WorldWideScience

Sample records for suboptimal filtering part

  1. Design considerations for a suboptimal Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difilippo, D. J.

    1995-06-01

    In designing a suboptimal Kalman filter, the designer must decide how to simplify the system error model without causing the filter estimation errors to increase to unacceptable levels. Deletion of certain error states and decoupling of error state dynamics are the two principal model simplifications that are commonly used in suboptimal filter design. For the most part, the decisions as to which error states can be deleted or decoupled are based on the designer's understanding of the physics of the particular system. Consequently, the details of a suboptimal design are usually unique to the specific application. In this paper, the process of designing a suboptimal Kalman filter is illustrated for the case of an airborne transfer-of-alignment (TOA) system used for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) motion compensation. In this application, the filter must continuously transfer the alignment of an onboard Doppler-damped master inertial navigation system (INS) to a strapdown navigator that processes information from a less accurate inertial measurement unit (IMU) mounted on the radar antenna. The IMU is used to measure spurious antenna motion during the SAR imaging interval, so that compensating phase corrections can be computed and applied to the radar returns, thereby presenting image degradation that would otherwise result from such motions. The principles of SAR are described in many references, for instance. The primary function of the TOA Kalman filter in a SAR motion compensation system is to control strapdown navigator attitude errors, and to a less degree, velocity and heading errors. Unlike a classical navigation application, absolute positional accuracy is not important. The motion compensation requirements for SAR imaging are discussed in some detail. This TOA application is particularly appropriate as a vehicle for discussing suboptimal filter design, because the system contains features that can be exploited to allow both deletion and decoupling of error

  2. Robotic fish tracking method based on suboptimal interval Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiaohong; Tang, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) research focused on tracking and positioning, precise guidance and return to dock and other fields. The robotic fish of AUV has become a hot application in intelligent education, civil and military etc. In nonlinear tracking analysis of robotic fish, which was found that the interval Kalman filter algorithm contains all possible filter results, but the range is wide, relatively conservative, and the interval data vector is uncertain before implementation. This paper proposes a ptimization algorithm of suboptimal interval Kalman filter. Suboptimal interval Kalman filter scheme used the interval inverse matrix with its worst inverse instead, is more approximate nonlinear state equation and measurement equation than the standard interval Kalman filter, increases the accuracy of the nominal dynamic system model, improves the speed and precision of tracking system. Monte-Carlo simulation results show that the optimal trajectory of sub optimal interval Kalman filter algorithm is better than that of the interval Kalman filter method and the standard method of the filter.

  3. Ozone data assimilation with GEOS-Chem: a comparison between 3-D-Var, 4-D-Var, and suboptimal Kalman filter approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K.; Sandu, A.; Bowman, K. W.; Parrington, M.; Jones, D. B. A.; Lee, M.

    2011-08-01

    Chemistry transport models determine the evolving chemical state of the atmosphere by solving the fundamental equations that govern physical and chemical transformations subject to initial conditions of the atmospheric state and surface boundary conditions, e.g., surface emissions. The development of data assimilation techniques synthesize model predictions with measurements in a rigorous mathematical framework that provides observational constraints on these conditions. Two families of data assimilation methods are currently widely used: variational and Kalman filter (KF). The variational approach is based on control theory and formulates data assimilation as a minimization problem of a cost functional that measures the model-observations mismatch. The Kalman filter approach is rooted in statistical estimation theory and provides the analysis covariance together with the best state estimate. Suboptimal Kalman filters employ different approximations of the covariances in order to make the computations feasible with large models. Each family of methods has both merits and drawbacks. This paper compares several data assimilation methods used for global chemical data assimilation. Specifically, we evaluate data assimilation approaches for improving estimates of the summertime global tropospheric ozone distribution in August 2006 based on ozone observations from the NASA Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. The resulting analyses are compared against independent ozonesonde measurements to assess the effectiveness of each assimilation method. All assimilation methods provide notable improvements over the free model simulations, which differ from the ozonesonde measurements by about 20 % (below 200 hPa). Four dimensional variational data assimilation with window lengths between five days and two weeks is the most accurate method, with mean differences between analysis profiles and ozonesonde measurements of 1-5 %. Two sequential

  4. Active RC filter based implementation analysis part of two channel hybrid filter bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Vidosav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a new design method for continuous-time powersymmetric active RC filters for Hybrid Filter Bank (HFB is proposed. Some theoretical properties of continious-time power-symmetric filters bank in a more general perspective are studied. This includes the derivation of a new general analytical form, and a study of poles and zeros locations in s-plane. In the proposed design method the analytic solution of filter coefficients is solved in sdomain using only one nonlinear equation Finally, the proposed approximation is compared to standard approximations. It was shown that attenuation and group delay characteristic of the proposed filter lie between Butterworth and elliptic characteristics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 32009TR

  5. Formulation of nano-ceramic filters used in separation of heavy metals . Part II: Zirconia ceramic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, T.; Labib, Sh.; Abou EI-Nour, F.H.; Abdel-Kbalik, M.

    2007-01-01

    Zirconia ceramic filters are prepared using polymeric sol-gel process. An optimization of synthesis parameters was studied to give cracked free coated nano porous film with high performance quality. Zirconia ceramic filters are characterized to select tbe optimized conditions that give tbe suitable zirconia filter used in heavy metal separation. The ceramic filters were characterized using BET method for surface measurements, mercury porosimeter for pore size distribution analysis and coating thickness measurements, SEM for microstructural studies and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) for metal analysis. The results indicated that zirconia ceramic filters. show high separation performance for cadmium, cupper, iron, manganese and lead

  6. Ultimate explanations and suboptimal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Machado, Armando; Pandeirada, Josefa N S

    2018-07-01

    Researchers have unraveled multiple cases in which behavior deviates from rationality principles. We propose that such deviations are valuable tools to understand the adaptive significance of the underpinning mechanisms. To illustrate, we discuss in detail an experimental protocol in which animals systematically incur substantial foraging losses by preferring a lean but informative option over a rich but non-informative one. To understand how adaptive mechanisms may fail to maximize food intake, we review a model inspired by optimal foraging principles that reconciles sub-optimal choice with the view that current behavioral mechanisms were pruned by the optimizing action of natural selection. To move beyond retrospective speculation, we then review critical tests of the model, regarding both its assumptions and its (sometimes counterintuitive) predictions, all of which have been upheld. The overall contention is that (a) known mechanisms can be used to develop better ultimate accounts and that (b) to understand why mechanisms that generate suboptimal behavior evolved, we need to consider their adaptive value in the animal's characteristic ecology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimal Nonlinear Filter for INS Alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞; 顾启泰

    2002-01-01

    All the methods to handle the inertial navigation system (INS) alignment were sub-optimal in the past. In this paper, particle filtering (PF) as an optimal method is used for solving the problem of INS alignment. A sub-optimal two-step filtering algorithm is presented to improve the real-time performance of PF. The approach combines particle filtering with Kalman filtering (KF). Simulation results illustrate the superior performance of these approaches when compared with extended Kalman filtering (EKF).

  8. Final Report: Part 1. In-Place Filter Testing Instrument for Nuclear Material Containers. Part 2. Canister Filter Test Standards for Aerosol Capture Rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Austin Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Runnels, Joel T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-02

    A portable instrument has been developed to assess the functionality of filter sand o-rings on nuclear material storage canisters, without requiring removal of the canister lid. Additionally, a set of fifteen filter standards were procured for verifying aerosol leakage and pressure drop measurements in the Los Alamos Filter Test System. The US Department of Energy uses several thousand canisters for storing nuclear material in different chemical and physical forms. Specialized filters are installed into canister lids to allow gases to escape, and to maintain an internal ambient pressure while containing radioactive contaminants. Diagnosing the condition of container filters and canister integrity is important to ensure worker and public safety and for determining the handling requirements of legacy apparatus. This report describes the In-Place-Filter-Tester, the Instrument Development Plan and the Instrument Operating Method that were developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to determine the “as found” condition of unopened storage canisters. The Instrument Operating Method provides instructions for future evaluations of as-found canisters packaged with nuclear material. Customized stainless steel canister interfaces were developed for pressure-port access and to apply a suction clamping force for the interface. These are compatible with selected Hagan-style and SAVY-4000 storage canisters that were purchased from NFT (Nuclear Filter Technology, Golden, CO). Two instruments were developed for this effort: an initial Los Alamos POC (Proof-of-Concept) unit and the final Los Alamos IPFT system. The Los Alamos POC was used to create the Instrument Development Plan: (1) to determine the air flow and pressure characteristics associated with canister filter clogging, and (2) to test simulated configurations that mimicked canister leakage paths. The canister leakage scenarios included quantifying: (A) air leakage due to foreign material (i.e. dust and hair

  9. Resolving the paradox of suboptimal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    When humans engage in commercial (totally probabilistic) gambling they are making suboptimal choices because the return is generally less than the investment. This review (a) examines the literature on pigeon suboptimal choice, (b) describes the conditions under which it occurs, (c) identifies the mechanisms that appear to be responsible for the effect, and (d) suggests that similar processes may be able to account for analogous suboptimal choice when humans engage in commercial gambling. Pigeons show suboptimal choice when they choose between 1 alternative that 20% of the time provides them with a signal that they will always get fed or 80% of the time with a signal that they will not get fed (overall 20% reinforcement) and a second alternative that 100% of the time provides them with a signal that they will get fed 50% of the time (overall 50% reinforcement). The pigeons' strong preference for the suboptimal choice was investigated in a series of experiments that found the preference for the suboptimal alternative was determined by the value of the signal that predicted reinforcement, rather its frequency and that the frequency of the signal that predicted nonreinforcement had little effect on the suboptimal choice. Paradoxically, this account makes the prediction that pigeons will be indifferent between an alternative that 50% of the time provides a fully predictive stimulus for reinforcement and an alternative that 100% of the time provides a fully predictive stimulus for reinforcement. The similarities and differences of this suboptimal choice task to human gambling are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. How suboptimal are linear sharing rules?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Astrup; Nielsen, Jørgen Aase

    2016-01-01

    that significant losses can arise when investors are diverse in their risk attitude. We also show that an investor with a low degree of risk aversion, like the logarithmic or the square root investor, often applied in portfolio choice models, can either inflict or be subject to severe losses when being forced...... two sources of suboptimal investment decisions as seen from each of the two investors individually. One is the suboptimal choice of portfolio, the other is the forced linear sharing rule. We measure the combined consequence for each investor by their respective loss in wealth equivalent. We show...

  11. Cationic polymers in water treatment: Part 2: Filterability of CPE-formed suspension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polášek, P.; Mutl, Silvestr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2002), s. 83-88 ISSN 0378-4738 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2067107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : cationic polymers * water treatment * filterability of CPE-formed suspension Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.481, year: 2002

  12. Explosive Destruction System’s Drum Filter. Part 1. Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    test to quantify filtration performance for MEA. Being a relatively low vapor pressure chemical, MEA is strongly adsorbed by microporous adsorbents...DMMP and the nerve/HD agents I I that it simulates are strongly adsorbed by microporous adsorbents, loading on the adsorbent is relatively...is started, the challenge chemical is fed to the top of the test filter located in an insulated enclosure (9), which can be seen immediately to the

  13. Optimal Attitude Estimation and Filtering Without Using Local Coordinates Part I: Uncontrolled and Deterministic Attitude Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyal, Amit K.

    2005-01-01

    There are several attitude estimation algorithms in existence, all of which use local coordinate representations for the group of rigid body orientations. All local coordinate representations of the group of orientations have associated problems. While minimal coordinate representations exhibit kinematic singularities for large rotations, the quaternion representation requires satisfaction of an extra constraint. This paper treats the attitude estimation and filtering problem as an optimizati...

  14. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters. Topical report for part 1 of high temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spear, K.E.; Crossland, C.E.; Shelleman, D.L.; Tressler, R.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-11

    This program consists of two separate research areas. Part 1, for which this report is written, studied the high temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic hot gas filters, while Part 2 studied the long-term durability of ceramic heat exchangers to coal combustion environments. The objectives of Part 1 were to select two candidate ceramic filter materials for flow-through hot corrosion studies and subsequent corrosion and mechanical properties characterization. In addition, a thermodynamic database was developed so that thermochemical modeling studies could be performed to simulate operating conditions of laboratory reactors and existing coal combustion power plants, and to predict the reactions of new filter materials with coal combustion environments. The latter would make it possible to gain insight into problems that could develop during actual operation of filters in coal combustion power plants so that potential problems could be addressed before they arise.

