WorldWideScience

Sample records for suboptimal greedy search

  1. Optimization by GRASP greedy randomized adaptive search procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Resende, Mauricio G C

    2016-01-01

    This is the first book to cover GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedures), a metaheuristic that has enjoyed wide success in practice with a broad range of applications to real-world combinatorial optimization problems. The state-of-the-art coverage and carefully crafted pedagogical style lends this book highly accessible as an introductory text not only to GRASP, but also to combinatorial optimization, greedy algorithms, local search, and path-relinking, as well as to heuristics and metaheuristics, in general. The focus is on algorithmic and computational aspects of applied optimization with GRASP with emphasis given to the end-user, providing sufficient information on the broad spectrum of advances in applied optimization with GRASP. For the more advanced reader, chapters on hybridization with path-relinking and parallel and continuous GRASP present these topics in a clear and concise fashion. Additionally, the book offers a very complete annotated bibliography of GRASP and combinatorial optimizat...

  2. Heuristic rules analysis on the fuel cells design using greedy search;Analisis de reglas heuristicas en el diseno de celdas de combustible usando busqueda greedy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, J. J.; Castillo, J. A.; Montes, J. L.; Hernandez, J. L., E-mail: juanjose.ortiz@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    This work approaches the study of one of the heuristic rules of fuel cells design for boiling water nuclear reactors. This rule requires that the minor uranium enrichment is placed in the corners of the fuel cell. Also the search greedy is applied for the fuel cells design where explicitly does not take in count this rule, allowing the possibility to place any uranium enrichment with the condition that it does not contain gadolinium. Results are shown in the quality of the obtained cell by search greedy when it considers the rule and when not. The cell quality is measured with the value of the power pick factor obtained, as well as of the neutrons multiplication factor in an infinite medium. Cells were analyzed with 1 and 2 gadolinium concentrations low operation conditions at 120% of the nominal power of the reactors of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. The results show that not to consider the rule in cells with a single gadolinium concentration, it has as repercussion that the greedy search has a minor performance. On the other hand with cells of two gadolinium concentrations, the performance of the greedy search was better. (Author)

  3. A new greedy search method for the design of digital IIR filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Kaur

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new greedy search method is applied in this paper to design the optimal digital infinite impulse response (IIR filter. The greedy search method is based on binary successive approximation (BSA and evolutionary search (ES. The suggested greedy search method optimizes the magnitude response and the phase response simultaneously and also finds the lowest order of the filter. The order of the filter is controlled by a control gene whose value is also optimized along with the filter coefficients to obtain optimum order of designed IIR filter. The stability constraints of IIR filter are taken care of during the design procedure. To determine the trade-off relationship between conflicting objectives in the non-inferior domain, the weighting method is exploited. The proposed approach is effectively applied to solve the multiobjective optimization problems of designing the digital low-pass (LP, high-pass (HP, bandpass (BP, and bandstop (BS filters. It has been demonstrated that this technique not only fulfills all types of filter performance requirements, but also the lowest order of the filter can be found. The computational experiments show that the proposed approach gives better digital IIR filters than the existing evolutionary algorithm (EA based methods.

  4. Greedy Local Search and Vertex Cover in Sparse Random Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    finds an optimal cover in polynomial time with a probability arbitrarily close to 1. This behavior relies on the absence of a giant component. As an additional insight into the randomized search, it is shown that the heuristic fails badly also on graphs consisting of a single tree component of maximum......Recently, various randomized search heuristics have been studied for the solution of the minimum vertex cover problem, in particular for sparse random instances according to the G(n, c/n) model, where c > 0 is a constant. Methods from statistical physics suggest that the problem is easy if c .... This work starts with a rigorous explanation for this claim based on the refined analysis of the Karp-Sipser algorithm by Aronson et al. Subsequently, theoretical supplements are given to experimental studies of search heuristics on random graphs. For c search heuristic...

  5. Efficient and accurate Greedy Search Methods for mining functional modules in protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jieyue; Li, Chaojun; Ye, Baoliu; Zhong, Wei

    2012-06-25

    Most computational algorithms mainly focus on detecting highly connected subgraphs in PPI networks as protein complexes but ignore their inherent organization. Furthermore, many of these algorithms are computationally expensive. However, recent analysis indicates that experimentally detected protein complexes generally contain Core/attachment structures. In this paper, a Greedy Search Method based on Core-Attachment structure (GSM-CA) is proposed. The GSM-CA method detects densely connected regions in large protein-protein interaction networks based on the edge weight and two criteria for determining core nodes and attachment nodes. The GSM-CA method improves the prediction accuracy compared to other similar module detection approaches, however it is computationally expensive. Many module detection approaches are based on the traditional hierarchical methods, which is also computationally inefficient because the hierarchical tree structure produced by these approaches cannot provide adequate information to identify whether a network belongs to a module structure or not. In order to speed up the computational process, the Greedy Search Method based on Fast Clustering (GSM-FC) is proposed in this work. The edge weight based GSM-FC method uses a greedy procedure to traverse all edges just once to separate the network into the suitable set of modules. The proposed methods are applied to the protein interaction network of S. cerevisiae. Experimental results indicate that many significant functional modules are detected, most of which match the known complexes. Results also demonstrate that the GSM-FC algorithm is faster and more accurate as compared to other competing algorithms. Based on the new edge weight definition, the proposed algorithm takes advantages of the greedy search procedure to separate the network into the suitable set of modules. Experimental analysis shows that the identified modules are statistically significant. The algorithm can reduce the

  6. Face sketch synthesis via sparse representation-based greedy search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengchuan Zhang; Xinbo Gao; Nannan Wang; Jie Li; Mingjin Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Face sketch synthesis has wide applications in digital entertainment and law enforcement. Although there is much research on face sketch synthesis, most existing algorithms cannot handle some nonfacial factors, such as hair style, hairpins, and glasses if these factors are excluded in the training set. In addition, previous methods only work on well controlled conditions and fail on images with different backgrounds and sizes as the training set. To this end, this paper presents a novel method that combines both the similarity between different image patches and prior knowledge to synthesize face sketches. Given training photo-sketch pairs, the proposed method learns a photo patch feature dictionary from the training photo patches and replaces the photo patches with their sparse coefficients during the searching process. For a test photo patch, we first obtain its sparse coefficient via the learnt dictionary and then search its nearest neighbors (candidate patches) in the whole training photo patches with sparse coefficients. After purifying the nearest neighbors with prior knowledge, the final sketch corresponding to the test photo can be obtained by Bayesian inference. The contributions of this paper are as follows: 1) we relax the nearest neighbor search area from local region to the whole image without too much time consuming and 2) our method can produce nonfacial factors that are not contained in the training set and is robust against image backgrounds and can even ignore the alignment and image size aspects of test photos. Our experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms several state-of-the-arts in terms of perceptual and objective metrics.

  7. Biclustering of gene expression data using reactive greedy randomized adaptive search procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharan, Smitha; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2009-01-30

    Biclustering algorithms belong to a distinct class of clustering algorithms that perform simultaneous clustering of both rows and columns of the gene expression matrix and can be a very useful analysis tool when some genes have multiple functions and experimental conditions are diverse. Cheng and Church have introduced a measure called mean squared residue score to evaluate the quality of a bicluster and has become one of the most popular measures to search for biclusters. In this paper, we review basic concepts of the metaheuristics Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP)-construction and local search phases and propose a new method which is a variant of GRASP called Reactive Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (Reactive GRASP) to detect significant biclusters from large microarray datasets. The method has two major steps. First, high quality bicluster seeds are generated by means of k-means clustering. In the second step, these seeds are grown using the Reactive GRASP, in which the basic parameter that defines the restrictiveness of the candidate list is self-adjusted, depending on the quality of the solutions found previously. We performed statistical and biological validations of the biclusters obtained and evaluated the method against the results of basic GRASP and as well as with the classic work of Cheng and Church. The experimental results indicate that the Reactive GRASP approach outperforms the basic GRASP algorithm and Cheng and Church approach. The Reactive GRASP approach for the detection of significant biclusters is robust and does not require calibration efforts.

  8. Search Greedy for radial fuel optimization; Busqueda Greddy para optimizacion radial de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, J. J.; Castillo, J. A. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Pelta, D. A. [Universidad de Granada, ETS Ingenieria Informatica y Telecomunicaciones, C/Daniel Saucedo Aranda s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)]. e-mail: jjortiz@nuclear.inin.mx

    2008-07-01

    In this work a search algorithm Greedy is presented for the optimization of fuel cells in reactors BWR. As first phase a study was made of sensibility of the Factor of Pick of Local Power (FPPL) of the cell, in function of the exchange of the content of two fuel rods. His way it could settle down that then the rods to exchange do not contain gadolinium, small changes take place in the value of the FPPL of the cell. This knowledge was applied later in the search Greedy to optimize fuel cell. Exchanges of rods with gadolinium takes as a mechanism of global search and exchanges of rods without gadolinium takes as a method of local search. It worked with a cell of 10x10 rods and 2 circular water channels in center of the same one. From an inventory of enrichments of uranium and concentrations of given gadolinium and one distribution of well-known enrichments; the techniques finds good solutions that the FPPL minimizes, maintaining the factor of multiplication of neutrons in a range appropriate of values. In the low part of the assembly of a lot of recharge of a cycle of 18 months the cells were placed. The values of FPPL of the opposing cells are similar or smaller to those of the original cell and with behaviors in the nucleus also comparable to those obtained with the original cell. The evaluation of the cells was made with the code of transport CASMO-IV and the evaluation of the nucleus was made by means of the one simulator of the nucleus SIMULATE-3. (Author)

  9. Optimization of travel salesman problem using the ant colony system and Greedy search; Optimizacion del problema del agente viajero usando el sistema de colonia de hormigas y busqueda Greedy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel E, J.; Ordonez A, A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Ingenieria, Cerro de Coatepec s/n, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ortiz S, J. J. [Departamento de Sistemas Nucleares, ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we present some results obtained during the development of optimization systems that can be used to design refueling and patterns of control rods in a BWR. These systems use ant colonies and Greedy search. The first phase of this project is to be familiar with these optimization techniques applied to the problem of travel salesman problem (TSP). The utility of TSP study is that, like the refueling design and pattern design of control rods are problems of combinative optimization. Even, the similarity with the problem of the refueling design is remarkable. It is presented some results for the TSP with the 32 state capitals of Mexico country. (Author)

  10. An Accelerated Greedy Missing Point Estimation Procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Ralf; Willcox, Karen

    2016-01-01

    and is computationally intractable even for systems of small size. This has been addressed through greedy point selection algorithms, which minimize an error indicator by sequentially looping over all components. While doable, this is suboptimal and still costly. This paper introduces an approach to accelerate...

  11. GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedures) applied to optimization of petroleum products distribution in pipeline networks; GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptative Search Procedures) aplicado ao 'scheduling' de redes de distribuicao de petroleo e derivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, Viviane Cristhyne Bini; Arruda, Lucia Valeria Ramos de; Yamamoto, Lia [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Planning and scheduling of the pipeline network operations aim the most efficient use of the resources resulting in a better performance of the network. A petroleum distribution pipeline network is composed by refineries, sources and/or storage parks, connected by a set of pipelines, which operate the transportation of petroleum and derivatives among adjacent areas. In real scenes, this problem is considered a combinatorial problem, which has difficult solution, which makes necessary methodologies of the resolution that present low computational time. This work aims to get solutions that attempt the demands and minimize the number of batch fragmentations on the sent operations of products for the pipelines in a simplified model of a real network, through by application of the local search metaheuristic GRASP. GRASP does not depend of solutions of previous iterations and works in a random way so it allows the search for the solution in an ampler and diversified search space. GRASP utilization does not demand complex calculation, even the construction stage that requires more computational effort, which provides relative rapidity in the attainment of good solutions. GRASP application on the scheduling of the operations of this network presented feasible solutions in a low computational time. (author)

  12. On greedy and submodular matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faigle, U.; Kern, Walter; Peis, Britta; Marchetti-Spaccamela, Alberto; Segal, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We characterize non-negative greedy matrices, i.e., 0-1 matrices $A$ such that max $\\{c^Tx|Ax \\le b,\\,x \\ge 0\\}$ can be solved greedily. We identify submodular matrices as a special subclass of greedy matrices. Finally, we extend the notion of greediness to $\\{-1,0,+1\\}$-matrices. We present

  13. Greedy Gossip With Eavesdropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustebay, Deniz; Oreshkin, Boris N.; Coates, Mark J.; Rabbat, Michael G.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents greedy gossip with eavesdropping (GGE), a novel randomized gossip algorithm for distributed computation of the average consensus problem. In gossip algorithms, nodes in the network randomly communicate with their neighbors and exchange information iteratively. The algorithms are simple and decentralized, making them attractive for wireless network applications. In general, gossip algorithms are robust to unreliable wireless conditions and time varying network topologies. In this paper we introduce GGE and demonstrate that greedy updates lead to rapid convergence. We do not require nodes to have any location information. Instead, greedy updates are made possible by exploiting the broadcast nature of wireless communications. During the operation of GGE, when a node decides to gossip, instead of choosing one of its neighbors at random, it makes a greedy selection, choosing the node which has the value most different from its own. In order to make this selection, nodes need to know their neighbors' values. Therefore, we assume that all transmissions are wireless broadcasts and nodes keep track of their neighbors' values by eavesdropping on their communications. We show that the convergence of GGE is guaranteed for connected network topologies. We also study the rates of convergence and illustrate, through theoretical bounds and numerical simulations, that GGE consistently outperforms randomized gossip and performs comparably to geographic gossip on moderate-sized random geometric graph topologies.

  14. Greedy Deep Dictionary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Majumdar, Angshul; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new deep learning tool called deep dictionary learning. Multi-level dictionaries are learnt in a greedy fashion, one layer at a time. This requires solving a simple (shallow) dictionary learning problem, the solution to this is well known. We apply the proposed technique on some benchmark deep learning datasets. We compare our results with other deep learning tools like stacked autoencoder and deep belief network; and state of the art supervised dictionary learning t...

  15. Diffusive behavior of a greedy traveling salesman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Adam; Lipowska, Dorota

    2011-06-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations we examine the diffusive properties of the greedy algorithm in the d-dimensional traveling salesman problem. Our results show that for d=3 and 4 the average squared distance from the origin (r(2)) is proportional to the number of steps t. In the d=2 case such a scaling is modified with some logarithmic corrections, which might suggest that d=2 is the critical dimension of the problem. The distribution of lengths also shows marked differences between d=2 and d>2 versions. A simple strategy adopted by the salesman might resemble strategies chosen by some foraging and hunting animals, for which anomalous diffusive behavior has recently been reported and interpreted in terms of Lévy flights. Our results suggest that broad and Lévy-like distributions in such systems might appear due to dimension-dependent properties of a search space.

  16. Quasi-greedy systems of integer translates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Sikic, Hrvoje

    We consider quasi-greedy systems of integer translates in a finitely generated shift invariant subspace of L2(Rd), that is systems for which the thresholding approximation procedure is well behaved. We prove that every quasi-greedy system of integer translates is also a Riesz basis for its closed...... linear span. The result shows that there are no conditional quasi-greedy basis of integer translates in a finitely generated shift invariant space....

  17. Quasi-greedy systems of integer translates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Sikic, Hrvoje

    2008-01-01

    We consider quasi-greedy systems of integer translates in a finitely generated shift-invariant subspace of L2(Rd), that is systems for which the thresholding approximation procedure is well behaved. We prove that every quasi-greedy system of integer translates is also a Riesz basis for its closed...... linear span. The result shows that there are no conditional quasi-greedy bases of integer translates in a finitely generated shift-invariant space....

  18. Sistem Pencarian Hotel Berdasarkan Rute Perjalanan Terpendek Dengan Mempertimbangkan Daya Tarik Wisata Menggunakan Algoritma Greedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Maximillian Herli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hotel search was an important thingfor travelers in their traveling journey. Travelers would consider criteria such as class, price and review of the hotel.Beside those things, distance between Hotel and tourist attractionswasalsoimportant factor to be considered. In this research, system was constructed to perform a hotels search by shortest travelling route using Greedy Algorithm. This research was conducted through four stages, the first stage wasdata and information collectingof tourist attraction and hotel. Second stagewasdata analysis with greedy algorithm in purpose to classify the data and implementing greedy algorithm with manual calculation to the problem research. The third stage was the development of the system, and the last stage wasevaluating the system with the experts who are experienced in the field of tourism and the prospective user of this application. Results from this study was the system can provide recommendations and sequence the shortest journey between the hotel and tourist attraction based on the greedy algorithm.

  19. Info-Greedy Sequential Adaptive Compressed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Gabor; Pokutta, Sebastian; Xie, Yao

    2015-06-01

    We present an information-theoretic framework for sequential adaptive compressed sensing, Info-Greedy Sensing, where measurements are chosen to maximize the extracted information conditioned on the previous measurements. We show that the widely used bisection approach is Info-Greedy for a family of $k$-sparse signals by connecting compressed sensing and blackbox complexity of sequential query algorithms, and present Info-Greedy algorithms for Gaussian and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) signals, as well as ways to design sparse Info-Greedy measurements. Numerical examples demonstrate the good performance of the proposed algorithms using simulated and real data: Info-Greedy Sensing shows significant improvement over random projection for signals with sparse and low-rank covariance matrices, and adaptivity brings robustness when there is a mismatch between the assumed and the true distributions.

  20. On Stable Marriages and Greedy Matchings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manne, Fredrik; Naim, Md; Lerring, Hakon; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2016-12-11

    Research on stable marriage problems has a long and mathematically rigorous history, while that of exploiting greedy matchings in combinatorial scientific computing is a younger and less developed research field. In this paper we consider the relationships between these two areas. In particular we show that several problems related to computing greedy matchings can be formulated as stable marriage problems and as a consequence several recently proposed algorithms for computing greedy matchings are in fact special cases of well known algorithms for the stable marriage problem. However, in terms of implementations and practical scalable solutions on modern hardware, the greedy matching community has made considerable progress. We show that due to the strong relationship between these two fields many of these results are also applicable for solving stable marriage problems.

  1. Greedy controllability of finite dimensional linear systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Martin; Zuazua, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the problem of controllability for parameter-dependent linear finite-dimensional systems. The goal is to identify the most distinguished realisations of those parameters so to better describe or approximate the whole range of controls. We adapt recent results on greedy and weak greedy algorithms for parameter depending PDEs or, more generally, abstract equations in Banach spaces. Our results lead to optimal approximation procedures that, in particular, perform better than simply sa...

  2. Greedy Algorithms for Sensor Location in Sewer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijit K. Banik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater quality monitoring is receiving growing interest with the necessity of developing new strategies for controlling accidental and intentional illicit intrusions. In designing a monitoring network, a crucial aspect is represented by the sensors’ location. In this study, a methodology for the optimal placement of wastewater monitoring sensors in sewer systems is presented. The sensor location is formulated as an optimization problem solved using greedy algorithms (GRs. The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM was used to perform hydraulic and water-quality simulations. Six different procedures characterized by different fitness functions are presented and compared. The performances of the procedures are tested on a real sewer system, demonstrating the suitability of GRs for the sensor-placement problem. The results show a robustness of the methodology with respect to the detection concentration parameter, and they suggest that procedures with multiple objectives into a single fitness function give better results. A further comparison is performed using previously developed multi-objective procedures with multiple fitness functions solved using a genetic algorithm (GA, indicating better performances of the GR. The existing monitoring network, realized without the application of any sensor design, is always suboptimal.

  3. Two-pass greedy regular expression parsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grathwohl, Niels Bjørn Bugge; Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    We present new algorithms for producing greedy parses for regular expressions (REs) in a semi-streaming fashion. Our lean-log algorithm executes in time O(mn) for REs of size m and input strings of size n and outputs a compact bit-coded parse tree representation. It improves on previous algorithms...... by: operating in only 2 passes; using only O(m) words of random-access memory (independent of n); requiring only kn bits of sequentially written and read log storage, where k

  4. Greedy algorithms withweights for construction of partial association rules

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail

    2009-09-10

    This paper is devoted to the study of approximate algorithms for minimization of the total weight of attributes occurring in partial association rules. We consider mainly greedy algorithms with weights for construction of rules. The paper contains bounds on precision of these algorithms and bounds on the minimal weight of partial association rules based on an information obtained during the greedy algorithm run.

  5. Greedy algorithms for diffuse optical tomography reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileep, B. P. V.; Das, Tapan; Dutta, Pranab K.

    2018-03-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive imaging modality that reconstructs the optical parameters of a highly scattering medium. However, the inverse problem of DOT is ill-posed and highly nonlinear due to the zig-zag propagation of photons that diffuses through the cross section of tissue. The conventional DOT imaging methods iteratively compute the solution of forward diffusion equation solver which makes the problem computationally expensive. Also, these methods fail when the geometry is complex. Recently, the theory of compressive sensing (CS) has received considerable attention because of its efficient use in biomedical imaging applications. The objective of this paper is to solve a given DOT inverse problem by using compressive sensing framework and various Greedy algorithms such as orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), compressive sampling matching pursuit (CoSaMP), and stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit (StOMP), regularized orthogonal matching pursuit (ROMP) and simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit (S-OMP) have been studied to reconstruct the change in the absorption parameter i.e, Δα from the boundary data. Also, the Greedy algorithms have been validated experimentally on a paraffin wax rectangular phantom through a well designed experimental set up. We also have studied the conventional DOT methods like least square method and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) for comparison. One of the main features of this work is the usage of less number of source-detector pairs, which can facilitate the use of DOT in routine applications of screening. The performance metrics such as mean square error (MSE), normalized mean square error (NMSE), structural similarity index (SSIM), and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) have been used to evaluate the performance of the algorithms mentioned in this paper. Extensive simulation results confirm that CS based DOT reconstruction outperforms the conventional DOT imaging methods in terms of

  6. DIALIGN-TX: greedy and progressive approaches for segment-based multiple sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgenstern Burkhard

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DIALIGN-T is a reimplementation of the multiple-alignment program DIALIGN. Due to several algorithmic improvements, it produces significantly better alignments on locally and globally related sequence sets than previous versions of DIALIGN. However, like the original implementation of the program, DIALIGN-T uses a a straight-forward greedy approach to assemble multiple alignments from local pairwise sequence similarities. Such greedy approaches may be vulnerable to spurious random similarities and can therefore lead to suboptimal results. In this paper, we present DIALIGN-TX, a substantial improvement of DIALIGN-T that combines our previous greedy algorithm with a progressive alignment approach. Results Our new heuristic produces significantly better alignments, especially on globally related sequences, without increasing the CPU time and memory consumption exceedingly. The new method is based on a guide tree; to detect possible spurious sequence similarities, it employs a vertex-cover approximation on a conflict graph. We performed benchmarking tests on a large set of nucleic acid and protein sequences For protein benchmarks we used the benchmark database BALIBASE 3 and an updated release of the database IRMBASE 2 for assessing the quality on globally and locally related sequences, respectively. For alignment of nucleic acid sequences, we used BRAliBase II for global alignment and a newly developed database of locally related sequences called DIRM-BASE 1. IRMBASE 2 and DIRMBASE 1 are constructed by implanting highly conserved motives at random positions in long unalignable sequences. Conclusion On BALIBASE3, our new program performs significantly better than the previous program DIALIGN-T and outperforms the popular global aligner CLUSTAL W, though it is still outperformed by programs that focus on global alignment like MAFFT, MUSCLE and T-COFFEE. On the locally related test sets in IRMBASE 2 and DIRM-BASE 1, our method

  7. Seismic signal time-frequency analysis based on multi-directional window using greedy strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingpin; Peng, Zhenming; Cheng, Zhuyuan; Tian, Lin

    2017-08-01

    Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) is an important time-frequency analysis technology with a high energy distribution in seismic signal processing. However, it is interfered by many cross terms. To suppress the cross terms of the WVD and keep the concentration of its high energy distribution, an adaptive multi-directional filtering window in the ambiguity domain is proposed. This begins with the relationship of the Cohen distribution and the Gabor transform combining the greedy strategy and the rotational invariance property of the fractional Fourier transform in order to propose the multi-directional window, which extends the one-dimensional, one directional, optimal window function of the optimal fractional Gabor transform (OFrGT) to a two-dimensional, multi-directional window in the ambiguity domain. In this way, the multi-directional window matches the main auto terms of the WVD more precisely. Using the greedy strategy, the proposed window takes into account the optimal and other suboptimal directions, which also solves the problem of the OFrGT, called the local concentration phenomenon, when encountering a multi-component signal. Experiments on different types of both the signal models and the real seismic signals reveal that the proposed window can overcome the drawbacks of the WVD and the OFrGT mentioned above. Finally, the proposed method is applied to a seismic signal's spectral decomposition. The results show that the proposed method can explore the space distribution of a reservoir more precisely.

  8. Greedy bases in rank 2 quantum cluster algebras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungyong; Li, Li; Rupel, Dylan; Zelevinsky, Andrei

    2014-07-08

    We identify a quantum lift of the greedy basis for rank 2 coefficient-free cluster algebras. Our main result is that our construction does not depend on the choice of initial cluster, that it builds all cluster monomials, and that it produces bar-invariant elements. We also present several conjectures related to this quantum greedy basis and the triangular basis of Berenstein and Zelevinsky.

  9. BILGO: Bilateral greedy optimization for large scale semidefinite programming

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Zhifeng

    2013-10-03

    Many machine learning tasks (e.g. metric and manifold learning problems) can be formulated as convex semidefinite programs. To enable the application of these tasks on a large-scale, scalability and computational efficiency are considered as desirable properties for a practical semidefinite programming algorithm. In this paper, we theoretically analyze a new bilateral greedy optimization (denoted BILGO) strategy in solving general semidefinite programs on large-scale datasets. As compared to existing methods, BILGO employs a bilateral search strategy during each optimization iteration. In such an iteration, the current semidefinite matrix solution is updated as a bilateral linear combination of the previous solution and a suitable rank-1 matrix, which can be efficiently computed from the leading eigenvector of the descent direction at this iteration. By optimizing for the coefficients of the bilateral combination, BILGO reduces the cost function in every iteration until the KKT conditions are fully satisfied, thus, it tends to converge to a global optimum. In fact, we prove that BILGO converges to the global optimal solution at a rate of O(1/k), where k is the iteration counter. The algorithm thus successfully combines the efficiency of conventional rank-1 update algorithms and the effectiveness of gradient descent. Moreover, BILGO can be easily extended to handle low rank constraints. To validate the effectiveness and efficiency of BILGO, we apply it to two important machine learning tasks, namely Mahalanobis metric learning and maximum variance unfolding. Extensive experimental results clearly demonstrate that BILGO can solve large-scale semidefinite programs efficiently.

  10. Starvation dynamics of a greedy forager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, U.; Redner, S.; Bénichou, O.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a greedy forager that moves by random walking in an environment where each site initially contains one unit of food. Upon encountering a food-containing site, the forager eats all the food there and can subsequently hop an additional S steps without food before starving to death. Upon encountering an empty site, the forager goes hungry and comes one time unit closer to starvation. We investigate the new feature of forager greed; if the forager has a choice between hopping to an empty site or to a food-containing site in its nearest neighborhood, it hops preferentially towards food. If the neighboring sites all contain food or are all empty, the forager hops equiprobably to one of these neighbors. Paradoxically, the lifetime of the forager can depend non-monotonically on greed, and the sense of the non-monotonicity is opposite in one and two dimensions. Even more unexpectedly, the forager lifetime in one dimension is substantially enhanced when the greed is negative; here the forager tends to avoid food in its local neighborhood. We also determine the average amount of food consumed at the instant when the forager starves. We present analytic, heuristic, and numerical results to elucidate these intriguing phenomena.

  11. Comparison of greedy algorithms for α-decision tree construction

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalid, Abdulaziz

    2011-01-01

    A comparison among different heuristics that are used by greedy algorithms which constructs approximate decision trees (α-decision trees) is presented. The comparison is conducted using decision tables based on 24 data sets from UCI Machine Learning Repository [2]. Complexity of decision trees is estimated relative to several cost functions: depth, average depth, number of nodes, number of nonterminal nodes, and number of terminal nodes. Costs of trees built by greedy algorithms are compared with minimum costs calculated by an algorithm based on dynamic programming. The results of experiments assign to each cost function a set of potentially good heuristics that minimize it. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Cyclic Pure Greedy Algorithms for Recovering Compressively Sampled Sparse Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Gribonval, Remi

    2011-01-01

    The pure greedy algorithms matching pursuit (MP) and complementary MP (CompMP) are extremely computationally simple, but can perform poorly in solving the linear inverse problems posed by the recovery of compressively sampled sparse signals. We show that by applying a cyclic minimization principle...

  13. Sensitivity analysis of a greedy heuristic for knapsack problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, D; Chakravarti, N; Sierksma, G

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we carry out parametric analysis as well as a tolerance limit based sensitivity analysis of a greedy heuristic for two knapsack problems-the 0-1 knapsack problem and the subset sum problem. We carry out the parametric analysis based on all problem parameters. In the tolerance limit

  14. Greedy vs. L1 convex optimization in sparse coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2015-01-01

    , such as face and action recognition, a comparative study of codes in abnormal event detection is less studied and hence no conclusion is gained on the effect of codes in detecting abnormalities. We constrict our comparison in two types of the above L0-norm solutions: greedy algorithms and convex L1-norm...

  15. Greedy vs. L1 Convex Optimization in Sparse Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    and action recognition, a comparative study of codes in abnormal event detection is less studied and hence no conclusion is gained on the effect of codes in detecting abnormalities. We constrict our comparison in two types of the above L0-norm solutions: greedy algorithms and convex L1-norm solutions...

  16. Greedy Algorithms for Reduced Bases in Banach Spaces

    KAUST Repository

    DeVore, Ronald

    2013-02-26

    Given a Banach space X and one of its compact sets F, we consider the problem of finding a good n-dimensional space X n⊂X which can be used to approximate the elements of F. The best possible error we can achieve for such an approximation is given by the Kolmogorov width dn(F)X. However, finding the space which gives this performance is typically numerically intractable. Recently, a new greedy strategy for obtaining good spaces was given in the context of the reduced basis method for solving a parametric family of PDEs. The performance of this greedy algorithm was initially analyzed in Buffa et al. (Modél. Math. Anal. Numér. 46:595-603, 2012) in the case X=H is a Hilbert space. The results of Buffa et al. (Modél. Math. Anal. Numér. 46:595-603, 2012) were significantly improved upon in Binev et al. (SIAM J. Math. Anal. 43:1457-1472, 2011). The purpose of the present paper is to give a new analysis of the performance of such greedy algorithms. Our analysis not only gives improved results for the Hilbert space case but can also be applied to the same greedy procedure in general Banach spaces. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  17. Application of a greedy algorithm to military aircraft fleet retirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, J.M.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Udluft, H.; Curran, Ricky

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a retirement analysis model for aircraft fleets. By employing a greedy algorithm, the presented solution is capable of identifying individually weak assets in a fleet of aircraft with inhomogeneous historical utilization. The model forecasts future retirement scenarios

  18. A Guiding Evolutionary Algorithm with Greedy Strategy for Global Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Guiding Evolutionary Algorithm (GEA with greedy strategy for global optimization problems is proposed. Inspired by Particle Swarm Optimization, the Genetic Algorithm, and the Bat Algorithm, the GEA was designed to retain some advantages of each method while avoiding some disadvantages. In contrast to the usual Genetic Algorithm, each individual in GEA is crossed with the current global best one instead of a randomly selected individual. The current best individual served as a guide to attract offspring to its region of genotype space. Mutation was added to offspring according to a dynamic mutation probability. To increase the capability of exploitation, a local search mechanism was applied to new individuals according to a dynamic probability of local search. Experimental results show that GEA outperformed the other three typical global optimization algorithms with which it was compared.

  19. MotifMiner: A Table Driven Greedy Algorithm for DNA Motif Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeja, K. R.; Alam, M. A.; Jain, S. K.

    DNA motif discovery is a much explored problem in functional genomics. This paper describes a table driven greedy algorithm for discovering regulatory motifs in the promoter sequences of co-expressed genes. The proposed algorithm searches both DNA strands for the common patterns or motifs. The inputs to the algorithm are set of promoter sequences, the motif length and minimum Information Content. The algorithm generates subsequences of given length from the shortest input promoter sequence. It stores these subsequences and their reverse complements in a table. Then it searches the remaining sequences for good matches of these subsequences. The Information Content score is used to measure the goodness of the motifs. The algorithm has been tested with synthetic data and real data. The results are found promising. The algorithm could discover meaningful motifs from the muscle specific regulatory sequences.

  20. Penerapan Algoritma Greedy Pada Mesin Penjual Otomatis (Vending Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamsyah -

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalam memasarkan produk minuman dan makanan ringan, Indonesia masih banyak menggunakan tenaga manusia untuk menyalurkan produk tersebut dari pabrik sampai ke konsumen akhir. Jika setiap toko membeli produk dalam jumlah banyak, maka didapatkan keuntungan yang besar dalam penjualan produk tersebut. Hal ini menyebabkan harga penjualan produk yang sampai ke konsumen akhir lebih mahal daripada harga asli yang diberikan oleh pabrik. Dengan permasalahan tersebut, penulis mencoba membuat aplikasi mesin penjual otomatis (vending machine. Pada umumnya vending machine tidak memberikan uang kembalian. Disini penulis mencoba membuat vending machine dengan menerapkan algoritma Greedy agar dapat memberikan uang kembalian sehingga harga penjualan produk sesuai dengan harga asli pabrik. Algoritma Greedy diterapkan untuk menentukan pecahan berapa saja yang muncul dalam proses pengembalian uang dengan meminimalkan jumlah uang logamnya. Penulis menggunakan aplikasi Visual Basic untuk menerapkan program vending machine. 

  1. A Greedy Algorithm for a Special Class of Geometric Set Covering Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Bechmann, Andreas

    of a geometric set covering problem we propose a greedy type algorithm. We also propose a linear mixed 0 – 1 formulation of the problem. For each problem instance this formulation is solved by a commercial branch-andcut solver and the results are used to validate the quality of the solution from the greedy...... algorithm. The greedy algorithm finds the minimum number of squares for all but one problem instances from a set of 26 representative real-world examples....

  2. Greedy SINR Maximization in Collaborative Multibase Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Otilia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a codeword adaptation algorithm for collaborative multibase wireless systems. The system is modeled with multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO in which information is transmitted using multicode CDMA, and codewords are adapted based on greedy maximization of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio. The procedure monotonically increases the sum capacity and, when repeated iteratively for all codewords in the system, converges to a fixed point. Fixed-point properties and a connection with sum capacity maximization, along with a discussion of simulations that corroborate the basic analytic results, are included in the paper.

  3. GRISOTTO: A greedy approach to improve combinatorial algorithms for motif discovery with prior knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Arlindo L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Position-specific priors (PSP have been used with success to boost EM and Gibbs sampler-based motif discovery algorithms. PSP information has been computed from different sources, including orthologous conservation, DNA duplex stability, and nucleosome positioning. The use of prior information has not yet been used in the context of combinatorial algorithms. Moreover, priors have been used only independently, and the gain of combining priors from different sources has not yet been studied. Results We extend RISOTTO, a combinatorial algorithm for motif discovery, by post-processing its output with a greedy procedure that uses prior information. PSP's from different sources are combined into a scoring criterion that guides the greedy search procedure. The resulting method, called GRISOTTO, was evaluated over 156 yeast TF ChIP-chip sequence-sets commonly used to benchmark prior-based motif discovery algorithms. Results show that GRISOTTO is at least as accurate as other twelve state-of-the-art approaches for the same task, even without combining priors. Furthermore, by considering combined priors, GRISOTTO is considerably more accurate than the state-of-the-art approaches for the same task. We also show that PSP's improve GRISOTTO ability to retrieve motifs from mouse ChiP-seq data, indicating that the proposed algorithm can be applied to data from a different technology and for a higher eukaryote. Conclusions The conclusions of this work are twofold. First, post-processing the output of combinatorial algorithms by incorporating prior information leads to a very efficient and effective motif discovery method. Second, combining priors from different sources is even more beneficial than considering them separately.

  4. How to make a greedy heuristic for the asymmetric traveling salesman problem competitive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldengorin, B.; Jäger, G.

    2005-01-01

    It is widely confirmed by many computational experiments that a greedy type heuristics for the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) produces rather poor solutions except for the Euclidean TSP. The selection of arcs to be included by a greedy heuristic is usually done on the base of cost values. We

  5. Deep greedy learning under thermal variability in full diurnal cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauss, Patrick; Rosario, Dalton

    2017-08-01

    We study the generalization and scalability behavior of a deep belief network (DBN) applied to a challenging long-wave infrared hyperspectral dataset, consisting of radiance from several manmade and natural materials within a fixed site located 500 m from an observation tower. The collections cover multiple full diurnal cycles and include different atmospheric conditions. Using complementary priors, a DBN uses a greedy algorithm that can learn deep, directed belief networks one layer at a time and has two layers form to provide undirected associative memory. The greedy algorithm initializes a slower learning procedure, which fine-tunes the weights, using a contrastive version of the wake-sleep algorithm. After fine-tuning, a network with three hidden layers forms a very good generative model of the joint distribution of spectral data and their labels, despite significant data variability between and within classes due to environmental and temperature variation occurring within and between full diurnal cycles. We argue, however, that more questions than answers are raised regarding the generalization capacity of these deep nets through experiments aimed at investigating their training and augmented learning behavior.

  6. A shooting approach to suboptimal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, David G.; Sheen, Jyh-Jong

    1991-01-01

    The shooting method is used to solve the suboptimal control problem where the control history is assumed to be piecewise linear. Suboptimal solutions can be obtained without difficulty and can lead to accurate approximate controls and good starting multipliers for the regular shooting method by increasing the number of nodes. Optimal planar launch trajectories are presented for the advanced launch system.

  7. WFIRST: Exoplanet Target Selection and Scheduling with Greedy Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keithly, Dean; Garrett, Daniel; Delacroix, Christian; Savransky, Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    We present target selection and scheduling algorithms for missions with direct imaging of exoplanets, and the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) in particular, which will be equipped with a coronagraphic instrument (CGI). Optimal scheduling of CGI targets can maximize the expected value of directly imaged exoplanets (completeness). Using target completeness as a reward metric and integration time plus overhead time as a cost metric, we can maximize the sum completeness for a mission with a fixed duration. We optimize over these metrics to create a list of target stars using a greedy optimization algorithm based off altruistic yield optimization (AYO) under ideal conditions. We simulate full missions using EXOSIMS by observing targets in this list for their predetermined integration times. In this poster, we report the theoretical maximum sum completeness, mean number of detected exoplanets from Monte Carlo simulations, and the ideal expected value of the simulated missions.

  8. Efficient greedy algorithms for economic manpower shift planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearchou, A. C.; Giannikos, I. C.; Lagodimos, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Consideration is given to the economic manpower shift planning (EMSP) problem, an NP-hard capacity planning problem appearing in various industrial settings including the packing stage of production in process industries and maintenance operations. EMSP aims to determine the manpower needed in each available workday shift of a given planning horizon so as to complete a set of independent jobs at minimum cost. Three greedy heuristics are presented for the EMSP solution. These practically constitute adaptations of an existing algorithm for a simplified version of EMSP which had shown excellent performance in terms of solution quality and speed. Experimentation shows that the new algorithms perform very well in comparison to the results obtained by both the CPLEX optimizer and an existing metaheuristic. Statistical analysis is deployed to rank the algorithms in terms of their solution quality and to identify the effects that critical planning factors may have on their relative efficiency.

  9. A greedy double swap heuristic for nurse scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Choy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the key challenges of nurse scheduling problem (NSP is the number of constraints placed on preparing the timetable, both from the regulatory requirements as well as the patients’ demand for the appropriate nursing care specialists. In addition, the preferences of the nursing staffs related to their work schedules add another dimension of complexity. Most solutions proposed for solving nurse scheduling involve the use of mathematical programming and generally considers only the hard constraints. However, the psychological needs of the nurses are ignored and this resulted in subsequent interventions by the nursing staffs to remedy any deficiency and often results in last minute changes to the schedule. In this paper, we present a staff preference optimization framework solved with a greedy double swap heuristic. The heuristic yields good performance in speed at solving the problem. The heuristic is simple and we will demonstrate its performance by implementing it on open source spreadsheet software.

  10. Comparison of Greedy Algorithms for Decision Tree Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalid, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the study of 16 types of greedy algorithms for decision tree construction. The dynamic programming approach is used for construction of optimal decision trees. Optimization is performed relative to minimal values of average depth, depth, number of nodes, number of terminal nodes, and number of nonterminal nodes of decision trees. We compare average depth, depth, number of nodes, number of terminal nodes and number of nonterminal nodes of constructed trees with minimum values of the considered parameters obtained based on a dynamic programming approach. We report experiments performed on data sets from UCI ML Repository and randomly generated binary decision tables. As a result, for depth, average depth, and number of nodes we propose a number of good heuristics. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

  11. An iterated greedy algorithm for the single-machine total weighted tardiness problem with sequence-dependent setup times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Guanlong; Gu, Xingsheng

    2014-03-01

    This article presents an enhanced iterated greedy (EIG) algorithm that searches both insert and swap neighbourhoods for the single-machine total weighted tardiness problem with sequence-dependent setup times. Novel elimination rules and speed-ups are proposed for the swap move to make the employment of swap neighbourhood worthwhile due to its reduced computational expense. Moreover, a perturbation operator is newly designed as a substitute for the existing destruction and construction procedures to prevent the search from being attracted to local optima. To validate the proposed algorithm, computational experiments are conducted on a benchmark set from the literature. The results show that the EIG outperforms the existing state-of-the-art algorithms for the considered problem.

  12. Formal Modeling of Greedy Nodes in 802.15.4 WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Hammal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with formal specification of the non-slotted CSMA/CA protocol in wireless sensor networks(WSN whose some nodes own a greedy behavior. This protocol requires sensor nodes to wait some time before initiating a transmission, whereas greedy nodes may try to reduce their waiting duration, which may penalize other nodes. To analyze their impact on WSN mode in operation, we use timed automata of the model-checker UPPAAL to capture the abstract behavior of communication medium, sane, and greedy nodes in WSN. This enables the use of analysis tools to check whether these models satisfy intended properties.

  13. A greedy heuristic algorithm for solving the capacitated planar multi-facility location-allocation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Martino; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli; Lin, Abdullah

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the capacitated planar multi-facility location-allocation problem by considering various capacity constraints. The problem is also known as the capacitated multi-source Weber problem, where the number of facilities to be located is specified and each of which has a capacity constraint. An efficient greedy randomised adaptive search procedure (GRASP) is proposed to deal with the problem. A scheme that applies the furthest distance rule (FDR) and self-adjusted threshold parameters to generate initial facility locations that are situated sparsely within GRASP framework is also presented. The construction of the restricted candidate list (RCL) within GRASP is also guided by applying a concept of restricted regions that prevents new facility locations to be sited too close to the previous selected facility locations. The performance of the proposed GRASP heuristics is tested using benchmark data sets from literature. The computational experiments show that the proposed methods provide encouraging solutions when compared to recently published papers. Some future research avenues on the subject are also briefly highlighted.

  14. Deterministic Greedy Routing with Guaranteed Delivery in 3D Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Xia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With both computational complexity and storage space bounded by a small constant, greedy routing is recognized as an appealing approach to support scalable routing in wireless sensor networks. However, significant challenges have been encountered in extending greedy routing from 2D to 3D space. In this research, we develop decentralized solutions to achieve greedy routing in 3D sensor networks. Our proposed approach is based on a unit tetrahedron cell (UTC mesh structure. We propose a distributed algorithm to realize volumetric harmonic mapping (VHM of the UTC mesh under spherical boundary condition. It is a one-to-one map that yields virtual coordinates for each node in the network without or with one internal hole. Since a boundary has been mapped to a sphere, node-based greedy routing is always successful thereon. At the same time, we exploit the UTC mesh to develop a face-based greedy routing algorithm and prove its success at internal nodes. To deliver a data packet to its destination, face-based and node-based greedy routing algorithms are employed alternately at internal and boundary UTCs, respectively. For networks with multiple internal holes, a segmentation and tunnel-based routing strategy is proposed on top of VHM to support global end-to-end routing. As far as we know, this is the first work that realizes truly deterministic routing with constant-bounded storage and computation in general 3D wireless sensor networks.

  15. Adaptive Greedy Dictionary Selection for Web Media Summarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Yang; Liu, Ji; Sun, Gan; You, Quanzeng; Li, Yuncheng; Luo, Jiebo

    2017-01-01

    Initializing an effective dictionary is an indispensable step for sparse representation. In this paper, we focus on the dictionary selection problem with the objective to select a compact subset of basis from original training data instead of learning a new dictionary matrix as dictionary learning models do. We first design a new dictionary selection model via l2,0 norm. For model optimization, we propose two methods: one is the standard forward-backward greedy algorithm, which is not suitable for large-scale problems; the other is based on the gradient cues at each forward iteration and speeds up the process dramatically. In comparison with the state-of-the-art dictionary selection models, our model is not only more effective and efficient, but also can control the sparsity. To evaluate the performance of our new model, we select two practical web media summarization problems: 1) we build a new data set consisting of around 500 users, 3000 albums, and 1 million images, and achieve effective assisted albuming based on our model and 2) by formulating the video summarization problem as a dictionary selection issue, we employ our model to extract keyframes from a video sequence in a more flexible way. Generally, our model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in both these two tasks.

  16. Ship Block Transportation Scheduling Problem Based on Greedy Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ship block transportation problems are crucial issues to address in reducing the construction cost and improving the productivity of shipyards. Shipyards aim to maximize the workload balance of transporters with time constraint such that all blocks should be transported during the planning horizon. This process leads to three types of penalty time: empty transporter travel time, delay time, and tardy time. This study aims to minimize the sum of the penalty time. First, this study presents the problem of ship block transportation with the generalization of the block transportation restriction on the multi-type transporter. Second, the problem is transformed into the classical traveling salesman problem and assignment problem through a reasonable model simplification and by adding a virtual node to the proposed directed graph. Then, a heuristic algorithm based on greedy algorithm is proposed to assign blocks to available transporters and sequencing blocks for each transporter simultaneously. Finally, the numerical experiment method is used to validate the model, and its result shows that the proposed algorithm is effective in realizing the efficient use of the transporters in shipyards. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the promising application of the proposed method to efficiently improve the utilization of transporters and to reduce the cost of ship block logistics for shipyards.

  17. Suboptimal glycemic control in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, F; Denollet, J

    2012-01-01

    , clinical, lifestyle and psychological factors between 2005 and 2009. The Edinburgh Depression Scale was used to assess symptoms of depressed mood, anhedonia and anxiety. Suboptimal glycemic control was defined as HbA(1c) values ≥7%, with 29.8% of the sample (n=1718) scoring above this cut......-off. In univariate logistic regression analyses, anhedonia was significantly associated with suboptimal glycemic control (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.09-1.52), while both depressed mood (OR 1.04, 0.88-1.22) and anxiety (OR 0.99, 0.83-1.19) were not. The association between anhedonia and glycemic control remained after...

  18. Biased and greedy random walks on two-dimensional lattices with quenched randomness: The greedy ant within a disordered environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitran, T. L.; Melchert, O.; Hartmann, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    The main characteristics of biased greedy random walks (BGRWs) on two-dimensional lattices with real-valued quenched disorder on the lattice edges are studied. Here the disorder allows for negative edge weights. In previous studies, considering the negative-weight percolation (NWP) problem, this was shown to change the universality class of the existing, static percolation transition. In the presented study, four different types of BGRWs and an algorithm based on the ant colony optimization heuristic were considered. Regarding the BGRWs, the precise configurations of the lattice walks constructed during the numerical simulations were influenced by two parameters: a disorder parameter ρ that controls the amount of negative edge weights on the lattice and a bias strength B that governs the drift of the walkers along a certain lattice direction. The random walks are “greedy” in the sense that the local optimal choice of the walker is to preferentially traverse edges with a negative weight (associated with a net gain of “energy” for the walker). Here, the pivotal observable is the probability that, after termination, a lattice walk exhibits a total negative weight, which is here considered as percolating. The behavior of this observable as function of ρ for different bias strengths B is put under scrutiny. Upon tuning ρ, the probability to find such a feasible lattice walk increases from zero to 1. This is the key feature of the percolation transition in the NWP model. Here, we address the question how well the transition point ρc, resulting from numerically exact and “static” simulations in terms of the NWP model, can be resolved using simple dynamic algorithms that have only local information available, one of the basic questions in the physics of glassy systems.

  19. Greedy and metaheuristics for the offline scheduling problem in grid computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette

    metaheuristics for solving the offline scheduling problem are introduced. Computationally evaluating the heuristics shows that all heuristics find useful solutions with a gap of 20\\% between upper and lower bounds. The metaheuristics give better results than the greedy heuristics, but also have larger time usage...

  20. TRIGONOMETRIC QUASI-GREEDY BASES FOR L-p (T; w)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    We give a complete characterization of 2π-periodic weights w for which the usual trigonometric system forms a quasi-greedy basis for Lp(T;w), i.e. bases for which simple thresholding approximants converge in norm. The characterization implies that this can happen only for p=2 and whenever the sys...

  1. Evaluation of a Didactic Method for the Active Learning of Greedy Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Sánchez, Natalia; Pizarro, Celeste; Velázquez-Iturbide, J. Ángel

    2014-01-01

    An evaluation of the educational effectiveness of a didactic method for the active learning of greedy algorithms is presented. The didactic method sets students structured-inquiry challenges to be addressed with a specific experimental method, supported by the interactive system GreedEx. This didactic method has been refined over several years of…

  2. Evaluation of a Didactic Method for the Active Learning of Greedy Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Sánchez, Natalia; Pizarro, Celeste; Velázquez-Iturbide, J. Ángel

    An evaluation of the educational effectiveness of a didactic method for the active learning of greedy algorithms is presented. The didactic method sets students structured-inquiry challenges to be addressed with a specific experimental method, supported by the interactive system GreedEx. This didactic method has been refined over several years of…

  3. GreedEx: A Visualization Tool for Experimentation and Discovery Learning of Greedy Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Iturbide, J. A.; Debdi, O.; Esteban-Sanchez, N.; Pizarro, C.

    2013-01-01

    Several years ago we presented an experimental, discovery-learning approach to the active learning of greedy algorithms. This paper presents GreedEx, a visualization tool developed to support this didactic method. The paper states the design goals of GreedEx, makes explicit the major design decisions adopted, and describes its main characteristics…

  4. On Suboptimal Solution of Antagonistic Matrix Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryashko Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines resource allocation games such as Colonel Blotto and Colonel Lotto games with the goal to develop tractable method for building suboptimal solution in mixed strategies of these games without solving the relevant optimization problem. The foundation of proposed method lies in the specific combinatorial properties of the partition games. It turned out that as far as distribution of resource along battlefield is concerned that pure strategies participating in ε-optimal solution possessed specific structure. Numerical experiments showed that these specific structural peculiarities can be easily reproduced utilizing previously found combinatorial properties of partition. As a result, we get ε-optimal solution of partition games and support set mixed strategies can be computed in polynomial time.

  5. 'Misclassification error' greedy heuristic to construct decision trees for inconsistent decision tables

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    A greedy algorithm has been presented in this paper to construct decision trees for three different approaches (many-valued decision, most common decision, and generalized decision) in order to handle the inconsistency of multiple decisions in a decision table. In this algorithm, a greedy heuristic ‘misclassification error’ is used which performs faster, and for some cost function, results are better than ‘number of boundary subtables’ heuristic in literature. Therefore, it can be used in the case of larger data sets and does not require huge amount of memory. Experimental results of depth, average depth and number of nodes of decision trees constructed by this algorithm are compared in the framework of each of the three approaches.

