostery can occur by way of subtle cooperation among protein residues (e.g., amino acids) even in the absence of large conformational shifts. Dynamical network analysis has been used to model this cooperation, helping to computationally explain how binding to an allosteric site can impact the behavior of a primary site many ångstroms away. Traditionally, computational efforts have focused on the most optimal path of correlated motions leading from the allosteric to the primary active site. We present a program called Weighted Implementation of Suboptimal Paths (WISP) capable of rapidly identifying additional suboptimal pathways that may also play important roles in the transmission of allosteric signals. Aside from providing signal redundancy, suboptimal paths traverse residues that, if disrupted through pharmacological or mutational means, could modulate the allosteric regulation of important drug targets. To demonstrate the utility of our program, we present a case study describing the allostery of HisH-HisF, an amidotransferase from T. maritima thermotiga. WISP and its VMD-based graphical user interface (GUI) can be downloaded from http://nbcr.ucsd.edu/wisp.

  2. Sub-optimal MCV Cover Based Method for Measuring Fractal Dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolle, Charles Robert; McJunkin, Timothy R; Gorsich, D. I.

    2003-01-01

    A new method for calculating fractal dimension is developed in this paper. The method is based on the box dimension concept; however, it involves direct estimation of a suboptimal covering of the data set of interest. By finding a suboptimal cover, this method is better able to estimate the required number of covering elements for a given cover size than is the standard box counting algorithm. Moreover, any decrease in the error of the covering element count directly increases the accuracy of the fractal dimension estimation. In general, our method represents a mathematical dual to the standard box counting algorithm by not solving for the number of boxes used to cover a data set given the size of the box. Instead, the method chooses the number of covering elements and then proceeds to find the placement of smallest hyperellipsoids that fully covers the data set. This method involves a variant of the Fuzzy-C Means clustering algorithm, as well as the use of the Minimum Cluster Volume clustering algorithm. A variety of fractal dimension estimators using this suboptimal covering method are discussed. Finally, these methods are compared to the standard box counting algorithm and wavelet-decomposition methods for calculating fractal dimension by using one-dimensional cantor dust sets and a set of standard Brownian random fractal images.

  3. When the learning environment is suboptimal: exploring medical students' perceptions of "mistreatment".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Runye; Snell, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Despite widespread implementation of policies to address mistreatment, high rates of mistreatment during clinical training are reported, prompting the question of whether "mistreatment" means more to students than delineated in official codes of conduct. Understanding "mistreatment" from students' perspective and as it relates to the learning environment is needed before effective interventions can be implemented. The authors conducted focus groups with final-year medical students at McGill University Faculty of Medicine in 2012. Participants were asked to characterize "suboptimal learning experience" and "mistreatment." Transcripts were analyzed via inductive thematic analysis. Forty-one of 174 eligible students participated in six focus groups. Students described "mistreatment" as lack of respect or attack directed toward the person, and "suboptimal learning experience" as that which compromised their learning. Differing perceptions emerged as students debated whether "mistreatment" can be applied to negative learning environments as well as isolated incidents of mistreatment even though some experiences fell outside of the "official" label as per institutional policies. Whether students perceived "mistreatment" versus a "suboptimal learning experience" in negative environments appeared to be influenced by several key factors. A concept map integrating these ideas is presented. How students perceived negative situations during training appears to be a complex process. When medical students say "mistreatment," they may be referring to a spectrum, with incident-based mistreatment on one end and learning-environment-based mistreatment on the other. Multiple factors influenced how students perceived an environment-based negative situation and may provide strategies to improving the learning environment.

  4. Labour's law?

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Elke J.; Wagner, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A cross section analysis of 23 OECD members shows that there is an 'antagonistic' relationship between the legal protection of investor interests on the one hand and labour interests on the other: the stronger the legal protection of investor rights in a country, the less developed are the individual and collective rights of labour and vice versa. A main cause for a country's position with respect to this trade off is its type of legal system, specifically whether it belongs to the common law...

  5. Automated Guidance for Student Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Libby F.; Ryoo, Kihyun; McElhaney, Kevin W.; Liu, Ou Lydia; Rafferty, Anna N.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    In 4 classroom experiments we investigated uses for technologies that automatically score student generated essays, concept diagrams, and drawings in inquiry curricula. We used the automatic scores to assign typical and research-based guidance and studied the impact of the guidance on student progress. Seven teachers and their 897 students…

  6. Variations in State Laws Governing School Reintegration Following Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Leah L; Lyons, Vivian H; McCart, Melissa; Herring, Stanley A; Rivara, Frederick P; Vavilala, Monica S

    2016-12-01

    We sought to examine the prevalence, scope, and specificity of provisions governing school reintegration in current state concussion laws. State concussion laws as of May 2016 were independently assessed and classified by 2 trained coders. Statutes were classified as "Return-to-Learn" (RTL) laws if they contained language mandating institutional action at the state, district, or school level related to academic reintegration of youth who have sustained a concussion. All statutes classified as RTL laws were further analyzed to determine scope, required actions, and delineation of responsibility. RTL laws were uncommon, present in only 8 states. Most (75%) of these laws held schools responsible for RTL management but mandated RTL education for school personnel was less frequent, present in only one-quarter of the laws. None of the RTL laws provided guidance on support of students with persistent postconcussive symptoms, and only 1 recommended an evidence-based standard for RTL guidelines. Our review of state concussion laws indicates scant and vague legal guidance regarding RTL. These findings suggest an opportunity for legislative action on the issue of RTL, and reveal the need for better integration of laws and research, so that laws reflect existing best-practice recommendations and remain current as the evidence base develops. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Outcome of the sub-optimal dialysis starter on peritoneal dialysis. Report from the French Language Peritoneal Dialysis Registry (RDPLF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbedez, Thierry; Verger, Christian; Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Fabre, Emmanuel; Evans, David

    2013-05-01

    This study was carried out to examine the association of sub-optimal dialysis initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) with all the possible outcomes on PD using survival analysis in the presence of competing risks. This was a retrospective cohort study based on the data of the French Language Peritoneal Dialysis Registry. We analysed 8527 incident patients starting PD between January 2002 and December 2010. The end of the observation period was 01 June 2011. Times from the start of PD to death, transplantation, transfer to haemodialysis (HD) and first peritonitis episode were calculated. The sub-optimal dialysis initiation was defined by a period of <30 days on HD before PD initiation. Among 8527 patients, there were 568 patients who started PD after <30 days on HD. There were 6562 events: 3078 deaths, 2136 transfers to HD, 1348 renal transplantations. When using a Fine and Gray model, sub-optimal dialysis start, early peritonitis and transplant failure were associated with a higher sub-distribution relative hazard of technique failure. There was no association between the sub-optimal dialysis start and the sub-distribution hazard of death or transplantation. In the multivariate analysis using a Fine and Gray regression model, the sub-optimal dialysis start was not associated with a higher sub distribution relative hazard of peritonitis. Sub-optimal dialysis initiation is neither associated with a higher risk of death nor with a lower risk of renal transplantation. Sub-optimal PD patients had a higher risk of transfer to HD.

  8. Biased retro-proportional navigation law for interception of high-speed targets with angular constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new guidance law, called biased retro proportional navigation (BRPN, is proposed. The guidance law is designed to intercept high-speed targets with angular constraint, which can be used for ballistic target interception. BRPN guidance law is defined, and the exact time-varying bias for a required impact angle is derived. Furthermore, the simulation results (trajectory, variation of navigation ratio, capture region, etc are compared with those of biased proportional navigation (BPN, proportional navigation and retro-proportional navigation. The results show that, at the cost of a higher intercept time, BRPN demands lower terminal lateral acceleration and has larger capture region compared to BPN.

  9. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  10. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  11. Guidance Compliance Behavior on VMS Based on SOAR Cognitive Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SOAR is a cognitive architecture named from state, operator and result, which is adopted to portray the drivers' guidance compliance behavior on variable message sign (VMS in this paper. VMS represents traffic conditions to drivers by three colors: red, yellow, and green. Based on the multiagent platform, SOAR is introduced to design the agent with the detailed description of the working memory, long-term memory, decision cycle, and learning mechanism. With the fixed decision cycle, agent transforms state through four kinds of operators, including choosing route directly, changing the driving goal, changing the temper of driver, and changing the road condition of prediction. The agent learns from the process of state transformation by chunking and reinforcement learning. Finally, computerized simulation program is used to study the guidance compliance behavior. Experiments are simulated many times under given simulation network and conditions. The result, including the comparison between guidance and no guidance, the state transition times, and average chunking times are analyzed to further study the laws of guidance compliance and learning mechanism.

  12. Guidance in Business Process Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartho, Andreas; Gröner, Gerd; Rahmani, Tirdad; Zhao, Yuting; Zivkovic, Srdjan

    This chapter shows how process modellers can be supported by guidance. If a telecommunication provider introduces a value-added service, this might involve the establishment of new business processes, whose specification is not trivial. A guidance engine can help a process engineer develop a new business process by stepwise refining, i.e. creating a more concrete version of the process from an abstract version. The guidance engine identifies inconsistencies and proposes possible refinement steps. The topics covered in this chapter range from theoretical foundations of business process refinement over the formalisation of refinement problems in ontologies to implementation issues. The presented solutions were developed in the MOST project.

  13. CAREER GUIDANCE EXPERIENCE ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Tolstoguzov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the experience of careeroriented activities carried out with students of schools in developed and developing countries. Career Guidance in Russia, despite the vast experience of its implementation, is experiencing serious difficulties. In this regard, it is important to take into account the international experience career-oriented activities, such as in the developed countries of North America and the European Union as well as in several Asian countries with rapidly growing economies and a large demographic potential, taking into account the best variants for the Russian education system. Methods. The experience of career-oriented work undertaken with pupils of the USA, Canada, Israel, France, UK, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Japan, Singapore, China and India is shown on the basis of the comparative analysis of different publications and information sources. The author has made an attempt to generalize the principles of psycho-pedagogical and administrative assistance in professional self-determination of senior pupils abroad. Scientific novelty. The approaches to career-oriented activities in countries with different levels of economic development are compared for the first time. Some principles are revealed. Firstly, the higher the income level per capita in the country, the greater attention is given to vocational guidance. The politics in the developed countries is based on interests of the individual: children’s acquaintance with the world of professions begins already at younger school and the moment of definitive selfdetermination is postponed till the end of their senior stage of education; the possibility of direction change of professional preparation in case of detection of discrepancy of qualities of the pupil to originally selected profile is provided. Career-oriented activity in developing countries, on the contrary, is rigidly coordinated to requirements of economy and a labour market

  14. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-08-25

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current

  15. Characteristics influencing therapy switch behavior after suboptimal response to first-line treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Barbara; Agashivala, Neetu; Kavak, Katelyn; Chouhfeh, Lynn; Hashmonay, Ron; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2014-06-01

    Factors driving disease-modifying therapy (DMT) switch behavior are not well understood. The objective of this paper is to identify patient characteristics and clinical events predictive of therapy switching in patients with suboptimal response to DMT. This retrospective study analyzed patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and a suboptimal response to initial therapy with either interferon β or glatiramer acetate. Suboptimal responders were defined as patients with ≥1 MS event (clinical relapse, worsening disability, or MRI worsening) while on DMT. Switchers were defined as those who changed DMT within six to 12 months after the MS event. Of 606 suboptimal responders, 214 (35.3%) switched therapy. Switchers were younger at symptom onset (p = 0.012), MS diagnosis (p = 0.004), DMT initiation (p therapy switched sooner than patients who are older at the time of MS diagnosis and DMT initiation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. [Effects of chlorophyllin-iron on osmotic adjustment and activities of antioxidantive enzymes in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xiu-feng; Zhang, Fan-yang; Wei, Min; Shi, Qing-hua; Yang, Feng-juan; Li, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Cucumber cultivar 'Jinyan 4' was subjected to suboptimal temperature treatment of 18/12 degrees C (day/night) in the growth chambers. A solution culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of exogenously spraying 5 mg x L(-1) chlorophyllin-iron solution on plant growth, the content of proline, soluble sugar, MDA and activity of peroxidase in the leaves of cucumber seedling under suboptimal temperature. Application of chlorophyllin-iron showed prominent effects on mitigating the stress of suboptimal temperature on growth of the cucumber seedlings, significantly increasing the plant height, leaf area, shoot dry mass, the contents of soluble sugar and proline and the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX. Exogenously spraying chlorophyllin-iron could promote the accumulation of proline and soluble sugar, raise the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decrease the membrane lipid peroxidation and improve the adaptability of cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature.

  17. When the Learning Environment Is Suboptimal: Exploring Medical Students’ Perceptions of “Mistreatment”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite widespread implementation of policies to address mistreatment, high rates of mistreatment during clinical training are reported, prompting the question of whether “mistreatment” means more to students than delineated in official codes of conduct. Understanding “mistreatment” from students’ perspective and as it relates to the learning environment is needed before effective interventions can be implemented. Method The authors conducted focus groups with final-year medical students at McGill University Faculty of Medicine in 2012. Participants were asked to characterize “suboptimal learning experience” and “mistreatment.” Transcripts were analyzed via inductive thematic analysis. Results Forty-one of 174 eligible students participated in six focus groups. Students described “mistreatment” as lack of respect or attack directed toward the person, and “suboptimal learning experience” as that which compromised their learning. Differing perceptions emerged as students debated whether “mistreatment” can be applied to negative learning environments as well as isolated incidents of mistreatment even though some experiences fell outside of the “official” label as per institutional policies. Whether students perceived “mistreatment” versus a “suboptimal learning experience” in negative environments appeared to be influenced by several key factors. A concept map integrating these ideas is presented. Conclusions How students perceived negative situations during training appears to be a complex process. When medical students say “mistreatment,” they may be referring to a spectrum, with incident-based mistreatment on one end and learning-environment-based mistreatment on the other. Multiple factors influenced how students perceived an environment-based negative situation and may provide strategies to improving the learning environment. PMID:24556767

  18. CDM Convective Forecast Planning guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CDM Convective Forecast Planning (CCFP) guidance product provides a foreast of en-route aviation convective hazards. The forecasts are updated every 2 hours and...

  19. Guidance at the educational marketplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    in educational policies and institutions. As educational systems have expanded and, further, have been restructured with the expansion of choice opportunities since the 1980s, guidance has become prioritized as a form of counseling or coaching, which can support students. Thus, guidance has become an important...... `agent´ on the educational "market´, assisting (potential) students into and around the `marketplace´. Consequently, guidance is also an important `agent´ for educational institutions that increasingly use marketing strategies to promote themselves on the market to attract and hold on to their “customers......” in order for the institutions to increase their ´market value´, `sales” and “turnover”. Thus, the expansion of guidance is nurtured by the expansion of the logic of marketization and consumerism. Drawing on Foucauldian perspectives in educational research, which highlight the expansion of powerful...

  20. SPLC Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  1. Response to work activity guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum is concerning the request from the FY95 Platte-Kansas Rivers Ecosystem Work Activity Guidance for refuge managers to review the purposes of refuges...

  2. A Suboptimal Scheme for Multi-User Scheduling in Gaussian Broadcast Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2014-05-28

    This work proposes a suboptimal multi-user scheduling scheme for Gaussian broadcast channels which improves upon the classical single user selection, while considerably reducing complexity as compared to the optimal superposition coding with successful interference cancellation. The proposed scheme combines the two users with the maximum weighted instantaneous rate using superposition coding. The instantaneous rate and power allocation are derived in closed-form, while the long term rate of each user is derived in integral form for all channel distributions. Numerical results are then provided to characterize the prospected gains of the proposed scheme.

  3. Improved MPSP Method-based Cooperative Re-entry Guidance for Hypersonic Gliding Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A computationally sufficient technique is used to solve the 3-D cooperative re-entry guidance problem for hypersonic gliding vehicles. Due to the poor surrounding adaptive ability of the traditional cooperative guidance methods, a novel methodology, named as model predictive static programming (MPSP, is used to solve a class of finite-horizon optimal control problems with hard terminal constraints. The main feature of this guidance law is that it is capable of hitting the target with high accuracy for each one of the cooperative vehicles at the same time. In addition, it accurately satisfies variable constraints. Performance of the proposed MPSP-based guidance is demonstrated in 3-D nonlinear dynamics scenario. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed cooperative re-entry guidance methodology has the advantage of computational efficiency and better robustness against the perturbations.

  4. Suboptimal inhaler medication adherence and incorrect technique are common among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Krishna B; Percival, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are routinely prescribed one or more inhaled medications. Adherence to inhaler medications and correct inhaler device technique are crucial to successful COPD management. The goals of this study were to estimate adherence and inhaler technique in a cohort of COPD patients. This was an observational study conducted on a sample of 150 COPD patients. Medication adherence was assessed using the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS). Inhaler technique was assessed using standardized checklists. Clinical data were collected using a proforma. Of the 150 patients (mean age 70.3 years, 52% male), 58% reported suboptimal adherence (MARS ≤ 24). High adherence to therapy (MARS = 25) was associated with older age (p = 0.001), but not any of the other studied variables. Medication non-adherence was not associated with COPD exacerbations. Errors (≥ 1) in inhaler technique were common across all of the types of inhaler devices reportedly used by patients, with the highest proportion of errors among Turbuhaler users (83%) and the least proportion of errors among Handihaler users (50%). No clinical variables were associated with errors in inhaler technique. Suboptimal adherence and errors in inhaler technique are common among COPD patients. No clinical variables to assist in the prediction of medication non-adherence and poor inhaler technique were identifiable. Consequently, regular assessment of medication adherence and inhaler technique should be incorporated into routine clinical practice to facilitate improved health outcomes among patients with COPD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Suboptimal Larval Habitats Modulate Oviposition of the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunho Suh

    Full Text Available Selection of oviposition sites by gravid females is a critical behavioral step in the reproductive cycle of Anopheles coluzzii, which is one of the principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquitoes. Several studies suggest this decision is mediated by semiochemicals associated with potential oviposition sites. To better understand the chemosensory basis of this behavior and identify compounds that can modulate oviposition, we examined the generally held hypothesis that suboptimal larval habitats give rise to semiochemicals that negatively influence the oviposition preference of gravid females. Dual-choice bioassays indicated that oviposition sites conditioned in this manner do indeed foster significant and concentration dependent aversive effects on the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Headspace analyses derived from aversive habitats consistently noted the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone each of which unitarily affected An. coluzzii oviposition preference. Electrophysiological assays across the antennae, maxillary palp, and labellum of gravid An. coluzzii revealed differential responses to these semiochemicals. Taken together, these findings validate the hypothesis in question and suggest that suboptimal environments for An. coluzzii larval development results in the release of DMDS, DMTS and sulcatone that impact the response valence of gravid females.

  6. An Approach to Streaming Video Segmentation With Sub-Optimal Low-Rank Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenglong; Lin, Liang; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Wenzhong; Tang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates how to perform robust and efficient video segmentation while suppressing the effects of data noises and/or corruptions, and an effective approach is introduced to this end. First, a general algorithm, called sub-optimal low-rank decomposition (SOLD), is proposed to pursue the low-rank representation for video segmentation. Given the data matrix formed by supervoxel features of an observed video sequence, SOLD seeks a sub-optimal solution by making the matrix rank explicitly determined. In particular, the representation coefficient matrix with the fixed rank can be decomposed into two sub-matrices of low rank, and then we iteratively optimize them with closed-form solutions. Moreover, we incorporate a discriminative replication prior into SOLD based on the observation that small-size video patterns tend to recur frequently within the same object. Second, based on SOLD, we present an efficient inference algorithm to perform streaming video segmentation in both unsupervised and interactive scenarios. More specifically, the constrained normalized-cut algorithm is adopted by incorporating the low-rank representation with other low level cues and temporal consistent constraints for spatio-temporal segmentation. Extensive experiments on two public challenging data sets VSB100 and SegTrack suggest that our approach outperforms other video segmentation approaches in both accuracy and efficiency.

  7. Suboptimal and optimal order policies for fixed and varying replenishment interval with declining market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wee, H. M.; Yang, P. C.; Wu, Simon

    2016-06-01

    One of the supply chain risks for hi-tech products is the result of rapid technological innovation; it results in a significant decline in the selling price and demand after the initial launch period. Hi-tech products include computers and communication consumer's products. From a practical standpoint, a more realistic replenishment policy is needed to consider the impact of risks; especially when some portions of shortages are lost. In this paper, suboptimal and optimal order policies with partial backordering are developed for a buyer when the component cost, the selling price, and the demand rate decline at a continuous rate. Two mathematical models are derived and discussed: one model has the suboptimal solution with the fixed replenishment interval and a simpler computational process; the other one has the optimal solution with the varying replenishment interval and a more complicated computational process. The second model results in more profit. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the two replenishment models. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate the relationship between the parameters and the net profit.

  8. Sub-optimal parenting is associated with schizotypic and anxiety personality traits in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumaki, S G; Roussos, P; Zouraraki, C; Spanoudakis, E; Mavrikaki, M; Tsapakis, E M; Bitsios, P

    2013-05-01

    Part of the variation in personality characteristics has been attributed to the child-parent interaction and sub-optimal parenting has been associated with psychiatric morbidity. In the present study, an extensive battery of personality scales (Trait Anxiety Inventory, Behavioural Inhibition/Activation System questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Temperament and Character Inventory, Schizotypal Traits Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were administered in 324 adult healthy males to elucidate the effects of parenting on personality configuration. Personality variables were analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the factors "Schizotypy", "Anxiety", "Behavioural activation", "Novelty seeking" and "Reward dependence" were extracted. Associations between personality factors with PBI "care" and "overprotection" scores were examined with regression analyses. Subjects were divided into "parental style" groups and personality factors were subjected to categorical analyses. "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" were significantly predicted by high maternal overprotection and low paternal care. In addition, the Affectionless control group (low care/high overprotection) had higher "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" compared with the Optimal Parenting group (high care/low overprotection). These results further validate sub-optimal parenting as an important environmental exposure and extend our understanding on the mechanisms by which it increases risk for psychiatric morbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Rescue Procedures after Suboptimal Deep Brain Stimulation Outcomes in Common Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Nagy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS is a unique, functional neurosurgical therapy indicated for medication refractory movement disorders as well as some psychiatric diseases. Multicontact electrodes are placed in “deep” structures within the brain with targets varying depending on the surgical indication. An implanted programmable pulse generator supplies the electrodes with a chronic, high frequency electrical current that clinically mimics the effects of ablative lesioning techniques. DBS’s efficacy has been well established for its movement disorder indications (Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. However, clinical outcomes are sometimes suboptimal, even in the absence of common, potentially reversible complications such as hardware complications, infection, poor electrode placement, and poor programming parameters. This review highlights some of the rescue procedures that have been explored in suboptimal DBS cases for Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. To date, the data is limited and difficult to generalize, but a large majority of published reports demonstrate positive results. The decision to proceed with such treatments should be made on a case by case basis. Larger studies are needed to clearly establish the benefit of rescue procedures and to establish for which patient populations they may be most appropriate.

  10. Design Of Real-Time Implementable Distributed Suboptimal Control: An LQR Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan

    2017-09-29

    We propose a framework for multiagent systems in which the agents compute their control actions in real time, based on local information only. The novelty of the proposed framework is that the process of computing a suboptimal control action is divided into two phases: an offline phase and an online phase. In the offline phase, an approximate problem is formulated with a cost function that is close to the optimal cost in some sense and is distributed, i.e., the costs of non-neighboring nodes are not coupled. This phase is centralized and is completed before the deployment of the system. In the online phase, the approximate problem is solved in real time by implementing any efficient distributed optimization algorithm. To quantify the performance loss, we derive upper bounds for the maximum error between the optimal performance and the performance under the proposed framework. Finally, the proposed framework is applied to an example setup in which a team of mobile nodes is assigned the task of establishing a communication link between two base stations with minimum energy consumption. We show through simulations that the performance under the proposed framework is close to the optimal performance and the suboptimal policy can be efficiently implemented online.

  11. Quality of reporting randomised controlled trials in major dental journals suboptimal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    Hand searching of the most recent 24 issues of six high impact dental journals. RCTs involving only humans, from 24 issues of six leading specialty journals, covering a period up to July 2009 were included, including cluster randomised trials. Each article included in the study was assessed and scored independently by two observers, with any discrepancies being resolved by a third observer. In this study the modified CONSORT checklist was used to score each applicable item of data. The sum of the scores was converted to a percentage value for each trial. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Data regarding the publishing journal, country of origin of the trial, number of authors, involvement of statistician/epidemiologist, number of centres involved, ethics committee approval were subject to quantitative analysis. Ninety-five RCTs were identified with, according to the authors, generally suboptimal scores on quality reporting on key CONSORT areas. Significant differences in scores were found among the journals covering the named specialties. Overall there was a positive association between the quality score in studies with more authors, multicentre studies and studies in which a statistician/epidemiologist was involved. The overall quality of reporting RCTs in major dental journals was considered suboptimal in key CONSORT areas. This is very important as the reported results of RCTs can have an impact on future patient care.

  12. 21 CFR 601.29 - Guidance documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidance documents. 601.29 Section 601.29 Food and... LICENSING Biologics Licensing § 601.29 Guidance documents. (a) FDA has made available guidance documents... for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) maintains a list of guidance documents that apply to the...

  13. Quality in career guidance: The Danish case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Quality assurance systems are introduced in career guidance to monitor, control and develop guidance interventions. The Danish case represents at centrally driven, top-down approach......Quality assurance systems are introduced in career guidance to monitor, control and develop guidance interventions. The Danish case represents at centrally driven, top-down approach...

  14. Resources for Guidance Program Improvement. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Garry R., Comp.; And Others

    Designed for use by counselors, guidance directors, school administrators, school board members, and anyone interested in the improvement of school guidance programs, this resource book provides a collection of over 100 guidance program models and individual guidance practices. The format consists of references (bibliographic information with…

  15. Semiautomated head-and-neck IMRT planning using dose warping and scaling to robustly adapt plans in a knowledge database containing potentially suboptimal plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Matthew, E-mail: matthew.schmidt@varian.com; Grzetic, Shelby [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Lo, Joseph Y. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Lutzky, Carly [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Brizel, David M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Das, Shiva K. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Prior work by the authors and other groups has studied the creation of automated intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans of equivalent quality to those in a patient database of manually created clinical plans; those database plans provided guidance on the achievable sparing to organs-at-risk (OARs). However, in certain sites, such as head-and-neck, the clinical plans may not be sufficiently optimized because of anatomical complexity and clinical time constraints. This could lead to automated plans that suboptimally exploit OAR sparing. This work investigates a novel dose warping and scaling scheme that attempts to reduce effects of suboptimal sparing in clinical database plans, thus improving the quality of semiautomated head-and-neck cancer (HNC) plans. Methods: Knowledge-based radiotherapy (KBRT) plans for each of ten “query” patients were semiautomatically generated by identifying the most similar “match” patient in a database of 103 clinical manually created patient plans. The match patient’s plans were adapted to the query case by: (1) deforming the match beam fluences to suit the query target volume and (2) warping the match primary/boost dose distribution to suit the query geometry and using the warped distribution to generate query primary/boost optimization dose-volume constraints. Item (2) included a distance scaling factor to improve query OAR dose sparing with respect to the possibly suboptimal clinical match plan. To further compensate for a component plan of the match case (primary/boost) not optimally sparing OARs, the query dose volume constraints were reduced using a dose scaling factor to be the minimum from either (a) the warped component plan (primary or boost) dose distribution or (b) the warped total plan dose distribution (primary + boost) scaled in proportion to the ratio of component prescription dose to total prescription dose. The dose-volume constraints were used to plan the query case with no human intervention

  16. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  17. Tenancy Law Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  18. Development of Sub-optimal Airway Protocols for the International Space Station (ISS) by the Medical Operation Support Team (MOST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James D.; Parazynski, Scott; Kelly, Scott; Hurst, Victor, IV; Doerr, Harold K.