  15. Adaptive Control of Non-Minimum Phase Modal Systems Using Residual Mode Filters2. Parts 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Many dynamic systems containing a large number of modes can benefit from adaptive control techniques, which are well suited to applications that have unknown parameters and poorly known operating conditions. In this paper, we focus on a direct adaptive control approach that has been extended to handle adaptive rejection of persistent disturbances. We extend this adaptive control theory to accommodate problematic modal subsystems of a plant that inhibit the adaptive controller by causing the open-loop plant to be non-minimum phase. We will modify the adaptive controller with a Residual Mode Filter (RMF) to compensate for problematic modal subsystems, thereby allowing the system to satisfy the requirements for the adaptive controller to have guaranteed convergence and bounded gains. This paper will be divided into two parts. Here in Part I we will review the basic adaptive control approach and introduce the primary ideas. In Part II, we will present the RMF methodology and complete the proofs of all our results. Also, we will apply the above theoretical results to a simple flexible structure example to illustrate the behavior with and without the residual mode filter.

  16. Suboptimal choice, reward-predictive signals, and temporal information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Paul J; Shahan, Timothy A

    2018-01-01

    Suboptimal choice refers to preference for an alternative offering a low probability of food (suboptimal alternative) over an alternative offering a higher probability of food (optimal alternative). Numerous studies have found that stimuli signaling probabilistic food play a critical role in the development and maintenance of suboptimal choice. However, there is still much debate about how to characterize how these stimuli influence suboptimal choice. There is substantial evidence that the temporal information conveyed by a food-predictive signal governs its function as both a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus and as an instrumental conditioned reinforcer. Thus, we explore the possibility that food-predictive signals influence suboptimal choice via the temporal information they convey. Application of this temporal information-theoretic approach to suboptimal choice provides a formal, quantitative framework that describes how food-predictive signals influence suboptimal choice in a manner consistent with related phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning and conditioned reinforcement. Our reanalysis of previous data on suboptimal choice suggests that, generally speaking, preference in the suboptimal choice procedure tracks relative temporal information conveyed by food-predictive signals for the suboptimal and optimal alternatives. The model suggests that suboptimal choice develops when the food-predictive signal for the suboptimal alternative conveys more temporal information than that for the optimal alternative. Finally, incorporating a role for competition between temporal information provided by food-predictive signals and relative primary reinforcement rate provides a reasonable account of existing data on suboptimal choice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Network performance measurements as part of feasibility studies on moving an ATLAS event filter to off-site institutes

    CERN Document Server

    Korcyl, K; Dobinson, Robert W; Ivanovici, M; Losada-Maia, Marcia; Meirosu, C; Sladowski, G

    2004-01-01

    We present a system for measuring network performance as part of the feasibility studies for locating the ATLAS third level trigger, the event filter (EF), in remote locations. Part of the processing power required to run the EF algorithms, the current estimate is 2000 state off the art processors, can be provided in remote, CERN-affiliated institutes, if a suitable network connection between CERN and the remote site could be achieved. The system is composed of two PCs equipped with GPS systems, CERN-designed clock cards and Alteon gigabit programmable network interface cards. In the first set of measurements we plan to quantify connection in terms of end-to-end latency, throughput, jitter and packet loss. Running streaming tests and study throughput, IP QoS, routing testing and traffic shaping follows this. Finally, we plan to install the event filter software in a remote location and feed it with data from test beams at CERN. Each of these tests should be preformed with the test traffic treated in the netwo...

  18. Peatlands as Filters for Polluted Mine Water?—A Case Study from an Uranium-Contaminated Karst System in South Africa—Part III: Quantifying the Hydraulic Filter Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Winde

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As Part III of a four-part series on the filter function of peat for uranium (U, this paper focuses on the hydraulic component of a conceptual filter model introduced in Part II. This includes the quantification of water flow through the wetland as a whole, which was largely unknown and found to be significantly higher that anticipated. Apart from subaquatic artesian springs associated with the underlying karst aquifer the higher flow volumes were also caused by plumes of polluted groundwater moving laterally into the wetland. Real-time, quasi-continuous in situ measurements of porewater in peat and non-peat sediments indicate that rising stream levels (e.g., during flood conditions lead to the infiltration of stream water into adjacent peat deposits and thus allow for a certain proportion of flood water to be filtered. However, changes in porewater quality triggered by spring rains may promote the remobilization of possibly sorbed U.

  19. A fast filter processor as a part of the trigger logic in an elastic scattering experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon Gjerpe, I.

    1981-01-01

    A fast special purpose processor as a part of the trigger logic in an elastic scattering experiment is described. The decision to incorporate such a processor was taken because the trigger rate was estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than the date taking capability of the on-line minicomputer, a NORD 10. The processor is capable of checking the coplanarity and the opening angle of the two outgoing tracks within about 100 μs. This is done with a spatial resolution of 1 mm by using two points each track given by 3 MWPCs. For comparison this is two orders of magnitude faster than the same algorithm coded in assembly language on a PDP 11/40. The main contribution to this increased speed is due to extensive use of pipelining and parallelism. When running with the processor in the trigger, 75% more elastic events per incoming beam particle were collected, and 3 times as many elastic events per trigger were recorded on to tape for further in-depth analysis, than previously. Due to major improvements in the primary trigger logic this was less than the gain initially anticipated. A first version of the processor was designed and constructed in the CERN DD division by J. Joosten, M. Letheren and B. Martin under the supervision of C. Verkerk. The author was involved in the final design, construction and testing, and subsequently was responsible for the intergration, programming and running of the processor in the experiment. (orig.)

  20. NONLINEAR FILTER METHOD OF GPS DYNAMIC POSITIONING BASED ON BANCROFT ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGQin; TAOBen-zao; ZHAOChao-ying; WANGLi

    2005-01-01

    Because of the ignored items after linearization, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) becomes a form of suboptimal gradient descent algorithm. The emanative tendency exists in GPS solution when the filter equations are ill-posed. The deviation in the estimation cannot be avoided. Furthermore, the true solution may be lost in pseudorange positioning because the linearized pseudorange equations are partial solutions. To solve the above problems in GPS dynamic positioning by using EKF, a closed-form Kalman filter method called the two-stage algorithm is presented for the nonlinear algebraic solution of GPS dynamic positioning based on the global nonlinear least squares closed algorithm--Bancroft numerical algorithm of American. The method separates the spatial parts from temporal parts during processing the GPS filter problems, and solves the nonlinear GPS dynamic positioning, thus getting stable and reliable dynamic positioning solutions.

  1. Kalman filters for assimilating near-surface observations in the Richards equation - Part 2: A dual filter approach for simultaneous retrieval of states and parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, H.; Romano, N.; Chirico, G. B.

    2012-12-01

    We present a dual Kalman Filter (KF) approach for retrieving states and parameters controlling soil water dynamics in a homogenous soil column by using near-surface state observations. The dual Kalman filter couples a standard KF algorithm for retrieving the states and an unscented KF algorithm for retrieving the parameters. We examine the performance of the dual Kalman Filter applied to two alternative state-space formulations of the Richards equation, respectively differentiated by the type of variable employed for representing the states: either the soil water content (θ) or the soil matric pressure head (h). We use a synthetic time-series series of true states and noise corrupted observations and a synthetic time-series of meteorological forcing. The performance analyses account for the effect of the input parameters, the observation depth and the assimilation frequency as well as the relationship between the retrieved states and the assimilated variables. We show that the identifiability of the parameters is strongly conditioned by several factors, such as the initial guess of the unknown parameters, the wet or dry range of the retrieved states, the boundary conditions, as well as the form (h-based or θ-based) of the state-space formulation. State identifiability is instead efficient even with a relatively coarse time-resolution of the assimilated observation. The accuracy of the retrieved states exhibits limited sensitivity to the observation depth and the assimilation frequency.

  2. Components for containment enclosures. Part 4: Ventilation and gas-cleaning systems such as filters, traps, safety and regulation valves, control and protection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    ISO 11933 consists of the following parts, under the general title Components for containment enclosures: Part 1: Glove/bag ports, bungs for glove/bag ports, enclosure rings and interchangeable units; Part 2: Gloves, welded bags, gaiters for remote-handling tongs and for manipulators; Part 3: Transfer systems such as plain doors, airlock chambers, double door transfer systems, leaktight connections for waste drums; Part 4: Ventilation and gas-cleaning systems such as filters, traps, safety and regulation valves, control and protection devices; Part 5: Penetrations for electrical and fluid circuits. This part of ISO 11933 specifies the design criteria and the characteristics of various components used for ventilation and gas-cleaning in containment enclosures. These components are either directly fixed to the containment enclosure wall, or used in the environment of a shielded or unshielded containment enclosure or line of such enclosures. They can be used alone or in conjunction with other mechanical components, including those specified in ISO 11933-1 and ISO 11933-3. This part of ISO 11933 is applicable to: filtering devices, including high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and iodine traps; safety valves and pressure regulators; systems ensuring the mechanical protection of containment enclosures; control and pressure-measurement devices

  3. Kalman filters for assimilating near-surface observations into the Richards equation - Part 2: A dual filter approach for simultaneous retrieval of states and parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, H.; Romano, N.; Chirico, G. B.

    2014-07-01

    This study presents a dual Kalman filter (DSUKF - dual standard-unscented Kalman filter) for retrieving states and parameters controlling the soil water dynamics in a homogeneous soil column, by assimilating near-surface state observations. The DSUKF couples a standard Kalman filter for retrieving the states of a linear solver of the Richards equation, and an unscented Kalman filter for retrieving the parameters of the soil hydraulic functions, which are defined according to the van Genuchten-Mualem closed-form model. The accuracy and the computational expense of the DSUKF are compared with those of the dual ensemble Kalman filter (DEnKF) implemented with a nonlinear solver of the Richards equation. Both the DSUKF and the DEnKF are applied with two alternative state-space formulations of the Richards equation, respectively differentiated by the type of variable employed for representing the states: either the soil water content (θ) or the soil water matric pressure head (h). The comparison analyses are conducted with reference to synthetic time series of the true states, noise corrupted observations, and synthetic time series of the meteorological forcing. The performance of the retrieval algorithms are examined accounting for the effects exerted on the output by the input parameters, the observation depth and assimilation frequency, as well as by the relationship between retrieved states and assimilated variables. The uncertainty of the states retrieved with DSUKF is considerably reduced, for any initial wrong parameterization, with similar accuracy but less computational effort than the DEnKF, when this is implemented with ensembles of 25 members. For ensemble sizes of the same order of those involved in the DSUKF, the DEnKF fails to provide reliable posterior estimates of states and parameters. The retrieval performance of the soil hydraulic parameters is strongly affected by several factors, such as the initial guess of the unknown parameters, the wet or dry

  4. Segmentation precedes face categorization under suboptimal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlijn eVan Den Boomen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both categorization and segmentation processes play a crucial role in face perception. However, the functional relation between these subprocesses is currently unclear. The present study investigates the temporal relation between segmentation-related and category-selective responses in the brain, using electroencephalography (EEG. Surface segmentation and category content were both manipulated using texture-defined objects, including faces. This allowed us to study brain activity related to segmentation and to categorization. In the main experiment, participants viewed texture-defined objects for a duration of 800 ms. EEG results revealed that segmentation-related responses precede category-selective responses. Three additional experiments revealed that the presence and timing of categorization depends on stimulus properties and presentation duration. Photographic objects were presented for a long and short (92 ms duration and evoked fast category-selective responses in both cases. On the other hand, presentation of texture-defined objects for a short duration only evoked segmentation-related but no category-selective responses. Category-selective responses were much slower when evoked by texture-defined than by photographic objects. We suggest that in case of categorization of objects under suboptimal conditions, such as when low-level stimulus properties are not sufficient for fast object categorization, segmentation facilitates the slower categorization process.

  5. Segmentation precedes face categorization under suboptimal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Boomen, Carlijn; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Snijders, Tineke M; Kemner, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Both categorization and segmentation processes play a crucial role in face perception. However, the functional relation between these subprocesses is currently unclear. The present study investigates the temporal relation between segmentation-related and category-selective responses in the brain, using electroencephalography (EEG). Surface segmentation and category content were both manipulated using texture-defined objects, including faces. This allowed us to study brain activity related to segmentation and to categorization. In the main experiment, participants viewed texture-defined objects for a duration of 800 ms. EEG results revealed that segmentation-related responses precede category-selective responses. Three additional experiments revealed that the presence and timing of categorization depends on stimulus properties and presentation duration. Photographic objects were presented for a long and short (92 ms) duration and evoked fast category-selective responses in both cases. On the other hand, presentation of texture-defined objects for a short duration only evoked segmentation-related but no category-selective responses. Category-selective responses were much slower when evoked by texture-defined than by photographic objects. We suggest that in case of categorization of objects under suboptimal conditions, such as when low-level stimulus properties are not sufficient for fast object categorization, segmentation facilitates the slower categorization process.