  6. A Statistical Model for Uplink Intercell Interference with Power Adaptation and Greedy Scheduling

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina

    2012-10-03

    This paper deals with the statistical modeling of uplink inter-cell interference (ICI) considering greedy scheduling with power adaptation based on channel conditions. The derived model is implicitly generalized for any kind of shadowing and fading environments. More precisely, we develop a generic model for the distribution of ICI based on the locations of the allocated users and their transmit powers. The derived model is utilized to evaluate important network performance metrics such as ergodic capacity, average fairness and average power preservation numerically. Monte-Carlo simulation details are included to support the analysis and show the accuracy of the derived expressions. In parallel to the literature, we show that greedy scheduling with power adaptation reduces the ICI, average power consumption of users, and enhances the average fairness among users, compared to the case without power adaptation. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Greedy heuristic algorithm for solving series of eee components classification problems*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakovtsev, A. L.; Antamoshkin, A. N.; Fedosov, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    Algorithms based on using the agglomerative greedy heuristics demonstrate precise and stable results for clustering problems based on k- means and p-median models. Such algorithms are successfully implemented in the processes of production of specialized EEE components for using in space systems which include testing each EEE device and detection of homogeneous production batches of the EEE components based on results of the tests using p-median models. In this paper, authors propose a new version of the genetic algorithm with the greedy agglomerative heuristic which allows solving series of problems. Such algorithm is useful for solving the k-means and p-median clustering problems when the number of clusters is unknown. Computational experiments on real data show that the preciseness of the result decreases insignificantly in comparison with the initial genetic algorithm for solving a single problem.

  8. A Greedy Approach for Placement of Subsurface Aquifer Wells in an Ensemble Filtering Framework

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2015-11-26

    Optimizing wells placement may help in better understanding subsurface solute transport and detecting contaminant plumes. In this work, we use the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) as a data assimilation tool and propose a greedy observational design algorithm to optimally select aquifer wells locations for updating the prior contaminant ensemble. The algorithm is greedy in the sense that it operates sequentially, without taking into account expected future gains. The selection criteria is based on maximizing the information gain that the EnKF carries during the update of the prior uncertainties. We test the efficiency of this algorithm in a synthetic aquifer system where a contaminant plume is set to migrate over a 30 years period across a heterogenous domain.

  9. Peptide Suboptimal Conformation Sampling for the Prediction of Protein-Peptide Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiable, Alexis; Thévenet, Pierre; Eustache, Stephanie; Saladin, Adrien; Moroy, Gautier; Tuffery, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The blind identification of candidate patches of interaction on the protein surface is a difficult task that can hardly be accomplished without a heuristic or the use of simplified representations to speed up the search. The PEP-SiteFinder protocol performs a systematic blind search on the protein surface using a rigid docking procedure applied to a limited set of peptide suboptimal conformations expected to approximate satisfactorily the conformation of the peptide in interaction. All steps rely on a coarse-grained representation of the protein and the peptide. While simple, such a protocol can help to infer useful information, assuming a critical analysis of the results. Moreover, such a protocol can be extended to a semi-flexible protocol where the suboptimal conformations are directly folded in the vicinity of the receptor.

  10. Greedy heuristics for minimization of number of terminal nodes in decision trees

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Shahid

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes, in detail, several greedy heuristics for construction of decision trees. We study the number of terminal nodes of decision trees, which is closely related with the cardinality of the set of rules corresponding to the tree. We compare these heuristics empirically for two different types of datasets (datasets acquired from UCI ML Repository and randomly generated data) as well as compare with the optimal results obtained using dynamic programming method.

  11. Greedy algorithms for construction of approximate tests for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2012-12-14

    The paper is devoted to the study of a greedy algorithm for construction of approximate tests (super-reducts) This algorithm is applicable to decision tables with many-valued decisions where each row is labeled with a set of decisions For a given row, we should find a decision from the set attached to this row We consider bounds on the precision of this algorithm relative to the cardinality of tests.

  12. Optimization and Operation Scheduling for a Steel Plate yard Based on Greedy Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiying Zhang; Peng Wang; Weize Wang

    2013-01-01

    The inbound and outbound operation of plate yards in shipyards lacks effective scheduling with high operation costs. Based on the analysis of steel-in and steel-out operation process, an optimization model aiming to minimize the operation cost was established. The model was formulated as a multi-level combinatorial optimization model, which is finding proper storage locations during the steel-in stage to minimize the cost during the steel-out stage. Furthermore, greedy algorithm was implement...

  13. Detection and Estimation of Arrivals in Room Impulse Responses by Greedy Sparse Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Defrance, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the use of greedy sparse approximation for facilitating the time-domain analysis of room impulse responses (RIRs), specifically locating the times and amplitudes of arrivals to not long after the upper bound of the ``mixing time,'' i.e., the time after which there exists in theory ...... the performance of each estimator using dynamic time warping to optimally pair estimated and true arrivals. We find OMP significantly outperforms MP in estimating both the arrival times and amplitudes, and having fewer erroneous and duplicated arrivals.......We investigate the use of greedy sparse approximation for facilitating the time-domain analysis of room impulse responses (RIRs), specifically locating the times and amplitudes of arrivals to not long after the upper bound of the ``mixing time,'' i.e., the time after which there exists in theory...... the same number of sound rays per unit volume throughout the room. We compare the performance of two methods of greedy sparse approximation --- matching pursuit (MP) and orthogonal MP (OMP) --- for estimating arrival times and amplitudes. By using RIRs generated from a stochastic model, we quantify...

  14. Greedy and Linear Ensembles of Machine Learning Methods Outperform Single Approaches for QSPR Regression Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, William; Mitchell, John B O

    2015-09-01

    The application of Machine Learning to cheminformatics is a large and active field of research, but there exist few papers which discuss whether ensembles of different Machine Learning methods can improve upon the performance of their component methodologies. Here we investigated a variety of methods, including kernel-based, tree, linear, neural networks, and both greedy and linear ensemble methods. These were all tested against a standardised methodology for regression with data relevant to the pharmaceutical development process. This investigation focused on QSPR problems within drug-like chemical space. We aimed to investigate which methods perform best, and how the 'wisdom of crowds' principle can be applied to ensemble predictors. It was found that no single method performs best for all problems, but that a dynamic, well-structured ensemble predictor would perform very well across the board, usually providing an improvement in performance over the best single method. Its use of weighting factors allows the greedy ensemble to acquire a bigger contribution from the better performing models, and this helps the greedy ensemble generally to outperform the simpler linear ensemble. Choice of data preprocessing methodology was found to be crucial to performance of each method too. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Analysis of Greedy Decision Making for Geographic Routing for Networks of Randomly Moving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Israr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous and self-organizing wireless ad-hoc communication networks for moving objects consist of nodes, which use no centralized network infrastructure. Examples of moving object networks are networks of flying objects, networks of vehicles, networks of moving people or robots. Moving object networks have to face many critical challenges in terms of routing because of dynamic topological changes and asymmetric networks links. A suitable and effective routing mechanism helps to extend the deployment of moving nodes. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyze the performance of the Greedy Decision method (position aware distance based algorithm for geographic routing for network nodes moving according to the random waypoint mobility model. The widely used GPSR (Greedy Packet Stateless Routing protocol utilizes geographic distance and position based data of nodes to transmit packets towards destination nodes. In this paper different scenarios have been tested to develop a concrete set of recommendations for optimum deployment of distance based Greedy Decision of Geographic Routing in randomly moving objects network

  16. Fixing Dataset Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Three current search engines are queried for ozone data at the GES DISC. The results range from sub-optimal to counter-intuitive. We propose a method to fix dataset search by implementing a robust relevancy ranking scheme. The relevancy ranking scheme is based on several heuristics culled from more than 20 years of helping users select datasets.

  17. Design of ACM system based on non-greedy punctured LDPC codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zijun; Jiang, Zihong; Zhou, Lin; He, Yucheng

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, an adaptive coded modulation (ACM) scheme based on rate-compatible LDPC (RC-LDPC) codes was designed. The RC-LDPC codes were constructed by a non-greedy puncturing method which showed good performance in high code rate region. Moreover, the incremental redundancy scheme of LDPC-based ACM system over AWGN channel was proposed. By this scheme, code rates vary from 2/3 to 5/6 and the complication of the ACM system is lowered. Simulations show that more and more obvious coding gain can be obtained by the proposed ACM system with higher throughput.

  18. Suboptimal light conditions influence source-sink metabolism during flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies eChristiaens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids. Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural and optimal (supplemental light light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions.

  19. Effective Iterated Greedy Algorithm for Flow-Shop Scheduling Problems with Time lags

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHAO, Ning; YE, Song; LI, Kaidian; CHEN, Siyu

    2017-05-01

    Flow shop scheduling problem with time lags is a practical scheduling problem and attracts many studies. Permutation problem(PFSP with time lags) is concentrated but non-permutation problem(non-PFSP with time lags) seems to be neglected. With the aim to minimize the makespan and satisfy time lag constraints, efficient algorithms corresponding to PFSP and non-PFSP problems are proposed, which consist of iterated greedy algorithm for permutation(IGTLP) and iterated greedy algorithm for non-permutation (IGTLNP). The proposed algorithms are verified using well-known simple and complex instances of permutation and non-permutation problems with various time lag ranges. The permutation results indicate that the proposed IGTLP can reach near optimal solution within nearly 11% computational time of traditional GA approach. The non-permutation results indicate that the proposed IG can reach nearly same solution within less than 1% computational time compared with traditional GA approach. The proposed research combines PFSP and non-PFSP together with minimal and maximal time lag consideration, which provides an interesting viewpoint for industrial implementation.

  20. Robust Nonlinear Regression: A Greedy Approach Employing Kernels With Application to Image Denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George; Bouboulis, Pantelis; Theodoridis, Sergios

    2017-08-01

    We consider the task of robust non-linear regression in the presence of both inlier noise and outliers. Assuming that the unknown non-linear function belongs to a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS), our goal is to estimate the set of the associated unknown parameters. Due to the presence of outliers, common techniques such as the Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) or the Support Vector Regression (SVR) turn out to be inadequate. Instead, we employ sparse modeling arguments to explicitly model and estimate the outliers, adopting a greedy approach. The proposed robust scheme, i.e., Kernel Greedy Algorithm for Robust Denoising (KGARD), is inspired by the classical Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) algorithm. Specifically, the proposed method alternates between a KRR task and an OMP-like selection step. Theoretical results concerning the identification of the outliers are provided. Moreover, KGARD is compared against other cutting edge methods, where its performance is evaluated via a set of experiments with various types of noise. Finally, the proposed robust estimation framework is applied to the task of image denoising, and its enhanced performance in the presence of outliers is demonstrated.

  1. Comparing imagery in The Greedy Hippo and Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Botha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article used as point of departure the Ngano song-story entitled The Greedy Hippo as developed by Christiaan van der Westhuizen and based on the Tambani embroidery project. This animated interpretation of The Greedy Hippo is used to further the aims of interdisciplinary research as stated by the original project by comparing its fantasy imagery with that of the Chinese film Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon by director Ang Lee. The analysis of the images in both works of art has been based on Jungian archetypes, with specific reference to the need for an esoteric and imaginative reading of fantasy in the chosen works of art. Reference was made to the dominant role of realism as style in Western art as opposed to the more esoteric, symbolic, and fantasy imagery of the art of other cultures, with emphasis on China. Chinese landscape painting and even poetry has been briefly contextualised with regards to the chosen works of art. Finally, the different characters of both works of art were analysed within the contexts of their symbolic meanings as based on Jungian archetypes, with particular reference to the scenes where the characters are depicted as flying through the air, which were explained within the contexts of Wu Xia martial arts style films.s.

  2. Incremental approach for radial basis functions mesh deformation with greedy algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Mohamed M.; Koomullil, Roy P.; Shehata, Ahmed S.

    2017-07-01

    Mesh Deformation is an important element of any fluid-structure interaction simulation. In this article, a new methodology is presented for the deformation of volume meshes using incremental radial basis function (RBF) based interpolation. A greedy algorithm is used to select a small subset of the surface nodes iteratively. Two incremental approaches are introduced to solve the RBF system of equations: 1) block matrix inversion based approach and 2) modified LU decomposition approach. The use of incremental approach decreased the computational complexity of solving the system of equations within each greedy algorithm's iteration from O (n3) to O (n2). Results are presented from an accuracy study using specified deformations on a 2D surface. Mesh deformations for bending and twisting of a 3D rectangular supercritical wing have been demonstrated. Outcomes showed the incremental approaches reduce the CPU time up to 67% as compared to a traditional RBF matrix solver. Finally, the proposed mesh deformation approach was integrated within a fluid-structure interaction solver for investigating a flow induced cantilever beam vibration.

  3. Comparative Performance Analysis of G-RAKE Receivers with Suboptimal Finger Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Baltzis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Generalized RAKE (G-RAKE reception reduces the total amount of interference and provides enhanced diversity by comprising extra fingers to collect information about interference and further using channel and impairment correlation estimates for fingers allocation. However, the hardware complexity and the excessive computational requirements of GRAKE receivers may restrict their application in real systems; thus, suboptimal solutions are commonly used. In this paper, we propose and evaluate three maximum likelihood G-RAKE structures for colored noise with suboptimal finger placement. In all implementations, the fingers are optimally distributed within a time window that spans from several chip periods before the first arriving multipath to several chip periods after the latest one. The first receiver has its fingers at integer multiples of the chip period while in the rest two structures the search window is segmented in halves and tenths of the chip duration. This work also extends earlier studies by thoroughly investigating the impact of fractionally spaced finger placement on system performance. Our analysis shows that a suboptimal finger allocation reduces hardware complexity with negligible performance loss. The impact of channel delay spread and processing gain on system performance is also investigated and gives interesting results.

  4. Suboptimal palliative sedation in primary care: an exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pype, Peter; Teuwen, Inge; Mertens, Fien; Sercu, Marij; De Sutter, An

    2017-06-05

    Palliative sedation is a therapeutic option to control refractory symptoms in terminal palliative patients. This study aims at describing the occurrence and characteristics of suboptimal palliative sedations in primary care and at exploring the way general practitioners (GPs) experience suboptimal palliative sedation in their practice. We conducted a mixed methods study with a quantitative prospective survey in primary care and qualitative semi-structured interviews with GPs. The research team defined suboptimal palliative sedation as a time interval until deep sleep >1.5 h and/ or >2 awakenings after the start of the unconsciousness. Descriptive statistics were calculated on the quantitative data. Thematic analysis was used to analyse interview transcripts. We registered 63 palliative sedations in 1181 home deaths, 27 forms were completed. Eleven palliative sedations were suboptimal: eight due to the long time span until deep sleep; three due the number of unintended awakenings. GPs' interview analysis revealed two major themes: the shifting perception of failure and the burden of responsibility. Suboptimal palliative sedation occurs frequently in primary palliative care. Efficient communication towards family members is needed to prevent them from having unrealistic expectations and to prevent putting pressure on the GP to hasten the procedure. Sharing the burden of decision-making during the procedure with other health care professionals might diminish the heavy responsibility as perceived by GPs.

  5. Suboptimal Rate Adaptive Resource Allocation for Downlink OFDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanam Sadr

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the performance of low complexity adaptive resource allocation in the downlink of OFDMA systems with fixed or variable rate requirements (with fairness consideration. Two suboptimal resource allocation algorithms are proposed using the simplifying assumption of transmit power over the entire bandwidth. The objective of the first algorithm is to maximize the total throughput while maintaining rate proportionality among the users. The proposed suboptimal algorithm prioritizes the user with the highest sensitivity to the subcarrier allocation, and the variance over the subchannel gains is used to define the sensitivity of each user. The second algorithm concerns rate adaptive resource allocation in multiuser systems with fixed rate constraints. We propose a suboptimal joint subchannel and power allocation algorithm which prioritizes the users with the highest required data rates. The main feature of this algorithm is its low complexity while achieving the rate requirements.

  6. Suboptimal care in stillbirths - a retrospective audit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saastad, Eli; Vangen, Siri; Frøen, J Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Stillbirth rates have decreased radically over the last decades. One reason for this is improved perinatal care. The aim of this study was to explore whether sub-optimal factors in stillbirths were more frequent among non-western than western women. Population-based perinatal audit of 356 stillbirths after gestational week 23, in 2 Norwegian counties during 1998-2003 (4.2 per 1,000 deliveries); of these 31% were born to non-western women. By audit, the stillbirths were attributed to optimal or sub-optimal care factors. Multivariate methods were used to analyse the data. Sub-optimal factors were identified in 37% of the deaths. When compared to western women, non-western women had an increased risk of stillbirth (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.8), and an increased risk of sub-optimal care (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5-3.9). More often, non-western women received sub-optimal obstetric care (plabour progression. A common failure in antenatal care for both groups was unidentified or inadequate management of intrauterine growth restriction or decreased fetal movements. Non-western women were less prone to attend the program for antenatal care or to take the consequences of recommendations from health professionals. Inadequate communication was documented in 47% of non-western mothers; an interpreter was used in 29% of these cases. Non-western women constituted a risk group for sub-optimal care factors in stillbirths. Possibilities for improvements include a reduction of language barriers, better identification and management of growth restriction for both origin groups, and adequate intervention in complicated vaginal births; with increased vigilance towards non-western women.

  7. Uncovering the community structure in signed social networks based on greedy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Yan, Jiaqi; Yang, Yu; Chen, Junhua

    2017-05-01

    The formality of signed relationships has been recently adopted in a lot of complicated systems. The relations among these entities are complicated and multifarious. We cannot indicate these relationships only by positive links, and signed networks have been becoming more and more universal in the study of social networks when community is being significant. In this paper, to identify communities in signed networks, we exploit a new greedy algorithm, taking signs and the density of these links into account. The main idea of the algorithm is the initial procedure of signed modularity and the corresponding update rules. Specially, we employ the “Asymmetric and Constrained Belief Evolution” procedure to evaluate the optimal number of communities. According to the experimental results, the algorithm is proved to be able to run well. More specifically, the proposed algorithm is very efficient for these networks with medium size, both dense and sparse.

  8. Sacral Nerve Stimulation for Constipation: Suboptimal Outcome and Adverse Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Yasuko; Lundby, Lilli; Buntzen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation is an emerging treatment for patients with severe constipation. There has been no substantial report to date on suboptimal outcomes and complications. We report our experience of more than 6 years by focusing on incidents and the management of reportable events....

  9. Optimal and Suboptimal Noises Enhancing Mutual Information in Threshold System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Qiqing; Wang, Youguo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the efficacy of noise enhancing information transmission in a threshold system. At first, in the frame of stochastic resonance (SR), optimal noise (Opt N) is derived to maximize mutual information (MI) of this nonlinear system. When input signal is discrete (binary), the optimal SR noise is found to have a finite distribution. In contrast, when input signal is continuous, the optimal SR noise is a constant one. In addition, suboptimal SR noises are explored as well with optimization methods when the types of noise added into the system are predetermined. We find that for small thresholds, suboptimal noises do not exist. Only when thresholds reach some level, do suboptimal noises come into effect. Meanwhile, we have discussed the impact of tails in noise distribution on SR effect. Finally, this paper extends the single-threshold system to an array of multi-threshold devices and presents the corresponding efficacy of information transmission produced by optimal and suboptimal SR noises. These results may be beneficial to quantization and coding.

  10. Suboptimal Utilisation of Resources in Sub-Saharan African Higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suboptimal Utilisation of Resources in Sub-Saharan African Higher Education Institutions: the Case of Teaching Space at Makerere University. ... This means that the institutions need to evaluate their utilization of these resources—to pinpoint their need for the resources and potential for quality assurance. This paper reports ...

  11. When animals misbehave: analogs of human biases and suboptimal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R

    2015-03-01

    Humans tend to value rewards more if they have had to work hard to obtain them (justification of effort). Similarly they tend to persist in a task even when they would be better off beginning a new one (sunk cost). Humans also often give greater value to objects of good quality than the same objects together with objects of lesser quality (the less is more effect). Commercial gambling (lotteries and slot machines) is another example of suboptimal choice by humans because on average the rewards are less than the investment. In another example of a systematic bias, when humans try to estimate the probability of the occurrence of a low probability event, they often give too much weight to the results of a test, in spite of the fact that the known probability of a false alarm reduces the predictive value of the test (base rate neglect). In each of these examples, we have found that pigeons show a similar tendency to choose suboptimally. When one can show comparable findings of suboptimal choice in animals it suggests that whereas culture may reinforce certain suboptimal behavior, the behavior is likely to result from the overgeneralization of basic behavioral processes or predisposed heuristics that may have been appropriate in natural environments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Tribute to Tom Zentall." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and predictors of sub-optimal medication adherence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the levels of adherence, prevalence and the predictors of suboptimal adherence were assessed in a sub-Saharan African setting. Methods: Three hundred and seventy (370) respondents with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or severe depression were randomly enrolled and interviewed at the ...

  13. Visually suboptimal bananas: How ripeness affects consumer expectation and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    2017-10-07

    One reason for the significant amount of food that is wasted in developed countries is that consumers often expect visually suboptimal food as being less palatable. Using bananas as example, the objective of this study was to determine how appearance affects consumer overall liking, the rating of sensory attributes, purchase intention, and the intended use of bananas. The ripeness degree (RD) of the samples was adjusted to RD 5 (control) and RD 7 (more ripened, visually suboptimal). After preliminary experiments, a total of 233 participants were asked to judge their satisfaction with the intensity of sensory attributes that referred to flavor, taste, and texture using just-about-right scales. Subjects who received peeled samples were asked after tasting, whereas subjects who received unpeeled bananas judged expectation and, after peeling and tasting, perception. Expected overall liking and purchase intention were significantly lower for RD 7 bananas. Purchase intention was still significantly different between RD 5 and RD 7 after tasting, whereas no difference in overall liking was observed. Significant differences between RD 5 and RD 7 were observed when asking participants for their intended use of the bananas. Concerning the sensory attributes, penalty analysis revealed that only the firmness of the RD 7 bananas was still not just-about-right after tasting. The importance that consumers attribute to the shelf-life of food had a pronounced impact on purchase intention of bananas with different ripeness degree. In the case of suboptimal bananas, the results demonstrate a positive relationship between the sensory perception and overall liking and purchase intention. Convincing consumers that visually suboptimal food is still tasty is of high relevance for recommending different ways of communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On the statistics of uplink inter-cell interference with greedy resource allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina

    2012-10-03

    In this paper, we introduce a new methodology to model the uplink inter-cell interference (ICI) in wireless cellular networks. The model takes into account both the effect of channel statistics (i.e., path loss, shadowing, fading) and the resource allocation scheme in the interfering cells. Firstly, we derive a semi-analytical expression for the distribution of the locations of the allocated user in a given cell considering greedy resource allocation with maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) criterion. Based on this, we derive the distribution of the uplink ICI from one neighboring cell. Next, we compute the moment generating function (MGF) of the cumulative ICI observed from all neighboring cells and discuss some examples. Finally, we utilize the derived expressions to evaluate the outage probability in the network. In order to validate the accuracy of the developed semi-analytical expressions, we present comparison results with Monte Carlo simulations. The major benefit of the proposed mechanism is that it helps in estimating the distribution of ICI without the knowledge of instantaneous resource allocations in the neighbor cells. The proposed methodology applies to any shadowing and fading distributions. Moreover, it can be used to evaluate important network performance metrics numerically without the need for time-consuming Monte Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. A Greedy Algorithm of Data-Dependent User Selection for Fast Fading Gaussian Vector Broadcast Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Keigo

    2012-01-01

    User selection (US) with Zero-forcing beamforming (ZF-BF) is considered in fast fading Gaussian vector broadcast channels (VBCs) with perfect channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. A novel criterion for US is proposed, which depends on both CSI and the data symbols, while the conventional criteria only depend on CSI. Since the optimization of US based on the proposed criterion is infeasible, a greedy algorithm of data-dependent US is proposed to perform the optimization approximately. An overhead issue arises in fast fading channels: On every update of US, the transmitter may inform each user whether he/she has been selected, using a certain fraction of resources. This overhead results in a significant rate loss for fast fading channels. In order to circumvent this overhead issue, iterative detection and decoding schemes are derived on the basis of belief propagation (BP). The proposed iterative schemes require no information about whether each user has been selected. The proposed US scheme is co...

  16. Unsupervised quantification of abdominal fat from CT images using Greedy Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Chirag; Dallal, Ahmed H.; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Patel, Aalpen; Moore, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    Adipose tissue has been associated with adverse consequences of obesity. Total adipose tissue (TAT) is divided into subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Intra-abdominal fat (VAT), located inside the abdominal cavity, is a major factor for the classic obesity related pathologies. Since direct measurement of visceral and subcutaneous fat is not trivial, substitute metrics like waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) are used in clinical settings to quantify obesity. Abdominal fat can be assessed effectively using CT or MRI, but manual fat segmentation is rather subjective and time-consuming. Hence, an automatic and accurate quantification tool for abdominal fat is needed. The goal of this study is to extract TAT, VAT and SAT fat from abdominal CT in a fully automated unsupervised fashion using energy minimization techniques. We applied a four step framework consisting of 1) initial body contour estimation, 2) approximation of the body contour, 3) estimation of inner abdominal contour using Greedy Snakes algorithm, and 4) voting, to segment the subcutaneous and visceral fat. We validated our algorithm on 952 clinical abdominal CT images (from 476 patients with a very wide BMI range) collected from various radiology departments of Geisinger Health System. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind on such a large and diverse clinical dataset. Our algorithm obtained a 3.4% error for VAT segmentation compared to manual segmentation. These personalized and accurate measurements of fat can complement traditional population health driven obesity metrics such as BMI and WC.

  17. Quality of reporting randomised controlled trials in major dental journals suboptimal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    Hand searching of the most recent 24 issues of six high impact dental journals. RCTs involving only humans, from 24 issues of six leading specialty journals, covering a period up to July 2009 were included, including cluster randomised trials. Each article included in the study was assessed and scored independently by two observers, with any discrepancies being resolved by a third observer. In this study the modified CONSORT checklist was used to score each applicable item of data. The sum of the scores was converted to a percentage value for each trial. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Data regarding the publishing journal, country of origin of the trial, number of authors, involvement of statistician/epidemiologist, number of centres involved, ethics committee approval were subject to quantitative analysis. Ninety-five RCTs were identified with, according to the authors, generally suboptimal scores on quality reporting on key CONSORT areas. Significant differences in scores were found among the journals covering the named specialties. Overall there was a positive association between the quality score in studies with more authors, multicentre studies and studies in which a statistician/epidemiologist was involved. The overall quality of reporting RCTs in major dental journals was considered suboptimal in key CONSORT areas. This is very important as the reported results of RCTs can have an impact on future patient care.

  18. Improving multivariate Horner schemes with Monte Carlo tree search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, J.; Plaat, A.; Vermaseren, J. A. M.; van den Herik, H. J.

    2013-11-01

    Optimizing the cost of evaluating a polynomial is a classic problem in computer science. For polynomials in one variable, Horner's method provides a scheme for producing a computationally efficient form. For multivariate polynomials it is possible to generalize Horner's method, but this leaves freedom in the order of the variables. Traditionally, greedy schemes like most-occurring variable first are used. This simple textbook algorithm has given remarkably efficient results. Finding better algorithms has proved difficult. In trying to improve upon the greedy scheme we have implemented Monte Carlo tree search, a recent search method from the field of artificial intelligence. This results in better Horner schemes and reduces the cost of evaluating polynomials, sometimes by factors up to two.

  19. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, MSE; Schmand, B; Wekking, EM; Hageman, G; Deelman, BG

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  20. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Moniek S. E.; Schmand, Ben; Wekking, Ellie M.; Hageman, Gerard; Deelman, Betto G.

    2003-01-01

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  1. A PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING OPTIMAL FACILITY LOCATION AND SUB-OPTIMAL POSITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Dan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This research presents a methodology for determining the optimal location of a new facility, having physical flow interaction of various degrees with other existing facilities in the presence of barriers impeding the shortest flow-path as well as the sub-optimal iso-cost positions. It also determines sub-optimal iso-cost positions with additional cost or penalty for not being able to site it at the computed optimal point. The proposed methodology considers all types of quadrilateral barrier or forbidden region configurations to generalize and by-pass such impenetrable obstacles, and adopts a scheme of searching through the vertices of the quadrilaterals to determine the alternative shortest flow-path. This procedure of obstacle avoidance is novel. Software has been developed to facilitate computations for the search algorithm to determine the optimal and iso-cost co-ordinates. The test results are presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die navorsing behandel ‘n procedure vir die bepaling van optimum stigtingsposisie vir ‘n onderneming met vloei vanaf ander bestaande fasiliteite in die teenwoordigheid van ‘n verskeidenheid van randvoorwaardes. Die prodedure lewer as resultaat suboptimale isokoste-stigtingsplekke met bekendmaking van die koste wat onstaan a.g.v. afwyking van die randvoorwaardlose optimum oplossingskoste, die prosedure maak gebruik van ‘n vindingryke soekmetode wat toegepas word op niersydige meerkundige voorstellings vir die bepaling van korste roetes wat versperring omseil. Die prosedure word onderskei deur programmatuur. Toetsresultate word voorgehou.

  2. Mad scientists, compassionate healers, and greedy egotists: the portrayal of physicians in the movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Glenn

    2002-01-01

    Cinematic depictions of physicians potentially can affect public expectations and the patient-physician relationship, but little attention has been devoted to portrayals of physicians in movies. The objective of the study was the analysis of cinematic depictions of physicians to determine common demographic attributes of movie physicians, major themes, and whether portrayals have changed over time. All movies released on videotape with physicians as main characters and readily available to the public were viewed in their entirety. Data were collected on physician characteristics, diagnoses, and medical accuracy, and dialogue concerning physicians was transcribed. The results showed that in the 131 films, movie physicians were significantly more likely to be male (p film physicians has declined steadily in recent decades. Movie physicians are most commonly surgeons (33%), psychiatrists (26%), and family practitioners (18%). Physicians were portrayed negatively in 44% of movies, and since the 1960s positive portrayals declined while negative portrayals increased. Physicians frequently are depicted as greedy, egotistical, uncaring, and unethical, especially in recent films. Medical inaccuracies occurred in 27% of films. Compassion and idealism were common in early physician movies but are increasingly scarce in recent decades. A recurrent theme is the "mad scientist," the physician-researcher that values research more than patients' welfare. Portrayals of physicians as egotistical and materialistic have increased, whereas sexism and racism have waned. Movies from the past two decades have explored critical issues surrounding medical ethics and managed care. We conclude that negative cinematic portrayals of physicians are on the rise, which may adversely affect patient expectations and the patient-physician relationship. Nevertheless, films about physicians can serve as useful gauges of public opinion about the medical profession, as tools for medical education, and as

  3. Greedy Sampling and Incremental Surrogate Model-Based Tailoring of Aeroservoelastic Model Database for Flexible Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil; Brenner, Martin J.; Ouellette, Jeffrey A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a data analysis and modeling framework to tailor and develop linear parameter-varying (LPV) aeroservoelastic (ASE) model database for flexible aircrafts in broad 2D flight parameter space. The Kriging surrogate model is constructed using ASE models at a fraction of grid points within the original model database, and then the ASE model at any flight condition can be obtained simply through surrogate model interpolation. The greedy sampling algorithm is developed to select the next sample point that carries the worst relative error between the surrogate model prediction and the benchmark model in the frequency domain among all input-output channels. The process is iterated to incrementally improve surrogate model accuracy till a pre-determined tolerance or iteration budget is met. The methodology is applied to the ASE model database of a flexible aircraft currently being tested at NASA/AFRC for flutter suppression and gust load alleviation. Our studies indicate that the proposed method can reduce the number of models in the original database by 67%. Even so the ASE models obtained through Kriging interpolation match the model in the original database constructed directly from the physics-based tool with the worst relative error far below 1%. The interpolated ASE model exhibits continuously-varying gains along a set of prescribed flight conditions. More importantly, the selected grid points are distributed non-uniformly in the parameter space, a) capturing the distinctly different dynamic behavior and its dependence on flight parameters, and b) reiterating the need and utility for adaptive space sampling techniques for ASE model database compaction. The present framework is directly extendible to high-dimensional flight parameter space, and can be used to guide the ASE model development, model order reduction, robust control synthesis and novel vehicle design of flexible aircraft.

  4. The Greedy Hippo and Red Riding Hood: The grotesque in fairy tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dineke van der Walt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparative reading of two folktales that are also characterised as children’s stories (one from Venda folklore and the other a popular European narrative in order to explore a number of similarities between these stories. These similarities include the grotesque activity of eating human flesh, the way that overly trusting people are tricked by means of a masquerade and other ‘unethical’ and ‘immoral’ activities that occur in both narratives. In The Greedy Hippo (Hippopotamus throws his weight around, the monster for instance mimics the voice of a little boy in order to trick his sister and gain access to the children’s hut, whilst in Little Red Riding Hood the wolf tricks the grandmother in the same way to gain access to her house, in order to later trick Red Riding Hood. Furthermore, in both stories, the little girls (as well as the grandmother in Little Red Riding Hood are swallowed by vicious wild animals (either a hippopotamus or a wolf. As is often the case in fairy tales; however, the victims are saved or escape and live happily ever after. In this article, I argue that, although it seems absurd for children’s stories to deal with the grotesque, the presence of the grotesque actually serves an elevating purpose. I conclude that, because of the shock value of the grotesque, these stories not only intrigue children emotionally, but that the shocking quality of the grotesque also serves as a source of fascination for them. Therefore, the warning messages contained in the stories are more persuasively communicated and better remembered by the child audience.

  5. Interventions via Social Influence for Emergent Suboptimal Restraint Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad KOBTI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although restraint use has increased primarily in developed countries, vehicle accident-related injuries and deaths continue to be a problem. Alongside lack of restraint use, studies involving suboptimal restraint use have gained recent popularity. In this study we investigate the use of social influence forinterventions to counter emerging suboptimal restraint use in groups of agents.A multi-agent simulation model is provided where dominant individuals use randomly assigned influence rates to repeatedly alter the knowledge of lessinfluential group members. Cultural influence is implemented via a cultural algorithm and used to simulate individuals affected by beliefs in the community. Objectives include investigating the emergence of patterns of restraint selection and use as well as interventions targeted at more influential agents. Results demonstrate that prominent patterns of behaviour similar to the influentialmembers of the groups do emerge. Furthermore, interventions targeted at influential group members outperform interventions targeted at a percentage of the population at large. Interventions succeed at some level both in the presence and absence of cultural influence.

  6. Optimal inference with suboptimal models: addiction and active Bayesian inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H B; Mathys, Christoph; Dolan, Ray; Wurst, Friedrich; Kronbichler, Martin; Friston, Karl

    2015-02-01

    When casting behaviour as active (Bayesian) inference, optimal inference is defined with respect to an agent's beliefs - based on its generative model of the world. This contrasts with normative accounts of choice behaviour, in which optimal actions are considered in relation to the true structure of the environment - as opposed to the agent's beliefs about worldly states (or the task). This distinction shifts an understanding of suboptimal or pathological behaviour away from aberrant inference as such, to understanding the prior beliefs of a subject that cause them to behave less 'optimally' than our prior beliefs suggest they should behave. Put simply, suboptimal or pathological behaviour does not speak against understanding behaviour in terms of (Bayes optimal) inference, but rather calls for a more refined understanding of the subject's generative model upon which their (optimal) Bayesian inference is based. Here, we discuss this fundamental distinction and its implications for understanding optimality, bounded rationality and pathological (choice) behaviour. We illustrate our argument using addictive choice behaviour in a recently described 'limited offer' task. Our simulations of pathological choices and addictive behaviour also generate some clear hypotheses, which we hope to pursue in ongoing empirical work. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of approximate decision rules relative to number of misclassifications: Comparison of greedy and dynamic programming approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we present a comparison of dynamic programming and greedy approaches for construction and optimization of approximate decision rules relative to the number of misclassifications. We use an uncertainty measure that is a difference between the number of rows in a decision table T and the number of rows with the most common decision for T. For a nonnegative real number γ, we consider γ-decision rules that localize rows in subtables of T with uncertainty at most γ. Experimental results with decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository are also presented. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Greedy Algorithm for the Construction of Approximate Decision Rules for Decision Tables with Many-Valued Decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2016-10-20

    The paper is devoted to the study of a greedy algorithm for construction of approximate decision rules. This algorithm is applicable to decision tables with many-valued decisions where each row is labeled with a set of decisions. For a given row, we should find a decision from the set attached to this row. We consider bounds on the precision of this algorithm relative to the length of rules. To illustrate proposed approach we study a problem of recognition of labels of points in the plain. This paper contains also results of experiments with modified decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  9. China suboptimal health cohort study: rationale, design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youxin; Ge, Siqi; Yan, Yuxiang; Wang, Anxin; Zhao, Zhongyao; Yu, Xinwei; Qiu, Jing; Alzain, Mohamed Ali; Wang, Hao; Fang, Honghong; Gao, Qing; Song, Manshu; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Wei

    2016-10-13

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) is a physical state between health and disease, characterized by the perception of health complaints, general weakness, chronic fatigue and low energy levels. SHS is proposed by the ancient concept of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the perspective of preservative, predictive and personalized (precision) medicine. We previously created the suboptimal health status questionnaire 25 (SHSQ-25), a novel instrument to measure SHS, validated in various populations. SHSQ-25 thus affords a window of opportunity for early detection and intervention, contributing to the reduction of chronic disease burdens. To investigate the causative effect of SHS in non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD), we initiated the China suboptimal health cohort study (COACS), a longitudinal study starting from 2013. Phase I of the study involved a cross-sectional survey aimed at identifying the risk/protective factors associated with SHS; and Phase II: a longitudinal yearly follow-up study investigating how SHS contributes to the incidence and pattern of NCD. (1) Cross-sectional survey: in total, 4313 participants (53.8 % women) aged from 18 to 65 years were included in the cohort. The prevalence of SHS was 9.0 % using SHS score of 35 as threshold. Women showed a significantly higher prevalence of SHS (10.6 % in the female vs. 7.2 % in the male, P differed significantly between subjects of SHS (SHS score ≥35) and those of ideal health (SHS score difference in prevalence of SHS might partly explain the gender difference of incidence of certain chronic diseases. The COACS will enable a thorough characterization of SHS and establish a cohort that will be used for longitudinal analyses of the interaction between the genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors that contribute to the onset and etiology of targeted chronic diseases. The study together with the designed prospective cohort provides a chance to characterize and evaluate the effect of SHS

  10. Consumer behaviour towards price-reduced suboptimal foods in the supermarket and the relation to food waste in households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Jensen, Jacob Haagen; Jensen, Mette Hyldetoft; Kulikovskaja, Viktorija

    2017-09-01

    To combat food waste, supermarkets offer food items at a reduced price in-store when they are close to the expiration date or perceived as suboptimal. It is yet unknown, however, which considerations consumers engage in when deciding about the offer, and whether focusing particularly on the price during food purchase might be related to greater food waste at home. Knowledge about both the consumers' food purchase process for these price-reduced foods and the potential wastage of price-focused consumers can contribute to the assessment of whether or not offering suboptimal food at reduced prices in-store actually reduces food waste across the supply chain. We explore these questions in a mixed-method study including 16 qualitative accompanied shopping interviews and a quantitative online experimental survey with 848 consumers in Denmark. The interviews reveal that the consumers interviewed assess their ability to consume the price-reduced suboptimal food at home already while in the store. Consumers consider the relation between product-related factors of package unit, expiration date, and product quality, in interaction with household-related factors of freezing/storing, household size/demand, and possible meal/cooking. The survey shows that consumers who are more price-focused report lower food waste levels and lower tendency to choose the optimal food item first at home, than those who are not emphasizing the price-quality relation or do not search for price offers to the same extent. Higher age and high education also played a role, and the price-focus is lower in high-income groups and among single households. The findings allow deriving recommendations for retailers and policy makers to support both the marketability and the subsequent actual consumption of price-reduced suboptimal food, but they also raise questions for further research of this underexplored area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Feature-preserving surface mesh smoothing via suboptimal Delaunay triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhanheng; Yu, Zeyun; Holst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A method of triangular surface mesh smoothing is presented to improve angle quality by extending the original optimal Delaunay triangulation (ODT) to surface meshes. The mesh quality is improved by solving a quadratic optimization problem that minimizes the approximated interpolation error between a parabolic function and its piecewise linear interpolation defined on the mesh. A suboptimal problem is derived to guarantee a unique, analytic solution that is significantly faster with little loss in accuracy as compared to the optimal one. In addition to the quality-improving capability, the proposed method has been adapted to remove noise while faithfully preserving sharp features such as edges and corners of a mesh. Numerous experiments are included to demonstrate the performance of the method.

  12. Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

  13. Suboptimal Criterion Learning in Static and Dynamic Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyse H Norton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans often make decisions based on uncertain sensory information. Signal detection theory (SDT describes detection and discrimination decisions as a comparison of stimulus "strength" to a fixed decision criterion. However, recent research suggests that current responses depend on the recent history of stimuli and previous responses, suggesting that the decision criterion is updated trial-by-trial. The mechanisms underpinning criterion setting remain unknown. Here, we examine how observers learn to set a decision criterion in an orientation-discrimination task under both static and dynamic conditions. To investigate mechanisms underlying trial-by-trial criterion placement, we introduce a novel task in which participants explicitly set the criterion, and compare it to a more traditional discrimination task, allowing us to model this explicit indication of criterion dynamics. In each task, stimuli were ellipses with principal orientations drawn from two categories: Gaussian distributions with different means and equal variance. In the covert-criterion task, observers categorized a displayed ellipse. In the overt-criterion task, observers adjusted the orientation of a line that served as the discrimination criterion for a subsequently presented ellipse. We compared performance to the ideal Bayesian learner and several suboptimal models that varied in both computational and memory demands. Under static and dynamic conditions, we found that, in both tasks, observers used suboptimal learning rules. In most conditions, a model in which the recent history of past samples determines a belief about category means fit the data best for most observers and on average. Our results reveal dynamic adjustment of discrimination criterion, even after prolonged training, and indicate how decision criteria are updated over time.

  14. Energy expenditures & physical activity in rats with chronic suboptimal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifshitz Fima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-optimally nourished rats show reduced growth, biochemical and physiological changes. However, no one has assessed metabolic rate adaptations in rats subjected to chronic suboptimal nutrition (CSN. In this study energy expenditure (EE; kcal/100 g body weight and physical activity (PA; oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight were assessed in rats subjected to three levels of CSN. Results Body weight gain was diminished (76.7 ± 12.0 and 61.6 ± 11.0 g in rats fed 70 and 60% of the ad-libitum fed controls which gained more weight (148.5 ± 32.3 g. The rats fed 80% gained weight similarly to controls (136.3 ± 10.5 g. Percent Fat-free body mass was reduced (143.8 ± 8.7 and 142.0 ± 7.6 g in rats fed 70 and 60% of ad-libitum, but not in those fed 80% (200.8 ± 17.5 g as compared with controls (201.6 ± 33.4 g. Body fat (g decreased in rats fed 80% (19.7 ± 5.3, 70% (15.3 ± 3.5 and 60% (9.6 ± 2.7 of ad-libitum in comparison to controls (26.0 ± 6.7. EE and PA were also altered by CSN. The control rats increased their EE and PA during the dark periods by 1.4 ± 0.8 and 1.7 ± 1.1 respectively, as compared with light the period; whereas CSN rats fed 80 and 70% of ad-libitum energy intake had reduced EE and PA during the dark periods as compared with the light period EE(7.5 ± 1.4 and 7.8 ± 0.6 vs. 9.0 ± 1.2 and 9.7 ± 0.8; p Conclusion CSN rats adapt to mild energy restriction by reducing body fat, EE and PA mainly during the dark period while growth proceeds and lean body mass is preserved. At higher levels of energy restrictions there is decreased growth, body fat and lean mass. Moreover EE and PA are also reduced during both light and dark periods.

  15. Treatment of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae: suboptimal efficacy of polymyxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, M S; de Assis, D B; Freire, M P; Boas do Prado, G V; Machado, A S; Abdala, E; Pierrotti, L C; Mangini, C; Campos, L; Caiaffa Filho, H H; Levin, A S

    2015-02-01

    Treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae infections (KPC-EI) remains a challenge. Combined therapy has been proposed as the best choice, but there are no clear data showing which combination therapy is superior. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial regimens for treating KPC-EI. This was a retrospective cohort study of KPC-EI nosocomial infections (based on CDC criteria) between October 2009 and June 2013 at three tertiary Brazilian hospitals. The primary outcomes were the 30-day mortality for all infections and the 30-day mortality for patients with bacteraemia. Risk factors for mortality were evaluated by comparing clinical variables of survivors and nonsurvivors. In this study, 118 patients were included, of whom 78 had bacteraemia. Catheter-related bloodstream infections were the most frequent (43%), followed by urinary tract infections (n = 27, 23%). Monotherapy was used in 57 patients and combined treatment in 61 patients. The most common therapeutic combination was polymyxin plus carbapenem 20 (33%). Multivariate analysis for all infections (n = 118) and for bacteremic infections (n = 78) revealed that renal failure at the end of treatment, use of polymyxin and older age were prognostic factors for mortality. In conclusion, polymyxins showed suboptimal efficacy and combination therapy was not superior to monotherapy. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Robust Adaptive LCMV Beamformer Based On An Iterative Suboptimal Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiansheng Guo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main drawback of closed-form solution of linearly constrained minimum variance (CF-LCMV beamformer is the dilemma of acquiring long observation time for stable covariance matrix estimates and short observation time to track dynamic behavior of targets, leading to poor performance including low signal-noise-ratio (SNR, low jammer-to-noise ratios (JNRs and small number of snapshots. Additionally, CF-LCMV suffers from heavy computational burden which mainly comes from two matrix inverse operations for computing the optimal weight vector. In this paper, we derive a low-complexity Robust Adaptive LCMV beamformer based on an Iterative Suboptimal solution (RAIS-LCMV using conjugate gradient (CG optimization method. The merit of our proposed method is threefold. Firstly, RAIS-LCMV beamformer can reduce the complexity of CF-LCMV remarkably. Secondly, RAIS-LCMV beamformer can adjust output adaptively based on measurement and its convergence speed is comparable. Finally, RAIS-LCMV algorithm has robust performance against low SNR, JNRs, and small number of snapshots. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of our proposed algorithms.

  17. Predictors of Suboptimal Follow-up in Pediatric Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Leana; Schwartz, David D; Frugé, Ernest; Laufman, Larry; Holm, Suzanne; Kamdar, Kala; Harris, Lynnette; Brackett, Julienne; Unal, Sule; Tanyildiz, Gulsah; Bryant, Rosalind; Suzawa, Hilary; Dreyer, Zoann; Okcu, M Fatih

    2017-04-01

    Attendance to follow-up care after completion of cancer treatment is an understudied area. We examined demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic predictors of follow-up by pediatric cancer patients at a large center in 442 newly diagnosed patients using multivariable logistic regression analyses. Patients who did not return to clinic for at least 1000 days were considered lost to follow-up. Two hundred forty-two (54.8%) patients were lost. In multivariable analyses, the following variables were independent predictors of being lost to follow-up: treatment with surgery alone (odds ratio [OR]=6.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1-14.9), older age at diagnosis (reference, 0 to 4; ages, 5 to 9: OR=1.8, 95% CI, 1.1-3; ages, 10 to 14: OR=3.3; CI, 1.8-6.1; and ages, 15 and above: OR=4.8; CI, 2.1-11.7), lack of history of stem cell transplantation (OR=2, 95% CI, 1.04-3.7) and lack of insurance (OR=3.4; CI, 1.2-9.2). Hispanic patients had the best follow-up rates (53.7%) compared to whites and blacks (P=0.03). Attendance to long-term follow-up care is suboptimal in childhood cancer survivors. Predictors that were associated with nonattendance can be used to design targeted interventions to improve follow-up care for survivors of pediatric cancer.

  18. Adaptive suboptimal second-order sliding mode control for microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incremona, Gian Paolo; Cucuzzella, Michele; Ferrara, Antonella

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with the design of adaptive suboptimal second-order sliding mode (ASSOSM) control laws for grid-connected microgrids. Due to the presence of the inverter, of unpredicted load changes, of switching among different renewable energy sources, and of electrical parameters variations, the microgrid model is usually affected by uncertain terms which are bounded, but with unknown upper bounds. To theoretically frame the control problem, the class of second-order systems in Brunovsky canonical form, characterised by the presence of matched uncertain terms with unknown bounds, is first considered. Four adaptive strategies are designed, analysed and compared to select the most effective ones to be applied to the microgrid case study. In the first two strategies, the control amplitude is continuously adjusted, so as to arrive at dominating the effect of the uncertainty on the controlled system. When a suitable control amplitude is attained, the origin of the state space of the auxiliary system becomes attractive. In the other two strategies, a suitable blend between two components, one mainly working during the reaching phase, the other being the predominant one in a vicinity of the sliding manifold, is generated, so as to reduce the control amplitude in steady state. The microgrid system in a grid-connected operation mode, controlled via the selected ASSOSM control strategies, exhibits appreciable stability properties, as proved theoretically and shown in simulation.

  19. Beyond sparsity: recovering structured representations by l¹ minimization and greedy algorithms. - Application to the analysis of sparse underdetermined ICA -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    In a series of recent results, several authors have shown that both l¹-minimization (Basis Pursuit) and greedy algorithms (Matching Pursuit) can successfully recover a sparse representation of a signal provided that it is sparse enough, that is to say if its support (which indicates where are loc...

  20. Search Space Characterization for a Telescope Scheduling Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresina, John; Drummond, Mark; Swanson, Keith; Friedland, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for statistically characterizing a search space and demonstrates the use of this technique within a practical telescope scheduling application. The characterization provides the following: (i) an estimate of the search space size, (ii) a scaling technique for multi-attribute objective functions and search heuristics, (iii) a "quality density function" for schedules in a search space, (iv) a measure of a scheduler's performance, and (v) support for constructing and tuning search heuristics. This paper describes the random sampling algorithm used to construct this characterization and explains how it can be used to produce this information. As an example, we include a comparative analysis of an heuristic dispatch scheduler and a look-ahead scheduler that performs greedy search.

  1. A greedy algorithm for construction of decision trees for tables with many-valued decisions - A comparative study

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2013-11-25

    In the paper, we study a greedy algorithm for construction of decision trees. This algorithm is applicable to decision tables with many-valued decisions where each row is labeled with a set of decisions. For a given row, we should find a decision from the set attached to this row. Experimental results for data sets from UCI Machine Learning Repository and randomly generated tables are presented. We make a comparative study of the depth and average depth of the constructed decision trees for proposed approach and approach based on generalized decision. The obtained results show that the proposed approach can be useful from the point of view of knowledge representation and algorithm construction.