    2007-01-01

    Airway management techniques are necessary to establish and maintain a patent airway while treating a patient undergoing respiratory distress. There are situations where such settings are suboptimal, thus causing the caregiver to adapt to these suboptimal conditions. Such occurrences are no exception aboard the International Space Station (ISS). As a result, the NASA flight surgeon (FS) and NASA astronaut cohorts must be ready to adapt their optimal airway management techniques for suboptimal situations. Based on previous work conducted by the Medical Operation Support Team (MOST) and other investigators, the MOST had members of both the FS and astronaut cohorts evaluate two oral airway insertion techniques for the Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (ILMA) to determine whether either technique is sufficient to perform in suboptimal conditions within a microgravity environment. Methods All experiments were conducted in a simulated microgravity environment provided by parabolic flight aboard DC-9 aircraft. Each participant acted as a caregiver and was directed to attempt both suboptimal ILMA insertion techniques following a preflight instruction session on the day of the flight and a demonstration of the technique by an anesthesiologist physician in the simulated microgravity environment aboard the aircraft. Results Fourteen participants conducted 46 trials of the suboptimal ILMA insertion techniques. Overall, 43 of 46 trials (94%) conducted were properly performed based on criteria developed by the MOST and other investigators. Discussion The study demonstrated the use of airway management techniques in suboptimal conditions relating to space flight. Use of these techniques will provide a crew with options for using the ILMA to manage airway issues aboard the ISS. Although it is understood that the optimal method for patient care during space flight is to have both patient and caregiver restrained, these techniques provide a needed backup should conditions not present

  19. Gamma guidance of trajectories for coplanar, aeroassisted orbital transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.

    1990-01-01

    The optimization and guidance of trajectories for coplaner, aeroassisted orbital transfer (AOT) from high Earth orbit (HEO) to low Earth orbit (LEO) are examined. In particular, HEO can be a geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). It is assumed that the initial and final orbits are circular, that the gravitational field is central and is governed by the inverse square law, and that at most three impulses are employed: one at HEO exit, one at atmospheric exit, and one at LEO entry. It is also assumed that, during the atmospheric pass, the trajectory is controlled via the lift coefficient. The presence of upper and lower bounds on the lift coefficient is considered. First, optimal trajectories are computed by minimizing the total velocity impulse (hence, the propellant consumption) required for AOT transfer. The sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (SGRA) is used for optimal control problems. The optimal trajectory is shown to include two branches: a relatively short descending flight branch (branch 1) and a long ascending flight branch (branch 2). Next, attention is focused on guidance trajectories capable of approximating the optimal trajectories in real time, while retaining the essential characteristics of simplicity, ease of implementation, and reliability. For the atmospheric pass, a feedback control scheme is employed and the lift coefficient is adjusted according to a two-stage gamma guidance law. Further improvements are possible via a modified gamma guidance which is more stable with respect to dispersion effects arising from navigation errors, variations of the atmospheric density, and uncertainties in the aerodynamic coefficients than gamma guidance trajectory. A byproduct of the studies on dispersion effects is the following design concept. For coplaner aeroassisted orbital transfer, the lift-range-to-weight ratio appears to play a more important role than the lift-to-drag ratio. This is because the lift-range-to-weight ratio controls mainly the minimum

  20. Active disturbance rejection control for drag tracking in mars entry guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuanqing; Chen, Rongfang; Pu, Fan; Dai, Li

    2014-03-01

    Future Mars missions will require precision landing capability, which motivates the need for entry closed-loop guidance schemes. A new tracking law - active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) - is presented in this paper. The ability of the ADRC tracking law to handle the atmospheric models and the vehicle’s aerodynamic errors is investigated. Monte Carlo simulations with dispersions in entry state variables, drag and lift coefficients, and atmospheric density show effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.

  2. Feature-preserving surface mesh smoothing via suboptimal Delaunay triangulation ☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhanheng; Yu, Zeyun; Holst, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A method of triangular surface mesh smoothing is presented to improve angle quality by extending the original optimal Delaunay triangulation (ODT) to surface meshes. The mesh quality is improved by solving a quadratic optimization problem that minimizes the approximated interpolation error between a parabolic function and its piecewise linear interpolation defined on the mesh. A suboptimal problem is derived to guarantee a unique, analytic solution that is significantly faster with little loss in accuracy as compared to the optimal one. In addition to the quality-improving capability, the proposed method has been adapted to remove noise while faithfully preserving sharp features such as edges and corners of a mesh. Numerous experiments are included to demonstrate the performance of the method. PMID:23580890

  3. Suboptimal Rayleigh damping coefficients in seismic analysis of viscously-damped structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Danguang; Chen, Genda; Wang, Zuocai

    2014-12-01

    An optimization method for the consistent evaluation of two Rayleigh damping coefficients is proposed. By minimizing an objective function such as an error term of the peak displacement of a structure, the two coefficients can be determined with response spectral analysis. The optimization method degenerates into the conventional method used in current practices when only two modes of vibration are included in the objective function. Therefore, the proposed method with all significant modes included for simplicity in practical applications results in suboptimal damping coefficients. The effects of both spatial distribution and frequency content of excitations as well as structural dynamic characteristics on the evaluation of Rayleigh damping coefficients were investigated with a five-story building structure. Two application examples with a 62-story high-rise building and a 840 m long cable-stayed bridge under ten earthquake excitations demonstrated the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method to account for all of the above effects.

  4. A similar correction mechanism in slow and fluent readers after suboptimal landing positions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eGagl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present eye movements study investigated the optimal viewing position (OVP and inverted-optimal viewing position (I-OVP effects in slow readers. The basis of these effects is a phenomenon called corrective re-fixations, which describes a short saccade from a suboptimal landing position (word beginning or end to the center of the word. The present study found corrective re-fixations in slow readers, which was evident from the I-OVP effects in first fixation durations, the OVP effect in number of fixations and the OVP effect in re-fixation probability. The main result is that slow readers, despite being characterized by a fragmented eye movement pattern during reading, nevertheless share an intact mechanism for performing corrective re-fixations. This correction mechanism is not linked to linguistic processing, but to visual and oculomotor processes, which suggests the integrity of oculomotor and visual processes in slow readers.

  5. Sub-optimal asthma control in teenagers in the midland region of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, I; Fitzpatrick, P

    2011-12-01

    Internationally, many children with asthma are not attaining achievable asthma control. To examine the prevalence of asthma in teenagers in four midland counties, their asthma control and the barriers, if any, to gaining control of asthma. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) methodology was used in a survey of Junior Cycle Year 2 second-level students. The prevalence of "wheeze ever" was 49.8%, "wheeze in the last 12 months" was 32.6% and "asthma ever" was 23.5%. Of teenagers with current asthma, 96% had evidence of sub-optimal asthma control during the previous year. For the majority of the teenagers with asthma, treatment was not guideline concordant; infrequent lung function testing, insufficient review after acute care and poor use of written asthma action plans. Barriers included lack of awareness of need for treatment. If asthma guidelines are implemented fully, these children may experience better health.

  6. Subtypes of type I IFN differentially enhance cytokine expression by suboptimally stimulated CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Philippa; Raviv, Nataly; Gold, Doria M; Dougherty, Danielle; Liu, Jie; Johnson, Teresa R; Graham, Barney S; Rabin, Ronald L

    2013-12-01

    Human type I interferons (IFNs) include IFN-β and 12 subtypes of IFN-α. During viral infection, infiltrating memory CD4(+) T cells are exposed to IFNs, but their impact on memory T-cell function is poorly understood. To address this, we pretreated PBMCs with different IFNs for 16 h before stimulation with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B and measured cytokine expression by flow cytometry. IFN-α8 and -α10 most potently enhanced expression of IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4. Potency among the subtypes differed most at doses between 10 and 100 U/mL. While enhancement of IL-2 and IL-4 correlated with the time of preincubation with type I IFN, IFN-γ production was enhanced best when IFN-α was added immediately preceding or simultaneously with T-cell stimulation. Comparison of T-cell responses to multiple doses of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B and to peptide libraries from RSV or CMV demonstrated that IFN-α best enhanced cytokine expression when CD4(+) T cells were suboptimally stimulated. We conclude that type I IFNs enhance Th1 and Th2 function with dose dependency and subtype specificity, and best when T-cell stimulation is suboptimal. While type I IFNs may beneficially enhance CD4(+) T-cell memory responses to vaccines or viral pathogens, they may also enhance the function of resident Th2 cells and exacerbate allergic inflammation. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Improvement of Suboptimal Land Productivity Approach by Land and Plant Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthen Pasang Sirappa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessment for increasing productivity of suboptimal land with using three kinds of organic fertilizer and six rice varieties had been conducted in the Debowae village, Waeapo district, Buru regency at 2011. Purpose of the assessment were to determine the effect of three types organic fertilizer and the use of six Inpara varieties to growth and productivity of rice in sub-optimal land. Study used a split plot design with three replications (farmers as replicates, where the main plot was three types of organic fertilizers (livestock manure, granular organic, and petroganic, while the subplot was 6 varieties Inpara (Inpara 1, Inpara 2, Inpara 3, Inpara 4, Inpara 5, and Indragiri. The soil types at the study site based on soil classification were Endoaquepts with soil fertility status was low. The study results showed that the use of organic manure combined with inorganic fertilizers, both from livestock manure, while granular organic and petrogranic, gave an average crop growth and yield better than the results obtained by farmers outside of the study. Average petroganic fertilizer had a better growth and higher crop yields compared to other organic fertilizers. The six varieties of rice swamps that were examined (Inpara 1, Inpara 2, Inpara 3, Inpara 4, Inpara 5, and Indragiri had the average growth and better yields than rice varieties used by farmers outside of the study (2.75 Mg ha-1. Varieties Inpara 4, Indragiri, Inpara 1 and Inpara 2 had average yield above 7 Mg ha-1, while Inpara 3 and Inpara 5 average above 4 Mg ha-1. Combination of granular organic fertilizer with Inpara 4 variety and petroganic with Indragiri variety had the best results (8.37 and 8.02 Mg ha-1, while the lowest yield (4.48 Mg ha-1 was reached at combination of livestock manure with Inpara 5 variety.

  8. A PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING OPTIMAL FACILITY LOCATION AND SUB-OPTIMAL POSITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Dan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This research presents a methodology for determining the optimal location of a new facility, having physical flow interaction of various degrees with other existing facilities in the presence of barriers impeding the shortest flow-path as well as the sub-optimal iso-cost positions. It also determines sub-optimal iso-cost positions with additional cost or penalty for not being able to site it at the computed optimal point. The proposed methodology considers all types of quadrilateral barrier or forbidden region configurations to generalize and by-pass such impenetrable obstacles, and adopts a scheme of searching through the vertices of the quadrilaterals to determine the alternative shortest flow-path. This procedure of obstacle avoidance is novel. Software has been developed to facilitate computations for the search algorithm to determine the optimal and iso-cost co-ordinates. The test results are presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die navorsing behandel ‘n procedure vir die bepaling van optimum stigtingsposisie vir ‘n onderneming met vloei vanaf ander bestaande fasiliteite in die teenwoordigheid van ‘n verskeidenheid van randvoorwaardes. Die prodedure lewer as resultaat suboptimale isokoste-stigtingsplekke met bekendmaking van die koste wat onstaan a.g.v. afwyking van die randvoorwaardlose optimum oplossingskoste, die prosedure maak gebruik van ‘n vindingryke soekmetode wat toegepas word op niersydige meerkundige voorstellings vir die bepaling van korste roetes wat versperring omseil. Die prosedure word onderskei deur programmatuur. Toetsresultate word voorgehou.

  9. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  10. Maryland Law and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubel, Robert Y.

    This document analyzes the major elements of Maryland school and college law pertaining to governance. While recognizing differences between school and college law in Maryland, this study shows that there are many elements in common between the two. This study will be primarily concerned with civil law rather than criminal law. School personnel or…

  11. Innovations in Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at historical and recent innovations in law. The first article examines the code of laws developed by the ancient Hebrews which influenced Roman law, English law, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The second article explores Thomas Jefferson's writing of the…

  12. [Teaching about Family Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Focus on Law Studies""contains a special emphasis on teaching about law and the family", in the form of the following three articles: "Teaching Family Law: Growing Pains and All" (Susan Frelich Appleton); "The Family Goes to Court: Including Law in a Sociological Perspective on the Family"…

  13. UNCLOS and International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Romera, Beatriz; Coelho, Nelson F.

    2018-01-01

    here is that of unilateral state practice and that practice has been relying, at least to some extent, on general public international law. This chapter explains how it is important to revisit international law to better understand the relative relevance of the UNCLOS in oceans governance today. Indeed......, treaty law is only one of many sources of the law that governs international relations, the others being customary international law and principles of law. The main conclusion of this chapter is that states may have to wake up to the limitations of the UNCLOS and that this will require understanding...... the relative role of this treaty among other sources of international law....

  14. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  15. Axon guidance: Comm hither, Robo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Jessica; Condron, Barry

    2002-10-29

    In the developing CNS, commissural axons are initially attracted to the midline, but after crossing they acquire sensitivity to midline repellent cues which prevent re-crossing. Recent studies have shed new light on the mechanism by which commissural axons change their sensitivity to guidance cues after crossing the midline.

  16. Towards a sound pedagogy in law: a constitutionally informed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But this form of authentic learning in will be near impossible to achieve without the active guidance of a willing supervisor. Law teachers perpetuate legal culture and the supervisor-student relationship creates the opportunity to sculpt the culture instilled so that it may have the desired impact on the student. The supervisor ...

  17. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  18. Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles. Aerospace Education III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savler, D. S.; Mackin, T. E.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education III, includes a discussion of the essentials of propulsion, control, and guidance and the conditions of space travel. Chapter 1 provides a brief account of basic laws of celestial mechanics. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 are devoted to the chemical principles of propulsion. Included are the basics of…

  19. Leakage-free, guidance of light in hollow core optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. Despite their tremendous success optical fibers of today are limited by the laws of total internal reflection. During the past five years, however, it has become increasingly evident, that a new operational principle of optical fibers is possible, namely guidance due...

  20. Zero-sum versus nonzero-sum differential game approach to missile guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trottemant, E.J.; Vermeulen, A.; Weiss, M.

    2007-01-01

    New developments and improvements on evasive missiles have led to a situation in which the current missile guidance laws have difficulties to intercept maneuvering targets. The nature of the interception problem with 2 non-cooperative players leads to the field of differential games. Recent studies

  1. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  2. [The psychotic, laws and the Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haumonté, M T

    1986-02-01

    We relate some clinical examples of patients who went to hospital as offenders (murders). They were not condemned because they were mentally ill; we tried to demonstrate that article 64 of the French law is inadequate in reference to modern psychological, phenomenological and psycho-analytical discoveries. We relate cases of patients who harshly punished themselves because they were not convicted by the Law. The last observation induces the transition between the Law, as Lacan says, (the fundamental taboo of incest) and the laws put up by our societies.

  3. Vision-based guidance for an automated roving vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, M. D.; Cunningham, R. T.; Eskenazi, R.

    1978-01-01

    A controller designed to guide an automated vehicle to a specified target without external intervention is described. The intended application is to the requirements of planetary exploration, where substantial autonomy is required because of the prohibitive time lags associated with closed-loop ground control. The guidance algorithm consists of a set of piecewise-linear control laws for velocity and steering commands, and is executable in real time with fixed-point arithmetic. The use of a previously-reported object tracking algorithm for the vision system to provide position feedback data is described. Test results of the control system on a breadboard rover at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are included.

  4. Bone marrow concentrate promotes bone regeneration with a suboptimal-dose of rhBMP-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Egashira

    Full Text Available Bone marrow concentrate (BMC, which is enriched in mononuclear cells (MNCs and platelets, has recently attracted the attention of clinicians as a new optional means for bone engineering. We previously reported that the osteoinductive effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 could be enhanced synergistically by co-transplantation of peripheral blood (PB-derived platelet-rich plasma (PRP. This study aims to investigate whether BMC can effectively promote bone formation induced by low-dose BMP-2, thereby reducing the undesirable side-effects of BMP-2, compared to PRP. Human BMC was obtained from bone marrow aspirates using an automated blood separator. The BMC was then seeded onto β-TCP granules pre-adsorbed with a suboptimal-dose (minimum concentration to induce bone formation at 2 weeks in mice of recombinant human (rh BMP-2. These specimens were transplanted subcutaneously to the dorsal skin of immunodeficient-mice and the induction of ectopic bone formation was assessed 2 and 4 weeks post-transplantation. Transplantations of five other groups [PB, PRP, platelet-poor plasma (PPP, bone marrow aspirate (BM, and BM-PPP] were employed as experimental controls. Then, to clarify the effects on vertical bone augmentation, specimens from the six groups were transplanted for on-lay placement on the craniums of mice. The results indicated that BMC, which contained an approximately 2.5-fold increase in the number of MNCs compared to PRP, could accelerate ectopic bone formation until 2 weeks post-transplantation. On the cranium, the BMC group promoted bone augmentation with a suboptimal-dose of rhBMP-2 compared to other groups. Particularly in the BMC specimens harvested at 4 weeks, we observed newly formed bone surrounding the TCP granules at sites far from the calvarial bone. In conclusion, the addition of BMC could reduce the amount of rhBMP-2 by one-half via its synergistic effect on early-phase osteoinduction. We propose here that BMC

  5. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    Electoral Commission s 181(1)(f). 2 Section 181 of the Constitution. 3 Section 181(1)(b) of the Constitution. LAW. OCRACY. ELOPMENT. LAW. DEMOCRACY. & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 20 (2016) ...... Despite its decisions not being binding, and bearing the disparaging term “soft mechanism”, the SAHRC through its ...

  6. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    4 Corder H et al Report on Parliamentary Oversight and Accountability Faculty of Law, University of Cape. Town (1999) ... Development Agency Bill; Ad Hoc Committee on Criminal Law (Forensic Procedures) ...... Limited; Governing Body Foundation; Governors' Alliance; Gun Free Society; Health Systems Trust; Heart and.

  7. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    LAW. OCRACY. ELOPMENT. LAW. DEMOCRACY. & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 21 (2017). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ldd.v21i1.5. ISSN: 2077-4907 ... Furthermore, tourism development often involves training of personnel in a variety of ... a detrimental impact on local communities including, among others, their culture,.

  8. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    Chair in Customary Law, Human Rights and. Indigenous Values, Faculty of Law, University of. Cape Town. The research presented in this article was in part supported by the South. African Research Chairs Initiative of the. Department of Science and Technology and the. National Research Foundation of South Africa.

  9. 21 CFR 312.145 - Guidance documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidance documents. 312.145 Section 312.145 Food... HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Miscellaneous § 312.145 Guidance documents. (a) FDA has made available guidance documents under § 10.115 of this chapter to help you to comply with certain...

  10. 21 CFR 314.445 - Guidance documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidance documents. 314.445 Section 314.445 Food... documents. (a) FDA has made available guidance documents under § 10.115 of this chapter to help you to...) maintains a list of guidance documents that apply to CDER's regulations. The list is maintained on the...

  11. 21 CFR 316.50 - Guidance documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidance documents. 316.50 Section 316.50 Food and... USE ORPHAN DRUGS Availability of Information § 316.50 Guidance documents. FDA's Office of Orphan Products Development will maintain and make publicly available a list of guidance documents that apply to...

  12. Quality Assurance in University Guidance Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    In Europe there is no common quality assurance framework for the delivery of guidance in higher education. Using a case study approach in four university career guidance services in England, France and Spain, this article aims to study how quality is implemented in university career guidance services in terms of strategy, standards and models,…

  13. Career Guidance in Five English Independent Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Jo

    2018-01-01

    English independent schools are not required to follow government statutory guidance in a number of aspects including career education and guidance, and yet many are actively engaged in careers work and this has caught the attention of policymakers. State schools are subject to statutory guidance but, according to Ofsted and other authorities, the…

  14. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  15. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... evolutionary step for the in-vehicle route planners is the introduction of two-way communication. We presume that the agent is capable of exactly this. Based on this presumption we discuss the possibilities and define a taxonomy and use this to discuss the ABIT system. Based on a set of scenarios we conclude...... of the project were not previously considered. We define a special inseparable cost function and develop a solution complex capable of using this cost function. In relation to calibration and estimation of statistical models used for dynamic route guidance we worked with generating random number sequences...

  16. COMPARISON OF MAIZE INBRED LINES DIFFERING IN LOW-TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE - EFFECT OF ACCLIMATION AT SUBOPTIMAL TEMPERATURE ON CHLOROPLAST FUNCTIONING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERHEUL, MJ; VANHASSEL, PR; STAMP, P

    Acclimation to optimal or suboptimal temperature may influence photosynthetic properties of different maize genotypes in distinct ways. In this study, leaf growth and chloroplast functioning of the second leaves of Penjalinan, an inbred line used in warm tropical regions (CS) and Z7, an inbred line

  17. Physician, organizational, and patient factors associated with suboptimal blood pressure management in type 2 diabetic patients in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaars, Carel F; Denig, Petra; Kasje, Willeke N; Stewart, Roy E; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of hypertension care in patients with type 2 diabetes in general practice and identify physician, organizational, and patient factors associated with suboptimal care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from 895 randomly selected diabetic patients were extracted from

  18. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AND BUSINESS DIVERSIFICATION: SUSTAINABILITY LIVELIHOODS IMPROVEMENT SCENARIO OF RICE FARMER HOUSEHOLD IN SUB-OPTIMAL LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased role of the sub-optimal land to support food security continue to be encouraged in Indonesia, given the more limited expansion for potential land. But until recently, development of sub-optimal land becomes not an easy thing. Ecological and technical barriers became the main issue. A series of these issues resulted in a high number of underemproleymeny and poverty in agriculture region. Technological inovation of agriculture and the business diversification can be seen be the solution to those issues. This research aims to analyze the impact of the technological innovation and business diversification on underemployment, working time, household income and also sustainable livelihoods of farmers on the sub-optimal land. The research was carried out in Pemulutan District, Ogan Ilir Regency, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia. The objects of research are farmers which adopter and non adopter technological innovation, and also work outside of paddy farming (business diversification. The research method is the survey. Method of sampling is stratified random sampling. Data obtained in the field analyses using descriptive statistics and inferesia. The results showed there are positive impact of technological innovation on the allocation of working time farmer households, the numbers underemployment, household income and livelihood sustainability. Determinant factors for farmers in applying technology and business diversification are paddy farming income, off-farm income, and age. The use of technology and business diversification proves to be one of the positive scenarios for sustainable livelihood of farmers in sub-optimal land.

  19. Two Liters a Day Keep the Doctor Away? Considerations on the Pathophysiology of Suboptimal Fluid Intake in the Common Population

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Lang; Isabelle Guelinckx; Guillaume Lemetais; Olle Melander

    2017-01-01

    Suboptimal fluid intake may require enhanced release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin for the maintenance of adequate hydration. Enhanced copeptin levels (reflecting enhanced vasopressin levels) in 25% of the common population are associated with enhanced risk of metabolic syndrome with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, vascular dementia, cognitive impairment, microalbuminuria, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disea...

  20. Audit-based education to reduce suboptimal management of cholesterol in primary care: a before and after study.

    OpenAIRE

    de Lusignan, S; Belsey, J; Hague, N.; Dhoul, N; van Vlymen, J

    2006-01-01

    Statins are recommended for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, although they are often used in suboptimal doses and some patients may not receive lipid-lowering therapy. The Primary Care Data Quality (PCDQ) programme is an audit-based educational intervention.

  1. 2011 Army Strategic Planning Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    TESI ) of 22,000 Soldiers, the Army’s total force by the end of the mid-term period is programmed to be 520K (AC). We will achieve a more...dwell ratios, extending TESI authority to adequately man deploying units and sustain the All-Volunteer Force, right-sizing the generating force, and... TESI Temporary End-Strength Increase WMD Weapons of Mass Destruction 2011 ARMY STRATEGIC PLANNING GUIDANCE Page 19 2011

  2. Current materiality guidance for auditors

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Thomas E.; Eilifsen, Aasmund

    2000-01-01

    Auditors have to make materiality judgments on every audit. This is a difficult process, as both quantitative and qualitative factors have to be evaluated. Additionally, there is no formal guidance for how to implement the materiality concepts discussed in the auditing standards. Although they are sometimes difficult to make, good materiality judgments are crucial for the conduct of a successful audit as poor judgments can result in an audit that is ineffective and/or inefficient. This report...

  3. BENCHMARK DOSE TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA conducts risk assessments for an array of health effects that may result from exposure to environmental agents, and that require an analysis of the relationship between exposure and health-related outcomes. The dose-response assessment is essentially a two-step process, the first being the definition of a point of departure (POD), and the second extrapolation from the POD to low environmentally-relevant exposure levels. The benchmark dose (BMD) approach provides a more quantitative alternative to the first step in the dose-response assessment than the current NOAEL/LOAEL process for noncancer health effects, and is similar to that for determining the POD proposed for cancer endpoints. As the Agency moves toward harmonization of approaches for human health risk assessment, the dichotomy between cancer and noncancer health effects is being replaced by consideration of mode of action and whether the effects of concern are likely to be linear or nonlinear at low doses. Thus, the purpose of this project is to provide guidance for the Agency and the outside community on the application of the BMD approach in determining the POD for all types of health effects data, whether a linear or nonlinear low dose extrapolation is used. A guidance document is being developed under the auspices of EPA's Risk Assessment Forum. The purpose of this project is to provide guidance for the Agency and the outside community on the application of the benchmark dose (BMD) appr

  4. Suboptimal HIV Testing Uptake Among Men Who Engage in Commercial Sex Work with Men in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Harry; Friedman, Mackey Reuel; Lim, Sin How; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Wei, Chongyi

    2016-12-01

    Men who have sex with men and are sex workers (MSMSW) are disproportionately affected by the growing and emerging HIV epidemic. As sex work and same-sex behavior are heavily stigmatized and often illegal in most Asian countries, HIV research focusing on MSMSW has been limited. The goal of this analysis is to examine HIV testing practices and identify correlates of HIV testing among MSMSW in Asia. The Asia Internet MSM Sex Survey, an online cross-sectional survey of 10,861 men who have sex with men (MSM), was conducted in 2010. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, HIV testing behaviors, and sexual behaviors were collected. Five hundred and seventy-four HIV-negative/unknown respondents reported receiving payment for sex with men at least once in the past 6 months and were included in this analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify independent correlates of HIV testing in the past year. About half (48.6%) of the participants had been tested for HIV at least once within the past year, and 30.5% had never been tested. We also found that MSMSW participants who engaged in risky behaviors were less likely to be tested. While one might expect a high HIV testing rate among MSMSW due to the risks associated with engaging in sex work, we found that HIV testing uptake is suboptimal among MSMSW in Asia. These results suggest that targeted HIV prevention and testing promotion among MSMSW are needed.