  6. Optimization of filter loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, J.H.; Gardiner, D.E.; Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Herald, CA)

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of 10 CFR Part 61 has created potential difficulties in the disposal of spent cartridge filters. When this report was prepared, Rancho Seco had no method of packaging and disposing of class B or C filters. This work examined methods to minimize the total operating cost of cartridge filters while maintaining them below the class A limit. It was found that by encapsulating filters in cement the filter operating costs could be minimized

  7. Statistically-Efficient Filtering in Impulsive Environments: Weighted Myriad Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G. Gonzalez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear filtering theory has been largely motivated by the characteristics of Gaussian signals. In the same manner, the proposed Myriad Filtering methods are motivated by the need for a flexible filter class with high statistical efficiency in non-Gaussian impulsive environments that can appear in practice. Myriad filters have a solid theoretical basis, are inherently more powerful than median filters, and are very general, subsuming traditional linear FIR filters. The foundation of the proposed filtering algorithms lies in the definition of the myriad as a tunable estimator of location derived from the theory of robust statistics. We prove several fundamental properties of this estimator and show its optimality in practical impulsive models such as the α-stable and generalized-t. We then extend the myriad estimation framework to allow the use of weights. In the same way as linear FIR filters become a powerful generalization of the mean filter, filters based on running myriads reach all of their potential when a weighting scheme is utilized. We derive the “normal” equations for the optimal myriad filter, and introduce a suboptimal methodology for filter tuning and design. The strong potential of myriad filtering and estimation in impulsive environments is illustrated with several examples.

  8. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in the prevention of postoperative infectious complications and sub-optimal recovery from operation in patients with colorectal cancer and increased preoperative risk (ASA 3 and 4). Protocol of a controlled clinical trial developed by consensus of an international study group. Part three: individual patient, complication algorithm and quality manage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stinner, B.; Bauhofer, A.; Lorenz, W.; Rothmund, M.; Plaul, U.; Torossian, A.; Celik, I.; Sitter, H.; Koller, M.; Black, A.; Duda, D.; Encke, A.; Greger, B.; Goor, H. van; Hanisch, E.; Hesterberg, R.; Klose, K.J.; Lacaine, F.; Lorijn, R.H.; Margolis, C.; Neugebauer, E.; Nystrom, P.O.; Reemst, P.H.M.; Schein, M.; Solovera, J.

    2001-01-01

    GENERAL DESIGN: Presentation of a new type of a study protocol for evaluation of the effectiveness of an immune modifier (rhG-CSF, filgrastim): prevention of postoperative infectious complications and of sub-optimal recovery from operation in patients with colorectal cancer and increased

  9. Unscented Kalman filter for SINS alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhanxin; Gao Yanan; Chen Jiabin

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the filter accuracy for the nonlinear error model of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) alignment, Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is presented for simulation with stationary base and moving base of SINS alignment.Simulation results show the superior performance of this approach when compared with classical suboptimal techniques such as extended Kalman filter in cases of large initial misalignment.The UKF has good performance in case of small initial misalignment.

  10. Biotrickling filter modeling for styrene abatement. Part 1: Model development, calibration and validation on an industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Valero, Pau; Dorado, Antonio D; Martínez-Soria, Vicente; Gabaldón, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    A three-phase dynamic mathematical model based on mass balances describing the main processes in biotrickling filtration: convection, mass transfer, diffusion, and biodegradation was calibrated and validated for the simulation of an industrial styrene-degrading biotrickling filter. The model considered the key features of the industrial operation of biotrickling filters: variable conditions of loading and intermittent irrigation. These features were included in the model switching from the mathematical description of periods with and without irrigation. Model equations were based on the mass balances describing the main processes in biotrickling filtration: convection, mass transfer, diffusion, and biodegradation. The model was calibrated with steady-state data from a laboratory biotrickling filter treating inlet loads at 13-74 g C m -3 h -1 and at empty bed residence time of 30-15 s. The model predicted the dynamic emission in the outlet of the biotrickling filter, simulating the small peaks of concentration occurring during irrigation. The validation of the model was performed using data from a pilot on-site biotrickling filter treating styrene installed in a fiber-reinforced facility. The model predicted the performance of the biotrickling filter working under high-oscillating emissions at an inlet load in a range of 5-23 g C m -3 h -1 and at an empty bed residence time of 31 s for more than 50 days, with a goodness of fit of 0.84. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nomogram for suboptimal cytoreduction at primary surgery for advanced stage ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerestein, Cornelis G; Eijkemans, Marinus J; Bakker, Jeanette; Elgersma, Otto E; van der Burg, Maria E L; Kooi, Geertruida S; Burger, Curt W

    2011-11-01

    Maximal cytoreduction to minimal residual tumor is the most important determinant of prognosis in patients with advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Preoperative prediction of suboptimal cytoreduction, defined as residual tumor >1 cm, could guide treatment decisions and improve counseling. The objective of this study was to identify predictive computed tomographic (CT) scan and clinical parameters for suboptimal cytoreduction at primary cytoreductive surgery for advanced stage EOC and to generate a nomogram with the identified parameters, which would be easy to use in daily clinical practice. Between October 2005 and December 2008, all patients with primary surgery for suspected advanced stage EOC at six participating teaching hospitals in the South Western part of the Netherlands entered the study protocol. To investigate independent predictors of suboptimal cytoreduction, a Cox proportional hazard model with backward stepwise elimination was utilized. One hundred and fifteen patients with FIGO stage III/IV EOC entered the study protocol. Optimal cytoreduction was achieved in 52 (45%) patients. A suboptimal cytoreduction was predicted by preoperative blood platelet count (p=0.1990; odds ratio (OR)=1.002), diffuse peritoneal thickening (DPT) (p=0.0074; OR=3.021), and presence of ascites on at least two thirds of CT scan slices (p=0.0385; OR=2.294) with a for-optimism corrected c-statistic of 0.67. Suboptimal cytoreduction was predicted by preoperative platelet count, DPT and presence of ascites. The generated nomogram can, after external validation, be used to estimate surgical outcome and to identify those patients, who might benefit from alternative treatment approaches.

  12. On the Origins of Suboptimality in Human Probabilistic Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerbi, Luigi; Vijayakumar, Sethu; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have been shown to combine noisy sensory information with previous experience (priors), in qualitative and sometimes quantitative agreement with the statistically-optimal predictions of Bayesian integration. However, when the prior distribution becomes more complex than a simple Gaussian, such as skewed or bimodal, training takes much longer and performance appears suboptimal. It is unclear whether such suboptimality arises from an imprecise internal representation of the complex prior, or from additional constraints in performing probabilistic computations on complex distributions, even when accurately represented. Here we probe the sources of suboptimality in probabilistic inference using a novel estimation task in which subjects are exposed to an explicitly provided distribution, thereby removing the need to remember the prior. Subjects had to estimate the location of a target given a noisy cue and a visual representation of the prior probability density over locations, which changed on each trial. Different classes of priors were examined (Gaussian, unimodal, bimodal). Subjects' performance was in qualitative agreement with the predictions of Bayesian Decision Theory although generally suboptimal. The degree of suboptimality was modulated by statistical features of the priors but was largely independent of the class of the prior and level of noise in the cue, suggesting that suboptimality in dealing with complex statistical features, such as bimodality, may be due to a problem of acquiring the priors rather than computing with them. We performed a factorial model comparison across a large set of Bayesian observer models to identify additional sources of noise and suboptimality. Our analysis rejects several models of stochastic behavior, including probability matching and sample-averaging strategies. Instead we show that subjects' response variability was mainly driven by a combination of a noisy estimation of the parameters of the priors, and by

  13. On the origins of suboptimality in human probabilistic inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Acerbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans have been shown to combine noisy sensory information with previous experience (priors, in qualitative and sometimes quantitative agreement with the statistically-optimal predictions of Bayesian integration. However, when the prior distribution becomes more complex than a simple Gaussian, such as skewed or bimodal, training takes much longer and performance appears suboptimal. It is unclear whether such suboptimality arises from an imprecise internal representation of the complex prior, or from additional constraints in performing probabilistic computations on complex distributions, even when accurately represented. Here we probe the sources of suboptimality in probabilistic inference using a novel estimation task in which subjects are exposed to an explicitly provided distribution, thereby removing the need to remember the prior. Subjects had to estimate the location of a target given a noisy cue and a visual representation of the prior probability density over locations, which changed on each trial. Different classes of priors were examined (Gaussian, unimodal, bimodal. Subjects' performance was in qualitative agreement with the predictions of Bayesian Decision Theory although generally suboptimal. The degree of suboptimality was modulated by statistical features of the priors but was largely independent of the class of the prior and level of noise in the cue, suggesting that suboptimality in dealing with complex statistical features, such as bimodality, may be due to a problem of acquiring the priors rather than computing with them. We performed a factorial model comparison across a large set of Bayesian observer models to identify additional sources of noise and suboptimality. Our analysis rejects several models of stochastic behavior, including probability matching and sample-averaging strategies. Instead we show that subjects' response variability was mainly driven by a combination of a noisy estimation of the parameters of the

  14. Balanced microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...

  15. Material characterization and evaluation of Fyrquel effect on the metal part of filters in a system EHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz S, A.; Zenteno S, J.; Robles P, E.; Contreras R, A.; Arganis J, C.; Griz C, M.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, unexpected stoppages in power plants have been associated with problems in electro-hydraulic control systems (EHC) which generally operate with fluids to high pressure resistant to fire, but sensitive to the presence of water and contaminants that can promote damage and malfunction of government and discharge valves. The analysis here presented was performed to two filters prior to the servo valves of an EHC system that came out of service as a result of damage to these components. The study is based on analysis and inspection of metal and filter elements of these devices, integrating both chemical characterization by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of waste as materials that comprise both filters. The assessment made allowed documenting a poor design of the devices, same that promoted the stagnant fluid (Fyrquel), locally modifying the chemical composition of the medium, prompting the activation of auto-catalytic degradation processes that acidified the environment; the acid ph solutions began in susceptible sites of electrochemical corrosion processes which increased the Fyrquel contamination. (Author)

  16. Suboptimal palliative sedation in primary care: an exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pype, Peter; Teuwen, Inge; Mertens, Fien; Sercu, Marij; De Sutter, An

    2018-02-01

    Palliative sedation is a therapeutic option to control refractory symptoms in terminal palliative patients. This study aims at describing the occurrence and characteristics of suboptimal palliative sedations in primary care and at exploring the way general practitioners (GPs) experience suboptimal palliative sedation in their practice. We conducted a mixed methods study with a quantitative prospective survey in primary care and qualitative semi-structured interviews with GPs. The research team defined suboptimal palliative sedation as a time interval until deep sleep >1.5 h and/ or >2 awakenings after the start of the unconsciousness. Descriptive statistics were calculated on the quantitative data. Thematic analysis was used to analyse interview transcripts. We registered 63 palliative sedations in 1181 home deaths, 27 forms were completed. Eleven palliative sedations were suboptimal: eight due to the long time span until deep sleep; three due the number of unintended awakenings. GPs' interview analysis revealed two major themes: the shifting perception of failure and the burden of responsibility. Suboptimal palliative sedation occurs frequently in primary palliative care. Efficient communication towards family members is needed to prevent them from having unrealistic expectations and to prevent putting pressure on the GP to hasten the procedure. Sharing the burden of decision-making during the procedure with other health care professionals might diminish the heavy responsibility as perceived by GPs.

  17. Suboptimal control for drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Il; Sung, Hyung Jin; Xu, Chun Xiao

    2001-01-01

    A suboptimal control law in turbulent pipe flow is derived and tested. Two sensing variables ∂ρ/∂θ / w and ∂ν θ /∂r / w are applied with two actuations φ θ and φ γ . To test the suboptimal control law, direct numerical simulations of turbulent pipe flow at Re τ =150 are performed. When the control law is applied, a 13∼23% drag reduction is achieved. The most effective drag reduction is made at the pair of ∂υ θ /∂r / w and φ γ . An impenetrable virtual wall concept is useful for analyzing the near-wall suction and blowing. The virtual wall concept is useful for analyzing the near-wall behavior of the controlled flow. Comparison of the present suboptimal control with that of turbulent channel flow reveals that the curvature effect is insignificant

  18. Particle analysis on concentrated particle suspensions by transmission fluctuation spectrometry with band-pass filters: part 2. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yamin; Shen, Jianqi; Cai, Xiaoshu; Riebel, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Transmission fluctuation spectrometry (TFS), as a new method of online and real-time particle analysis developed in recent years, can measure the particle size distribution and particle concentration simultaneously. In the preceding paper, high concentration effects on the TFS using band-pass filters were investigated by numerical simulation, and empirical expressions to correct the effects were obtained. This paper presents a study on the TFS measurements in which the particle concentration varies in a very wide dynamic range. Finally, reasonable results on both the particle size distribution and particle concentration are obtained by introducing empirical corrections into the inversion algorithm

  19. Sacral Nerve Stimulation for Constipation: Suboptimal Outcome and Adverse Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Yasuko; Lundby, Lilli; Buntzen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation is an emerging treatment for patients with severe constipation. There has been no substantial report to date on suboptimal outcomes and complications. We report our experience of more than 6 years by focusing on incidents and the management of reportable events.......Sacral nerve stimulation is an emerging treatment for patients with severe constipation. There has been no substantial report to date on suboptimal outcomes and complications. We report our experience of more than 6 years by focusing on incidents and the management of reportable events....