  2. Determinants of suboptimal breast-feeding practices in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazir, Tabish; Akram, Dure-Samin; Nisar, Yasir Bin; Kazmi, Narjis; Agho, Kingsley E; Abbasi, Saleem; Khan, Amira M; Dibley, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding is estimated to reduce infant mortality in low-income countries by up to 13 %. The aim of the present study was to determine the risk factors associated with suboptimal breast-feeding practices in Pakistan. A cross-sectional study using data extracted from the multistage cluster sample survey of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006-2007. A nationally representative sample of households. Last-born alive children aged 0-23 months (total weighted sample size 3103). The prevalences of timely initiation of breast-feeding, bottle-feeding in children aged 0-23 months, exclusive breast-feeding and predominant breast-feeding in infants aged 0-5 months were 27·3 %, 32·1 %, 37·1 % and 18·7 %, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that working mothers (OR = 1·48, 95 % CI 1·16, 1·87; P = 0·001) and mothers who delivered by Caesarean section (OR = 1·95, 95 % CI 1·30, 2·90; P = 0·001) had significantly higher odds for no timely initiation of breast-feeding. Mothers from North West Frontier Province were significantly less likely (OR = 0·37, 95 % CI 0·23, 0·59; P feed their babies exclusively. Mothers delivered by traditional birth attendants had significantly higher odds to predominantly breast-feed their babies (OR = 1·96, 95 % CI 1·18, 3·24; P = 0·009). The odds of being bottle-fed was significantly higher in infants whose mothers had four or more antenatal clinic visits (OR = 1·93, 95 % CI 1·46, 2·55; P feeding practices. To gain the full benefits of breast-feeding for child health and nutrition, there is an urgent need to develop interventions to improve the rates of exclusive breast-feeding.

  3. Genotypic Variation in the Response to Suboptimal Temperature at Different Plant Densities in Cut Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der A.; Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.

    2009-01-01

    Energy efficiency of greenhouse cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) may be increased by breeding. In addition to breeding for cultivars with a shorter reaction time at suboptimal temperatures, an alternative approach would be to develop cultivars that are heavier at suboptimal

  4. Factors associated with suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awachana Jiamsakul

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART plays an important role in treatment outcomes. It is crucial to identify factors influencing adherence in order to optimize treatment responses. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of, and factors associated with, suboptimal adherence (SubAdh in the first 24 months of ART in an Asian HIV cohort. Methods: As part of a prospective resistance monitoring study, the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance Monitoring Study (TASER-M collected patients’ adherence based on the World Health Organization-validated Adherence Visual Analogue Scale. SubAdh was defined in two ways: (i 14 days. Time was divided into four intervals: 0–6, 6–12, 12–18 and 18–24 months. Factors associated with SubAdh were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results: Out of 1316 patients, 32% ever reported 2 assessments per patient per year had an odds ratio (OR=0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI (0.55 to 0.90, p=0.006, compared to sites with ≤2 assessments per patient per year. Compared to heterosexual exposure, SubAdh was higher in injecting drug users (IDUs (OR=1.92, 95% CI (1.23 to 3.00, p=0.004 and lower in homosexual exposure (OR=0.52, 95% CI (0.38 to 0.71, p<0.001. Patients taking a nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor (NRTI+PI combination were less likely to report adherence <100% (OR=0.36, 95% CI (0.20 to 0.67, p=0.001 compared to patients taking an NRTI and non-nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI+NNRTI combination. SubAdh decreased with increasing time on ART (all p<0.001. Similar associations were found with adherence <95% as the outcome. Conclusions: We found that SubAdh, defined as either <100% and <95%, was associated with mode of HIV exposure, ART regimen, time on ART and frequency of adherence measurement. The more frequently sites assessed patients, the lower the SubAdh, possibly reflecting site resourcing for patient counselling. Although social

  5. Over-the-counter suboptimal dispensing of antibiotics in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukonzo JK

    2013-08-01

    : In Uganda, at least four in every ten individuals that visit a health-care facility are treated with an antibiotic. Antibiotics are largely given as over-the-counter drugs at community pharmacies. The number of antibiotic prescribed daily doses/1,000 antibiotic clients does not significantly differ between categories of health-care facilities except at community pharmacies, where lower doses are dispensed compared to other health-care facilities. Keywords: antibiotic, over-the-counter dispensing, suboptimal dosing, Uganda

  6. A system analysis of a suboptimal surgical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Michael

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background System analyses of incidents that occur in the process of health care delivery are rare. A case study of a series of incidents that one of the authors experienced after routine urologic surgery is presented. We interpret the sequence of events as a case of cascading incidents that resulted in outcomes that were suboptimal, although fortunately not fatal. Methods A system dynamics approach was employed to develop illustrative models (flow diagrams of the dynamics of the patient's interaction with surgery and emergency departments. The flow diagrams were constructed based upon the experience of the patient, chart review, discussion with the involved physicians as well as several physician colleagues, comparison of our diagrams with those developed by the hospital of interest for internal planning purposes, and an iterative process with one of the co-authors who is a system dynamics expert. A dynamic hypothesis was developed using insights gained by building the flow diagrams. Results The incidents originated in design flaws and many small innocuous system changes that have occurred incrementally over time, which by themselves may have no consequence but in conjunction with some system randomness can have serious consequences. In the patient's case, the incidents that occurred in preoperative assessment and surgery originated in communication and procedural failures. System delays, communication failures, and capacity issues contributed largely to the subsequent incidents. Some of these issues were controllable by the physicians and staff of the institution, whereas others were less controllable. To the system's credit, some of the more controllable issues were addressed, but systemic problems like overcrowding are unlikely to be addressed in the near future. Conclusion This is first instance that we are aware of in the literature where a system dynamics approach has been used to analyze a patient safety experience. The

  7. A system analysis of a suboptimal surgical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert C; Cooke, David L; Richards, Michael

    2009-01-06

    System analyses of incidents that occur in the process of health care delivery are rare. A case study of a series of incidents that one of the authors experienced after routine urologic surgery is presented. We interpret the sequence of events as a case of cascading incidents that resulted in outcomes that were suboptimal, although fortunately not fatal. A system dynamics approach was employed to develop illustrative models (flow diagrams) of the dynamics of the patient's interaction with surgery and emergency departments. The flow diagrams were constructed based upon the experience of the patient, chart review, discussion with the involved physicians as well as several physician colleagues, comparison of our diagrams with those developed by the hospital of interest for internal planning purposes, and an iterative process with one of the co-authors who is a system dynamics expert. A dynamic hypothesis was developed using insights gained by building the flow diagrams. The incidents originated in design flaws and many small innocuous system changes that have occurred incrementally over time, which by themselves may have no consequence but in conjunction with some system randomness can have serious consequences. In the patient's case, the incidents that occurred in preoperative assessment and surgery originated in communication and procedural failures. System delays, communication failures, and capacity issues contributed largely to the subsequent incidents. Some of these issues were controllable by the physicians and staff of the institution, whereas others were less controllable. To the system's credit, some of the more controllable issues were addressed, but systemic problems like overcrowding are unlikely to be addressed in the near future. This is first instance that we are aware of in the literature where a system dynamics approach has been used to analyze a patient safety experience. The qualitative system dynamics analysis was useful in understanding the

  8. Factors associated with suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiamsakul, Awachana; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Ditangco, Rossana; Li, Patrick CK; Phanuphak, Praphan; Sirisanthana, Thira; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Kantipong, Pacharee; Lee, Christopher KC; Mustafa, Mahiran; Merati, Tuti; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Singtoroj, Thida; Law, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) plays an important role in treatment outcomes. It is crucial to identify factors influencing adherence in order to optimize treatment responses. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of, and factors associated with, suboptimal adherence (SubAdh) in the first 24 months of ART in an Asian HIV cohort. Methods As part of a prospective resistance monitoring study, the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance Monitoring Study (TASER-M) collected patients’ adherence based on the World Health Organization-validated Adherence Visual Analogue Scale. SubAdh was defined in two ways: (i) 14 days. Time was divided into four intervals: 0–6, 6–12, 12–18 and 18–24 months. Factors associated with SubAdh were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results Out of 1316 patients, 32% ever reported 2 assessments per patient per year had an odds ratio (OR)=0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) (0.55 to 0.90), p=0.006), compared to sites with ≤2 assessments per patient per year. Compared to heterosexual exposure, SubAdh was higher in injecting drug users (IDUs) (OR=1.92, 95% CI (1.23 to 3.00), p=0.004) and lower in homosexual exposure (OR=0.52, 95% CI (0.38 to 0.71), p<0.001). Patients taking a nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor (NRTI+PI) combination were less likely to report adherence <100% (OR=0.36, 95% CI (0.20 to 0.67), p=0.001) compared to patients taking an NRTI and non-nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI+NNRTI) combination. SubAdh decreased with increasing time on ART (all p<0.001). Similar associations were found with adherence <95% as the outcome. Conclusions We found that SubAdh, defined as either <100% and <95%, was associated with mode of HIV exposure, ART regimen, time on ART and frequency of adherence measurement. The more frequently sites assessed patients, the lower the SubAdh, possibly reflecting site resourcing for patient counselling. Although social

  9. Suboptimal cytoreduction in ovarian carcinoma is associated with molecular pathways characteristic of increased stromal activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenqiu; Beach, Jessica A; Agadjanian, Hasmik; Jia, Dongyu; Aspuria, Paul-Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y; Orsulic, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal cytoreductive surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is associated with poor survival but it is unknown if poor outcome is due to the intrinsic biology of unresectable tumors or insufficient surgical effort resulting in residual tumor-sustaining clones. Our objective was to identify the potential molecular pathway(s) and cell type(s) that may be responsible for suboptimal surgical resection. By comparing gene expression in optimally and suboptimally cytoreduced patients, we identified a gene network associated with suboptimal cytoreduction and explored the biological processes and cell types associated with this gene network. We show that primary tumors from suboptimally cytoreduced patients express molecular signatures that are typically present in a distinct molecular subtype of EOC characterized by increased stromal activation and lymphovascular invasion. Similar molecular pathways are present in EOC metastases, suggesting that primary tumors in suboptimally cytoreduced patients are biologically similar to metastatic tumors. We demonstrate that the suboptimal cytoreduction network genes are enriched in reactive tumor stroma cells rather than malignant tumor cells. Our data suggest that the success of cytoreductive surgery is dictated by tumor biology, such as extensive stromal reaction and increased invasiveness, which may hinder surgical resection and ultimately lead to poor survival. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Suboptimal care and maternal mortality among foreign-born women in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esscher, Annika; Binder-Finnema, Pauline; Bødker, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several European countries report differences in risk of maternal mortality between immigrants from low- and middle-income countries and host country women. The present study identified suboptimal factors related to care-seeking, accessibility, and quality of care for maternal deaths...... language and suboptimal interpreter system or usage. Inadequate care occurred more often among the foreign-born (p = 0.04), whereas delays in consultation/referral and miscommunication between health care providers where equally common between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal care factors, major...

  11. Patterns of marijuana and tobacco use associated with suboptimal self-rated health among US adult ever users of marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Tsai

    2017-06-01

    In conclusion, among adult ever users of marijuana, current tobacco use is high and strongly associated with suboptimal SRH; regular marijuana smoking with or without current tobacco use is significantly associated with suboptimal SRH.

  12. A greedy method for reconstructing polycrystals from three-dimensional X-ray diffraction data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulshreshth, Arun Kumar; Alpers, Andreas; Herman, Gabor T.

    2009-01-01

    An iterative search method is proposed for obtaining orientation maps inside polycrystals from three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) data. In each step, detector pixel intensities are calculated by a forward model based on the current estimate of the orientation map. The pixel at which...... be achieved by changing the orientation in only a few possible ways. The method selects the location/orientation pair indicated as best by a function that measures data consistency combined with prior information on orientation maps. The superiority of the method to a previously published forward projection...

  13. Initialization and Restart in Stochastic Local Search: Computing a Most Probable Explanation in Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengshoel, Ole J.; Wilkins, David C.; Roth, Dan

    2010-01-01

    For hard computational problems, stochastic local search has proven to be a competitive approach to finding optimal or approximately optimal problem solutions. Two key research questions for stochastic local search algorithms are: Which algorithms are effective for initialization? When should the search process be restarted? In the present work we investigate these research questions in the context of approximate computation of most probable explanations (MPEs) in Bayesian networks (BNs). We introduce a novel approach, based on the Viterbi algorithm, to explanation initialization in BNs. While the Viterbi algorithm works on sequences and trees, our approach works on BNs with arbitrary topologies. We also give a novel formalization of stochastic local search, with focus on initialization and restart, using probability theory and mixture models. Experimentally, we apply our methods to the problem of MPE computation, using a stochastic local search algorithm known as Stochastic Greedy Search. By carefully optimizing both initialization and restart, we reduce the MPE search time for application BNs by several orders of magnitude compared to using uniform at random initialization without restart. On several BNs from applications, the performance of Stochastic Greedy Search is competitive with clique tree clustering, a state-of-the-art exact algorithm used for MPE computation in BNs.

  14. Effect of Using Suboptimal Alignments in Template-Based Protein Structure Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Kihara, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Computational protein structure prediction remains a challenging task in protein bioinformatics. In the recent years, the importance of template-based structure prediction is increasing due to the growing number of protein structures solved by the structural genomics projects. To capitalize the significant efforts and investments paid on the structural genomics projects, it is urgent to establish effective ways to use the solved structures as templates by developing methods for exploiting remotely related proteins that cannot be simply identified by homology. In this work, we examine the effect of employing suboptimal alignments in template-based protein structure prediction. We showed that suboptimal alignments are often more accurate than the optimal one, and such accurate suboptimal alignments can occur even at a very low rank of the alignment score. Suboptimal alignments contain a significant number of correct amino acid residue contacts. Moreover, suboptimal alignments can improve template-based models when used as input to Modeller. Finally, we employ suboptimal alignments for handling a contact potential in a probabilistic way in a threading program, SUPRB. The probabilistic contacts strategy outperforms the partly thawed approach which only uses the optimal alignment in defining residue contacts and also the reranking strategy, which uses the contact potential in reranking alignments. The comparison with existing methods in the template-recognition test shows that SUPRB is very competitive and outperform existing methods. PMID:21058297

  15. A Greedy Scanning Data Collection Strategy for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks with a Mobile Sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuan; Zhang, Sai; Han, Guangjie; Jiang, Jinfang; Rodrigues, Joel J P C

    2016-09-06

    Mobile sink is widely used for data collection in wireless sensor networks. It can avoid 'hot spot' problems but energy consumption caused by multihop transmission is still inefficient in real-time application scenarios. In this paper, a greedy scanning data collection strategy (GSDCS) is proposed, and we focus on how to reduce routing energy consumption by shortening total length of routing paths. We propose that the mobile sink adjusts its trajectory dynamically according to the changes of network, instead of predetermined trajectory or random walk. Next, the mobile sink determines which area has more source nodes, then it moves toward this area. The benefit of GSDCS is that most source nodes are no longer needed to upload sensory data for long distances. Especially in event-driven application scenarios, when event area changes, the mobile sink could arrive at the new event area where most source nodes are located currently. Hence energy can be saved. Analytical and simulation results show that compared with existing work, our GSDCS has a better performance in specific application scenarios.

  16. SAGA: a hybrid search algorithm for Bayesian Network structure learning of transcriptional regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adabor, Emmanuel S; Acquaah-Mensah, George K; Oduro, Francis T

    2015-02-01

    Bayesian Networks have been used for the inference of transcriptional regulatory relationships among genes, and are valuable for obtaining biological insights. However, finding optimal Bayesian Network (BN) is NP-hard. Thus, heuristic approaches have sought to effectively solve this problem. In this work, we develop a hybrid search method combining Simulated Annealing with a Greedy Algorithm (SAGA). SAGA explores most of the search space by undergoing a two-phase search: first with a Simulated Annealing search and then with a Greedy search. Three sets of background-corrected and normalized microarray datasets were used to test the algorithm. BN structure learning was also conducted using the datasets, and other established search methods as implemented in BANJO (Bayesian Network Inference with Java Objects). The Bayesian Dirichlet Equivalence (BDe) metric was used to score the networks produced with SAGA. SAGA predicted transcriptional regulatory relationships among genes in networks that evaluated to higher BDe scores with high sensitivities and specificities. Thus, the proposed method competes well with existing search algorithms for Bayesian Network structure learning of transcriptional regulatory networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Suboptimal asthma care for immigrant children: results of an audit study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klazinga Niek S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known on the scope and nature of ethnic inequalities in suboptimal asthma care for children. This study aimed to assess (1 ethnic differences in suboptimal asthma care for children with an asthma exacerbation who consulted a physician, and (2 ethnic differences in the nature of suboptimal care. Methods All children aged 6–16 years who during a period of six months consulted the paediatric department of the Academic Medical Centre-University of Amsterdam or one of the six regional primary care centres with an asthma exacerbation were included. Clinical guidelines were systematically converted to review criteria following the strategy as proposed by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Based upon these review criteria and their experience experts of two multidisciplinary panels retrospectively assessed the quality of care and its (possible failure to prevent the occurrence of asthma exacerbation. Results Only a small number of children (n = 35 were included in the analysis as a result of which the ethnic differences in suboptimal care were not significant. However, the results do indicate immigrant children, in particular 'other non-Western' children (n = 11, more frequently to receive suboptimal care related to the asthma exacerbation when compared to ethnic Dutch children. Furthermore, we found the nature of suboptimal care to differ with under-prescribing in the 'other non-Western' group (n = 11, lack of information exchange between physicians in the Surinamese/Antillean group (n = 12 and lack of education, and counselling of patients and parents in the ethnic Dutch (n = 12 as the most relevant factor. Conclusion Ethnic inequalities in the scope and nature of suboptimal asthma care for children in the Netherlands seem to exist. For the non-western immigrant groups the results indicate the importance of the prescription behaviour of the medical doctor, as well as the supervision by one health care

  18. Suboptimal maternal and paternal mental health are associated with child bullying perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-06-01

    This study examines associations between maternal and paternal mental health and child bullying perpetration among school-age children, and whether having one or both parents with suboptimal mental health is associated with bullying. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally-representative, random-digit-dial survey, was analyzed, using a parent-reported bullying measure. Suboptimal mental health was defined as fair/poor (vs. good/very good/excellent) parental self-reported mental and emotional health. Of the 61,613 parents surveyed, more than half were parents of boys and were white, 20% were Latino, 15% African American, and 7% other race/ethnicity. Suboptimal maternal (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.8) and paternal (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.2) mental health are associated with bullying. Compared with children with no parents with suboptimal mental health, children with only one or both parents with suboptimal mental health have higher bullying odds. Addressing the mental health of both parents may prove beneficial in preventing bullying.

  19. Greedy Algorithms for Finding a Small Set of Primers Satisfying Cover and Length Resolution Conditions in PCR Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi; Imai

    1997-01-01

    Selecting a good collection of primers is very important for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments. Most existing algorithms for primer selection are concerned with computing a primer pair for each DNA sequence. In generalizing the arbitrarily primed PCR, etc., to the case that all DNA sequences of target objects are already known, like about 6000 ORFs of yeast, we may design a small set of primers so that all the targets are PCR amplified and resolved electrophoretically in a series of experiments. This is quite useful because deceasing the number of primers greatly reduces the cost of experiments. Pearson et al. (ISMB 1995: 285-291, 1995; Discrete Appl. Math. 71: 231-246, 1996) consider finding a minimum set of primers covering all given DNA sequences, but their method does not meet necessary biological conditions such as primer amplification and electrophoresis resolution. In this paper, based on the modeling and computational complexity analysis by Doi, we propose algorithms for this primer selection problem. These algorithms do not necessarily minimize the number of primers, but, since basic versions of these problems are shown to be computationally intractable, especially even for approximability with the length resolution condition, this is inevitable. In the algorithms, the amplification condition by a primer pair and the length resolution condition by electrophoresis are incorporated. These algorithms are based on the theoretically well-founded greedy algorithm for the set cover in computer science. Preliminary computational results are presented to show the validity of this approach. The number of computed primers is much less than a half of the number of targets, and hence is less than one forth of the number needed in the multiplex PCR.

  20. Multiobjective Variable Neighborhood Search algorithm for scheduling independent jobs on computational grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selvi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Grid computing solves high performance and high-throughput computing problems through sharing resources ranging from personal computers to super computers distributed around the world. As the grid environments facilitate distributed computation, the scheduling of grid jobs has become an important issue. In this paper, an investigation on implementing Multiobjective Variable Neighborhood Search (MVNS algorithm for scheduling independent jobs on computational grid is carried out. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated with Min–Min algorithm, Simulated Annealing (SA and Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP algorithm. Simulation results show that MVNS algorithm generally performs better than other metaheuristics methods.

  1. Not Noisy, Just Wrong: The Role of Suboptimal Inference in Behavioral Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey M.; Ma, Wei Ji; Pitkow, Xaq; Latham, Peter E.; Pouget, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Behavior varies from trial to trial even when the stimulus is maintained as constant as possible. In many models, this variability is attributed to noise in the brain. Here, we propose that there is another major source of variability: suboptimal inference. Importantly, we argue that in most tasks of interest, and particularly complex ones, suboptimal inference is likely to be the dominant component of behavioral variability. This perspective explains a variety of intriguing observations, including why variability appears to be larger on the sensory than on the motor side, and why our sensors are sometimes surprisingly unreliable. PMID:22500627

  2. Frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in an African diabetic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibirige D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Davis Kibirige,1 George Patrick Akabwai,2 Leaticia Kampiire,3 Daniel Ssekikubo Kiggundu,4 William Lumu5 1Department of Medicine/Diabetic and Hypertension Clinics, Our Lady of Consolota Hospital, Kisubi, 2Baylor College of Medicine, Children’s Foundation, 3Infectious Diseases Research Collaboration, Kampala, 4Nephrology Unit, Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital, Kampala, 5Department of Medicine and Diabetes/Endocrine Unit, Mengo Hospital, Mengo, Uganda Background: Persistent suboptimal glycemic control is invariably associated with onset and progression of acute and chronic diabetic complications in diabetic patients. In Uganda, studies documenting the magnitude and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult ambulatory diabetic patients are limited. This study aimed at determining the frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult diabetic patients attending three urban outpatient diabetic clinics in Uganda. Methods: In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, eligible ambulatory adult diabetic patients attending outpatient diabetic clinics of three urban hospitals were consecutively enrolled over 11 months. Suboptimal glycemic control was defined as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c level ≥7%. Multivariable analysis was applied to determine the predictors. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 52.2±14.4 years, and the majority of them were females (283, 66.9%. The median (interquartile range HbA1c level was 9% (6.8%–12.4%. Suboptimal glycemic control was noted in 311 study participants, accounting for 73.52% of the participants. HbA1c levels of 7%–8%, 8.1%–9.9%, and ≥10% were noted in 56 (13.24%, 76 (17.97%, and 179 (42.32% study participants, respectively. The documented predictors of suboptimal glycemic control were metformin monotherapy (odds ratio: 0.36, 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.63, p<0.005 and insulin therapy (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.41–4.12, p=0

  3. Are theoretical perspectives useful to explain nurses' tolerance of suboptimal care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Lesley; Duffy, Kathleen; McCallum, Jacqueline; Ness, Valerie

    2015-10-01

    This paper explores two theoretical perspectives that may help nurse managers understand why staff tolerate suboptimal standards of care. Standards of care have been questioned in relation to adverse events and errors for some years in health care across the western world. More recently, the focus has shifted to inadequate nursing standards with regard to care and compassion, and a culture of tolerance by staff to these inadequate standards. The theories of conformity and cognitive dissonance are analysed to investigate their potential for helping nurse managers to understand why staff tolerate suboptimal standards of care. The literature suggests that nurses appear to adopt behaviours consistent with the theory of conformity and that they may accept suboptimal care to reduce their cognitive dissonance. Nurses may conform to be accepted by the team. This may be confounded by nurses rationalising their care to reduce the cognitive dissonance they feel. The investigation into the Mid Staffordshire National Health Service called for a change in culture towards transparency, candidness and openness. Providing insights as to why some nursing staff tolerate suboptimal care may provide a springboard to allow nurse managers to consider the complexities surrounding this required transformation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Influence of sub-optimal temperature on tomato growth and yield : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der A.; Heuvelink, E.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of temperature on growth, development and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) are reviewed with special emphasis on cultivar differences. The focus is on sub-optimal temperatures, above the level where chilling injury occurs. Temperature has a large effect on all aspects of

  5. Suboptimal decision making by children with ADHD in the face of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lin; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Eichele, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Suboptimal decision making in the face of risk (DMR) in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be mediated by deficits in a number of different neuropsychological processes. We investigated DMR in children with ADHD using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT...

  6. High Current CD4+ T Cell Count Predicts Suboptimal Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasternak, Alexander O.; de Bruin, Marijn; Bakker, Margreet; Berkhout, Ben; Prins, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) are necessary for achieving and maintaining optimal virological suppression, as suboptimal adherence leads to therapy failure and disease progression. It is well known that adherence to ART predicts therapy response, but it is unclear whether

  7. Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale : Fourth Edition (WMS-IV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Z.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Schmand, B.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the

  8. High current CD4+ T cell count predicts suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasternak, A.O.; de Bruin, M.; Bakker, M.; Berkhout, B.; Prins, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) are necessary for achieving and maintaining optimal virological suppression, as suboptimal adherence leads to therapy failure and disease progression. It is well known that adherence to ART predicts therapy response, but it is unclear whether

  9. State Space Formulas for a Solution of the Suboptimal Nehari Problem on the Unit Disc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtain, Ruth F.; Opmeer, Mark R.

    We give state space formulas for a ("central") solution of the suboptimal Nehari problem for functions defined on the unit disc and taking values in the space of bounded operators in separable Hilbert spaces. Instead of assuming exponential stability, we assume a weaker stability concept (the

  10. Sub-optimal birth weight in newborns of a high socioeconomic status population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Aparecida de Mattos Segre

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare sub-optimal birth weight (2,500 to 2,999 g term newborns to appropriate for gestational age (birth weight ≥ 3,000 g term newborns, regarding maternal data and newborn morbidity and mortality. Methods: Single term newborns, appropriate for gestational age from a high socioeconomic population (n = 1,242 with birth weight ranging from 2,500 to 2,999 g (Group I were compared to 4,907 newborns with birth weight ≥ than 3,000 g (Group II. Maternal and newborn characteristics were compared between the groups. The Mann-Whitney test, χ2 test and multivariate analysis were used. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Rresults: The frequency of sub-optimal birth weight newborns in the population studied was 20.2%. There was a significant association between sub-optimal birth weight and maternal weight before pregnancy and body mass index, maternal weight gain, height, smoking habit and hypertension. Newborns’ 1-minute Apgar score, neonatal hypoglycemia, jaundice, transient tachypnea, congenital pneumonia and hospital stay were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05. A significant relationship could not be established with the 5-minute Apgar score and pulmonary hypertension in both groups. Neonatal mortality did not differ between the groups. Cconclusions: Socioeconomic status was not a risk factor for sub-optimal birth weight in the studied population. Genetic and environmental factors were associated to sub-optimal weight and neonatal diseases. According to these data, this group of newborns should receive special attention from the health team.

  11. Greedy subspace clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We consider the problem of subspace clustering: given points that lie on or near the union of many low-dimensional linear subspaces, recover the subspaces. To this end, one first identifies sets of points close to the same subspace and uses the sets ...

  12. A non-destructive selection method for faster growth at suboptimal temperature in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, E.; Oeveren, J.C. van; Jansen, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A non-destructive method has been developed to select common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants whose growth is less effected at a suboptimal temperature. Shoot weight was determined at a suboptimal (14°C) and optimal temperature (20°C), 38 days after sowing and accessions identified with a

  13. Statin therapy reduces the likelihood of suboptimal blood pressure control among Ugandan adult diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumu W

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available William Lumu,1 Leaticia Kampiire,2 George Patrick Akabwai,3 Daniel Ssekikubo Kiggundu,4 Davis Kibirige5 1Department of Medicine and Diabetes/Endocrine Unit, Mengo Hospital, 2Infectious Disease Research Collaboration, 3Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation, 4Nephrology Unit, Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital, 5Department of Medicine, Uganda Martyrs Hospital Lubaga, Kampala, Uganda Background: Hypertension is one of the recognized risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in adult diabetic patients. High prevalence of suboptimal blood pressure (BP control has been well documented in the majority of studies assessing BP control in diabetic patients in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, there is a dearth of similar studies. This study evaluated the prevalence and correlates of suboptimal BP control in an adult diabetic population in Uganda.Patients and methods: This was a cross-sectional study that enrolled 425 eligible ambulatory adult diabetic patients attending three urban diabetic outpatient clinics over 11 months. Data about their sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Suboptimal BP control was defined according to the 2015 American Diabetes Association standards of diabetes care guideline as BP levels ≥140/90 mmHg.Results: The mean age of the study participants was 52.2±14.4 years, with the majority being females (283, 66.9%. Suboptimal BP control was documented in 192 (45.3% study participants and was independently associated with the study site (private hospitals; odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.18–3.43, P=0.01 and use of statin therapy (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.26–0.96, P=0.037.Conclusion: Suboptimal BP control was highly prevalent in this study population. Strategies to improve optimal BP control, especially in the private hospitals, and the use of statin therapy should be encouraged in adult diabetic patients

  14. Tabu Search Algorithm to Solve the Intermodal Terminal Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Karimi∗

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of appropriate terminals is effective as the main gate entrance to international, national and local transportation network for economic performance, traffic safety and reduction of environmental pollution. This paper focuses on intermodal terminal location problem. The main objective of this problem is to determine which of the terminals of a set of candidate terminals should be opened such that the total cost be minimized. In this problem, demands of customers will ship directly (without the use of terminals between the origin and destination of customers, or intermodaly (by using two terminals or even by combination of both methods. Since this problem is NP-hard, metaheuristics algorithms such as tabu search (TS is used to solve it. The algorithm is compared with greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP on instance of this problem. Results show the efficiency of TS in comparision with GRASP.

  15. A convex programming framework for optimal and bounded suboptimal well field management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorini, Gianluca Fabio; Thordarson, Fannar Ørn; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2012-01-01

    are often convex, hence global optimality can be attained by a wealth of algorithms. Among these, the Interior Point methods are extensively employed for practical applications, as they are capable of efficiently solving large-scale problems. Despite this, management models explicitly embedding both systems...... without simplifications are rare, and they usually involve heuristic techniques. The main limitation with heuristics is that neither optimality nor suboptimality bounds can be guarantee. This paper extends the proof of convexity to mixed management models, enabling the use of Interior Point techniques...... to compute globally optimal management solutions. If convexity is not achieved, it is shown how suboptimal solutions can be computed, and how to bind their deviation from the optimality. Experimental results obtained by testing the methodology in a well field located nearby Copenhagen (DK), show...

  16. Suboptimal investments and M&A deals in emerging capital markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkasova Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the efficiency of target-company investment decisions before and after Merger & Acquisition deals. We study whether M&A deals help to solve the problem of suboptimal investment after the acquisition. Using a sample of 145 target companies from BRICS countries that were acquired during the period 2004-2014, we outline those that had over- or underinvested before the deal and show that more than half the companies managed to optimize the investment level after the deal. We determine the key factors that improve the inefficiency of investment decisions and demonstrate that the industry and country have an impact on the degree of suboptimal investment.

  17. Self-care practices of Malaysian adults with diabetes and sub-optimal glycaemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming Yeong; Magarey, Judy

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the self-care practices of Malaysian adults with diabetes and sub-optimal glycaemic control. Using a one-to-one interviewing approach, data were collected from 126 diabetic adults from four settings. A 75-item questionnaire was used to assess diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices regarding, diet, medication, physical activity and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Most subjects had received advice on the importance of self-care in the management of their diabetes and recognised its importance. Sixty-seven subjects (53%) scored below 50% in their diabetes-related knowledge. Subjects who consumed more meals per day (80%), or who did not include their regular sweetened food intakes in their daily meal plan (80%), or who were inactive in daily life (54%), had higher mean fasting blood glucose levels (p=0.04). Subjects with medication non-adherence (46%) also tended to have higher fasting blood glucose levels. Only 15% of the subjects practiced SMBG. Predictors of knowledge deficit and poor self-care were low level of education (p = practices among the majority of diabetic patients with sub-optimal glycaemic control. This study should contribute to the development of effective education strategies to promote health for adults with sub-optimal diabetes control.

  18. Weighted Implementation of Suboptimal Paths (WISP): An Optimized Algorithm and Tool for Dynamical Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wart, Adam T; Durrant, Jacob; Votapka, Lane; Amaro, Rommie E

    2014-02-11

    Allostery can occur by way of subtle cooperation among protein residues (e.g., amino acids) even in the absence of large conformational shifts. Dynamical network analysis has been used to model this cooperation, helping to computationally explain how binding to an allosteric site can impact the behavior of a primary site many ångstroms away. Traditionally, computational efforts have focused on the most optimal path of correlated motions leading from the allosteric to the primary active site. We present a program called Weighted Implementation of Suboptimal Paths (WISP) capable of rapidly identifying additional suboptimal pathways that may also play important roles in the transmission of allosteric signals. Aside from providing signal redundancy, suboptimal paths traverse residues that, if disrupted through pharmacological or mutational means, could modulate the allosteric regulation of important drug targets. To demonstrate the utility of our program, we present a case study describing the allostery of HisH-HisF, an amidotransferase from T. maritima thermotiga. WISP and its VMD-based graphical user interface (GUI) can be downloaded from http://nbcr.ucsd.edu/wisp.

  19. Sub-optimal MCV Cover Based Method for Measuring Fractal Dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolle, Charles Robert; McJunkin, Timothy R; Gorsich, D. I.

    2003-01-01

    A new method for calculating fractal dimension is developed in this paper. The method is based on the box dimension concept; however, it involves direct estimation of a suboptimal covering of the data set of interest. By finding a suboptimal cover, this method is better able to estimate the required number of covering elements for a given cover size than is the standard box counting algorithm. Moreover, any decrease in the error of the covering element count directly increases the accuracy of the fractal dimension estimation. In general, our method represents a mathematical dual to the standard box counting algorithm by not solving for the number of boxes used to cover a data set given the size of the box. Instead, the method chooses the number of covering elements and then proceeds to find the placement of smallest hyperellipsoids that fully covers the data set. This method involves a variant of the Fuzzy-C Means clustering algorithm, as well as the use of the Minimum Cluster Volume clustering algorithm. A variety of fractal dimension estimators using this suboptimal covering method are discussed. Finally, these methods are compared to the standard box counting algorithm and wavelet-decomposition methods for calculating fractal dimension by using one-dimensional cantor dust sets and a set of standard Brownian random fractal images.

  20. When the learning environment is suboptimal: exploring medical students' perceptions of "mistreatment".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Runye; Snell, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Despite widespread implementation of policies to address mistreatment, high rates of mistreatment during clinical training are reported, prompting the question of whether "mistreatment" means more to students than delineated in official codes of conduct. Understanding "mistreatment" from students' perspective and as it relates to the learning environment is needed before effective interventions can be implemented. The authors conducted focus groups with final-year medical students at McGill University Faculty of Medicine in 2012. Participants were asked to characterize "suboptimal learning experience" and "mistreatment." Transcripts were analyzed via inductive thematic analysis. Forty-one of 174 eligible students participated in six focus groups. Students described "mistreatment" as lack of respect or attack directed toward the person, and "suboptimal learning experience" as that which compromised their learning. Differing perceptions emerged as students debated whether "mistreatment" can be applied to negative learning environments as well as isolated incidents of mistreatment even though some experiences fell outside of the "official" label as per institutional policies. Whether students perceived "mistreatment" versus a "suboptimal learning experience" in negative environments appeared to be influenced by several key factors. A concept map integrating these ideas is presented. How students perceived negative situations during training appears to be a complex process. When medical students say "mistreatment," they may be referring to a spectrum, with incident-based mistreatment on one end and learning-environment-based mistreatment on the other. Multiple factors influenced how students perceived an environment-based negative situation and may provide strategies to improving the learning environment.

  1. Outcome of the sub-optimal dialysis starter on peritoneal dialysis. Report from the French Language Peritoneal Dialysis Registry (RDPLF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbedez, Thierry; Verger, Christian; Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Fabre, Emmanuel; Evans, David

    2013-05-01

    This study was carried out to examine the association of sub-optimal dialysis initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) with all the possible outcomes on PD using survival analysis in the presence of competing risks. This was a retrospective cohort study based on the data of the French Language Peritoneal Dialysis Registry. We analysed 8527 incident patients starting PD between January 2002 and December 2010. The end of the observation period was 01 June 2011. Times from the start of PD to death, transplantation, transfer to haemodialysis (HD) and first peritonitis episode were calculated. The sub-optimal dialysis initiation was defined by a period of <30 days on HD before PD initiation. Among 8527 patients, there were 568 patients who started PD after <30 days on HD. There were 6562 events: 3078 deaths, 2136 transfers to HD, 1348 renal transplantations. When using a Fine and Gray model, sub-optimal dialysis start, early peritonitis and transplant failure were associated with a higher sub-distribution relative hazard of technique failure. There was no association between the sub-optimal dialysis start and the sub-distribution hazard of death or transplantation. In the multivariate analysis using a Fine and Gray regression model, the sub-optimal dialysis start was not associated with a higher sub distribution relative hazard of peritonitis. Sub-optimal dialysis initiation is neither associated with a higher risk of death nor with a lower risk of renal transplantation. Sub-optimal PD patients had a higher risk of transfer to HD.

  2. SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF GREEDY ROUTING PROTOCOL IN VIEW OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND NETWORK LIFETIME IN THREE DIMENSIONAL UNDERWATER WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEENA KOHLI

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN comprises of a number of miniature sized sensing devices deployed in the sea or ocean, connected by dint of acoustic links to each other. The sensors trap the ambient conditions and transmit the data from one end to another. For transmission of data in any medium, routing protocols play a crucial role. Moreover, being battery limited, an unavoidable parameter to be considered in operation and analysis of protocols is the network energy and the network lifetime. The paper discusses the greedy routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks. The simulation of this routing protocol also takes into consideration the characteristics of acoustic communication like attenuation, transmission loss, signal to noise ratio, noise, propagation delay. The results from these observations may be used to construct an accurate underwater communication model.

  3. Search Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Morville, Peter

    2010-01-01

    What people are saying about Search Patterns "Search Patterns is a delight to read -- very thoughtful and thought provoking. It's the most comprehensive survey of designing effective search experiences I've seen." --Irene Au, Director of User Experience, Google "I love this book! Thanks to Peter and Jeffery, I now know that search (yes, boring old yucky who cares search) is one of the coolest ways around of looking at the world." --Dan Roam, author, The Back of the Napkin (Portfolio Hardcover) "Search Patterns is a playful guide to the practical concerns of search interface design. It cont

  4. Characteristics influencing therapy switch behavior after suboptimal response to first-line treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Barbara; Agashivala, Neetu; Kavak, Katelyn; Chouhfeh, Lynn; Hashmonay, Ron; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2014-06-01

    Factors driving disease-modifying therapy (DMT) switch behavior are not well understood. The objective of this paper is to identify patient characteristics and clinical events predictive of therapy switching in patients with suboptimal response to DMT. This retrospective study analyzed patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and a suboptimal response to initial therapy with either interferon β or glatiramer acetate. Suboptimal responders were defined as patients with ≥1 MS event (clinical relapse, worsening disability, or MRI worsening) while on DMT. Switchers were defined as those who changed DMT within six to 12 months after the MS event. Of 606 suboptimal responders, 214 (35.3%) switched therapy. Switchers were younger at symptom onset (p = 0.012), MS diagnosis (p = 0.004), DMT initiation (p therapy switched sooner than patients who are older at the time of MS diagnosis and DMT initiation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. [Effects of chlorophyllin-iron on osmotic adjustment and activities of antioxidantive enzymes in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xiu-feng; Zhang, Fan-yang; Wei, Min; Shi, Qing-hua; Yang, Feng-juan; Li, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Cucumber cultivar 'Jinyan 4' was subjected to suboptimal temperature treatment of 18/12 degrees C (day/night) in the growth chambers. A solution culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of exogenously spraying 5 mg x L(-1) chlorophyllin-iron solution on plant growth, the content of proline, soluble sugar, MDA and activity of peroxidase in the leaves of cucumber seedling under suboptimal temperature. Application of chlorophyllin-iron showed prominent effects on mitigating the stress of suboptimal temperature on growth of the cucumber seedlings, significantly increasing the plant height, leaf area, shoot dry mass, the contents of soluble sugar and proline and the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX. Exogenously spraying chlorophyllin-iron could promote the accumulation of proline and soluble sugar, raise the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decrease the membrane lipid peroxidation and improve the adaptability of cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature.

  6. When the Learning Environment Is Suboptimal: Exploring Medical Students’ Perceptions of “Mistreatment”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite widespread implementation of policies to address mistreatment, high rates of mistreatment during clinical training are reported, prompting the question of whether “mistreatment” means more to students than delineated in official codes of conduct. Understanding “mistreatment” from students’ perspective and as it relates to the learning environment is needed before effective interventions can be implemented. Method The authors conducted focus groups with final-year medical students at McGill University Faculty of Medicine in 2012. Participants were asked to characterize “suboptimal learning experience” and “mistreatment.” Transcripts were analyzed via inductive thematic analysis. Results Forty-one of 174 eligible students participated in six focus groups. Students described “mistreatment” as lack of respect or attack directed toward the person, and “suboptimal learning experience” as that which compromised their learning. Differing perceptions emerged as students debated whether “mistreatment” can be applied to negative learning environments as well as isolated incidents of mistreatment even though some experiences fell outside of the “official” label as per institutional policies. Whether students perceived “mistreatment” versus a “suboptimal learning experience” in negative environments appeared to be influenced by several key factors. A concept map integrating these ideas is presented. Conclusions How students perceived negative situations during training appears to be a complex process. When medical students say “mistreatment,” they may be referring to a spectrum, with incident-based mistreatment on one end and learning-environment-based mistreatment on the other. Multiple factors influenced how students perceived an environment-based negative situation and may provide strategies to improving the learning environment. PMID:24556767

  7. A Suboptimal Scheme for Multi-User Scheduling in Gaussian Broadcast Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2014-05-28

    This work proposes a suboptimal multi-user scheduling scheme for Gaussian broadcast channels which improves upon the classical single user selection, while considerably reducing complexity as compared to the optimal superposition coding with successful interference cancellation. The proposed scheme combines the two users with the maximum weighted instantaneous rate using superposition coding. The instantaneous rate and power allocation are derived in closed-form, while the long term rate of each user is derived in integral form for all channel distributions. Numerical results are then provided to characterize the prospected gains of the proposed scheme.

  8. Personalized Search

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)749939

    2015-01-01

    As the volume of electronically available information grows, relevant items become harder to find. This work presents an approach to personalizing search results in scientific publication databases. This work focuses on re-ranking search results from existing search engines like Solr or ElasticSearch. This work also includes the development of Obelix, a new recommendation system used to re-rank search results. The project was proposed and performed at CERN, using the scientific publications available on the CERN Document Server (CDS). This work experiments with re-ranking using offline and online evaluation of users and documents in CDS. The experiments conclude that the personalized search result outperform both latest first and word similarity in terms of click position in the search result for global search in CDS.

  9. Suboptimal inhaler medication adherence and incorrect technique are common among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Krishna B; Percival, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are routinely prescribed one or more inhaled medications. Adherence to inhaler medications and correct inhaler device technique are crucial to successful COPD management. The goals of this study were to estimate adherence and inhaler technique in a cohort of COPD patients. This was an observational study conducted on a sample of 150 COPD patients. Medication adherence was assessed using the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS). Inhaler technique was assessed using standardized checklists. Clinical data were collected using a proforma. Of the 150 patients (mean age 70.3 years, 52% male), 58% reported suboptimal adherence (MARS ≤ 24). High adherence to therapy (MARS = 25) was associated with older age (p = 0.001), but not any of the other studied variables. Medication non-adherence was not associated with COPD exacerbations. Errors (≥ 1) in inhaler technique were common across all of the types of inhaler devices reportedly used by patients, with the highest proportion of errors among Turbuhaler users (83%) and the least proportion of errors among Handihaler users (50%). No clinical variables were associated with errors in inhaler technique. Suboptimal adherence and errors in inhaler technique are common among COPD patients. No clinical variables to assist in the prediction of medication non-adherence and poor inhaler technique were identifiable. Consequently, regular assessment of medication adherence and inhaler technique should be incorporated into routine clinical practice to facilitate improved health outcomes among patients with COPD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Suboptimal Larval Habitats Modulate Oviposition of the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunho Suh

    Full Text Available Selection of oviposition sites by gravid females is a critical behavioral step in the reproductive cycle of Anopheles coluzzii, which is one of the principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquitoes. Several studies suggest this decision is mediated by semiochemicals associated with potential oviposition sites. To better understand the chemosensory basis of this behavior and identify compounds that can modulate oviposition, we examined the generally held hypothesis that suboptimal larval habitats give rise to semiochemicals that negatively influence the oviposition preference of gravid females. Dual-choice bioassays indicated that oviposition sites conditioned in this manner do indeed foster significant and concentration dependent aversive effects on the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Headspace analyses derived from aversive habitats consistently noted the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone each of which unitarily affected An. coluzzii oviposition preference. Electrophysiological assays across the antennae, maxillary palp, and labellum of gravid An. coluzzii revealed differential responses to these semiochemicals. Taken together, these findings validate the hypothesis in question and suggest that suboptimal environments for An. coluzzii larval development results in the release of DMDS, DMTS and sulcatone that impact the response valence of gravid females.

  11. An Approach to Streaming Video Segmentation With Sub-Optimal Low-Rank Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenglong; Lin, Liang; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Wenzhong; Tang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates how to perform robust and efficient video segmentation while suppressing the effects of data noises and/or corruptions, and an effective approach is introduced to this end. First, a general algorithm, called sub-optimal low-rank decomposition (SOLD), is proposed to pursue the low-rank representation for video segmentation. Given the data matrix formed by supervoxel features of an observed video sequence, SOLD seeks a sub-optimal solution by making the matrix rank explicitly determined. In particular, the representation coefficient matrix with the fixed rank can be decomposed into two sub-matrices of low rank, and then we iteratively optimize them with closed-form solutions. Moreover, we incorporate a discriminative replication prior into SOLD based on the observation that small-size video patterns tend to recur frequently within the same object. Second, based on SOLD, we present an efficient inference algorithm to perform streaming video segmentation in both unsupervised and interactive scenarios. More specifically, the constrained normalized-cut algorithm is adopted by incorporating the low-rank representation with other low level cues and temporal consistent constraints for spatio-temporal segmentation. Extensive experiments on two public challenging data sets VSB100 and SegTrack suggest that our approach outperforms other video segmentation approaches in both accuracy and efficiency.

  12. Suboptimal and optimal order policies for fixed and varying replenishment interval with declining market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wee, H. M.; Yang, P. C.; Wu, Simon

    2016-06-01

    One of the supply chain risks for hi-tech products is the result of rapid technological innovation; it results in a significant decline in the selling price and demand after the initial launch period. Hi-tech products include computers and communication consumer's products. From a practical standpoint, a more realistic replenishment policy is needed to consider the impact of risks; especially when some portions of shortages are lost. In this paper, suboptimal and optimal order policies with partial backordering are developed for a buyer when the component cost, the selling price, and the demand rate decline at a continuous rate. Two mathematical models are derived and discussed: one model has the suboptimal solution with the fixed replenishment interval and a simpler computational process; the other one has the optimal solution with the varying replenishment interval and a more complicated computational process. The second model results in more profit. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the two replenishment models. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate the relationship between the parameters and the net profit.

  13. Sub-optimal parenting is associated with schizotypic and anxiety personality traits in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumaki, S G; Roussos, P; Zouraraki, C; Spanoudakis, E; Mavrikaki, M; Tsapakis, E M; Bitsios, P

    2013-05-01

    Part of the variation in personality characteristics has been attributed to the child-parent interaction and sub-optimal parenting has been associated with psychiatric morbidity. In the present study, an extensive battery of personality scales (Trait Anxiety Inventory, Behavioural Inhibition/Activation System questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Temperament and Character Inventory, Schizotypal Traits Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were administered in 324 adult healthy males to elucidate the effects of parenting on personality configuration. Personality variables were analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the factors "Schizotypy", "Anxiety", "Behavioural activation", "Novelty seeking" and "Reward dependence" were extracted. Associations between personality factors with PBI "care" and "overprotection" scores were examined with regression analyses. Subjects were divided into "parental style" groups and personality factors were subjected to categorical analyses. "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" were significantly predicted by high maternal overprotection and low paternal care. In addition, the Affectionless control group (low care/high overprotection) had higher "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" compared with the Optimal Parenting group (high care/low overprotection). These results further validate sub-optimal parenting as an important environmental exposure and extend our understanding on the mechanisms by which it increases risk for psychiatric morbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Rescue Procedures after Suboptimal Deep Brain Stimulation Outcomes in Common Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Nagy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS is a unique, functional neurosurgical therapy indicated for medication refractory movement disorders as well as some psychiatric diseases. Multicontact electrodes are placed in “deep” structures within the brain with targets varying depending on the surgical indication. An implanted programmable pulse generator supplies the electrodes with a chronic, high frequency electrical current that clinically mimics the effects of ablative lesioning techniques. DBS’s efficacy has been well established for its movement disorder indications (Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. However, clinical outcomes are sometimes suboptimal, even in the absence of common, potentially reversible complications such as hardware complications, infection, poor electrode placement, and poor programming parameters. This review highlights some of the rescue procedures that have been explored in suboptimal DBS cases for Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. To date, the data is limited and difficult to generalize, but a large majority of published reports demonstrate positive results. The decision to proceed with such treatments should be made on a case by case basis. Larger studies are needed to clearly establish the benefit of rescue procedures and to establish for which patient populations they may be most appropriate.

  15. Design Of Real-Time Implementable Distributed Suboptimal Control: An LQR Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan

    2017-09-29

    We propose a framework for multiagent systems in which the agents compute their control actions in real time, based on local information only. The novelty of the proposed framework is that the process of computing a suboptimal control action is divided into two phases: an offline phase and an online phase. In the offline phase, an approximate problem is formulated with a cost function that is close to the optimal cost in some sense and is distributed, i.e., the costs of non-neighboring nodes are not coupled. This phase is centralized and is completed before the deployment of the system. In the online phase, the approximate problem is solved in real time by implementing any efficient distributed optimization algorithm. To quantify the performance loss, we derive upper bounds for the maximum error between the optimal performance and the performance under the proposed framework. Finally, the proposed framework is applied to an example setup in which a team of mobile nodes is assigned the task of establishing a communication link between two base stations with minimum energy consumption. We show through simulations that the performance under the proposed framework is close to the optimal performance and the suboptimal policy can be efficiently implemented online.

  16. Visual search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Bijl, P.

    2003-01-01

    Visual search, with or without the aid of optical or electro-optical instruments, plays a significant role in various types of military and civilian operations (e.g., reconnaissance, surveillance, and search and rescue). Advance knowledge of human visual search and target acquisition performance is

  17. A Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Approach with Local Search for Predicting Protein Folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Lin, Yu-Shiun; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2017-10-01

    The hydrophobic-polar (HP) model is commonly used for predicting protein folding structures and hydrophobic interactions. This study developed a particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based algorithm combined with local search algorithms; specifically, the high exploration PSO (HEPSO) algorithm (which can execute global search processes) was combined with three local search algorithms (hill-climbing algorithm, greedy algorithm, and Tabu table), yielding the proposed HE-L-PSO algorithm. By using 20 known protein structures, we evaluated the performance of the HE-L-PSO algorithm in predicting protein folding in the HP model. The proposed HE-L-PSO algorithm exhibited favorable performance in predicting both short and long amino acid sequences with high reproducibility and stability, compared with seven reported algorithms. The HE-L-PSO algorithm yielded optimal solutions for all predicted protein folding structures. All HE-L-PSO-predicted protein folding structures possessed a hydrophobic core that is similar to normal protein folding.

  18. Development of Sub-optimal Airway Protocols for the International Space Station (ISS) by the Medical Operation Support Team (MOST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James D.; Parazynski, Scott; Kelly, Scott; Hurst, Victor, IV; Doerr, Harold K.