  5. Suboptimal Nutritional Characteristics in Male and Female Soldiers Compared to Sports Nutrition Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. Suboptimal evolutionary novel environments promote singular altered gravity responses of transcriptome during Drosophila metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Raul; Larkin, Oliver J; Hill, Richard J A; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; van Loon, Jack J W A; Medina, F Javier

    2013-06-27

    Previous experiments have shown that the reduced gravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS) causes important alterations in Drosophila gene expression. These changes were shown to be intimately linked to environmental space-flight related constraints. Here, we use an array of different techniques for ground-based simulation of microgravity effects to assess the effect of suboptimal environmental conditions on the gene expression of Drosophila in reduced gravity. A global and integrative analysis, using "gene expression dynamics inspector" (GEDI) self-organizing maps, reveals different degrees in the responses of the transcriptome when using different environmental conditions or microgravity/hypergravity simulation devices. Although the genes that are affected are different in each simulation technique, we find that the same gene ontology groups, including at least one large multigene family related with behavior, stress response or organogenesis, are over represented in each case. These results suggest that the transcriptome as a whole can be finely tuned to gravity force. In optimum environmental conditions, the alteration of gravity has only mild effects on gene expression but when environmental conditions are far from optimal, the gene expression must be tuned greatly and effects become more robust, probably linked to the lack of experience of organisms exposed to evolutionary novel environments such as a gravitational free one.

  7. Daily menus can result in suboptimal nutrient intakes, especially calcium, of adolescents living in dormitories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresić, Greta; Simundić, Borislav; Mandić, Milena L; Kendel, Gordana; Zezelj, Sandra Pavicić

    2008-03-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate daily menus in Croatian dormitories and to assess the overall intake of dairy products among resident adolescents. For this purpose, 168 daily menus were chosen for nutritional evaluation by random sampling. In addition, 227 adolescents (133 girls and 94 boys) participated in a questionnaire focused on food intake in addition to the meals supplied in dormitories with the aim to assess the amount and the type of dairy products consumed. The results showed that only 35% of the daily menus were nutritionally balanced. Most of the menus provided an excess of energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, phosphorus, riboflavin, and vitamin A. The levels of calcium and magnesium in the menus were suboptimal. The menus offered to adolescents provided approximately 2 servings of dairy products per day. Milk was the most often supplied dairy product (1.1 servings per day), whereas yogurt had the lowest frequency of serving (0.2 servings per day). The most preferred dairy-based snack for both sexes was milk. Dairy-based snacks provided about 1 serving per day for both sexes and contributed to about 30% of the recommended dietary allowances for calcium. Adolescents who regularly consumed dairy-based snacks meet the recommendations (3.2 servings of dairy products per day and about 98% recommended dietary allowances for calcium). We conclude that the institutional menu planning should be improved because the intake of dairy snacks will continue to be a problem for achieving a healthy diet in adolescences.

  8. Parasitological and transcriptomic comparison of Strongyloides ratti infections in natural and in suboptimal permissive hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleta, Tegegn G; Rödelsperger, Christian; Streit, Adrian

    2017-09-01

    The nematode genus Strongyloides consists of fairly species-specific small intestinal parasites of various vertebrates, among them the human pathogen S. stercoralis. Between the parthenogenetic parasitic generations these worms can also form single facultative sexual free-living generations. In addition to their primary hosts, several species can also live more or less well in other permissive hosts, which are sometimes not very closely related with the normal host. For example, S. stercoralis can also infect dogs and non-human primates. Here we compare the infection and reproductive success over time and the gene expression profiles as determined by quantitative sequencing of S. ratti parasitizing in its natural host rat and in the permissive host gerbil. We show that in gerbils fewer infective larvae successfully establish in the host, but those that do accomplish this survive and reproduce for longer and produced a higher proportion of males during the first two month of infection. Globally, the gene expression profiles in the two hosts are very similar. Among the relatively few differentially expressed genes, astacin-like and acetylcholinesterase genes are prominently represented. In the future it will be interesting to see if these changes in the suboptimal host are indeed ecologically sensible responses to the different host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and evaluation of a questionnaire for measuring suboptimal health status in urban Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Xiang; Liu, You-Qin; Li, Man; Hu, Pei-Feng; Guo, Ai-Min; Yang, Xing-Hua; Qiu, Jing-Jun; Yang, Shan-Shan; Shen, Jian; Zhang, Li-Ping; Wang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) is characterized by ambiguous health complaints, general weakness, and lack of vitality, and has become a new public health challenge in China. It is believed to be a subclinical, reversible stage of chronic disease. Studies of intervention and prognosis for SHS are expected to become increasingly important. Consequently, a reliable and valid instrument to assess SHS is essential. We developed and evaluated a questionnaire for measuring SHS in urban Chinese. Focus group discussions and a literature review provided the basis for the development of the questionnaire. Questionnaire validity and reliability were evaluated in a small pilot study and in a larger cross-sectional study of 3000 individuals. Analyses included tests for reliability and internal consistency, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and tests for discriminative ability and convergent validity. The final questionnaire included 25 items on SHS (SHSQ-25), and encompassed 5 subscales: fatigue, the cardiovascular system, the digestive tract, the immune system, and mental status. Overall, 2799 of 3000 participants completed the questionnaire (93.3%). Test-retest reliability coefficients of individual items ranged from 0.89 to 0.98. Item-subscale correlations ranged from 0.51 to 0.72, and Cronbach's alpha was 0.70 or higher for all subscales. Factor analysis established 5 distinct domains, as conceptualized in our model. One-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences in scale scores between 3 occupation groups; these included total scores and subscores (Purban Chinese.

  10. Motor planning under temporal uncertainty is suboptimal when the gain function is asymmetric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Keiji; Shinya, Masahiro; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    For optimal action planning, the gain/loss associated with actions and the variability in motor output should both be considered. A number of studies make conflicting claims about the optimality of human action planning but cannot be reconciled due to their use of different movements and gain/loss functions. The disagreement is possibly because of differences in the experimental design and differences in the energetic cost of participant motor effort. We used a coincident timing task, which requires decision making with constant energetic cost, to test the optimality of participant's timing strategies under four configurations of the gain function. We compared participant strategies to an optimal timing strategy calculated from a Bayesian model that maximizes the expected gain. We found suboptimal timing strategies under two configurations of the gain function characterized by asymmetry, in which higher gain is associated with higher risk of zero gain. Participants showed a risk-seeking strategy by responding closer than optimal to the time of onset/offset of zero gain. Meanwhile, there was good agreement of the model with actual performance under two configurations of the gain function characterized by symmetry. Our findings show that human ability to make decisions that must reflect uncertainty in one's own motor output has limits that depend on the configuration of the gain function.

  11. Altered Innate Immune Responses in Neutrophils from Patients with Well- and Suboptimally Controlled Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca S. M. Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Respiratory infections are a major cause of asthma exacerbations where neutrophilic inflammation dominates and is associated with steroid refractory asthma. Structural airway cells in asthma differ from nonasthmatics; however it is unknown if neutrophils differ. We investigated neutrophil immune responses in patients who have good (AGood and suboptimal (ASubopt asthma symptom control. Methods. Peripheral blood neutrophils from AGood (ACQ 0.75, n=7, and healthy controls (HC (n=9 were stimulated with bacterial (LPS (1 μg/mL, fMLF (100 nM, and viral (imiquimod (3 μg/mL, R848 (1.5 μg/mL, and poly I:C (10 μg/mL surrogates or live rhinovirus (RV 16 (MOI1. Cell-free supernatant was collected after 1 h for neutrophil elastase (NE and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 measurements or after 24 h for CXCL8 release. Results. Constitutive NE was enhanced in AGood neutrophils compared to HC. fMLF stimulated neutrophils from ASubopt but not AGood produced 50% of HC levels. fMLF induced MMP-9 was impaired in ASubopt and AGood compared to HC. fMLF stimulated CXCL8 but not MMP-9 was positively correlated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. ASubopt and AGood responded similarly to other stimuli. Conclusions. Circulating neutrophils are different in asthma; however, this is likely to be related to airflow limitation rather than asthma control.

  12. Sub-optimal wavelet denoising of coaveraged spectra employing statistics from individual scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Roberto Kawakami Harrop; Filho, Heronides Adonias Dantas; Martins, Marcelo Nascimento; Araújo, Mário César Ugulino; Pasquini, Celio

    2007-01-02

    This paper proposes a novel wavelet denoising method, which exploits the statistics of individual scans acquired in the course of a coaveraging process. The proposed method consists of shrinking the wavelet coefficients of the noisy signal by a factor that minimizes the expected square error with respect to the true signal. Since the true signal is not known, a sub-optimal estimate of the shrinking factor is calculated by using the sample statistics of the acquired scans. It is shown that such an estimate can be generated as the limit value of a recursive formulation. In a simulated example, the performance of the proposed method is seen to be equivalent to the best choice between hard and soft thresholding for different signal-to-noise ratios. Such a conclusion is also supported by an experimental investigation involving near-infrared (NIR) scans of a diesel sample. It is worth emphasizing that this experimental example concerns the removal of actual instrumental noise, in contrast to other case studies in the denoising literature, which usually present simulations with artificial noise. The simulated and experimental cases indicate that, in classic denoising based on wavelet coefficient thresholding, choosing between the hard and soft options is not straightforward and may lead to considerably different outcomes. By resorting to the proposed method, the analyst is not required to make such a critical decision in order to achieve appropriate results.

  13. Metabonomics-Based Study of Clinical Urine Samples in Suboptimal Health with Different Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Zhen Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the urinary biochemistry features of syndromes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM such as syndrome of stagnation of liver Qi, spleen deficiency, liver Qi stagnation, and spleen deficiency (LSSDS in sub-optimal health status (SHS. Methods. 12 cases for each syndrome group in SHS were selected, 12 subjects were used as a normal control group, and 1H NMR detection was, respectively, carried out, and the data was corrected by the orthogonal signal correction (OSC and then adopted a partial least squares (PLS method for discriminate analysis. Results. The OSC-PLS (ctr analysis results of the nuclear overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY detection indicated that the syndromes in SHS could be differentiated, and there were significant differences in the levels of metabolites of the urine samples of the four groups; the biomarkers of LSSDS in SHS were found out. The contents of citric acid (2.54 and 2.66, trimethylamineoxide (3.26, and hippuric acid (3.98, 7.54, 7.58, 7.62, 7.66, 7.82, and 7.86 in the urine samples of LSSDS group were lower than that of the normal control group. Conclusion. There are differences in the 1H-NMR metabolic spectrum of the urine samples of the four groups, and the specific metabolic products of the LSSDS in SHS can be identified from metabonomics analysis.

  14. Suboptimal provision of preventive healthcare due to expected enrollee turnover among private insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Bradley

    2010-04-01

    Many preventive healthcare procedures are widely recognized as cost-effective but have relatively low utilization rates in the US. Because preventive care is a present-period investment with a future-period expected financial return, enrollee turnover among private insurers lowers the expected return of this investment. In this paper, I present a simple theoretical model to illustrate the suboptimal provision of preventive healthcare that results from insurers 'free riding' off of the provision from others. I also provide an empirical test of this hypothesis using data from the Community Tracking Study's Household Survey. I use lagged market-level measures of employment-induced insurer turnover to identify variation in insurers' expectations and test for the effect of turnover on several different measures of medical utilization. As expected, I find that turnover has a significantly negative effect on the utilization of preventive services and has no effect on the utilization of acute services used as a control. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Economic and disease burden of breast cancer associated with suboptimal breastfeeding practices in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Meza, Rafael; Colchero, M Arantxa; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; de Cosío, Teresita Gonzalez

    2017-10-05

    Exclusive breastfeeding and longer breastfeeding reduce women's breast cancer risk but Mexico has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide. We estimated the lifetime economic and disease burden of breast cancer in Mexico if 95% of parous women breastfeed each child exclusively for 6 months and continue breastfeeding for over a year. We used a static microsimulation model with a cost-of-illness approach to simulate a cohort of Mexican women. We estimated breast cancer incidence, premature mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), medical costs, and income losses due to breast cancer and extrapolated the results to 1.116 million Mexican women of age 15 in 2012. Costs were expressed in 2015 US dollars and discounted at a 3% annual rate. We estimated that 2,186 premature deaths (95% CI 2,123-2,248), 9,936 breast cancer cases (95% CI 9,651-10,220), 45,109 DALYs (95% CI 43,000-47,217), and $245 million USD (95% CI 234-256) in medical costs and income losses owing to breast cancer could be saved over a cohort's lifetime. Medical costs account for 80% of the economic burden; income losses and opportunity costs for caregivers account for 15 and 5%, respectively. In Mexico, the burden of breast cancer due to suboptimal breastfeeding in women is high in terms of morbidity, premature mortality, and the economic costs for the health sector and society.

  16. Effects of Suboptimally Presented Erotic Pictures on Moral Judgments: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Vilar, Manuel; Arango, Olber Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified a set of core factors that influence moral judgments. The present study addresses the interplay between moral judgments and four factors: (a) incidental affects, (b) sociocultural context, (c) type of dilemma, and (d) participant’s sex. We asked participants in two different countries (Colombia and Spain) to judge the acceptability of actions in response to personal and impersonal moral dilemmas. Before each dilemma an affective prime (erotic, pleasant or neutral pictures) was presented suboptimally. Our results show that: a) relative to neutral priming, erotic primes increase the acceptance of harm for a greater good (i.e., more utilitarian judgments), b) relative to Colombians, Spanish participants rated causing harm as less acceptable, c) relative to impersonal dilemmas, personal dilemmas reduced the acceptance of harm, and d) relative to men, women were less likely to consider harm acceptable. Our results are congruent with findings showing that sex is a crucial factor in moral cognition, and they extend previous research by showing the interaction between culture and incidental factors in the making of moral judgments. PMID:27367795

  17. Effects of Suboptimally Presented Erotic Pictures on Moral Judgments: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Olivera-La Rosa

    Full Text Available Previous research has identified a set of core factors that influence moral judgments. The present study addresses the interplay between moral judgments and four factors: (a incidental affects, (b sociocultural context, (c type of dilemma, and (d participant's sex. We asked participants in two different countries (Colombia and Spain to judge the acceptability of actions in response to personal and impersonal moral dilemmas. Before each dilemma an affective prime (erotic, pleasant or neutral pictures was presented suboptimally. Our results show that: a relative to neutral priming, erotic primes increase the acceptance of harm for a greater good (i.e., more utilitarian judgments, b relative to Colombians, Spanish participants rated causing harm as less acceptable, c relative to impersonal dilemmas, personal dilemmas reduced the acceptance of harm, and d relative to men, women were less likely to consider harm acceptable. Our results are congruent with findings showing that sex is a crucial factor in moral cognition, and they extend previous research by showing the interaction between culture and incidental factors in the making of moral judgments.

  18. Motor planning under temporal uncertainty is suboptimal when the gain function is asymmetric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji eOta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For optimal action planning, the gain/loss associated with actions and the variability in motor output should both be considered. A number of studies make conflicting claims about the optimality of human action planning but cannot be reconciled due to their use of different movements and gain/loss functions. The disagreement is possibly because of differences in the experimental design and differences in the energetic cost of participant motor effort. We used a coincident timing task, which requires decision making with constant energetic cost, to test the optimality of participant’s timing strategies under four configurations of the gain function. We compared participant strategies to an optimal timing strategy calculated from a Bayesian model that maximizes the expected gain. We found suboptimal timing strategies under two configurations of the gain function characterized by asymmetry, in which higher gain is associated with higher risk of zero gain. Participants showed a risk-seeking strategy by responding closer than optimal to the time of onset/offset of zero gain. Meanwhile, there was good agreement of the model with actual performance under two configurations of the gain function characterized by symmetry. Our findings show that human ability to make decisions that must reflect uncertainty in one’s own motor output has limits that depend on the configuration of the gain function.

  19. Suboptimal maximum likelihood detection of on-off keying for a wireless optical communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijie; Ding, Shengli; Dang, Anhong

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates a detection scheme without channel state information for wireless optical communication systems. Employing conventional on-off keying signals, we supposed that conditional probability density function P(r|0) is much bigger than P(r|1) when r<0. Under this assumption, the suboptimal maximum likelihood scheme is obtained by utilizing the probability density function without channel information. Theoretical analysis shows the performance of the proposed scheme is close to the maximum likelihood symbol-by-symbol detection. Compared with the maximum likelihood symbol by symbol detection, Monte Carlo simulations show that the performance of the proposed scheme is about 0.62 dB loss for a gamma-gamma channel with a Rytov variance of 1 at the signal-to-noise ratio of 2 dB, but the efficient algorithm makes the real-time implementation of detection based on maximum likelihood feasible. Besides, the experiment is set up under 2 Gbps, and the experimental results match well with that of the theory and simulation.

  20. Does the Law of Armed Conflict Need to Evolve With Respect to Non-State Actors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-03

    commander should conduct operations or treat captured fighters while still complying with the law of armed conflict is more complicated than ever. To make...conflict. While we may find short-term answers by creatively interpreting the existing guidance, we need to change the law to provide a long-term...criminals instead of combatants, but attempts to determine how the law of armed conflict applies to their actions during combat and treatment when

  1. Investigating the prevalence, predictors, and prognosis of suboptimal statin use early after a non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Richard M; Yin, Peng; Hanson, Anita; FitzGerald, Richard; Morris, Andrew P; Stables, Rod H; Jorgensen, Andrea L; Pirmohamed, Munir

    High-potency statin therapy is recommended in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease but discontinuation, dose reduction, statin switching, and/or nonadherence occur in practice. To determine the prevalence and predictors of deviation from high-potency statin use early after a non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and its association with subsequent major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and all-cause mortality (ACM). A total of 1005 patients from a UK-based prospective NSTE-ACS cohort study discharged on high-potency statin therapy (atorvastatin 80 mg, rosuvastatin 20 mg, or 40 mg daily) were included. At 1 month, patients were divided into constant high-potency statin users, and suboptimal users incorporating statin discontinuation, dose reduction, switching statin to a lower equivalent potency, and/or statin nonadherence. Follow-up was a median of 16 months. There were 156 suboptimal (∼15.5%) and 849 constant statin users. Factors associated in multivariable analysis with suboptimal statin occurrence included female sex (odds ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-2.68) and muscular symptoms (odds ratio 4.28, 95% CI 1.30-14.08). Suboptimal statin use was associated with increased adjusted risks of time to MACE (hazard ratio 2.10, 95% CI 1.25-3.53, P = .005) and ACM (hazard ratio 2.46, 95% CI 1.38-4.39, P = .003). Subgroup analysis confirmed that the increased MACE/ACM risks were principally attributable to statin discontinuation or nonadherence. Conversion to suboptimal statin use is common early after NSTE-ACS and is partly related to muscular symptoms. Statin discontinuation or non-adherence carries an adverse prognosis. Interventions that preserve and enhance statin utilization could improve post NSTE-ACS outcomes. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Principles of international law of investments, recognition and trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena Popa (Tache

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The international law of foreign investments is in a process of permanent emerging, whose structure appears as a complex and unitary multitude of interactions between the branches of law and its evolution is inspired by sociology, philosophy, politics and economy. These principles are guiding precepts and guidance aimed at drawing up and application of legal norms on international investments and can be formulated in the text of the Treaties and other regulations in this field. These are the support of the stability of the international law of investments, correcting the discrepancies, excesses and anomalies that are naturally identified at a certain moment in the interpretation and application of this new field of law. The existence of the general principles has a prominent role in the transition periods of law and in the hierarchy, the harmonization and the compatibility of different legal systems.

  3. Recent Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...

  4. Harmonizing Tort Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a review of the literature on comparative tort law and economics. It pays special attention to the economics arguments against and in favour of harmonization of tort law in Europe.

  5. Administrative Law Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  6. Community Notification Laws

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Speck, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    .... Furthermore, a false sense of security and reductions in incest reporting continue to victimize children, which results in further sex offender laws passed by legislatures without empirical data supporting such laws...

  7. By Law Established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017......An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017...

  8. Liability in Employment Law

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Roman

    2006-01-01

    97 Liability in labour law Summary This diploma paper analyzes liability in labour law with focus on liability for damage. At first the diploma paper introduces conception of liability in general and idea of liability in labour law considering different position of employee and employer in labour relations. The diploma paper then enumerates the types of labour-law liability. The next chapter concentrates on liability for damage. This chapter describes characteristic features of liability for ...

  9. Behavioral Law and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral economics has been a growing force in many fields of applied economics, including public economics, labor economics, health economics, and law and economics. This paper describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the end...

  10. Sociological Aesthetics of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer-Lescano, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Aesthetic theory has the potential to develop a sensorium for the rational and arational forces of law. But the aesthetic knowledge of law is underdeveloped. That is why this article proposes a self-reflective sociological aesthetics of law that is capable of acknowledging human and social forces. The article unfolds its argument in three steps: first, it outlines the main approaches in the field of “law and aesthetics”; second, it connects these approaches in legal aesthetics with sociologic...

  11. Responsibility in Labour Law

    OpenAIRE

    Mandíková, Irena

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with responsibility in labour-law relationships. At the beginning, the thesis focuses on defining responsibility in labour law from a general perspective, in particular in the light of its characteristics. This part is followed by a classification of responsibility in terms of individual branches of law. A prevalent part of this thesis examines the most common type of labour-law responsibility, i.e. responsibility for damage. This part describes in detail the individual type...

  12. A survey of doctors at a UK teaching hospital to assess understanding of recent changes to consent law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. O'Brien, BSc MRCS

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The majority were not familiar with the concept of material risk and recent legal changes. A majority were not confident that their practice meets current requirements, suggesting that recent changes in consent law may not be widely understood at this hospital. We suggest more guidance and education may be necessary than is currently available. Increased understanding of recent changes to consent law will reduce the risk taken by NHS trusts and offer patients a service compliant with Supreme Court guidance.

  13. The tort law industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortmann, J.

    2009-01-01

    Tort law is fast becoming ‘big business’. Hardly a week goes by without some lawyer or other launching a mass claim to redress a perceived injustice. Investors, too, are starting to recognize the commercial potential of tort law. Coinciding with the increasing commercialization of tort law, is

  14. On Teaching Natural Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, David F.

    1978-01-01

    A brief look at Columbia, Harvard, and Notre Dame law schools shows that the American tradition in teaching natural law has not been strong. The value of teaching natural law is discussed, a separate course or seminar is seen as the most effective option, and a selection of available sources for such a course is appended. (JMD)

  15. Environmental law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...

  16. Education on Environmental Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Guillermo J.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that environmental law, as part of legal science, should be taught at universities; discusses the development of environmental law and its relationship to other sciences; and proposes a framework for studying environmental law as a university course for study. (DC)

  17. LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    LAW, DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT/ VOL 21 (2017) ratified may apply in Kenya. The general rules of international law apply if a norm has achieved the status of jus cogens or erga omnes.2 The Kenyan courts have cautiously created inroads into the application of international customary law so as to uphold. Article 2(6) ...

  18. On Kepler's First Law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article is about Kepler's first law or the law of ellipses, named after its discoverer and shown by Newton to follow from an inverse square law of force: A planet revolving about the sun moves in an elliptical orbit with the sun at one focus of the ellipse. We present two proofs of this classical result: Newton's proof, from the ...

  19. Water, law, science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryIn a world with water resources severely impacted by technology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end, this paper is an earth scientist's attempt to comprehend essential elements of water law, and to examine their connections to science. Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with a priori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science, observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while in law, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law in Europe and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago by Roman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason. Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the sea were governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that these elements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as private property. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jus gentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast, jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jus gentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in which science plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all. This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, follows their evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit of science inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving water and environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In a technological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of water law. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophical understanding of the relationships between science and law will contribute to their constructively coming together in the service of society.

  20. Human law and computer law comparative perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrandt, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    This book probes the epistemological and hermeneutic implications of data science and artificial intelligence for democracy and the Rule of Law, and the challenges posed by computing technologies traditional legal thinking and the regulation of human affairs.

  1. Approximation of Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    Approximation of laws is an important theme in the philosophy of science. If we can make sense of the idea that two scientific laws are "close" to each other, then we can also analyze such methodological notions as approximate explanation of laws, approximate reduction of theories, approximate empirical success of theories, and approximate truth of laws. Proposals for measuring the distance between quantitative scientific laws were given in Niiniluoto (1982, 1987). In this paper, these definitions are reconsidered as a response to the interesting critical remarks by Liu (1999).

  2. Suboptimal herd performance amplifies the spread of infectious disease in the cattle industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carolyn Gates

    Full Text Available Farms that purchase replacement breeding cattle are at increased risk of introducing many economically important diseases. The objectives of this analysis were to determine whether the total number of replacement breeding cattle purchased by individual farms could be reduced by improving herd performance and to quantify the effects of such reductions on the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases. Detailed information on the performance and contact patterns of British cattle herds was extracted from the national cattle movement database as a case example. Approximately 69% of beef herds and 59% of dairy herds with an average of at least 20 recorded calvings per year purchased at least one replacement breeding animal. Results from zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed that herds with high average ages at first calving, prolonged calving intervals, abnormally high or low culling rates, and high calf mortality rates were generally more likely to be open herds and to purchase greater numbers of replacement breeding cattle. If all herds achieved the same level of performance as the top 20% of herds, the total number of replacement beef and dairy cattle purchased could be reduced by an estimated 34% and 51%, respectively. Although these purchases accounted for only 13% of between-herd contacts in the industry trade network, they were found to have a disproportionately strong influence on disease transmission dynamics. These findings suggest that targeting extension services at herds with suboptimal performance may be an effective strategy for controlling endemic cattle diseases while simultaneously improving industry productivity.

  3. Suboptimal management of central nervous system infections in children: a multi-centre retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Christine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We aimed to audit the regional management of central nervous system (CNS infection in children. Methods The study was undertaken in five district general hospitals and one tertiary paediatric hospital in the Mersey region of the UK. Children admitted to hospital with a suspected CNS infection over a three month period were identified. Children were aged between 4 weeks and 16 years old. Details were recorded from the case notes and electronic records. We measured the appropriateness of management pathways as outlined by national and local guidelines. Results Sixty-five children were identified with a median age of 6 months (range 1 month to 15 years. Ten had a CNS infection: 4 aseptic meningitis, 3 purulent meningitis, 3 encephalitis [2 with herpes simplex virus (HSV type 1]. A lumbar puncture (LP was attempted in 50 (77% cases but only 43 had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF available for analysis. Of these 24 (57% had a complete standard set of tests performed. Fifty eight (89% received a third generation cephalosporin. Seventeen (26% also received aciclovir with no obvious indication in 9 (53%. Only 11 (65% of those receiving aciclovir had CSF herpes virus PCR. Seventeen had cranial imaging and it was the first management step in 14. Treatment lengths of both antibiotics and aciclovir were highly variable: one child with HSV encephalitis was only treated with aciclovir for 7 days. Conclusions The clinical management of children with suspected CNS infections across the Mersey region is heterogeneous and often sub-optimal, particularly for the investigation and treatment of viral encephalitis. National guidelines for the management of viral encephalitis are needed.