  20. Peatlands as Filters for Polluted Mine Water?—A Case Study from an Uranium-Contaminated Karst System in South Africa—Part II: Examples from Literature and a Conceptual Filter Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Winde

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As the second part of a series of four, this paper reviews a number of case studies of natural uranium attenuation in peat, as well as underlying chemical mechanisms reported in literature. Based on this review, a generic, conceptual, model for peat to act as filter for dissolved uranium (U is developed for guiding subsequent field investigations. The model consists of a chemical and an hydraulic component which is derived largely from data reported in literature as well as from limited field observations. For the chemical model component 10 different processes, each controlled by factors relating to water chemistry, have been identified to govern the attenuation of U in peat via a net balance of immobilization and remobilization. For the hydraulic aspect of the filter model, five different principal modes of U polluted water coming in contact with peat are discussed, focusing on the associated peat-water contact time as a crucial parameter controlling chemical U attenuation. Moreover, links between the two model components are discussed and, based on the integrated conceptual model, possible effects of natural and anthropogenic events on U attenuation in peatlands are outlined. Guided by the model, various site-specific field and laboratory investigations are finally designed to verify how far the identified generic factors and processes are indeed applicable to the Gerhard Minnebron Peatland.

  1. Evaluation of sampling methods for measuring exposure to volatile inorganic acids in workplace air. Part 2: Sampling capacity and breakthrough tests for sodium carbonate-impregnated filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Martine; Oury, Véronique; Rousset, Davy

    2011-11-01

    In France, the MétroPol 009 method used to measure workplace exposure to inorganic acids, such as HF, HCl, and HNO3, consists of a closed-face cassette fitted with a prefilter to collect particles, and two sodium carbonate-impregnated filters to collect acid vapor. This method was compared with other European methods during the development of a three-part standard (ISO 21438) on the determination of inorganic acids in workplace air by ion chromatography. Results of this work, presented in a companion paper, led to a need to go deeper into the performance of the MétroPol 009 method regarding evaluation of the breakthrough of the acids, both alone and in mixtures, interference from particulate salts, the amount of sodium carbonate required to impregnate the sampling filter, the influence of sampler components, and so on. Results enabled improvements to be made to the sampling device with respect to the required amount of sodium carbonate to sample high HCl or HNO3 concentrations (500 μL of 5% Na2CO3 on each of two impregnated filters). In addition, a PVC-A filter used as a prefilter in a sampling device showed a propensity to retain HNO3 vapor so a PTFE filter was considered more suitable for use as a prefilter. Neither the material of the sampling cassette (polystyrene or polypropylene) nor the sampling flowrate (1 L/min or 2 L/min) influenced the performance of the sampling device, as a recovery of about 100% was achieved in all experiments for HNO3, HCl, and HF, as well as HNO3+HF and HNO3+HCl mixtures, over a wide range of concentrations. However, this work points to the possibility of interference between an acid and salts of other acids. For instance, interference can occur through interaction of HNO3 with chloride salts: the stronger the acid, the greater the interference. Methods based on impregnated filters are reliable for quantitative recovery of inorganic volatile acids in workplace atmosphere but are valuable only in the absence of interferents.

  2. Estimation of aerosol particle number distribution with Kalman FilteringPart 2: Simultaneous use of DMPS, APS and nephelometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Viskari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is used to estimate particle size distributions from observations. The focus here is on the practical application of EKF to simultaneously merge information from different types of experimental instruments. Every 10 min, the prior state estimate is updated with size-segregating measurements from Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS as well as integrating measurements from a nephelometer. Error covariances are approximate in our EKF implementation. The observation operator assumes a constant particle density and refractive index. The state estimates are compared to particle size distributions that are a composite of DMPS and APS measurements. The impact of each instrument on the size distribution estimate is studied. Kalman Filtering of DMPS and APS yielded a temporally consistent state estimate. This state estimate is continuous over the overlapping size range of DMPS and APS. Inclusion of the integrating measurements further reduces the effect of measurement noise. Even with the present approximations, EKF is shown to be a very promising method to estimate particle size distribution with observations from different types of instruments.

  3. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  4. Sub-optimal breastfeeding and its associated factors in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, not attending formal education, low birth order and lack of knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding were also negatively associated with exclusive breastfeeding practice. Conclusion: In this study, sub-optimal breast feeding was found to be high. Delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding practices were ...

  5. Suboptimality of Sales Promotions and Improvement Through Channel Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend); H. Soethoudt (Han)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with sales promotions in the form of consumer price discounts in fast-moving consumer goods. First, we show analytically that suboptimality is to be expected with respect to the size of the consumer price discount. This is due to the separate decision making of the

  6. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs......, and interpretability of the question(s) included in the instrument. Both the Discrimination and Reliability parts of the filter have been helpful but were agreed on primarily by consensus of OMERACT participants rather than through explicit evidence-based guidelines. In Filter 2.0 we wanted to improve this definition...

  7. Study of different filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochinal, R.; Rouby, R.

    1959-01-01

    This note first contains a terminology related to filters and to their operation, and then proposes an overview of general characteristics of filters such as load loss with respect to gas rate, efficiency, and clogging with respect to filter pollution. It also indicates standard aerosols which are generally used, how they are dosed, and how efficiency is determined with a standard aerosol. Then, after a presentation of the filtration principle, this note reports the study of several filters: glass wool, filter papers provided by different companies, Teflon foam, English filters, Teflon wool, sintered Teflonite, quartz wool, polyvinyl chloride foam, synthetic filter, sintered bronze. The third part reports the study of some aerosol and dust separators

  8. Tyre-road grip coefficient assessment - Part II: online estimation using instrumented vehicle, extended Kalman filter, and neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Pablo; Mántaras, Daniel A.; Fidalgo, Eloy; Álvarez, Javier; Riva, Paolo; Girón, Pablo; Compadre, Diego; Ferran, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of this work is to determine the limit of safe driving conditions by identifying the maximal friction coefficient in a real vehicle. The study will focus on finding a method to determine this limit before reaching the skid, which is valuable information in the context of traffic safety. Since it is not possible to measure the friction coefficient directly, it will be estimated using the appropriate tools in order to get the most accurate information. A real vehicle is instrumented to collect information of general kinematics and steering tie-rod forces. A real-time algorithm is developed to estimate forces and aligning torque in the tyres using an extended Kalman filter and neural networks techniques. The methodology is based on determining the aligning torque; this variable allows evaluation of the behaviour of the tyre. It transmits interesting information from the tyre-road contact and can be used to predict the maximal tyre grip and safety margin. The maximal grip coefficient is estimated according to a knowledge base, extracted from computer simulation of a high detailed three-dimensional model, using Adams® software. The proposed methodology is validated and applied to real driving conditions, in which maximal grip and safety margin are properly estimated.

  9. A hybrid nudging-ensemble Kalman filter approach to data assimilation. Part I: application in the Lorenz system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Lei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid data assimilation approach combining nudging and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF for dynamic analysis and numerical weather prediction is explored here using the non-linear Lorenz three-variable model system with the goal of a smooth, continuous and accurate data assimilation. The hybrid nudging-EnKF (HNEnKF computes the hybrid nudging coefficients from the flow-dependent, time-varying error covariance matrix from the EnKF's ensemble forecasts. It extends the standard diagonal nudging terms to additional off-diagonal statistical correlation terms for greater inter-variable influence of the innovations in the model's predictive equations to assist in the data assimilation process. The HNEnKF promotes a better fit of an analysis to data compared to that achieved by either nudging or incremental analysis update (IAU. When model error is introduced, it produces similar or better root mean square errors compared to the EnKF while minimising the error spikes/discontinuities created by the intermittent EnKF. It provides a continuous data assimilation with better inter-variable consistency and improved temporal smoothness than that of the EnKF. Data assimilation experiments are also compared to the ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS. The HNEnKF has similar or better temporal smoothness than that of the EnKS, and with much smaller central processing unit (CPU time and data storage requirements.

  10. Factors associated with suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiamsakul, Awachana; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Ditangco, Rossana; Li, Patrick CK; Phanuphak, Praphan; Sirisanthana, Thira; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Kantipong, Pacharee; Lee, Christopher KC; Mustafa, Mahiran; Merati, Tuti; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Singtoroj, Thida; Law, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) plays an important role in treatment outcomes. It is crucial to identify factors influencing adherence in order to optimize treatment responses. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of, and factors associated with, suboptimal adherence (SubAdh) in the first 24 months of ART in an Asian HIV cohort. Methods As part of a prospective resistance monitoring study, the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance Monitoring Study (TASER-M) collected patients’ adherence based on the World Health Organization-validated Adherence Visual Analogue Scale. SubAdh was defined in two ways: (i) 14 days. Time was divided into four intervals: 0–6, 6–12, 12–18 and 18–24 months. Factors associated with SubAdh were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results Out of 1316 patients, 32% ever reported 2 assessments per patient per year had an odds ratio (OR)=0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) (0.55 to 0.90), p=0.006), compared to sites with ≤2 assessments per patient per year. Compared to heterosexual exposure, SubAdh was higher in injecting drug users (IDUs) (OR=1.92, 95% CI (1.23 to 3.00), p=0.004) and lower in homosexual exposure (OR=0.52, 95% CI (0.38 to 0.71), p<0.001). Patients taking a nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor (NRTI+PI) combination were less likely to report adherence <100% (OR=0.36, 95% CI (0.20 to 0.67), p=0.001) compared to patients taking an NRTI and non-nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI+NNRTI) combination. SubAdh decreased with increasing time on ART (all p<0.001). Similar associations were found with adherence <95% as the outcome. Conclusions We found that SubAdh, defined as either <100% and <95%, was associated with mode of HIV exposure, ART regimen, time on ART and frequency of adherence measurement. The more frequently sites assessed patients, the lower the SubAdh, possibly reflecting site resourcing for patient counselling. Although social

  11. Suboptimal processor for anomaly detection for system surveillance and diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciftcioglu, Oe.; Hoogenboom, J.E.; Dam, H. van

    1989-06-01

    Anomaly detection for nuclear reactor surveillance and diagnosis is described. The residual noise obtained as a result of autoregressive (AR) modelling is essential to obtain high sensitivity for anomaly detection. By means of the method of hypothesis testing a suboptimal anomaly detection processor is devised for system surveillance and diagnosis. Experiments are carried out to investigate the performance of the processor, which is in particular of interest for on-line and real-time applications.

  12. Visually suboptimal bananas: How ripeness affects consumer expectation and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    2018-01-01

    One reason for the significant amount of food that is wasted in developed countries is that consumers often expect visually suboptimal food as being less palatable. Using bananas as example, the objective of this study was to determine how appearance affects consumer overall liking, the rating of sensory attributes, purchase intention, and the intended use of bananas. The ripeness degree (RD) of the samples was adjusted to RD 5 (control) and RD 7 (more ripened, visually suboptimal). After preliminary experiments, a total of 233 participants were asked to judge their satisfaction with the intensity of sensory attributes that referred to flavor, taste, and texture using just-about-right scales. Subjects who received peeled samples were asked after tasting, whereas subjects who received unpeeled bananas judged expectation and, after peeling and tasting, perception. Expected overall liking and purchase intention were significantly lower for RD 7 bananas. Purchase intention was still significantly different between RD 5 and RD 7 after tasting, whereas no difference in overall liking was observed. Significant differences between RD 5 and RD 7 were observed when asking participants for their intended use of the bananas. Concerning the sensory attributes, penalty analysis revealed that only the firmness of the RD 7 bananas was still not just-about-right after tasting. The importance that consumers attribute to the shelf-life of food had a pronounced impact on purchase intention of bananas with different ripeness degree. In the case of suboptimal bananas, the results demonstrate a positive relationship between the sensory perception and overall liking and purchase intention. Convincing consumers that visually suboptimal food is still tasty is of high relevance for recommending different ways of communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hungry pigeons make suboptimal choices, less hungry pigeons do not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laude, Jennifer R; Pattison, Kristina F; Zentall, Thomas R

    2012-10-01

    Hungry animals will often choose suboptimally by being attracted to reliable signals for food that occur infrequently (they gamble) over less reliable signals for food that occur more often. That is, pigeons prefer an option that 50 % of the time provides them with a reliable signal for the appearance of food but 50 % of the time provides them with a reliable signal for the absence of food (overall 50 % reinforcement) over an alternative that always provides them with a signal for the appearance of food 75 % of the time (overall 75 % reinforcement). The pigeons appear to choose impulsively for the possibility of obtaining the reliable signal for reinforcement. There is evidence that greater hunger is associated with greater impulsivity. We tested the hypothesis that if the pigeons were less hungry, they would be less impulsive and, thus, would choose more optimally (i.e., on the basis of the overall probability of reinforcement). We found that hungry pigeons choose the 50 % reinforcement alternative suboptimally but less hungry pigeons prefer the more optimal 75 % reinforcement. Paradoxically, pigeons that needed the food more received less of it. These findings have implications for how level of motivation may also affect human suboptimal choice (e.g., purchase of lottery tickets and playing slot machines).