    2007-01-01

    Airway management techniques are necessary to establish and maintain a patent airway while treating a patient undergoing respiratory distress. There are situations where such settings are suboptimal, thus causing the caregiver to adapt to these suboptimal conditions. Such occurrences are no exception aboard the International Space Station (ISS). As a result, the NASA flight surgeon (FS) and NASA astronaut cohorts must be ready to adapt their optimal airway management techniques for suboptimal situations. Based on previous work conducted by the Medical Operation Support Team (MOST) and other investigators, the MOST had members of both the FS and astronaut cohorts evaluate two oral airway insertion techniques for the Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (ILMA) to determine whether either technique is sufficient to perform in suboptimal conditions within a microgravity environment. Methods All experiments were conducted in a simulated microgravity environment provided by parabolic flight aboard DC-9 aircraft. Each participant acted as a caregiver and was directed to attempt both suboptimal ILMA insertion techniques following a preflight instruction session on the day of the flight and a demonstration of the technique by an anesthesiologist physician in the simulated microgravity environment aboard the aircraft. Results Fourteen participants conducted 46 trials of the suboptimal ILMA insertion techniques. Overall, 43 of 46 trials (94%) conducted were properly performed based on criteria developed by the MOST and other investigators. Discussion The study demonstrated the use of airway management techniques in suboptimal conditions relating to space flight. Use of these techniques will provide a crew with options for using the ILMA to manage airway issues aboard the ISS. Although it is understood that the optimal method for patient care during space flight is to have both patient and caregiver restrained, these techniques provide a needed backup should conditions not present

  19. Feature-preserving surface mesh smoothing via suboptimal Delaunay triangulation ☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhanheng; Yu, Zeyun; Holst, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A method of triangular surface mesh smoothing is presented to improve angle quality by extending the original optimal Delaunay triangulation (ODT) to surface meshes. The mesh quality is improved by solving a quadratic optimization problem that minimizes the approximated interpolation error between a parabolic function and its piecewise linear interpolation defined on the mesh. A suboptimal problem is derived to guarantee a unique, analytic solution that is significantly faster with little loss in accuracy as compared to the optimal one. In addition to the quality-improving capability, the proposed method has been adapted to remove noise while faithfully preserving sharp features such as edges and corners of a mesh. Numerous experiments are included to demonstrate the performance of the method. PMID:23580890

  20. Suboptimal Rayleigh damping coefficients in seismic analysis of viscously-damped structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Danguang; Chen, Genda; Wang, Zuocai

    2014-12-01

    An optimization method for the consistent evaluation of two Rayleigh damping coefficients is proposed. By minimizing an objective function such as an error term of the peak displacement of a structure, the two coefficients can be determined with response spectral analysis. The optimization method degenerates into the conventional method used in current practices when only two modes of vibration are included in the objective function. Therefore, the proposed method with all significant modes included for simplicity in practical applications results in suboptimal damping coefficients. The effects of both spatial distribution and frequency content of excitations as well as structural dynamic characteristics on the evaluation of Rayleigh damping coefficients were investigated with a five-story building structure. Two application examples with a 62-story high-rise building and a 840 m long cable-stayed bridge under ten earthquake excitations demonstrated the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method to account for all of the above effects.

  1. A similar correction mechanism in slow and fluent readers after suboptimal landing positions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eGagl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present eye movements study investigated the optimal viewing position (OVP and inverted-optimal viewing position (I-OVP effects in slow readers. The basis of these effects is a phenomenon called corrective re-fixations, which describes a short saccade from a suboptimal landing position (word beginning or end to the center of the word. The present study found corrective re-fixations in slow readers, which was evident from the I-OVP effects in first fixation durations, the OVP effect in number of fixations and the OVP effect in re-fixation probability. The main result is that slow readers, despite being characterized by a fragmented eye movement pattern during reading, nevertheless share an intact mechanism for performing corrective re-fixations. This correction mechanism is not linked to linguistic processing, but to visual and oculomotor processes, which suggests the integrity of oculomotor and visual processes in slow readers.

  2. Sub-optimal asthma control in teenagers in the midland region of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, I; Fitzpatrick, P

    2011-12-01

    Internationally, many children with asthma are not attaining achievable asthma control. To examine the prevalence of asthma in teenagers in four midland counties, their asthma control and the barriers, if any, to gaining control of asthma. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) methodology was used in a survey of Junior Cycle Year 2 second-level students. The prevalence of "wheeze ever" was 49.8%, "wheeze in the last 12 months" was 32.6% and "asthma ever" was 23.5%. Of teenagers with current asthma, 96% had evidence of sub-optimal asthma control during the previous year. For the majority of the teenagers with asthma, treatment was not guideline concordant; infrequent lung function testing, insufficient review after acute care and poor use of written asthma action plans. Barriers included lack of awareness of need for treatment. If asthma guidelines are implemented fully, these children may experience better health.

  3. Subtypes of type I IFN differentially enhance cytokine expression by suboptimally stimulated CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Philippa; Raviv, Nataly; Gold, Doria M; Dougherty, Danielle; Liu, Jie; Johnson, Teresa R; Graham, Barney S; Rabin, Ronald L

    2013-12-01

    Human type I interferons (IFNs) include IFN-β and 12 subtypes of IFN-α. During viral infection, infiltrating memory CD4(+) T cells are exposed to IFNs, but their impact on memory T-cell function is poorly understood. To address this, we pretreated PBMCs with different IFNs for 16 h before stimulation with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B and measured cytokine expression by flow cytometry. IFN-α8 and -α10 most potently enhanced expression of IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4. Potency among the subtypes differed most at doses between 10 and 100 U/mL. While enhancement of IL-2 and IL-4 correlated with the time of preincubation with type I IFN, IFN-γ production was enhanced best when IFN-α was added immediately preceding or simultaneously with T-cell stimulation. Comparison of T-cell responses to multiple doses of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B and to peptide libraries from RSV or CMV demonstrated that IFN-α best enhanced cytokine expression when CD4(+) T cells were suboptimally stimulated. We conclude that type I IFNs enhance Th1 and Th2 function with dose dependency and subtype specificity, and best when T-cell stimulation is suboptimal. While type I IFNs may beneficially enhance CD4(+) T-cell memory responses to vaccines or viral pathogens, they may also enhance the function of resident Th2 cells and exacerbate allergic inflammation. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Improvement of Suboptimal Land Productivity Approach by Land and Plant Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthen Pasang Sirappa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessment for increasing productivity of suboptimal land with using three kinds of organic fertilizer and six rice varieties had been conducted in the Debowae village, Waeapo district, Buru regency at 2011. Purpose of the assessment were to determine the effect of three types organic fertilizer and the use of six Inpara varieties to growth and productivity of rice in sub-optimal land. Study used a split plot design with three replications (farmers as replicates, where the main plot was three types of organic fertilizers (livestock manure, granular organic, and petroganic, while the subplot was 6 varieties Inpara (Inpara 1, Inpara 2, Inpara 3, Inpara 4, Inpara 5, and Indragiri. The soil types at the study site based on soil classification were Endoaquepts with soil fertility status was low. The study results showed that the use of organic manure combined with inorganic fertilizers, both from livestock manure, while granular organic and petrogranic, gave an average crop growth and yield better than the results obtained by farmers outside of the study. Average petroganic fertilizer had a better growth and higher crop yields compared to other organic fertilizers. The six varieties of rice swamps that were examined (Inpara 1, Inpara 2, Inpara 3, Inpara 4, Inpara 5, and Indragiri had the average growth and better yields than rice varieties used by farmers outside of the study (2.75 Mg ha-1. Varieties Inpara 4, Indragiri, Inpara 1 and Inpara 2 had average yield above 7 Mg ha-1, while Inpara 3 and Inpara 5 average above 4 Mg ha-1. Combination of granular organic fertilizer with Inpara 4 variety and petroganic with Indragiri variety had the best results (8.37 and 8.02 Mg ha-1, while the lowest yield (4.48 Mg ha-1 was reached at combination of livestock manure with Inpara 5 variety.

  5. Faceted Search

    CERN Document Server

    Tunkelang, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We live in an information age that requires us, more than ever, to represent, access, and use information. Over the last several decades, we have developed a modern science and technology for information retrieval, relentlessly pursuing the vision of a "memex" that Vannevar Bush proposed in his seminal article, "As We May Think." Faceted search plays a key role in this program. Faceted search addresses weaknesses of conventional search approaches and has emerged as a foundation for interactive information retrieval. User studies demonstrate that faceted search provides more

  6. Ecological studies on the greedy scale, Hemiberlisia rapax (Comstock) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on pear trees in burg El-Arab area, Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, H A; Moursi Khadiga, S; Mourad, A K; Abdel-Razak Soad, I

    2008-01-01

    The greedy scale, Hemiberlisia rapax (Comstock) causes economic damage on pear trees under irrigation system in Burg El-Arab area (50 Km. West of Alexandria). The infestation rate of H. rapax reached its first maximum rate during August to October, and the second one occurred from January to March. The 1st highest peak of insect population occurred during September and October; the second was during January and February, and the third one corresponded to April for the 1st and the 2nd successive seasons. The statistical analysis was performed to determine the relationship among the weather factors of mean daily temperature, daily relative humidity, wind speed, and dew point in relation to the population activity of Hemiberlisia rapax. The immature stages had two peaks of fluctuation during October to November and July to August. The adult females reached their maximum rates during winter and spring months. Adult males appeared in late March in few numbers. The insect was parasitized by Aphytis diaspidis (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in maximum numbers in June and July. This parasitoid had three overlapping generations all the year round. The first in September-October; the second extended from March to May; while the third one lasted from July to September.

  7. Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 500 ... Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more ...

  8. Search Results

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  10. Bone marrow concentrate promotes bone regeneration with a suboptimal-dose of rhBMP-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Egashira

    Full Text Available Bone marrow concentrate (BMC, which is enriched in mononuclear cells (MNCs and platelets, has recently attracted the attention of clinicians as a new optional means for bone engineering. We previously reported that the osteoinductive effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 could be enhanced synergistically by co-transplantation of peripheral blood (PB-derived platelet-rich plasma (PRP. This study aims to investigate whether BMC can effectively promote bone formation induced by low-dose BMP-2, thereby reducing the undesirable side-effects of BMP-2, compared to PRP. Human BMC was obtained from bone marrow aspirates using an automated blood separator. The BMC was then seeded onto β-TCP granules pre-adsorbed with a suboptimal-dose (minimum concentration to induce bone formation at 2 weeks in mice of recombinant human (rh BMP-2. These specimens were transplanted subcutaneously to the dorsal skin of immunodeficient-mice and the induction of ectopic bone formation was assessed 2 and 4 weeks post-transplantation. Transplantations of five other groups [PB, PRP, platelet-poor plasma (PPP, bone marrow aspirate (BM, and BM-PPP] were employed as experimental controls. Then, to clarify the effects on vertical bone augmentation, specimens from the six groups were transplanted for on-lay placement on the craniums of mice. The results indicated that BMC, which contained an approximately 2.5-fold increase in the number of MNCs compared to PRP, could accelerate ectopic bone formation until 2 weeks post-transplantation. On the cranium, the BMC group promoted bone augmentation with a suboptimal-dose of rhBMP-2 compared to other groups. Particularly in the BMC specimens harvested at 4 weeks, we observed newly formed bone surrounding the TCP granules at sites far from the calvarial bone. In conclusion, the addition of BMC could reduce the amount of rhBMP-2 by one-half via its synergistic effect on early-phase osteoinduction. We propose here that BMC

  11. Local search-based heuristics for the multiobjective multidimensional knapsack problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalessandro Soares Vianna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In real optimization problems it is generally desirable to optimize more than one performance criterion (or objective at the same time. The goal of the multiobjective combinatorial optimization (MOCO is to optimize simultaneously r > 1 objectives. As in the single-objective case, the use of heuristic/metaheuristic techniques seems to be the most promising approach to MOCO problems because of their efficiency, generality and relative simplicity of implementation. In this work, we develop algorithms based on Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP and Iterated Local Search (ILS metaheuristics for the multiobjective knapsack problem. Computational experiments on benchmark instances show that the proposed algorithms are very robust and outperform other heuristics in terms of solution quality and running times.

  12. Tag-Based Social Image Search: Toward Relevant and Diverse Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuiyuan; Wang, Meng; Hua, Xian-Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Jiang

    Recent years have witnessed a great success of social media websites. Tag-based image search is an important approach to access the image content of interest on these websites. However, the existing ranking methods for tag-based image search frequently return results that are irrelevant or lack of diversity. This chapter presents a diverse relevance ranking scheme which simultaneously takes relevance and diversity into account by exploring the content of images and their associated tags. First, it estimates the relevance scores of images with respect to the query term based on both visual information of images and semantic information of associated tags. Then semantic similarities of social images are estimated based on their tags. Based on the relevance scores and the similarities, the ranking list is generated by a greedy ordering algorithm which optimizes Average Diverse Precision (ADP), a novel measure that is extended from the conventional Average Precision (AP). Comprehensive experiments and user studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  13. COMPARISON OF MAIZE INBRED LINES DIFFERING IN LOW-TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE - EFFECT OF ACCLIMATION AT SUBOPTIMAL TEMPERATURE ON CHLOROPLAST FUNCTIONING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERHEUL, MJ; VANHASSEL, PR; STAMP, P

    Acclimation to optimal or suboptimal temperature may influence photosynthetic properties of different maize genotypes in distinct ways. In this study, leaf growth and chloroplast functioning of the second leaves of Penjalinan, an inbred line used in warm tropical regions (CS) and Z7, an inbred line

  14. Physician, organizational, and patient factors associated with suboptimal blood pressure management in type 2 diabetic patients in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaars, Carel F; Denig, Petra; Kasje, Willeke N; Stewart, Roy E; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of hypertension care in patients with type 2 diabetes in general practice and identify physician, organizational, and patient factors associated with suboptimal care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from 895 randomly selected diabetic patients were extracted from

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AND BUSINESS DIVERSIFICATION: SUSTAINABILITY LIVELIHOODS IMPROVEMENT SCENARIO OF RICE FARMER HOUSEHOLD IN SUB-OPTIMAL LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased role of the sub-optimal land to support food security continue to be encouraged in Indonesia, given the more limited expansion for potential land. But until recently, development of sub-optimal land becomes not an easy thing. Ecological and technical barriers became the main issue. A series of these issues resulted in a high number of underemproleymeny and poverty in agriculture region. Technological inovation of agriculture and the business diversification can be seen be the solution to those issues. This research aims to analyze the impact of the technological innovation and business diversification on underemployment, working time, household income and also sustainable livelihoods of farmers on the sub-optimal land. The research was carried out in Pemulutan District, Ogan Ilir Regency, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia. The objects of research are farmers which adopter and non adopter technological innovation, and also work outside of paddy farming (business diversification. The research method is the survey. Method of sampling is stratified random sampling. Data obtained in the field analyses using descriptive statistics and inferesia. The results showed there are positive impact of technological innovation on the allocation of working time farmer households, the numbers underemployment, household income and livelihood sustainability. Determinant factors for farmers in applying technology and business diversification are paddy farming income, off-farm income, and age. The use of technology and business diversification proves to be one of the positive scenarios for sustainable livelihood of farmers in sub-optimal land.

  16. Two Liters a Day Keep the Doctor Away? Considerations on the Pathophysiology of Suboptimal Fluid Intake in the Common Population

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Lang; Isabelle Guelinckx; Guillaume Lemetais; Olle Melander

    2017-01-01

    Suboptimal fluid intake may require enhanced release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin for the maintenance of adequate hydration. Enhanced copeptin levels (reflecting enhanced vasopressin levels) in 25% of the common population are associated with enhanced risk of metabolic syndrome with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, vascular dementia, cognitive impairment, microalbuminuria, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disea...

  17. Audit-based education to reduce suboptimal management of cholesterol in primary care: a before and after study.

    OpenAIRE

    de Lusignan, S; Belsey, J; Hague, N.; Dhoul, N; van Vlymen, J

    2006-01-01

    Statins are recommended for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, although they are often used in suboptimal doses and some patients may not receive lipid-lowering therapy. The Primary Care Data Quality (PCDQ) programme is an audit-based educational intervention.

  18. Mejoras de las Heurísticas Greedy empleadas en el secuenciamiento de los Sistemas de Producción Multi-modelo y Multi-nivel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Areal Alonso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El problema de secuenciamiento de los sistemas de producción multi-modelo y multi-nivel reside en el alisado de las tasas de producción de los productos finales y también de las tasas de consumo de los diversos subconjuntos y elementos empleados en las etapas previas de producción. Las secuencias deben construirse de acuerdo a las opciones de cada producto, que requieren diferentes recursos y tiempo de producción, siendo el objetivo evitar sobrepasar el potencial de la instalación y de los medios humanos. Este artículo se desarrolla a partir del método Goal-chasing, que es una heurística Greedy desarrollada por Toyota para resolver este problema y que es ampliamente utilizado en la industria del automóvil. El artículo propone una mejora de dicho método con la introducción de pesos diferentes para cada opción con el fin de mejorar el ordenamiento de la secuencia. Profundizando en esta vía, se aplica el método Nelder-Mead de optimización no lineal para obtener los pesos de opciones que minimizan el coste de la secuencia resultante. Los resultados obtenidos aplicando los algoritmos a sistemas de producción multi-modelo y multi-nivel se concretan en el mundo del automóvil para una secuencia inicial, se generalizan a un conjunto de 30 secuencias representativas del entorno industrial del automóvil y se contrastan con referencias clásicas de la literatura. Abstract: The Car Sequencing Problem consists in maintaining a certain order in the vehicles as they pass through the assembly line. Sequences have to be built according to each vehicle's options, each one requiring different resources and production time, with the objective of avoiding to exceed the maximum human and facility potential. In this paper, we use a Greedy heuristic, the Goal-chasing method developed by Toyota, to solve the Car Sequencing Problem. The concept of different weights for each option is introduced to improve the ordering of the sequence. Nelder

  19. Autonomous search

    CERN Document Server

    Hamadi, Youssef; Saubion, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous combinatorial search (AS) represents a new field in combinatorial problem solving. Its major standpoint and originality is that it considers that problem solvers must be capable of self-improvement operations. This is the first book dedicated to AS.

  20. Extension of suboptimal control theory for flow around a square cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yosuke; Fukagata, Koji

    2017-11-01

    We extend the suboptimal control theory to control of flow around a square cylinder, which has no point symmetry on the impulse response from the wall in contrast to circular cylinders and spheres previously studied. The cost functions examined are the pressure drag (J1), the friction drag (J2), the squared difference between target pressure and wall pressure (J3) and the time-averaged dissipation (J4). The control input is assumed to be continuous blowing and suction on the cylinder wall and the feedback sensors are assumued on the entire wall surface. The control law is derived so as to minimize the cost function under the constraint of linearized Navier-Stokes equation, and the impulse response field to be convolved with the instantaneous flow quanties are numerically obtained. The amplitide of control input is fixed so that the maximum blowing/suction velocity is 40% of the freestream velocity. When J2 is used as the cost function, the friction drag is reduced as expected but the mean drag is found to increase. In constast, when J1, J3, and J4 were used, the mean drag was found to decrease by 21%, 12%, and 22%, respectively; in addition, vortex shedding is suppressed, which leads to reduction of lift fluctuations.

  1. Suboptimal HIV Testing Uptake Among Men Who Engage in Commercial Sex Work with Men in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Harry; Friedman, Mackey Reuel; Lim, Sin How; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Wei, Chongyi

    2016-12-01

    Men who have sex with men and are sex workers (MSMSW) are disproportionately affected by the growing and emerging HIV epidemic. As sex work and same-sex behavior are heavily stigmatized and often illegal in most Asian countries, HIV research focusing on MSMSW has been limited. The goal of this analysis is to examine HIV testing practices and identify correlates of HIV testing among MSMSW in Asia. The Asia Internet MSM Sex Survey, an online cross-sectional survey of 10,861 men who have sex with men (MSM), was conducted in 2010. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, HIV testing behaviors, and sexual behaviors were collected. Five hundred and seventy-four HIV-negative/unknown respondents reported receiving payment for sex with men at least once in the past 6 months and were included in this analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify independent correlates of HIV testing in the past year. About half (48.6%) of the participants had been tested for HIV at least once within the past year, and 30.5% had never been tested. We also found that MSMSW participants who engaged in risky behaviors were less likely to be tested. While one might expect a high HIV testing rate among MSMSW due to the risks associated with engaging in sex work, we found that HIV testing uptake is suboptimal among MSMSW in Asia. These results suggest that targeted HIV prevention and testing promotion among MSMSW are needed.

  2. Suboptimal Nutritional Characteristics in Male and Female Soldiers Compared to Sports Nutrition Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  3. Suboptimal evolutionary novel environments promote singular altered gravity responses of transcriptome during Drosophila metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Raul; Larkin, Oliver J; Hill, Richard J A; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; van Loon, Jack J W A; Medina, F Javier

    2013-06-27

    Previous experiments have shown that the reduced gravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS) causes important alterations in Drosophila gene expression. These changes were shown to be intimately linked to environmental space-flight related constraints. Here, we use an array of different techniques for ground-based simulation of microgravity effects to assess the effect of suboptimal environmental conditions on the gene expression of Drosophila in reduced gravity. A global and integrative analysis, using "gene expression dynamics inspector" (GEDI) self-organizing maps, reveals different degrees in the responses of the transcriptome when using different environmental conditions or microgravity/hypergravity simulation devices. Although the genes that are affected are different in each simulation technique, we find that the same gene ontology groups, including at least one large multigene family related with behavior, stress response or organogenesis, are over represented in each case. These results suggest that the transcriptome as a whole can be finely tuned to gravity force. In optimum environmental conditions, the alteration of gravity has only mild effects on gene expression but when environmental conditions are far from optimal, the gene expression must be tuned greatly and effects become more robust, probably linked to the lack of experience of organisms exposed to evolutionary novel environments such as a gravitational free one.

  4. Daily menus can result in suboptimal nutrient intakes, especially calcium, of adolescents living in dormitories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresić, Greta; Simundić, Borislav; Mandić, Milena L; Kendel, Gordana; Zezelj, Sandra Pavicić

    2008-03-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate daily menus in Croatian dormitories and to assess the overall intake of dairy products among resident adolescents. For this purpose, 168 daily menus were chosen for nutritional evaluation by random sampling. In addition, 227 adolescents (133 girls and 94 boys) participated in a questionnaire focused on food intake in addition to the meals supplied in dormitories with the aim to assess the amount and the type of dairy products consumed. The results showed that only 35% of the daily menus were nutritionally balanced. Most of the menus provided an excess of energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, phosphorus, riboflavin, and vitamin A. The levels of calcium and magnesium in the menus were suboptimal. The menus offered to adolescents provided approximately 2 servings of dairy products per day. Milk was the most often supplied dairy product (1.1 servings per day), whereas yogurt had the lowest frequency of serving (0.2 servings per day). The most preferred dairy-based snack for both sexes was milk. Dairy-based snacks provided about 1 serving per day for both sexes and contributed to about 30% of the recommended dietary allowances for calcium. Adolescents who regularly consumed dairy-based snacks meet the recommendations (3.2 servings of dairy products per day and about 98% recommended dietary allowances for calcium). We conclude that the institutional menu planning should be improved because the intake of dairy snacks will continue to be a problem for achieving a healthy diet in adolescences.

  5. Parasitological and transcriptomic comparison of Strongyloides ratti infections in natural and in suboptimal permissive hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleta, Tegegn G; Rödelsperger, Christian; Streit, Adrian

    2017-09-01

    The nematode genus Strongyloides consists of fairly species-specific small intestinal parasites of various vertebrates, among them the human pathogen S. stercoralis. Between the parthenogenetic parasitic generations these worms can also form single facultative sexual free-living generations. In addition to their primary hosts, several species can also live more or less well in other permissive hosts, which are sometimes not very closely related with the normal host. For example, S. stercoralis can also infect dogs and non-human primates. Here we compare the infection and reproductive success over time and the gene expression profiles as determined by quantitative sequencing of S. ratti parasitizing in its natural host rat and in the permissive host gerbil. We show that in gerbils fewer infective larvae successfully establish in the host, but those that do accomplish this survive and reproduce for longer and produced a higher proportion of males during the first two month of infection. Globally, the gene expression profiles in the two hosts are very similar. Among the relatively few differentially expressed genes, astacin-like and acetylcholinesterase genes are prominently represented. In the future it will be interesting to see if these changes in the suboptimal host are indeed ecologically sensible responses to the different host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and evaluation of a questionnaire for measuring suboptimal health status in urban Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Xiang; Liu, You-Qin; Li, Man; Hu, Pei-Feng; Guo, Ai-Min; Yang, Xing-Hua; Qiu, Jing-Jun; Yang, Shan-Shan; Shen, Jian; Zhang, Li-Ping; Wang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) is characterized by ambiguous health complaints, general weakness, and lack of vitality, and has become a new public health challenge in China. It is believed to be a subclinical, reversible stage of chronic disease. Studies of intervention and prognosis for SHS are expected to become increasingly important. Consequently, a reliable and valid instrument to assess SHS is essential. We developed and evaluated a questionnaire for measuring SHS in urban Chinese. Focus group discussions and a literature review provided the basis for the development of the questionnaire. Questionnaire validity and reliability were evaluated in a small pilot study and in a larger cross-sectional study of 3000 individuals. Analyses included tests for reliability and internal consistency, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and tests for discriminative ability and convergent validity. The final questionnaire included 25 items on SHS (SHSQ-25), and encompassed 5 subscales: fatigue, the cardiovascular system, the digestive tract, the immune system, and mental status. Overall, 2799 of 3000 participants completed the questionnaire (93.3%). Test-retest reliability coefficients of individual items ranged from 0.89 to 0.98. Item-subscale correlations ranged from 0.51 to 0.72, and Cronbach's alpha was 0.70 or higher for all subscales. Factor analysis established 5 distinct domains, as conceptualized in our model. One-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences in scale scores between 3 occupation groups; these included total scores and subscores (Purban Chinese.

  7. Motor planning under temporal uncertainty is suboptimal when the gain function is asymmetric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Keiji; Shinya, Masahiro; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    For optimal action planning, the gain/loss associated with actions and the variability in motor output should both be considered. A number of studies make conflicting claims about the optimality of human action planning but cannot be reconciled due to their use of different movements and gain/loss functions. The disagreement is possibly because of differences in the experimental design and differences in the energetic cost of participant motor effort. We used a coincident timing task, which requires decision making with constant energetic cost, to test the optimality of participant's timing strategies under four configurations of the gain function. We compared participant strategies to an optimal timing strategy calculated from a Bayesian model that maximizes the expected gain. We found suboptimal timing strategies under two configurations of the gain function characterized by asymmetry, in which higher gain is associated with higher risk of zero gain. Participants showed a risk-seeking strategy by responding closer than optimal to the time of onset/offset of zero gain. Meanwhile, there was good agreement of the model with actual performance under two configurations of the gain function characterized by symmetry. Our findings show that human ability to make decisions that must reflect uncertainty in one's own motor output has limits that depend on the configuration of the gain function.

  8. Altered Innate Immune Responses in Neutrophils from Patients with Well- and Suboptimally Controlled Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca S. M. Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Respiratory infections are a major cause of asthma exacerbations where neutrophilic inflammation dominates and is associated with steroid refractory asthma. Structural airway cells in asthma differ from nonasthmatics; however it is unknown if neutrophils differ. We investigated neutrophil immune responses in patients who have good (AGood and suboptimal (ASubopt asthma symptom control. Methods. Peripheral blood neutrophils from AGood (ACQ 0.75, n=7, and healthy controls (HC (n=9 were stimulated with bacterial (LPS (1 μg/mL, fMLF (100 nM, and viral (imiquimod (3 μg/mL, R848 (1.5 μg/mL, and poly I:C (10 μg/mL surrogates or live rhinovirus (RV 16 (MOI1. Cell-free supernatant was collected after 1 h for neutrophil elastase (NE and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 measurements or after 24 h for CXCL8 release. Results. Constitutive NE was enhanced in AGood neutrophils compared to HC. fMLF stimulated neutrophils from ASubopt but not AGood produced 50% of HC levels. fMLF induced MMP-9 was impaired in ASubopt and AGood compared to HC. fMLF stimulated CXCL8 but not MMP-9 was positively correlated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. ASubopt and AGood responded similarly to other stimuli. Conclusions. Circulating neutrophils are different in asthma; however, this is likely to be related to airflow limitation rather than asthma control.

  9. Sub-optimal wavelet denoising of coaveraged spectra employing statistics from individual scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Roberto Kawakami Harrop; Filho, Heronides Adonias Dantas; Martins, Marcelo Nascimento; Araújo, Mário César Ugulino; Pasquini, Celio

    2007-01-02

    This paper proposes a novel wavelet denoising method, which exploits the statistics of individual scans acquired in the course of a coaveraging process. The proposed method consists of shrinking the wavelet coefficients of the noisy signal by a factor that minimizes the expected square error with respect to the true signal. Since the true signal is not known, a sub-optimal estimate of the shrinking factor is calculated by using the sample statistics of the acquired scans. It is shown that such an estimate can be generated as the limit value of a recursive formulation. In a simulated example, the performance of the proposed method is seen to be equivalent to the best choice between hard and soft thresholding for different signal-to-noise ratios. Such a conclusion is also supported by an experimental investigation involving near-infrared (NIR) scans of a diesel sample. It is worth emphasizing that this experimental example concerns the removal of actual instrumental noise, in contrast to other case studies in the denoising literature, which usually present simulations with artificial noise. The simulated and experimental cases indicate that, in classic denoising based on wavelet coefficient thresholding, choosing between the hard and soft options is not straightforward and may lead to considerably different outcomes. By resorting to the proposed method, the analyst is not required to make such a critical decision in order to achieve appropriate results.

  10. Metabonomics-Based Study of Clinical Urine Samples in Suboptimal Health with Different Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Zhen Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the urinary biochemistry features of syndromes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM such as syndrome of stagnation of liver Qi, spleen deficiency, liver Qi stagnation, and spleen deficiency (LSSDS in sub-optimal health status (SHS. Methods. 12 cases for each syndrome group in SHS were selected, 12 subjects were used as a normal control group, and 1H NMR detection was, respectively, carried out, and the data was corrected by the orthogonal signal correction (OSC and then adopted a partial least squares (PLS method for discriminate analysis. Results. The OSC-PLS (ctr analysis results of the nuclear overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY detection indicated that the syndromes in SHS could be differentiated, and there were significant differences in the levels of metabolites of the urine samples of the four groups; the biomarkers of LSSDS in SHS were found out. The contents of citric acid (2.54 and 2.66, trimethylamineoxide (3.26, and hippuric acid (3.98, 7.54, 7.58, 7.62, 7.66, 7.82, and 7.86 in the urine samples of LSSDS group were lower than that of the normal control group. Conclusion. There are differences in the 1H-NMR metabolic spectrum of the urine samples of the four groups, and the specific metabolic products of the LSSDS in SHS can be identified from metabonomics analysis.

  11. Suboptimal provision of preventive healthcare due to expected enrollee turnover among private insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Bradley

    2010-04-01

    Many preventive healthcare procedures are widely recognized as cost-effective but have relatively low utilization rates in the US. Because preventive care is a present-period investment with a future-period expected financial return, enrollee turnover among private insurers lowers the expected return of this investment. In this paper, I present a simple theoretical model to illustrate the suboptimal provision of preventive healthcare that results from insurers 'free riding' off of the provision from others. I also provide an empirical test of this hypothesis using data from the Community Tracking Study's Household Survey. I use lagged market-level measures of employment-induced insurer turnover to identify variation in insurers' expectations and test for the effect of turnover on several different measures of medical utilization. As expected, I find that turnover has a significantly negative effect on the utilization of preventive services and has no effect on the utilization of acute services used as a control. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Economic and disease burden of breast cancer associated with suboptimal breastfeeding practices in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Meza, Rafael; Colchero, M Arantxa; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; de Cosío, Teresita Gonzalez

    2017-10-05

    Exclusive breastfeeding and longer breastfeeding reduce women's breast cancer risk but Mexico has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide. We estimated the lifetime economic and disease burden of breast cancer in Mexico if 95% of parous women breastfeed each child exclusively for 6 months and continue breastfeeding for over a year. We used a static microsimulation model with a cost-of-illness approach to simulate a cohort of Mexican women. We estimated breast cancer incidence, premature mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), medical costs, and income losses due to breast cancer and extrapolated the results to 1.116 million Mexican women of age 15 in 2012. Costs were expressed in 2015 US dollars and discounted at a 3% annual rate. We estimated that 2,186 premature deaths (95% CI 2,123-2,248), 9,936 breast cancer cases (95% CI 9,651-10,220), 45,109 DALYs (95% CI 43,000-47,217), and $245 million USD (95% CI 234-256) in medical costs and income losses owing to breast cancer could be saved over a cohort's lifetime. Medical costs account for 80% of the economic burden; income losses and opportunity costs for caregivers account for 15 and 5%, respectively. In Mexico, the burden of breast cancer due to suboptimal breastfeeding in women is high in terms of morbidity, premature mortality, and the economic costs for the health sector and society.

  13. Effects of Suboptimally Presented Erotic Pictures on Moral Judgments: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Vilar, Manuel; Arango, Olber Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified a set of core factors that influence moral judgments. The present study addresses the interplay between moral judgments and four factors: (a) incidental affects, (b) sociocultural context, (c) type of dilemma, and (d) participant’s sex. We asked participants in two different countries (Colombia and Spain) to judge the acceptability of actions in response to personal and impersonal moral dilemmas. Before each dilemma an affective prime (erotic, pleasant or neutral pictures) was presented suboptimally. Our results show that: a) relative to neutral priming, erotic primes increase the acceptance of harm for a greater good (i.e., more utilitarian judgments), b) relative to Colombians, Spanish participants rated causing harm as less acceptable, c) relative to impersonal dilemmas, personal dilemmas reduced the acceptance of harm, and d) relative to men, women were less likely to consider harm acceptable. Our results are congruent with findings showing that sex is a crucial factor in moral cognition, and they extend previous research by showing the interaction between culture and incidental factors in the making of moral judgments. PMID:27367795

  14. Effects of Suboptimally Presented Erotic Pictures on Moral Judgments: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Olivera-La Rosa

    Full Text Available Previous research has identified a set of core factors that influence moral judgments. The present study addresses the interplay between moral judgments and four factors: (a incidental affects, (b sociocultural context, (c type of dilemma, and (d participant's sex. We asked participants in two different countries (Colombia and Spain to judge the acceptability of actions in response to personal and impersonal moral dilemmas. Before each dilemma an affective prime (erotic, pleasant or neutral pictures was presented suboptimally. Our results show that: a relative to neutral priming, erotic primes increase the acceptance of harm for a greater good (i.e., more utilitarian judgments, b relative to Colombians, Spanish participants rated causing harm as less acceptable, c relative to impersonal dilemmas, personal dilemmas reduced the acceptance of harm, and d relative to men, women were less likely to consider harm acceptable. Our results are congruent with findings showing that sex is a crucial factor in moral cognition, and they extend previous research by showing the interaction between culture and incidental factors in the making of moral judgments.

  15. Motor planning under temporal uncertainty is suboptimal when the gain function is asymmetric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji eOta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For optimal action planning, the gain/loss associated with actions and the variability in motor output should both be considered. A number of studies make conflicting claims about the optimality of human action planning but cannot be reconciled due to their use of different movements and gain/loss functions. The disagreement is possibly because of differences in the experimental design and differences in the energetic cost of participant motor effort. We used a coincident timing task, which requires decision making with constant energetic cost, to test the optimality of participant’s timing strategies under four configurations of the gain function. We compared participant strategies to an optimal timing strategy calculated from a Bayesian model that maximizes the expected gain. We found suboptimal timing strategies under two configurations of the gain function characterized by asymmetry, in which higher gain is associated with higher risk of zero gain. Participants showed a risk-seeking strategy by responding closer than optimal to the time of onset/offset of zero gain. Meanwhile, there was good agreement of the model with actual performance under two configurations of the gain function characterized by symmetry. Our findings show that human ability to make decisions that must reflect uncertainty in one’s own motor output has limits that depend on the configuration of the gain function.

  16. Suboptimal maximum likelihood detection of on-off keying for a wireless optical communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijie; Ding, Shengli; Dang, Anhong

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates a detection scheme without channel state information for wireless optical communication systems. Employing conventional on-off keying signals, we supposed that conditional probability density function P(r|0) is much bigger than P(r|1) when r<0. Under this assumption, the suboptimal maximum likelihood scheme is obtained by utilizing the probability density function without channel information. Theoretical analysis shows the performance of the proposed scheme is close to the maximum likelihood symbol-by-symbol detection. Compared with the maximum likelihood symbol by symbol detection, Monte Carlo simulations show that the performance of the proposed scheme is about 0.62 dB loss for a gamma-gamma channel with a Rytov variance of 1 at the signal-to-noise ratio of 2 dB, but the efficient algorithm makes the real-time implementation of detection based on maximum likelihood feasible. Besides, the experiment is set up under 2 Gbps, and the experimental results match well with that of the theory and simulation.

  17. Investigating the prevalence, predictors, and prognosis of suboptimal statin use early after a non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Richard M; Yin, Peng; Hanson, Anita; FitzGerald, Richard; Morris, Andrew P; Stables, Rod H; Jorgensen, Andrea L; Pirmohamed, Munir

    High-potency statin therapy is recommended in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease but discontinuation, dose reduction, statin switching, and/or nonadherence occur in practice. To determine the prevalence and predictors of deviation from high-potency statin use early after a non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and its association with subsequent major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and all-cause mortality (ACM). A total of 1005 patients from a UK-based prospective NSTE-ACS cohort study discharged on high-potency statin therapy (atorvastatin 80 mg, rosuvastatin 20 mg, or 40 mg daily) were included. At 1 month, patients were divided into constant high-potency statin users, and suboptimal users incorporating statin discontinuation, dose reduction, switching statin to a lower equivalent potency, and/or statin nonadherence. Follow-up was a median of 16 months. There were 156 suboptimal (∼15.5%) and 849 constant statin users. Factors associated in multivariable analysis with suboptimal statin occurrence included female sex (odds ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-2.68) and muscular symptoms (odds ratio 4.28, 95% CI 1.30-14.08). Suboptimal statin use was associated with increased adjusted risks of time to MACE (hazard ratio 2.10, 95% CI 1.25-3.53, P = .005) and ACM (hazard ratio 2.46, 95% CI 1.38-4.39, P = .003). Subgroup analysis confirmed that the increased MACE/ACM risks were principally attributable to statin discontinuation or nonadherence. Conversion to suboptimal statin use is common early after NSTE-ACS and is partly related to muscular symptoms. Statin discontinuation or non-adherence carries an adverse prognosis. Interventions that preserve and enhance statin utilization could improve post NSTE-ACS outcomes. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. $A$ searches

    CERN Document Server

    Beacham, James

    The Standard Model of particle physics encompasses three of the four known fundamental forces of nature, and has remarkably withstood all of the experimental tests of its predictions, a fact solidified by the discovery, in 2012, of the Higgs boson. However, it cannot be the complete picture. Many measurements have been made that hint at physics beyond the Standard Model, and the main task of the high- energy experimental physics community is to conduct searches for new physics in as many di↵erent places and regimes as possible. I present three searches for new phenomena in three di↵erent high-energy collider experiments, namely, a search for events with at least three photons in the final state, which is sensitive to an exotic decay of a Higgs boson into four photons via intermediate pseudoscalar particles, a, with ATLAS, at the Large Hadron Collider; a search for a dark photon, also known as an A0 , with APEX, at Thomas Je↵erson National Accelerator Facility; and a search for a Higgs decaying into four...

  19. A dichotomous search-based heuristic for the three-dimensional sphere packing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhand Hifi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the three-dimensional sphere packing problem is solved by using a dichotomous search-based heuristic. An instance of the problem is defined by a set of $ n $ unequal spheres and an object of fixed width and height and, unlimited length. Each sphere is characterized by its radius and the aim of the problem is to optimize the length of the object containing all spheres without overlapping. The proposed method is based upon beam search, in which three complementary phases are combined: (i a greedy selection phase which determines a series of eligible search subspace, (ii a truncated tree search, using a width-beam search, that explores some promising paths, and (iii a dichotomous search that diversifies the search. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on benchmark instances taken from the literature where its obtained results are compared to those reached by some recent methods of the literature. The proposed method is competitive and it yields promising results.

  20. Suboptimal herd performance amplifies the spread of infectious disease in the cattle industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carolyn Gates

    Full Text Available Farms that purchase replacement breeding cattle are at increased risk of introducing many economically important diseases. The objectives of this analysis were to determine whether the total number of replacement breeding cattle purchased by individual farms could be reduced by improving herd performance and to quantify the effects of such reductions on the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases. Detailed information on the performance and contact patterns of British cattle herds was extracted from the national cattle movement database as a case example. Approximately 69% of beef herds and 59% of dairy herds with an average of at least 20 recorded calvings per year purchased at least one replacement breeding animal. Results from zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed that herds with high average ages at first calving, prolonged calving intervals, abnormally high or low culling rates, and high calf mortality rates were generally more likely to be open herds and to purchase greater numbers of replacement breeding cattle. If all herds achieved the same level of performance as the top 20% of herds, the total number of replacement beef and dairy cattle purchased could be reduced by an estimated 34% and 51%, respectively. Although these purchases accounted for only 13% of between-herd contacts in the industry trade network, they were found to have a disproportionately strong influence on disease transmission dynamics. These findings suggest that targeting extension services at herds with suboptimal performance may be an effective strategy for controlling endemic cattle diseases while simultaneously improving industry productivity.

  1. Suboptimal management of central nervous system infections in children: a multi-centre retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Christine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We aimed to audit the regional management of central nervous system (CNS infection in children. Methods The study was undertaken in five district general hospitals and one tertiary paediatric hospital in the Mersey region of the UK. Children admitted to hospital with a suspected CNS infection over a three month period were identified. Children were aged between 4 weeks and 16 years old. Details were recorded from the case notes and electronic records. We measured the appropriateness of management pathways as outlined by national and local guidelines. Results Sixty-five children were identified with a median age of 6 months (range 1 month to 15 years. Ten had a CNS infection: 4 aseptic meningitis, 3 purulent meningitis, 3 encephalitis [2 with herpes simplex virus (HSV type 1]. A lumbar puncture (LP was attempted in 50 (77% cases but only 43 had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF available for analysis. Of these 24 (57% had a complete standard set of tests performed. Fifty eight (89% received a third generation cephalosporin. Seventeen (26% also received aciclovir with no obvious indication in 9 (53%. Only 11 (65% of those receiving aciclovir had CSF herpes virus PCR. Seventeen had cranial imaging and it was the first management step in 14. Treatment lengths of both antibiotics and aciclovir were highly variable: one child with HSV encephalitis was only treated with aciclovir for 7 days. Conclusions The clinical management of children with suspected CNS infections across the Mersey region is heterogeneous and often sub-optimal, particularly for the investigation and treatment of viral encephalitis. National guidelines for the management of viral encephalitis are needed.

  2. Suboptimal vitamin K status despite supplementation in children and young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kelly A; Schall, Joan I; Stallings, Virginia A

    2010-09-01

    For children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency, the efficacy of routine vitamin K supplementation to normalize vitamin K status remains unclear. This study examined and determined predictors of vitamin K status in subjects aged 8-25 y with CF and pancreatic insufficiency taking various vitamin K supplements. In 97 subjects, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], dietary intake, vitamin K supplement intake, and vitamin K statusmdashdetermined on the basis of the percentage of serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC; sufficient: lt 20%) and plasma proteins induced by vitamin K absence-factor II (PIVKA-II; n = 60; sufficient: le 2 microg/L)mdashwere assessed. The vitamin K supplementation groups were as follows: lt 150 microg/d (low; multivitamins or no supplement), 150-999 microg/d (middle; CF-specific vitamins), and ge 1000 microg/d (high; mephyton). %ucOC values were compared with 140 healthy subjects aged 6-21 y. In subjects with CF, the median (range) %ucOC was 35% (3%, 76%) and the median (range) for PIVKA-II was 2 (0, 42) micro g/L. Subjects with CF had a higher %ucOC with low [45% (10%, 76%)] and medium [41% (3%, 66%)] supplement intakes but not with a high supplement intake [16% (4%, 72%)] compared with healthy subjects [23% (0%, 43%); both P lt 0.05]. Supplementation group for males and females and 25(OH)D and age for males were significant predictors of vitamin K status. Vitamin K status was often suboptimal despite routine supplementation. Only subjects taking high-dose vitamin K achieved a status similar to healthy subjects, and only the vitamin K supplementation dose predicted vitamin K status for males and females. These data suggest that higher doses of vitamin K are required.

  3. Suboptimal vitamin K status and its risk factors in a population of Chinese chronic haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunlin; Ruan, Yizhe; He, Qiang; Zhang, Wensong; Wang, Li

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin K deficiency is known to be common in haemodialysis patients and associates with adverse outcomes in this population, particularly vascular calcification. We aimed to investigate the vitamin K status in a population of Chinese haemodialysis (HD) patients. We collected demographic and biochemical data from a population of maintenance HD (MHD) patients in our unit and a control group composed of healthy subjects from our outpatient clinic. Fasting serum samples from all subjects were collected for the measurement of known vitamin K-dependent proteins i.e. matrix Gla protein (MGP), osteocalcin (OC) and uncarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC). We also quantified the fraction of ucOC to total OC (%ucOC). Differences of these parameters between groups were analyzed and risk factors of vitamin K deficiency based on the definition as per %ucOC were investigated. We enrolled 93 MHD patients as a test group and 93 healthy subjects as a control group. There was no significant difference in MGP between groups (4.0 ± 2.8 pg/mL in MHD vs 4.2 ± 1.2 pg/mL in control; P = 0.676). Mean %ucOC was significantly greater in the MHD patients as compared to control subjects (76.4 ± 20.0% in MHD vs 48.56 ± 15.5%; P vitamin K deficiency, with the former being an independent risk factor. Defining Vitamin K deficiency by %ucOC, suboptimal vitamin K levels appear common in Chinese MHD patients. Time on dialysis and LDL cholesterol level predict vitamin K deficiency. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  4. Suboptimal porcine endogenous retrovirus infection in non-human primate cells: implication for preclinical xenotransplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Mattiuzzo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV poses a potential risk of zoonotic infection in xenotransplantation. Preclinical transplantation trials using non-human primates (NHP as recipients of porcine xenografts present the opportunity to assess the zoonosis risk in vivo. However, PERV poorly infects NHP cells for unclear reasons and therefore NHP may represent a suboptimal animal model to assess the risk of PERV zoonoses. We investigated the mechanism responsible for the low efficiency of PERV-A infection in NHP cells. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two steps, cell entry and exit, were inefficient for the replication of high-titer, human-tropic A/C recombinant PERV. A restriction factor, tetherin, is likely to be responsible for the block to matured virion release, supported by the correlation between the levels of inhibition and tetherin expression. In rhesus macaque, cynomolgus macaque and baboon the main receptor for PERV entry, PERV-A receptor 1 (PAR-1, was found to be genetically deficient: PAR-1 genes in these species encode serine at amino acid 109 in place of the leucine in human PAR-1. This genetic defect inevitably impacts in vivo sensitivity to PERV infection of these species. In contrast, African green monkey (AGM PAR-1 is functional, but PERV infection is still poor. Although the mechanism is unclear, tunicamycin treatment, which removes N-glycosylated sugar chains, increases PERV infection, suggesting a possible role for the glycosylation of the receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Since cynomolgus macaque and baboon, species often used in pig-to-NHP xenotransplantation experiments, have a defective PAR-1, they hardly represent an ideal animal model to assess the risk of PERV transmission in xenotransplantation. Alternatively, NHP species, like AGM, whose both PARs are functional may represent a better model than baboon and cynomolgus macaque for PERV zoonosis in vivo studies.

  5. Sensor-augmented pump therapy lowers HbA(1c) in suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes; a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanides, J; Nørgaard, K; Bruttomesso, D

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of sensor-augmented pump therapy vs. multiple daily injection therapy in patients with suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes.......To investigate the efficacy of sensor-augmented pump therapy vs. multiple daily injection therapy in patients with suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes....

  6. New Predicted Spiral Search Block Matching Algorithm - PSSBMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pika

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the modification of the full search algorithmESBMA (Exhaustive Search Block Matching Algorithm, which leads up to40% speed increase. The modification is based on the ESBMA motion fieldanalysis results. The major modifications to the ESBMA are: -Introduction of sub-optimality by thresholding the matching criterion(MAEthr; - Respecting constraints on motion vectors resulting from"head and shoulder" scenes by changing the position of the searchstart; - Respecting the dependence of motion vectors (MV by predictionintroduction.

  7. Performance of a class of multi-robot deploy and search strategies based on centroidal voronoi configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprasad, K. R.; Ghose, Debasish

    2013-04-01

    This article considers a class of deploy and search strategies for multi-robot systems and evaluates their performance. The application framework used is deployment of a system of autonomous mobile robots equipped with required sensors in a search space to gather information. The lack of information about the search space is modelled as an uncertainty density distribution. The agents are deployed to maximise single-step search effectiveness. The centroidal Voronoi configuration, which achieves a locally optimal deployment, forms the basis for sequential deploy and search (SDS) and combined deploy and search (CDS) strategies. Completeness results are provided for both search strategies. The deployment strategy is analysed in the presence of constraints on robot speed and limit on sensor range for the convergence of trajectories with corresponding control laws responsible for the motion of robots. SDS and CDS strategies are compared with standard greedy and random search strategies on the basis of time taken to achieve reduction in the uncertainty density below a desired level. The simulation experiments reveal several important issues related to the dependence of the relative performances of the search strategies on parameters such as the number of robots, speed of robots and their sensor range limits.

  8. Real-time discrete suboptimal control for systems with input and state delays: Experimental tests on a dehydration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Guerrero, Liliam; Santos-Sánchez, Omar-Jacobo; Cervantes-Escorcia, Nicolás; Romero, Hugo

    2017-11-01

    This article presents a suboptimal control strategy with finite horizon for affine nonlinear discrete systems with both state and input delays. The Dynamic Programming Approach is used to obtain the suboptimal control sequence, but in order to avoid the computation of the Bellman functional, a numerical approximation of this function is proposed in every step. The feasibility of our proposal is demonstrated via an experimental test on a dehydration process and the obtained results show a good performance and behavior of this process. Then in order to demonstrate the benefits of using this kind of control strategy, the results are compared with a non optimal control strategy, particularly with respect to results produced by an industrial Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Honeywell controller, which is tuned using the Ziegler-Nichols method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Forward Greedy ANN input selection in a stacked framework with Adaboost.RT - A streamflow forecasting case study exploiting radar rainfall estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochero, D.; Anctil, F.; Gagné, C.