  4. Suboptimal vitamin K status despite supplementation in children and young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kelly A; Schall, Joan I; Stallings, Virginia A

    2010-09-01

    For children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency, the efficacy of routine vitamin K supplementation to normalize vitamin K status remains unclear. This study examined and determined predictors of vitamin K status in subjects aged 8-25 y with CF and pancreatic insufficiency taking various vitamin K supplements. In 97 subjects, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], dietary intake, vitamin K supplement intake, and vitamin K statusmdashdetermined on the basis of the percentage of serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC; sufficient: lt 20%) and plasma proteins induced by vitamin K absence-factor II (PIVKA-II; n = 60; sufficient: le 2 microg/L)mdashwere assessed. The vitamin K supplementation groups were as follows: lt 150 microg/d (low; multivitamins or no supplement), 150-999 microg/d (middle; CF-specific vitamins), and ge 1000 microg/d (high; mephyton). %ucOC values were compared with 140 healthy subjects aged 6-21 y. In subjects with CF, the median (range) %ucOC was 35% (3%, 76%) and the median (range) for PIVKA-II was 2 (0, 42) micro g/L. Subjects with CF had a higher %ucOC with low [45% (10%, 76%)] and medium [41% (3%, 66%)] supplement intakes but not with a high supplement intake [16% (4%, 72%)] compared with healthy subjects [23% (0%, 43%); both P lt 0.05]. Supplementation group for males and females and 25(OH)D and age for males were significant predictors of vitamin K status. Vitamin K status was often suboptimal despite routine supplementation. Only subjects taking high-dose vitamin K achieved a status similar to healthy subjects, and only the vitamin K supplementation dose predicted vitamin K status for males and females. These data suggest that higher doses of vitamin K are required.

  5. Suboptimal vitamin K status and its risk factors in a population of Chinese chronic haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunlin; Ruan, Yizhe; He, Qiang; Zhang, Wensong; Wang, Li

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin K deficiency is known to be common in haemodialysis patients and associates with adverse outcomes in this population, particularly vascular calcification. We aimed to investigate the vitamin K status in a population of Chinese haemodialysis (HD) patients. We collected demographic and biochemical data from a population of maintenance HD (MHD) patients in our unit and a control group composed of healthy subjects from our outpatient clinic. Fasting serum samples from all subjects were collected for the measurement of known vitamin K-dependent proteins i.e. matrix Gla protein (MGP), osteocalcin (OC) and uncarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC). We also quantified the fraction of ucOC to total OC (%ucOC). Differences of these parameters between groups were analyzed and risk factors of vitamin K deficiency based on the definition as per %ucOC were investigated. We enrolled 93 MHD patients as a test group and 93 healthy subjects as a control group. There was no significant difference in MGP between groups (4.0 ± 2.8 pg/mL in MHD vs 4.2 ± 1.2 pg/mL in control; P = 0.676). Mean %ucOC was significantly greater in the MHD patients as compared to control subjects (76.4 ± 20.0% in MHD vs 48.56 ± 15.5%; P vitamin K deficiency, with the former being an independent risk factor. Defining Vitamin K deficiency by %ucOC, suboptimal vitamin K levels appear common in Chinese MHD patients. Time on dialysis and LDL cholesterol level predict vitamin K deficiency. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  6. Suboptimal porcine endogenous retrovirus infection in non-human primate cells: implication for preclinical xenotransplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Mattiuzzo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV poses a potential risk of zoonotic infection in xenotransplantation. Preclinical transplantation trials using non-human primates (NHP as recipients of porcine xenografts present the opportunity to assess the zoonosis risk in vivo. However, PERV poorly infects NHP cells for unclear reasons and therefore NHP may represent a suboptimal animal model to assess the risk of PERV zoonoses. We investigated the mechanism responsible for the low efficiency of PERV-A infection in NHP cells. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two steps, cell entry and exit, were inefficient for the replication of high-titer, human-tropic A/C recombinant PERV. A restriction factor, tetherin, is likely to be responsible for the block to matured virion release, supported by the correlation between the levels of inhibition and tetherin expression. In rhesus macaque, cynomolgus macaque and baboon the main receptor for PERV entry, PERV-A receptor 1 (PAR-1, was found to be genetically deficient: PAR-1 genes in these species encode serine at amino acid 109 in place of the leucine in human PAR-1. This genetic defect inevitably impacts in vivo sensitivity to PERV infection of these species. In contrast, African green monkey (AGM PAR-1 is functional, but PERV infection is still poor. Although the mechanism is unclear, tunicamycin treatment, which removes N-glycosylated sugar chains, increases PERV infection, suggesting a possible role for the glycosylation of the receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Since cynomolgus macaque and baboon, species often used in pig-to-NHP xenotransplantation experiments, have a defective PAR-1, they hardly represent an ideal animal model to assess the risk of PERV transmission in xenotransplantation. Alternatively, NHP species, like AGM, whose both PARs are functional may represent a better model than baboon and cynomolgus macaque for PERV zoonosis in vivo studies.

  7. Sensor-augmented pump therapy lowers HbA(1c) in suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes; a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanides, J; Nørgaard, K; Bruttomesso, D

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of sensor-augmented pump therapy vs. multiple daily injection therapy in patients with suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes.......To investigate the efficacy of sensor-augmented pump therapy vs. multiple daily injection therapy in patients with suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes....

  8. A common law agenda for labour law

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Barry; Spowart-Taylor, Ann

    1999-01-01

    This article assesses the purposes of a re-contractualisation of the employment relationship. It examines in particular the implied duty to act in good faith, and argues that in developing this and other implied terms the judiciary only extends employment protection to further wealth maximisation. It is argued that the common law sees its contribution to labour law as a device for maximising the efficiency of the enterprise and promoting the creation of wealth for the benefit of the national ...

  9. Suboptimal feedback control of TCP flows in computer network using random early discard (RED mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed N. U.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a dynamic model that simulates the interaction of TCP sources with active queue management system (AQM. We propose a modified version of an earlier dynamic model called RED. This is governed by a system of stochastic differential equations driven by a doubly stochastic point process with intensity as the control. The feedback control law proposed observes the router (queue status and controls the intensity by sending congestion signals (warnings to the sources for adjustment of their transmission rates. The (feedback control laws used are of polynomial type (including linear with adjustable coefficients. They are optimized by use of genetic algorithm (GA and random recursive search (RRS technique. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed model and the method can improve the system performance significantly.

  10. Suboptimal RED Feedback Control for Buffered TCP Flow Dynamics in Computer Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved dynamic system that simulates the behavior of TCP flows and active queue management (AQM system. This system can be modeled by a set of stochastic differential equations driven by a doubly stochastic point process with intensities being the controls. The feedback laws proposed monitor the status of buffers and multiplexor of the router, detect incipient congestion by sending warning signals to the sources. The simulation results show that the optimal feedback control law from the class of linear as well as quadratic polynomials can improve the system performance significantly in terms of maximizing the link utilization, minimizing congestion, packet losses, as well as global synchronization. The optimization process used is based on random recursive search technique known as RRS.

  11. Anticipatory guidance in pediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, K S; Bires, J A

    1980-12-01

    Physicians, by their collective positions in society and their individual interaction with patients, can be facilitators in helping families adopt more healthful ways of living. This study addresses the issue of the amount of time pediatricians in private practice spend with patients during well-child visits and the proportion of that time they devote to discussing potential health problems. The study population consisted of a random sample of pediatricians in the metropolitan Pittsburgh area. Observation of physician-patient interactions were made during one day in each of 23 pediatricians' offices. During the days of observation there were 305 well-child visits. The time spent with each patient averaged 10.3 minutes. Anticipatory guidance constituted 8.4% of total visit time. Pediatricians in group practice or partnerships and those recently trained spent more time with patients and a greater part of their time in anticipatory guidance. The amount of time during the well-child visit spent in anticipatory guidance varied with the age of the patient. The most time discussing potential future problems was spent with parents of infants less than 5 months of age (1 minute 37 seconds), with only an average of seven seconds being spent with adolescents. Of particular note was the lack of time spent discussing issues of safety, sex, behavior and growth. Because pediatricians spend more than 60% of their in-office time seeing patients for well-child care, they have an excellent opportunity to motivate parents and patients to change to more healthful ways of living. This opportunity will be lost however unless pediatricians reorient their priorities by addressing currently unmet health problems.

  12. Analysing Interplanetary Probe Guidance Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Sukhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a guidance accuracy analysis and estimates delta-v budget required to provide the trajectory correction maneuvers for direct interplanetary flights (without midcourse gravity assists. The analysis takes into consideration the orbital hyperbolic injection errors (depend on a selected launch vehicle and ascent trajectory and the uncertainties of midcourse correction maneuvers.The calculation algorithm is based on Monte Carlo simulation and Danby’s matrix methods (the matrizant of keplerian motion. Danby’s method establishes a link between the errors of the spacecraft state vectors at different flight times using the reference keplerian orbit matrizant. Utilizing the nominal trajectory parameters and the covariance matrix of launch vehicle injection errors the random perturbed orbits are generated and required velocity corrections are calculated. The next step is to simulate midcourse maneuver performance uncertainty using the midcourse maneuver covariance matrix. The obtained trajectory correction impulses and spacecraft position errors are statistically processed to compute required delta-v budget and dispersions ellipse parameters for different prediction intervals.As an example, a guidance accuracy analysis has been conducted for a 2022 mission to Mars and a Venus mission in 2026. The paper considers one and two midcourse correction options, as well as utilization of two different launch vehicles.The presented algorithm based on Monte Carlo simulation and Danby’s methods provides preliminary evaluation for midcourse corrections delta-v budget and spacecraft position error. The only data required for this guidance accuracy analysis are a reference keplerian trajectory and a covariance matrix of the injection errors. Danby’s matrix method allows us to take into account also the other factors affecting the trajectory thereby increasing the accuracy of analysis.

  13. Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard

    2004-01-01

    When working with traffic planning or guidance it is common practice to view the vehicles as a combined mass. >From this models are employed to specify the vehicle supply and demand for each region. As the models are complex and the calculations are equally demanding the regions and the detail...... of the road network is aggregated. As a result the calculations reveal only what the mass of vehicles are doing and not what a single vehicle is doing. This is the crucial difference to ABIT (Agent Based Individual Trafficguidance). ABIT is based on the fact that information on the destination of each vehicle...

  14. Orthobiologic Interventions Using Ultrasound Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard; Abdelshahed, Dena; Jayaram, Prathap

    2016-08-01

    The application of regenerative therapies for the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions has emerged over the last decade with recent acceleration. These include prolotherapy, platelet-rich plasma, and mesenchymal stem cell therapy. These strategies augment the body's innate physiology to heal pathologic processes. This article presents an overview of platelet-rich plasma and mesenchymal stem cell therapy for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. A brief literature review is included, as are techniques for the use of ultrasound guidance to assist with these procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Quality guidance and quality formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the quality guidance model of Steenkamp and van Trijp that includes consumer quality formation processes. Quality expectations and quality experiences are seen as antecedents of perceived overall product quality conceptual model is applied using LISREL to a data...... set on Danish butter cookies. Five plausible models of the relation between expectation, experience and perceived product quality are estimated. Finally one model is selected on the basis of three criteria: chi-square, RMSEA and AIC: The results show a model where expectations are indirectly related...... to perceived quality through experience. Udgivelsesdato: APR...

  16. A mapping review of international guidance on the management and care of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Astrid I W A; Ruytings, Marijke; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Chio, Adriano; Hardiman, Orla; Mcdermott, Christopher J; Meyer, Thomas; Mora, Gabriele; Van Damme, Philip; Van Den Berg, Leonard H; Vanhaecht, Kris; Winkler, Andrea S; Sermeus, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Management of ALS is suboptimal. Consequently, quality improvement interventions are needed to improve ALS care. An evidence-based insight into how patients should be managed is essential when developing quality improvement interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to map, categorize and summarize international guidance on the management and care of ALS and to identify gaps in this guidance by means of a mapping review. Literature was searched for clinical practice guidelines, quality indicators and evidence-based clinical summaries. A content analysis and meta-synthesis of the included literature was performed. Interventions and outcomes used in the management and care of ALS were identified and categorized. Furthermore, the amount of guidance underpinning these interventions and outcomes was analysed. Six clinical practice guidelines, one set of quality indicators and three evidence-based clinical summaries were identified. The results demonstrated that certain domains in ALS care, mainly disease-specific domains such as breathing and swallowing, are extensively addressed in the literature whereas other subjects, such as care coordination, receive little attention. In conclusion, this mapping review provides a scientific basis for targeting and developing the clinical content of a quality improvement intervention for the management of ALS.

  17. Vision based guidance and flight control in problems of aerial tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram

    The use of visual sensors in providing the necessary information for the autonomous guidance and navigation of the unmanned-air vehicles (UAV) or micro-air vehicles (MAV) applications is inspired by biological systems and is motivated first of all by the reduction of the navigational sensor cost. Also, visual sensors can be more advantageous in military operations since they are difficult to detect. However, the design of a reliable guidance, navigation and control system for aerial vehicles based only on visual information has many unsolved problems, ranging from hardware/software development to pure control-theoretical issues, which are even more complicated when applied to the tracking of maneuvering unknown targets. This dissertation describes guidance law design and implementation algorithms for autonomous tracking of a flying target, when the information about the target's current position is obtained via a monocular camera mounted on the tracking UAV (follower). The visual information is related to the target's relative position in the follower's body frame via the target's apparent size, which is assumed to be constant, but otherwise unknown to the follower. The formulation of the relative dynamics in the inertial frame requires the knowledge of the follower's orientation angles, which are assumed to be known. No information is assumed to be available about the target's dynamics. The follower's objective is to maintain a desired relative position irrespective of the target's motion. Two types of guidance laws are designed and implemented in the dissertation. The first one is a smooth guidance law that guarantees asymptotic tracking of a target, the velocity of which is viewed as a time-varying disturbance, the change in magnitude of which has a bounded integral. The second one is a smooth approximation of a discontinuous guidance law that guarantees bounded tracking with adjustable bounds when the target's acceleration is viewed as a bounded but otherwise

  18. Real-time discrete suboptimal control for systems with input and state delays: Experimental tests on a dehydration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Guerrero, Liliam; Santos-Sánchez, Omar-Jacobo; Cervantes-Escorcia, Nicolás; Romero, Hugo

    2017-11-01

    This article presents a suboptimal control strategy with finite horizon for affine nonlinear discrete systems with both state and input delays. The Dynamic Programming Approach is used to obtain the suboptimal control sequence, but in order to avoid the computation of the Bellman functional, a numerical approximation of this function is proposed in every step. The feasibility of our proposal is demonstrated via an experimental test on a dehydration process and the obtained results show a good performance and behavior of this process. Then in order to demonstrate the benefits of using this kind of control strategy, the results are compared with a non optimal control strategy, particularly with respect to results produced by an industrial Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Honeywell controller, which is tuned using the Ziegler-Nichols method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental law. Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepfer, M. (Trier Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Umwelt- und Technikrecht)

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST).

  20. Water, law, science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  1. Energy angular momentum closed-loop guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patera, Russell P.

    2015-03-01

    A novel guidance algorithm for launch vehicle ascent to the desired mission orbit is proposed. The algorithm uses total specific energy and orbital angular momentum as new state vector parameters. These parameters are ideally suited for the ascent guidance task, since the guidance algorithm steers the launch vehicle along a pre-flight optimal trajectory in energy angular momentum space. The guidance algorithm targets apogee, perigee, inclination and right ascension of ascending node. Computational complexities are avoided by eliminating time in the guidance computation and replacing it with angular momentum magnitude. As a result, vehicle acceleration, mass, thrust, length of motor burns, and staging times are also eliminated from the pitch plane guidance calculations. The algorithm does not involve launch vehicle or target state propagation, which results in minimal computational effort. Proof of concept of the new algorithm is presented using several numerical examples that illustrate performance results.

  2. Consumer behaviour towards price-reduced suboptimal foods in the supermarket and the relation to food waste in households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Jensen, Jacob Haagen; Jensen, Mette Hyldetoft; Kulikovskaja, Viktorija

    2017-09-01

    To combat food waste, supermarkets offer food items at a reduced price in-store when they are close to the expiration date or perceived as suboptimal. It is yet unknown, however, which considerations consumers engage in when deciding about the offer, and whether focusing particularly on the price during food purchase might be related to greater food waste at home. Knowledge about both the consumers' food purchase process for these price-reduced foods and the potential wastage of price-focused consumers can contribute to the assessment of whether or not offering suboptimal food at reduced prices in-store actually reduces food waste across the supply chain. We explore these questions in a mixed-method study including 16 qualitative accompanied shopping interviews and a quantitative online experimental survey with 848 consumers in Denmark. The interviews reveal that the consumers interviewed assess their ability to consume the price-reduced suboptimal food at home already while in the store. Consumers consider the relation between product-related factors of package unit, expiration date, and product quality, in interaction with household-related factors of freezing/storing, household size/demand, and possible meal/cooking. The survey shows that consumers who are more price-focused report lower food waste levels and lower tendency to choose the optimal food item first at home, than those who are not emphasizing the price-quality relation or do not search for price offers to the same extent. Higher age and high education also played a role, and the price-focus is lower in high-income groups and among single households. The findings allow deriving recommendations for retailers and policy makers to support both the marketability and the subsequent actual consumption of price-reduced suboptimal food, but they also raise questions for further research of this underexplored area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Suboptimal inhibition of platelet cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1) by aspirin in lupus erythematosus: Association with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Vivian K.; Avalos, Ingrid; Oeser, Annette; Oates, John A.; Milne, Ginger L.; Solus, Joseph F.; Chung, Cecilia P.; Stein, C. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Low-dose aspirin prevents platelet aggregation by suppressing thromboxane A2 synthesis. However, in some individuals thromboxane A2 suppression by aspirin is impaired, indicating suboptimal inhibition of platelet COX-1 by aspirin. Because patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have increased risk of thrombotic events, many receive aspirin; however, the efficacy of aspirin in SLE has not been determined. We examined the hypothesis that aspirin response is impaired in SLE. Methods We assessed the effect of aspirin by measuring concentrations of the stable metabolite of thromboxane A2 - serum thromboxane B2 (sTxB2), before and after treatment with 81 mg daily aspirin for 7 days in 34 patients with SLE and 36 control subjects. The inability to suppress sTxB2 synthesis to aspirin. Results Aspirin almost completely suppressed sTXB2 in control subjects to 1.5, [0.8–2.7] ng/ml (median and interquartile ranges [IQR]), but had less effect in patients with SLE (3.1, [2.2–5.3] ng/ml) (P=0.002). A suboptimal effect of aspirin was present in 15% (5/34) of the patients with SLE but not in control subjects (0/36) (P=0.023). Incomplete responders were more likely to have metabolic syndrome (P=0.048), obesity (P=0.048) and higher concentrations of CRP (P=0.018). Conclusion The pharmacologic effect of aspirin is suboptimal in 15% of patients with SLE but in none of the control subjects, and the suboptimal response was associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, and higher CRP concentrations. PMID:24022862

  4. Dyslipidemia is not associated with cardiovascular disease risk in an animal model of mild chronic suboptimal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Fima; Pintos, Patricia M; Lezón, Christian E; Macri, Elisa V; Friedman, Silvia M; Boyer, Patricia M

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies performed in an experimental model of nutritional growth retardation (NGR) have observed metabolic adaptation. We hypothesized that changes in lipid-lipoprotein profile, glucose, and insulin levels occur, whereas overall body growth is reduced.The aim of this study was to assess serum lipid-lipoprotein profile, hepatogram, insulinemia and glycemia, and CVD risk markers in rats fed a suboptimal diet. Weanling male rats were assigned either to control (C) or NGR group. In this 4-week study, C rats were fed ad libitum a standard diet, and NGR rats received 80% of the amount of food consumed by C. Zoometric parameters, body fat content, serum lipid-lipoprotein profile, hepatogram, insulinemia, and glycemia were determined, and the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and homeostasis model assessment and β-cell function were calculated. Suboptimal food intake induced a significant decrease in body weight and length, which were accompanied by a reduction of 50% in body fat mass. Serum lipoproteins were significantly higher in NGR rats, with the exception of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which remained unchanged. Nutritional growth retardation rats had decreased triglycerides compared with C rats. No significant differences were detected in liver function parameters. The CVD risk markers homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance and homeostasis model assessment and β-cell function were significantly lower in NGR rats. Mild chronic suboptimal nutrition in weanling male rats led to growth retardation and changes in the lipid-lipoprotein profile, glucose, and insulin levels while preserving the integrity of liver function. These data suggest a metabolic adaptation during suboptimal food intake, which ensures substrates flux to tissues that require constant energy-in detriment to body growth. The CVD risk markers suggested that mild chronic food restriction of approximately 20% could

  5. OVERVIEW OF SCHOOL GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Donald A. Odeleye

    2017-01-01

    Education in the broadest sense is aimed at helping individuals become more productive members of the society. At the heart of the whole pedagogy is Guidance and Counselling, which has been positively correlated with effective learning outcomes. Primarily, School Guidance and Counselling services are geared towards helping students know themselves, the world around them and make optimal decisions for enhanced future for all. This paper presents guidance and counselling services provided in th...

  6. Quantifying Unnecessary Normal Tissue Complication Risks due to Suboptimal Planning: A Secondary Study of RTOG 0126

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Kevin L., E-mail: kevinmoore@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Schmidt, Rachel [Department of Physics, Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Olsen, Lindsey A.; Tan, Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Pugh, Stephanie [NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Seider, Michael J. [Akron City Hospital, Akron, Ohio (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bosch, Walter; Michalski, Jeff; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the frequency and clinical severity of quality deficiencies in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol. Methods and Materials: A total of 219 IMRT patients from the high-dose arm (79.2 Gy) of RTOG 0126 were analyzed. To quantify plan quality, we used established knowledge-based methods for patient-specific dose-volume histogram (DVH) prediction of organs at risk and a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model for grade ≥2 rectal complications to convert DVHs into normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). The LKB model was validated by fitting dose-response parameters relative to observed toxicities. The 90th percentile (22 of 219) of plans with the lowest excess risk (difference between clinical and model-predicted NTCP) were used to create a model for the presumed best practices in the protocol (pDVH{sub 0126,top10%}). Applying the resultant model to the entire sample enabled comparisons between DVHs that patients could have received to DVHs they actually received. Excess risk quantified the clinical impact of suboptimal planning. Accuracy of pDVH predictions was validated by replanning 30 of 219 patients (13.7%), including equal numbers of presumed “high-quality,” “low-quality,” and randomly sampled plans. NTCP-predicted toxicities were compared to adverse events on protocol. Results: Existing models showed that bladder-sparing variations were less prevalent than rectum quality variations and that increased rectal sparing was not correlated with target metrics (dose received by 98% and 2% of the PTV, respectively). Observed toxicities were consistent with current LKB parameters. Converting DVH and pDVH{sub 0126,top10%} to rectal NTCPs, we observed 94 of 219 patients (42.9%) with ≥5% excess risk, 20 of 219 patients (9.1%) with ≥10% excess risk, and 2 of 219 patients (0.9%) with ≥15% excess risk. Replanning demonstrated the

  7. Rising burden of gout in the UK but continuing suboptimal management: a nationwide population study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chang-Fu; Grainge, Matthew J; Mallen, Christian; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe trends in the epidemiology of gout and patterns of urate-lowering treatment (ULT) in the UK general population from 1997 to 2012. Methods We used the Clinical Practice Research Datalink to estimate the prevalence and incidence of gout for each calendar year from 1997 to 2012. We also investigated the pattern of gout management for both prevalent and incident gout patients. Results In 2012, the prevalence of gout was 2.49% (95% CI 2.48% to 2.51%) and the incidence was 1.77 (95% CI 1.73 to 1.81) per 1000 person-years. Prevalence and incidence both were significantly higher in 2012 than in 1997, with a 63.9% increase in prevalence and 29.6% increase in incidence over this period. Regions with highest prevalence and incidence were the North East and Wales. Among prevalent gout patients in 2012, only 48.48% (95% CI 48.08% to 48.89%) were being consulted specifically for gout or treated with ULT and of these 37.63% (95% CI 37.28% to 38.99%) received ULT. In addition, only 18.6% (95% CI 17.6% to 19.6%) of incident gout patients received ULT within 6 months and 27.3% (95% CI 26.1% to 28.5%) within 12 months of diagnosis. The management of prevalent and incident gout patients remained essentially the same during the study period, although the percentage of adherent patients improved from 28.28% (95% CI 27.33% to 29.26%) in 1997 to 39.66% (95% CI 39.11% to 40.22%) in 2012. Conclusions In recent years, both the prevalence and incidence of gout have increased significantly in the UK. Suboptimal use of ULT has not changed between 1997 and 2012. Patient adherence has improved during the study period, but it remains poor. PMID:24431399

  8. Hybrid Guidance System for Relative Navigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA architectures and missions will involve many distributed platforms that must work together. This in turn requires guidance, navigation and control...

  9. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  10. Dentistry and criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, B S; Khoury, J N

    2017-09-01

    Criminal law in dentistry, as shaped and moulded by the prevailing views of society, defines what is or is not socially acceptable. It applies in both personal and professional contexts with the intended consequence of protecting the public from unacceptable conduct and potential imbalances of power. At its centre, a patient's consent plays a pivotal role in transforming unlawful conduct into lawful conduct. This literature review considers the current law and the trend of utilizing criminal law in addition to non-criminal law alternatives of reprimanding clinicians for failure to achieve consent in the course of dental practice. Dentists must appreciate this change and the prosecuting authority's increasing willingness to resort to criminal law. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  11. The Main Law Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The internal law of a State is the expression of the sovereign will of that Sate; however, thereare some features common to all law systems. The evolution of the society as a whole gave rise tointernational bodies (such as the European Union, through which the signatory countries haveassimilated certain unitary regulations in the internal law system. The origin of this law system is thelaw book of Justinian, during whose time the Roman law was codified. Thus, in the year 528 a. d.Justinian arranged the legal rules of those times in a unitary whole, adapted to the realities of those days.In our country, as per the fundamental law - the Constitution, the treaties and conventions ratified byRomania prevail in case of a conflict between them and the internal legislation regarding the humanrights.

  12. On Hack's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, Riccardo; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Maritan, Amos; Giacometti, Achille; Tarboton, David G.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    1996-11-01

    Hack's law is reviewed, emphasizing its implications for the elongation of river basins as well as its connections with their fractal characteristics. The relation between Hack's law and the internal structure of river basins is investigated experimentally through digital elevation models. It is found that Hack's exponent, elongation, and some relevant fractal characters are closely related. The self-affine character of basin boundaries is shown to be connected to the power law decay of the probability of total contributing areas at any link and to Hack's law. An explanation for Hack's law is derived from scaling arguments. From the results we suggest that a statistical framework referring to the scaling invariance of the entire basin structure should be used in the interpretation of Hack's law.

  13. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  14. Rhetoric in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas

    The bond between law and rhetoric is as old as the subjects themselves. Especially the ancient works on legal rhetoric afford, however, a too narrow depiction of the interaction between law and rhetoric as a purely instrumental discipline of communication in court. In this paper I challenge...... this narrow understanding of legal rhetoric and outline three distinct frames of understanding the relation between law and rhetoric...

  15. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DE LUCAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  16. Ocean, Technology, Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OCEANS, *LEGISLATION, USSR, NATURAL RESOURCES, CONTINENTAL SHELVES, PROTECTION, TRANSLATIONS, PRESERVATION, FISHERIES, REGULATIONS, POLLUTION, OCEAN BOTTOM, INTERNATIONAL LAW , WATERWAYS, CANALS, NORTH SEA, STRAITS, BALTIC SEA.