  14. Action-Dependent Photobiomodulation on Health, Suboptimal Health, and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timon Cheng-Yi Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The global photobiomodulation (PBM on an organism was studied in terms of function-specific homeostasis (FSH and scale-free functional network in this paper. A function can be classified into a normal function in its FSH and a dysfunctional function far from its FSH. An FSH-specific stress (FSS disrupting an FSH can also be classified into a successful stress in its FSS-specific homeostasis (FSSH and a chronic stress far from its FSSH. The internal functions of an organism can be divided into essential, special nonessential, and general nonessential functions. Health may be defined as a state of an organism in which all the essential and special nonessential functions are normal or their stresses are successful. Suboptimal health may be defined as a state of a disease-free organism in which only some special nonessential functions are dysfunctional in comparison with its healthy state. Disease may be defined as a state of an organism which is not in both health and suboptimal health. The global PBM of health, suboptimal health, or disease suggested that the PBM may depend on the organism action.

  15. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  16. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  17. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Moniek S. E.; Schmand, Ben; Wekking, Ellie M.; Hageman, Gerard; Deelman, Betto G.

    2003-01-01

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  18. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, MSE; Schmand, B; Wekking, EM; Hageman, G; Deelman, BG

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  19. Rectifier Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Bladyko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains definition of a smoothing factor which is suitable for any rectifier filter. The formulae of complex smoothing factors have been developed for simple and complex passive filters. The paper shows conditions for application of calculation formulae and filters

  20. Optimal inference with suboptimal models: Addiction and active Bayesian inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H.B.; Mathys, Christoph; Dolan, Ray; Wurst, Friedrich; Kronbichler, Martin; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    When casting behaviour as active (Bayesian) inference, optimal inference is defined with respect to an agent’s beliefs – based on its generative model of the world. This contrasts with normative accounts of choice behaviour, in which optimal actions are considered in relation to the true structure of the environment – as opposed to the agent’s beliefs about worldly states (or the task). This distinction shifts an understanding of suboptimal or pathological behaviour away from aberrant inference as such, to understanding the prior beliefs of a subject that cause them to behave less ‘optimally’ than our prior beliefs suggest they should behave. Put simply, suboptimal or pathological behaviour does not speak against understanding behaviour in terms of (Bayes optimal) inference, but rather calls for a more refined understanding of the subject’s generative model upon which their (optimal) Bayesian inference is based. Here, we discuss this fundamental distinction and its implications for understanding optimality, bounded rationality and pathological (choice) behaviour. We illustrate our argument using addictive choice behaviour in a recently described ‘limited offer’ task. Our simulations of pathological choices and addictive behaviour also generate some clear hypotheses, which we hope to pursue in ongoing empirical work. PMID:25561321

  1. Risk of suboptimal iodine intake in pregnant Norwegian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2013-02-06

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

  2. Suboptimal Choice in Pigeons: Stimulus Value Predicts Choice over Frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron P Smith

    Full Text Available Pigeons have shown suboptimal gambling-like behavior when preferring a stimulus that infrequently signals reliable reinforcement over alternatives that provide greater reinforcement overall. As a mechanism for this behavior, recent research proposed that the stimulus value of alternatives with more reliable signals for reinforcement will be preferred relatively independently of their frequencies. The present study tested this hypothesis using a simplified design of a Discriminative alternative that, 50% of the time, led to either a signal for 100% reinforcement or a blackout period indicative of 0% reinforcement against a Nondiscriminative alternative that always led to a signal that predicted 50% reinforcement. Pigeons showed a strong preference for the Discriminative alternative that remained despite reducing the frequency of the signal for reinforcement in subsequent phases to 25% and then 12.5%. In Experiment 2, using the original design of Experiment 1, the stimulus following choice of the Nondiscriminative alternative was increased to 75% and then to 100%. Results showed that preference for the Discriminative alternative decreased only when the signals for reinforcement for the two alternatives predicted the same probability of reinforcement. The ability of several models to predict this behavior are discussed, but the terminal link stimulus value offers the most parsimonious account of this suboptimal behavior.

  3. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS)—an intermediate state between health and illness—refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work−life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sam...

  4. Investigating the prevalence, predictors, and prognosis of suboptimal statin use early after a non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Richard M; Yin, Peng; Hanson, Anita; FitzGerald, Richard; Morris, Andrew P; Stables, Rod H; Jorgensen, Andrea L; Pirmohamed, Munir

    High-potency statin therapy is recommended in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease but discontinuation, dose reduction, statin switching, and/or nonadherence occur in practice. To determine the prevalence and predictors of deviation from high-potency statin use early after a non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and its association with subsequent major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and all-cause mortality (ACM). A total of 1005 patients from a UK-based prospective NSTE-ACS cohort study discharged on high-potency statin therapy (atorvastatin 80 mg, rosuvastatin 20 mg, or 40 mg daily) were included. At 1 month, patients were divided into constant high-potency statin users, and suboptimal users incorporating statin discontinuation, dose reduction, switching statin to a lower equivalent potency, and/or statin nonadherence. Follow-up was a median of 16 months. There were 156 suboptimal (∼15.5%) and 849 constant statin users. Factors associated in multivariable analysis with suboptimal statin occurrence included female sex (odds ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-2.68) and muscular symptoms (odds ratio 4.28, 95% CI 1.30-14.08). Suboptimal statin use was associated with increased adjusted risks of time to MACE (hazard ratio 2.10, 95% CI 1.25-3.53, P = .005) and ACM (hazard ratio 2.46, 95% CI 1.38-4.39, P = .003). Subgroup analysis confirmed that the increased MACE/ACM risks were principally attributable to statin discontinuation or nonadherence. Conversion to suboptimal statin use is common early after NSTE-ACS and is partly related to muscular symptoms. Statin discontinuation or non-adherence carries an adverse prognosis. Interventions that preserve and enhance statin utilization could improve post NSTE-ACS outcomes. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sub-optimal parenting is associated with schizotypic and anxiety personality traits in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumaki, S G; Roussos, P; Zouraraki, C; Spanoudakis, E; Mavrikaki, M; Tsapakis, E M; Bitsios, P

    2013-05-01

    Part of the variation in personality characteristics has been attributed to the child-parent interaction and sub-optimal parenting has been associated with psychiatric morbidity. In the present study, an extensive battery of personality scales (Trait Anxiety Inventory, Behavioural Inhibition/Activation System questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Temperament and Character Inventory, Schizotypal Traits Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were administered in 324 adult healthy males to elucidate the effects of parenting on personality configuration. Personality variables were analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the factors "Schizotypy", "Anxiety", "Behavioural activation", "Novelty seeking" and "Reward dependence" were extracted. Associations between personality factors with PBI "care" and "overprotection" scores were examined with regression analyses. Subjects were divided into "parental style" groups and personality factors were subjected to categorical analyses. "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" were significantly predicted by high maternal overprotection and low paternal care. In addition, the Affectionless control group (low care/high overprotection) had higher "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" compared with the Optimal Parenting group (high care/low overprotection). These results further validate sub-optimal parenting as an important environmental exposure and extend our understanding on the mechanisms by which it increases risk for psychiatric morbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk-Based Maintenance Assessment in the Manufacturing Industry: Minimisation of Suboptimal Prioritisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnayake R.M. Chandima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing firms continuously strive to increase the efficiency and effectiveness in the maintenance management processes. Focus is placed on eliminating the unexpected failures which cause unnecessary costs and the production losses. Risk-based maintenance (RBM strategies enable to address the above through the identification of probability and consequences of potential failures whilst providing a way for prioritisation of maintenance actions based on the risk of possible failures. Such prioritisations enable to identify the optimal maintenance strategy, intervals of maintenance tasks, and optimal level of spare parts inventory. However, the risk assessment activities are performed with the support of a risk matrix. Suboptimal classifications and/or prioritisations arise due to the inherent nature of the risk matrix. This is caused by the fact that there are no means to incorporate actual circumstances at the boundary of the input ranges or at the levels of linguistic data and risk categories. In this paper, a risk matrix is first developed in collaboration with one of the manufacturing firms in Poland. Then, it illustrates the use of fuzzy logic for minimisation of suboptimal prioritisation and/or classifications using a fuzzy inference system (FIS together with illustrative membership functions and a rule base. Finally, an illustrative risk assessment is also demonstrated to illustrate the methodology.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of suboptimal vitamin D status in people living with psychotic disorders: Data from the Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetani, Shuichi; Saha, Sukanta; Eyles, Darryl W; Scott, James G; McGrath, John J

    2017-09-01

    Having sufficient sera concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is important for a range of health outcomes including cardiometabolic diseases. Clinical studies in people with psychotic disorders suggest that a sizable proportion has suboptimal vitamin D status (i.e. vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency). Individuals with psychosis also have many of the risk factors associated with suboptimal vitamin D status such as smoking, obesity, and reduced physical activity. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and socio-demographic and clinical correlates of vitamin D status using a large, population-based sample of adults with psychotic disorders. Data were collected as part of the Survey of High Impact Psychosis, a population-based survey of Australians aged 18-64 years with a psychotic disorder. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentration was measured in 463 participants. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentration was dichotomised into optimal (above 50 nmol/L) and suboptimal (below 50 nmol/L). The influence of a range of socio-demographic and clinical variables on vitamin D status was examined using logistic regression. Nearly half (43.6%) of the participants had suboptimal vitamin D status. Those with (a) increased physical activity or (b) positive symptoms had significantly reduced odds of having suboptimal vitamin D status. However, there were no significant associations between suboptimal vitamin D status and other psychiatric symptom measures or cardiometabolic risk factors. Many people with psychotic disorders have suboptimal vitamin D status. As part of the routine assessment of physical health status, clinicians should remain mindful of vitamin D status in this vulnerable population and encourage the use of appropriate vitamin D supplements.

  8. Suboptimal Criterion Learning in Static and Dynamic Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyse H Norton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans often make decisions based on uncertain sensory information. Signal detection theory (SDT describes detection and discrimination decisions as a comparison of stimulus "strength" to a fixed decision criterion. However, recent research suggests that current responses depend on the recent history of stimuli and previous responses, suggesting that the decision criterion is updated trial-by-trial. The mechanisms underpinning criterion setting remain unknown. Here, we examine how observers learn to set a decision criterion in an orientation-discrimination task under both static and dynamic conditions. To investigate mechanisms underlying trial-by-trial criterion placement, we introduce a novel task in which participants explicitly set the criterion, and compare it to a more traditional discrimination task, allowing us to model this explicit indication of criterion dynamics. In each task, stimuli were ellipses with principal orientations drawn from two categories: Gaussian distributions with different means and equal variance. In the covert-criterion task, observers categorized a displayed ellipse. In the overt-criterion task, observers adjusted the orientation of a line that served as the discrimination criterion for a subsequently presented ellipse. We compared performance to the ideal Bayesian learner and several suboptimal models that varied in both computational and memory demands. Under static and dynamic conditions, we found that, in both tasks, observers used suboptimal learning rules. In most conditions, a model in which the recent history of past samples determines a belief about category means fit the data best for most observers and on average. Our results reveal dynamic adjustment of discrimination criterion, even after prolonged training, and indicate how decision criteria are updated over time.

  9. Reoperation for suboptimal outcomes after deep brain stimulation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Tina-Marie; Foote, Kelly D; Fernandez, Hubert H; Sudhyadhom, Atchar; Rodriguez, Ramon L; Zeilman, Pamela; Jacobson, Charles E; Okun, Michael S

    2008-10-01

    To examine a case series of reoperations for deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads in which clinical scenarios revealed suboptimal outcome from a previous operation. Suboptimally placed DBS leads are one potential reason for unsatisfactory results after surgery for Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), or dystonia. In a previous study of patients who experienced suboptimal results, 19 of 41 patients had misplaced leads. Similarly, another report commented that lead placement beyond a 2- to 3-mm window resulted in inadequate clinical benefit, and, in 1 patient, revision improved outcome. The goal of the current study was to perform an unblinded retrospective chart review of DBS patients with unsatisfactory outcomes who presented for reoperation. Patients who had DBS lead replacements after reoperation were assessed with the use of a retrospective review of an institutional review board-approved movement disorders database. Cases of reoperation for suboptimal clinical benefit were included, and cases of replacement of DBS leads caused by infection or hardware malfunction were excluded. Data points studied included age, disease duration, diagnosis, motor outcomes (the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale III in PD, the Tremor Rating Scale in ET, and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale in dystonia), quality of life (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 in PD), and the Clinician Global Impression scale. The data from before and after reoperation were examined to determine the estimated impact of repeat surgery. There were 11 patients with PD, 7 with ET, and 4 with dystonia. The average age of the PD group was 52 years, the disease duration was 10 years, and the average vector distance of the location of the active DBS contact was adjusted 5.5 mm. Six patients (54%) with PD had preoperative off medication on DBS Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale scores that could be compared with postoperative off medication on DBS scores. The average improvement across this

  10. Filter for underground mining for suction of preferably full cut and part cut machines, to be provided with preheated air, to avoid dropping below the dew point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.