    2012-04-01

    In input selection (or feature selection), modellers are interested in identifying k of the d dimensions that provide the most information. In hydrology, this problem is particularly relevant when dealing with temporally and spatially distributed data such as radar rainfall estimates or meteorological ensemble forecasts. The most common approaches for input determination of artifitial neural networks (ANN) in water resources are cross-correlation, heuristics, embedding window analysis (chaos theory), and sensitivity analyses. We resorted here to Forward Greedy Selection (FGS), a sensitivity analysis, for identifying the inputs that maximize the performance of ANN forecasting. It consists of a pool of ANNs with different structures, initial weights, and training data subsets. The stacked ANN model was setup through the joint use of stop training and a special type of boosting for regression known as AdaBoost.RT. Several ANN are then used in series, each one exploiting, with incremental probability, data with relative estimation error higher than a pre-set threshold value. The global estimate is then obtained from the aggregation of the estimates of the models (here the median value). Two schemes are compared here, which differ in their input type. The first scheme looks at lagged radar rainfall estimates averaged over entire catchment (the average scenario), while the second scheme deals with the spatial variation fields of the radar rainfall estimates (the distributed scenario). Results lead to three major findings. First, stacked ANN response outperforms the best single ANN (in the same way as many others reports). Second, a positive gain in the test subset of around 20%, when compared to the average scenario, is observed in the distributed scenario. However, the most important result from the selecting process is the final structure of the inputs, for the distributed scenario clearly outlines the areas with the greatest impact on forecasting in terms of the

  10. Suboptimal inhibition of platelet cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1) by aspirin in lupus erythematosus: Association with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Vivian K.; Avalos, Ingrid; Oeser, Annette; Oates, John A.; Milne, Ginger L.; Solus, Joseph F.; Chung, Cecilia P.; Stein, C. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Low-dose aspirin prevents platelet aggregation by suppressing thromboxane A2 synthesis. However, in some individuals thromboxane A2 suppression by aspirin is impaired, indicating suboptimal inhibition of platelet COX-1 by aspirin. Because patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have increased risk of thrombotic events, many receive aspirin; however, the efficacy of aspirin in SLE has not been determined. We examined the hypothesis that aspirin response is impaired in SLE. Methods We assessed the effect of aspirin by measuring concentrations of the stable metabolite of thromboxane A2 - serum thromboxane B2 (sTxB2), before and after treatment with 81 mg daily aspirin for 7 days in 34 patients with SLE and 36 control subjects. The inability to suppress sTxB2 synthesis to aspirin. Results Aspirin almost completely suppressed sTXB2 in control subjects to 1.5, [0.8–2.7] ng/ml (median and interquartile ranges [IQR]), but had less effect in patients with SLE (3.1, [2.2–5.3] ng/ml) (P=0.002). A suboptimal effect of aspirin was present in 15% (5/34) of the patients with SLE but not in control subjects (0/36) (P=0.023). Incomplete responders were more likely to have metabolic syndrome (P=0.048), obesity (P=0.048) and higher concentrations of CRP (P=0.018). Conclusion The pharmacologic effect of aspirin is suboptimal in 15% of patients with SLE but in none of the control subjects, and the suboptimal response was associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, and higher CRP concentrations. PMID:24022862

  11. Dyslipidemia is not associated with cardiovascular disease risk in an animal model of mild chronic suboptimal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Fima; Pintos, Patricia M; Lezón, Christian E; Macri, Elisa V; Friedman, Silvia M; Boyer, Patricia M

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies performed in an experimental model of nutritional growth retardation (NGR) have observed metabolic adaptation. We hypothesized that changes in lipid-lipoprotein profile, glucose, and insulin levels occur, whereas overall body growth is reduced.The aim of this study was to assess serum lipid-lipoprotein profile, hepatogram, insulinemia and glycemia, and CVD risk markers in rats fed a suboptimal diet. Weanling male rats were assigned either to control (C) or NGR group. In this 4-week study, C rats were fed ad libitum a standard diet, and NGR rats received 80% of the amount of food consumed by C. Zoometric parameters, body fat content, serum lipid-lipoprotein profile, hepatogram, insulinemia, and glycemia were determined, and the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and homeostasis model assessment and β-cell function were calculated. Suboptimal food intake induced a significant decrease in body weight and length, which were accompanied by a reduction of 50% in body fat mass. Serum lipoproteins were significantly higher in NGR rats, with the exception of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which remained unchanged. Nutritional growth retardation rats had decreased triglycerides compared with C rats. No significant differences were detected in liver function parameters. The CVD risk markers homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance and homeostasis model assessment and β-cell function were significantly lower in NGR rats. Mild chronic suboptimal nutrition in weanling male rats led to growth retardation and changes in the lipid-lipoprotein profile, glucose, and insulin levels while preserving the integrity of liver function. These data suggest a metabolic adaptation during suboptimal food intake, which ensures substrates flux to tissues that require constant energy-in detriment to body growth. The CVD risk markers suggested that mild chronic food restriction of approximately 20% could

  12. Quantifying Unnecessary Normal Tissue Complication Risks due to Suboptimal Planning: A Secondary Study of RTOG 0126

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Kevin L., E-mail: kevinmoore@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Schmidt, Rachel [Department of Physics, Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Olsen, Lindsey A.; Tan, Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Pugh, Stephanie [NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Seider, Michael J. [Akron City Hospital, Akron, Ohio (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bosch, Walter; Michalski, Jeff; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the frequency and clinical severity of quality deficiencies in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol. Methods and Materials: A total of 219 IMRT patients from the high-dose arm (79.2 Gy) of RTOG 0126 were analyzed. To quantify plan quality, we used established knowledge-based methods for patient-specific dose-volume histogram (DVH) prediction of organs at risk and a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model for grade ≥2 rectal complications to convert DVHs into normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). The LKB model was validated by fitting dose-response parameters relative to observed toxicities. The 90th percentile (22 of 219) of plans with the lowest excess risk (difference between clinical and model-predicted NTCP) were used to create a model for the presumed best practices in the protocol (pDVH{sub 0126,top10%}). Applying the resultant model to the entire sample enabled comparisons between DVHs that patients could have received to DVHs they actually received. Excess risk quantified the clinical impact of suboptimal planning. Accuracy of pDVH predictions was validated by replanning 30 of 219 patients (13.7%), including equal numbers of presumed “high-quality,” “low-quality,” and randomly sampled plans. NTCP-predicted toxicities were compared to adverse events on protocol. Results: Existing models showed that bladder-sparing variations were less prevalent than rectum quality variations and that increased rectal sparing was not correlated with target metrics (dose received by 98% and 2% of the PTV, respectively). Observed toxicities were consistent with current LKB parameters. Converting DVH and pDVH{sub 0126,top10%} to rectal NTCPs, we observed 94 of 219 patients (42.9%) with ≥5% excess risk, 20 of 219 patients (9.1%) with ≥10% excess risk, and 2 of 219 patients (0.9%) with ≥15% excess risk. Replanning demonstrated the

  13. Rising burden of gout in the UK but continuing suboptimal management: a nationwide population study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chang-Fu; Grainge, Matthew J; Mallen, Christian; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe trends in the epidemiology of gout and patterns of urate-lowering treatment (ULT) in the UK general population from 1997 to 2012. Methods We used the Clinical Practice Research Datalink to estimate the prevalence and incidence of gout for each calendar year from 1997 to 2012. We also investigated the pattern of gout management for both prevalent and incident gout patients. Results In 2012, the prevalence of gout was 2.49% (95% CI 2.48% to 2.51%) and the incidence was 1.77 (95% CI 1.73 to 1.81) per 1000 person-years. Prevalence and incidence both were significantly higher in 2012 than in 1997, with a 63.9% increase in prevalence and 29.6% increase in incidence over this period. Regions with highest prevalence and incidence were the North East and Wales. Among prevalent gout patients in 2012, only 48.48% (95% CI 48.08% to 48.89%) were being consulted specifically for gout or treated with ULT and of these 37.63% (95% CI 37.28% to 38.99%) received ULT. In addition, only 18.6% (95% CI 17.6% to 19.6%) of incident gout patients received ULT within 6 months and 27.3% (95% CI 26.1% to 28.5%) within 12 months of diagnosis. The management of prevalent and incident gout patients remained essentially the same during the study period, although the percentage of adherent patients improved from 28.28% (95% CI 27.33% to 29.26%) in 1997 to 39.66% (95% CI 39.11% to 40.22%) in 2012. Conclusions In recent years, both the prevalence and incidence of gout have increased significantly in the UK. Suboptimal use of ULT has not changed between 1997 and 2012. Patient adherence has improved during the study period, but it remains poor. PMID:24431399

  14. Internet Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmaa El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2004-01-01

    A general study about the internet search engines, the study deals main 7 points; the differance between search engines and search directories, components of search engines, the percentage of sites covered by search engines, cataloging of sites, the needed time for sites appearance in search engines, search capabilities, and types of search engines.

  15. Portfolios in Stochastic Local Search: Efficiently Computing Most Probable Explanations in Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengshoel, Ole J.; Roth, Dan; Wilkins, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Portfolio methods support the combination of different algorithms and heuristics, including stochastic local search (SLS) heuristics, and have been identified as a promising approach to solve computationally hard problems. While successful in experiments, theoretical foundations and analytical results for portfolio-based SLS heuristics are less developed. This article aims to improve the understanding of the role of portfolios of heuristics in SLS. We emphasize the problem of computing most probable explanations (MPEs) in Bayesian networks (BNs). Algorithmically, we discuss a portfolio-based SLS algorithm for MPE computation, Stochastic Greedy Search (SGS). SGS supports the integration of different initialization operators (or initialization heuristics) and different search operators (greedy and noisy heuristics), thereby enabling new analytical and experimental results. Analytically, we introduce a novel Markov chain model tailored to portfolio-based SLS algorithms including SGS, thereby enabling us to analytically form expected hitting time results that explain empirical run time results. For a specific BN, we show the benefit of using a homogenous initialization portfolio. To further illustrate the portfolio approach, we consider novel additive search heuristics for handling determinism in the form of zero entries in conditional probability tables in BNs. Our additive approach adds rather than multiplies probabilities when computing the utility of an explanation. We motivate the additive measure by studying the dramatic impact of zero entries in conditional probability tables on the number of zero-probability explanations, which again complicates the search process. We consider the relationship between MAXSAT and MPE, and show that additive utility (or gain) is a generalization, to the probabilistic setting, of MAXSAT utility (or gain) used in the celebrated GSAT and WalkSAT algorithms and their descendants. Utilizing our Markov chain framework, we show that

  16. NEWordS A News Search Engine for English Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejing Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary is the first hurdle for English learners to over- come. Instead of simply showing a word again and again we come up with an idea to develop an English news article search engine based on users word-reciting record on Shanbay.com. It is designed for advanced English learners to find suitable reading materials. The search engine consists of Crawling Module Document Normalizing module Indexing Module Querying Module and Interface Module. We propose three sorting amp ranking algorithms for Querying Module. For the basic algorithm five crucial principles are taken into consideration. Term frequency inverse document frequency familiarity degree and article freshness degree are factors in this algorithm. Then we think of a improved algorithm for the scene in which a user read multiple articles in the searching result list. Here we adopt a iterative amp greedy method. The essential idea is to select English news articles one by one according to the query meanwhile dynamically update the unfamiliarity of the words during each iterative step. Moreover we develop an advanced algorithm to take article difficulty in to account. Interface Module is designed as a website meanwhile some data visualization technologies e.g. word cloud are applied here. Furthermore we conduct both applicability check and performance evaluation. Metrics such as searching time word-covering ratio and minimum number of articles that completely cover all the queried vocabulary are randomly sampled and profoundly analyzed. The result shows that our search engine works very well with satisfying performance.

  17. Pilot study on the additive effects of berberine and oral type 2 diabetes agents for patients with suboptimal glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Nicola Villanova,2 Federica Agostini,2 Rebecca Marzocchi,2 Valentina Soverini,2 Giulio Marchesini21Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milano, 2Diseases of Metabolism, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, ItalyBackground: Suboptimal glycemic control is a common situation in diabetes, regardless of the wide range of drugs available to reach glycemic targets. Basic research in diabetes is endeavoring to identify new actives working as insulin savers, use of which could delay the introduction of injectable insulin or reduce the insulin dose needed. Commonly available as a nutraceutical, berberine is a potential candidate.Methods and results: Because its low oral bioavailability can be overcome by P-glycoprotein inhibitors like herbal polyphenols, we have tested the nutraceutical combination of Berberis aristata extract and Silybum marianum extract (Berberol® in type 2 diabetes in terms of its additive effect when combined with a conventional oral regimen for patients with suboptimal glycemic control. After 90 days of treatment, the nutraceutical association had a positive effect on glycemic and lipid parameters, significantly reducing glycosylated hemoglobin, basal insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. A relevant effect was also observed in terms of liver function by measuring aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase. The product had a good safety profile, with distinctive gastrointestinal side effects likely due to its acarbose-like action.Conclusion: Although further studies should be carried out to confirm our data, Berberol could be considered a good candidate as an adjunctive treatment option in diabetes, especially in patients with suboptimal glycemic control.Keywords: berberine, silymarin, glycosylated hemoglobin, diabetes

  18. Patterns of marijuana and tobacco use associated with suboptimal self-rated health among US adult ever users of marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, James; Rolle, Italia V.; Singh, Tushar; Sheree L. Boulet; McAfee, Timothy A.; Grant, Althea M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patterns of marijuana and tobacco use and their associations with suboptimal self-rated health (SRH) among US adults who reported ?ever, even once, using marijuana or hashish.? Data came from the 2009?2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, restricting to respondents aged 20 years and older who reported using marijuana at least once in their lifetime (n?=?3,210). We assessed the age-adjusted prevalence of mutually exclusive groups of...

  19. LAM add-on ADV combination therapy or ETV monotherapy for CHB patients with suboptimal response to ADV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongyu; Ding, Feng; Chen, Jianyang; Zhang, Yimin; Xiang, Dairong; Lian, Jiangshan; Zeng, Linyan; Yu, Liang; Hu, Jianhua; Li, Yongtao; Lu, Yingfeng; Liu, Yuanchun; Zheng, Lin; Li, Lanjuan; Yang, Yida

    2015-01-01

    Among the available nucleos(t)ide analogues adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) is relatively cheap and widely used in rural area in China. However, there are insufficient data on recommendation for patients with suboptimal response to ADV after 48 weeks of treatment in order to reduce the resistance rate in the long term. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of LAM add-on combination therapy versus ETV monotherapy for patients with suboptimal response to ADV. 136 patients with suboptimal response to ADV were randomly assigned to the add-on LAM with ADV combination therapy (68 patients) group and the ETV monotherapy (68 patients) group. Patients in the add-on group were prescribed 100 mg LAM and 10 mg ADV per day, while the monotherapy group received 0.5 mg ETV per day for 48 weeks. Tests for liver and kidney function, HBV serum markers, HBV DNA load, were performed every 3 months. The mean patient age in LAM add-on group and ETV monotherapy was 38.59 ± 7.65 and 37.56 ± 8.67 years respectively. The HBV DNA undetectable rate in the LAM add-on group and the ETV group were not significant difference at week 4, 12 and 24 (P > 0.05). However, the HBV undetectable rate in the ETV group was higher than that in the LAM add-on group at week 36 and 48 (P = 0.043 for week 36 and P = 0.038 for week 48). There was no significant difference both for HBeAg loss and HBeAg seroconversion between two groups (P > 0.05) at 48 weeks. Meanwhile, our study also demonstrated that the mean eGFR levels in LAM add-on group was decreased from 99.6 ± 8.71 at baseline to 86.4 ± 9.83 at the end of 48 weeks, which was significantly higher than that in the ETV monotherapy group (P add-on group experienced eGFR reduction by 20-30% from baseline at 48 weeks. No patients developed hyposphosphatemia in our study. Our study clearly showed that switch to ETV monotherapy was the more effective and more safe than that of LAM add-on combination therapy for patients with suboptimal response

  20. Rootstock Sub-Optimal Temperature Tolerance Determines Transcriptomic Responses after Long-Term Root Cooling in Rootstocks and Scions of Grafted Tomato Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Georgia Ntatsi; Dimitrios Savvas; Vassilis Papasotiropoulos; Anastasios Katsileros; Zrenner, Rita M.; Hincha, Dirk K.; Ellen Zuther; Dietmar Schwarz

    2017-01-01

    Grafting of elite cultivars onto tolerant rootstocks is an advanced strategy to increase tomato tolerance to sub-optimal temperature. However, a detailed understanding of adaptive mechanisms to sub-optimal temperature in rootstocks and scions of grafting combinations on a physiological and molecular level is lacking. Here, the commercial cultivar Kommeet was grafted either onto ‘Moneymaker’ (sensitive) or onto the line accession LA 1777 of Solanum habrochaites (tolerant). Grafted plants were ...

  1. Risk factors and morbidity associated with suboptimal instrument placement at instrumental delivery: observational study nested within the Instrumental Delivery & Ultrasound randomised controlled trial ISRCTN 72230496.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphul, M; Kennelly, M M; Burke, G; Murphy, D J

    2015-03-01

    To identify risk factors and morbidity associated with suboptimal instrument placement at instrumental delivery. Observational study, nested within a randomised controlled trial. Two university-affiliated maternity hospitals. A cohort of 478 nulliparous women at term (≥37 weeks of gestation) undergoing instrumental delivery. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Risk factors for suboptimal application of vacuum or forceps, maternal and neonatal morbidity, and the sequential use of instruments, second operator, and caesarean section following failed instrumental delivery. Instrument placement was suboptimal in 138 of 478 (28.8%) deliveries. Factors associated with suboptimal instrument placement included fetal malposition (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.62-3.66), mid-cavity station (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.02-2.78), and forceps as the primary instrument (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.33-3.04). Compared with optimal instrument placement, suboptimal placement was associated with prolonged hospital stay (adjusted OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.30-4.02) and neonatal trauma (adjusted OR 4.25, 95% CI 1.85-9.72). Suboptimal placement was associated with a greater use of sequential instruments (adjusted OR 3.99, 95% CI 1.94-8.23) and caesarean section for failed instrumental delivery (adjusted OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.10-13.16). The mean decision to delivery interval (DDI) was 4 minutes longer in the suboptimal group (95% CI 2.1-5.9 minutes). Suboptimal instrument placement is associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidity and procedural complications. Greater attention should be focused on instrument placement when training obstetricians for instrumental delivery. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Suboptimal feedback control of TCP flows in computer network using random early discard (RED mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed N. U.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a dynamic model that simulates the interaction of TCP sources with active queue management system (AQM. We propose a modified version of an earlier dynamic model called RED. This is governed by a system of stochastic differential equations driven by a doubly stochastic point process with intensity as the control. The feedback control law proposed observes the router (queue status and controls the intensity by sending congestion signals (warnings to the sources for adjustment of their transmission rates. The (feedback control laws used are of polynomial type (including linear with adjustable coefficients. They are optimized by use of genetic algorithm (GA and random recursive search (RRS technique. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed model and the method can improve the system performance significantly.

  3. Suboptimal RED Feedback Control for Buffered TCP Flow Dynamics in Computer Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved dynamic system that simulates the behavior of TCP flows and active queue management (AQM system. This system can be modeled by a set of stochastic differential equations driven by a doubly stochastic point process with intensities being the controls. The feedback laws proposed monitor the status of buffers and multiplexor of the router, detect incipient congestion by sending warning signals to the sources. The simulation results show that the optimal feedback control law from the class of linear as well as quadratic polynomials can improve the system performance significantly in terms of maximizing the link utilization, minimizing congestion, packet losses, as well as global synchronization. The optimization process used is based on random recursive search technique known as RRS.

  4. Meta Search Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Describes common options and features to consider in evaluating which meta search engine will best meet a searcher's needs. Discusses number and names of engines searched; other sources and specialty engines; search queries; other search options; and results options. (AEF)

  5. Treatment of advanced colorectal cancer in a patient with cardiotoxic reactions to 5-fluorouracil and capecitabine using suboptimal doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Joseph H; Estes, Derek J; Florou, Vaia; Ardalan, Bach

    2017-11-27

    A 32-year-old female with stage IV colorectal cancer and metastasis to the liver experienced cardiotoxic reactions after treatment with 5-fluorouracil and its oral prodrug capecitabine even at two-thirds the recommended dose. After careful considerations, the decision was made to attempt capecitabine retrial at a further suboptimal dose with combination chemotherapy where she no longer experienced cardiac events. As a result, the liver tumour shrank and rectal mass stabilised, tumour markers dropped and she underwent surgical resection of both masses. Later there was local recurrence of disease near the previous liver tumour, so the suboptimal capecitabine therapy was restarted without complaint. The patient became a candidate for a NanoKnife procedure, offering a potentially curative therapy. This case report summarises a novel treatment strategy for those patients with advanced colorectal cancer who experience cardiotoxic reactions to fluoropyrimidines, the active agent of gold standard treatment. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Optimal and Suboptimal Finger Selection Algorithms for MMSE Rake Receivers in Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Mung

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of choosing the optimal multipath components to be employed at a minimum mean square error (MMSE selective Rake receiver is considered for an impulse radio ultra-wideband system. First, the optimal finger selection problem is formulated as an integer programming problem with a nonconvex objective function. Then, the objective function is approximated by a convex function and the integer programming problem is solved by means of constraint relaxation techniques. The proposed algorithms are suboptimal due to the approximate objective function and the constraint relaxation steps. However, they perform better than the conventional finger selection algorithm, which is suboptimal since it ignores the correlation between multipath components, and they can get quite close to the optimal scheme that cannot be implemented in practice due to its complexity. In addition to the convex relaxation techniques, a genetic-algorithm- (GA- based approach is proposed, which does not need any approximations or integer relaxations. This iterative algorithm is based on the direct evaluation of the objective function, and can achieve near-optimal performance with a reasonable number of iterations. Simulation results are presented to compare the performance of the proposed finger selection algorithms with that of the conventional and the optimal schemes.

  7. Application of the tuning algorithm with the least squares approximation to the suboptimal control algorithm for integrating objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzishchin, V. F.; Merzlikina, E. I.; Van Va, Hoang

    2017-11-01

    The problem of PID and PI-algorithms tuning by means of the approximation by the least square method of the frequency response of a linear algorithm to the sub-optimal algorithm is considered. The advantage of the method is that the parameter values are obtained through one cycle of calculation. Recommendations how to choose the parameters of the least square method taking into consideration the plant dynamics are given. The parameters mentioned are the time constant of the filter, the approximation frequency range and the correction coefficient for the time delay parameter. The problem is considered for integrating plants for some practical cases (the level control system in a boiler drum). The transfer function of the suboptimal algorithm is determined relating to the disturbance that acts in the point of the control impact input, it is typical for thermal plants. In the recommendations it is taken into consideration that the overregulation for the transient process when the setpoint is changed is also limited. In order to compare the results the systems under consideration are also calculated by the classical method with the limited frequency oscillation index. The results given in the paper can be used by specialists dealing with tuning systems with the integrating plants.

  8. Tuber melanosporum spread within sub-optimal climatic zones is controlled by fruiting triggers and not mycorrhiza survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuber melanosporum is the most valuable of all cultivatable truffle species. Farming of this species spans every continent with the exception of Antarctica. Tuber aestivum (syn. T. uncinatum and Tuber brumale are truffle species that have similar host plant preference and a similar affinity for calcareous soils as T. melanosporum, but occur over a broader geographic zone. The geographic limit of T. melanosporum is thought to be climatically dictated but it is not known whether this is due to an impact on mycorrhizal survival or climatically-derived fruiting triggers. Here, data is compiled from five cultivated research sites in the climatically sub-optimal conditions of the UK in order to address this question. Here we show: (iTuber melanosporum mycorrhiza can survive and grow in sub-optimal climatic conditions. (iiIt is climatically-derived fruiting triggers and not ectomycorrhiza survival that dictate the climatic preferences and geographic spread of T. melanosporum. (iiiImportant climatic parameters for potential fruiting triggers are sunshine hours, summer rainfall and summer temperatures.   The data presented here not only aid our understanding of the ecological parameters of T. melanosporum but also have a practical application for truffle cultivators in choosing suitable locations for a plantation.

  9. MicroarrayDesigner: an online search tool and repository for near-optimal microarray experimental designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhatosmanoglu Nilgun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual-channel microarray experiments are commonly employed for inference of differential gene expressions across varying organisms and experimental conditions. The design of dual-channel microarray experiments that can help minimize the errors in the resulting inferences has recently received increasing attention. However, a general and scalable search tool and a corresponding database of optimal designs were still missing. Description An efficient and scalable search method for finding near-optimal dual-channel microarray designs, based on a greedy hill-climbing optimization strategy, has been developed. It is empirically shown that this method can successfully and efficiently find near-optimal designs. Additionally, an improved interwoven loop design construction algorithm has been developed to provide an easily computable general class of near-optimal designs. Finally, in order to make the best results readily available to biologists, a continuously evolving catalog of near-optimal designs is provided. Conclusion A new search algorithm and database for near-optimal microarray designs have been developed. The search tool and the database are accessible via the World Wide Web at http://db.cse.ohio-state.edu/MicroarrayDesigner. Source code and binary distributions are available for academic use upon request.

  10. Traditional Chinese medicine and new concepts of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine in diagnosis and treatment of suboptimal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Russell, Alyce; Yan, Yuxiang

    2014-02-13

    The premise of disease-related phenotypes is the definition of the counterpart normality in medical sciences. Contrary to clinical practices that can be carefully planned according to clinical needs, heterogeneity and uncontrollability is the essence of humans in carrying out health studies. Full characterization of consistent phenotypes that define the general population is the basis to individual difference normalization in personalized medicine. Self-claimed normal status may not represent health because asymptomatic subjects may carry chronic diseases at their early stage, such as cancer, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Currently, treatments for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) are implemented after disease onset, which is a very much delayed approach from the perspective of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM). A NCD pandemic will develop and be accompanied by increased global economic burden for healthcare systems throughout both developed and developing countries. This paper examples the characterization of the suboptimal health status (SHS) which represents a new PPPM challenge in a population with ambiguous health complaints such as general weakness, unexplained medical syndrome (UMS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS) and chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS). We applied clinical informatic approaches and developed a questionnaire-suboptimal health status questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25) for measuring SHS. The validity and reliability of this approach were evaluated in a small pilot study and then in a cross-sectional study of 3,405 participants in China. We found a correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol among men, and a correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides

  11. Consumer perception and preference for suboptimal food under the emerging practice of expiration date based pricing in supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Consumers have been found to majorly prefer ‘optimal’ food over ‘suboptimal’ when purchasing food. To provide an incentive for consumers to select suboptimal food and thus decrease food waste in the supply chain, expiration date based pricing is suggested and increasingly applied. However......, individual preferences, and product-related factors. An online survey experiment among 842 Danish consumers realistically mimicked the current market context. Findings reveal that neither communicating budget saving or food waste avoidance nor the product being organic has an influence. However......, there is a gender effect when the practice is communicated as a food waste avoidance action. Consumer’s familiarity with the practice has a significant influence, as has the individual giving importance to the price criterion, age, and education. Food category differences are explored, showing that familiarity...

  12. Adjustment of Eculizumab Dosage Pattern in Patients with Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome with Suboptimal Response to Standard Treatment Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camino García Monteavaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS, complement blocking by eculizumab rapidly halts the process of thrombotic microangiopathy and it is associated with clear long-term hematologic and renal improvements. Eculizumab treatment consists of a 4-week initial phase with weekly IV administration of 900 mg doses, followed by a maintenance phase with a 1,200 mg dose in the fifth week and every 14±2 days thereafter. We present three patients with aHUS and suboptimal response to eculizumab treatment at the usual administration dosage who showed hematologic and renal improvements after an adjustment in the eculizumab treatment protocol.

  13. Two Liters a Day Keep the Doctor Away? Considerations on the Pathophysiology of Suboptimal Fluid Intake in the Common Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Florian; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Lemetais, Guillaume; Melander, Olle

    2017-01-01

    Suboptimal fluid intake may require enhanced release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin for the maintenance of adequate hydration. Enhanced copeptin levels (reflecting enhanced vasopressin levels) in 25% of the common population are associated with enhanced risk of metabolic syndrome with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, vascular dementia, cognitive impairment, microalbuminuria, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and premature mortality. Vasopressin stimulates the release of glucocorticoids which in turn up-regulate the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). Moreover, dehydration upregulates the transcription factor NFAT5, which in turn stimulates SGK1 expression. SGK1 is activated by insulin, growth factors and oxidative stress via phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 and mTOR. SGK1 is a powerful stimulator of Na+/K+-ATPase, carriers (e.g. the Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter NKCC, the NaCl cotransporter NCC, the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3, and the Na+ coupled glucose transporter SGLT1), and ion channels (e.g. the epithelial Na+ channel ENaC, the Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ channel Orai1 with its stimulator STIM1, and diverse K+ channels). SGK1 further participates in the regulation of the transcription factors nuclear factor kappa-B NFκB, p53, cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), activator protein-1, and forkhead transcription factor FKHR-L1 (FOXO3a). Enhanced SGK1 activity fosters the development of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, thrombosis, stroke, inflammation including inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune disease, cardiac fibrosis, proteinuria, renal failure as well as tumor growth. The present brief review makes the case that suboptimal fluid intake in the common population may enhance vasopressin and glucocorticoid levels thus up-regulating SGK1 expression and favouring the development of SGK1 related

  14. Hyperplastic obesity and liver steatosis as long-term consequences of suboptimal in vitro culture of mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonia; Decara, Juan M; Fernández-González, Raúl; López-Cardona, Angela P; Pavón, Francisco J; Orio, Laura; Alen, Francisco; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we identify and describe an obese phenotype in mice as a long-term consequence of a suboptimal in vitro culture that resulted from the addition of fetal calf serum (FCS) into the culture medium. Mice produced with FCS displayed a high mortality rate (approximately 55% versus 15% in control mice within 20 mo) and increased sensitivity to the development of obesity in adulthood when fed either a standard or a high-fat diet. These mice developed hyperplastic obesity that was characterized by a significant expansion of the fat pads (approximately 25% and 32% higher body weight in male and female mice over controls, respectively) with unchanged adipocyte size. We observed a sexual dimorphism in the development of obesity in the mice produced with FCS. Whereas the female mice displayed hypertension, hyperleptinemia, and fatty liver, the male mice only displayed glucose intolerance. The mRNA expression of metabolically relevant genes in the adipose tissue was also affected. The males produced with FCS expressed higher mRNA levels of the genes that activate fatty acid oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha [Ppara, PPARalpha] and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 [Acox1, ACOX1]) and thermogenesis (uncoupling protein 1 [Ucp1, UCP1]), which may counteract the metabolic phenotype. Conversely, the females produced with FCS generally expressed lower levels of these metabolic genes. In the females, the obese phenotype was associated with inhibition of the lipogenic pathway (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma [Pparg, PPARgamma] and fatty acid synthase [Fasn, FAS]), indicating a saturation of the storage capacity of the adipose tissue. Overall, our data indicate that the exposure to suboptimal in vitro culture conditions can lead to the sexually dimorphic development of obesity in adulthood. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  15. Sickness presenteeism predicts suboptimal self-rated health and sickness absence: a nationally representative study of the Swedish working population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Taloyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have suggested that sickness presenteeism (SP may be a risk factor for future health problems. The purpose of the present study was to test this in a nationally representative prospective study of Swedish workers. METHODS: Prospective cohort with a representative sample of the Swedish working population surveyed in 2008 and 2010. Odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Those who reported more than 7 days of SP had higher risk of suboptimal SRH compared to those who reported no SP (OR = 5.95; 95% CI 4.98-7.12, also after adjustment for confounders (OR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.30-2.06. Those who reported 1-7 days of SP also had an increased risk before and after adjustments. Inclusion of self-rated physical and psychological work capacity did not attenuate the associations, whereas of emotional exhaustion attenuated the ORs to non-significance for both outcomes, indicating that the health consequences associated with SP are largely related to mental health. CONCLUSION: The results strengthen earlier findings suggesting that SP can be a risk factor for future suboptimal general health and sickness absence, particularly through mental health problems. This indicates that asking about SP could yield important information for employers, occupational health practitioners and GPs, possibly leading to more timely intervention that could decrease the risk of future sickness absence and more serious health problems, especially in the mental domain. Further studies of the possible causal pathways between SP and future health development are also warranted, especially since going to work is often seen as desirable also for those with poor health.

  16. Sickness Presenteeism Predicts Suboptimal Self-Rated Health and Sickness Absence: A Nationally Representative Study of the Swedish Working Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taloyan, Marina; Aronsson, Gunnar; Leineweber, Constanze; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Alexanderson, Kristina; Westerlund, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Background Earlier studies have suggested that sickness presenteeism (SP) may be a risk factor for future health problems. The purpose of the present study was to test this in a nationally representative prospective study of Swedish workers. Methods Prospective cohort with a representative sample of the Swedish working population surveyed in 2008 and 2010. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Results Those who reported more than 7 days of SP had higher risk of suboptimal SRH compared to those who reported no SP (OR = 5.95; 95% CI 4.98–7.12), also after adjustment for confounders (OR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.30–2.06). Those who reported 1–7 days of SP also had an increased risk before and after adjustments. Inclusion of self-rated physical and psychological work capacity did not attenuate the associations, whereas of emotional exhaustion attenuated the ORs to non-significance for both outcomes, indicating that the health consequences associated with SP are largely related to mental health. Conclusion The results strengthen earlier findings suggesting that SP can be a risk factor for future suboptimal general health and sickness absence, particularly through mental health problems. This indicates that asking about SP could yield important information for employers, occupational health practitioners and GPs, possibly leading to more timely intervention that could decrease the risk of future sickness absence and more serious health problems, especially in the mental domain. Further studies of the possible causal pathways between SP and future health development are also warranted, especially since going to work is often seen as desirable also for those with poor health. PMID:22984547

  17. Two Liters a Day Keep the Doctor Away? Considerations on the Pathophysiology of Suboptimal Fluid Intake in the Common Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Lang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Suboptimal fluid intake may require enhanced release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin for the maintenance of adequate hydration. Enhanced copeptin levels (reflecting enhanced vasopressin levels in 25% of the common population are associated with enhanced risk of metabolic syndrome with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, vascular dementia, cognitive impairment, microalbuminuria, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and premature mortality. Vasopressin stimulates the release of glucocorticoids which in turn up-regulate the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1. Moreover, dehydration upregulates the transcription factor NFAT5, which in turn stimulates SGK1 expression. SGK1 is activated by insulin, growth factors and oxidative stress via phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 and mTOR. SGK1 is a powerful stimulator of Na+/K+-ATPase, carriers (e.g. the Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter NKCC, the NaCl cotransporter NCC, the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3, and the Na+ coupled glucose transporter SGLT1, and ion channels (e.g. the epithelial Na+ channel ENaC, the Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ channel Orai1 with its stimulator STIM1, and diverse K+ channels. SGK1 further participates in the regulation of the transcription factors nuclear factor kappa-B NFκB, p53, cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB, activator protein-1, and forkhead transcription factor FKHR-L1 (FOXO3a. Enhanced SGK1 activity fosters the development of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, thrombosis, stroke, inflammation including inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune disease, cardiac fibrosis, proteinuria, renal failure as well as tumor growth. The present brief review makes the case that suboptimal fluid intake in the common population may enhance vasopressin and glucocorticoid levels thus up-regulating SGK1 expression and favouring the development of SGK1

  18. High Prevalence of Suboptimal Vitamin D Status and Bone Loss in Adult Short Bowel Syndrome Even After Weaning Off Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shengxian; Ni, Xiaodong; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Yongliang; Tao, Shen; Kong, Wencheng; Li, Yousheng; Li, Jieshou

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have noticed the high incidence of suboptimal vitamin D (VtD) status and bone loss in short bowel syndrome (SBS) with parenteral nutrition (PN) dependence. However, limited data have focused on adult SBS without PN dependence. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of suboptimal VtD status and bone loss in adult SBS even after weaning off PN. We performed a prospective study of 60 adult patients with SBS. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Medical records and various laboratory parameters were collected in all participants. Suboptimal VtD status was identified in all individuals, including 3 (5.0%) with VtD insufficiency and 57 (95.0%) with VtD deficiency. Residual small bowel length (B, 0.072, P = .001) and duration of SBS (B, -0.066, P = .020) were both significantly correlated with suboptimal VtD levels. Overall, only 2 patients presented a normal BMD; osteopenia and osteoporosis were noted in 41 (68.3%) and 17 (28.3%) individuals, respectively. Low 25-OHD concentration was associated with a decreased BMD (B, 0.065, P = .029). There were no other demographic characteristics or clinical examinations associated with suboptimal VtD levels and bone loss. Suboptimal VtD status and bone loss were common in adult SBS even after weaning off PN. Despite routine oral VtD supplementation, most patients did not achieve satisfactory status. This emphasizes the critical importance of routine surveillance of 25-OHD and BMD, as well as consideration of alternative methods of supplementation after weaning off PN.

  19. High T-cell immune activation and immune exhaustion among individuals with suboptimal CD4 recovery after 4 years of antiretroviral therapy in an African cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colebunders Robert

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART partially corrects immune dysfunction associated with HIV infection. The levels of T-cell immune activation and exhaustion after long-term, suppressive ART and their correlation with CD4 T-cell count reconstitution among ART-treated patients in African cohorts have not been extensively evaluated. Methods T-cell activation (CD38+HLA-DR+ and immune exhaustion (PD-1+ were measured in a prospective cohort of patients initiated on ART; 128 patient samples were evaluated and subcategorized by CD4 reconstitution after long-term suppressive treatment: Suboptimal [median CD4 count increase 129 (-43-199 cells/μl], N = 34 ], optimal [282 (200-415 cells/μl, N = 64] and super-optimal [528 (416-878 cells/μl, N = 30]. Results Both CD4+ and CD8 T-cell activation was significantly higher among suboptimal CD4 T-cell responders compared to super-optimal responders. In a multivariate model, CD4+CD38+HLADR+ T-cells were associated with suboptimal CD4 reconstitution [AOR, 5.7 (95% CI, 1.4-23, P = 0.014]. T-cell exhaustion (CD4+PD1+ and CD8+PD1+ was higher among suboptimal relative to optimal (P P = 0.022]. Conclusion T-cell activation and exhaustion persist among HIV-infected patients despite long-term, sustained HIV-RNA viral suppression. These immune abnormalities were associated with suboptimal CD4 reconstitution and their regulation may modify immune recovery among suboptimal responders to ART.

  20. Rootstock Sub-Optimal Temperature Tolerance Determines Transcriptomic Responses after Long-Term Root Cooling in Rootstocks and Scions of Grafted Tomato Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntatsi, Georgia; Savvas, Dimitrios; Papasotiropoulos, Vassilis; Katsileros, Anastasios; Zrenner, Rita M; Hincha, Dirk K; Zuther, Ellen; Schwarz, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    Grafting of elite cultivars onto tolerant rootstocks is an advanced strategy to increase tomato tolerance to sub-optimal temperature. However, a detailed understanding of adaptive mechanisms to sub-optimal temperature in rootstocks and scions of grafting combinations on a physiological and molecular level is lacking. Here, the commercial cultivar Kommeet was grafted either onto 'Moneymaker' (sensitive) or onto the line accession LA 1777 of Solanum habrochaites (tolerant). Grafted plants were grown in NFT-system at either optimal (25°C) or sub-optimal (15°C) temperatures in the root environment with optimal air temperature (25°C) for 22 days. Grafting onto the differently tolerant rootstocks caused differences in shoot fresh and dry weight, total leaf area and dry matter content of roots, in stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 and guaiacol peroxidase activity but not in net photosynthesis, sugar, starch and amino acid content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity. In leaves, comparative transcriptome analysis identified 361 differentially expressed genes (DEG) responding to sub-optimal root temperature when 'Kommeet' was grafted onto the sensitive but no when grafted onto the tolerant rootstock. 1509 and 2036 DEG responding to sub-optimal temperature were identified in LA 1777 and 'Moneymaker' rootstocks, respectively. In tolerant rootstocks down-regulated genes were enriched in main stress-responsive functional categories and up-regulated genes in cellulose synthesis suggesting that cellulose synthesis may be one of the main adaptation mechanisms to long-term sub-optimal temperature. Down-regulated genes of the sensitive rootstock showed a similar response, but functional categories of up-regulated genes pointed to induced stress responses. Rootstocks of the sensitive cultivar Moneymaker showed in addition an enrichment of up-regulated genes in the functional categories fatty acid desaturation, phenylpropanoids, biotic stress, cytochrome P

  1. Rootstock Sub-Optimal Temperature Tolerance Determines Transcriptomic Responses after Long-Term Root Cooling in Rootstocks and Scions of Grafted Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Ntatsi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Grafting of elite cultivars onto tolerant rootstocks is an advanced strategy to increase tomato tolerance to sub-optimal temperature. However, a detailed understanding of adaptive mechanisms to sub-optimal temperature in rootstocks and scions of grafting combinations on a physiological and molecular level is lacking. Here, the commercial cultivar Kommeet was grafted either onto ‘Moneymaker’ (sensitive or onto the line accession LA 1777 of Solanum habrochaites (tolerant. Grafted plants were grown in NFT-system at either optimal (25°C or sub-optimal (15°C temperatures in the root environment with optimal air temperature (25°C for 22 days. Grafting onto the differently tolerant rootstocks caused differences in shoot fresh and dry weight, total leaf area and dry matter content of roots, in stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 and guaiacol peroxidase activity but not in net photosynthesis, sugar, starch and amino acid content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity. In leaves, comparative transcriptome analysis identified 361 differentially expressed genes (DEG responding to sub-optimal root temperature when ‘Kommeet’ was grafted onto the sensitive but no when grafted onto the tolerant rootstock. 1509 and 2036 DEG responding to sub-optimal temperature were identified in LA 1777 and ‘Moneymaker’ rootstocks, respectively. In tolerant rootstocks down-regulated genes were enriched in main stress-responsive functional categories and up-regulated genes in cellulose synthesis suggesting that cellulose synthesis may be one of the main adaptation mechanisms to long-term sub-optimal temperature. Down-regulated genes of the sensitive rootstock showed a similar response, but functional categories of up-regulated genes pointed to induced stress responses. Rootstocks of the sensitive cultivar Moneymaker showed in addition an enrichment of up-regulated genes in the functional categories fatty acid desaturation, phenylpropanoids

  2. A Comparison of Local Search Methods for the Multicriteria Police Districting Problem on Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Liberatore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic climate, law enforcement agencies are facing resource shortages. The effective and efficient use of scarce resources is therefore of the utmost importance to provide a high standard public safety service. Optimization models specifically tailored to the necessity of police agencies can help to ameliorate their use. The Multicriteria Police Districting Problem (MC-PDP on a graph concerns the definition of sound patrolling sectors in a police district. The objective of this problem is to partition a graph into convex and continuous subsets, while ensuring efficiency and workload balance among the subsets. The model was originally formulated in collaboration with the Spanish National Police Corps. We propose for its solution three local search algorithms: a Simple Hill Climbing, a Steepest Descent Hill Climbing, and a Tabu Search. To improve their diversification capabilities, all the algorithms implement a multistart procedure, initialized by randomized greedy solutions. The algorithms are empirically tested on a case study on the Central District of Madrid. Our experiments show that the solutions identified by the novel Tabu Search outperform the other algorithms. Finally, research guidelines for future developments on the MC-PDP are given.

  3. Google Ajax Search API

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Use the Google Ajax Search API to integrateweb search, image search, localsearch, and other types of search intoyour web site by embedding a simple, dynamicsearch box to display search resultsin your own web pages using a fewlines of JavaScript. For those who do not want to write code,the search wizards and solutions builtwith the Google Ajax Search API generatecode to accomplish common taskslike adding local search results to a GoogleMaps API mashup, adding videosearch thumbnails to your web site, oradding a news reel with the latest up todate stories to your blog. More advanced users can

  4. How doctors search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Price, Susan; Delcambre, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Professional, workplace searching is different from general searching, because it is typically limited to specific facets and targeted to a single answer. We have developed the semantic component (SC) model, which is a search feature that allows searchers to structure and specify the search...... to context-specific aspects of the main topic of the documents. We have tested the model in an interactive searching study with family doctors with the purpose to explore doctors’ querying behaviour, how they applied the means for specifying a search, and how these features contributed to the search outcome....... In general, the doctors were capable of exploiting system features and search tactics during the searching. Most searchers produced well-structured queries that contained appropriate search facets. When searches failed it was not due to query structure or query length. Failures were mostly caused by the well...

  5. Suboptimal enhancer sequences are required for efficient bovine leukemia virus propagation in vivo: implications for viral latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merezak, C; Pierreux, C; Adam, E; Lemaigre, F; Rousseau, G G; Calomme, C; Van Lint, C; Christophe, D; Kerkhofs, P; Burny, A; Kettmann, R; Willems, L

    2001-08-01

    Repression of viral expression is a major strategy developed by retroviruses to escape from the host immune response. The absence of viral proteins (or derived peptides) at the surface of an infected cell does not permit the establishment of an efficient immune attack. Such a strategy appears to have been adopted by animal oncoviruses such as bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV). In BLV-infected animals, only a small fraction of the infected lymphocytes (between 1 in 5,000 and 1 in 50,000) express large amounts of viral proteins; the vast majority of the proviruses are repressed at the transcriptional level. Induction of BLV transcription involves the interaction of the virus-encoded Tax protein with the CREB/ATF factors; the resulting complex is able to interact with three 21-bp Tax-responsive elements (TxRE) located in the 5' long terminal repeat (5' LTR). These TxRE contain cyclic AMP-responsive elements (CRE), but, remarkably, the "TGACGTCA" consensus is never strictly conserved in any viral strain (e.g.,AGACGTCA, TGACGGCA, TGACCTCA). To assess the role of these suboptimal CREs, we introduced a perfect consensus sequence within the TxRE and showed by gel retardation assays that the binding efficiency of the CREB/ATF proteins was increased. However, trans-activation of a luciferase-based reporter by Tax was not affected in transient transfection assays. Still, in the absence of Tax, the basal promoter activity of the mutated LTR was increased as much as 20-fold. In contrast, mutation of other regulatory elements within the LTR (the E box, NF-kappa B, and glucocorticoid- or interferon-responsive sites [GRE or IRF]) did not induce a similar alteration of the basal transcription levels. To evaluate the biological relevance of these observations made in vitro, the mutations were introduced into an infectious BLV molecular clone. After injection into sheep, it appeared that all the recombinants were infectious in vivo and did not revert

  6. PowerPlay: Training an Increasingly General Problem Solver by Continually Searching for the Simplest Still Unsolvable Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Most of computer science focuses on automatically solving given computational problems. I focus on automatically inventing or discovering problems in a way inspired by the playful behavior of animals and humans, to train a more and more general problem solver from scratch in an unsupervised fashion. Consider the infinite set of all computable descriptions of tasks with possibly computable solutions. Given a general problem-solving architecture, at any given time, the novel algorithmic framework PowerPlay (Schmidhuber, 2011) searches the space of possible pairs of new tasks and modifications of the current problem solver, until it finds a more powerful problem solver that provably solves all previously learned tasks plus the new one, while the unmodified predecessor does not. Newly invented tasks may require to achieve a wow-effect by making previously learned skills more efficient such that they require less time and space. New skills may (partially) re-use previously learned skills. The greedy search of typical PowerPlay variants uses time-optimal program search to order candidate pairs of tasks and solver modifications by their conditional computational (time and space) complexity, given the stored experience so far. The new task and its corresponding task-solving skill are those first found and validated. This biases the search toward pairs that can be described compactly and validated quickly. The computational costs of validating new tasks need not grow with task repertoire size. Standard problem solver architectures of personal computers or neural networks tend to generalize by solving numerous tasks outside the self-invented training set; PowerPlay's ongoing search for novelty keeps breaking the generalization abilities of its present solver. This is related to Gödel's sequence of increasingly powerful formal theories based on adding formerly unprovable statements to the axioms without affecting previously provable theorems. The continually increasing

  7. submitter Searches at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Kawagoe, Kiyotomo

    2001-01-01

    Searches for new particles and new physics were extensively performed at LEP. Although no evidence for new particle/physics was discovered, the null results set very stringent limits to theories beyond the standard model. In this paper, searches at LEP and anomalies observed in the searches are presented. Future prospect of searches at the new energy frontier machines is also discussed.

  8. Web Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Rajashekar, TB

    1998-01-01

    The World Wide Web is emerging as an all-in-one information source. Tools for searching Web-based information include search engines, subject directories and meta search tools. We take a look at key features of these tools and suggest practical hints for effective Web searching.

  9. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  10. A novel tool to assess available hydrological information and the occurrence of sub-optimal water allocation decisions in large irrigation districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaune, Alexander; Werner, Micha; Rodríguez, Erasmo; Karimi, Poolad; Fraiture, de Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Hydrological information on water availability and demand is vital for sound water allocation decisions in irrigation districts, particularly in times of water scarcity. However, water allocation decisions are often taken based on uncertain hydrological information, which may lead to sub-optimal

  11. Sensor-augmented pump therapy lowers HbA(1c) in suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes; a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanides, J.; Nørgaard, K.; Bruttomesso, D.; Mathieu, C.; Frid, A.; Dayan, C. M.; Diem, P.; Fermon, C.; Wentholt, I. M. E.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; DeVries, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of sensor-augmented pump therapy vs. multiple daily injection therapy in patients with suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes. In this investigator-initiated multi-centre trial (the Eurythmics Trial) in eight outpatient centres in Europe, we randomized 83 patients with

  12. The effect of plant-based diet and suboptimal environmental conditions on digestive function and diet-induced enteropathy in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosberian-Tanha, P.; Schrama, J.W.; Landsverk, T.; Mydland, L.T.; Øverland, M.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment investigated intestinal enteropathy and digestive function of rainbow trout challenged with soybean meal-based diet (SBM) at optimal or suboptimal environments created by normal or reduced water flow, respectively. Oxygen level remained above 7 mg L-1 for optimal environment and

  13. Physician, organizational, and patient factors associated with suboptimal blood pressure mManagement in Type 2 diabetic patients in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaars, CF; Denig, P; Kasje, WN; Stewart, RE; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM

    OBJECTIVE - To assess the quality of hypertension care in patients with type 2 diabetes in general practice and identify physician, organizational, and patient factors associated with suboptimal care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Data from 895 randomly selected diabetic patients were extracted from

  14. Effects of feeding frequency on apparent energy and nutrient digestibility/availability of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, reared at optimal and suboptimal temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effects of feeding frequency (daily versus every other day [EOD]) on nutrient digestibility/availability of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, reared at optimal (30 C) and suboptimal (24 C) temperatures. A 28% protein practical diet was used as the test diet, and chromic o...

  15. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among ART-naive HIV-positive individuals in an urban cohort in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggrey S Semeere

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is common among HIV-infected individuals and is often accompanied by low serum levels of micronutrients. Vitamin B-12 deficiency has been associated with various factors including faster HIV disease progression and CD4 depletion in resource-rich settings. To describe prevalence and factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART naïve adults in a resource-poor setting, we performed a cross-sectional study with a retrospective chart review among individuals attending either the Mulago-Mbarara teaching hospitals' Joint AIDS Program (MJAP or the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI clinics, in Kampala, Uganda. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12. The mean vitamin B-12 level was 384 pg/ml, normal range (200-900. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (<300 pg/ml were found in 75/204 (36.8%. Twenty-one of 204 (10.3% had vitamin B-12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml while 54/204 (26.5% had marginal depletion (200-300 pg/ml. Irritable mood was observed more among individuals with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (OR 2.5, 95% CI; 1.1-5.6, P=0.03. Increasing MCV was associated with decreasing serum B-12 category; 86.9 fl (± 5.1 vs. 83 fl (± 8.4 vs. 82 fl (± 8.4 for B-12 deficiency, marginal and normal B-12 categories respectively (test for trend, P=0.017. Compared to normal B-12, individuals with vitamin B-12 deficiency had a longer known duration of HIV infection: 42.2 months (± 27.1 vs. 29.4 months (± 23.8; P=0.02. Participants eligible for ART (CD4<350 cells/µl with sub-optimal B-12 had a higher mean rate of CD4 decline compared to counterparts with normal B-12; 118 (± 145 vs. 22 (± 115 cells/µl/year, P=0.01 respectively. The prevalence of a sub-optimal vitamin B-12 was high in this HIV-infected, ART-naïve adult clinic population in urban Uganda. We recommend prospective studies to further clarify the causal relationships of sub-optimal

  16. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide and virginiamycin on the cecal microbial community and intestinal morphology of chickens raised under suboptimal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabedin, Mohsen; Xu, Zhengxin; Baurhoo, Bushansingh; Chevaux, Eric; Zhao, Xin

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing movement against use of antibiotic growth promoters in animal feed. Prebiotic supplementation is a potential alternative to enhance the host's natural defense through modulation of gut microbiota. In the present study, the effect of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and virginiamycin (VIRG) on cecal microbial ecology and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens raised under suboptimal conditions was evaluated. MOS and VIRG induced different bacterial community structures, as revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA. The antibiotic treatment reduced cecal microbial diversity while the community equitability increased. A higher bacterial diversity was observed in the cecum of MOS-supplemented birds. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results indicated that MOS changed the cecal microbiota in favor of the Firmicutes population but not the Bacteroidetes population. No difference was observed in total bacterial counts among treatments. MOS promoted the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. in the cecum and increased villus height and goblet cell numbers in the ileum and jejunum. These results provide a deeper insight into the microbial ecological changes after supplementation of MOS prebiotic in poultry diets.