  17. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds...... resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study...... of comparative criminal law....

  18. Physical Guidance of Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losert, Wolfgang

    Cells migrate as individuals or groups, to perform critical functions in life from organ development to wound healing and the immune response. While directed migration of cells is often mediated by chemical or physical gradients, our recent work has demonstrated that the physical properties of the microenvironment can also control and guide migration. I will describe how an underlying wave-like process of the actin scaffolding drives persistent migration, and how such actin waves are nucleated and guided by the texture of the microenvironment. Based on this observation we design textures capable of guiding cells in a single preferred direction using local asymmetries in nano/microtopography on subcellular scales, or altering migration in other ways. This phenomenon is observed both for the pseudopod-dominated migration of Dictyostelium cells and for the lamellipod-driven migration of human neutrophils. The conservation of this mechanism across cell types suggests that actin-wave-based guidance is important in biology and physiology.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Reduced-Gyro Control Law Design, Implementation, and On-Orbit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Brian R.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Wirzburger, John H.; Smith, Daniel C.; VanArsadall, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Following gyro failures in April 2001 and April 2003, HST Pointing Control System engineers designed reduced-gyro control laws to extend the spacecraft science mission. The Two-Gyro Science (TGS) and One-Gyro Science (OGS) control laws were designed and implemented using magnetometers, star trackers, and Fine Guidance Sensors in succession to control vehicle rate about the missing gyro axes. Both TGS and OGS have demonstrated on-orbit pointing stability of 7 milli-arcseconds or less, which depends upon the guide star magnitude used by the Fine Guidance Sensor. This paper describes the design, implementation, and on-orbit performance of the TGS and OGS control law fine-pointing modes using Fixed Head Star Trackers and Fine Guidance Sensors, after successfully achieving coarse-pointing control using magnetometers.

  20. Good Times and Bad Times for Retail Trade Markets in Illinois Towns: An Evaluation of Reilly's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crihfield, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Community planners in Illinois use computer software to conduct retail trade market analyses based on Reilly's Law. Market boundaries are determined using the population of the town and neighboring town, and the distance between the two towns. The simple indices implied by Reilly's Law do not offer reliable guidance to planners. (KS)

  1. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    mineworkers' legal representation imbroglio in Madigiwana. *. This article is based on the research supported in part by the National Research Foundation of South ... circumstances are the principles of separation of powers and the rule of law whereby ..... See Gauteng Gambling Board v MEC for Economic Development,.

  2. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    Revisiting the participation of traditional leaders in municipal councils in South. Africa. MBUZENI MATHENJWA. Associate Professor of Law, University of .... control and management of the affairs of Black people. In terms of ... was that traditional leaders were no longer empowered solely on the basis of their hereditary right,.

  3. Aims and Issues in Guidance Counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Career guidance has changed in response to workplace changes, theories, and ethical, political, and social objectives. In the current world context, the central aim of guidance should be revised to assisting individuals to reach their potential by helping others to do the same. (Contains 74 references.) (SK)

  4. Vocational Guidance Requests within the International Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jane; Gillis, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the work of a diverse group of researchers and practitioners from 5 continents on "Vocational Guidance Requests Within the International Scene" presented in the discussion group at a symposium of the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance, the Society for Vocational Psychology, and the…

  5. Driving change : sustainable development action plans Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2008-01-01

    This guidance builds upon the Sustainable Development Commission’s previous guidance, Getting Started (August 2005), which set out the basic elements that the Sustainable Development Commission would expect to see in a good Sustainable Development Action Plan. Publisher PDF Original published August 2005.

  6. Guidance for performing preliminary assessments under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    EPA headquarters and a national site assessment workgroup produced this guidance for Regional, State, and contractor staff who manage or perform preliminary assessments (PAs). EPA has focused this guidance on the types of sites and site conditions most commonly encountered. The PA approach described in this guidance is generally applicable to a wide variety of sites. However, because of the variability among sites, the amount of information available, and the level of investigative effort required, it is not possible to provide guidance that is equally applicable to all sites. PA investigators should recognize this and be aware that variation from this guidance may be necessary for some sites, particularly for PAs performed at Federal facilities, PAs conducted under EPA`s Environmental Priorities Initiative (EPI), and PAs at sites that have previously been extensively investigated by EPA or others. The purpose of this guidance is to provide instructions for conducting a PA and reporting results. This guidance discusses the information required to evaluate a site and how to obtain it, how to score a site, and reporting requirements. This document also provides guidelines and instruction on PA evaluation, scoring, and the use of standard PA scoresheets. The overall goal of this guidance is to assist PA investigators in conducting high-quality assessments that result in correct site screening or further action recommendations on a nationally consistent basis.

  7. 78 FR 57450 - State Rail Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... authorized in the Act and available under the High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail program. This guidance... qualifies States to receive grants for high-speed rail only. Response: Operational information about all... Federal Railroad Administration State Rail Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA...

  8. Guidance Counsellor Strategies for Handling Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power-Elliott, Michleen; Harris, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory-descriptive study was to examine how guidance counsellors in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador would handle a specific verbal-relational bullying incident. Also of interest was guidance counsellor involvement and training in bullying programmes and Positive Behaviour Supports. Data for this study was…

  9. Guidance trajectories for aeroassisted orbital transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, A.

    1990-01-01

    Research on aerobraking guidance schemes is presented. The intent is to produce aerobraking guidance trajectories exhibiting many of the desirable characteristics of optimal aerobraking trajectories. Both one-control schemes and two-control schemes are studied. The research is in the interest of aeroassisted flight experiment vehicles (AFE) and aeroassisted orbital transfer (AOT) vehicles.

  10. SPACE LAW BIBLIOGRAPHY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Only since the end of World War II has there been a serious interest in the problems of law and activities in the upper atmosphere. Scholarly... law reviews which apply--either directly or by analogy--to man’s activities above the surface of the earth. The immediate problem is State sovereignty

  11. Climate Change Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farber, D.A.; Peeters, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together over seventy fifty authors for a comprehensive examination of the emerging global regime of climate change law. Despite the relative youth of climate change law, we can already begin to see the outlines of legal regimes addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation

  12. Haramaya Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Haramaya Law Review (HLR) publishes original scholarly works on any topic relevant to the legal community, including analysis of domestic or international laws and cases, the African Union and other international organizations, challenges and lessons from domestic practice, and original field research.

  13. Haramaya Law Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The Haramaya Law Review (HLR) publishes original scholarly works on any topic relevant to the legal community, including analysis of domestic or international laws and cases, the African Union and other international organizations, challenges and lessons from domestic practice, and original field ...

  14. Pop Goes the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school…

  15. On Kepler's First Law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 5. On Kepler's First Law - The Law of Ellipses. Shailesh A Shirali. General Article Volume 3 Issue 5 May 1998 pp 30-42. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/05/0030-0042 ...

  16. Laws of Network Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M.C. Larrosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of a social network is an issue that has been addressed based on simplifying approaches. Various value laws have been stipulated, which are largely atheoretical but have been effectively used to estimate the potential economic value of social network-based firms. This review highlights the various contributions used in the recent literature on networks valuation laws.

  17. Revising China's Environmental Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Zhang, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.; Liu, Wenling; Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    China's Environmental Protection Law (EPL) is the main national environmental legislative framework. Yet the environmental legal system is incomplete, and implementation and enforcement of environmental laws have shown major shortcomings (1–3). A controversial attempt to revise the EPL could have

  18. Law, Democracy & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution and implementation of democracy, good governance practices, human rights and socio-economic development are critical issues facing South Africa and Africa as a whole. Law interacts with this process in ways that may promote or inhibit it. Law, Democracy & Development addresses this interaction. Our aim ...

  19. Business Law, Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex; Werlauff, Erik

    be the book within your reach. We call it “Our Corporate Bible”. In an easily comprehendible way we address some of the most essential issues of business law, and provide guidelines and clarity for understanding and proper application of the legal provisions that govern business law in Europe....

  20. Teaching Information Technology Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  1. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  2. Benford's Law in Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Benford's law predicts the occurrence of the -th digit of numbers in datasets originating from various sources all over the world, ranging from financial data to atomic spectra. It is intriguing that although many features of Benford's law have been proven, it is still not fully understood mathematically. In this paper we ...

  3. Oromia Law Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Oromia Law Journal covers articles, book reviews, legislative and case comments related to legal, economic, political and social issues arising in relation to Oromia, Ethiopian, and other related International Laws. As such, the journal has two audiences-primary and secondary. The primary ones are legal professionals ...

  4. Model(ing) Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was the first and most celebrated of a wave of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) built in the 1990s designed to advance liberalism through international criminal law. Model(ing) Justice examines the case law of the ICTY...

  5. Archives: Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 20 of 20 ... Archives: Mizan Law Review. Journal Home > Archives: Mizan Law Review. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 20 of 20 Items. 2017. Vol 11, No 1 ...

  6. Social Studies: Law Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  7. [Law 6/84: "an inappropriate law"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroco, L E

    1994-01-01

    The intervention of Dr. Luis Elmano Barroco was evaluated at a meeting on March 19, 1994, on the topic of the state of abortion after 10 years of the new abortion law. Some aspects of the law of 1984 are characterized as inappropriate and inadequate because of the experience of the maternity ward of Dr. Alfredo da Costa. It was expected that in the wake of the publication of the law, official health care institutions would provide services for termination of pregnancy in accordance with legal indications. However, a survey carried out by the Association for Family Planning in July 1993 revealed that more than 50% of hospitals did not perform abortions because of the inexistence of specialized services or lack of resources or on grounds of conscientious objection. Even a revision of the abortion law does not take into consideration the fact that before 12 weeks of gestation it is difficult to precisely confirm grave lesions or the physical and psychological state of health of the pregnant woman which could be potentially life threatening. It was not taken into account either that it is impossible to diagnose definitively chromosomal aberrations, severe diseases, and fetal malformation before the 16th week. The law did not contemplate the prevailing socioeconomical conditions either that lead to clandestine abortion with high morbidity and mortality from cervical lesions, uterine perforation, infections, sepsis, and salpingitis. Prenatal diagnosis for eugenic abortion can be carried out by cytogenetic analysis of the amniotic fluid and ecography, but such diagnosis probably amounts to only 30-40% of risk cases in the whole country. A recent study by the Johns Hopkins University indicated that the chance of survival of a child born before 24 weeks is nil, therefore the limit of induced abortion should be extended to the 24th week to facilitate diagnosis of possible genetic abnormalities.

  8. 75 FR 52427 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Effect of Section 4205 of the Patient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... requirements for nutrition labeling of standard menu items for chain retail food establishments and chain... Machine Labeling Laws; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled...

  9. 75 FR 21000 - Draft Guidance for the Public, Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee Members, and Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (formerly Docket No. 02D-0049) Draft Guidance for the Public, Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee Members, and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Public...) (added by the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007, Public Law No. 110-85), and section...

  10. The incorporation of public international law into municipal law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist ...

  11. Placebo and criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerden, Jan C

    2004-01-01

    This article considers issues concerning cases where the use of placebo is lawful or is not lawful under aspects of German criminal law. It will differentiate between cases of individual therapy and cases of supervised experiments within the scope of medical tests. Thereby, it reveals that a medication of placebo with regard to an individual patient seems to be lawful if there is no alternative possibility of a better treatment using a chemically effective medicine and if the limits of presumed consent are complied with. On the other hand, in the context of the supervised experiment, the assignment of a patient to a group treated with placebo is only lawful if the patient has been fully informed about the possibilities of a treatment and if the patient has given consent to it.

  12. Ultrasound Guidance for Botulinum Neurotoxin Chemodenervation Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Katharine E; Karp, Barbara I

    2017-12-28

    Injections of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are prescribed by clinicians for a variety of disorders that cause over-activity of muscles; glands; pain and other structures. Accurately targeting the structure for injection is one of the principle goals when performing BoNTs procedures. Traditionally; injections have been guided by anatomic landmarks; palpation; range of motion; electromyography or electrical stimulation. Ultrasound (US) based imaging based guidance overcomes some of the limitations of traditional techniques. US and/or US combined with traditional guidance techniques is utilized and or recommended by many expert clinicians; authors and in practice guidelines by professional academies. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of available guidance techniques including US as well as technical aspects of US guidance and a focused literature review related to US guidance for chemodenervation procedures including BoNTs injection.

  13. Ultrasound Guidance for Botulinum Neurotoxin Chemodenervation Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine E. Alter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Injections of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs are prescribed by clinicians for a variety of disorders that cause over-activity of muscles; glands; pain and other structures. Accurately targeting the structure for injection is one of the principle goals when performing BoNTs procedures. Traditionally; injections have been guided by anatomic landmarks; palpation; range of motion; electromyography or electrical stimulation. Ultrasound (US based imaging based guidance overcomes some of the limitations of traditional techniques. US and/or US combined with traditional guidance techniques is utilized and or recommended by many expert clinicians; authors and in practice guidelines by professional academies. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of available guidance techniques including US as well as technical aspects of US guidance and a focused literature review related to US guidance for chemodenervation procedures including BoNTs injection.

  14. Integrated Backstepping Design of Missile Guidance andControl with Time delay Adaptive Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Guidance and Control with Time-delay Adaptive Scheme Seong-Min Hong 1 , Min-Guk Seo 1 , Chang-Hun Lee 2 and Min-Jea Tahk 1 1 Department...engagement kinematics are merged. Control input for the overall system is derived by backstepping approach. The stability of control logic is proved...estimated by using a time-delay adaptive control law. The performance of designed controller is investigated by numerical simulation. Keywords

  15. Diabetic Patients are often Sub-Optimally Aware about their Disease and its Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kyriazis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM represents a continuously growing worldwide threat with major financial impact on the healthcare systems. The importance of tight glycaemic control in patients with DM type II is well established and is most effectively accomplished with the proper cooperation of both the treating physicians aswell as the treated subjects.Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the level of awareness of patients with DM type II about the various aspects of DM, including the nature of the disease, its precipitating factors and complications, as well as its treatment.Methodology: The patients were asked to complete anonymously a questionnaire concerning their knowledge about diabetes, its basic pathophysiology and complications, the treatment options and possible side-effects. Data were analyzed using STATA statistical software (Version 9.0.Results: Eighty patients were on oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA, 34 on insulin while 4 were under a hybrid treatment. Among patients on OHA, 40 patients (50% were taking a combination of them. 13.4% of the sample was aware of what DM stands for, 84.9% did not know the type of DM they were suffering from, while (85.7% considered that obesity plays a major role in the pathogenesis of DM. Concerning the therapy of DM, only 54.83% of the patients were aware of the brand names of their antidiabetic medication, 88.2% did not know theirway of action, while 60.5% did not know the possible side effects. The majority of the sample, 60.5%, assumed that blood glucose should be measured only before meals.Conclusions: The knowledge of the subjects visiting the center for the first time was found to be inadequate. This is probably due to inadequate information, non-availability of educational material and improper guidance.

  16. Law, Democracy & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Julia Sloth-Nielsen (Professor and Dean of Law, University of the Western Cape) Nico Steytler (Professor of Law and Director, Community Law Centre, University of the Western Cape) Tobias van Reenen (Professor of Law, University of the Western Cape) Riekie Wandrag (Associate Professor of Law, University of the ...

  17. The Practice of Transnational Law

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Contents :"The new law merchant and the global market place" by Klaus Peter Berger, "The CENTRAL enquiry on the use of transnational law in international contract law and arbitration", "The UNIDROIT principles and transnational law" by Michael Joachim Bonell, "Examples for the practical application of transnational law", "The questionnaire and results of the CENTRAL enquiry"

  18. 76 FR 6622 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    .... Electronic Access Persons interested in obtaining a copy of the guidance may do so by using the Internet. A... the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section for information on electronic access to the guidance. Submit... determine whether to amend the guidance document. II. Significance of Guidance The guidance is being issued...

  19. Teaching American Law to French Law Students--in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Allen

    1978-01-01

    Described is the history and academic activity of the program, offered in English, to French law students, at the Center for the Study of English and American Law. The program includes instruction in law, along with English language instruction. (JMD)

  20. Pilot study on the additive effects of berberine and oral type 2 diabetes agents for patients with suboptimal glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Nicola Villanova,2 Federica Agostini,2 Rebecca Marzocchi,2 Valentina Soverini,2 Giulio Marchesini21Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milano, 2Diseases of Metabolism, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, ItalyBackground: Suboptimal glycemic control is a common situation in diabetes, regardless of the wide range of drugs available to reach glycemic targets. Basic research in diabetes is endeavoring to identify new actives working as insulin savers, use of which could delay the introduction of injectable insulin or reduce the insulin dose needed. Commonly available as a nutraceutical, berberine is a potential candidate.Methods and results: Because its low oral bioavailability can be overcome by P-glycoprotein inhibitors like herbal polyphenols, we have tested the nutraceutical combination of Berberis aristata extract and Silybum marianum extract (Berberol® in type 2 diabetes in terms of its additive effect when combined with a conventional oral regimen for patients with suboptimal glycemic control. After 90 days of treatment, the nutraceutical association had a positive effect on glycemic and lipid parameters, significantly reducing glycosylated hemoglobin, basal insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. A relevant effect was also observed in terms of liver function by measuring aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase. The product had a good safety profile, with distinctive gastrointestinal side effects likely due to its acarbose-like action.Conclusion: Although further studies should be carried out to confirm our data, Berberol could be considered a good candidate as an adjunctive treatment option in diabetes, especially in patients with suboptimal glycemic control.Keywords: berberine, silymarin, glycosylated hemoglobin, diabetes

  1. 71 FR 66576 - Notice of Availability of Guidance on Section 6002 of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-15

    ...This notice announces the availability of final guidance on the application of section 6002 of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) (Pub. L. 109-59, 119 Stat. 1144) to projects funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), or both. Section 6002 of SAFETEA-LU, which went into effect on August 10, 2005, adds requirements and refinements to the environmental review process for highway and public transportation capital projects. The section 6002 guidance describes how the FTA and FHWA will implement the new requirements within the environmental review process required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and other Federal laws. The final guidance is available at the following URL: http:// www.fta.dot.gov/environment/guidance/ for FTA and at http:// www.fhwa.dot.gov/hep/section6002/ for FHWA.

  2. Patterns of marijuana and tobacco use associated with suboptimal self-rated health among US adult ever users of marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, James; Rolle, Italia V.; Singh, Tushar; Sheree L. Boulet; McAfee, Timothy A.; Grant, Althea M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patterns of marijuana and tobacco use and their associations with suboptimal self-rated health (SRH) among US adults who reported ?ever, even once, using marijuana or hashish.? Data came from the 2009?2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, restricting to respondents aged 20 years and older who reported using marijuana at least once in their lifetime (n?=?3,210). We assessed the age-adjusted prevalence of mutually exclusive groups of...

  3. LAM add-on ADV combination therapy or ETV monotherapy for CHB patients with suboptimal response to ADV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongyu; Ding, Feng; Chen, Jianyang; Zhang, Yimin; Xiang, Dairong; Lian, Jiangshan; Zeng, Linyan; Yu, Liang; Hu, Jianhua; Li, Yongtao; Lu, Yingfeng; Liu, Yuanchun; Zheng, Lin; Li, Lanjuan; Yang, Yida

    2015-01-01

    Among the available nucleos(t)ide analogues adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) is relatively cheap and widely used in rural area in China. However, there are insufficient data on recommendation for patients with suboptimal response to ADV after 48 weeks of treatment in order to reduce the resistance rate in the long term. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of LAM add-on combination therapy versus ETV monotherapy for patients with suboptimal response to ADV. 136 patients with suboptimal response to ADV were randomly assigned to the add-on LAM with ADV combination therapy (68 patients) group and the ETV monotherapy (68 patients) group. Patients in the add-on group were prescribed 100 mg LAM and 10 mg ADV per day, while the monotherapy group received 0.5 mg ETV per day for 48 weeks. Tests for liver and kidney function, HBV serum markers, HBV DNA load, were performed every 3 months. The mean patient age in LAM add-on group and ETV monotherapy was 38.59 ± 7.65 and 37.56 ± 8.67 years respectively. The HBV DNA undetectable rate in the LAM add-on group and the ETV group were not significant difference at week 4, 12 and 24 (P > 0.05). However, the HBV undetectable rate in the ETV group was higher than that in the LAM add-on group at week 36 and 48 (P = 0.043 for week 36 and P = 0.038 for week 48). There was no significant difference both for HBeAg loss and HBeAg seroconversion between two groups (P > 0.05) at 48 weeks. Meanwhile, our study also demonstrated that the mean eGFR levels in LAM add-on group was decreased from 99.6 ± 8.71 at baseline to 86.4 ± 9.83 at the end of 48 weeks, which was significantly higher than that in the ETV monotherapy group (P add-on group experienced eGFR reduction by 20-30% from baseline at 48 weeks. No patients developed hyposphosphatemia in our study. Our study clearly showed that switch to ETV monotherapy was the more effective and more safe than that of LAM add-on combination therapy for patients with suboptimal response

  4. Rootstock Sub-Optimal Temperature Tolerance Determines Transcriptomic Responses after Long-Term Root Cooling in Rootstocks and Scions of Grafted Tomato Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Georgia Ntatsi; Dimitrios Savvas; Vassilis Papasotiropoulos; Anastasios Katsileros; Zrenner, Rita M.; Hincha, Dirk K.; Ellen Zuther; Dietmar Schwarz

    2017-01-01

    Grafting of elite cultivars onto tolerant rootstocks is an advanced strategy to increase tomato tolerance to sub-optimal temperature. However, a detailed understanding of adaptive mechanisms to sub-optimal temperature in rootstocks and scions of grafting combinations on a physiological and molecular level is lacking. Here, the commercial cultivar Kommeet was grafted either onto ‘Moneymaker’ (sensitive) or onto the line accession LA 1777 of Solanum habrochaites (tolerant). Grafted plants were ...

  5. Risk factors and morbidity associated with suboptimal instrument placement at instrumental delivery: observational study nested within the Instrumental Delivery & Ultrasound randomised controlled trial ISRCTN 72230496.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphul, M; Kennelly, M M; Burke, G; Murphy, D J

    2015-03-01

    To identify risk factors and morbidity associated with suboptimal instrument placement at instrumental delivery. Observational study, nested within a randomised controlled trial. Two university-affiliated maternity hospitals. A cohort of 478 nulliparous women at term (≥37 weeks of gestation) undergoing instrumental delivery. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Risk factors for suboptimal application of vacuum or forceps, maternal and neonatal morbidity, and the sequential use of instruments, second operator, and caesarean section following failed instrumental delivery. Instrument placement was suboptimal in 138 of 478 (28.8%) deliveries. Factors associated with suboptimal instrument placement included fetal malposition (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.62-3.66), mid-cavity station (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.02-2.78), and forceps as the primary instrument (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.33-3.04). Compared with optimal instrument placement, suboptimal placement was associated with prolonged hospital stay (adjusted OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.30-4.02) and neonatal trauma (adjusted OR 4.25, 95% CI 1.85-9.72). Suboptimal placement was associated with a greater use of sequential instruments (adjusted OR 3.99, 95% CI 1.94-8.23) and caesarean section for failed instrumental delivery (adjusted OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.10-13.16). The mean decision to delivery interval (DDI) was 4 minutes longer in the suboptimal group (95% CI 2.1-5.9 minutes). Suboptimal instrument placement is associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidity and procedural complications. Greater attention should be focused on instrument placement when training obstetricians for instrumental delivery. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Launch ascent guidance by discrete multi-model predictive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Alexandre; Desbiens, André; Gagnon, Eric; Bérard, Caroline

    2014-02-01

    This paper studies the application of discrete multi-model predictive control as a trajectory tracking guidance law for a space launcher. Two different algorithms are developed, each one based on a different representation of launcher translation dynamics. These representations are based on an interpolation of the linear approximation of nonlinear pseudo-five degrees of freedom equations of translation around an elliptical Earth. The interpolation gives a linear-time-varying representation and a linear-fractional representation. They are used as the predictive model of multi-model predictive controllers. The controlled variables are the orbital parameters, and constraints on a terminal region for the minimal accepted precision are also included. Use of orbital parameters as the controlled variables allows for a partial definition of the trajectory. Constraints can also be included in multi-model predictive control to reduce the number of unknowns of the problem by defining input shaping constraints. The guidance algorithms are tested in nominal conditions and off-nominal conditions with uncertainties on the thrust. The results are compared to those of a similar formulation with a nonlinear model predictive controller and to a guidance method based on the resolution of a simplified version of the two-point boundary value problem. In nominal conditions, the model predictive controllers are more precise and produce a more optimal trajectory but are longer to compute than the two-point boundary solution. Moreover, in presence of uncertainties, developed algorithms exhibit poor robustness properties. The multi-model predictive control algorithms do not reach the desired orbit while the nonlinear model predictive control algorithm still converges but produces larger maneuvers than the other method.

  7. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross......-border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law....

  8. Russian Law and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fishman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Law of the University of Helsinki is committed to diverse and internationally collaborative approaches to studying various legal systems in the context of comparative law, and UHLS and the Law Faculty of the National Research University, Higher School of Economics have developed an ongoing program to undertake this effort. The original annual conference series on the Development of Russian Law was launched in 2008 as an initiative to further knowledge and critical thinking about Russian law during its period of transition and modernization. The conference is held annually and brings together legal practitioners and scholars from Russia, Finland and elsewhere to discuss important matters of Russian law, legal reform, and legal practice. Prior years’ Conference themes have included discussions of legal reforms, the justice system, the Russian legal profession, human rights, civil and business law, legal policy, rule-of-law and market economy.This year’s program was designed to attract law faculty, scholars from different disciplines, and also practicing lawyers, to address a wide range of topics grouped around the general theme of how the phenomenon and challenges of globalization affect Russian legal system development. The call for papers included: (i Relationships between Russian domestic and international law, (ii The impacts of international legal institutions on the development of Russian law(s, (iii Globalization in the field of business law, (iv Global law & Russian legal theory, (v Regional models of legal cooperation and Russia’s participation, (vi Transnational legal problems in areas such as constitutionalism and rule-of-law, (vii Theoretical and applied implications of the concept of global transplants, and (viii A global human rights agenda, including Russia’s place in this agenda.This was a very ambitious and multi-faceted undertaking. Through a process of careful evaluation, the Conference organizers produced

  9. Development of a digital automatic control law for steep glideslope capture and flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, N.

    1977-01-01

    A longitudinal digital guidance and control law for steep glideslopes using MLS (Microwave Landing System) data is developed for CTOL aircraft using modern estimation and control techniques. The control law covers the final approach phases of glideslope capture, glideslope tracking, and flare to touchdown for automatic landings under adverse weather conditions. The control law uses a constant gain Kalman filter to process MLS and body-mounted accelerometer data to form estimates of flight path errors and wind velocities including wind shear. The flight path error estimates and wind estimates are used for feedback in generating control surface commands. Results of a digital simulation of the aircraft dynamics and the guidance and control law are presented for various wind conditions.

  10. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  11. Gauging Newton's law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wheeler, James T

    2007-01-01

    .... Applying this principle to Newton's law with the simplest measurement theory leads to Lagrangian mechanics, while use of conformal measurement theory leads to Hamiltonian mechanics.PACS Nos.: 45.20.Jj, 11.25.Hf, 45.10...