    1976-10-28

    Particularly when cutting hard rock, the cutting room to be provided with suction is wetted with water from nozzles, which, when sucking out air containing dust with high humidity leads to encrustation in the filter cloth. In order to avoid this, it is proposed that the air should be heated, using heat from the motor driving the ventilator, so that one avoids dropping below the dew point in the filter.

  11. Filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to liquid filters, precoated by replaceable powders, which are used in the production of ultra pure water required for steam generation of electricity. The filter elements are capable of being installed and removed by remote control so that they can be used in nuclear power reactors. (UK)

  12. Device for filtering gaseous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzel, M.

    1978-01-01

    The air filter system for gaseous radioactive substances consists of a vertical chamber with filter material (charcoal, e.g. impregnated). On one side of the chamber there is an inlet compartment and an outlet compartment. On the other side a guiding compartment turns the gas flow coming from the natural-air side through the lower part of filter chamber to the upper part of the filter. The gas flow leaves the upper part through the outlet conpartment as cleaned-air flow. The filter material may be filled into the chamber from above and drawn off below. For better utilization of the filter material the filter chamber is separated by means of a wall between the inlet and outlet compartment. This partition wall consist of two sheets arranged one above the other provided with slots which may be superposed in alignment. In this case filter material is tickling from the upper part of the chamber into the lower part avoiding to form a crater in the filter bed. (DG) [de

  13. Energy expenditures & physical activity in rats with chronic suboptimal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Russell; Lifshitz, Fima

    2006-01-31

    Sub-optimally nourished rats show reduced growth, biochemical and physiological changes. However, no one has assessed metabolic rate adaptations in rats subjected to chronic suboptimal nutrition (CSN). In this study energy expenditure (EE; kcal/100 g body weight) and physical activity (PA; oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight) were assessed in rats subjected to three levels of CSN. Body weight gain was diminished (76.7 +/- 12.0 and 61.6 +/- 11.0 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of the ad-libitum fed controls which gained more weight (148.5 +/- 32.3 g). The rats fed 80% gained weight similarly to controls (136.3 +/- 10.5 g). Percent Fat-free body mass was reduced (143.8 +/- 8.7 and 142.0 +/- 7.6 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of ad-libitum, but not in those fed 80% (200.8 +/- 17.5 g) as compared with controls (201.6 +/- 33.4 g). Body fat (g) decreased in rats fed 80% (19.7 +/- 5.3), 70% (15.3 +/- 3.5) and 60% (9.6 +/- 2.7) of ad-libitum in comparison to controls (26.0 +/- 6.7). EE and PA were also altered by CSN. The control rats increased their EE and PA during the dark periods by 1.4 +/- 0.8 and 1.7 +/- 1.1 respectively, as compared with light the period; whereas CSN rats fed 80 and 70% of ad-libitum energy intake had reduced EE and PA during the dark periods as compared with the light period EE(7.5 +/- 1.4 and 7.8 +/- 0.6 vs. 9.0 +/- 1.2 and 9.7 +/- 0.8; p vs. 4.1 +/- 0.9 and 2.4 +/- 0.4; p vs. 0.95 +/- 0.03 and 0.91 +/- 0.05 p light (7.1 +/- 1.4) and dark period (6.2 +/- 1.0) EE and PA (3.4 +/- 0.9 and 2.5 +/- 0.5 respectively) were reduced in rats fed 60% of ad-libitum energy intake. CSN rats adapt to mild energy restriction by reducing body fat, EE and PA mainly during the dark period while growth proceeds and lean body mass is preserved. At higher levels of energy restrictions there is decreased growth, body fat and lean mass. Moreover EE and PA are also reduced during both light and dark periods.

  14. Energy expenditures & physical activity in rats with chronic suboptimal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifshitz Fima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-optimally nourished rats show reduced growth, biochemical and physiological changes. However, no one has assessed metabolic rate adaptations in rats subjected to chronic suboptimal nutrition (CSN. In this study energy expenditure (EE; kcal/100 g body weight and physical activity (PA; oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight were assessed in rats subjected to three levels of CSN. Results Body weight gain was diminished (76.7 ± 12.0 and 61.6 ± 11.0 g in rats fed 70 and 60% of the ad-libitum fed controls which gained more weight (148.5 ± 32.3 g. The rats fed 80% gained weight similarly to controls (136.3 ± 10.5 g. Percent Fat-free body mass was reduced (143.8 ± 8.7 and 142.0 ± 7.6 g in rats fed 70 and 60% of ad-libitum, but not in those fed 80% (200.8 ± 17.5 g as compared with controls (201.6 ± 33.4 g. Body fat (g decreased in rats fed 80% (19.7 ± 5.3, 70% (15.3 ± 3.5 and 60% (9.6 ± 2.7 of ad-libitum in comparison to controls (26.0 ± 6.7. EE and PA were also altered by CSN. The control rats increased their EE and PA during the dark periods by 1.4 ± 0.8 and 1.7 ± 1.1 respectively, as compared with light the period; whereas CSN rats fed 80 and 70% of ad-libitum energy intake had reduced EE and PA during the dark periods as compared with the light period EE(7.5 ± 1.4 and 7.8 ± 0.6 vs. 9.0 ± 1.2 and 9.7 ± 0.8; p Conclusion CSN rats adapt to mild energy restriction by reducing body fat, EE and PA mainly during the dark period while growth proceeds and lean body mass is preserved. At higher levels of energy restrictions there is decreased growth, body fat and lean mass. Moreover EE and PA are also reduced during both light and dark periods.

  15. Numerical study of canister filters with alternatives filter cap configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A. N.; Daud, A. R.; Abdullah, K.; Seri, S. M.; Razali, M. A.; Hushim, M. F.; Khalid, A.

    2017-09-01

    Air filtration system and filter play an important role in getting a good quality air into turbo machinery such as gas turbine. The filtration system and filter has improved the quality of air and protect the gas turbine part from contaminants which could bring damage. During separation of contaminants from the air, pressure drop cannot be avoided but it can be minimized thus helps to reduce the intake losses of the engine [1]. This study is focused on the configuration of the filter in order to obtain the minimal pressure drop along the filter. The configuration used is the basic filter geometry provided by Salutary Avenue Manufacturing Sdn Bhd. and two modified canister filter cap which is designed based on the basic filter model. The geometries of the filter are generated by using SOLIDWORKS software and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to analyse and simulates the flow through the filter. In this study, the parameters of the inlet velocity are 0.032 m/s, 0.063 m/s, 0.094 m/s and 0.126 m/s. The total pressure drop produce by basic, modified filter 1 and 2 is 292.3 Pa, 251.11 Pa and 274.7 Pa. The pressure drop reduction for the modified filter 1 is 41.19 Pa and 14.1% lower compared to basic filter and the pressure drop reduction for modified filter 2 is 17.6 Pa and 6.02% lower compared to the basic filter. The pressure drops for the basic filter are slightly different with the Salutary Avenue filter due to limited data and experiment details. CFD software are very reliable in running a simulation rather than produces the prototypes and conduct the experiment thus reducing overall time and cost in this study.

  16. Adaptive suboptimal second-order sliding mode control for microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incremona, Gian Paolo; Cucuzzella, Michele; Ferrara, Antonella

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with the design of adaptive suboptimal second-order sliding mode (ASSOSM) control laws for grid-connected microgrids. Due to the presence of the inverter, of unpredicted load changes, of switching among different renewable energy sources, and of electrical parameters variations, the microgrid model is usually affected by uncertain terms which are bounded, but with unknown upper bounds. To theoretically frame the control problem, the class of second-order systems in Brunovsky canonical form, characterised by the presence of matched uncertain terms with unknown bounds, is first considered. Four adaptive strategies are designed, analysed and compared to select the most effective ones to be applied to the microgrid case study. In the first two strategies, the control amplitude is continuously adjusted, so as to arrive at dominating the effect of the uncertainty on the controlled system. When a suitable control amplitude is attained, the origin of the state space of the auxiliary system becomes attractive. In the other two strategies, a suitable blend between two components, one mainly working during the reaching phase, the other being the predominant one in a vicinity of the sliding manifold, is generated, so as to reduce the control amplitude in steady state. The microgrid system in a grid-connected operation mode, controlled via the selected ASSOSM control strategies, exhibits appreciable stability properties, as proved theoretically and shown in simulation.

  17. Robust Adaptive LCMV Beamformer Based On An Iterative Suboptimal Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiansheng Guo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main drawback of closed-form solution of linearly constrained minimum variance (CF-LCMV beamformer is the dilemma of acquiring long observation time for stable covariance matrix estimates and short observation time to track dynamic behavior of targets, leading to poor performance including low signal-noise-ratio (SNR, low jammer-to-noise ratios (JNRs and small number of snapshots. Additionally, CF-LCMV suffers from heavy computational burden which mainly comes from two matrix inverse operations for computing the optimal weight vector. In this paper, we derive a low-complexity Robust Adaptive LCMV beamformer based on an Iterative Suboptimal solution (RAIS-LCMV using conjugate gradient (CG optimization method. The merit of our proposed method is threefold. Firstly, RAIS-LCMV beamformer can reduce the complexity of CF-LCMV remarkably. Secondly, RAIS-LCMV beamformer can adjust output adaptively based on measurement and its convergence speed is comparable. Finally, RAIS-LCMV algorithm has robust performance against low SNR, JNRs, and small number of snapshots. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of our proposed algorithms.

  18. Application of the tuning algorithm with the least squares approximation to the suboptimal control algorithm for integrating objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzishchin, V. F.; Merzlikina, E. I.; Van Va, Hoang

    2017-11-01

    The problem of PID and PI-algorithms tuning by means of the approximation by the least square method of the frequency response of a linear algorithm to the sub-optimal algorithm is considered. The advantage of the method is that the parameter values are obtained through one cycle of calculation. Recommendations how to choose the parameters of the least square method taking into consideration the plant dynamics are given. The parameters mentioned are the time constant of the filter, the approximation frequency range and the correction coefficient for the time delay parameter. The problem is considered for integrating plants for some practical cases (the level control system in a boiler drum). The transfer function of the suboptimal algorithm is determined relating to the disturbance that acts in the point of the control impact input, it is typical for thermal plants. In the recommendations it is taken into consideration that the overregulation for the transient process when the setpoint is changed is also limited. In order to compare the results the systems under consideration are also calculated by the classical method with the limited frequency oscillation index. The results given in the paper can be used by specialists dealing with tuning systems with the integrating plants.

  19. Embryo transcriptome response to environmental factors: implication for its survival under suboptimal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Tesfaye, Dawit; Hoelker, Michael; Schellander, Karl

    2014-09-01

    After its formation, the mammalian zygote undergoes a series of morphological, physiological and biochemical alterations prior to undergoing cell differentiation. The zygote is then transformed into a complex multicellular organism in a defined time window which may differ between species. These orderly embryonic developmental events are tightly regulated by temporal and spatial activation and/or deactivation of genes and gene products. This phenomenon may in turn be dependent on the intrinsic characteristics of the embryo itself, the physiological and biochemical composition of the maternal environment or by in vitro culture condition. In fact, when embryos are subjected to suboptimal culture condition, some of the embryos may escape the environmental stress by activating certain transcripts and some others which are unable to activate anti-stress agents may die or exhibit abnormal development. This phenomenon may partly depend on transcripts and proteins stored during oogenesis. Indeed after embryonic genome activation, the embryo destiny is governed by its own transcripts and protein synthesized over time. Therefore, this review begins by highlighting the type and quality of transcripts accumulated or degraded during oogenesis and its impact on the embryo survival. Thereafter, emphasis is given to the transcriptome response of preimplantation embryos to suboptimal culture conditions. In addition, the long term effect of preimplantation culture environment on the transcriptome response embryos/fetus during peri and post implantation has been addressed. Finally, a brief summary of the epigenetic control of culture induced genetic variation of the embryos has been highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  1. The paradoxical effect of low reward probabilities in suboptimal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Inês; Pinto, Carlos; Machado, Armando; Vasconcelos, Marco

    2018-04-01

    When offered a choice between 2 alternatives, animals sometimes prefer the option yielding less food. For instance, pigeons and starlings prefer an option that on 20% of the trials presents a stimulus always followed by food, and on the remaining 80% of the trials presents a stimulus never followed by food (the Informative Option), over an option that provides food on 50% of the trials regardless of the stimulus presented (the Noninformative Option). To explain this suboptimal behavior, it has been hypothesized that animals ignore (or do not engage with) the stimulus that is never followed by food in the Informative Option. To assess when pigeons attend to the stimulus usually not followed by food, we increased the probability of reinforcement, p, in the presence of that stimulus. Across 2 experiments, we found that the value of the Informative Option decreased with p. To account for the results, we added to the Reinforcement Rate Model (and also to the Hyperbolic Discounting Model) an engagement function, f(p), that specified the likelihood the animal attends to a stimulus followed by reward with probability p, and then derived the model predictions for 2 forms of f(p), a linear function, and an all-or-none threshold function. Both models predicted the observed findings with a linear engagement function: The higher the probability of reinforcement after a stimulus, the higher the probability of engaging the stimulus, and, surprisingly, the less the value of the option comprising the stimulus. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Shallow water table effects on water, sediment, and pesticide transport in vegetative filter strips - Part 1: nonuniform infiltration and soil water redistribution

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Carpena, R.; Lauvernet, C.; Carluer, N.