  17. Plasticity of Tiller Dynamics in Wild Rice Oryza rufipogon Griff.: A Strategy for Resilience in Suboptimal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravat K. Mohapatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation in tropical Asia is susceptible to drought and flood and the need is high for stress resistant genes. Wild rice Oryza rufipogon Griff., grows in close sympatric association with cultivated rice in various habitats across the globe and possesses traits for survival under challenging environments. The species adapts according to the level of soil moisture available and modifies phenology, biomass production and grain yield. Variation in tiller dynamics of the species between contrasting environments gives an estimate of the adaptation. The species possesses AA genome, which permits genetic compatibility for cross breeding with cultivated rice. Utility of the species as possible repository of stress resistant genes is evaluated in this review by examining variation in assimilate partitioning between different classes of tillers of ecotypes growing across a gradation of habitats against background knowledge available for cultivated rice. Models have been constructed to explain mechanisms of tillering and tiller dynamics, and reveal the genotypic permissibility for resilience in sub-optimal environments. It is concluded that environmentally cued alteration in assimilate production and partitioning mask genetic potential for tiller production and survival. Tiller number in excess of resource capacity is corrected by senescence of late-tillers possibly through an ethylene-mediated signal.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of extended-release methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder sub-optimally treated with immediate release methylphenidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjen van der Schans

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at school often leads to reduced compliance, sub-optimal treatment, and therefore economic loss. Replacement of IR-MPH with a single-dose extended release (ER-MPH formulation may improve drug response and economic efficiency.To evaluate the cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective of a switch from IR-MPH to ER-MPH in patients who are sub-optimally treated.A daily Markov-cycle model covering a time-span of 10 years was developed including four different health states: (1 optimal response, (2 sub-optimal response, (3 discontinued treatment, and (4 natural remission. ER-MPH options included methylphenidate osmotic release oral system (MPH-OROS and Equasym XL/Medikinet CR. Both direct costs and indirect costs were included in the analysis, and effects were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. Univariate, multivariate as well as probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted and the main outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Switching sub-optimally treated patients from IR-MPH to MPH-OROS or Equasym XL/Medikinet CR led to per-patient cost-savings of €4200 and €5400, respectively, over a 10-year treatment span. Sensitivity analysis with plausible variations of input parameters resulted in cost-savings in the vast majority of estimations.This study lends economic support to switching patients with ADHD with suboptimal response to short-acting IR-MPH to long-acting ER-MPH regimens.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of extended-release methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder sub-optimally treated with immediate release methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Kotsopoulos, Nikos; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hak, Eelko; Postma, Maarten J

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH) is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at school often leads to reduced compliance, sub-optimal treatment, and therefore economic loss. Replacement of IR-MPH with a single-dose extended release (ER-MPH) formulation may improve drug response and economic efficiency. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective of a switch from IR-MPH to ER-MPH in patients who are sub-optimally treated. A daily Markov-cycle model covering a time-span of 10 years was developed including four different health states: (1) optimal response, (2) sub-optimal response, (3) discontinued treatment, and (4) natural remission. ER-MPH options included methylphenidate osmotic release oral system (MPH-OROS) and Equasym XL/Medikinet CR. Both direct costs and indirect costs were included in the analysis, and effects were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Univariate, multivariate as well as probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted and the main outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Switching sub-optimally treated patients from IR-MPH to MPH-OROS or Equasym XL/Medikinet CR led to per-patient cost-savings of €4200 and €5400, respectively, over a 10-year treatment span. Sensitivity analysis with plausible variations of input parameters resulted in cost-savings in the vast majority of estimations. This study lends economic support to switching patients with ADHD with suboptimal response to short-acting IR-MPH to long-acting ER-MPH regimens.

  20. To Search or Not to Search!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. Rodney

    Constitutional guarantees, as provided by the Bill of Rights, are enjoyed by all citizens. This principle applies no less to students with respect to their college or university domicile. Case law on this subject suggests that three questions must be answered to determine the reasonableness of residence searching: (1) by whom the search is…

  1. An analysis of iterated local search for job-shop scheduling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitley, L. Darrell (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO); Howe, Adele E. (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO); Watson, Jean-Paul (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO)

    2003-08-01

    Iterated local search, or ILS, is among the most straightforward meta-heuristics for local search. ILS employs both small-step and large-step move operators. Search proceeds via iterative modifications to a single solution, in distinct alternating phases. In the first phase, local neighborhood search (typically greedy descent) is used in conjunction with the small-step operator to transform solutions into local optima. In the second phase, the large-step operator is applied to generate perturbations to the local optima obtained in the first phase. Ideally, when local neighborhood search is applied to the resulting solution, search will terminate at a different local optimum, i.e., the large-step perturbations should be sufficiently large to enable escape from the attractor basins of local optima. ILS has proven capable of delivering excellent performance on numerous N P-Hard optimization problems. [LMS03]. However, despite its implicity, very little is known about why ILS can be so effective, and under what conditions. The goal of this paper is to advance the state-of-the-art in the analysis of meta-heuristics, by providing answers to this research question. They focus on characterizing both the relationship between the structure of the underlying search space and ILS performance, and the dynamic behavior of ILS. The analysis proceeds in the context of the job-shop scheduling problem (JSP) [Tai94]. They begin by demonstrating that the attractor basins of local optima in the JSP are surprisingly weak, and can be escaped with high probaiblity by accepting a short random sequence of less-fit neighbors. this result is used to develop a new ILS algorithms for the JSP, I-JAR, whose performance is competitive with tabu search on difficult benchmark instances. They conclude by developing a very accurate behavioral model of I-JAR, which yields significant insights into the dynamics of search. The analysis is based on a set of 100 random 10 x 10 problem instances, in

  2. An improved exploratory search technique for pure integer linear programming problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, F. R.

    1990-01-01

    The development is documented of a heuristic method for the solution of pure integer linear programming problems. The procedure draws its methodology from the ideas of Hooke and Jeeves type 1 and 2 exploratory searches, greedy procedures, and neighborhood searches. It uses an efficient rounding method to obtain its first feasible integer point from the optimal continuous solution obtained via the simplex method. Since this method is based entirely on simple addition or subtraction of one to each variable of a point in n-space and the subsequent comparison of candidate solutions to a given set of constraints, it facilitates significant complexity improvements over existing techniques. It also obtains the same optimal solution found by the branch-and-bound technique in 44 of 45 small to moderate size test problems. Two example problems are worked in detail to show the inner workings of the method. Furthermore, using an established weighted scheme for comparing computational effort involved in an algorithm, a comparison of this algorithm is made to the more established and rigorous branch-and-bound method. A computer implementation of the procedure, in PC compatible Pascal, is also presented and discussed.

  3. Cube search, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with “equivalent” 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target. PMID:25780063

  4. Psychological Distress Mediates the Association between Food Insecurity and Suboptimal Sleep Quality in Latinos with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Damio, Grace; Chhabra, Jyoti; Osborn, Chandra Y; Wagner, Julie

    2016-10-01

    Evidence increasingly indicates that poor sleep quality is a major public health concern. Household food insecurity (HFI) disproportionately affects Latinos and is a novel risk factor for poor sleep quality. Psychological distress may be a potential mechanism through which HFI affects sleep quality. Sleep, food insecurity, and distress are linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the relations between HFI, psychological distress, and sleep quality and tested whether psychological distress mediates the relation between HFI and sleep in people with diabetes mellitus. Latinos with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 121) who completed baseline assessments for the CALMS-D (Community Health Workers Assisting Latinos Manage Stress and Diabetes) stress management intervention trial completed the US Household Food Security Survey, and measures of depressive symptoms [Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-8)], anxiety symptoms [Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)-short], diabetes distress [Problem Areas in Diabetes Questionnaire (PAID-5)], and sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)]. Psychological distress was operationalized with the PHQ-8, PROMIS-short, and PAID-5 scales. We used unadjusted and adjusted indirect effect tests with bias-corrected bootstrapped 95% CIs on 10,000 samples to test both relations between variables and potential mediation. Mean age was 61 y, 74% were women, and 67% were food insecure. Experiencing HFI was associated with both greater psychological distress and worse sleep quality (P sleep quality with and without adjustment for age, education, income, marital status, and employment status. Household food insecurity is a common and potent household stressor that is associated with suboptimal sleep quality through psychological distress. Efforts to improve food security and decrease psychological distress may yield improved sleep in this high-risk population. The CALMS-D stress management

  5. Effects of TCMC on Transformation of Good Health Status to Suboptimal Health Status: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the effects of traditional Chinese medicine constitution (TCMC on transformation of good health status to suboptimal health status (SHS, we conducted a nested case-control study among college students in China. During the 18-month mean follow-up time, 543 cases of SHS (42.7% occurred in 1273 healthy students. There was a significant (P=0.000 and marked reduction in SHMS V1.0 total score in the case group at the 18-month follow-up (69.32 ± 5.45 compared with baseline (78.60 ± 4.70, but there was no significant change in the control group. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that respondents reporting Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency were, respectively, 2.247 and 2.198 times more likely to develop SHS, while tendency to Yin-deficiency and tendency to Damp-heat were, respectively, 1.642 and 1.506 times more likely to develop SHS. However, the Balanced Constitution was a significant protective factor (OR 0.649; P<0.05. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Yin-deficiency, Qi-deficiency, tendency to Yin-deficiency, and tendency to Damp-heat appeared to induce a change in health status to SHS, while the Balanced Constitution seemed to restrain this change. We conclude that regulating the unbalanced TCMC (such as Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency may prevent a healthy status developing into SHS or lead to the regression of SHS.

  6. Educational intervention to reduce disease related to sub-optimal basic hygiene in Rwanda: initial evaluation and feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Margaret A; Ndagijimana, Hormisdas

    2018-01-01

    Despite a global reduction in morbidity related to sub-optimal water, sanitation and hygiene, the incidence of such diseases remains a significant problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to initially assess the potential effectiveness (primarily in terms of impact on morbidity) of a simple educational intervention delivered in Rwanda. Additionally, we sought to explore feasibility relating to the practicality of evaluating and implementing this type of intervention in a low- and middle-income country. Two districts in Northern Province were purposively selected; one was randomly allocated to receive the intervention, with the other acting as control. The intervention was based on an interactive DVD about basic hygiene. Baseline and follow-up data for incident cases of relevant morbidities were collected from health centre records. Changes were compared between the two districts using descriptive statistics and chi-squared tests. Qualitative data were obtained through observations, discussions and feedback and were analysed thematically. Cases of infection with intestinal worms and parasites were frequently recorded in both districts. For these morbidities, there was a 39% decrease in cases between baseline and follow-up in the intervention district (4995 reduced to 3069), compared to 13% (5002 reduced to 4356) in the control district (p evaluation and implementation, whilst also highlighting problems encountered and possible solutions, in particular, the potential advantages of training local personnel to deliver this type of intervention. This small-scale study has a number of acknowledged limitations which would need to be addressed in a larger study in order to confidently confirm the effectiveness of the intervention. It nevertheless provides evidence suggesting that the educational intervention is promising in terms of a potential impact on health and feasible to deliver and evaluate. These findings indicate that further evaluation and possibly early

  7. Comparison of dry powder versus nebulized beta-agonist in patients with COPD who have suboptimal peak inspiratory flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Donald A; Waterman, Laurie A; Ward, Joseph; Gifford, Alex H

    2014-04-01

    A peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) of powder inhaler (DPI) may limit the ability of a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to achieve bronchodilation. The hypothesis was that lung function would be higher with a beta-agonist inhaled via nebulization compared with dry powder in patients with COPD who exhibit a PIFRresist of powder (50 μg) via Diskus. The primary outcome was the change in lung function from baseline at 2 hr as these two inhaled beta-agonists have the similar peak bronchodilator effect as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1). Twenty patients (15 females/5 males) with postalbuterol FEV1 of 0.83±0.31 L (38±12% predicted) and PIFRresist of 53±5 L/min completed the study. At 15 min, improvements in FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC), and IC were significantly higher with arformoterol than with salmeterol. At 2 hr, changes in FVC and IC, but not FEV1, were significantly higher with arformoterol. At visit 3, patient preference was similar for salmeterol Diskus (n=8) and arformoterol solution (n=7), whereas five patients reported no preference. At peak effect (2 hr), volume responses were greater with arfomoterol via nebulizer compared with dry powder salmeterol in patients with COPD who had a PIFRresist of <60 L/min. Bronchodilator therapy via nebulization should be considered in patients with COPD who have a suboptimal PIFRresist against a particular DPI.

  8. Audit-based education to reduce suboptimal management of cholesterol in primary care: a before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lusignan, S; Belsey, J; Hague, N; Dhoul, N; van Vlymen, J

    2006-12-01

    Statins are recommended for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, although they are often used in suboptimal doses and some patients may not receive lipid-lowering therapy. The Primary Care Data Quality (PCDQ) programme is an audit-based educational intervention. To report the PCDQ programme's effect on the cholesterol management in cardiovascular disease. Subjects and methods Anonymized general practice data from 99 practices; 5% (n = 29 915) had cardiovascular diagnoses. Mean cholesterol fell from 4.75 to 4.64 mmol l(-1); patients achieving cholesterol target (< 5 mmol l(-1)) rose from 45.3 to 53.2%. Coronary heart disease patients achieved better control (mean 4.57 mmol l(-1)) than those with stroke (4.87 mmol l(-1)) or peripheral vascular disease (4.93 mmol l(-1)). Statin prescribing increased from 57.5 to 62.7%. Patients with diabetes [odds ratio (OR) 2.06, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.91-2.21], prior myocardial infarction (MI) (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.80-2.07), revascularization (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.33-1.73) and smokers (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.23-1.39) were more likely to receive statins, whereas people aged 75+ (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.45-0.50), females (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86-0.94) and non-CHD-diagnosed (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.34-0.38) were less likely. Diagnostic coding and number of patients who had their cholesterol measured and treated increased. There was no significant change in dosage used or inequity between the different groups prescribed statins.

  9. Large Neighborhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, David; Røpke, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Heuristics based on large neighborhood search have recently shown outstanding results in solving various transportation and scheduling problems. Large neighborhood search methods explore a complex neighborhood by use of heuristics. Using large neighborhoods makes it possible to find better candid...

  10. New particle searches

    CERN Document Server

    Ruhlmann-Kleider, V

    2000-01-01

    This review presents recent results on new particle searches achieved at Tevatron, Hera and LEP. After a brief outline of the searches on exotic particles, results on supersymmetric particles and Higgs bosons are detailed. Near future prospects are also given.

  11. Integrated vs. Federated Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschall, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009.......Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009....

  12. Searching with Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman

    2000-01-01

    Discusses student search tools for the World Wide Web and describes and compares seven that are appropriate for pre-kindergarten through secondary school. Highlights include access; age appropriateness; directories versus full search engines; filters; limits of some tools; and adult-oriented search tools that can be limited for students' access.…

  13. Adaptive Large Neighbourhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan

    Large neighborhood search is a metaheuristic that has gained popularity in recent years. The heuristic repeatedly moves from solution to solution by first partially destroying the solution and then repairing it. The best solution observed during this search is presented as the final solution....... This tutorial introduces the large neighborhood search metaheuristic and the variant adaptive large neighborhood search that dynamically tunes parameters of the heuristic while it is running. Both heuristics belong to a broader class of heuristics that are searching a solution space using very large...

  14. Keyword Search in Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jeffrey Xu; Chang, Lijun

    2009-01-01

    It has become highly desirable to provide users with flexible ways to query/search information over databases as simple as keyword search like Google search. This book surveys the recent developments on keyword search over databases, and focuses on finding structural information among objects in a database using a set of keywords. Such structural information to be returned can be either trees or subgraphs representing how the objects, that contain the required keywords, are interconnected in a relational database or in an XML database. The structural keyword search is completely different from

  15. Coadministration of Hedera helix L. Extract Enabled Mice to Overcome Insufficient Protection against Influenza A/PR/8 Virus Infection under Suboptimal Treatment with Oseltamivir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hye Hong

    Full Text Available Several anti-influenza drugs that reduce disease manifestation exist, and although these drugs provide clinical benefits in infected patients, their efficacy is limited by the emergence of drug-resistant influenza viruses. In the current study, we assessed the therapeutic strategy of enhancing the antiviral efficacy of an existing neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir, by coadministering with the leaf extract from Hedera helix L, commonly known as ivy. Ivy extract has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and antihelminthic properties. In the present study, we investigated its potential antiviral properties against influenza A/PR/8 (PR8 virus in a mouse model with suboptimal oseltamivir that mimics a poor clinical response to antiviral drug treatment. Suboptimal oseltamivir resulted in insufficient protection against PR8 infection. Oral administration of ivy extract with suboptimal oseltamivir increased the antiviral activity of oseltamivir. Ivy extract and its compounds, particularly hedrasaponin F, significantly reduced the cytopathic effect in PR8-infected A549 cells in the presence of oseltamivir. Compared with oseltamivir treatment alone, coadministration of the fraction of ivy extract that contained the highest proportion of hedrasaponin F with oseltamivir decreased pulmonary inflammation in PR8-infected mice. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2, were reduced by treatment with oseltamivir and the fraction of ivy extract. Analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in the bronchial alveolar of PR8-infected mice revealed that CD11b+Ly6G+ and CD11b+Ly6Cint cells were recruited after virus infection; coadministration of the ivy extract fraction with oseltamivir reduced infiltration of these inflammatory cells. In a model of suboptimal oseltamivir treatment, coadministration of ivy extract fraction that includes hedrasaponin F increased protection against PR8

  16. Coadministration of Hedera helix L. Extract Enabled Mice to Overcome Insufficient Protection against Influenza A/PR/8 Virus Infection under Suboptimal Treatment with Oseltamivir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eun-Hye; Song, Jae-Hyoung; Shim, Aeri; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kwon, Bo-Eun; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Kim, Yeon-Jeong; Chang, Sun-Young; Jeong, Hyeon Gun; Kim, Jong Geal; Seo, Sang-Uk; Kim, HyunPyo; Kwon, YongSoo; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Several anti-influenza drugs that reduce disease manifestation exist, and although these drugs provide clinical benefits in infected patients, their efficacy is limited by the emergence of drug-resistant influenza viruses. In the current study, we assessed the therapeutic strategy of enhancing the antiviral efficacy of an existing neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir, by coadministering with the leaf extract from Hedera helix L, commonly known as ivy. Ivy extract has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and antihelminthic properties. In the present study, we investigated its potential antiviral properties against influenza A/PR/8 (PR8) virus in a mouse model with suboptimal oseltamivir that mimics a poor clinical response to antiviral drug treatment. Suboptimal oseltamivir resulted in insufficient protection against PR8 infection. Oral administration of ivy extract with suboptimal oseltamivir increased the antiviral activity of oseltamivir. Ivy extract and its compounds, particularly hedrasaponin F, significantly reduced the cytopathic effect in PR8-infected A549 cells in the presence of oseltamivir. Compared with oseltamivir treatment alone, coadministration of the fraction of ivy extract that contained the highest proportion of hedrasaponin F with oseltamivir decreased pulmonary inflammation in PR8-infected mice. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, were reduced by treatment with oseltamivir and the fraction of ivy extract. Analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in the bronchial alveolar of PR8-infected mice revealed that CD11b+Ly6G+ and CD11b+Ly6Cint cells were recruited after virus infection; coadministration of the ivy extract fraction with oseltamivir reduced infiltration of these inflammatory cells. In a model of suboptimal oseltamivir treatment, coadministration of ivy extract fraction that includes hedrasaponin F increased protection against PR8 infection that could be

  17. Identifying abnormalities in symbiotic development between Trifolium spp. and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii leading to sub-optimal and ineffective nodule phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melino, V. J.; Drew, E. A.; Ballard, R. A.; Reeve, W. G.; Thomson, G.; White, R. G.; O'Hara, G. W.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Legumes overcome nitrogen limitations by entering into a mutualistic symbiosis with N2-fixing bacteria (rhizobia). Fully compatible associations (effective) between Trifolium spp. and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii result from successful recognition of symbiotic partners in the rhizosphere, root hair infection and the formation of nodules where N2-fixing bacteroids reside. Poorly compatible associations can result in root nodule formation with minimal (sub-optimal) or no (ineffective) N2-fixation. Despite the abundance and persistence of strains in agricultural soils which are poorly compatible with the commercially grown clover species, little is known of how and why they fail symbiotically. The aims of this research were to determine the morphological aberrations occurring in sub-optimal and ineffective clover nodules and to determine whether reduced bacteroid numbers or reduced N2-fixing activity is the main cause for the Sub-optimal phenotype. Methods Symbiotic effectiveness of four Trifolium hosts with each of four R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii strains was assessed by analysis of plant yields and nitrogen content; nodule yields, abundance, morphology and internal structure; and bacteroid cytology, quantity and activity. Key Results Effective nodules (Nodule Function 83–100 %) contained four developmental zones and N2-fixing bacteroids. In contrast, Sub-optimal nodules of the same age (Nodule Function 24–57 %) carried prematurely senescing bacteroids and a small bacteroid pool resulting in reduced shoot N. Ineffective-differentiated nodules carried bacteroids aborted at stage 2 or 3 in differentiation. In contrast, bacteroids were not observed in Ineffective-vegetative nodules despite the presence of bacteria within infection threads. Conclusions Three major responses to N2-fixation incompatibility between Trifolium spp. and R. l. trifolii strains were found: failed bacterial endocytosis from infection threads into plant cortical

  18. Discovery, screening and evaluation of a plasma biomarker panel for subjects with psychological suboptimal health state using 1H-NMR-based metabolomics profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-sheng Tian; Xiao-tao Xia; Yan-fei Wu; Lei Zhao; Huan Xiang; Guan-hua Du; Xiang Zhang; Xue-mei Qin

    2016-01-01

    Individuals in the state of psychological suboptimal health keep increasing, only scales and questionnaires were used to diagnose in clinic under current conditions, and symptoms of high reliability and accuracy are destitute. Therefore, the noninvasive and precise laboratory diagnostic methods are needed. This study aimed to develop an objective method through screen potential biomarkers or a biomarker panel to facilitate the diagnosis in clinic using plasma metabolomics. Profiles were based...

  19. Quantum Search Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepin, Vladimir E.; Xu, Ying

    This article reviews recent progress in quantum database search algorithms. The subject is presented in a self-contained and pedagogical way. The problem of searching a large database (a Hilbert space) for a target item is performed by the famous Grover algorithm which locates the target item with high probability and a quadratic speed-up compared with the corresponding classical algorithm. If the database is partitioned into blocks and one is searching for the block containing the target item instead of the target item itself, then the problem is referred to as partial search. Partial search trades accuracy for speed and the most efficient version is the Grover-Radhakrishnan-Korepin (GRK) algorithm. The target block can be further partitioned into sub-blocks so that GRK's can be performed in a sequence called a hierarchy. We study the Grover search and GRK partial search in detail and prove that a GRK hierarchy is less efficient than a direct GRK partial search. Both the Grover search and the GRK partial search can be generalized to the case with several target items (or target blocks for a GRK). The GRK partial search algorithm can also be represented in terms of group theory.

  20. No improvement in suboptimal vitamin A status with a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kelly A; Schall, Joan I; Kawchak, Deborah A; Green, Michael H; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Zemel, Babette S; Stallings, Virginia A

    2012-10-01

    Suboptimal vitamin A status is prevalent in children with type SS sickle cell disease (SCD-SS) and is associated with hospitalizations and poor growth and hematologic status. The supplemental vitamin A dose that optimizes suboptimal vitamin A status in this population is unknown. The efficacy of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) doses (based on age and sex) of vitamin A (300, 400, or 600 μg retinyl palmitate/d) or vitamin A + zinc (10 or 20 mg zinc sulfate/d) compared with placebo to optimize vitamin A status was assessed in children aged 2.0-12.9 y with SCD-SS and a suboptimal baseline serum retinol concentration (children (based on age and sex) failed to improve serum retinol values in either group (vitamin A: n = 23; vitamin A + zinc: n = 18) compared with placebo (n = 21). By 12 mo, the increase (±SD) in serum retinol (3.6 ± 2.8 μg/dL) in those taking 600 μg vitamin A/d was significantly different from the decrease (±SD; -2.8 ± 2.4 μg/dL) in those taking 300 μg/d, which possibly suggests a dose-response relation (P children did not improve serum retinol values in children with SCD-SS, which possibly suggests that higher doses are needed. However, the existence of alternative conclusions emphasizes the need for future research.

  1. Maraviroc Intensification of cART in Patients with Suboptimal Immunological Recovery: A 48-Week, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F L van Lelyveld

    Full Text Available The immunomodulatory effects of the CCR5-antagonist maraviroc might be beneficial in patients with a suboptimal immunological response, but results of different cART (combination antiretroviral therapy intensification studies are conflicting. Therefore, we performed a 48-week placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of maraviroc intensification on CD4+ T-cell counts and immune activation in these patients.Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.Major inclusion criteria were 1. CD4+ T-cell count <350 cells/μL while at least two years on cART or CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/μL while at least one year on cART, and 2. viral suppression for at least the previous 6 months. HIV-infected patients were randomized to add maraviroc (41 patients or placebo (44 patients to their cART regimen for 48 weeks. Changes in CD4+ T-cell counts (primary endpoint and other immunological parameters were modeled using linear mixed effects models.No significant differences for the modelled increase in CD4+ T-cell count (placebo 15.3 CD4+ T cells/μL (95% confidence interval (CI [1.0, 29.5] versus maraviroc arm 22.9 CD4+ T cells/μL (95% CI [7.4, 38.5] p = 0.51 or alterations in the expression of markers for T-cell activation, proliferation and microbial translocation were found between the arms. However, maraviroc intensification did increase the percentage of CCR5 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and the plasma levels of the CCR5 ligand MIP-1β. In contrast, the percentage of ex-vivo apoptotic CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells decreased in the maraviroc arm.Maraviroc intensification of cART did not increase CD4+ T-cell restoration or decrease immune activation as compared to placebo. However, ex-vivo T-cell apoptosis was decreased in the maraviroc arm.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00875368.

  2. Initial Accuracy of HIV Rapid Test Kits Stored in Suboptimal Conditions and Validity of Delayed Reading of Oral Fluid Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choko, Augustine T; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; MacPherson, Peter; Cocker, Derek; Khundi, McEwen; Thindwa, Deus; Sambakunsi, Rodrick S; Kumwenda, Moses K; Chiumya, Kondwani; Malema, Owen; Makombe, Simon D; Webb, Emily L; Corbett, Elizabeth L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of storing commonly used rapid diagnostic tests above manufacturer-recommended temperature (at 37°C), and the accuracy of delayed reading of oral fluid kits with relevance to HIV self-testing programmes. A quality assurance study of OraQuick (OraSure), Determine HIV 1/2™ (Alere) and Uni-Gold™ (Recombigen®). Consecutive adults (≥18y) attending Ndirande Health Centre in urban Blantyre, Malawi in January to April 2012 underwent HIV testing with two of each of the three rapid diagnostic test kits stored for 28 days at either 18°C (optimally-stored) or at 37°C (pre-incubated). Used OraQuick test kits were stored in a laboratory for delayed day 1 and subsequent monthly re-reading was undertaken for one year. Of 378 individuals who underwent parallel testing, 5 (1.3%) were dropped from the final analysis due to discordant or missing reference standard results (optimally-stored Determine and Uni-Gold). Compared to the diagnostic reference standard, OraQuick had a sensitivity of 97.2% (95% CI: 93.6-99.6). There were 7 false negative results among all test kits stored at 37°C and three false negatives among optimally stored kits. Excellent agreement between pre-incubated tests and optimally-stored tests with Kappa values of 1.00 for Determine and Uni-Gold; and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95; 1.00) for OraQuick were observed. There was high visual stability on re-reading of OraQuick, with only 1/375 pre-incubated and 1/371 optimally-stored OraQuick kits changing from the initial result over 12 months. Erroneous results observed during HIV testing in low income settings are likely to be due to factors other than suboptimal storage conditions. Re-reading returned OraQuick kits may offer a convenient and accurate quality assurance approach, including in HIV self-testing programmes.

  3. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2016-03-19

    Suboptimal health status (SHS)-an intermediate state between health and illness--refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although- SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work-life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15-60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency ("rarely, sometimes, or always"). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically "rare" were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49-1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance ("sometimes") were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62-1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be accurate behavioral indicia of a healthy lifestyle. Poor work-recreation balance is associated with

  4. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Suboptimal health status (SHS—an intermediate state between health and illness—refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work−life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15−60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency (“rarely, sometimes, or always”. Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0 were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3% is higher than health status (18.4% or disease status (35.3%. Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p < 0.001 after demographic adjustment. In comparison with those reporting a frequent work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically “rare” were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR: 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.49–1.92, and those with infrequent work-recreation balance (“sometimes” were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62–1.81. These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and

  5. The importance of inhaler devices: the choice of inhaler device may lead to suboptimal adherence in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Gabriela Ramírez,2 Antoni Sicras,3 Pablo Francoli,4 Saku Torvinen,5 Rainel Sánchez-de la Rosa4 1Department of Economics, Universitat de Barcelona, 2BCN Health Economics and Outcomes Research SL, 3Dirección de Planificación, Badalona Serveis Assistencials, SA, Barcelona, 4Medical Department, TEVA Pharmaceutical, Madrid, Spain; 5Market Access Department, TEVA Pharmaceutical Europe BV, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Objective: This study aims to identify factors associated with poor adherence to COPD treatment in patients receiving a fixed-dose combination (FDC of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA, focusing on the importance of inhaler devices.Methods: We conducted a retrospective and multicenter study based on a review of medical registries between 2007 and 2012 of COPD patients (n=1,263 treated with ICS/LABA FDC, whose medical devices were either dry powder inhalers (DPIs or pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI. Medication adherence included persistence outcomes through 18 months and medication possession ratios. Data on exacerbations, comorbidities, demographic characteristics, and health care resource utilization were also included as confounders of adherence.Results: The analyses revealed that COPD patients whose medication was delivered through a DPI were less likely to have medication adherence compared to patients with pMDI, after adjusting for confounding factors, especially active ingredients. Younger groups of patients were less likely to be adherent compared to the oldest group. Smoker men were less likely to be adherent compared to women and non-smokers. Comorbidities decreased the probability of treatment adherence. Those patients that visited their doctor once a month were more likely to adhere to their medication regimen; however, suboptimal adherence was more likely to occur among those patients who visited more than three times per month their doctor. We also found that worsening of

  6. Udder infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis at calving in dairy herds with suboptimal udder health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Å; Nyman, A-K; Aspán, A; Börjesson, S; Unnerstad, H Ericsson; Waller, K Persson

    2016-03-01

    Udder infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis are common causes of bovine mastitis. To study these pathogens in early lactation, a 12-mo longitudinal, observational study was carried out in 13 herds with suboptimal udder health. The aims of the study were to investigate the occurrence of these pathogens and to identify if presence of the 3 pathogens, and of genotypes within the pathogens, differed with respect to herd, season, and parity. Quarter milk samples, collected at calving and 4 d in milk (DIM), were cultured for the 3 pathogens. Genotyping of staphylococcal and streptococcal isolates was performed using spa typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, respectively. For each of the 3 pathogens, cows with an udder infection at calving or 4 DIM were allocated to 1 of 4 infection types: cleared (pathogen present only at calving), persistent (pathogen present in the same quarter at calving and 4 DIM), new (pathogen present only at 4 DIM), or cleared/new (pathogen present in 1 quarter at calving and in another quarter at 4 DIM). Associations between season or parity and overall occurrence of pathogens or infection types were determined using univariable mixed-effect logistic-regression models and the Fisher's exact test, respectively. The most commonly occurring pathogen was Staph. aureus, followed by Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis. Persistent infections were the most common infection type among Staph. aureus-infected cows, whereas cleared infections were the most common among Strep. dysgalactiae- and Strep. uberis-positive cows. The proportion of cows with persistent Staph. aureus infections and the proportion of cows having a Strep. uberis infection at calving or 4 DIM were higher in the multiparous cows than in primiparous cows. Infections with Strep. dysgalactiae were less common during the early housing season than during the late housing or pasture seasons, whereas persistent Strep. uberis

  7. High resolution direction of arrival (DOA) estimation based on improved orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm by iterative local searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyi; Wu, Renbiao

    2013-08-22

    DOA (Direction of Arrival) estimation is a major problem in array signal processing applications. Recently, compressive sensing algorithms, including convex relaxation algorithms and greedy algorithms, have been recognized as a kind of novel DOA estimation algorithm. However, the success of these algorithms is limited by the RIP (Restricted Isometry Property) condition or the mutual coherence of measurement matrix. In the DOA estimation problem, the columns of measurement matrix are steering vectors corresponding to different DOAs. Thus, it violates the mutual coherence condition. The situation gets worse when there are two sources from two adjacent DOAs. In this paper, an algorithm based on OMP (Orthogonal Matching Pursuit), called ILS-OMP (Iterative Local Searching-Orthogonal Matching Pursuit), is proposed to improve DOA resolution by Iterative Local Searching. Firstly, the conventional OMP algorithm is used to obtain initial estimated DOAs. Then, in each iteration, a local searching process for every estimated DOA is utilized to find a new DOA in a given DOA set to further decrease the residual. Additionally, the estimated DOAs are updated by substituting the initial DOA with the new one. The simulation results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed algorithm.

  8. High Resolution Direction of Arrival (DOA Estimation Based on Improved Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP Algorithm by Iterative Local Searching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renbiao Wu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available DOA (Direction of Arrival estimation is a major problem in array signal processing applications. Recently, compressive sensing algorithms, including convex relaxation algorithms and greedy algorithms, have been recognized as a kind of novel DOA estimation algorithm. However, the success of these algorithms is limited by the RIP (Restricted Isometry Property condition or the mutual coherence of measurement matrix. In the DOA estimation problem, the columns of measurement matrix are steering vectors corresponding to different DOAs. Thus, it violates the mutual coherence condition. The situation gets worse when there are two sources from two adjacent DOAs. In this paper, an algorithm based on OMP (Orthogonal Matching Pursuit, called ILS-OMP (Iterative Local Searching-Orthogonal Matching Pursuit, is proposed to improve DOA resolution by Iterative Local Searching. Firstly, the conventional OMP algorithm is used to obtain initial estimated DOAs. Then, in each iteration, a local searching process for every estimated DOA is utilized to find a new DOA in a given DOA set to further decrease the residual. Additionally, the estimated DOAs are updated by substituting the initial DOA with the new one. The simulation results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed algorithm.

  9. POWERPLAY: Training an Increasingly General Problem Solver by Continually Searching for the Simplest Still Unsolvable Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen eSchmidhuber

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of computer science focuses on automatically solving given computational problems. I focus on automatically inventing or discovering problems in a way inspired by the playful behavior of animals and humans, to train a more and more general problem solver from scratch in an unsupervised fashion. Consider the infinite set of all computable descriptions of tasks with possibly computable solutions. The novel algorithmic framework POWERPLAY (2011 continually searches the space of possible pairs of new tasks and modifications of the current problem solver, until it finds a more powerful problem solver that provably solves all previously learned tasks plus the new one, while the unmodified predecessor does not. Wow-effects are achieved by continually making previously learned skills more efficient such that they require less time and space. New skills may (partially re-use previously learned skills. POWERPLAY's search orders candidate pairs of tasks and solver modifications by their conditional computational (time & space complexity, given the stored experience so far. The new task and its corresponding task-solving skill are those first found and validated. The computational costs of validating new tasks need not grow with task repertoire size. POWERPLAY's ongoing search for novelty keeps breaking the generalization abilities of its present solver. This is related to Goedel's sequence of increasingly powerful formal theories based on adding formerly unprovable statements to the axioms without affecting previously provable theorems. The continually increasing repertoire of problem solving procedures can be exploited by a parallel search for solutions to additional externally posed tasks. POWERPLAY may be viewed as a greedy but practical implementation of basic principles of creativity. A first experimental analysis can be found in separate papers [58, 56, 57].

  10. Book Review: Web Search-Public Searching of the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdan Mansourian

    2004-01-01

    The book consists of four sections including (1) the context of web search, (2) how people search the web, (3) subjects of web search and (4) conclusion: trends and future directions. The first section includes three chapters addressing a brief but informative introduction about the main involved elements of web search process and web search research including search engines mechanism, human computer interaction in web searching and research design in web search studies.

  11. [Advanced online search techniques and dedicated search engines for physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Yoav

    2008-02-01

    In recent years search engines have become an essential tool in the work of physicians. This article will review advanced search techniques from the world of information specialists, as well as some advanced search engine operators that may help physicians improve their online search capabilities, and maximize the yield of their searches. This article also reviews popular dedicated scientific and biomedical literature search engines.

  12. University Students' Online Information Searching Strategies in Different Search Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Hou, Huei-Tse; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the role of search context played in university students' online information searching strategies. A total of 304 university students in Taiwan were surveyed with questionnaires in which two search contexts were defined as searching for learning, and searching for daily life information. Students' online search strategies…

  13. Search on Rugged Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billinger, Stephan; Stieglitz, Nils; Schumacher, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a laboratory experiment on human decision-making in a complex combinatorial task. We find strong evidence for a behavioral model of adaptive search. Success narrows down search to the neighborhood of the status quo, while failure promotes gradually more explorative...... search. Task complexity does not have a direct effect on behavior, but systematically affects the feedback conditions that guide success-induced exploitation and failure-induced exploration. The analysis also shows that human participants were prone to over-exploration, since they broke off the search...... for local improvements too early. We derive stylized decision rules that generate the search behavior observed in the experiment and discuss the implications of our findings for individual decision-making and organizational search....

  14. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...... introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  15. ElasticSearch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Paro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Written in an engaging, easy-to-follow style, the recipes will help you to extend the capabilities of ElasticSearch to manage your data effectively.If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications, manage data, or have decided to start using ElasticSearch, this book is ideal for you. This book assumes that you've got working knowledge of JSON and Java

  16. Mastering ElasticSearch

    CERN Document Server

    Kuc, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    A practical tutorial that covers the difficult design, implementation, and management of search solutions.Mastering ElasticSearch is aimed at to intermediate users who want to extend their knowledge about ElasticSearch. The topics that are described in the book are detailed, but we assume that you already know the basics, like the query DSL or data indexing. Advanced users will also find this book useful, as the examples are getting deep into the internals where it is needed.

  17. Demystifying the Search Button

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Liam; Nguyen, Van; Peterson, Sarah J.; Gomez-Perez, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    A thorough review of the literature is the basis of all research and evidence-based practice. A gold-standard efficient and exhaustive search strategy is needed to ensure all relevant citations have been captured and that the search performed is reproducible. The PubMed database comprises both the MEDLINE and non-MEDLINE databases. MEDLINE-based search strategies are robust but capture only 89% of the total available citations in PubMed. The remaining 11% include the most recent and possibly relevant citations but are only searchable through less efficient techniques. An effective search strategy must employ both the MEDLINE and the non-MEDLINE portion of PubMed to ensure all studies have been identified. The robust MEDLINE search strategies are used for the MEDLINE portion of the search. Usage of the less robust strategies is then efficiently confined to search only the remaining 11% of PubMed citations that have not been indexed for MEDLINE. The current article offers step-by-step instructions for building such a search exploring methods for the discovery of medical subject heading (MeSH) terms to search MEDLINE, text-based methods for exploring the non-MEDLINE database, information on the limitations of convenience algorithms such as the “related citations feature,” the strengths and pitfalls associated with commonly used filters, the proper usage of Boolean operators to organize a master search strategy, and instructions for automating that search through “MyNCBI” to receive search query updates by email as new citations become available. PMID:26129895

  18. Exotic Higgs searches

    CERN Document Server

    Pelliccioni, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Exotic Higgs searches cover a wide range of signatures, thus leading to indications to new physics beyond Standard Model. We report a review on exotic Higgs searches for lepton flavour violating Higgs decays, for "mono-Higgs" searches, for Higgs decays to invisible and for high mass Higgs searches. Both ATLAS and CMS results will be shown, for Run-1 data statistics collected at the energy of $\\sqrt s$ = 7,8 TeV and for the first data collected during Run-2 phase at the energy of $\\sqrt s$ = 13 TeV.

  19. Google Power Search

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Behind Google's deceptively simple interface is immense power for both market and competitive research-if you know how to use it well. Sure, basic searches are easy, but complex searches require specialized skills. This concise book takes you through the full range of Google's powerful search-refinement features, so you can quickly find the specific information you need. Learn techniques ranging from simple Boolean logic to URL parameters and other advanced tools, and see how they're applied to real-world market research examples. Incorporate advanced search operators such as filetype:, intit

  20. Delaying information search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we examined factors that may temporarily attenuate information search. People are generally curious and dislike uncertainty, which typically encourages them to look for relevant information. Despite these strong forces that promote information search, people sometimes deliberately delay obtaining valuable information. We find they may do so when they are concerned that the information might interfere with future pleasurable activities. Interestingly, the decision to search or to postpone searching for information is influenced not only by the value and importance of the information itself but also by well-being maintenance goals related to possible detrimental effects that negative knowledge may have on unrelated future plans.

  1. Prematriculation variables associated with suboptimal outcomes for the 1994-1999 cohort of US medical school matriculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Dorothy A; Jeffe, Donna B

    2010-09-15

    The relationship between increasing numbers and diversity of medical school enrollees and the US physician workforce size and composition has not been described. To identify demographic and prematriculation factors associated with medical school matriculants' outcomes. Retrospective study using deidentified data for the 1994-1999 national cohort of 97,445 matriculants who were followed up through March 2, 2009, and had graduated, had withdrawn, or were dismissed. Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with suboptimal outcomes. Academic withdrawal or dismissal, nonacademic withdrawal or dismissal, and graduation without first-attempt passing scores on the US Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 and/or Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK) compared with graduation with first-attempt passing scores on both of the examinations. Of 84,018 matriculants (86.2%), 74,494 graduated and had first-attempt passing scores on both the Step 1 and Step 2 CK (88.7%), 6743 graduated and did not have first-attempt passing scores on the Step 1 and/or Step 2 CK (8.0%), 1049 withdrew or were dismissed for academic reasons (1.2%), and 1732 withdrew or were dismissed for nonacademic reasons (2.1%). Variables associated with greater likelihood of graduation without first-attempt passing scores on the Step 1 and/or Step 2 CK and of academic withdrawal or dismissal, respectively, were (1) Medical College Admission Test scores (scores of 18-20 [2.9% of sample] vs > 29: adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 13.06 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 11.56-14.76] and AOR, 11.08 [95% CI, 8.50-14.45]; scores of 21-23 [5.6% of sample] vs > 29: AOR, 7.52 [95% CI, 6.79-8.33] and AOR, 5.97 [95% CI, 4.68-7.62]; and scores of 24-26 [13.9% of sample] vs > 29: AOR, 4.27 [95% CI, 3.92-4.65] and AOR, 3.56 [95% CI, 2.88-4.40]), (2) race/ethnicity (Asian or Pacific Islander [18.2% of sample] vs white: AOR, 2.15 [95% CI, 2.00-2.32] and AOR, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.37-2.09]; underrepresented

  2. Spying on Search Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Only the most dedicated super-searchers are motivated to learn and control command systems, like DialogClassic, that rely on the user to input complex search strategies. Infrequent searchers and most end users choose interfaces that do some of the work for them and make the search process appear easy. However, the easier a good interface seems to…

  3. Agronomie Africaine: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  4. Scientia Africana: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  5. With News Search Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Holly

    2005-01-01

    Although there are many news search engines on the Web, finding the news items one wants can be challenging. Choosing appropriate search terms is one of the biggest challenges. Unless one has seen the article that one is seeking, it is often difficult to select words that were used in the headline or text of the article. The limited archives of…

  6. Biokemistri: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  7. Searches for Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    New and recent results on Supersymmetry searches are shown for the ATLAS and the CMS experiments. Analyses with about 36 fb$^{-1}$ are considered for searches concerning light squarks and gluinos, direct pair production of 3$^{rd}$ generation squarks, electroweak production of charginos, neutralinos, sleptons, R-parity violating scenarios and long-lived particles.

  8. Search and Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine

    2014-01-01

    -scale application by companies like Amazon, Facebook, and Netflix. But are search and recommendation really two different fields of research that address different problems with different sets of algorithms in papers published at distinct conferences? In my talk, I want to argue that search and recommendation...

  9. Search and switching costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siekman, Wilhelm Henricus

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyses markets with search and with switching costs. It provides insights in several important issues in search markets, including how loss aversion may affect consumer behavior and firm conduct, and how prices, welfare, and profits may change when an intermediating platform orders

  10. Sciences & Nature: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  11. Afrika Statistika: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  12. Quaestiones Mathematicae: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  13. Acta Theologica: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  14. Nigerian Libraries: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  15. Water SA: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  16. Lexikos: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  17. Philosophical Papers: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  18. Kiswahili: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  19. Afrimedic Journal: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  20. Kenya Veterinarian: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  1. Building Internet Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akgül

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet search engines are powerful tools to find electronics objects such as addresses of individuals and institutions, documents, statistics of all kinds, dictionaries, cata­logs, product information etc. This paper explains how to build and run some very common search engines on Unix platforms, so as to serve documents through the Web.

  2. ElasticSearch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Paro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications and want to sharpen your understanding of the core elements and applications, this is the book for you. It is assumed that you've got working knowledge of JSON and, if you want to extend ElasticSearch, of Java and related technologies.

  3. Searches for Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    New and recents results on Supersymmetry searches are shown for the ATLAS and the CMS experiments. Analyses with about 36 fb^-1 are considered for searches concerning light squarks and gluinos, direct pair production of 3rd generation squarks, electroweak production of charginos, neutralinos, sleptons, R-parity violating scenarios and long-lived particles.

  4. African Environment: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  5. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  6. Vulture News: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  7. Ergonomics SA: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  8. Zede Journal: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  9. African Anthropologist: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  10. Africa Development: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  11. Innovation: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  12. Acta Structilia: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  13. Agrosearch: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  14. African Zoology: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  15. Rwanda Journal: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  16. Distributed Deep Web Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien

    2013-01-01

    The World Wide Web contains billions of documents (and counting); hence, it is likely that some document will contain the answer or content you are searching for. While major search engines like Bing and Google often manage to return relevant results to your query, there are plenty of situations in

  17. Search and Disrupt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    This paper analyzes how external search is affected by strategic interest alignment among knowledge sources. I focus on misalignment arising from the heterogeneous effects of disruptive technologies by analyzing the influence of incumbents on 2,855 non-incumbents? external knowledge search efforts....... The efforts most likely to solve innovation problems obtained funding from the European Commission?s 7th Framework Program (2007-2013). The results show that involving incumbents improves search in complementary technologies, while demoting it when strategic interests are misaligned in disruptive technologies....... However, incumbent sources engaged in capability reconfiguration to accommodate disruption improve search efforts in disruptive technologies. The paper concludes that the value of external sources is contingent on more than their knowledge. Specifically, interdependence of sources in search gives rise...

  18. Induction Motor Parameter Identification Using a Gravitational Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Avalos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficient use of electrical energy is a topic that has attracted attention for its environmental consequences. On the other hand, induction motors represent the main component in most industries. They consume the highest energy percentages in industrial facilities. This energy consumption depends on the operation conditions of the induction motor imposed by its internal parameters. Since the internal parameters of an induction motor are not directly measurable, an identification process must be conducted to obtain them. In the identification process, the parameter estimation is transformed into a multidimensional optimization problem where the internal parameters of the induction motor are considered as decision variables. Under this approach, the complexity of the optimization problem tends to produce multimodal error surfaces for which their cost functions are significantly difficult to minimize. Several algorithms based on evolutionary computation principles have been successfully applied to identify the optimal parameters of induction motors. However, most of them maintain an important limitation: They frequently obtain sub-optimal solutions as a result of an improper equilibrium between exploitation and exploration in their search strategies. This paper presents an algorithm for the optimal parameter identification of induction motors. To determine the parameters, the proposed method uses a recent evolutionary method called the gravitational search algorithm (GSA. Different from most of the existent evolutionary algorithms, the GSA presents a better performance in multimodal problems, avoiding critical flaws such as the premature convergence to sub-optimal solutions. Numerical simulations have been conducted on several models to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  19. Search for greener Li-ion batteries: an alternative offered by organic electroactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Joaquin; Renault, Stéven; Poizot, Philippe; Dolhem, Franck

    2011-06-01

    The threats of climate change and the issues of secure energy supply are among the fundamental challenges of the 21stcentury that push humanity to adopt a sustainable development and to favour the use of renewable sources of energy. In addition to their historical use, LIBs seem on the road to power the next "Zero Emission" vehicles or could be used to assist the integration of renewable energy sources both on- and off-the-grid. Consequently, production of LIBs is expected to keep on growing. However LIBs are nearly exclusively based on inorganic compounds, non-renewable and energy-greedy materials. Thus in parallel with regular research on inorganic-based LIBs, we have recently proposed to probe an alternative pathway by searching for redox-active organic materials, easier to discard while possibly derived from biomass resources. As solid-state electrochemistry of organics is not that well documented, our current approach consists in a global survey of selected organic structures in order to grasp relevant parameters that affect the redox potential, the stability upon cycling and so on. In this report, we extend our current database of redox-active organic structures by evaluating vs. Li bulky pyrazine-based structures and dilithium polyporate as a supplementary specimen of p-benzoquinone derivatives.

  20. High-Performance Local Search for Solving Real-Life Inventory Routing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, Thierry; Estellon, Bertrand; Gardi, Frédéric; Jeanjean, Antoine

    In this paper, a real-life routing and scheduling problem encountered is addressed. The problem, which consists in optimizing the delivery of fluids by tank trucks on a long-term horizon, is a generalization of the vehicle routing problem with vendor managed inventory replenishment. The particularity of this problem is that the vendor monitors the customers’ inventories, deciding when and how much each inventory should be replenished by routing tank trucks. Thus, the objective of the vendor is to minimize the logistic cost of the inventory replenishment for all customers over the long run. Then, an original local-search heuristic is presented for solving the short-term planning problem. The engineering of this algorithm follows the three-layers methodology for “high-performance local search” recently introduced by some of the authors. A computational study demonstrates that our solution is both effective, efficient and robust, providing long-term savings exceeding 20 % on average, compared to solutions computed by expert planners or even a classical greedy algorithm. The resulting software is now exploited in North America by one of the French industry leaders.