  12. Teaching Criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sandy

    1989-01-01

    Presents learning activities and resources for teaching senior level criminal law courses. Topics covered include arrest, search and seizure, bail, trial procedures, sentencing, and prisons. Objective is to encourage students to address societal issues. (LS)

  13. Environmental and energy law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makuch, Karen E; Pereira, Ricardo, Dr

    2012-01-01

    "Environmental & Energy Law attempts to bridge the knowledge gap between legal developments designed to achieve environmental and/or energy-related objectives and the practical, scientific and technical...

  14. The "Natural Law Tradition."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnis, John

    1986-01-01

    A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

  15. European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph

    This fully updated new edition provides the best-known practical overview of the law regarding companies, business activities, and capital markets in Europe, at both the European Union (EU) and Member State levels. It incorporates analysis of recent developments including the impact of global......; - a company’s freedom to incorporate in a jurisdiction not its own; - competition among the legal forms of different Member States; and - safeguarding of employee involvement in cross-border transactions. With respect to national law, the laws of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  16. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Transit Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  17. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Highway Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  18. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  19. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Aviation Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  20. Euthanasia and criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Pletková, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    71 8. Summary- Euthanasia and criminal law Euthanasia is often regarded as a controversial topic that is being discussed all around the world. The legislative rules differ among the countries to various extent. The scope of this work is to offer a summary of legal regulations in euthanasia, particulary in the area of criminal law and a several examples of these regulations in Europe, USA and Australia. In the first chapter, the term of euthanasia is defined which is necessary for the purpose ...

  1. Constitutionalization of Peruvian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Landa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutionalizaton of Law’s different areas is a phenomenon gradually more ingrained in our cultural and legal framework. Maybe the best demonstration is the increasingly prominent role of the Constitutional Court (TC – Constitution’s Supreme Interpreter – in defining and redefining concepts, rights and legal principles touching a range of subjects, from TaxLaw to Human Rights. This is relevant to understand the Law and its current effects whether it is valued positively or negatively.

  2. Autonomous landing guidance system validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Long Q.; Franklin, Michael R.; Taylor, Christopher; Neilson, Graham

    1997-06-01

    ALG is a combination of raster imaging sensor, head-up displays, flight guidance and procedures which allow pilots to perform hand flown aircraft maneuvers in adverse weather, at night, or in low visibility conditions at facilities with minimal or no ground aids. Maneuvers in the context of ALG relate to takeoff, landing, rollout, taxi and terminal parking. Commercial needs are driven by potential revenue savings since today only 43 Type III and 80 Type II instrumented landing system (ILS) runway ends in the United States are equipped for lower minimum flight operations. Additionally, most of these ILS facilities are clustered at major gateway airports which further impacts on dispatch authority and general ATC regional delays. Infrastructure consists to upgrade additional runways must not only account for the high integrity ground instrumentation, but also the installation of lights and markers mandated for Cat III operations. The military services ability to train under realistic battlefield conditions, to project power globally in support of national interests, while providing humanitarian aid, is significantly impaired by the inability to conduct precision approaches and landings in low visibility conditions to either instrumented runways or to a more tactical environment with operations into and out of unprepared landing strips, particularly when time does not permit deployment of ground aids and the verification of their integrity. Recently, Lear Astronics, in cooperation with Consortium members of the ALG Program, concluded a flight test program which evaluated the utility of the ALG system in meeting both civil and military needs. Those results are the subject of this paper.

  3. Guidance of magnetic space tug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabacher, Emilien; Lizy-Destrez, Stéphanie; Alazard, Daniel; Ankersen, Finn; Profizi, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic tugging of a target satellite without thrust capacity can be interesting in various contexts, as for example End-Of-Life management, or to complete launchers capabilities. The aim is to gradually modify the orbit of the target by constantly exerting on it a magnetic force. To do so, the chaser is assumed equipped with a steerable magnetic dipole, able to create both forces and torques on the magnetic torque rods carried by the target. The chaser is also supposed to carry electric thrusters, creating a continuous force which modifies the orbit of the whole formation composed of chaser and target. The relative motions of both satellites are derived, in order to assess the feasibility of such a concept. Relative configuration (attitudes and position) trajectories are derived, which are compliant with the dynamics, and enable the chaser to tug the target. Considering targets in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), the magnetic field of the Earth is taken into account, modeled by the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). The position of the magnetic torque rod of the target may not be located at its center of mass. This lever-arm is taken into account in the dynamics. As for every Electro-Magnetic Formation Flight concept developed in the literature, satellites involved in magnetic tugging are constantly subjected to torques, created by the Earth magnetic field and by the magnetic fields created by the other satellites in the formation. In this study, the solution chosen to face this problem is to take into account the attitude equilibrium of the satellites early in the guidance phase, in order to avoid having to wave the dipole, as it is generally done. Promising results are presented for different types of orbit, showing that the concept could be feasible in many different scenarios.

  4. Treatment of advanced colorectal cancer in a patient with cardiotoxic reactions to 5-fluorouracil and capecitabine using suboptimal doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Joseph H; Estes, Derek J; Florou, Vaia; Ardalan, Bach

    2017-11-27

    A 32-year-old female with stage IV colorectal cancer and metastasis to the liver experienced cardiotoxic reactions after treatment with 5-fluorouracil and its oral prodrug capecitabine even at two-thirds the recommended dose. After careful considerations, the decision was made to attempt capecitabine retrial at a further suboptimal dose with combination chemotherapy where she no longer experienced cardiac events. As a result, the liver tumour shrank and rectal mass stabilised, tumour markers dropped and she underwent surgical resection of both masses. Later there was local recurrence of disease near the previous liver tumour, so the suboptimal capecitabine therapy was restarted without complaint. The patient became a candidate for a NanoKnife procedure, offering a potentially curative therapy. This case report summarises a novel treatment strategy for those patients with advanced colorectal cancer who experience cardiotoxic reactions to fluoropyrimidines, the active agent of gold standard treatment. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Optimal and Suboptimal Finger Selection Algorithms for MMSE Rake Receivers in Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Mung

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of choosing the optimal multipath components to be employed at a minimum mean square error (MMSE selective Rake receiver is considered for an impulse radio ultra-wideband system. First, the optimal finger selection problem is formulated as an integer programming problem with a nonconvex objective function. Then, the objective function is approximated by a convex function and the integer programming problem is solved by means of constraint relaxation techniques. The proposed algorithms are suboptimal due to the approximate objective function and the constraint relaxation steps. However, they perform better than the conventional finger selection algorithm, which is suboptimal since it ignores the correlation between multipath components, and they can get quite close to the optimal scheme that cannot be implemented in practice due to its complexity. In addition to the convex relaxation techniques, a genetic-algorithm- (GA- based approach is proposed, which does not need any approximations or integer relaxations. This iterative algorithm is based on the direct evaluation of the objective function, and can achieve near-optimal performance with a reasonable number of iterations. Simulation results are presented to compare the performance of the proposed finger selection algorithms with that of the conventional and the optimal schemes.

  6. Application of the tuning algorithm with the least squares approximation to the suboptimal control algorithm for integrating objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzishchin, V. F.; Merzlikina, E. I.; Van Va, Hoang

    2017-11-01

    The problem of PID and PI-algorithms tuning by means of the approximation by the least square method of the frequency response of a linear algorithm to the sub-optimal algorithm is considered. The advantage of the method is that the parameter values are obtained through one cycle of calculation. Recommendations how to choose the parameters of the least square method taking into consideration the plant dynamics are given. The parameters mentioned are the time constant of the filter, the approximation frequency range and the correction coefficient for the time delay parameter. The problem is considered for integrating plants for some practical cases (the level control system in a boiler drum). The transfer function of the suboptimal algorithm is determined relating to the disturbance that acts in the point of the control impact input, it is typical for thermal plants. In the recommendations it is taken into consideration that the overregulation for the transient process when the setpoint is changed is also limited. In order to compare the results the systems under consideration are also calculated by the classical method with the limited frequency oscillation index. The results given in the paper can be used by specialists dealing with tuning systems with the integrating plants.

  7. Tuber melanosporum spread within sub-optimal climatic zones is controlled by fruiting triggers and not mycorrhiza survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuber melanosporum is the most valuable of all cultivatable truffle species. Farming of this species spans every continent with the exception of Antarctica. Tuber aestivum (syn. T. uncinatum and Tuber brumale are truffle species that have similar host plant preference and a similar affinity for calcareous soils as T. melanosporum, but occur over a broader geographic zone. The geographic limit of T. melanosporum is thought to be climatically dictated but it is not known whether this is due to an impact on mycorrhizal survival or climatically-derived fruiting triggers. Here, data is compiled from five cultivated research sites in the climatically sub-optimal conditions of the UK in order to address this question. Here we show: (iTuber melanosporum mycorrhiza can survive and grow in sub-optimal climatic conditions. (iiIt is climatically-derived fruiting triggers and not ectomycorrhiza survival that dictate the climatic preferences and geographic spread of T. melanosporum. (iiiImportant climatic parameters for potential fruiting triggers are sunshine hours, summer rainfall and summer temperatures.   The data presented here not only aid our understanding of the ecological parameters of T. melanosporum but also have a practical application for truffle cultivators in choosing suitable locations for a plantation.

  8. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  9. Surface Water Treatment Rules State Implementation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    These documents provide guidance to states, tribes and U.S. EPA Regions exercising primary enforcement responsibility under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The documents contain EPA’s recommendations for implementation of the Surface Water Treatment Rules.

  10. Space guidance evolution - A personal narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, R. H.

    1982-04-01

    The history of space guidance and navigation begins in the early 1950s when the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory was chosen to provide a self-contained guidance system backup for the new Atlas intercontinental ballistic missile. Computing developments during the 1950s are considered, taking into account the construction of the all-electronic digital computer at MIT in the early 1950s, the first algebraic compiler, and the design of an algebraic programming language. Attention is given to the Delta guidance method, the Q-system which was first implemented on the Thor IRBM, and the symmetry of the Q matrix. The effect of the launch of Sputnik on computational developments related to space guidance applications is discussed. A NASA study contract made it possible to continue work which had begun under Air Force auspices. Work related to Mars probe navigation is considered along with developments related to the race to the moon.

  11. USACE Fiscal Year 2001, Consolidated Command Guidance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The CCG is a single document which for the past several years has presented a summary of USACE's strategic direction, resource guidance, and performance requirements for the upcoming fiscal year and outyears...

  12. Children and Crises: A Classroom Guidance Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, John; Anderson, Eileen

    1986-01-01

    Describes a guidance project designed to help children develop skills to cope with crisis. Discusses understanding the crisis, being aware of changing thoughts and feelings, and using coping strategies and behaviors. (ABB)

  13. RCRA Programmatic Information Policy and Guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes program policy and guidance documents that are used by the EPA regions, states, tribes and private parties to implement the hazardous waste...

  14. Responsible Purchasing Network - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  15. European Union Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  16. The Industrial User Permitting Guidance Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides guidance for control authorities to effectively develop and issue control mechanisms to IUs discharging to the POTW and covers developing and implementing control mechanisms for both SIUs and non-SIUs.

  17. Hydrostatic Reduction of Intussusception under Ultrasound Guidance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrostatic Reduction of Intussusception under Ultrasound Guidance: An Initial Experience in a Developing Country. O M Atalabi, O O Ogundoyin, D I Ogunlana, O M Onasanya, T A Lawal, A S Olarinoye ...

  18. Marriage guidance counselling in a group practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, G N; Barr, J

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the work of a marriage guidance cousellor in a group-practice centre. The considerable advantages to patient, doctor, and counsellor of her close association with the primary medical care team are discussed.

  19. General RMP Guidance - Appendix E: Supplemental Risk Management Program Guidance for Ammonia Refrigeration Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Additional information for food processors, food distributors, refrigerated warehouses, and any other facility with ammonia refrigeration system. Includes guidance on exemptions, threshold quantity, offsite consequence analysis.

  20. Natural Law And Civil Law in John Locke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hessmann Dalaqua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the relationship between natural law and civil law in John Locke’s philosophy. Although renowned scholars have claimed that such a relationship is deductive, this paper will try to show a different interpretation and argue that the relationship between civil law and natural law is one of determination. Far from being a mere deduction of an immutable natural law, civil law plays a determinative role in natural law. As we shall see, this interpretation highlights something that Locke held in high regard: the deliberative character of natural law. Citizens’ deliberation in the legislature to some extent creates natural law. Citizens are thus free to determine the law, and participating in such a determination is crucial to their political liberty. In this sense, as we shall explain, Locke’s political liberty is akin to republicanism.

  1. Path Following Control of the Underactuated USV Based On the Improved Line-of-Sight Guidance Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Tao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The path following control problem of the underactuated unmanned surface vessel (USV is studied in this paper. An improved line-of-sight (LOS guidance algorithm is proposed which can adjust adaptively based on the path following error. The global asymptotically stable path following controller is designed based on the nonlinear backstepping method and the Lyapunov stability theory. Firstly, the USV path following error model is established in the Serret-Frenet (SF coordinate frame. The path following error in the inertial coordinate frame is transformed into the SF coordinate frame, which is used to define the path following control problem. Secondly, inspired by the traditional LOS guidance algorithm, the longitudinal path following error in the SF coordinate frame is introduced into the improved LOS guidance algorithm. This allows the algorithm to adjust adaptively to the desired path. Thirdly, in order to solve the underactuated problem of the USV path following control system, the tangential velocity of the desired path is designed as a virtual input. The underactuated problem is converted to a virtual fully actuated problem by designing the virtual control law for the tangential velocity. Finally, by combining backstepping design principles and the Lyapunov stability theory, the longitudinal thrust control law and the yaw torque control law are designed for the underactuated USV. Meanwhile, the global asymptotic stability of the path following error is proved. Simulation experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the improved LOS guidance algorithm and the path following controller.

  2. Ethics and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Katherine; Jiwani, Bashir; Steele, Duncan

    2017-12-01

    Health care providers' interpretation of law can have intended and unintended effects on health care delivery in Canada. At times, health care providers encounter situations where they perceive the law to conflict with their sense of what is most ethically justified. In many cases, these health care providers feel especially torn because they assume that the legal requirements must dictate the decision, and cannot be explored or questioned. We challenge this assumption: the law is not as cut-and-dried as some assume; therefore, its significance to health care decisions should be carefully considered. Within a systematic ethics process, legal considerations can be a source of values and information and can create opportunities for further dialogue. This approach is justified because it appropriately reflects the relationship of the law to ethics. This way of thinking about the law and ethics also avoids potentially harmful consequences of legalistic approaches to decision-making, such as breakdowns in communication, adversarial relationships, and a reduction of ethically complex decisions to simple rule following.

  3. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  4. Traditional Chinese medicine and new concepts of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine in diagnosis and treatment of suboptimal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Russell, Alyce; Yan, Yuxiang

    2014-02-13

    The premise of disease-related phenotypes is the definition of the counterpart normality in medical sciences. Contrary to clinical practices that can be carefully planned according to clinical needs, heterogeneity and uncontrollability is the essence of humans in carrying out health studies. Full characterization of consistent phenotypes that define the general population is the basis to individual difference normalization in personalized medicine. Self-claimed normal status may not represent health because asymptomatic subjects may carry chronic diseases at their early stage, such as cancer, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Currently, treatments for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) are implemented after disease onset, which is a very much delayed approach from the perspective of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM). A NCD pandemic will develop and be accompanied by increased global economic burden for healthcare systems throughout both developed and developing countries. This paper examples the characterization of the suboptimal health status (SHS) which represents a new PPPM challenge in a population with ambiguous health complaints such as general weakness, unexplained medical syndrome (UMS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS) and chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS). We applied clinical informatic approaches and developed a questionnaire-suboptimal health status questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25) for measuring SHS. The validity and reliability of this approach were evaluated in a small pilot study and then in a cross-sectional study of 3,405 participants in China. We found a correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol among men, and a correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides

  5. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII.

  6. Aligning the Effective Use of Student Data with Student Privacy and Security Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnick, Steve; Coleman, Art; Palmer, Scott; Lipper, Kate; Neiditz, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This legal and policy guidance provides a summary framework for state policymakers as they work to use longitudinal data to improve student achievement while also protecting the privacy and security of individual student records. Summarizing relevant federal privacy and security laws, with a focus on the Family Educational Records and Privacy Act…

  7. Labour Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ole

    9. Inventions by Employees Chapter 10. Settlement of Disputes Part II. Collective Labour Relations Chapter 1. Trade Union Freedom Chapter 2. Trade Unions and Employers’ Associations Chapter 3. Institutionalised Relations between Employers and Employees Chapter 4. Collective Bargaining Chapter 5......Table of Contents: The Author List of Abbreviations General Introduction Chapter 1. General Background Chapter 2. Definitions and Notions Chapter 3. Historical Background Chapter 4. Role of Government Institutions in the Shaping and Administration of Labour and Industrial Relations Policy Chapter 5....... Sources of Labour Law Chapter 6. International Private Labour Law – Conflicts of Law Selected Bibliography Part I. The Individual Employment Relation Chapter 1. Definitions and Concepts Chapter 2. Rights and Duties of the Parties during Employment Chapter 3. Working Time, Annual Holidays, Public Holidays...

  8. Non-Participation in Guidance: An Opportunity for Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how new opportunities for guidance can emerge from an analysis of the interplay between the participation (or lack of participation) of the individuals in career guidance, and the career guidance practitioner's response. The article suggests critical psychology as a framework for career guidance research and presents…

  9. The trespasses of property law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify a limit to the appropriate application of property law to the use and storage of bodily material. I argue here that property law ought to be limited to protecting 'contingent rights' and that recent cases where property rights have been recognised in semen represent the application of property law beyond this limit. I also suggest how the law ought to develop in order to avoid the overextensive use of property law.

  10. Consumer perception and preference for suboptimal food under the emerging practice of expiration date based pricing in supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Consumers have been found to majorly prefer ‘optimal’ food over ‘suboptimal’ when purchasing food. To provide an incentive for consumers to select suboptimal food and thus decrease food waste in the supply chain, expiration date based pricing is suggested and increasingly applied. However......, individual preferences, and product-related factors. An online survey experiment among 842 Danish consumers realistically mimicked the current market context. Findings reveal that neither communicating budget saving or food waste avoidance nor the product being organic has an influence. However......, there is a gender effect when the practice is communicated as a food waste avoidance action. Consumer’s familiarity with the practice has a significant influence, as has the individual giving importance to the price criterion, age, and education. Food category differences are explored, showing that familiarity...

  11. Adjustment of Eculizumab Dosage Pattern in Patients with Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome with Suboptimal Response to Standard Treatment Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camino García Monteavaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS, complement blocking by eculizumab rapidly halts the process of thrombotic microangiopathy and it is associated with clear long-term hematologic and renal improvements. Eculizumab treatment consists of a 4-week initial phase with weekly IV administration of 900 mg doses, followed by a maintenance phase with a 1,200 mg dose in the fifth week and every 14±2 days thereafter. We present three patients with aHUS and suboptimal response to eculizumab treatment at the usual administration dosage who showed hematologic and renal improvements after an adjustment in the eculizumab treatment protocol.

  12. LEARNING SKILLS AS PART CONTENT MASTERY SERVICE IN GUIDANCE COUNSELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Umami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrack: This paper aimed to get the profile of efforts of guidance teachers in improving students’ learning skills. It is hoped that this papaer is useful for guidance teachers, subject teachers and student as well in improving their learning skills. The learning skill quality of the students was low while their learning problems were on medium level. Guidance given by guidance teachers to students to master learning skills was not yet optimal. There was cooperation among teachers and guidance teachers but it was still limited to physics teachers and it had skills came from both guidance teachers and students themselves. Keywords: guidance teachers, learning skill, students.

  13. Hardship in Bulgarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya TSONEVA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the legal treatment of hardship(change of circumstances in Bulgarian law trying to show where it stands in comparison with other legislations (Germany, England, USA and international legal instruments (Unidroit Principles on International Commercial Contracts and Principles of European Contract Law. An overall picture of the different approaches to hardship is concisely presented. Hardship prerequisites and effects are analyzed with a stress on specific problems identified in some recent Bulgarian court decisions. Attention is drawn to certain. concepts and reasoning in other legal systems that may be helpful to Bulgarian theory and practice when dealing with hardship cases.

  14. Back-stepping active disturbance rejection control design for integrated missile guidance and control system via reduced-order ESO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingling, Shao; Honglun, Wang

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel composite integrated guidance and control (IGC) law for missile intercepting against unknown maneuvering target with multiple uncertainties and control constraint. First, by using back-stepping technique, the proposed IGC law design is separated into guidance loop and control loop. The unknown target maneuvers and variations of aerodynamics parameters in guidance and control loop are viewed as uncertainties, which are estimated and compensated by designed model-assisted reduced-order extended state observer (ESO). Second, based on the principle of active disturbance rejection control (ADRC), enhanced feedback linearization (FL) based control law is implemented for the IGC model using the estimates generated by reduced-order ESO. In addition, performance analysis and comparisons between ESO and reduced-order ESO are examined. Nonlinear tracking differentiator is employed to construct the derivative of virtual control command in the control loop. Third, the closed-loop stability for the considered system is established. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed IGC law in enhanced interception performance such as smooth interception course, improved robustness against multiple uncertainties as well as reduced control consumption during initial phase are demonstrated through simulations. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Launch flexibility using NLP guidance and remote wind sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Evin J.; Bradt, Jerre E.; Hardtla, John W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the use of lidar wind measurements in the implementation of a guidance strategy for a nonlinear programming (NLP) launch guidance algorithm. The NLP algorithm uses B-spline command function representation for flexibility in the design of the guidance steering commands. Using this algorithm, the guidance system solves a two-point boundary value problem at each guidance update. The specification of different boundary value problems at each guidance update provides flexibility that can be used in the design of the guidance strategy. The algorithm can use lidar wind measurements for on pad guidance retargeting and for load limiting guidance steering commands. Examples presented in the paper use simulated wind updates to correct wind induced final orbit errors and to adjust the guidance steering commands to limit the product of the dynamic pressure and angle-of-attack for launch vehicle load alleviation.

  16. Two Liters a Day Keep the Doctor Away? Considerations on the Pathophysiology of Suboptimal Fluid Intake in the Common Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Florian; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Lemetais, Guillaume; Melander, Olle

    2017-01-01

    Suboptimal fluid intake may require enhanced release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin for the maintenance of adequate hydration. Enhanced copeptin levels (reflecting enhanced vasopressin levels) in 25% of the common population are associated with enhanced risk of metabolic syndrome with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, vascular dementia, cognitive impairment, microalbuminuria, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and premature mortality. Vasopressin stimulates the release of glucocorticoids which in turn up-regulate the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). Moreover, dehydration upregulates the transcription factor NFAT5, which in turn stimulates SGK1 expression. SGK1 is activated by insulin, growth factors and oxidative stress via phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 and mTOR. SGK1 is a powerful stimulator of Na+/K+-ATPase, carriers (e.g. the Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter NKCC, the NaCl cotransporter NCC, the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3, and the Na+ coupled glucose transporter SGLT1), and ion channels (e.g. the epithelial Na+ channel ENaC, the Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ channel Orai1 with its stimulator STIM1, and diverse K+ channels). SGK1 further participates in the regulation of the transcription factors nuclear factor kappa-B NFκB, p53, cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), activator protein-1, and forkhead transcription factor FKHR-L1 (FOXO3a). Enhanced SGK1 activity fosters the development of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, thrombosis, stroke, inflammation including inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune disease, cardiac fibrosis, proteinuria, renal failure as well as tumor growth. The present brief review makes the case that suboptimal fluid intake in the common population may enhance vasopressin and glucocorticoid levels thus up-regulating SGK1 expression and favouring the development of SGK1 related

  17. Hyperplastic obesity and liver steatosis as long-term consequences of suboptimal in vitro culture of mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonia; Decara, Juan M; Fernández-González, Raúl; López-Cardona, Angela P; Pavón, Francisco J; Orio, Laura; Alen, Francisco; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we identify and describe an obese phenotype in mice as a long-term consequence of a suboptimal in vitro culture that resulted from the addition of fetal calf serum (FCS) into the culture medium. Mice produced with FCS displayed a high mortality rate (approximately 55% versus 15% in control mice within 20 mo) and increased sensitivity to the development of obesity in adulthood when fed either a standard or a high-fat diet. These mice developed hyperplastic obesity that was characterized by a significant expansion of the fat pads (approximately 25% and 32% higher body weight in male and female mice over controls, respectively) with unchanged adipocyte size. We observed a sexual dimorphism in the development of obesity in the mice produced with FCS. Whereas the female mice displayed hypertension, hyperleptinemia, and fatty liver, the male mice only displayed glucose intolerance. The mRNA expression of metabolically relevant genes in the adipose tissue was also affected. The males produced with FCS expressed higher mRNA levels of the genes that activate fatty acid oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha [Ppara, PPARalpha] and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 [Acox1, ACOX1]) and thermogenesis (uncoupling protein 1 [Ucp1, UCP1]), which may counteract the metabolic phenotype. Conversely, the females produced with FCS generally expressed lower levels of these metabolic genes. In the females, the obese phenotype was associated with inhibition of the lipogenic pathway (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma [Pparg, PPARgamma] and fatty acid synthase [Fasn, FAS]), indicating a saturation of the storage capacity of the adipose tissue. Overall, our data indicate that the exposure to suboptimal in vitro culture conditions can lead to the sexually dimorphic development of obesity in adulthood. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  18. Sickness presenteeism predicts suboptimal self-rated health and sickness absence: a nationally representative study of the Swedish working population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Taloyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have suggested that sickness presenteeism (SP may be a risk factor for future health problems. The purpose of the present study was to test this in a nationally representative prospective study of Swedish workers. METHODS: Prospective cohort with a representative sample of the Swedish working population surveyed in 2008 and 2010. Odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Those who reported more than 7 days of SP had higher risk of suboptimal SRH compared to those who reported no SP (OR = 5.95; 95% CI 4.98-7.12, also after adjustment for confounders (OR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.30-2.06. Those who reported 1-7 days of SP also had an increased risk before and after adjustments. Inclusion of self-rated physical and psychological work capacity did not attenuate the associations, whereas of emotional exhaustion attenuated the ORs to non-significance for both outcomes, indicating that the health consequences associated with SP are largely related to mental health. CONCLUSION: The results strengthen earlier findings suggesting that SP can be a risk factor for future suboptimal general health and sickness absence, particularly through mental health problems. This indicates that asking about SP could yield important information for employers, occupational health practitioners and GPs, possibly leading to more timely intervention that could decrease the risk of future sickness absence and more serious health problems, especially in the mental domain. Further studies of the possible causal pathways between SP and future health development are also warranted, especially since going to work is often seen as desirable also for those with poor health.