    2018-01-01

    Vegetation buffers like vegetative filter strips (VFSs) are often used to protect water bodies from surface runoff pollution from disturbed areas. Their typical placement in floodplains often results in the presence of a seasonal shallow water table (WT) that can decrease soil infiltration and increase surface pollutant transport during a rainfall-runoff event. Simple and robust components of hydrological models are needed to analyze the impacts of WT in the landscape. To si...

  3. Fremont Tree-Well Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Fremont Tree-Well Filter Spine project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  4. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  5. Filter This

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Barbakoff

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes Audrey Barbakoff, a librarian at the Milwaukee Public Library, and Ahniwa Ferrari, Virtual Experience Manager at the Pierce County Library System in Washington, for a point-counterpoint piece on filtering in libraries. The opinions expressed here are those of the authors, and are not endorsed by their employers. [...

  6. Patterns of marijuana and tobacco use associated with suboptimal self-rated health among US adult ever users of marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Tsai

    2017-06-01

    In conclusion, among adult ever users of marijuana, current tobacco use is high and strongly associated with suboptimal SRH; regular marijuana smoking with or without current tobacco use is significantly associated with suboptimal SRH.

  7. Design Of Real-Time Implementable Distributed Suboptimal Control: An LQR Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    of establishing a communication link between two base stations with minimum energy consumption. We show through simulations that the performance under the proposed framework is close to the optimal performance and the suboptimal policy can be efficiently

  8. Indications for suboptimal low-dose direct oral anticoagulants for non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Umei, MD

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: With good adherence, the clinical course associated with DOACs is comparatively good. In the future, suboptimal low-dose DOAC therapy may serve as an appropriate choice for some patients with a high risk of stroke and bleeding.

  9. Prevalence and Determinants of Suboptimal Vitamin D Levels in a Multiethnic Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Ryan Eyn Kidd; Li, Ling-Jun; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2017-03-22

    This population-based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of suboptimal vitamin D levels (assessed using circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D)) in a multi-ethnic sample of Asian adults. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration of 1139 Chinese, Malay and Indians (40-80 years) were stratified into normal (≥30 ng/mL), and suboptimal (including insufficiency and deficiency, 65 years), Malay and Indian ethnicities (compared to Chinese ethnicity), and higher body mass index, HbA1c, education and income levels were associated with suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration ( p < 0.05). In a population-based sample of Asian adults, approximately 75% had suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration. Targeted interventions and stricter reinforcements of existing guidelines for vitamin D supplementation are needed for groups at risk of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency.

  10. Sub-Optimal Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus – A Local Audit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research: Sub-Optimal Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus – A Local Audit ... despite clinical trial data documenting improved outcomes associated not ... were used to define the Metabolic Syndrome.9 Central obesity was.

  11. Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc PH; Schmand, Ben A; Kessels, Roy PC; Aldenkamp, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the identification of suboptimal performance using an analogue study design. Method. The patient group consisted of 59 mixed-etiology patients; the experimental malingerers were 50 healthy individuals...

  12. Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P.H.; Schmand, Ben A.; Kessels, Roy P.C.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the identification of suboptimal performance using an analogue study design.Method. The patient group consisted of 59 mixed-etiology patients; the experimental malingerers were 50 healthy individuals who ...

  13. Assessment of the pseudo-tracking approach for the calculation of material acceleration and pressure fields from time-resolved PIV: part II. Spatio-temporal filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, P. L.; Schrijer, F. F. J.; van Oudheusden, B. W.

    2018-04-01

    The present study characterises the spatio-temporal filtering associated with pseudo-tracking. A combined theoretical and numerical assessment is performed that uses the relatively simple flow case of a two-dimensional Taylor vortex as analytical test case. An additional experimental assessment considers the more complex flow of a low-speed axisymmetric base flow, for which time-resolved tomographic PIV measurements and microphone measurements were obtained. The results of these assessments show how filtering along Lagrangian tracks leads to amplitude modulation of flow structures. A cut-off track length and spatial resolution are specified to support future applications of the pseudo-tracking approach. The experimental results show a fair agreement between PIV and microphone pressure data in terms of fluctuation levels and pressure frequency spectra. The coherence and correlation between microphone and PIV pressure measurements were found to be substantial and almost independent of the track length, indicating that the low-frequency behaviour of the flow could be reproduced regardless of the track length. It is suggested that a spectral analysis can be used inform the selection of a suitable track length and to estimate the local error margin of reconstructed pressure values.

  14. Material characterization and evaluation of Fyrquel effect on the metal part of filters in a system EHC; Caracterizacion del material y evaluacion del efecto del Fyrquel en la parte metalica de filtros en un sistema EHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz S, A.; Zenteno S, J.; Robles P, E.; Contreras R, A.; Arganis J, C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Griz C, M., E-mail: angeles.diaz@inin.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km. 42.5, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In recent years, unexpected stoppages in power plants have been associated with problems in electro-hydraulic control systems (EHC) which generally operate with fluids to high pressure resistant to fire, but sensitive to the presence of water and contaminants that can promote damage and malfunction of government and discharge valves. The analysis here presented was performed to two filters prior to the servo valves of an EHC system that came out of service as a result of damage to these components. The study is based on analysis and inspection of metal and filter elements of these devices, integrating both chemical characterization by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of waste as materials that comprise both filters. The assessment made allowed documenting a poor design of the devices, same that promoted the stagnant fluid (Fyrquel), locally modifying the chemical composition of the medium, prompting the activation of auto-catalytic degradation processes that acidified the environment; the acid ph solutions began in susceptible sites of electrochemical corrosion processes which increased the Fyrquel contamination. (Author)

  15. Filtered cathodic arc source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45 degree to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures

  16. Influence of Puffing Parameters and Filter Vent Blocking Condition on Nicotine Fate in a Burning Cigarette - Part 1. Full Flavor Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette testing regulations based on more intensive puffing conditions than standard Federal Trade Commission/International Organisation for Standardization (FTC/ISO conditions, together with intentional filter vent-blocking of cigarettes during testing, are currently required in some countries. Recently, an initial recommendation under the auspices of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, has called for international machine-testing of cigarettes with a 55 cc/30 s/2 s puffing regimen after 100% filter vent-blocking. While much is currently known regarding changes in smoke yields with different machine smoking parameters, a more limited understanding of potential changes in smoke composition exists. In the present work, the influence of smoking conditions on nicotine fate in a burning cigarette was studied by gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED using core-injected nicotine-d4. Tobacco rods were injected via a syringe to a fixed length with a constant volume of a methanol solution of known concentration of deuterated nicotine. Four different puffing conditions and two different vent-blocking conditions were studied. GC with mass spectrometric detection was used to identify the deuterium-labeled compounds that gave an enhanced deuterium AED-response. A comparison of the distribution of compounds containing deuterium in the mainstream smoke, sidestream smoke, and cigarette remains (butt and ash of a full flavor cigarette brand under the four smoking conditions studied indicated that a greater percentage of labeled nicotine remained intact during the smoking process as the intensity of the puffing regimen increased. As smoking regimen intensity increased, the amounts of nicotine pyrolysis and oxidation products detected in sidestream smoke decreased, while marginal increases in these compounds were observed in mainstream smoke and in the cigarette butt. The sidestream/mainstream nicotine ratio decreased significantly

  17. Bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M; Komeda, I; Takizaki, K

    1982-01-01

    Bag filters are widely used throughout the cement industry for recovering raw materials and products and for improving the environment. Their general mechanism, performance and advantages are shown in a classification table, and there are comparisons and explanations. The outer and inner sectional construction of the Shinto ultra-jet collector for pulverized coal is illustrated and there are detailed descriptions of dust cloud prevention, of measures used against possible sources of ignition, of oxygen supply and of other topics. Finally, explanations are given of matters that require careful and comprehensive study when selecting equipment.

  18. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  19. Tunable Multiband Microwave Photonic Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mable P. Fok

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for multifunctional devices, the use of cognitive wireless technology to solve the frequency resource shortage problem, as well as the capabilities and operational flexibility necessary to meet ever-changing environment result in an urgent need of multiband wireless communications. Spectral filter is an essential part of any communication systems, and in the case of multiband wireless communications, tunable multiband RF filters are required for channel selection, noise/interference removal, and RF signal processing. Unfortunately, it is difficult for RF electronics to achieve both tunable and multiband spectral filtering. Recent advancements of microwave photonics have proven itself to be a promising candidate to solve various challenges in RF electronics including spectral filtering, however, the development of multiband microwave photonic filtering still faces lots of difficulties, due to the limited scalability and tunability of existing microwave photonic schemes. In this review paper, we first discuss the challenges that were facing by multiband microwave photonic filter, then we review recent techniques that have been developed to tackle the challenge and lead to promising developments of tunable microwave photonic multiband filters. The successful design and implementation of tunable microwave photonic multiband filter facilitate the vision of dynamic multiband wireless communications and radio frequency signal processing for commercial, defense, and civilian applications.

  20. Suboptimal maternal and paternal mental health are associated with child bullying perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-06-01

    This study examines associations between maternal and paternal mental health and child bullying perpetration among school-age children, and whether having one or both parents with suboptimal mental health is associated with bullying. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally-representative, random-digit-dial survey, was analyzed, using a parent-reported bullying measure. Suboptimal mental health was defined as fair/poor (vs. good/very good/excellent) parental self-reported mental and emotional health. Of the 61,613 parents surveyed, more than half were parents of boys and were white, 20% were Latino, 15% African American, and 7% other race/ethnicity. Suboptimal maternal (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.8) and paternal (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.2) mental health are associated with bullying. Compared with children with no parents with suboptimal mental health, children with only one or both parents with suboptimal mental health have higher bullying odds. Addressing the mental health of both parents may prove beneficial in preventing bullying.

  1. In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D. J.; Terry, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the Department of

  2. Exogenous recombinant human growth hormone effects during suboptimal energy and zinc intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duro Debora

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Energy and Zinc (Zn deficiencies have been associated with nutritional related growth retardation as well as growth hormone (GH resistance. In this study, the relationship between suboptimal energy and/or Zn intake and growth in rats and their response to immunoreactive exogenous recombinant human GH (GHi, was determined. Results Rats treated with GHi and fed ad-libitum energy and Zn (100/100 had increased IGFBP-3 (p Conclusion These results suggest that GHi enhances weight gain in rats with suboptimal energy and Zn intake but does not modify energy expenditure or physical activity index. Suboptimal Zn intake did not exacerbate the reduced growth or decrease in energy expenditure observed with energy restriction.

  3. Filter Selection for Optimizing the Spectral Sensitivity of Broadband Multispectral Cameras Based on Maximum Linear Independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sui-Xian

    2018-05-07

    Previous research has shown that the effectiveness of selecting filter sets from among a large set of commercial broadband filters by a vector analysis method based on maximum linear independence (MLI). However, the traditional MLI approach is suboptimal due to the need to predefine the first filter of the selected filter set to be the maximum ℓ₂ norm among all available filters. An exhaustive imaging simulation with every single filter serving as the first filter is conducted to investigate the features of the most competent filter set. From the simulation, the characteristics of the most competent filter set are discovered. Besides minimization of the condition number, the geometric features of the best-performed filter set comprise a distinct transmittance peak along the wavelength axis of the first filter, a generally uniform distribution for the peaks of the filters and substantial overlaps of the transmittance curves of the adjacent filters. Therefore, the best-performed filter sets can be recognized intuitively by simple vector analysis and just a few experimental verifications. A practical two-step framework for selecting optimal filter set is recommended, which guarantees a significant enhancement of the performance of the systems. This work should be useful for optimizing the spectral sensitivity of broadband multispectral imaging sensors.