  1. How common and what are the determinants of sub-optimal care for Parkinson's disease patients: the Milton Keynes community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Michele T M; Butterworth, Richard; Kumar, Vasantha; Cooper, Jonathan; Jones, Emma; Catterall, Lesley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2011-03-01

    Limited data currently exists within the UK addressing the level of Parkinson's disease (PD) healthcare provision. We investigated whether care for PD patients in a UK community met national guidelines, and the determinants of sub-optimal care for this patient group. 340 PD patients were identified from a population of 242,606 (crude prevalence 140 per 100,000 (95% CI 126-156 per 100,000), age-adjusted prevalence 199 per 100,000 (95% CI 178-221 per 100,000)). 248 out of 340 (73%) PD patients identified took part, completing rating scales assessing cognitive, non-motor and sociodemographic variables. 9% of patients had never seen a neurologist for their PD and 18.5% were sub-optimally managed; defined as (a) delay between initial diagnosis and first consultation by a specialist >1 year and (b) patients who had not had specialist PD review for >1 year. Older age, poor cognition and worse mobility were major factors in determining sub-optimal care whilst lower education level and tremor as initial symptom were more modest predictors. 20% of patients had been started on dopaminergic therapies including ergot-derived agonists by their GP prior to referral and less than a third had seen allied health professionals throughout their illness. Further work is required to test whether these findings are generalizable across the country and identify what can be done to ensure equal access to specialist care so that all PD patients have access to best practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, Cory; Sierra, Tito; Boyer, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning increasingly to unified search solutions to simplify search and discovery of library resources. Unfortunately, very little research has been published on library user search behavior in single search box environments. This study examines how users search a large public university library using a prominent, single…

  3. An Effective Hybrid Cuckoo Search Algorithm with Improved Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm for 0-1 Knapsack Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective hybrid cuckoo search algorithm (CS with improved shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (ISFLA is put forward for solving 0-1 knapsack problem. First of all, with the framework of SFLA, an improved frog-leap operator is designed with the effect of the global optimal information on the frog leaping and information exchange between frog individuals combined with genetic mutation with a small probability. Subsequently, in order to improve the convergence speed and enhance the exploitation ability, a novel CS model is proposed with considering the specific advantages of Lévy flights and frog-leap operator. Furthermore, the greedy transform method is used to repair the infeasible solution and optimize the feasible solution. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out on six different types of 0-1 knapsack instances, and the comparative results have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and its ability to achieve good quality solutions, which outperforms the binary cuckoo search, the binary differential evolution, and the genetic algorithm.

  4. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  5. Visual search: a retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Miguel P

    2011-12-30

    Visual search, a vital task for humans and animals, has also become a common and important tool for studying many topics central to active vision and cognition ranging from spatial vision, attention, and oculomotor control to memory, decision making, and rewards. While visual search often seems effortless to humans, trying to recreate human visual search abilities in machines has represented an incredible challenge for computer scientists and engineers. What are the brain computations that ensure successful search? This review article draws on efforts from various subfields and discusses the mechanisms and strategies the brain uses to optimize visual search: the psychophysical evidence, their neural correlates, and if unknown, possible loci of the neural computations. Mechanisms and strategies include use of knowledge about the target, distractor, background statistical properties, location probabilities, contextual cues, scene context, rewards, target prevalence, and also the role of saliency, center-surround organization of search templates, and eye movement plans. I provide overviews of classic and contemporary theories of covert attention and eye movements during search explaining their differences and similarities. To allow the reader to anchor some of the laboratory findings to real-world tasks, the article includes interviews with three expert searchers: a radiologist, a fisherman, and a satellite image analyst.

  6. Modified harmony search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Najihah; Lutfi Amri Ramli, Ahmad; Majid, Ahmad Abd; Piah, Abd Rahni Mt

    2017-09-01

    A metaheuristic algorithm, called Harmony Search is quite highly applied in optimizing parameters in many areas. HS is a derivative-free real parameter optimization algorithm, and draws an inspiration from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. Propose in this paper Modified Harmony Search for solving optimization problems, which employs a concept from genetic algorithm method and particle swarm optimization for generating new solution vectors that enhances the performance of HS algorithm. The performances of MHS and HS are investigated on ten benchmark optimization problems in order to make a comparison to reflect the efficiency of the MHS in terms of final accuracy, convergence speed and robustness.

  7. ElasticSearch server

    CERN Document Server

    Rogozinski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This book is a detailed, practical, hands-on guide packed with real-life scenarios and examples which will show you how to implement an ElasticSearch search engine on your own websites.If you are a web developer or a user who wants to learn more about ElasticSearch, then this is the book for you. You do not need to know anything about ElastiSeach, Java, or Apache Lucene in order to use this book, though basic knowledge about databases and queries is required.

  8. Entropy, Search, Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Katona, Gyula O H; Tardos, Gábor

    2007-01-01

    The present volume is a collection of survey papers in the fields of entropy, search and complexity. They summarize the latest developments in their respective areas. More than half of the papers belong to search theory which lies on the borderline of mathematics and computer science, information theory and combinatorics, respectively. Search theory has variegated applications, among others in bioinformatics. Some of these papers also have links to linear statistics and communicational complexity. Further works survey the fundamentals of information theory and quantum source coding. The volume is recommended to experienced researchers as well as young scientists and students both in mathematics and computer science

  9. Custom Search Engines: Tools & Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notess, Greg R.

    2008-01-01

    Few have the resources to build a Google or Yahoo! from scratch. Yet anyone can build a search engine based on a subset of the large search engines' databases. Use Google Custom Search Engine or Yahoo! Search Builder or any of the other similar programs to create a vertical search engine targeting sites of interest to users. The basic steps to…

  10. Search Engine Bias and the Demise of Search Engine Utopianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, E.

    Due to search engines' automated operations, people often assume that search engines display search results neutrally and without bias. However, this perception is mistaken. Like any other media company, search engines affirmatively control their users' experiences, which has the consequence of skewing search results (a phenomenon called "search engine bias"). Some commentators believe that search engine bias is a defect requiring legislative correction. Instead, this chapter argues that search engine bias is the beneficial consequence of search engines optimizing content for their users. The chapter further argues that the most problematic aspect of search engine bias, the "winner-take-all" effect caused by top placement in search results, will be mooted by emerging personalized search technology.

  11. Supplementation with macular carotenoids reduces psychological stress, serum cortisol, and sub-optimal symptoms of physical and emotional health in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringham, Nicole Tressa; Holmes, Philip V; Stringham, James M

    2017-02-15

    Oxidative stress and systemic inflammation are the root cause of several deleterious effects of chronic psychological stress. We hypothesize that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities of the macular carotenoids (MCs) lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin could, via daily supplementation, provide a dietary means of benefit. A total of 59 young healthy subjects participated in a 12-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of MC supplementation on blood cortisol, psychological stress ratings, behavioural measures of mood, and symptoms of sub-optimal health. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: placebo, 13 mg, or 27 mg / day total MCs. All parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Serum MCs were determined via HPLC, serum cortisol via ELISA, and macular pigment optical density (MPOD) via customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Behavioural data were obtained via questionnaire. Significant baseline correlations were found between MPOD and Beck anxiety scores (r = -0.28; P = 0.032), MPOD and Brief Symptom Inventory scores (r = 0.27; P = 0.037), and serum cortisol and psychological stress scores (r = 0.46; P stress, serum cortisol, and measures of emotional and physical health (P stress, cortisol, and symptoms of sub-optimal emotional and physical health. Determining the basis for these effects, whether systemic or a more central (i.e. brain) is a question that warrants further study.

  12. Quantitative effect of suboptimal codon usage on translational efficiency of mRNA encoding HIV-1 gag in intact T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholiswa C Ngumbela

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The sequences of wild-isolate strains of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 are characterized by low GC content and suboptimal codon usage. Codon optimization of DNA vectors can enhance protein expression both by enhancing translational efficiency, and by altering RNA stability and export. Although gag codon optimization is widely used in DNA vectors and experimental vaccines, the actual effect of altered codon usage on gag translational efficiency has not been quantified. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To quantify translational efficiency of gag mRNA in live T cells, we transfected Jurkat cells with increasing doses of capped, polyadenylated synthetic mRNA corresponding to wildtype or codon-optimized gag sequences, measured Gag production by quantitative ELISA and flow cytometry, and estimated the translational efficiency of each transcript as pg of Gag antigen produced per microg of input mRNA. We found that codon optimization yielded a small increase in gag translational efficiency (approximately 1.6 fold. In contrast when cells were transfected with DNA vectors requiring nuclear transcription and processing of gag mRNA, codon optimization resulted in a very large enhancement of Gag production. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that suboptimal codon usage by HIV-1 results in only a slight loss of gag translational efficiency per se, with the vast majority of enhancement in protein expression from DNA vectors due to altered processing and export of nuclear RNA.

  13. Quantitative effect of suboptimal codon usage on translational efficiency of mRNA encoding HIV-1 gag in intact T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngumbela, Kholiswa C; Ryan, Kieran P; Sivamurthy, Rohini; Brockman, Mark A; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Bhardwaj, Nina; Kavanagh, Daniel G

    2008-06-04

    The sequences of wild-isolate strains of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) are characterized by low GC content and suboptimal codon usage. Codon optimization of DNA vectors can enhance protein expression both by enhancing translational efficiency, and by altering RNA stability and export. Although gag codon optimization is widely used in DNA vectors and experimental vaccines, the actual effect of altered codon usage on gag translational efficiency has not been quantified. To quantify translational efficiency of gag mRNA in live T cells, we transfected Jurkat cells with increasing doses of capped, polyadenylated synthetic mRNA corresponding to wildtype or codon-optimized gag sequences, measured Gag production by quantitative ELISA and flow cytometry, and estimated the translational efficiency of each transcript as pg of Gag antigen produced per microg of input mRNA. We found that codon optimization yielded a small increase in gag translational efficiency (approximately 1.6 fold). In contrast when cells were transfected with DNA vectors requiring nuclear transcription and processing of gag mRNA, codon optimization resulted in a very large enhancement of Gag production. We conclude that suboptimal codon usage by HIV-1 results in only a slight loss of gag translational efficiency per se, with the vast majority of enhancement in protein expression from DNA vectors due to altered processing and export of nuclear RNA.

  14. Discovery, screening and evaluation of a plasma biomarker panel for subjects with psychological suboptimal health state using (1)H-NMR-based metabolomics profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Sheng; Xia, Xiao-Tao; Wu, Yan-Fei; Zhao, Lei; Xiang, Huan; Du, Guan-Hua; Zhang, Xiang; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2016-09-21

    Individuals in the state of psychological suboptimal health keep increasing, only scales and questionnaires were used to diagnose in clinic under current conditions, and symptoms of high reliability and accuracy are destitute. Therefore, the noninvasive and precise laboratory diagnostic methods are needed. This study aimed to develop an objective method through screen potential biomarkers or a biomarker panel to facilitate the diagnosis in clinic using plasma metabolomics. Profiles were based on H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) metabolomics techniques combing with multivariate statistical analysis. Furthermore, methods of correlation analysis with Metaboanalyst 3.0 for selecting a biomarker panel, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) drug intervention for validating the close relations between the biomarker panel and the state and the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC curves) analysis for evaluation of clinical diagnosis ability were carried out. 9 endogenous metabolites containing trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), glutamine, N-acetyl-glycoproteins, citrate, tyrosine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, valine and glucose were identified and considered as potential biomarkers. Then a biomarker panel consisting of phenylalanine, glutamine, tyrosine, citrate, N-acetyl-glycoproteins and TMAO was selected, which exhibited the highest area under the curve (AUC = 0.971). This study provided critical insight into the pathological mechanism of psychological suboptimal health and would supply a novel and valuable diagnostic method.

  15. Suboptimal vitamin D status in a population-based study of Asian children: prevalence and relation to allergic diseases and atopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chieh Yao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New evidence shows high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in many countries and some studies suggest a possible link between vitamin D status and allergic diseases. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in a population sample of Asian children and to investigate the relationship of vitamin D status with allergic diseases and atopy. METHODS: Children aged 5-18 years (N = 1315 in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese CHildren (PATCH study were evaluated using questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and total and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE. RESULTS: The mean concentration of serum 25(OHD was 20.4 ng/mL (SD: 7.1 ng/mL. Vitamin D deficiency (defined as serum 25(OHD0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Low serum 25(OHD levels are remarkably common in this population sample of Asian children, suggesting that millions of children living in Taiwan may have suboptimal levels of vitamin D, which should be a matter of public health concern. Our results provides epidemiological evidence against the association of vitamin D status with various allergic diseases and atopy in Asian children.

  16. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  17. Searches at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Junk, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Searches have been conducted for a broad range of new phenomena by the four experiments ALEPH, DELPHI, L3, and OPAL, at LEP2. Each experiment contributes approximately 150 pb-1 of e+e- annihilation data with a mean sqrt(s) of 205.9 GeV in 2000 to these searches (data prepared for the September 5 LEPC meeting). The statistical procedure for setting limits and evaluating the significance of excesses observed in the data is reviewed. Search results are presented for the Standard Model Higgs boson, the neutral Higgs bosons in the MSSM, charged Higgs bosons, invisibly decaying Higgs bosons produced by Higgs-strahlung, and fermiophobic Higgs bosons. Search results are briefly summarized for gauginos, stops, and staus. The photon recoil spectrum is checked for hints of new physics.

  18. Beyond the search process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings from a longitudinal case study exploring Kuhlthau's information search process (ISP)-model in a group based academic setting. The research focus is on group members' activities and cognitive and emotional experiences during the task process of writing an assignm......This paper reports on the findings from a longitudinal case study exploring Kuhlthau's information search process (ISP)-model in a group based academic setting. The research focus is on group members' activities and cognitive and emotional experiences during the task process of writing...... seeking, the cognitive pattern associated with focus formulation and the tendency towards an increase in writing activities while searching activities decreased. Differences in behavior were also found, which were associated with contextual and social factors beyond the mere search process...

  19. Risk factors for suboptimal antiretroviral therapy adherence in HIV-infected adolescents in Gaborone, Botswana: a pilot cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndiaye M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Maimouna Ndiaye,1,2 Peter Nyasulu,1 Hoang Nguyen,6,7 Elizabeth D Lowenthal,8,9 Robert Gross,10 Edward J Mills,3 Jean B Nachega4–6 1School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Central Medical Stores, Ministry of Health, Gaborone, Botswana; 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada; 4Department of Medicine and Centre for Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; 5Department of Epidemiology, Infectious Disease Epidemiology Research Program, Pittsburgh University Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 6Departments of Epidemiology and International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 7Tay Ho Clinics, Department of Medicine, Hanoi Health Services, Hanoi, Vietnam; 8Departments of Pediatrics and Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 9Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 10Departments of Medicine and Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Objective: Little is known about factors associated with suboptimal antiretroviral treatment (ART adherence among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our objective was to determine the level of ART adherence and predictors of non-adherence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected adolescents at the Botswana-Baylor Children's Clinical Centre of Excellence in Gaborone, Botswana. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 82 HIV-infected adolescents receiving ART and their caregivers were administered a structured questionnaire. The patient's clinical information was retrieved from medical records. Outcome measures included excellent pill count ART adherence (>95% and virologic suppression

  20. Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Torro Pastor, Emma; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. Weak and strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons, as well as long-lived particle signatures.

  1. Accelerated Evidence Search Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Accelerated Evidence Search Report IMPORTANT INFORMATIVE STATEMENTS Accelerated Multi-Camera Evidence Search and Retrieval CSSP Project #: CSSP -2013...CD-1063 was supported by the Canadian Safety and Security Program ( CSSP ) which is led by Defence Research and Development Canada’s Centre for...Border Technology Division The CSSP is a federally-funded program to strengthen Canada’s ability to anticipate, prevent/mitigate, prepare for, respond to

  2. Supporting Book Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2017-01-01

    Book search is far from a solved problem. Complex information needs often go beyond bibliographic facts and cover a combination of different aspects, such as specific genres or plot elements, engagement or novelty. Conventional book metadata may not be sufficient to address these kinds of informa......Book search is far from a solved problem. Complex information needs often go beyond bibliographic facts and cover a combination of different aspects, such as specific genres or plot elements, engagement or novelty. Conventional book metadata may not be sufficient to address these kinds......-depth analysis of topical metadata, comparing controlled vocabularies with social tags. Tags perform better overall in this setting, but controlled vocabulary terms provide complementary information, which will improve a search. We analyze potential underlying factors that contribute to search performance......, such as the relevance aspect(s) mentioned in a request or the type of book. In addition, we investigate the possible causes of search failure. We conclude that neither tags nor controlled vocabularies are wholly suited to handling the complex information needs in book search, which means that different approaches...

  3. Efficiency of pragmatic search strategies to update clinical guidelines recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez García, L; Sanabria, A J; Araya, I; Lawson, J; Solà, I; Vernooij, R W M; López, D; García Álvarez, E; Trujillo-Martín, M M; Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta, I; Kotzeva, A; Rigau, D; Louro-González, A; Barajas-Nava, L; Díaz del Campo, P; Estrada, M D; Gracia, J; Salcedo-Fernandez, F; Haynes, R B; Alonso-Coello, P

    2015-07-31

    A major challenge in updating clinical guidelines is to efficiently identify new, relevant evidence. We evaluated the efficiency and feasibility of two new approaches: the development of restrictive search strategies using PubMed Clinical Queries for MEDLINE and the use of the PLUS (McMaster Premium Literature Service) database. We evaluated a random sample of recommendations from a national guideline development program and identified the references that would potentially trigger an update (key references) using an exhaustive approach. We designed restrictive search strategies using the minimum number of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms and text words required from the original exhaustive search strategies and applying broad and narrow filters. We developed PLUS search strategies, matching Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) terms with guideline topics. We compared the number of key references retrieved by these approaches with those retrieved by the exhaustive approach. The restrictive approach retrieved 68.1 % fewer references than the exhaustive approach (12,486 versus 39,136), and identified 89.9 % (62/69) of key references and 88 % (22/25) of recommendation updates. The use of PLUS retrieved 88.5 % fewer references than the exhaustive approach (4,486 versus 39,136) and identified substantially fewer key references (18/69, 26.1 %) and fewer recommendation updates (10/25, 40 %). The proposed restrictive approach is a highly efficient and feasible method to identify new evidence that triggers a recommendation update. Searching only in the PLUS database proved to be a suboptimal approach and suggests the need for topic-specific tailoring.

  4. Identification of risk factors for sub-optimal housing conditions in Australian piggeries: Part 1. Study justification and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banhazi, T M; Seedorf, J; Rutley, D L; Pitchford, W S

    2008-01-01

    We undertook a literature search related to pig production facilities with two major aims: first, to review all the likely benefits that might be gained from air quality improvements; and second, to review previous research that had identified statistically significant factors affecting airborne pollutants and environmental parameters, so that these factors could be considered in a multifactorial analysis aimed at explaining variations in air pollutant concentrations. Ammonia, carbon dioxide, viable bacteria, endotoxins, and inhalable and respirable particles were identified as major airborne pollutants in the review. We found that high concentrations of airborne pollutants in livestock buildings could increase occupational health and safety risks, compromise the health, welfare, and production efficiency of animals, and affect the environment. Therefore, improving air quality could reduce environmental damage and improve animal and worker health. To achieve a reduction in pollutant concentrations, a better understanding of the factors influencing airborne pollutant concentrations in piggery buildings is required. Most of the work done previously has used simple correlation matrices to identify relationships between key factors and pollutant concentrations, without taking into consideration multifactorial effects simultaneously in a model. However, our review of this prior knowledge was the first important step toward developing a more inclusive statistical model. This review identified a number of candidate risk factors, which we then took into consideration during the development of multifactorial statistical models. We used a general linear model (GLM) to model measured internal concentrations, emissions, and environmental parameters in order to predict and potentially control the building environment.

  5. Search Tips: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/searchtips.html Search Tips To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. How do I search MedlinePlus? The search box appears at the top ...

  6. Axion Searches, Old and New

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Outline of the lecture: Constraints from laboratory searches and astrophysics, axion cosmology, the cavity detector of dark matter axions, solar axion searches, laser experiments, a telescope search, macroscopic forces mediated by axions.

  7. Face Search at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayong; Otto, Charles; Jain, Anil K

    2017-06-01

    Given the prevalence of social media websites, one challenge facing computer vision researchers is to devise methods to search for persons of interest among the billions of shared photos on these websites. Despite significant progress in face recognition, searching a large collection of unconstrained face images remains a difficult problem. To address this challenge, we propose a face search system which combines a fast search procedure, coupled with a state-of-the-art commercial off the shelf (COTS) matcher, in a cascaded framework. Given a probe face, we first filter the large gallery of photos to find the top- k most similar faces using features learned by a convolutional neural network. The k retrieved candidates are re-ranked by combining similarities based on deep features and those output by the COTS matcher. We evaluate the proposed face search system on a gallery containing 80 million web-downloaded face images. Experimental results demonstrate that while the deep features perform worse than the COTS matcher on a mugshot dataset (93.7 percent versus 98.6 percent TAR@FAR of 0.01 percent), fusing the deep features with the COTS matcher improves the overall performance ( 99.5 percent TAR@FAR of 0.01 percent). This shows that the learned deep features provide complementary information over representations used in state-of-the-art face matchers. On the unconstrained face image benchmarks, the performance of the learned deep features is competitive with reported accuracies. LFW database: 98.20 percent accuracy under the standard protocol and 88.03 percent TAR@FAR of 0.1 percent under the BLUFR protocol; IJB-A benchmark: 51.0 percent TAR@FAR of 0.1 percent (verification), rank 1 retrieval of 82.2 percent (closed-set search), 61.5 percent FNIR@FAR of 1 percent (open-set search). The proposed face search system offers an excellent trade-off between accuracy and scalability on galleries with millions of images. Additionally, in a face search experiment involving

  8. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials show suboptimal validity of surrogate outcomes for overall survival in advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Oriana; Buyse, Marc; Garside, Ruth; Peters, Jaime; Saad, Everardo D; Stein, Ken; Taylor, Rod S

    2015-07-01

    To quantify and compare the treatment effects on three surrogate end points, progression-free survival (PFS), time to progression (TTP), and tumor response rate (TR) vs. overall survival (OS) based on a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of drug interventions in advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC). We systematically searched for RCTs of pharmacologic therapies in aCRC between 2003 and 2013. Trial characteristics, risk of bias, and outcomes were recorded based on a predefined form. Univariate and multivariate random-effects meta-analyses were used to estimate pooled summary treatment effects. The ratio of hazard ratios (HRs)/odds ratios (ORs) and difference in medians were used to quantify the degree of difference in treatment effects on the surrogate end points and OS. Spearman ρ, surrogate threshold effect (STE), and R(2) were also estimated across predefined trial-level covariates. We included 101 RCTs. In univariate and multivariate meta-analyses, we found larger treatment effects for the surrogates than for OS. Compared with OS, treatment effects were on average 13% higher when HRs were measured and 3% to 45% higher when ORs were considered; differences in median PFS/TTP were higher than on OS by an average of 0.5 month. Spearman ρ ranged from 0.39 to 0.80, mean R(2) from 0.06 to 0.65, and STE was 0.8 for HRPFS, 0.64 for HRTTP, or 0.28 for ORTR. The stratified analyses revealed high variability across all strata. None of the end points in this study were found to achieve the level of evidence (ie, mean R(2)trial > 0.60) that has been set to select high or excellent correlation levels by common surrogate evaluation tools. Previous surrogacy relationships observed between PFS and TTP vs. OS in selected settings may not apply across other classes or lines of therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. SEARCHES FOR SUPERSYMMETRY IN ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Da; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of supersymmetric searches are presented. All searches are based on the proton- proton collision dataset collected by the ATLAS experiment during the 2015 and 2016 (before summer) run with a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated lumi- nosity of 36.1 (36.7) fb-1. The searches are categorized into inclusive gluino and squark search, third generation search, electroweak search, prompt RPV search and long-lived par- ticle search. No evidence of new physics is observed. The results are intepreted in various models and expressed in terms of limits on the masses of new particles.

  10. SearchResultFinder: federated search made easy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    Building a federated search engine based on a large number existing web search engines is a challenge: implementing the programming interface (API) for each search engine is an exacting and time-consuming job. In this demonstration we present SearchResultFinder, a browser plugin which speeds up

  11. Market Dominance and Search Quality in the Search Engine Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lianos, I.; Motchenkova, E.I.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a search engine market from a law and economics perspective and incorporate the choice of quality-improving innovations by a search engine platform in a two-sided model of Internet search engine. In the proposed framework, we first discuss the legal issues the search engine market raises

  12. IESIP - AN IMPROVED EXPLORATORY SEARCH TECHNIQUE FOR PURE INTEGER LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, F. R.

    1994-01-01

    IESIP, an Improved Exploratory Search Technique for Pure Integer Linear Programming Problems, addresses the problem of optimizing an objective function of one or more variables subject to a set of confining functions or constraints by a method called discrete optimization or integer programming. Integer programming is based on a specific form of the general linear programming problem in which all variables in the objective function and all variables in the constraints are integers. While more difficult, integer programming is required for accuracy when modeling systems with small numbers of components such as the distribution of goods, machine scheduling, and production scheduling. IESIP establishes a new methodology for solving pure integer programming problems by utilizing a modified version of the univariate exploratory move developed by Robert Hooke and T.A. Jeeves. IESIP also takes some of its technique from the greedy procedure and the idea of unit neighborhoods. A rounding scheme uses the continuous solution found by traditional methods (simplex or other suitable technique) and creates a feasible integer starting point. The Hook and Jeeves exploratory search is modified to accommodate integers and constraints and is then employed to determine an optimal integer solution from the feasible starting solution. The user-friendly IESIP allows for rapid solution of problems up to 10 variables in size (limited by DOS allocation). Sample problems compare IESIP solutions with the traditional branch-and-bound approach. IESIP is written in Borland's TURBO Pascal for IBM PC series computers and compatibles running DOS. Source code and an executable are provided. The main memory requirement for execution is 25K. This program is available on a 5.25 inch 360K MS DOS format diskette. IESIP was developed in 1990. IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines. TURBO Pascal is registered by Borland International.

  13. Mastering Search Analytics Measuring SEO, SEM and Site Search

    CERN Document Server

    Chaters, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Many companies still approach Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and paid search as separate initiatives. This in-depth guide shows you how to use these programs as part of a comprehensive strategy-not just to improve your site's search rankings, but to attract the right people and increase your conversion rate. Learn how to measure, test, analyze, and interpret all of your search data with a wide array of analytic tools. Gain the knowledge you need to determine the strategy's return on investment. Ideal for search specialists, webmasters, and search marketing managers, Mastering Search Analyt

  14. SUSY Searches at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mamuzic, Judita; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) is considered one of the best motivated extensions of the Standard Model. It postulates a fundamental symmetry between fermions and bosons, and introduces a set of new supersymmetric particles at the electroweak scale. It addresses the hierarchy and naturalness problem, gives a solution to the gauge coupling unification, and offers a cold dark matter candidate. Different aspects of SUSY searches, using strong, electroweak, third generation production, and R-parity violation and long lived particles are being studied at the LHC. An overview of most recent SUSY searches results using the 13 TeV ATLAS RUN2 data will be presented.

  15. Searching with iterated maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, V.; Rankenburg, I.; Thibault, P.

    2007-01-01

    In many problems that require extensive searching, the solution can be described as satisfying two competing constraints, where satisfying each independently does not pose a challenge. As an alternative to tree-based and stochastic searching, for these problems we propose using an iterated map built from the projections to the two constraint sets. Algorithms of this kind have been the method of choice in a large variety of signal-processing applications; we show here that the scope of these algorithms is surprisingly broad, with applications as diverse as protein folding and Sudoku. PMID:17202267

  16. Upgrading Enterprise Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDunn, R

    2005-04-28

    This presentation will describe the process we went through this past year to upgrade our enterprise search tool from a very old version of Inktomi to the latest version of Verity Ultraseek. We started with requirements gathering and then compared requirements against several available products to determine which product to choose. After purchasing the product, we worked through several defined phases of implementation and customization, with initial rollout late January 2004. Finally, we will show you where we are today and describe future search plans.

  17. Search for $2\

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Chaves, J; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Feyzbakhsh, S; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; King, J; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Njoya, O; Nelson, R; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Retière, F; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vogel, P; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Winick, T A; Wood, J; Xu, Q Y; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya

    2015-01-01

    EXO-200 is a single phase liquid xenon detector designed to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of $^{136}$Xe to the ground state of $^{136}$Ba. We report here on a search for the two-neutrino double-beta decay of $^{136}$Xe to the first $0^+$ excited state, $0^+_1$, of $^{136}$Ba based on a 100 kg$\\cdot$yr exposure of $^{136}$Xe. Using a specialized analysis employing a machine learning algorithm, we obtain a 90% CL half-life sensitivity of $1.7 \\times 10^{24}$ yr. We find no statistically significant evidence for the $2\

  18. Search for glueballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toki, W. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    In these Summer School lectures, the author reviews the results of recent glueball searches. He begins with a brief review of glueball phenomenology and meson spectroscopy, including a discussion of resonance behavior. The results on the f{sub o}(1500) and f{sub J}(1700) resonances from proton-antiproton experiments and radiative J/{Psi} decays are discussed. Finally, {pi}{pi} and {eta}{pi} studies from D{sub s} decays and exotic meson searches are reviewed. 46 refs., 40 figs.

  19. Searching for excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Robert E.

    Visits to six school districts which were identified by the National Science Teachers Association's Search for Excellence program were made during 1983 by teams of 17 researchers. The reports were analyzed in search for common characteristics that can explain the requirements necessary for excellent science programs. The results indicate that creative ideas, administrative and community involvement, local ownership and pride, and well-developed in-service programs and implementation strategies are vital. Exceptional teachers with boundless energies also seem to exist where exemplary science programs are found.

  20. Semiautomated head-and-neck IMRT planning using dose warping and scaling to robustly adapt plans in a knowledge database containing potentially suboptimal plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Matthew, E-mail: matthew.schmidt@varian.com; Grzetic, Shelby [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Lo, Joseph Y. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Lutzky, Carly [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Brizel, David M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Das, Shiva K. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Prior work by the authors and other groups has studied the creation of automated intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans of equivalent quality to those in a patient database of manually created clinical plans; those database plans provided guidance on the achievable sparing to organs-at-risk (OARs). However, in certain sites, such as head-and-neck, the clinical plans may not be sufficiently optimized because of anatomical complexity and clinical time constraints. This could lead to automated plans that suboptimally exploit OAR sparing. This work investigates a novel dose warping and scaling scheme that attempts to reduce effects of suboptimal sparing in clinical database plans, thus improving the quality of semiautomated head-and-neck cancer (HNC) plans. Methods: Knowledge-based radiotherapy (KBRT) plans for each of ten “query” patients were semiautomatically generated by identifying the most similar “match” patient in a database of 103 clinical manually created patient plans. The match patient’s plans were adapted to the query case by: (1) deforming the match beam fluences to suit the query target volume and (2) warping the match primary/boost dose distribution to suit the query geometry and using the warped distribution to generate query primary/boost optimization dose-volume constraints. Item (2) included a distance scaling factor to improve query OAR dose sparing with respect to the possibly suboptimal clinical match plan. To further compensate for a component plan of the match case (primary/boost) not optimally sparing OARs, the query dose volume constraints were reduced using a dose scaling factor to be the minimum from either (a) the warped component plan (primary or boost) dose distribution or (b) the warped total plan dose distribution (primary + boost) scaled in proportion to the ratio of component prescription dose to total prescription dose. The dose-volume constraints were used to plan the query case with no human intervention

  1. Routine use of microarray-based gene expression profiling to identify patients with low cytogenetic risk acute myeloid leukemia: accurate results can be obtained even with suboptimal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Blétière Diane Raingeard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling has shown its ability to identify with high accuracy low cytogenetic risk acute myeloid leukemia such as acute promyelocytic leukemia and leukemias with t(8;21 or inv(16. The aim of this gene expression profiling study was to evaluate to what extent suboptimal samples with low leukemic blast load (range, 2-59% and/or poor quality control criteria could also be correctly identified. Methods Specific signatures were first defined so that all 71 acute promyelocytic leukemia, leukemia with t(8;21 or inv(16-AML as well as cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia samples with at least 60% blasts and good quality control criteria were correctly classified (training set. The classifiers were then evaluated for their ability to assign to the expected class 111 samples considered as suboptimal because of a low leukemic blast load (n = 101 and/or poor quality control criteria (n = 10 (test set. Results With 10-marker classifiers, all training set samples as well as 97 of the 101 test samples with a low blast load, and all 10 samples with poor quality control criteria were correctly classified. Regarding test set samples, the overall error rate of the class prediction was below 4 percent, even though the leukemic blast load was as low as 2%. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of the class assignments ranged from 91% to 100%. Of note, for acute promyelocytic leukemia and leukemias with t(8;21 or inv(16, the confidence level of the class assignment was influenced by the leukemic blast load. Conclusion Gene expression profiling and a supervised method requiring 10-marker classifiers enable the identification of favorable cytogenetic risk acute myeloid leukemia even when samples contain low leukemic blast loads or display poor quality control criterion.

  2. Burden of Disease Attributable to Suboptimal Breastfeeding in Iran during 1990-2010; Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study uses data of the global burden of diseases (GBD study 2010 to report death, disability-adjusted life year (DALYs, years of life lived with disability (YLDs and years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs, attributed to suboptimal breastfeeding by age and gender during 1990 to 2010 in Iran. Materials and Methods:The GBD assessments were used, together with estimates of death and DALYs due to specific risk factors to calculate the attributed burden of each risk factor exposure compared with the theoretical-minimum-risk exposure. Uncertainties in the distribution of exposure, relative risks, and relevant outcomes were incorporated into estimates of mortality attributable and burden and were presented as 95 % uncertainty interval (UI. Results:In both genders, the age standardized DALYs rates and the age standardized death rate [(from 5 (95% UI: 2-8 to 1 (95% UI: 0-2 per 100,000 populations], attributed to breastfeeding, had a decreasing trends. The age standardized YLD rate increased from 7 (95% UI: 2-15 to 10 (95% UI: 3-23 per 100,000 populations in boys and, from 7(95% UI: 2-16 to 11(95% UI: 3-26 per 100,000 populations in girls. The YLD changes showed some variation according to age categories. For both genders, the age standardizes YLL rate decreased from 395 (95% UI: 185-681 per 100,000 populations to 111(95% UI: 42-213 per 100,000 populations. Conclusion: The burden attributed to suboptimal breastfeeding had a considerable reduction rate from 1990 to 2010. Additional studies on burden of exclusive breastfeeding with more accurate data are recommended for policies make decision.

  3. Clinical and hemodynamic improvements after adding ambrisentan to background PDE5i therapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension exhibiting a suboptimal therapeutic response (ATHENA-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Shelley; Torres, Fernando; Feldman, Jeremy; Keogh, Anne; Allard, Martine; Blair, Christiana; Gillies, Hunter; Tislow, James; Oudiz, Ronald J

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a condition which may lead to right ventricular failure and premature death. While recent data supports the initial combination of ambrisentan (a selective ERA) and tadalafil (a PDE5i) in functional class II or III patients, there is no published data describing the safety and efficacy of ambrisentan when added to patients currently receiving a PDE5i and exhibiting a suboptimal response. The ATHENA-1 study describes the safety and efficacy of the addition of ambrisentan in this patient population. PAH patients with a suboptimal response to current PDE5i monotherapy were assigned ambrisentan in an open-label fashion and evaluated for up to 48 weeks. Cardiopulmonary hemodynamics (change in PVR as primary endpoint) were evaluated at week 24 and functional parameters and biomarkers were measured through week 48. Time to clinical worsening (TTCW) and survival are also described. Thirty-three subjects were included in the analysis. At week 24, statistically significant improvements in PVR (-32%), mPAP (-11%), and CI (+25%) were observed. Hemodynamic improvements at week 24 were further supported by improvements in the secondary endpoints: 6-min walk distance (+18 m), NT-proBNP (-31%), and maintenance or improvement in WHO FC in 97% of patients. Adverse events were consistent with known effects of ambrisentan. The hemodynamic, functional, and biomarker improvements observed in the ATHENA-1 study suggests that the sequential addition of ambrisentan to patients not having a satisfactory response to established PDE5i monotherapy is a reasonable option. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. SUSY Searches at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zivkovic, L.

    2011-07-01

    In this article results from supersymmetry searches at D0 and CDF are reported. Searches for third generation squarks, searches for gauginos, and searches for models with R-parity violation are described. As no signs of supersymmetry for these models are observed, the most stringent limits to date are presented.

  5. Complete local search with memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, D.; Sierksma, G.

    2000-01-01

    Neighborhood search heuristics like local search and its variants are some of the most popular approaches to solve discrete optimization problems of moderate to large size. Apart from tabu search, most of these heuristics are memoryless. In this paper we introduce a new neighborhood search heuristic

  6. Complete local search with memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, D.; Sierksma, G.

    2002-01-01

    Neighborhood search heuristics like local search and its variants are some of the most popular approaches to solve discrete optimization problems of moderate to large size. Apart from tabu search, most of these heuristics are memoryless. In this paper we introduce a new neighborhood search heuristic

  7. The Evolution of Web Searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the interrelation between Web publishing and information retrieval technologies and lists new approaches to Web indexing and searching. Highlights include Web directories; search engines; portalisation; Internet service providers; browser providers; meta search engines; popularity based analysis; natural language searching; links-based…

  8. Prices and heterogeneous search costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraga Gonzalez, J.L.; Sandor, Z.; Wildenbeest, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    We study price formation in a model of consumer search for differentiated products in which consumers have heterogeneous search costs. We provide conditions under which a pure-strategy symmetric Nash equilibrium exists and is unique. Search costs affect two margins—the intensive search margin (or

  9. Self-learning search engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuth, A.

    How does a search engine such as Google know which search results to display? There are many competing algorithms that generate search results, but which one works best? We developed a new probabilistic method for quickly comparing large numbers of search algorithms by examining the results users

  10. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  11. Searching for Movies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine

    2015-01-01

    Despite a surge in popularity of work on casual leisure search, some leisure domains are still relatively underrepresented. Movies are good example of such a domain, which is peculiar given the popularity of movie-centered websites and discovery services such as IMDB, RottenTomatoes, and Netflix...

  12. SUSY Search at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Da; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk gives an overview of the most recent SUSY searches in ATLAS and CMS experiments using 13 TeV ATLAS Run2 data.

  13. Pentaquark searches with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Bobulska, Dana

    2016-01-01

    In this report we present the results of the data analysis for searching for possible invariant mass signals from pentaquarks in the ALICE data. Analysis was based on filtered data from real p-Pb events at psNN=5.02 TeV collected in 2013. The motivation for this project was the recent discovery of pentaquark states by the LHCb collaboration (c ¯ cuud resonance P+ c ) [1]. The search for similar not yet observed pentaquarks is an interesting research topic [2]. In this analysis we searched for a s ¯ suud pentaquark resonance P+ s and its possible decay channel to f meson and proton. The ALICE detector is well suited for the search of certain candidates thanks to its low material budget and strong PID capabilities. Additionally we might expect the production of such particles in ALICE as in heavy-ion and proton-ion collisions the thermal models describes well the particle yields and ratios [3]. Therefore it is reasonable to expect other species of hadrons, including also possible pentaquarks, to be produced w...

  14. Next Generation Search Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, W.; Wu, X.; Ly, L.; Goldina, T.

    2015-09-01

    Astronomers are constantly looking for easier ways to access multiple data sets. While much effort is spent on VO, little thought is given to the types of User Interfaces we need to effectively search this sort of data. For instance, an astronomer might need to search Spitzer, WISE, and 2MASS catalogs and images then see the results presented together in one UI. Moving seamlessly between data sets is key to presenting integrated results. Results need to be viewed using first class, web based, integrated FITS viewers, XY Plots, and advanced table display tools. These components should be able to handle very large datasets. To make a powerful Web based UI that can manage and present multiple searches to the user requires taking advantage of many HTML5 features. AJAX is used to start searches and present results. Push notifications (Server Sent Events) monitor background jobs. Canvas is required for advanced result displays. Lesser known CSS3 technologies makes it all flow seamlessly together. At IPAC, we have been developing our Firefly toolkit for several years. We are now using it to solve this multiple data set, multiple queries, and integrated presentation problem to create a powerful research experience. Firefly was created in IRSA, the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu). Firefly is the core for applications serving many project archives, including Spitzer, Planck, WISE, PTF, LSST and others. It is also used in IRSA's new Finder Chart and catalog and image displays.

  15. Internet video search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this tutorial, we focus on the challenges in internet video search, present methods how to achieve state-of-the-art performance while maintaining efficient execution, and indicate how to obtain improvements in the near future. Moreover, we give an overview of the latest developments and future

  16. The Great Superintendent Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, C. Russell

    2003-01-01

    Discusses three sequential questions boards should reach consensus on before beginning a superintendent search. Questions involve district's position related to education issues deemed important to the community, a new superintendent's personality traits and leadership skills required to address these issues, and whether the board should seek to…

  17. Google Search Mastery Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Paul; MacArthur, Stacey; Read, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Effective Internet search skills are essential with the continually increasing amount of information available on the Web. Extension personnel are required to find information to answer client questions and to conduct research on programs. Unfortunately, many lack the skills necessary to effectively navigate the Internet and locate needed…

  18. Search for intervalmodels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Methods are presented that carry out sorting of data according to some criteria, and investigate the possibilities of finding intervals that give separate models relative to the given data. The methods presented are more reliable than related clustering methods, because the search is carried out...

  19. Searching low and high

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Salter, Ammon

    2003-01-01

    AbstractThis paper examines the factors that influence whether firms draw from universities in theirinnovative activities. The link between the universities and industrial innovation, and the role ofdifferent search strategies in influencing the propensity of firms to use universities is explored...

  20. Searching circular DNA strands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo [Department of Technology Management, Holon Institute of Technology, Holon 58102 (Israel); Koren, Tal [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Klafter, Joseph [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2007-02-14

    We introduce and explore a model of an ensemble of enzymes searching, in parallel, a circular DNA strand for a target site. The enzymes performing the search combine local scanning-conducted by a 1D motion along the strand-and random relocations on the strand-conducted via a confined motion in the medium containing the strand. Both the local scan mechanism and the relocation mechanism are considered general. The search durations are analysed, and their limiting probability distributions-for long DNA strands-are obtained in closed form. The results obtained (i) encompass the cases of single, parallel and massively parallel searches, taking place in the presence of either finite-mean or heavy-tailed relocation times, (ii) are applicable to a wide spectrum of local scan mechanisms including linear, Brownian, selfsimilar, and sub-diffusive motions (iii) provide a quantitative theoretical justification for the necessity of the relocation mechanism, and (iv) facilitate the derivation of optimal relocation strategies.

  1. Biased predecessor search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Prosenjit; Fagerberg, Rolf; Howat, John

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of performing predecessor searches in a bounded universe while achieving query times that depend on the distribution of queries. We obtain several data structures with various properties: in particular, we give data structures that achieve expected query times logarithmic...... structures with general weights on universe elements, as well as the case when the distribution is not known in advance....

  2. Foraging patterns in online searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangwen; Pleimling, Michel

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays online searches are undeniably the most common form of information gathering, as witnessed by billions of clicks generated each day on search engines. In this work we describe online searches as foraging processes that take place on the semi-infinite line. Using a variety of quantities like probability distributions and complementary cumulative distribution functions of step length and waiting time as well as mean square displacements and entropies, we analyze three different click-through logs that contain the detailed information of millions of queries submitted to search engines. Notable differences between the different logs reveal an increased efficiency of the search engines. In the language of foraging, the newer logs indicate that online searches overwhelmingly yield local searches (i.e., on one page of links provided by the search engines), whereas for the older logs the foraging processes are a combination of local searches and relocation phases that are power law distributed. Our investigation of click logs of search engines therefore highlights the presence of intermittent search processes (where phases of local explorations are separated by power law distributed relocation jumps) in online searches. It follows that good search engines enable the users to find the information they are looking for through a local exploration of a single page with search results, whereas for poor search engine users are often forced to do a broader exploration of different pages.

  3. Sustainable Scheduling of Cloth Production Processes by Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm with Tabu-Enhanced Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dyeing of textile materials is the most critical process in cloth production because of the strict technological requirements. In addition to the technical aspect, there have been increasing concerns over how to minimize the negative environmental impact of the dyeing industry. The emissions of pollutants are mainly caused by frequent cleaning operations which are necessary for initializing the dyeing equipment, as well as idled production capacity which leads to discharge of unconsumed chemicals. Motivated by these facts, we propose a methodology to reduce the pollutant emissions by means of systematic production scheduling. Firstly, we build a three-objective scheduling model that incorporates both the traditional tardiness objective and the environmentally-related objectives. A mixed-integer programming formulation is also provided to accurately define the problem. Then, we present a novel solution method for the sustainable scheduling problem, namely, a multi-objective genetic algorithm with tabu-enhanced iterated greedy local search strategy (MOGA-TIG. Finally, we conduct extensive computational experiments to investigate the actual performance of the MOGA-TIG. Based on a fair comparison with two state-of-the-art multi-objective optimizers, it is concluded that the MOGA-TIG is able to achieve satisfactory solution quality within tight computational time budget for the studied scheduling problem.

  4. Search for Hidden Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Petrov, A; Dolmatov, A; Kurbatov, E; Khoriauli, G; Solovev, V

    The SHiP Experiment is a new general-purpose fixed target facility at the SPS to search for hidden particles as predicted by a very large number of recently elaborated models of Hidden Sectors which are capable of accommodating dark matter, neutrino oscillations, and the origin of the full baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Specifically, the experiment is aimed at searching for very weakly interacting long lived particles including Heavy Neutral Leptons - right-handed partners of the active neutrinos; light supersymmetric particles - sgoldstinos, etc.; scalar, axion and vector portals to the hidden sector. The high intensity of the SPS and in particular the large production of charm mesons with the 400 GeV beam allow accessing a wide variety of light long-lived exotic particles of such models and of SUSY. Moreover, the facility is ideally suited to study the interactions of tau neutrinos.

  5. Resonance searches at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Karshon, Uri

    2010-01-01

    Inclusive production of K0S K0S in ep collisions was studied with the ZEUS detector. Significant production of JPC=2++ tensor mesons and of the 0++ glueball candidate f0(1710) was seen. Masses and widths were compared with previous experiments. The H1 Collaboration saw a charm pentaquark candidate in the D*p spectrum at 3.1 GeV, which was not confirmed by a ZEUS higher statistics search. With the full HERA data, H1 did not see a signal in this region. Masses, widths and helicity parameters of excited charm and charm-strange mesons were measured by ZEUS. Rates of c-quarks hadronising into these mesons were determined and a search for a radially excited charm meson was performed.

  6. Exotics searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Renjie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Many theories beyond the Standard Model predict new physics accessible by the LHC. The ATLAS experiment all have rigorous search programs ongoing with the aim to find indications for new physics involving state of the art analysis techniques. This talk reports on new results obtained using the pp collision data sample collected in 2015 and 2016 at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV.

  7. Searching for extragalactic planets

    OpenAIRE

    Baltz, Edward A.; Gondolo, Paolo

    1999-01-01

    Are there other planetary systems in our Universe? Indirect evidence has been found for planets orbiting other stars in our galaxy: the gravity of orbiting planets makes the star wobble, and the resulting periodic Doppler shifts have been detected for about a dozen stars. But are there planets in other galaxies, millions of light years away? Here we suggest a method to search for extragalactic planetary systems: gravitational microlensing of unresolved stars. This technique may allow us to di...

  8. Biased Predecessor Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Prosenjit; Fagerberg, Rolf; Howat, John

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of performing predecessor searches in a bounded universe while achieving query times that depend on the distribution of queries. We obtain several data structures with various properties: in particular, we give data structures that achieve expected query times logarithmic...... consider individual query times on universe elements with general weights, as well as the case when the distribution is not known in advance....

  9. Search Databases and Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jan C; Munk, Stephanie; Jensen, Lars J

    2016-01-01

    Advances in mass spectrometric instrumentation in the past 15 years have resulted in an explosion in the raw data yield from typical phosphoproteomics workflows. This poses the challenge of confidently identifying peptide sequences, localizing phosphosites to proteins and quantifying these from...... searches. Additionally, careful filtering and use of appropriate statistical tests on the output datasets affects the quality of all downstream analyses and interpretation of the data. Our considerations and general practices on these aspects of phosphoproteomics data processing are presented here....

  10. Search Analytics for Your Site

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Any organization that has a searchable web site or intranet is sitting on top of hugely valuable and usually under-exploited data: logs that capture what users are searching for, how often each query was searched, and how many results each query retrieved. Search queries are gold: they are real data that show us exactly what users are searching for in their own words. This book shows you how to use search analytics to carry on a conversation with your customers: listen to and understand their needs, and improve your content, navigation and search performance to meet those needs.

  11. Searching for What I Want

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fei; Xiao, Bo Sophia; Lim, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Inefficiencies associated with online information search are amplifying in the current era of big data. Despite growing scholarly interest in studying Internet users’ information search behaviour, there is a paucity of theory-guided investigation in this regard. In this paper, we draw on the theory...... of anticipa-tory system as our theoretical foundation to articulate the relationships between two salient types of search controls, namely search anticipation and search efficiency. We empirically validate our re-search model by conducting a field survey with 77 university students on an online restaurant...

  12. Evolutionary pattern search algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, W.E.

    1995-09-19

    This paper defines a class of evolutionary algorithms called evolutionary pattern search algorithms (EPSAs) and analyzes their convergence properties. This class of algorithms is closely related to evolutionary programming, evolutionary strategie and real-coded genetic algorithms. EPSAs are self-adapting systems that modify the step size of the mutation operator in response to the success of previous optimization steps. The rule used to adapt the step size can be used to provide a stationary point convergence theory for EPSAs on any continuous function. This convergence theory is based on an extension of the convergence theory for generalized pattern search methods. An experimental analysis of the performance of EPSAs demonstrates that these algorithms can perform a level of global search that is comparable to that of canonical EAs. We also describe a stopping rule for EPSAs, which reliably terminated near stationary points in our experiments. This is the first stopping rule for any class of EAs that can terminate at a given distance from stationary points.

  13. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, David Jason [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  14. Bad news: The influence of news coverage and Google searches on Gardasil adverse event reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Porsius, Jarry T; Faasse, Jonathan; Martin, Leslie R

    2017-12-14

    Human papilloma virus vaccines are a safe and effective tool for reducing HPV infections that can cause cervical cancer. However, uptake of these vaccines has been suboptimal, with many people holding negative beliefs and misconceptions. Such beliefs have been linked with the experience of unpleasant side effects following medical treatment, and media coverage may heighten such concerns. The present study sought to assess the influence of news coverage (number of news articles per month) on adverse event reporting in response to Gardasil vaccination in New Zealand over a 7.5-year period, and whether the influence of news coverage was mediated by internet search activity (Google search volumes). Multiple linear regression analyses and simple mediation analyses were used, controlling for year and number of vaccinations delivered. News coverage in the previous month, and Google search volumes in the same month, were significant predictors of adverse event reporting, after accounting for vaccination rates and year. Concurrent Google search volumes partially mediated the effect of prior news coverage. The results suggest that some of the adverse events reported were not related to the vaccination itself, but to news coverage and internet search volumes, which may have contributed to public concerns about potentially unpleasant or harmful outcomes. These findings have implications for the importance of psychological and social factors in adverse event reporting, and the role of the news media in disseminating health information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Search costs and efficiency : Do unemployed workers search enough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, Pieter A.; Moraga González, José; Wolthoff, Ronald P.