  19. Sickness Presenteeism Predicts Suboptimal Self-Rated Health and Sickness Absence: A Nationally Representative Study of the Swedish Working Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taloyan, Marina; Aronsson, Gunnar; Leineweber, Constanze; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Alexanderson, Kristina; Westerlund, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Background Earlier studies have suggested that sickness presenteeism (SP) may be a risk factor for future health problems. The purpose of the present study was to test this in a nationally representative prospective study of Swedish workers. Methods Prospective cohort with a representative sample of the Swedish working population surveyed in 2008 and 2010. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Results Those who reported more than 7 days of SP had higher risk of suboptimal SRH compared to those who reported no SP (OR = 5.95; 95% CI 4.98–7.12), also after adjustment for confounders (OR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.30–2.06). Those who reported 1–7 days of SP also had an increased risk before and after adjustments. Inclusion of self-rated physical and psychological work capacity did not attenuate the associations, whereas of emotional exhaustion attenuated the ORs to non-significance for both outcomes, indicating that the health consequences associated with SP are largely related to mental health. Conclusion The results strengthen earlier findings suggesting that SP can be a risk factor for future suboptimal general health and sickness absence, particularly through mental health problems. This indicates that asking about SP could yield important information for employers, occupational health practitioners and GPs, possibly leading to more timely intervention that could decrease the risk of future sickness absence and more serious health problems, especially in the mental domain. Further studies of the possible causal pathways between SP and future health development are also warranted, especially since going to work is often seen as desirable also for those with poor health. PMID:22984547

  20. Two Liters a Day Keep the Doctor Away? Considerations on the Pathophysiology of Suboptimal Fluid Intake in the Common Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Lang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Suboptimal fluid intake may require enhanced release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin for the maintenance of adequate hydration. Enhanced copeptin levels (reflecting enhanced vasopressin levels in 25% of the common population are associated with enhanced risk of metabolic syndrome with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, vascular dementia, cognitive impairment, microalbuminuria, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and premature mortality. Vasopressin stimulates the release of glucocorticoids which in turn up-regulate the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1. Moreover, dehydration upregulates the transcription factor NFAT5, which in turn stimulates SGK1 expression. SGK1 is activated by insulin, growth factors and oxidative stress via phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 and mTOR. SGK1 is a powerful stimulator of Na+/K+-ATPase, carriers (e.g. the Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter NKCC, the NaCl cotransporter NCC, the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3, and the Na+ coupled glucose transporter SGLT1, and ion channels (e.g. the epithelial Na+ channel ENaC, the Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ channel Orai1 with its stimulator STIM1, and diverse K+ channels. SGK1 further participates in the regulation of the transcription factors nuclear factor kappa-B NFκB, p53, cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB, activator protein-1, and forkhead transcription factor FKHR-L1 (FOXO3a. Enhanced SGK1 activity fosters the development of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, thrombosis, stroke, inflammation including inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune disease, cardiac fibrosis, proteinuria, renal failure as well as tumor growth. The present brief review makes the case that suboptimal fluid intake in the common population may enhance vasopressin and glucocorticoid levels thus up-regulating SGK1 expression and favouring the development of SGK1

  1. Regulating Listed Companies: Between Company Law and Financial Market Law in Danish Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nis Jul

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law.......The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law....

  2. Free movement of companies under company law, tax law and EU law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neville, Mette; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2001-01-01

    Free movement of companies whereby they either transfers their de facto head office or their registered office from one member state to another is regulated by both company law, tax law and EU law. The interplay between these areas of law are analysed to determine whether such transfers are posible....

  3. 78 FR 56752 - Interim Staff Guidance Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... activities associated with review of applications for ESPs, design certifications, and COLs by the Office of... comment on, draft Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) ESP/COL-ISG-027, ``Interim Staff Guidance Specific..., early site permits (ESPs), and combined licenses (COLs). DATES: Submit comments by October 15, 2013...

  4. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document provides guidance for the implementation of the requirements identified in DOE-STD-6002-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Requirements. This guidance is intended for the managers, designers, operators, and other personnel with safety responsibilities for facilities designated as magnetic fusion facilities. While the requirements in DOE-STD-6002-96 are generally applicable to a wide range of fusion facilities, this Standard, DOE-STD-6003-96, is concerned mainly with the implementation of those requirements in large facilities such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Using a risk-based prioritization, the concepts presented here may also be applied to other magnetic fusion facilities. This Standard is oriented toward regulation in the Department of Energy (DOE) environment as opposed to regulation by other regulatory agencies. As the need for guidance involving other types of fusion facilities or other regulatory environments emerges, additional guidance volumes should be prepared. The concepts, processes, and recommendations set forth here are for guidance only. They will contribute to safety at magnetic fusion facilities.

  5. Automated low-thrust guidance for the orbital maneuvering vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Richard E.; Schmeichel, Harry; Shortwell, Charles P.; Werner, Ronald A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the highly autonomous OMV Guidance Navigation and Control system. Emphasis is placed on a key feature of the design, the low thrust guidance algorithm. The two guidance modes, orbit change guidance and rendezvous guidance, are discussed in detail. It is shown how OMV will automatically transfer from its initial orbit to an arbitrary target orbit and reach a specified rendezvous position relative to the target vehicle.

  6. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...

  7. Setting the Law Straight:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enabulele_&_ Bazuaye

    other State or international organisation can claim protection over such a national for events that occurred within the territory of the State.1 Indeed it is now a rule of practical relevance, following the notable case of Jurisdiction of the Courts of Danzig,. 2 that a State could confer international law benefits on individuals by ...

  8. Panarchy and the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Ruhl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Panarchy theory focuses on improving theories of change in natural and social systems to improve the design of policy responses. Its central thesis is that successfully working with the dynamic forces of complex adaptive natural and social systems demands an active adaptive management regime that eschews optimization approaches that seek stability. This is a new approach to resources management, and yet no new theory of how to do things in environmental and natural resources management, particularly one challenging entrenched ways of doing things and the interests aligned around them, is likely to gain traction in practice if it cannot gain traction in the form of endorsement and implementation through specific laws and regulations. At some point, that bridge must be crossed or the enterprise of putting panarchy theory into panarchy practice will stall. Any effort to operationalize panarchy theory through law thus comes up against the mission of law to provide social stability and the nature of law itself as a complex adaptive system. To state the problem in another way, putting panarchy theory into practice will require adaptively managing the complex adaptive legal system to adaptively manage other complex adaptive natural and social systems, all in a way that maintains some level of social order. Panarchy theorists have yet to develop an agenda for doing so. It is time for lawyers to join the team.

  9. Family Law Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-11

    void ab initio: those which are knowingly bigamous, and those which are "incestuous" (i.e., within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity and...fourth degree of consanguinity ; marriages between parties having a lawful spouse living. § 42.0101. Also, under Samoan custom, women do not marry men

  10. Confidentiality and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealander, Karen A.; Schwiebert, Valerie L.; Oren, Thomas A.; Weekley, Jean L.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces issues surrounding confidentiality in the schools, and the laws that govern and protect students, teachers, and school counselors. Maintains that although impossible for school counselors to be fully aware of all legal principles affecting their work, it is essential that they continually seek to stay abreast of changes in legal and…

  11. Essentials of WTO law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prévost, Denise; Van den Bossche, Peter

    2016-01-01

    At a time when developments in WTO law have made this field increasingly complex, this concise and non-technical introduction provides a timely and carefully considered overview of the substantive rules and institutional arrangements of the WTO. Illustrative examples clarify important issues of the

  12. | Yilma | Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Likewise, the applicability of patent laws to the digital environment and the patentability of software-related inventions are contentious. This article briefly deals with these issues. Also addressed in this article are issues relating to Ethiopias roles in the global Internet governance ecosystem, and the extent to which Ethiopian ...

  13. Law and Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe; Tamm, Ditlev

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to the field of law and literature in Denmark and a legal and literary reading of one of the Western world’s first crime stories, The Pastor of Vejlbye, written by the Danish writer, Steen Steensen Blicher, in 1829. This is a story that is based on a true case...

  14. Constitutionalization of environmental law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Huerta Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how Environmental Law can take intoconsideration some of fundamental rights study categories, by a constitutional point of view, particularly the right to a balanced and appropriate environment recognized in article 2, paragraph 22 of the 1993 Peruvian Constitution in order to develop policies oriented to implementation of constitutional legal status for environment rights and property.

  15. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  16. Competition Law in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Raj; Cynthia Lian; Wen-Ly Chin

    2015-01-01

    There is still some way for Malaysia to go and the lack of merger control (for the foreseeable future) remains a significant shortcoming in the Malaysian competition law regime at this stage. Anand Raj, Cynthia Lian, & Wen-Ly Chin (Shearn Delamore & Co., Kuala Lumpur)

  17. Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muradu_Abdo

    The state is trying to meet these rising demands through two main routes. The first is through invoking .... population, and they have registered recent economic growth that has enhanced the demand for land which .... investors.16 For example, the predecessor of the Expropriation Proclamation, that is, the expropriation law ...

  18. Does Divorce Law Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Mariotti, Marco; Manzini, Paola; Fella, Giulio

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we derive an explicit model of negotiations between spouses when utility is (partially) transferable only in case of separation. We show that inefficient separation may occur in equilibrium even under consensual divorce law. This provides theoretical support for the view that changes in social norms rather than in legislation may be responsible for increasing divorce rates.

  19. Charles's Law- -The Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, CB

    1989-01-01

    Errors in the teaching of the concepts of Charles's Law are traced back through history to a major French physics text published in 1816. Relevant original sources are quoted and remedies are suggested. Five major criticisms are summarized. (Author/CW)

  20. Laws of emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Laws of Emotion is an accessible new book that reviews much of the insightful new research on emotions conducted over the last ten years. It expands on the theory of emotions introduced in Nico Frijda's earlier work, and addresses a number of unanswered, basic problems on emotion theory. The

  1. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  2. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  3. Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review publishes peer reviewed scholarly articles that identify, examine, explore and analyze legal and related principles, stipulations and concepts based on research findings. Mizan's articles aim at interpretation, description, exploration and diagnosis towards the solution of problems (or legal issues) ...

  4. Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muradu_Abdo

    Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law. Muradu Abdo ♧. Abstract. Ethiopia is increasingly using expropriation as the single most important device to take land particularly from small landholders to supply it to corporate farmers and industrialists with a declared intention of boosting economic growth. This is happening in the ...

  5. Nanoplasmonics beyond Ohm's law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger; Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren

    2012-01-01

    -of-motion that goes beyond the common local-response approximation and use of Ohm's law as the central constitutive equation. The electron gas is treated within a semi-classical hydrodynamic model with the emergence of a new intrinsic length scale. We briefly review the new governing wave equations and give examples...

  6. High Prevalence of Suboptimal Vitamin D Status and Bone Loss in Adult Short Bowel Syndrome Even After Weaning Off Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shengxian; Ni, Xiaodong; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Yongliang; Tao, Shen; Kong, Wencheng; Li, Yousheng; Li, Jieshou

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have noticed the high incidence of suboptimal vitamin D (VtD) status and bone loss in short bowel syndrome (SBS) with parenteral nutrition (PN) dependence. However, limited data have focused on adult SBS without PN dependence. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of suboptimal VtD status and bone loss in adult SBS even after weaning off PN. We performed a prospective study of 60 adult patients with SBS. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Medical records and various laboratory parameters were collected in all participants. Suboptimal VtD status was identified in all individuals, including 3 (5.0%) with VtD insufficiency and 57 (95.0%) with VtD deficiency. Residual small bowel length (B, 0.072, P = .001) and duration of SBS (B, -0.066, P = .020) were both significantly correlated with suboptimal VtD levels. Overall, only 2 patients presented a normal BMD; osteopenia and osteoporosis were noted in 41 (68.3%) and 17 (28.3%) individuals, respectively. Low 25-OHD concentration was associated with a decreased BMD (B, 0.065, P = .029). There were no other demographic characteristics or clinical examinations associated with suboptimal VtD levels and bone loss. Suboptimal VtD status and bone loss were common in adult SBS even after weaning off PN. Despite routine oral VtD supplementation, most patients did not achieve satisfactory status. This emphasizes the critical importance of routine surveillance of 25-OHD and BMD, as well as consideration of alternative methods of supplementation after weaning off PN.

  7. High T-cell immune activation and immune exhaustion among individuals with suboptimal CD4 recovery after 4 years of antiretroviral therapy in an African cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colebunders Robert

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART partially corrects immune dysfunction associated with HIV infection. The levels of T-cell immune activation and exhaustion after long-term, suppressive ART and their correlation with CD4 T-cell count reconstitution among ART-treated patients in African cohorts have not been extensively evaluated. Methods T-cell activation (CD38+HLA-DR+ and immune exhaustion (PD-1+ were measured in a prospective cohort of patients initiated on ART; 128 patient samples were evaluated and subcategorized by CD4 reconstitution after long-term suppressive treatment: Suboptimal [median CD4 count increase 129 (-43-199 cells/μl], N = 34 ], optimal [282 (200-415 cells/μl, N = 64] and super-optimal [528 (416-878 cells/μl, N = 30]. Results Both CD4+ and CD8 T-cell activation was significantly higher among suboptimal CD4 T-cell responders compared to super-optimal responders. In a multivariate model, CD4+CD38+HLADR+ T-cells were associated with suboptimal CD4 reconstitution [AOR, 5.7 (95% CI, 1.4-23, P = 0.014]. T-cell exhaustion (CD4+PD1+ and CD8+PD1+ was higher among suboptimal relative to optimal (P P = 0.022]. Conclusion T-cell activation and exhaustion persist among HIV-infected patients despite long-term, sustained HIV-RNA viral suppression. These immune abnormalities were associated with suboptimal CD4 reconstitution and their regulation may modify immune recovery among suboptimal responders to ART.

  8. Onboard guidance system design for reusable launch vehicles in the terminal area energy management phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lingxia; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Y. M.; Li, Ping; Wang, Xinmin

    2018-02-01

    A terminal area energy management (TAEM) guidance system for an unpowered reusable launch vehicle (RLV) is proposed in this paper. The mathematical model representing the RLV gliding motion is provided, followed by a transformation of extracting the required dynamics for reference profile generation. Reference longitudinal profiles are conceived based on the capability of maximum dive and maximum glide that a RLV can perform. The trajectory is obtained by iterating the motion equations at each node of altitude, where the angle of attack and the flight-path angle are regarded as regulating variables. An onboard ground-track predictor is constructed to generate the current range-to-go and lateral commands online. Although the longitudinal profile generation requires pre-processing using the RLV aerodynamics, the ground-track prediction can be executed online. This makes the guidance scheme adaptable to abnormal conditions. Finally, the guidance law is designed to track the reference commands. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed guidance scheme is capable of guiding the RLV to the desired touchdown conditions.

  9. New trends in astrodynamics and applications: optimal trajectories for space guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, Dilmurat; Bishop, Robert

    2005-12-01

    This paper represents recent results on the development of optimal analytic solutions to the variation problem of trajectory optimization and their application in the construction of on-board guidance laws. The importance of employing the analytically integrated trajectories in a mission design is discussed. It is assumed that the spacecraft is equipped with a power-limited propulsion and moving in a central Newtonian field. Satisfaction of the necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality of trajectories is analyzed. All possible thrust arcs and corresponding classes of the analytical solutions are classified based on the propulsion system parameters and performance index of the problem. The solutions are presented in a form convenient for applications in escape, capture, and interorbital transfer problems. Optimal guidance and neighboring optimal guidance problems are considered. It is shown that the analytic solutions can be used as reference trajectories in constructing the guidance algorithms for the maneuver problems mentioned above. An illustrative example of a spiral trajectory that terminates on a given elliptical parking orbit is discussed.

  10. Compensatory Measures in European Nature Conservation Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Van Hoorick

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Birds and Habitats Directives are the cornerstones of EU nature conservation law, aiming at the conservation of the Natura 2000 network, a network of protected sites under these directives, and the protection of species. The protection regime for these sites and species is not absolute: Member States may, under certain conditions, allow plans or projects that can have an adverse impact on nature. In this case compensatory measures can play an important role in safeguarding the Natura 2000 network and ensuring the survival of the protected species.This contribution analyses whether taking compensatory measures is always obligatory, and discusses the aim and the characteristics of compensatory measures, in relation to other kinds of measures such as mitigation measures, usual nature conservation measures, and former nature development measures, and to the assessment of the adverse impact caused by the plan or project and of the alternative solutions. The questions will be discussed in light of the contents of the legislation, the guidance and practice by the European Commission, (legal doctrine and case law, mainly of the Court of Justice of the European Union.

  11. Legal Epidemiology: The Science of Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Tara; Hulkower, Rachel; Holbrook, Joseph; Penn, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    The importance of legal epidemiology in public health law research has undoubtedly grown over the last five years. Scholars and practitioners together have developed guidance on best practices for the field, including: placing emphasis on transdisciplinary collaborations; creating valid, reliable, and repeatable research; and publishing timely products for use in decision-making and change. Despite the energy and expertise researchers have brought to this important work, they name significant challenges in marshalling the diverse skill sets, quality controls, and funding to implement legal epidemiology activities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has worked to develop cross-cutting research and translation on issues of national priority in legal epidemiology, and has explored ways to overcome some of these challenges. As such, this article describes a case study of the use of law to characterize states' prior authorization policies regarding medication used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a central component of a broader effort to improve behavior therapy options for young children with ADHD. This article highlights the types of legal epidemiology work we have undertaken, the application of this work to an emerging public health problem, and the lessons learned in creating impactful research for the field.

  12. Rootstock Sub-Optimal Temperature Tolerance Determines Transcriptomic Responses after Long-Term Root Cooling in Rootstocks and Scions of Grafted Tomato Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntatsi, Georgia; Savvas, Dimitrios; Papasotiropoulos, Vassilis; Katsileros, Anastasios; Zrenner, Rita M; Hincha, Dirk K; Zuther, Ellen; Schwarz, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    Grafting of elite cultivars onto tolerant rootstocks is an advanced strategy to increase tomato tolerance to sub-optimal temperature. However, a detailed understanding of adaptive mechanisms to sub-optimal temperature in rootstocks and scions of grafting combinations on a physiological and molecular level is lacking. Here, the commercial cultivar Kommeet was grafted either onto 'Moneymaker' (sensitive) or onto the line accession LA 1777 of Solanum habrochaites (tolerant). Grafted plants were grown in NFT-system at either optimal (25°C) or sub-optimal (15°C) temperatures in the root environment with optimal air temperature (25°C) for 22 days. Grafting onto the differently tolerant rootstocks caused differences in shoot fresh and dry weight, total leaf area and dry matter content of roots, in stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 and guaiacol peroxidase activity but not in net photosynthesis, sugar, starch and amino acid content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity. In leaves, comparative transcriptome analysis identified 361 differentially expressed genes (DEG) responding to sub-optimal root temperature when 'Kommeet' was grafted onto the sensitive but no when grafted onto the tolerant rootstock. 1509 and 2036 DEG responding to sub-optimal temperature were identified in LA 1777 and 'Moneymaker' rootstocks, respectively. In tolerant rootstocks down-regulated genes were enriched in main stress-responsive functional categories and up-regulated genes in cellulose synthesis suggesting that cellulose synthesis may be one of the main adaptation mechanisms to long-term sub-optimal temperature. Down-regulated genes of the sensitive rootstock showed a similar response, but functional categories of up-regulated genes pointed to induced stress responses. Rootstocks of the sensitive cultivar Moneymaker showed in addition an enrichment of up-regulated genes in the functional categories fatty acid desaturation, phenylpropanoids, biotic stress, cytochrome P

  13. Rootstock Sub-Optimal Temperature Tolerance Determines Transcriptomic Responses after Long-Term Root Cooling in Rootstocks and Scions of Grafted Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Ntatsi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Grafting of elite cultivars onto tolerant rootstocks is an advanced strategy to increase tomato tolerance to sub-optimal temperature. However, a detailed understanding of adaptive mechanisms to sub-optimal temperature in rootstocks and scions of grafting combinations on a physiological and molecular level is lacking. Here, the commercial cultivar Kommeet was grafted either onto ‘Moneymaker’ (sensitive or onto the line accession LA 1777 of Solanum habrochaites (tolerant. Grafted plants were grown in NFT-system at either optimal (25°C or sub-optimal (15°C temperatures in the root environment with optimal air temperature (25°C for 22 days. Grafting onto the differently tolerant rootstocks caused differences in shoot fresh and dry weight, total leaf area and dry matter content of roots, in stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 and guaiacol peroxidase activity but not in net photosynthesis, sugar, starch and amino acid content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity. In leaves, comparative transcriptome analysis identified 361 differentially expressed genes (DEG responding to sub-optimal root temperature when ‘Kommeet’ was grafted onto the sensitive but no when grafted onto the tolerant rootstock. 1509 and 2036 DEG responding to sub-optimal temperature were identified in LA 1777 and ‘Moneymaker’ rootstocks, respectively. In tolerant rootstocks down-regulated genes were enriched in main stress-responsive functional categories and up-regulated genes in cellulose synthesis suggesting that cellulose synthesis may be one of the main adaptation mechanisms to long-term sub-optimal temperature. Down-regulated genes of the sensitive rootstock showed a similar response, but functional categories of up-regulated genes pointed to induced stress responses. Rootstocks of the sensitive cultivar Moneymaker showed in addition an enrichment of up-regulated genes in the functional categories fatty acid desaturation, phenylpropanoids

  14. EPA guidance mental health care of migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhugra, D; Gupta, S; Schouler-Ocak, M

    2014-01-01

    Migration is an increasingly commonplace phenomenon for a number of reasons. People migrate from rural to urban areas or across borders for reasons including economic, educational or political. There is increasing recent research evidence from many countries in Europe that indicates that migrants...... levels. In this guidance document, we briefly present the evidence and propose that specific measures must be taken to improve and manage psychiatric disorders experienced by migrants and their descendants. This improvement requires involvement at the highest level in governments. This is a guidance...

  15. Algorithm of trajectory guidance of a planning unmanned flight vehicle to a ground target providing the guidance in case the final conditions of guidance are given

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Г. Водчиць

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  In the article are obtained the mathematical relations which allow to implement algorithm of trajectory guidance of a unmanned flight vehicle to a ground target providing the guidance in case the final conditions of guidance are given.

  16. Women's right to health and Ireland's abortion laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Maeve

    2015-07-01

    The provision of the Irish Constitution that guarantees "the unborn" a right to life equal to that of a pregnant woman has consequences for access to abortion and the care of women in pregnancy generally. Long-awaited legislation to give effect to the narrow constitutional right to abortion was enacted into law in 2013. In 2014, a guidance document for health professionals' implementation of the legislation was published. However, the legislation and guidance document fall far short of international human rights bodies' recommendations: they fail to deliver effective procedural rights to all of the women eligible for lawful abortion within the state and create new legal barriers to women's reproductive rights. At the same time, cases continue to highlight that the Irish Constitution imposes an unethical and rights-violating legal regime in non-abortion-related contexts. Recent developments suggest that both the failure to put guidelines in place and the development of guidelines that are not centered on women or based on rights further reduce women's access to rights and set unacceptable limitations on women's reproductive autonomy. Nevertheless, public and parliamentary scrutiny of cases involving Ireland's abortion laws is increasingly focusing on the need for reform. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The evolution of behavior guidance: a history of professional, practice, corporate and societal influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, David M

    2014-01-01

    Behavior guidance in pediatric dentistry is a composite of influences including expert opinion, historical precedent, scientific studies, and social factors including the law and the media. The early icons of pediatric dentistry injected their personal views on child management, and those often reflected the child-rearing norms of the times. The business of pediatric dentistry with its efficiency and quality orientations also shaped approaches to behavior management. Scientific studies contributed minimally. A major influence on behavior guidelines in recent years has been external scrutiny of techniques prompted by media and other exposure of both private practice and corporate management of children. Changing parenting and reaction of society to authority have also had significant impact on behavior. This paper describes in more detail the evolution of behavior guidance and the subsequent codification of practices into professionally derived guidelines.

  18. Communication Services and Supports for Individuals With Severe Disabilities: Guidance for Assessment and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Nancy C; Bruce, Susan; Goldman, Amy; Erickson, Karen; Mineo, Beth; Ogletree, Bill T; Paul, Diane; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose; Siegel, Ellin; Schoonover, Judith; Snell, Marti; Sylvester, Lorraine; Wilkinson, Krista

    2016-03-01

    The National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of People With Severe Disabilities (NJC) reviewed literature regarding practices for people with severe disabilities in order to update guidance provided in documents originally published in 1992. Changes in laws, definitions, and policies that affect communication attainments by persons with severe disabilities are presented, along with guidance regarding assessment and intervention practices. A revised version of the Communication Bill of Rights, a powerful document that describes the communication rights of all individuals, including those with severe disabilities is included in this article. The information contained within this article is intended to be used by professionals, family members, and individuals with severe disabilities to inform and advocate for effective communication services and opportunities.

  19. Is Law science? | Roos | Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question this contribution sets out to address is whether or not law can be regarded as a science. This notion is readily accepted by many, yet it is submitted that a proper theoretical justification for such an assumption is usually missing. The traditional primary sources of law, South African case law and legislation, ...

  20. Harmonising the Fragmented Law of Transport Through Soft Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G.M. Smeele (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis contribution raises the question of whether it is possible to bridge the divide between the various unimodal regimes and to develop a general law of transport. It explores also the role that soft law, such as in the form of a project to draw up Principles of Transport Contract Law,

  1. Vermont Law School's Unique Master of Studies in Environmental Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suagee, Dean B.

    2003-01-01

    Vermont Law School offers a 1-year master of studies in environmental law for which the only prerequisite is a bachelor's degree. A fellowship program waives tuition and provides stipends for American Indians taking the program. Courses on federal Indian law complement the program. The Native community at nearby Dartmouth College provides social…

  2. The Interplay between international law and labour law in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the interplay between labour law and international law in the context of the diplomatic employment relationship. The overriding effect of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 as supreme law to protect the labour rights of employees is weighed against the effect of various binding ...

  3. International health law : an emerging field of public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This article discusses the nature and scope of international health law as an emerging field of public international law. It is argued that the protection of health reflects a pressing social need that should now be spoken of in the vocabulary of international law. Furthermore, there is an urgent

  4. Suboptimal enhancer sequences are required for efficient bovine leukemia virus propagation in vivo: implications for viral latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merezak, C; Pierreux, C; Adam, E; Lemaigre, F; Rousseau, G G; Calomme, C; Van Lint, C; Christophe, D; Kerkhofs, P; Burny, A; Kettmann, R; Willems, L

    2001-08-01

    Repression of viral expression is a major strategy developed by retroviruses to escape from the host immune response. The absence of viral proteins (or derived peptides) at the surface of an infected cell does not permit the establishment of an efficient immune attack. Such a strategy appears to have been adopted by animal oncoviruses such as bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV). In BLV-infected animals, only a small fraction of the infected lymphocytes (between 1 in 5,000 and 1 in 50,000) express large amounts of viral proteins; the vast majority of the proviruses are repressed at the transcriptional level. Induction of BLV transcription involves the interaction of the virus-encoded Tax protein with the CREB/ATF factors; the resulting complex is able to interact with three 21-bp Tax-responsive elements (TxRE) located in the 5' long terminal repeat (5' LTR). These TxRE contain cyclic AMP-responsive elements (CRE), but, remarkably, the "TGACGTCA" consensus is never strictly conserved in any viral strain (e.g.,AGACGTCA, TGACGGCA, TGACCTCA). To assess the role of these suboptimal CREs, we introduced a perfect consensus sequence within the TxRE and showed by gel retardation assays that the binding efficiency of the CREB/ATF proteins was increased. However, trans-activation of a luciferase-based reporter by Tax was not affected in transient transfection assays. Still, in the absence of Tax, the basal promoter activity of the mutated LTR was increased as much as 20-fold. In contrast, mutation of other regulatory elements within the LTR (the E box, NF-kappa B, and glucocorticoid- or interferon-responsive sites [GRE or IRF]) did not induce a similar alteration of the basal transcription levels. To evaluate the biological relevance of these observations made in vitro, the mutations were introduced into an infectious BLV molecular clone. After injection into sheep, it appeared that all the recombinants were infectious in vivo and did not revert

  5. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  6. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  7. Psychoanalysis and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Morris N

    The paper discusses Freud's view of the law as the implementation of collective violence on the individual violator. I focus on the implications of the link between the superego (as the source of moral judgment) and the aggressive drive and suggest that we need to be ever vigilant regarding the danger of employing the law as a disguised means of taking pleasure in collective violence. The paper also discusses Freud's conception of personal responsibility, according to which we are responsible for all our behavior, including unconsciously motivated behavior (such as slips and dreams). However, the kind of responsibility Freud has in mind is not the moral responsibility of blameworthiness or praiseworthiness, but rather responsibility in the sense that, whether or not acknowledged, all our behavior reflects our personal desires and motives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... food law does not address the grey area directly. Whereas the responsibility for the prevention or mitigation of food safety risks rests, in principle, with food operators, the main responsibility for the avoidance of non-safety health threats is placed with consumers, who are expected to make informed...... and rational dietary choices on the basis of the food information provided on food labels or generally available in society. In recent years, the EU legislative has shown increased commitment to further empower consumers in pace with the advancement of modern manufacturing and advertising techniques...