    Many labor market policies affect the marginal benefits and costs of job search. The impact and desirability of such policies depend on the distribution of search costs. In this paper, we provide an equilibrium framework for identifying the distribution of search costs and we apply it to the Dutch

  16. evaluating search effectiveness of some selected search engines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    document type, and locate in a standard easy to read format. Some search engines are capable of searching. Boolean ... Several types of search engines have been designed and implemented based on different retrieval .... Q4.4 Samsung Galaxy S3. 5. Q1.5 Iphone. Q2.5 Dell Inspiron. Q3.5 Operating systems ebooks.

  17. Searching for Dark Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yi-Ming

    The existence of Dark Matter suggests the presence of a dark sector, consisting of particles neutral under all Standard Model forces. Various "portals" can connect the dark sector to the Standard Model sector. Two popular examples are the vector portal, which gives rise to a "dark photon" ( A'), and the Higgs portal, which gives rise to a "dark Higgs". Such dark forces appear in many well-motivated extensions of the Standard Model. In some cases, they may resolve discrepancies between experimental data and theoretical predictions, such as the muon anomalous magnetic moment. We show that dark sectors and forces can be constrained from several novel probes in current and future experiments, including mono- photon searches in low-energy positron-electron colliders, rare muon decays in the Mu3e, and exotic Higgs decays at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We first investigate the power of low-energy, high-luminosity electron-positron colliders to probe dark sectors with a mass below 10 GeV, which couple to Standard Model particles through a low-mass dark mediator. Dark matter candidates in this mass range are well- motivated and can give rise to distinctive mono-photon signals at B-factories and similar experiments. We use data from an existing mono-photon search by BABAR to place new constraints on this class of models, and give projections for the sensitivity of a similar search at a future B-factory such as Belle II. We find that the sensitivity of such searches are more powerful than searches at other collider or fixed-target facilities for dark-sector mediators and particles with masses between a few hundred MeV and 10 GeV. We compare our results to existing and future direct detection experiments and show that low-energy colliders provide an indispensable and complementary avenue to search for light dark matter. We also find that dark photons with masses 10 MeV - 80 MeV can probed in the rare muon decay process mu+→ e+nue numuA', A '→ e+ e-, in the upcoming Mu

  18. Information, Search, and Price Dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Baye, Michael R; John Morgan; Patrick Scholten

    2006-01-01

    We provide a unified treatment of alternative models of information acquisition/transmission that have been advanced to rationalize price dispersion in online and offline markets for homogeneous products. These different frameworks -- which include sequential search, fixed sample search, and clearinghouse models -- reveal that reductions in (or the elimination of) consumer search costs need not reduce (or eliminate) price dispersion. Our treatment highlights a "duality" between search-theoret...

  19. Faster Together: Collective Quantum Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes Ellinas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Joining independent quantum searches provides novel collective modes of quantum search (merging by utilizing the algorithm’s underlying algebraic structure. If n quantum searches, each targeting a single item, join the domains of their classical oracle functions and sum their Hilbert spaces (merging, instead of acting independently (concatenation, then they achieve a reduction of the search complexity by factor O(√n.

  20. Image Searching across the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to find digital images on the Web. Considers images and copyright; provides an overview of the search capabilities of six search engines, including AltaVista, Google, AllTheWeb.com, Ditto.com, Picsearch, and Lycos; and describes specialized image search engines. (LRW)

  1. Thesaurus-Enhanced Search Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Ali Asghar; Revie, Crawford; Chowdhury, Gobinda

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of user interfaces to information retrieval systems focuses on interfaces that incorporate thesauri as part of their searching and browsing facilities. Discusses research literature related to information searching behavior, information retrieval interface evaluation, search term selection, and query expansion; and compares thesaurus…

  2. Dark Matter Searches at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Terashi, Koji; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This talk will present dark matter searches at the LHC in the PIC2017 conference. The main emphasis is placed on the direct dark matter searches while the interpretation of searches for SUSY and invisible Higgs signals for the dark matter is also presented.

  3. Search Engines for Tomorrow's Scholars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2011-01-01

    Today's scholars face an outstanding array of choices when choosing search tools: Google Scholar, discipline-specific abstracts and index databases, library discovery tools, and more recently, Microsoft's re-launch of their academic search tool, now dubbed Microsoft Academic Search. What are these tools' strengths for the emerging needs of…

  4. Search Our Site With Google

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. Search Our Site With Google. Journal Home > Search Our Site With Google. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Morris, M.

    1977-01-01

    Three interrelated assumptions are critically examined in an attempt to outline a productive strategy for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Questions concerning the feasibility of interstellar travel are investigated. It is concluded that the probability of interstellar travel is high enough that, given a modest number of advanced civilizations, at least one of them will engage in interstellar voyages and colonize the galaxy. Assuming, however, that technological civilizations are rare the galaxy would be essentially unpopulated. Attention is given to the present lack of contact with extraterrestrial beings and frequencies for interstellar beacons.

  6. Search Engine Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Harold

    2006-01-01

    SEO--short for Search Engine Optimization--is the art, craft, and science of driving web traffic to web sites. Web traffic is food, drink, and oxygen--in short, life itself--to any web-based business. Whether your web site depends on broad, general traffic, or high-quality, targeted traffic, this PDF has the tools and information you need to draw more traffic to your site. You'll learn how to effectively use PageRank (and Google itself); how to get listed, get links, and get syndicated; and much more. The field of SEO is expanding into all the possible ways of promoting web traffic. This

  7. Higgs searches with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Aurousseau, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    This document is an overview of the recent results from the ATLAS experiment in the search for a Standard Model Higgs boson, using an integrated luminosity of 4.8~\\ifb{} and 13~\\ifb{} of data at 7~\\TeV{} and 8~\\TeV{} in the center-of-mass, respectively. The results are presented in the \\HZZllll, \\Hgg, \\HWWlnln, \\Htautau{} and \\Hbb{} channels. An update on the combination of the various channels and on the properties measurement (spin, parity) of the observed state is given.

  8. Searches at existing machines

    CERN Document Server

    Treille, D

    1999-01-01

    This talk summarizes 20 presentations given in Parallel Session 10. They concern the results of searches performed in fixed target experiments (KTeV, NA48, ...) and mostly in the three major collider programs: proton-antiproton collisions at the Tevatron Collider (CDF, D0), positron-proton collisions at HERA (H1, ZEUS) and electron- positron collisions at LEP200 (Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal). No discovery is reported, but a set of important limits on new objects and phenomena are presented. (51 refs).

  9. Pentaquark Searches at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Patrizia

    2007-01-01

    Since LEPS collaboration reported the first evidence for a S=+1 baryon resonance in early 2003 with a mass of 1.54 GeV, dubbed Θ+, more than ten experiments have confirmed this exotic state, among these two carried out at Jefferson Laboratory. At the same time, there are a number of experiments, mostly at high energies, that report null results. To try to clarify this situation, during the past year, The CLAS Collaboration at Jefferson Laboratory has undertaken a second generation high-statistics experimental program to search for exotics baryons. Here the preliminary results from these experiments are reported.

  10. Pentaquark searches at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvintsev, Dmitry O.; Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    Recently there has been revival of interest in exotic baryon spectroscopy triggered by experimental evidence for pentaquarks containing u, d, s and c-quarks. They report results of the searches for pentaquark states in decays to pK{sub S}{sup 0}, {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup {+-}} and D*{sup -} p performed at CDF detector using 220 pb{sup -1} sample of p{bar p} interactions at {radical}s of 1.96 TeV. No evidence for narrow resonances were found in either mode.

  11. ATLAS Exotic Searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousson Nicolas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the outstanding performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC that delivered more than 2 fb−1 of proton-proton collision data at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, the ATLAS experiment has been able to explore a wide range of exotic models trying to address the questions unanswered by the Standard Model of particle physics. Searches for leptoquarks, new heavy quarks, vector-like quarks, black holes, hidden valley and contact interactions are reviewed in these proceedings.

  12. Pentaquark Searches at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelov, Igor V.

    2004-08-26

    Experimental results of a search for the {Xi}{sub 3/2}(1860) cascade pentaquark state in data collected with the CDF 2 Detector in Run II at the Tevatron are presented. No evidence for these states in the neutral {Xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and doubly charged {Xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -} modes has been found. Preliminary upper limits on yields at 1862 MeV/c{sup 2} relative to the well established resonance {Xi}*(1530){sup 0} are presented.

  13. A New Search for $ \

    CERN Multimedia

    Dore, U; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Loverre, P F

    2002-01-01

    % WA95\\\\ \\\\ The question whether neutrino flavours mix at some level - and the related question whether neutrinos have non-zero mass - is one of the remaining great challenges of experimental physics. Neutrinos from supernovae, from the sun, from the earth's atmosphere, from nuclear reactors and from radioactive decays are currently under study; in this frame, experiments using accelerators play a privileged role because the well known neutrino source properties allow high precision measurements and background control.\\\\ \\\\The main goal of the CHORUS experiment is to search for neutrino oscillations in the $\

  14. Search for resonant $\\widetilde\

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2072679; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crawley, B; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Hansen, J; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Rames, J; Ramler, L; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zupan, M

    2003-01-01

    Searches for resonant ~nu production in e+e collisions under the assumption that R-parity is not conserved and that the dominant R-parity violating coupling is lambda121 or lambda131 used data recorded by DELPHI in 1997 to 2000 at centre-of-mass energies of 183 to 208 GeV. No deviation from the Standard Model was obs erved. Upper limits are given for the lambda121 and lamdba131 couplings as a function of the sneutrino mass and total width. The limits are especially stringent for sneutrino masses equal to the centre-of-mass energies with the highest integrated luminosities recorded.

  15. Detecting suboptimal cognitive effort: classification accuracy of the Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II, Brief Test Of Attention, and Trail Making Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Michelle; Whiteside, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Many cognitive measures have been studied for their ability to detect suboptimal cognitive effort; however, attention measures have not been extensively researched. The current study evaluated the classification accuracy of commonly used attention/concentration measures, the Brief Test of Attention (BTA), Trail Making Test (TMT), and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II). Participants included 413 consecutive patients who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Participants were separated into two groups, identified as either unbiased responders or biased responders as determined by performance on the TOMM. Based on Mann-Whitney U results, the two groups differed significantly on all attentional measures. Classification accuracy of the BTA (.83), CPT-II omission errors (OE; .76) and TMT B (.75) were acceptable; however, classification accuracy of CPT-II commission errors (CE; .64) and TMT A (.62) were poor. When variables were combined in different combinations, sensitivity did not significantly increase. Results indicated for optimal cut-off scores, sensitivity ranged from 48% to 64% when specificity was at least 85%. Given that sensitivity rates were not adequate, there remains a need to utilize highly sensitive measures in addition to these embedded measures. Results were discussed within the context of research promoting the need for multiple measures of cognitive effort.

  16. Initial suboptimal CD4 reconstitution with antiretroviral therapy despite full viral suppression in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, G; Buvé, A; Ngom Gueye, N F; Manga, N M; Diop, M N; Ndiaye, K; Thiam, A; Ly, F; Diallo, A; Ndour, C T; Seydi, M

    2015-06-01

    We determined the risk factors and incidence of clinical events associated with suboptimal immune reconstitution (SIR) defined by an increase in CD4 inferior to 50 cells/μL, from inclusion up to six months of antiretroviral treatment (ARVT), in patients with an undetectable viral load ( 40 years (aOR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.10-2.75), baseline CD4 ≥ 100 cells/μL (aOR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.24-3.42), ARVT including AZT (aOR = 4.57, 95% CI=1.06-19.76), and the occurrence of a severe opportunistic infection during the first semester of ARVT (aOR = 2.38 95% CI= 1.49-3.80) were associated with SIR. After six months of ARVT and up to seven years of follow-up, 39 patients with SIR had presented with an opportunistic infection or death (rate= 9.78/100 person-years) compared to 168 with a normal recovery (rate = 7.75/100 person-years) but the difference was not statistically significant (aHR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.85 to 1.74). SIR is less common in our country and is not associated with increased mortality or a greater incidence of opportunistic infections after six months of ARVT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Food Insecurity, Poor Diet Quality, and Suboptimal Intakes of Folate and Iron Are Independently Associated with Perceived Mental Health in Canadian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Karen M; Gondara, Lovedeep; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2017-03-14

    To address nutrition-related population mental health data gaps, we examined relationships among food insecurity, diet quality, and perceived mental health. Stratified and logistic regression analyses of respondents aged 19-70 years from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 were conducted ( n = 15,546). Measures included the Household Food Security Survey Module, diet quality (i.e., comparisons to the Dietary Reference Intakes , Healthy Eating Index), perceived mental health (poor versus good), sociodemographics, and smoking. In this sample, 6.9% were food insecure and 4.5% reported poor mental health. Stratified analysis of food security and mental health status by age/gender found associations for poor diet quality, protein, fat, fibre, and several micronutrients ( p -values mental health emerged for food insecurity (OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.45-1.71), poor diet quality (1.61, 95% CI 1.34-1.81), and suboptimal intakes of folate (OR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.17-1.90) and iron (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.23-1.88). Population approaches that improve food security and intakes of high quality diets may protect people from poor mental health.

  18. Association of suboptimal health status with psychosocial stress, plasma cortisol and mRNA expression of glucocorticoid receptor α/β in lymphocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Xiang; Dong, Jing; Liu, You-Qin; Zhang, Jie; Song, Man-Shu; He, Yan; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) has become a new public health challenge in China. This study investigated whether high SHS is associated with psychosocial stress, changes in cortisol level and/or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform expression. Three-hundred eighty-six workers employed in three companies in Beijing were recruited. The SHS score was derived from data collection in the SHS questionnaire (SHSQ-25). The short standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) was used to assess job-related psychosocial stress. The mean value of the five scales of COPSOQ and distribution of plasma cortisol and mRNA expression of GRα/GRβ between the high level of SHS group and the low level of SHS group were compared using a general linear model procedure. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of psychosocial stress on SHS. We identified three factors that were predictive of SHS, including "demands at work", "interpersonal relations and leadership" and "insecurity at work". Significantly higher levels of plasma cortisol and GRβ/GRα mRNA ratio were observed among the high SHS group. High level of SHS is associated with decreased mRNA expression of GRα. This study confirmed the association between chronic psychosocial stress and SHS, indicating that improving the psychosocial work environment may reduce SHS and then prevent chronic diseases effectively.

  19. Rotavirus-specific IgA Responses Are Impaired and Serve as a Sub-Optimal Correlate of Protection among Infants in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Benjamin; Carmolli, Marya; Dickson, Dorothy M; Colgate, E Ross; Diehl, Sean A; Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; Islam, Shahidul; Hossain, Motaher; Rafique, Tanzeem Ahmed; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Alam, Masud; Nayak, Uma; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; McNeal, Monica M; Petri, William A; Qadri, Firdausi; Haque, Rashidul; Kirkpatrick, Beth D

    2018-01-31

    Rotavirus-specific IgA (RV-IgA) responses following oral RV vaccination are impaired in low-income countries, where the utility of RV-IgA as a correlate of protection (CoP) remains unclear. In a monovalent oral RV (Rotarix™) vaccine efficacy trial among infants in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we identified factors associated with poor RV-IgA responses and explored the utility of RV-IgA as a CoP. Infants were randomized to receive Rotarix™ or no Rotarix™ at 10 and 17 weeks of life and followed with active diarrheal surveillance. RV-IgA concentration, seroconversion, and seropositivity were determined at 18 weeks of life and analyzed for correlation(s) with rotavirus diarrhea (RVD) and for contribution to Rotarix™ vaccine effect. Among vaccinated infants, overall RV-IgA geometric mean concentration was 21 U/mL; only 27% seroconverted and 32% were seropositive after vaccination. Increased RV-specific maternal antibodies significantly impaired immunogenicity. Seroconversion was associated with reduced risk of RVD through one year of life, but RV-IgA seropositivity only explained 7.8% of the vaccine effect demonstrated by the clinical endpoint (RVD). RV-IgA responses were low among infants in Bangladesh and were significantly impaired by maternal antibodies. RV-IgA is a sub-optimal CoP in this setting; an improved CoP for RV in low-income countries is needed. NCT01375647.

  20. A low-volume polyethylene glycol solution was associated with an increased suboptimal bowel preparation rate but had similar recommendations for an early repeat colonoscopy, procedure times, and adenoma detection rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam C Hankins

    Full Text Available Low-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG bowel preparations are better tolerated by patients than high-volume preparations and may achieve similar preparation quality. However, there is little data comparing their effects on a recommendation for an early repeat colonoscopy (because of a suboptimal preparation, procedure times, adenoma detection rate (ADR, and advanced adenoma detection rate (AADR.This is a retrospective cohort study of outpatient colonoscopies performed during a one-year period at a single academic medical center in which low-volume MoviPrep® (n = 1841 or high-volume Colyte® (n = 1337 was used. All preparations were split-dosed. Appropriate covariates were included in regression models assessing suboptimal preparation quality (fair, poor, or inadequate, procedure times, recommendation for an early repeat colonoscopy, ADR, and AADR.MoviPrep® was associated with an increase in having a suboptimal bowel preparation (OR 1.36; 95% CI: 1.06-1.76, but it was not associated with differences in insertion (p = 0.43, withdrawal (p = 0.22, or total procedure times (p = 0.10. The adjusted percentage with a suboptimal preparation was 11.7% for patients using MoviPrep® and 8.8% for patients using Colyte®. MoviPrep® was not associated with a significant difference in overall ADR (OR 0.93; 95% CI: 0.78-1.11, AADR (OR 1.18; 95% CI: 0.87-1.62, or recommendation for early repeat colonoscopy (OR 1.16; 95% CI: 0.72-1.88.MoviPrep® was associated with a small absolute increase in having a suboptimal preparation, but did not affect recommendations for an early repeat colonoscopy, procedure times, or adenoma detection rates. Mechanisms to reduce financial barriers limiting low-volume preparations should be considered because of their favorable tolerability profile.

  1. Multimedia Search Engines : Concept, Performance, and Types

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Rabeh Sayed

    2005-01-01

    A Research about multimedia search engines, it starts with definition of search engines at general and multimedia search engines, then explains how they work, and divided them into: Video search engines, Images search engines, and Audio search engines. Finally, it reviews a samples to multimedia search engines.

  2. Heuristic Search Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Edelkamp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Search has been vital to artificial intelligence from the very beginning as a core technique in problem solving. The authors present a thorough overview of heuristic search with a balance of discussion between theoretical analysis and efficient implementation and application to real-world problems. Current developments in search such as pattern databases and search with efficient use of external memory and parallel processing units on main boards and graphics cards are detailed. Heuristic search as a problem solving tool is demonstrated in applications for puzzle solving, game playing, constra

  3. Search For Trapped Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, Gorm B.; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D.; Bray, Crystal C.; Butler, Eoin; Cesar, Claudio L.; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C.; Gill, David R.; Hangst, Jeffrey S.; Hardy, Walter N.; Hayano, Ryugo S.; Hayden, Michael E.; Humphries, Andrew J.; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Jorgensen, Lars V.; Kurchaninov, Lenoid; Lambo, Ricardo; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olchanski, Konstantin; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Nasr, Sarah Seif El; Silveira, Daniel M.; So, Chukman; Storey, James W.; Thompson, Robert I.; van der Werf, Dirk P.; Wilding, Dean; Wurtele, Jonathan S.; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experiment to search for trapped antihydrogen atoms with the ALPHA antihydrogen trap at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator. Sensitive diagnostics of the temperatures, sizes, and densities of the trapped antiproton and positron plasmas have been developed, which in turn permitted development of techniques to precisely and reproducibly control the initial experimental parameters. The use of a position-sensitive annihilation vertex detector, together with the capability of controllably quenching the superconducting magnetic minimum trap, enabled us to carry out a high-sensitivity and low-background search for trapped synthesised antihydrogen atoms. We aim to identify the annihilations of antihydrogen atoms held for at least 130 ms in the trap before being released over ~30 ms. After a three-week experimental run in 2009 involving mixing of 10^7 antiprotons with 1.3 10^9 positrons to produce 6 10^5 antihydrogen atoms, we have identified six antiproton annihilation events that are consist...

  4. One visual search, many memory searches: An eye-tracking investigation of hybrid search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Trafton; Boettcher, Sage E P; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2017-09-01

    Suppose you go to the supermarket with a shopping list of 10 items held in memory. Your shopping expedition can be seen as a combination of visual search and memory search. This is known as "hybrid search." There is a growing interest in understanding how hybrid search tasks are accomplished. We used eye tracking to examine how manipulating the number of possible targets (the memory set size [MSS]) changes how observers (Os) search. We found that dwell time on each distractor increased with MSS, suggesting a memory search was being executed each time a new distractor was fixated. Meanwhile, although the rate of refixation increased with MSS, it was not nearly enough to suggest a strategy that involves repeatedly searching visual space for subgroups of the target set. These data provide a clear demonstration that hybrid search tasks are carried out via a "one visual search, many memory searches" heuristic in which Os examine items in the visual array once with a very low rate of refixations. For each item selected, Os activate a memory search that produces logarithmic response time increases with increased MSS. Furthermore, the percentage of distractors fixated was strongly modulated by the MSS: More items in the MSS led to a higher percentage of fixated distractors. Searching for more potential targets appears to significantly alter how Os approach the task, ultimately resulting in more eye movements and longer response times.

  5. Measuring Personalization of Web Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannak, Aniko; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Kakhki, Arash Molavi

    2013-01-01

    Web search is an integral part of our daily lives. Recently, there has been a trend of personalization in Web search, where different users receive different results for the same search query. The increasing personalization is leading to concerns about Filter Bubble effects, where certain users...... are simply unable to access information that the search engines’ algorithm decidesis irrelevant. Despitetheseconcerns, there has been little quantification of the extent of personalization in Web search today, or the user attributes that cause it. In light of this situation, we make three contributions....... First, we develop a methodology for measuring personalization in Web search results. While conceptually simple, there are numerous details that our methodology must handle in order to accurately attribute differences in search results to personalization. Second, we apply our methodology to 200 users...

  6. The maneuver search and the maneuver search trajectory framework of search heavy torpedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenjin; Zhang, Jingyuan; Li, Jitao

    2016-01-01

    With the development of technology capability of submarine launching heavy torpedo and the demand of intellectualized combat, the paper raises the concept of torpedo maneuver search and analyses maneuver search opportunity. It is necessary to realize the long range heavy torpedo's maneuver search that heavy torpedo's maneuver search can cover the target's location error which results from launching platform's position precision and the target's intentional maneuver when the torpedo is launched. The technology framework of the heavy torpedo's maneuver search trajectory is set up.

  7. Recursive Lexicographical Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskhakov, Fedor; Rust, John; Schjerning, Bertel

    2016-01-01

    (MPE) of these games, much less all of them. We propose a fast and robust generalization of backward induction we call state recursion that operates on a decomposition of the overall DDG into a finite number of more tractable stage games, which can be solved recursively. We provide conditions under......We define a class of dynamic Markovian games, directional dynamic games (DDG), where directionality is represented by a strategy-independent partial order on the state space. We show that many games are DDGs, yet none of the existing algorithms are guaranteed to find any Markov perfect equilibrium...... which state recursion finds at least one MPE of the overall DDG and introduce a recursive lexicographic search (RLS) algorithm that systematically and efficiently uses state recursion to find all MPE of the overall game in a finite number of steps. We apply RLS to find all MPE of a dynamic model...

  8. SCET improved SUSY search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Mantry, Sonny; Petriello, Frank

    2012-03-01

    Supersymmetry has been one of the most popular candidates for physics beyond standard model (SM) for a long time. The fact that we haven't yet discover super particles in nowadays LHC data, pushes the SUSY production nearer and nearer to the LHC machine threshold. In the threshold limit, how well we understand the SM background is crucial for SUSY or other physics beyond SM search. In this talk, we will use the simplest case by considering photon plus two jets events to address the problem and we will talk about how we use the soft collinear effective theory to sum up potentially large logs related to threshold limit to improve our understanding of the SM background.

  9. Dark matter searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Alessandro

    These lectures begin with a brief survey of the astrophysical and cosmological evidence for dark matter. We then consider the three principal theoretically motivated types of dark matter, sterile neutrinos, axions and SUSY WIMPs. In chapter 4 we discuss the motivations for the so-called neutrino minimal standard model, nuMSM, an extension of the SM with three sterile neutrinos with masses similar to the charged fermions. In chapter 5 we briefly recall the strong CP problem of the SM and the solution proposed by Peccei and Quinn leading to the prediction of axions and of their characteristics. We then discuss the experimental status and perspectives. In chapter 6 we assume that the reader to be acquainted with the theoretical motivations for SUSY and move directly to the direct search for dark matter and the description of the principal detector techniques: scintillators, noble fluids and bolometers. We conclude with an outlook on the future perspectives.

  10. Cosmic axion searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, B. E.

    1988-02-01

    Axions may have been created in the big bang and condensed into galactic halos to constitute the ``dark'' matter implied by galactic rotation curves. Experimental efforts are underway to detect these cosmic axions by conversion in the presence of an applied magnetic field to microwave photons which may be trapped by a resonant cavity. Present limits on abundance and coupling are less than three orders of magnitude higher than the values expected for all dark matter being axions; only a small part of the available phase space has been searched so far. Possible detector improvements and related laser production experiments are also discussed. The other members of the collaboration are: S. De Panfilis, A.C. Melissinos, J.T. Rogers, Y.K. Semertzidis and W.U. Wuensch, University of Rochester; H.J. Halama and A.G. Prodell, Brookhaven National Laboratory; and W.B. Fowler and F.A. Nezrick, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  11. Higgs searches with CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    The excellent performances of the LHC in the 2011 run are setting the grounds for the final chase of the Higgs boson. The CMS experiment is recording high quality data that are being thoroughly scrutinized. Several decay channels are investigated to probe the entire possible Higgs mass spectrum, from 110 to 600 GeV/c^2. The study of the first 1.5/fb of collected data places already tight limits and excludes large fractions of the Higgs mass range, leaving however still open the search in the theoretically favored low mass region. In this seminar we will report on the diverse CMS analyses that yield to such results describing the experimental challenges that each had to meet.

  12. Search and Disrupt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    Extant research on external knowledge search and open innovation assumes that collaborators are aligned in their strategic interests towards solving innovation problems. However, disruptive innovation is known to threaten the competitive advantage of incumbent firms, thereby creating a potential...... conflict of interest between these firms and their collaborators. This paper explores the extent to which strategic interests influence joint problem solving in both complementary and disruptive technologies by analyzing the effects of incumbent collaboration. The analysis disentangles inability...... and strategic intent to find that non-incumbents experience suppression of problem solving likelihood within disruptive technologies when incumbent collaborators are not strategically committed. The paper contributes to extant theory by showing the influence of firms’ underlying strategic interests...

  13. Search Parameter Optimization for Discrete, Bayesian, and Continuous Search Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Search Theory , Undersea Warfare, South China Sea, Anti-Submarine Warfare 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 253 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...to 09-22-2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SEARCH PARAMETER OPTIMIZATION FOR DISCRETE, BAYESIAN, AND CON- TINUOUS SEARCH ALGORITHMS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The

  14. Email search visualization: An efficient way for searching email

    OpenAIRE

    Thanh Tung, Vuong

    2014-01-01

    Originally email was designed for messaging channel between individuals. However, it is now being used as personal file archiving. The growth of email quantity over time makes searching email hard and time-consuming. It even becomes extremely frustrating for people who have huge amount of emails. Firstly, when searching an email, people often look for a piece of information which is temporarily forgotten. If we can remind of them some related information, searching activity will become faster...

  15. Open Search Environments: The Free Alternative to Commercial Search Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian O'Riordan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Open search systems present a free and less restricted alternative to commercial search services. This paper explores the space of open search technology looking in particular at the issue of interoperability. A description of current protocols and formats for engineering open search applications is presented. The suitability of these technologies and issues around their adoption and operation are discussed. This open search approach is especially proving a fitting choice in applications involving the harvesting of resources and information integration. Principal among the technological solutions are OpenSearch and SRU. OpenSearch and SRU implement a federated model to enable existing and new search engines and search clients communicate. Applications and instances where Opensearch and SRU can be combined are presented. Other relevant technologies such as OpenURL, Apache Solr, and OAI-PMH are also discussed. The deployment of these freely licensed open standards in digital library applications is now a genuine alternative to commercial or proprietary systems.

  16. Lower Incidence of End-Stage Renal Disease but Suboptimal Pre-Dialysis Renal Care in Schizophrenia: A 14-Year Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yueh-Han; Cheng, Jur-Shan; Ouyang, Wen-Chen; Lin, Chen-Li; Huang, Chi-Ting; Hsu, Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is closely associated with cardiovascular risk factors which are consequently attributable to the development of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, no study has been conducted to examine ESRD-related epidemiology and quality of care before starting dialysis for patients with schizophrenia. By using nationwide health insurance databases, we identified 54,361 ESRD-free patients with schizophrenia and their age-/gender-matched subjects without schizophrenia for this retrospective cohort study (the schizophrenia cohort). We also identified a cohort of 1,244 adult dialysis patients with and without schizophrenia (1:3) to compare quality of renal care before dialysis and outcomes (the dialysis cohort). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for dialysis and death. Odds ratio (OR) derived from logistic regression models were used to delineate quality of pre-dialysis renal care. Compared to general population, patients with schizophrenia were less likely to develop ESRD (HR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.8), but had a higher risk for death (HR = 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3). Patients with schizophrenia at the pre-ESRD stage received suboptimal pre-dialysis renal care; for example, they were less likely to visit nephrologists (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8) and received fewer erythropoietin prescriptions (OR = 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9). But they had a higher risk of hospitalization in the first year after starting dialysis (OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8, P dialysis had higher risk for mortality than the general ESRD patients. A closer collaboration between psychiatrists and nephrologists or internists to minimize the gaps in quality of general care is recommended.

  17. Lower Incidence of End-Stage Renal Disease but Suboptimal Pre-Dialysis Renal Care in Schizophrenia: A 14-Year Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Han Hsu

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is closely associated with cardiovascular risk factors which are consequently attributable to the development of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD. However, no study has been conducted to examine ESRD-related epidemiology and quality of care before starting dialysis for patients with schizophrenia. By using nationwide health insurance databases, we identified 54,361 ESRD-free patients with schizophrenia and their age-/gender-matched subjects without schizophrenia for this retrospective cohort study (the schizophrenia cohort. We also identified a cohort of 1,244 adult dialysis patients with and without schizophrenia (1:3 to compare quality of renal care before dialysis and outcomes (the dialysis cohort. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR for dialysis and death. Odds ratio (OR derived from logistic regression models were used to delineate quality of pre-dialysis renal care. Compared to general population, patients with schizophrenia were less likely to develop ESRD (HR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.8, but had a higher risk for death (HR = 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3. Patients with schizophrenia at the pre-ESRD stage received suboptimal pre-dialysis renal care; for example, they were less likely to visit nephrologists (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8 and received fewer erythropoietin prescriptions (OR = 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9. But they had a higher risk of hospitalization in the first year after starting dialysis (OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8, P < .05. Patients with schizophrenia undertaking dialysis had higher risk for mortality than the general ESRD patients. A closer collaboration between psychiatrists and nephrologists or internists to minimize the gaps in quality of general care is recommended.

  18. The Role of Healthy Lifestyle in the Implementation of Regressing Suboptimal Health Status among College Students in China: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Hongjie; Jiang, Pingping; Yu, Lin; Jing, Yuan; Li, Fei; Wu, Shengwei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Yanyan; Kwan, Hiuyee; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan; Sun, Xiaomin

    2017-02-28

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) is the intermediate health state between health and disease, it is medically undiagnosed and is also termed functional somatic syndrome. Although its clinical manifestations are complicated and various, SHS has not reached the disease status. Unhealthy lifestyle is associated with many chronic diseases and mortality. In accordance with the impact of lifestyle on health, it is intriguing to determine the association between unhealthy lifestyle and SHS risk. We conducted a nested case-control study among healthy Chinese college students from March 2012 to September 2013, which was nested in a prospective cohort of 5676 students. We performed 1:1 incidence density sampling with matched controls for birth year, sex, grade, specialty and individual character. SHS was evaluated using the medical examination report and Sub-health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0). Exposure was defined as an unhealthy lifestyle per the frequency of six behavioral dimensions from the Health-promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II). We matched 543 cases of SHS (42.66%) in a cohort of 1273 students during the 1.5 years mean follow-up time with controls. A significant difference (t = 9.79, p lifestyle behavior with respect to behavioral dimensions significantly affected SHS likelihood. Further analyses revealed a marked increase (average increased 14.73 points) in lifestyle level among those SHS regression to health after 1.5 years, with respect to the HPLP-II behavioral dimensions, in addition to the total score (t = -15.34, p lifestyles, and the Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 240 2 of 17 mitigation of modifiable lifestyle risk factors may lead to SHS regression. Increased efforts to modify unhealthy lifestyles are necessary to prevent SHS.

  19. Sub-optimal Testing and Awareness of HCV and HBV Among High Risk Individuals at an Underserved Safety-Net Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Robert J; Campbell, Brendan; Liu, Benny; Baden, Rachel; Bhuket, Taft

    2017-06-24

    Sub-optimal screening for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) among high risk groups delays diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to evaluate overall rates of HCV and HBV screening and patient knowledge of their testing result. Adults age ≥18 years undergoing elective outpatient endoscopy at a large, urban safety-net hospital from July 2015 to July 2016 were prospectively evaluated to determine rates of HCV and HBV testing, the results of those completed tests, and patient knowledge of test results among high risk individuals (as determined by U.S. Preventative Services Task Force). Among 1125 patients (52.3% male, 70.4% foreign-born), 66.5% were high risk for chronic HCV; only 30.9% received prior testing. 14.7% had positive chronic HCV infection. Patients born in the 1945-1965 cohort were more likely to have received prior HCV testing compared to those born outside of this cohort (32.7 vs. 16.9%, p = 0.01). Among patients who received HCV screening, 29.3% were aware of test results. Overall, 61.6% were high risk for chronic HBV; only 25.1% received prior testing. 4.1% were positive for chronic HBV. Compared to Caucasians, Asians (19.0 vs. 44.4%, p HBV testing. Among patients who received prior HBV screening, 18.4% were aware of test results. Less than one-third of high risk patients received HCV and HBV screening among an ethnically diverse safety-net population. Equally low rates of patient knowledge of testing results were observed.

  20. An efficient method for the prediction of deleterious multiple-point mutations in the secondary structure of RNAs using suboptimal folding solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barash Danny

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNAmute is an interactive Java application which, given an RNA sequence, calculates the secondary structure of all single point mutations and organizes them into categories according to their similarity to the predicted structure of the wild type. The secondary structure predictions are performed using the Vienna RNA package. A more efficient implementation of RNAmute is needed, however, to extend from the case of single point mutations to the general case of multiple point mutations, which may often be desired for computational predictions alongside mutagenesis experiments. But analyzing multiple point mutations, a process that requires traversing all possible mutations, becomes highly expensive since the running time is O(nm for a sequence of length n with m-point mutations. Using Vienna's RNAsubopt, we present a method that selects only those mutations, based on stability considerations, which are likely to be conformational rearranging. The approach is best examined using the dot plot representation for RNA secondary structure. Results Using RNAsubopt, the suboptimal solutions for a given wild-type sequence are calculated once. Then, specific mutations are selected that are most likely to cause a conformational rearrangement. For an RNA sequence of about 100 nts and 3-point mutations (n = 100, m = 3, for example, the proposed method reduces the running time from several hours or even days to several minutes, thus enabling the practical application of RNAmute to the analysis of multiple-point mutations. Conclusion A highly efficient addition to RNAmute that is as user friendly as the original application but that facilitates the practical analysis of multiple-point mutations is presented. Such an extension can now be exploited prior to site-directed mutagenesis experiments by virologists, for example, who investigate the change of function in an RNA virus via mutations that disrupt important motifs in its secondary

  1. Atorvastatin reduces T-cell activation and exhaustion among HIV-infected cART-treated suboptimal immune responders in Uganda: a randomised crossover placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanjako, Damalie; Ssinabulya, Isaac; Nabatanzi, Rose; Bayigga, Lois; Kiragga, Agnes; Joloba, Moses; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kambugu, Andrew D; Kamya, Moses R; Sekaly, Rafick; Elliott, Alison; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet

    2015-03-01

    T-cell activation independently predicts mortality, poor immune recovery and non-AIDS illnesses during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Atorvastatin showed anti-immune activation effects among HIV-infected cART-naïve individuals. We investigated whether adjunct atorvastatin therapy reduces T-cell activation among cART-treated adults with suboptimal immune recovery. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial, of atorvastatin 80 mg daily vs. placebo for 12 weeks, was conducted among individuals with CD4 increase <295 cells/μl after seven years of suppressive cART. Change in T-cell activation (CD3 + CD4 + /CD8 + CD38 + HLADR+) and in T-cell exhaustion (CD3 + CD4 + /CD8 + PD1 + ) was measured using flow cytometry. Thirty patients were randomised, 15 to each arm. Atorvastatin resulted in a 28% greater reduction in CD4 T-cell activation (60% reduction) than placebo (32% reduction); P = 0.001. Atorvastatin also resulted in a 35% greater reduction in CD8-T-cell activation than placebo (49% vs. 14%, P = 0.0009), CD4 T-cell exhaustion (27% vs. 17% in placebo), P = 0.001 and CD8 T-cell exhaustion (27% vs. 16%), P = 0.004. There was no carry-over/period effect. Expected adverse events were comparable in both groups, and no serious adverse events were reported. Atorvastatin reduced T-cell immune activation and exhaustion among cART-treated adults in a Ugandan cohort. Atorvastatin adjunct therapy should be explored as a strategy to improve HIV treatment outcomes among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Suboptimal Weight Loss and Weight Regain after Gastric Bypass Surgery-Postoperative Status of Energy Intake, Eating Behavior, Physical Activity, and Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Tina; Strømmen, Magnus; Martins, Catia

    2017-05-01

    Suboptimal weight loss (SWL) and weight regain (WR) after gastric bypass surgery (GB) remains poorly understood. This study aims to compare GB patients experiencing SWL or significant WR (SigWR) with successful controls, regarding postoperative food intake, eating behavior, physical activity (PA), and psychometrics. Forty-nine patients with >1 year post-surgery were classified as either experiencing SWL (excess body weight loss, EWL, weight regain ≥15%, n = 38), with respective control groups. Energy intake (EI) was measured with a Food Frequency Questionnaire, eating behavior using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and PA using both SenseWear Armbands and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Eating disorders, depression, and quality of life (QoL) were measured using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory II, and Impact of Weight on Quality of Life, respectively. EI, macronutrient distribution, and meal frequency were similar among groups. However, disinhibited eating behavior score was higher, while most subcategories from IWQOL were significantly lower in both SWL and SigWR groups compared with their respective controls. PA was significantly lower in the SWL and SigWR groups compared with the respective controls. There were no differences between groups regarding depression. Lower PA levels, disordered eating behavior and lower QoL are associated with unsuccessful weigh loss outcome after GB surgery. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the potential causal relationship between the previously described variables and SWL/SigWR after GB.

  3. Associations between breakfast eating habits and health-promoting lifestyle, suboptimal health status in Southern China: a population based, cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jieyu; Cheng, Jingru; Liu, Yanyan; Tang, Yang; Sun, Xiaomin; Wang, Tian; Xiao, Ya; Li, Fei; Xiang, Lei; Jiang, Pingping; Wu, Shengwei; Wu, Liuguo; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2014-12-11

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) is the intermediate health state between health and disease, refers to medically undiagnosed or functional somatic syndromes, and has been a major global public health challenge. However, both the etiology and mechanisms associated with SHS are still unclear. Breakfast eating behavior is a dietary pattern marker and previous studies have presented evidence of associations between failure to consume breakfast and increased diseases. Accordingly, in view of the significance of breakfast eating behaviors with respect to health status, the associations between breakfast eating habits and healthy lifestyle, SHS require further elucidation. A cross-sectional survey was conducted within a clustered sample of 24,159 individuals aged 12-80 years in 2012-13 within the population of Southern China. Breakfast eating habits were categorically defined by consumption frequency ('scarcely, sometimes or always'). Health-promoting lifestyle was assessed via the health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP-II). SHS was evaluated using the medical examination report and Sub-health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0). Of the 24,159 participants, the prevalence rates for the 'health' , 'SHS' , and 'disease' were 18.8%, 46.0%, and 35.2%, respectively. Overall, 19.6% of participants reported 'scarce' breakfast eating habits, with frequent breakfast eaters scoring higher on both HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0. After demographic adjustment, regression analyses revealed a significant association between breakfast eating habits and healthy lifestyle (p eating habits are significantly associated with a healthy lifestyle, and appear to be a useful predictor of a healthy lifestyle. Irregular breakfast eating habits are related to an increased risk of SHS; increased breakfast eating frequency may contribute to lowering the prevalence of SHS in Southern China.

  4. Assessing the Accuracy of High Resolution Digital Surface Models Computed by PhotoScan® and MicMac® in Sub-Optimal Survey Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Jaud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For monitoring purposes and in the context of geomorphological research, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV appear to be a promising solution to provide multi-temporal Digital Surface Models (DSMs and orthophotographs. There are a variety of photogrammetric software tools available for UAV-based data. The objective of this study is to investigate the level of accuracy that can be achieved using two of these software tools: Agisoft PhotoScan® Pro and an open-source alternative, IGN© MicMac®, in sub-optimal survey conditions (rugged terrain, with a large variety of morphological features covering a range of roughness sizes, poor GPS reception. A set of UAV images has been taken by a hexacopter drone above the Rivière des Remparts, a river on Reunion Island. This site was chosen for its challenging survey conditions: the topography of the study area (i involved constraints on the flight plan; (ii implied errors on some GPS measurements; (iii prevented an optimal distribution of the Ground Control Points (GCPs and; (iv was very complex to reconstruct. Several image processing tests are performed with different scenarios in order to analyze the sensitivity of each software package to different parameters (image quality, numbers of GCPs, etc.. When computing the horizontal and vertical errors within a control region on a set of ground reference targets, both methods provide rather similar results. A precision up to 3–4 cm is achievable with these software packages. The DSM quality is also assessed over the entire study area comparing PhotoScan DSM and MicMac DSM with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS point cloud. PhotoScan and MicMac DSM are also compared at the scale of particular features. Both software packages provide satisfying results: PhotoScan is more straightforward to use but its source code is not open; MicMac is recommended for experimented users as it is more flexible.

  5. SETI The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Barrie W.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the search for life on other planets similar to Earth based on the Drake equation. Described are search strategies and microwave searches. The reasons why people are searching are also discussed. (KR)

  6. A Search Model of Discouragement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Toomet, Ott

    Discouragement is a process occurring during an unemployment spell. As the spell prolongs, an individual gradually realises that the returns to search can no longer outweigh search costs, and hence she may eventually leave the labour force. This is analysed theoretically in a framework...... of unemployed search. We construct a search model, which is stationary from the point of view of the individual, but which has nonstationary features. Namely, the unemployed worker is occasionally hit by shocks leading to a decline in job offer arrival rates. These shocks can be due to stigmatisation...... or to psychological consequences of unemployement affecting search effectiveness. This model enables us to analyse the issue of discouragement, as the returns to search will gradually decline. Even so, the model is actually stationary from the point of view of the individual, which implies that many interesting...

  7. Clinician search behaviors may be influenced by search engine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Annie Y S; Coiera, Enrico; Zrimec, Tatjana; Compton, Paul

    2010-06-30

    Searching the Web for documents using information retrieval systems plays an important part in clinicians' practice of evidence-based medicine. While much research focuses on the design of methods to retrieve documents, there has been little examination of the way different search engine capabilities influence clinician search behaviors. Previous studies have shown that use of task-based search engines allows for faster searches with no loss of decision accuracy compared with resource-based engines. We hypothesized that changes in search behaviors may explain these differences. In all, 75 clinicians (44 doctors and 31 clinical nurse consultants) were randomized to use either a resource-based or a task-based version of a clinical information retrieval system to answer questions about 8 clinical scenarios in a controlled setting in a university computer laboratory. Clinicians using the resource-based system could select 1 of 6 resources, such as PubMed; clinicians using the task-based system could select 1 of 6 clinical tasks, such as diagnosis. Clinicians in both systems could reformulate search queries. System logs unobtrusively capturing clinicians' interactions with the systems were coded and analyzed for clinicians' search actions and query reformulation strategies. The most frequent search action of clinicians using the resource-based system was to explore a new resource with the same query, that is, these clinicians exhibited a "breadth-first" search behaviour. Of 1398 search actions, clinicians using the resource-based system conducted 401 (28.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 26.37-31.11) in this way. In contrast, the majority of clinicians using the task-based system exhibited a "depth-first" search behavior in which they reformulated query keywords while keeping to the same task profiles. Of 585 search actions conducted by clinicians using the task-based system, 379 (64.8%, 95% CI 60.83-68.55) were conducted in this way. This study provides evidence that

  8. Distributed search engine architecture based on topic specific searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudaqqa, Yousra; Patel, Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Indisputably, search engines (SEs) abound. The monumental growth of users performing online searches on the Web is a contending issue in the contemporary world nowadays. For example, there are tens of billions of searches performed everyday, which typically offer the users many irrelevant results which are time consuming and costly to the user. Based on the afore-going problem it has become a herculean task for existing Web SEs to provide complete, relevant and up-to-date information response to users' search queries. To overcome this problem, we developed the Distributed Search Engine Architecture (DSEA), which is a new means of smart information query and retrieval of the World Wide Web (WWW). In DSEAs, multiple autonomous search engines, owned by different organizations or individuals, cooperate and act as a single search engine. This paper includes the work reported in this research focusing on development of DSEA, based on topic-specific specialised search engines. In DSEA, the results to specific queries could be provided by any of the participating search engines, for which the user is unaware of. The important design goal of using topic-specific search engines in the research is to build systems that can effectively be used by larger number of users simultaneously. Efficient and effective usage with good response is important, because it involves leveraging the vast amount of searched data from the World Wide Web, by categorising it into condensed focused topic -specific results that meet the user's queries. This design model and the development of the DSEA adopt a Service Directory (SD) to route queries towards topic-specific document hosting SEs. It displays the most acceptable performance which is consistent with the requirements of the users. The evaluation results of the model return a very high priority score which is associated with each frequency of a keyword.

  9. LHCb Exotica and Higgs searches

    CERN Multimedia

    Lucchesi, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    The unique phase space coverage and features of the LHCb detector at the LHC makes it an ideal environment to probe complementary New Physics parameter regions. In particular, recently developed jet tagging algorithms are ideal for searches involving $b$ and $c$ jets. This poster will review different jet-related exotica searches together with the efforts in the search for a Higgs boson decaying to a pair of heavy quarks.

  10. Dark Matter Searches at ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The astrophysical evidence of dark matter provides some of the most compelling clues to the nature of physics beyond the Standard Model. From these clues, ATLAS has developed a broad and systematic search program for dark matter production in LHC collisions. These searches are now entering their prime, with the LHC now colliding protons at the increased 13 TeV centre-of-mass energy and set to deliver much larger datasets than ever before. The results of these searches on the first 13 TeV data, their interpretation, and the design and possible evolution of the search program will be presented.

  11. The Jungle Database Search Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter; Bukauskas, Linas; Dyreson, Curtis

    1999-01-01

    Information spread in in databases cannot be found by current search engines. A database search engine is capable to access and advertise database on the WWW. Jungle is a database search engine prototype developed at Aalborg University. Operating through JDBC connections to remote databases, Jungle...... extracts and indexes database data and meta-data, building a data store of database information. This information is used to evaluate and optimize queries in the AQUA query language. AQUA is a natural and intuitive database query language that helps users to search for information without knowing how...

  12. Image Searching on the Excite Web Search Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Abby; Spink, Amanda

    2001-01-01

    Examines visual information needs as expressed in users' Web image queries on the Excite search engine. Discusses metadata; content-based image retrieval; user interaction with images; terms per query; term frequency; and implications for the development of models for visual information retrieval and for the design of Web search engines.…

  13. Searching and Archiving : Exploring Online Search Behaviors of Researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; de Groot, S.; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Dainoff, Marvin J.

    2007-01-01

    Searching for relevant peer-reviewed material is an integral part of corporate and academic researchers. Researchers collect huge amount of information over the years and sometimes struggle organizing it. Based on a study with 30 academic researchers, we explore, in combination, different searching

  14. Ranking XPaths for extracting search result records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2012-01-01

    Extracting search result records (SRRs) from webpages is useful for building an aggregated search engine which combines search results from a variety of search engines. Most automatic approaches to search result extraction are not portable: the complete process has to be rerun on a new search result

  15. 29 CFR 4050.4 - Diligent search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diligent search. 4050.4 Section 4050.4 Labor Regulations... § 4050.4 Diligent search. (a) Search required. A diligent search must be made for each missing... § 4050.6. (b) Diligence. A search is a diligent search only if the search— (1) Begins not more than 6...

  16. Multitasking Web Searching and Implications for Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmutlu, Seda; Ozmutlu, H. C.; Spink, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    Findings from a study of users' multitasking searches on Web search engines include: multitasking searches are a noticeable user behavior; multitasking search sessions are longer than regular search sessions in terms of queries per session and duration; both Excite and AlltheWeb.com users search for about three topics per multitasking session and…

  17. SearchCol: Metaheuristic Search by Column Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelos, Filipe; de Sousa, Amaro; Santos, Dorabella

    We propose a general framework for the combination of column generation (CG) with metaheuristics (MHs) aiming to solve combinatorial optimization problems amenable for decomposition approaches, "SearchCol". The combination of the two approaches is based on representing the solution of the problem as the selection of a subset of solutions of smaller (sub)problems which are generated by CG. In each iteration of a SearchCol algorithm, CG provides the optimal solution (primal and dual) to the MH which returns a (incumbent) solution used for defining the (perturbed) CG problem of the next iteration. We describe the SearchCol framework and a general SearchCol algorithm based on local search.

  18. Initiation of insulin glargine in patients with Type 2 diabetes in suboptimal glycaemic control positively impacts health-related quality of life. A prospective cohort study in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajós, Tibor R S; Pouwer, F; de Grooth, R

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To study prospectively the impact of initiating insulin glargine in suboptimally controlled insulin-naïve patients with Type 2 diabetes on health-related quality of life in relation to glycaemic control. METHODS: Insulin-naïve Dutch patients with Type 2 diabetes in suboptimal glycaemic...... completed self-report health-related quality of life measures, including emotional well-being (World Health Organization-5 well-being index), fear of hypoglycaemia (Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey) and diabetes symptom distress (Diabetes Symptom Checklist-revised). Data were analysed using generalized estimating...... of this observational study demonstrate combined glycaemic and health-related quality of life benefits of initiating insulin glargine in patients with Type 2 diabetes in routine primary care....

  19. On local optima in learning bayesian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Jens; Kocka, Tomas; Pena, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes and evaluates the k-greedy equivalence search algorithm (KES) for learning Bayesian networks (BNs) from complete data. The main characteristic of KES is that it allows a trade-off between greediness and randomness, thus exploring different good local optima. When greediness...... is set at maximum, KES corresponds to the greedy equivalence search algorithm (GES). When greediness is kept at minimum, we prove that under mild assumptions KES asymptotically returns any inclusion optimal BN with nonzero probability. Experimental results for both synthetic and real data are reported...

  20. Securities Market Journal: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...