  9. Bayes and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes' theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law.

  10. [Euthanasia in Muslim law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud

    2007-09-01

    If a physician accepts to conduct an act of euthanasia or assisted suicide, would it be possible for him to be charged with homicide or even, is patient consent or motivation of the physician, susceptible to change the nature of the criminal act? Since the 1990s, a transformation has occurred in the way of dealing with these questions and figures from the world of philosophy, ethics and law can now be found in favor of euthanasia and assisted suicide. In certain countries, legislation has even been modified to follow this pattern. In consequence, besides the philosophical and ethical dimensions of this issue, it has become necessary to reexamine, even to revise, the notion of responsibility concerning euthanasia in Muslim law from new bases constituted by the doctrine of the Ulemas.

  11. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU......This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... food law does not address the grey area directly. Whereas the responsibility for the prevention or mitigation of food safety risks rests, in principle, with food operators, the main responsibility for the avoidance of non-safety health threats is placed with consumers, who are expected to make informed...

  12. Application of Grazing-Inspired Guidance Laws to Autonomous Information Gathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    the information gradient and physics-inspired repulsion between agents to overcome this scalability constraint. An alternative to the odds-based...in all cases and hence omitted. In the lawnmower approach, each agent was attracted to a point 100m ahead of itself along its assigned track using the...consensus for multiagent systems with directed topologies and nonlinear dynamics,” Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics, IEEE Transac- tions

  13. Bank-to-Turn Cruise Missile Terminal Guidance and Control Law Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    ml td C) acl 34 z ft/secq SSS(CL /2mU55)/ Z= E5 C~ /1 ft/sec M u = TSSS6,(CM u+2C MSS )/I YUS 1/ft sec M cc= S SqC M /I 1/sec 2 M= SSS320/21 YYUS 1...e - * ft NQ.Lu . 11.4\\~ If GO cO3 -4o a *-L3 N a f -101 e. - JJju - fmlnlQ lm 1 . - 3 It I(’D0 no -t %0 1 -4 wn ,nU~z.5 tn..04oi*. -UNO t’ aN00 % Jeb ...Z(3 s(3U NO- x1_- f- x J-Ji1( .1 .Ji ZOO- 4 (3 (3 coo3(3 %M4 ot-00: .44x 4C. LZ.cce 3 -.. 0.3’C=Q 44JL tD ~ce qx _14*. Ne- cM44 Z- x Z. *3a OLJ CL

  14. Hardware in the Loop Implementation of Adaptive Vision Based Guidance Law for Ground Target Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. NPS Small UAV, Sig Rascal ................................................................. 2 Figure 2. Conceptual...NPS) to build a Vision Based Target Tracking (VBTT) simulator system in a laboratory environment. Figure 1. NPS Small UAV, Sig Rascal This

  15. Optimal Fixed-Interval Integrated Guidance-Control Laws for Hit-to-Kill Missiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menon, P. K; Sweriduk, G. D; Ohlmeyer, E. J

    2003-01-01

    Due to their potential for reducing the weapon size and efficiency, design methods for realizing hit-to- kill capabilities in missile systems are of significant research interest in the missile flight control community...

  16. Law, Ethics, and Conversations between Physicians and Patients about Firearms in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Alexander D; Vernick, Jon S

    2018-01-01

    Firearms in the home pose a risk to household members, including homicide, suicide, and unintentional deaths. Medical societies urge clinicians to counsel patients about those risks as part of sound medical practice. Depending on the circumstances, clinicians might recommend safe firearm storage, temporary removal of the firearm from the home, or other measures. Certain state firearm laws, however, might present legal and ethical challenges for physicians who counsel patients about guns in the home. Specifically, we discuss state background check laws for gun transfers, safe gun storage laws, and laws forbidding physicians from engaging in certain firearm-related conversations with their patients. Medical professionals should be aware of these and other state gun laws but should offer anticipatory guidance when clinically appropriate. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Community Notification Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Defense, or the U.S. Government ABSTRACT Speck, Michael Booth; M.S.; Department of Criminal Justice; College of Arts , Humanities, and Social Sciences...Department of Criminal Justice; College of Arts , Humanities, and Social Sciences; North Dakota State University; December 2007. Community Notification Laws...be applied to pedophiles with a long history of sexual offending and should occur concurrently with other treatment therapies ( psychoanalysis and

  18. Ethics and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  19. Behavioral Law & Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nieborak

    2012-01-01

    Issues concerning the regulation aspects of financial markets are not simple. One of the reasons for this is that a great number of detailed factors have an effect, for example, the trust of the consumers of financial services or their behavior. The paper analyses the most important of them, and issues related to them, from a legal point of view, with the main objective of presenting the basic assumptions of the behavioral Law & Economics theorem. Dynamic development of financial markets and ...

  20. Criminal Law Study Guide (Revision)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the Naval Justice School Lawyer Course in Military Criminal Law is to prepare Military attorneys to develop competent legal analyses and Solutions to substantive criminal law problems...

  1. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  2. 75 FR 76011 - Annual Guidance Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ..., Early Clinical Trials With Live Outreach and Development, Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Center for... topic categories. II. Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) ] Title/topic of guidance... Intended for Evaluation and Research (HFM- Transfusion or for Further Manufacture 40), Food and Drug...

  3. Cannabinoid receptor CB2 modulates axon guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duff, Gabriel; Argaw, Anteneh; Cecyre, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Navigation of retinal projections towards their targets is regulated by guidance molecules and growth cone transduction mechanisms. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo evidences that the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) is expressed along the retino-thalamic pathway and exerts a modulatory action ...

  4. Guidance on Port Biological Baseline Surveys (PBBS)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Awad, A.; Haag, F.; Anil, A.C.; Abdulla, A.

    This publication has been prepared by GBP, IOI, CSIR-NIO and IUCN in order to serve as guidance to those who are planning to carry out a port biological baseline survey, in particular in the context of Ballast Water Management. It has been drafted...

  5. Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling (TNJGC) (ISSN 0794-0831) is published annually by the Department of Counsellor Education, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. The journal publishes well researched and well articulated papers/articles on all issues relating to counselling and applied psychology which ...

  6. Children and Crises: A Developmental Guidance Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, John; Anderson, Eileen

    This paper describes a developmental guidance program on the topic of children and crises from kindergarten through grade eight. Many crises that children may deal with are discussed, including accidents, illness, death of a loved one, family problems, and moving. A crisis education response program developed and initiated to facilitate an…

  7. Guidance for performing site inspections under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This guidance presents EPA`s site inspection (SI) strategy. The strategy discusses procedural guidelines to investigate potential Superfund (CERCLA) sites for evaluation pursuant to the Hazard Ranking System (HRS), revised in accordance with the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The HRS is the primary means by which EPA evaluates sites for superfund`s National Priorities List (NPL).

  8. Stressor Identification Guidance Document | Science Inventory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has made availabile the Stressor Identification Guidance Document (EPA 822-B-00-025) published under the authority of Section 304(a)(2) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). This technical guidance document is designed to assist water quality managers in identifying unknown causes of biological impairments in any type of water body. Section 101(a) of the Clean Water Act states that it is the objective of the Act to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. To achieve this objective, numerous States and Tribes are using biological assessments and biocriteria to help protect the Nation's waters. Using these tools, State and Tribal water quality experts are finding water bodies where the fish, invertebrate, algae or plant communities (or other aquatic life) have been detrimentally impacted by different singular or multiple causes. In many cases, the cause, or causes, of these biological impairments have not yet been identified. The Stressor Identification Guidance Document provides a logical, scientific process by which State, Tribal, and other water quality experts can evaluate available information to identify the stressor(s) causing the biological impairments. The process has three main steps: (1) List candidate causes of impairment, (2) analyze the evidence, and (3) characterize the causes. When evidence is adequate, using this guidance, investigators should be able to successfully identify the likely cause, or ca

  9. Teacher trainees' appraisal of guidance and counselling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study appraised the guidance and counselling services in Colleges of Education in Ghana. Four research questions were posed to direct the study. The evaluation research design was used whilst a multi – stage sampling procedure was employed to select a sample of 185 students. A 40–item questionnaire with ...

  10. Bridge over troubled water: Guidance crosses | Amundson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is based on a keynote presentation at an international conference where the focus was cross-over career guidance. Simon and Garfunkel's popular song, "Bridge over troubled water", was used as a metaphor for exploring the cross-over theme. Some of the concepts under consideration included the working ...

  11. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1290.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK... ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.7 Additional guidance. (a) A government agency, office, or entity includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act, all current, past...

  12. Practical Law in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melinda, Ed.

    This book was written for teachers and students as a New Mexico supplement to "Street Law: A Course in Practical Law" (West Publishing Company, 1980), a text used in many high school law classes. The book may also be used as a teacher and student resource for civics, government, and other courses in the high school curriculum, or lay…

  13. Immigration Law & the American Dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrini, Michelle, Ed.; Parins, Claire, Ed.; Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine is designed to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on immigration law and the American Dream. It includes 11 articles: (1) "U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization" (P. Martin; S. Martin)…

  14. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  15. A novel tool to assess available hydrological information and the occurrence of sub-optimal water allocation decisions in large irrigation districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaune, Alexander; Werner, Micha; Rodríguez, Erasmo; Karimi, Poolad; Fraiture, de Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Hydrological information on water availability and demand is vital for sound water allocation decisions in irrigation districts, particularly in times of water scarcity. However, water allocation decisions are often taken based on uncertain hydrological information, which may lead to sub-optimal

  16. Sensor-augmented pump therapy lowers HbA(1c) in suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes; a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanides, J.; Nørgaard, K.; Bruttomesso, D.; Mathieu, C.; Frid, A.; Dayan, C. M.; Diem, P.; Fermon, C.; Wentholt, I. M. E.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; DeVries, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of sensor-augmented pump therapy vs. multiple daily injection therapy in patients with suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes. In this investigator-initiated multi-centre trial (the Eurythmics Trial) in eight outpatient centres in Europe, we randomized 83 patients with

  17. The effect of plant-based diet and suboptimal environmental conditions on digestive function and diet-induced enteropathy in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosberian-Tanha, P.; Schrama, J.W.; Landsverk, T.; Mydland, L.T.; Øverland, M.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment investigated intestinal enteropathy and digestive function of rainbow trout challenged with soybean meal-based diet (SBM) at optimal or suboptimal environments created by normal or reduced water flow, respectively. Oxygen level remained above 7 mg L-1 for optimal environment and

  18. Physician, organizational, and patient factors associated with suboptimal blood pressure mManagement in Type 2 diabetic patients in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaars, CF; Denig, P; Kasje, WN; Stewart, RE; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM

    OBJECTIVE - To assess the quality of hypertension care in patients with type 2 diabetes in general practice and identify physician, organizational, and patient factors associated with suboptimal care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Data from 895 randomly selected diabetic patients were extracted from

  19. Effects of feeding frequency on apparent energy and nutrient digestibility/availability of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, reared at optimal and suboptimal temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effects of feeding frequency (daily versus every other day [EOD]) on nutrient digestibility/availability of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, reared at optimal (30 C) and suboptimal (24 C) temperatures. A 28% protein practical diet was used as the test diet, and chromic o...

  20. Internationalization of law globalization, international law and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dias Varella, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an overview of how international law is today constructed through diverse macro and microprocesses that expand its traditional subjects and sources, with the attribution of sovereign capacity and power to the international plane (moving the international toward the national). Simultaneously, national laws approximate laws of other nations (moving among nations or moving the national toward the international) and new sources of legal norms emerge, independent of states and international organisations. This expansion occurs in many subject areas, with specific structures: commercial, environmental, human rights, humanitarian, financial, criminal and labor law contribute to the formation of post national law with different modes of functioning, different actors and different sources of law that should be understood as a new complexity of law.

  1. 78 FR 38683 - Availability of Guidance: Establishments Guidance for the Selection of a Commercial or Private...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... required, accreditation provides increased confidence in the accuracy of the test results. Using either an... instructions in the guidance should change the definition of ``routine PT'' to reflect the reality that PT is...

  2. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among ART-naive HIV-positive individuals in an urban cohort in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggrey S Semeere

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is common among HIV-infected individuals and is often accompanied by low serum levels of micronutrients. Vitamin B-12 deficiency has been associated with various factors including faster HIV disease progression and CD4 depletion in resource-rich settings. To describe prevalence and factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART naïve adults in a resource-poor setting, we performed a cross-sectional study with a retrospective chart review among individuals attending either the Mulago-Mbarara teaching hospitals' Joint AIDS Program (MJAP or the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI clinics, in Kampala, Uganda. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12. The mean vitamin B-12 level was 384 pg/ml, normal range (200-900. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (<300 pg/ml were found in 75/204 (36.8%. Twenty-one of 204 (10.3% had vitamin B-12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml while 54/204 (26.5% had marginal depletion (200-300 pg/ml. Irritable mood was observed more among individuals with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (OR 2.5, 95% CI; 1.1-5.6, P=0.03. Increasing MCV was associated with decreasing serum B-12 category; 86.9 fl (± 5.1 vs. 83 fl (± 8.4 vs. 82 fl (± 8.4 for B-12 deficiency, marginal and normal B-12 categories respectively (test for trend, P=0.017. Compared to normal B-12, individuals with vitamin B-12 deficiency had a longer known duration of HIV infection: 42.2 months (± 27.1 vs. 29.4 months (± 23.8; P=0.02. Participants eligible for ART (CD4<350 cells/µl with sub-optimal B-12 had a higher mean rate of CD4 decline compared to counterparts with normal B-12; 118 (± 145 vs. 22 (± 115 cells/µl/year, P=0.01 respectively. The prevalence of a sub-optimal vitamin B-12 was high in this HIV-infected, ART-naïve adult clinic population in urban Uganda. We recommend prospective studies to further clarify the causal relationships of sub-optimal

  3. A Formal Investigation of the Organization of Guidance Behavior: Implications for Humans and Autonomous Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaodan

    Guidance behavior generated either by artificial agents or humans has been actively studied in the fields of both robotics and cognitive science. The goals of these two fields are different. The former is the automatic generation of appropriate or even optimal behavior, while the latter is the understanding of the underlying mechanism. Their challenges, though, are closely related, the most important one being the lack of a unified, formal and grounded framework where the guidance behavior can be modeled and studied. This dissertation presents such a framework. In this framework, guidance behavior is analyzed as the closed-loop dynamics of the whole agent-environment system. The resulting dynamics give rise to interaction patterns. The central points of this dissertation are that: first of all, these patterns, which can be explained in terms of symmetries that are inherent to the guidance behavior, provide building blocks for the organization of behavior; second, the existence of these patterns and humans' organization of their guidance behavior based on these patterns are the reasons that humans can generate successful behavior in spite of all the complexities involved in the planning and control. This dissertation first gives an overview of the challenges existing in both scientific endeavors, such as human and animal spatial behavior study, and engineering endeavors, such as autonomous guidance system design. It then lays out the foundation for our formal framework, which states that guidance behavior should be interpreted as the collection of the closed-loop dynamics resulting from the agent's interaction with the environment. The following, illustrated by examples of three different UAVs, shows that the study of the closed-loop dynamics should not be done without the consideration of vehicle dynamics, as is the common practice in some of the studies in both autonomous guidance and human behavior analysis. The framework, the core concepts of which are

  4. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide and virginiamycin on the cecal microbial community and intestinal morphology of chickens raised under suboptimal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabedin, Mohsen; Xu, Zhengxin; Baurhoo, Bushansingh; Chevaux, Eric; Zhao, Xin

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing movement against use of antibiotic growth promoters in animal feed. Prebiotic supplementation is a potential alternative to enhance the host's natural defense through modulation of gut microbiota. In the present study, the effect of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and virginiamycin (VIRG) on cecal microbial ecology and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens raised under suboptimal conditions was evaluated. MOS and VIRG induced different bacterial community structures, as revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA. The antibiotic treatment reduced cecal microbial diversity while the community equitability increased. A higher bacterial diversity was observed in the cecum of MOS-supplemented birds. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results indicated that MOS changed the cecal microbiota in favor of the Firmicutes population but not the Bacteroidetes population. No difference was observed in total bacterial counts among treatments. MOS promoted the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. in the cecum and increased villus height and goblet cell numbers in the ileum and jejunum. These results provide a deeper insight into the microbial ecological changes after supplementation of MOS prebiotic in poultry diets.

  5. Plasticity of Tiller Dynamics in Wild Rice Oryza rufipogon Griff.: A Strategy for Resilience in Suboptimal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravat K. Mohapatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation in tropical Asia is susceptible to drought and flood and the need is high for stress resistant genes. Wild rice Oryza rufipogon Griff., grows in close sympatric association with cultivated rice in various habitats across the globe and possesses traits for survival under challenging environments. The species adapts according to the level of soil moisture available and modifies phenology, biomass production and grain yield. Variation in tiller dynamics of the species between contrasting environments gives an estimate of the adaptation. The species possesses AA genome, which permits genetic compatibility for cross breeding with cultivated rice. Utility of the species as possible repository of stress resistant genes is evaluated in this review by examining variation in assimilate partitioning between different classes of tillers of ecotypes growing across a gradation of habitats against background knowledge available for cultivated rice. Models have been constructed to explain mechanisms of tillering and tiller dynamics, and reveal the genotypic permissibility for resilience in sub-optimal environments. It is concluded that environmentally cued alteration in assimilate production and partitioning mask genetic potential for tiller production and survival. Tiller number in excess of resource capacity is corrected by senescence of late-tillers possibly through an ethylene-mediated signal.

  6. Diagnostic Guidance for C. difficile Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crobach, Monique J T; Baktash, Amoe; Duszenko, Nikolas; Kuijper, Ed J

    2018-01-01

    Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can be challenging. First of all, there has been debate on which of the two reference assays, cell cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) or toxigenic culture (TC) should be considered the gold standard for CDI detection. Although the CCNA suffers most from suboptimal storage conditions and subsequent toxin degradation, TC is reported to falsely increase CDI detection rates as it cannot differentiate CDI patients from patients asymptomatically colonised by toxigenic C. difficile. Several rapid assays are available for CDI detection and fall into three broad categories: (1) enzyme immunoassays for glutamate dehydrogenase, (2) enzyme immunoassays for toxins A/B and (3) nucleic acid amplification tests detecting toxin genes. All three categories have their own limitations, being suboptimal specificity and/or sensitivity or the inability to discern colonised patients from CDI patients. In light of these limitations, multi-step algorithmic testing has now been advocated by international guidelines in order to optimize diagnostic accuracy. Despite these recommendations, testing methods between hospitals vary widely, which impacts CDI incidence rates. CDI incidence rates are also influenced by sample selection criteria, as several studies have shown that if not all unformed stool samples are tested for CDI, many cases may be missed due to an absence of clinical suspicion. Since methods for diagnosing CDI remain imperfect, there has been a growing interest in alternative testing strategies like faecal biomarkers, immune modulating interleukins, cytokines and imaging methods. At the moment, these alternative methods might play an adjunctive role, but they are not suitable to replace conventional CDI testing strategies.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of extended-release methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder sub-optimally treated with immediate release methylphenidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjen van der Schans

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at school often leads to reduced compliance, sub-optimal treatment, and therefore economic loss. Replacement of IR-MPH with a single-dose extended release (ER-MPH formulation may improve drug response and economic efficiency.To evaluate the cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective of a switch from IR-MPH to ER-MPH in patients who are sub-optimally treated.A daily Markov-cycle model covering a time-span of 10 years was developed including four different health states: (1 optimal response, (2 sub-optimal response, (3 discontinued treatment, and (4 natural remission. ER-MPH options included methylphenidate osmotic release oral system (MPH-OROS and Equasym XL/Medikinet CR. Both direct costs and indirect costs were included in the analysis, and effects were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. Univariate, multivariate as well as probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted and the main outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Switching sub-optimally treated patients from IR-MPH to MPH-OROS or Equasym XL/Medikinet CR led to per-patient cost-savings of €4200 and €5400, respectively, over a 10-year treatment span. Sensitivity analysis with plausible variations of input parameters resulted in cost-savings in the vast majority of estimations.This study lends economic support to switching patients with ADHD with suboptimal response to short-acting IR-MPH to long-acting ER-MPH regimens.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of extended-release methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder sub-optimally treated with immediate release methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Kotsopoulos, Nikos; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hak, Eelko; Postma, Maarten J

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH) is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at school often leads to reduced compliance, sub-optimal treatment, and therefore economic loss. Replacement of IR-MPH with a single-dose extended release (ER-MPH) formulation may improve drug response and economic efficiency. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective of a switch from IR-MPH to ER-MPH in patients who are sub-optimally treated. A daily Markov-cycle model covering a time-span of 10 years was developed including four different health states: (1) optimal response, (2) sub-optimal response, (3) discontinued treatment, and (4) natural remission. ER-MPH options included methylphenidate osmotic release oral system (MPH-OROS) and Equasym XL/Medikinet CR. Both direct costs and indirect costs were included in the analysis, and effects were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Univariate, multivariate as well as probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted and the main outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Switching sub-optimally treated patients from IR-MPH to MPH-OROS or Equasym XL/Medikinet CR led to per-patient cost-savings of €4200 and €5400, respectively, over a 10-year treatment span. Sensitivity analysis with plausible variations of input parameters resulted in cost-savings in the vast majority of estimations. This study lends economic support to switching patients with ADHD with suboptimal response to short-acting IR-MPH to long-acting ER-MPH regimens.

  9. 75 FR 48973 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella... availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During... ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation'' (the...

  10. Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency Share | Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency This article ... should patients with immune deficiency be given the vaccine? Immune deficient patients have a decreased resistance to ...

  11. A Businessman Looks at Guidance in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Suggests that businessmen generally agree that vocational guidance is poorly done in the schools. Proposes that a retired businessman would be a valuable resource for the conventional guidance officer. (Author/HMV)

  12. Assay Characterization Guidance Documents | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CPTAC characterized assays are defined as those that meet the criteria described in the Assay Characterization Guidance Document. This guidance document aligns with recommendations by the research community as “fit-for-purpose” validation requirements of targeted proteomics assays.

  13. Russian Contract Law for Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shirvindt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The book by Maria Efremova, Svetlana Yakovleva and Jane Henderson aims to serve as a short introduction to Russian contract law for a foreign lawyer. Assuming that the target readership are mainly English lawyers the book’s second aim, expressly stated by the authors (pp. i, 1, is to make lawyers from common law countries familiar with codified law, with Russian law being just an example. The book covers most of the general law of obligations as well as some questions of formation and invalidity of contracts that belong to the general part of the Civil Сode, with this preceded by a brief introduction into the Russian law dealing with its history, federal structure and state agencies of Russia, its court system, sources of law and legal profession.

  14. Optimal guidance and propulsion control for transatmospheric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corban, J. E.; Calise, A. J.; Flandro, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    Problems associated with on-board trajectory optimization and with the synthesis of guidance laws are addressed for ascent to LEO of an air-breathing, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle. A multimode propulsion system is assumed which incorporates turbojet, ramjet, scramjet, and rocket engines. An energy-state approximation is applied to a four-state dynamic model for flight of a point mass over a spherical nonrotating earth. An algorithm for generating fuel-optimal climb profiles is derived via singular perturbation theory. This algorithm results from application of the minimum principle to a low-order dynamic model that includes general functional dependence on angle of attack and a normal component of thrust. Switching conditions are derived which, under appropriate assumptions, govern optimal transition from one propulsion mode to another. The use of bank angle to modulate the magnitude of the vertical component of lift is shown to improve the index performance. Numerical results illustrate the nature of the resulting fuel-optimal climb paths.

  15. Challenges imposed by International Environmental Law to Classical International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Augusto Cárdenas Castañeda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of international environmental law has produced important challenges to the very foundations of public international law. Traditional concepts such as state sovereignty, subjects of international law, and the early perspectives of national security are being transformed. The needs of the contemporary international society differ from the ones of the Wesphalian conception, situations which clearly explains the raise of alternative views for the understanding of the current dynamics of international law, where concepts like res communis, common concerns and simply “commons” take a privileged place in the study of international law. The foregoing has been strengthened by the international development of the so called erga ommnes obligations, label which is being used by international environmental law as the perfect explanation of its own existence. This academic article presents and studies the abovementioned concepts trying to compare what international law used to be before the emergence of international environmental law and what it is and what it should be in order to attend the developments and challenges imposed by the contemporary international society, particularly by international environmental law, a new fi eld of the corpus juris of public international law.

  16. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  17. The Delinquencies of Juvenile Law: A Natural Law Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Washington

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a substantive analysis tracing the legal, philosophical, social, historical, jurisprudence and political backgrounds of juvenile law, which is an outgrowth of the so-calledProgressive movement - a popular social and political movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. I also trace how this socio-political cause célèbre became a fixture in Americanculture and society due to existential child labor abuses which progressive intellectuals used as a pretext to codify juvenile law in federal law and in statutory law in all 50 states by 1925. Moreover the dubious social science and Machiavellian political efforts that created the juvenile justice system out of whole cloth has done much more harm to the Constitution and to the children it was mandated to protect than any of the Progressive ideas initially envisioned rooted in Positive Law (separation of law and morals. Finally, I present am impassioned argument for congressional repeal of all juvenile case law and statutes because they are rooted in Positive Law, contrary to Natural Law (integration of law and morals, the original intent of the constitutional Framers and are therefore patently unconstitutional.

  18. Post Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2016-01-01

    The value of developing hybrid international criminal procedure (ICP) is that it is arguably inclusive (representing two major legal traditions) and distinct from any domestic system, thus creating a separate, sui generis realm for international criminal law (ICL) jurists to meet. Since its...... addresses the practice of hybridity in ICP, drawing examples from the construction and evolution of hybrid procedure at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), to argue that the hybridity practiced by international criminal tribunals renders them ‘post rule of law’ institutions...

  19. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  20. Spatiality of environmental law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse; Hvingel, Line

    2015-01-01

    will determine the interplay between geographic data and technology in the fields of environmental legislation, environmental policy and environmental management. This article examines the legal regulation of spatial information as established by the inspire directive, on one hand, and on the other hand......, examines legal regulation as spatial information. It aims to deepen the understanding of spatiality as a core element of environmental law, and to connect it to the basic concept of representation used in giscience. It concludes that the future path for e-Government demands a shift in legal paradigm, from...