  4. Filter Selection for Optimizing the Spectral Sensitivity of Broadband Multispectral Cameras Based on Maximum Linear Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui-Xian Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that the effectiveness of selecting filter sets from among a large set of commercial broadband filters by a vector analysis method based on maximum linear independence (MLI. However, the traditional MLI approach is suboptimal due to the need to predefine the first filter of the selected filter set to be the maximum ℓ2 norm among all available filters. An exhaustive imaging simulation with every single filter serving as the first filter is conducted to investigate the features of the most competent filter set. From the simulation, the characteristics of the most competent filter set are discovered. Besides minimization of the condition number, the geometric features of the best-performed filter set comprise a distinct transmittance peak along the wavelength axis of the first filter, a generally uniform distribution for the peaks of the filters and substantial overlaps of the transmittance curves of the adjacent filters. Therefore, the best-performed filter sets can be recognized intuitively by simple vector analysis and just a few experimental verifications. A practical two-step framework for selecting optimal filter set is recommended, which guarantees a significant enhancement of the performance of the systems. This work should be useful for optimizing the spectral sensitivity of broadband multispectral imaging sensors.

  5. Reducing suboptimal employee decisions can build the business case for employee benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Christopher; Cyboran, Steven F

    2013-01-01

    Suboptimal employee decisions are prevalent in employee benefit plans. Poor decisions have significant consequences for employees and employers. Improving participant decisions produces beneficial outcomes such as lower labor costs, higher productivity and better workforce management. The business case for employee benefits can be strengthened by applying lessons learned from the field of behavioral economics to employee benefit plan design and to workforce communication. This article explains the types of behavioral biases that influence suboptimal decisions and explores how enlightened employee benefit plan choice architecture and vivid behavioral messaging contribute to human and better organizational outcomes.

  6. Suboptimal care and maternal mortality among foreign-born women in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esscher, Annika; Binder-Finnema, Pauline; Bødker, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    that occurred in Sweden from 1988-2010. METHODS: A subset of maternal death records (n = 75) among foreign-born women from low- and middle-income countries and Swedish-born women were audited using structured implicit review. One case of foreign-born maternal death was matched with two native born Swedish cases...... language and suboptimal interpreter system or usage. Inadequate care occurred more often among the foreign-born (p = 0.04), whereas delays in consultation/referral and miscommunication between health care providers where equally common between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal care factors, major...

  7. Detection of suboptimal effort with symbol span: development of a new embedded index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J Christopher; Caron, Joshua E; Baughman, Brandon C; Sawyer, R John

    2012-03-01

    Developing embedded indicators of suboptimal effort on objective neurocognitive testing is essential for detecting increasingly sophisticated forms of symptom feigning. The current study explored whether Symbol Span, a novel Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition measure of supraspan visual attention, could be used to discriminate adequate effort from suboptimal effort. Archival data were collected from 136 veterans classified into Poor Effort (n = 42) and Good Effort (n = 94) groups based on symptom validity test (SVT) performance. The Poor Effort group had significantly lower raw scores (p Span test. A raw score cutoff of Span can effectively differentiate veterans with multiple failures on established free-standing and embedded SVTs.

  8. Frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in an African diabetic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibirige D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Davis Kibirige,1 George Patrick Akabwai,2 Leaticia Kampiire,3 Daniel Ssekikubo Kiggundu,4 William Lumu5 1Department of Medicine/Diabetic and Hypertension Clinics, Our Lady of Consolota Hospital, Kisubi, 2Baylor College of Medicine, Children’s Foundation, 3Infectious Diseases Research Collaboration, Kampala, 4Nephrology Unit, Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital, Kampala, 5Department of Medicine and Diabetes/Endocrine Unit, Mengo Hospital, Mengo, Uganda Background: Persistent suboptimal glycemic control is invariably associated with onset and progression of acute and chronic diabetic complications in diabetic patients. In Uganda, studies documenting the magnitude and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult ambulatory diabetic patients are limited. This study aimed at determining the frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult diabetic patients attending three urban outpatient diabetic clinics in Uganda. Methods: In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, eligible ambulatory adult diabetic patients attending outpatient diabetic clinics of three urban hospitals were consecutively enrolled over 11 months. Suboptimal glycemic control was defined as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c level ≥7%. Multivariable analysis was applied to determine the predictors. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 52.2±14.4 years, and the majority of them were females (283, 66.9%. The median (interquartile range HbA1c level was 9% (6.8%–12.4%. Suboptimal glycemic control was noted in 311 study participants, accounting for 73.52% of the participants. HbA1c levels of 7%–8%, 8.1%–9.9%, and ≥10% were noted in 56 (13.24%, 76 (17.97%, and 179 (42.32% study participants, respectively. The documented predictors of suboptimal glycemic control were metformin monotherapy (odds ratio: 0.36, 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.63, p<0.005 and insulin therapy (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.41–4.12, p=0

  9. Shallow water table effects on water, sediment, and pesticide transport in vegetative filter strips - Part 2: model coupling, application, factor importance, and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauvernet, Claire; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Vegetative filter strips are often used for protecting surface waters from pollution transferred by surface runoff in agricultural watersheds. In Europe, they are often prescribed along the stream banks, where a seasonal shallow water table (WT) could decrease the buffer zone efficiency. In spite of this potentially important effect, there are no systematic experimental or theoretical studies on the effect of this soil boundary condition on the VFS efficiency. In the companion paper (Muñoz-Carpena et al., 2018), we developed a physically based numerical algorithm (SWINGO) that allows the representation of soil infiltration with a shallow water table. Here we present the dynamic coupling of SWINGO with VFSMOD, an overland flow and transport mathematical model to study the WT influence on VFS efficiency in terms of reductions of overland flow, sediment, and pesticide transport. This new version of VFSMOD was applied to two contrasted benchmark field studies in France (sandy-loam soil in a Mediterranean semicontinental climate, and silty clay in a temperate oceanic climate), where limited testing of the model with field data on one of the sites showed promising results. The application showed that for the conditions of the studies, VFS efficiency decreases markedly when the water table is 0 to 1.5 m from the surface. In order to evaluate the relative importance of WT among other input factors controlling VFS efficiency, global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis (GSA) was applied on the benchmark studies. The most important factors found for VFS overland flow reduction were saturated hydraulic conductivity and WT depth, added to sediment characteristics and VFS dimensions for sediment and pesticide reductions. The relative importance of WT varied as a function of soil type (most important at the silty-clay soil) and hydraulic loading (rainfall + incoming runoff) at each site. The presence of WT introduced more complex responses dominated by strong interactions in

  10. Shallow water table effects on water, sediment, and pesticide transport in vegetative filter strips - Part 1: nonuniform infiltration and soil water redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Lauvernet, Claire; Carluer, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    Vegetation buffers like vegetative filter strips (VFSs) are often used to protect water bodies from surface runoff pollution from disturbed areas. Their typical placement in floodplains often results in the presence of a seasonal shallow water table (WT) that can decrease soil infiltration and increase surface pollutant transport during a rainfall-runoff event. Simple and robust components of hydrological models are needed to analyze the impacts of WT in the landscape. To simulate VFS infiltration under realistic rainfall conditions with WT, we propose a generic infiltration solution (Shallow Water table INfiltration algorithm: SWINGO) based on a combination of approaches by Salvucci and Entekhabi (1995) and Chu (1997) with new integral formulae to calculate singular times (time of ponding, shift time, and time to soil profile saturation). The algorithm was tested successfully on five distinct soils, both against Richards's numerical solution and experimental data in terms of infiltration and soil moisture redistribution predictions, and applied to study the combined effects of varying WT depth, soil type, and rainfall intensity and duration. The results show the robustness of the algorithm and its ability to handle various soil hydraulic functions and initial nonponding conditions under unsteady rainfall. The effect of a WT on infiltration under ponded conditions was found to be effectively decoupled from surface infiltration and excess runoff processes for depths larger than 1.2 to 2 m, being shallower for fine soils and shorter events. For nonponded initial conditions, the influence of WT depth also varies with rainfall intensity. Also, we observed that soils with a marked air entry (bubbling pressure) exhibit a distinct behavior with WT near the surface. The good performance, robustness, and flexibility of SWINGO supports its broader use to study WT effects on surface runoff, infiltration, flooding, transport, ecological, and land use processes. SWINGO is

  11. Shallow water table effects on water, sediment, and pesticide transport in vegetative filter strips – Part 1: nonuniform infiltration and soil water redistribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muñoz-Carpena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation buffers like vegetative filter strips (VFSs are often used to protect water bodies from surface runoff pollution from disturbed areas. Their typical placement in floodplains often results in the presence of a seasonal shallow water table (WT that can decrease soil infiltration and increase surface pollutant transport during a rainfall-runoff event. Simple and robust components of hydrological models are needed to analyze the impacts of WT in the landscape. To simulate VFS infiltration under realistic rainfall conditions with WT, we propose a generic infiltration solution (Shallow Water table INfiltration algorithm: SWINGO based on a combination of approaches by Salvucci and Entekhabi (1995 and Chu (1997 with new integral formulae to calculate singular times (time of ponding, shift time, and time to soil profile saturation. The algorithm was tested successfully on five distinct soils, both against Richards's numerical solution and experimental data in terms of infiltration and soil moisture redistribution predictions, and applied to study the combined effects of varying WT depth, soil type, and rainfall intensity and duration. The results show the robustness of the algorithm and its ability to handle various soil hydraulic functions and initial nonponding conditions under unsteady rainfall. The effect of a WT on infiltration under ponded conditions was found to be effectively decoupled from surface infiltration and excess runoff processes for depths larger than 1.2 to 2 m, being shallower for fine soils and shorter events. For nonponded initial conditions, the influence of WT depth also varies with rainfall intensity. Also, we observed that soils with a marked air entry (bubbling pressure exhibit a distinct behavior with WT near the surface. The good performance, robustness, and flexibility of SWINGO supports its broader use to study WT effects on surface runoff, infiltration, flooding, transport, ecological, and land use processes

  12. Shallow water table effects on water, sediment, and pesticide transport in vegetative filter strips – Part 2: model coupling, application, factor importance, and uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lauvernet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative filter strips are often used for protecting surface waters from pollution transferred by surface runoff in agricultural watersheds. In Europe, they are often prescribed along the stream banks, where a seasonal shallow water table (WT could decrease the buffer zone efficiency. In spite of this potentially important effect, there are no systematic experimental or theoretical studies on the effect of this soil boundary condition on the VFS efficiency. In the companion paper (Muñoz-Carpena et al., 2018, we developed a physically based numerical algorithm (SWINGO that allows the representation of soil infiltration with a shallow water table. Here we present the dynamic coupling of SWINGO with VFSMOD, an overland flow and transport mathematical model to study the WT influence on VFS efficiency in terms of reductions of overland flow, sediment, and pesticide transport. This new version of VFSMOD was applied to two contrasted benchmark field studies in France (sandy-loam soil in a Mediterranean semicontinental climate, and silty clay in a temperate oceanic climate, where limited testing of the model with field data on one of the sites showed promising results. The application showed that for the conditions of the studies, VFS efficiency decreases markedly when the water table is 0 to 1.5 m from the surface. In order to evaluate the relative importance of WT among other input factors controlling VFS efficiency, global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis (GSA was applied on the benchmark studies. The most important factors found for VFS overland flow reduction were saturated hydraulic conductivity and WT depth, added to sediment characteristics and VFS dimensions for sediment and pesticide reductions. The relative importance of WT varied as a function of soil type (most important at the silty-clay soil and hydraulic loading (rainfall + incoming runoff at each site. The presence of WT introduced more complex responses dominated by strong

  13. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  14. Peatlands as Filters for Polluted Mine Water?—A Case Study from an Uranium-Contaminated Karst System in South Africa—Part I: Hydrogeological Setting and U Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewald Erasmus

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Located downstream of goldfields of the Witwatersrand basin, the Gerhard Minnebron (GMB Eye—as major water source for downstream community of some 300,000 people—may be impacted on by mining-related water pollution especially with uranium (U. Containing up to 5 m-thick deposits of peat that is frequently reported to act as a filter for U and other heavy metals, this paper is the first part of a series that aims to quantify the ability of the GMB peatland to act as buffer against current and future U pollution. In a first step, this paper outlines the geohydrological conditions and discusses how deep–level gold mining impacted on the dolomitic aquifers. Subsequently, the potential influx of U into the wetland is estimated and associated sources and pathways analyzed. Finally, a model is proposed explaining the significant differences in degree and dynamics of U observed within a single groundwater compartment.

  15. Adaptive filtering prediction and control

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Graham C

    2009-01-01

    Preface1. Introduction to Adaptive TechniquesPart 1. Deterministic Systems2. Models for Deterministic Dynamical Systems3. Parameter Estimation for Deterministic Systems4. Deterministic Adaptive Prediction5. Control of Linear Deterministic Systems6. Adaptive Control of Linear Deterministic SystemsPart 2. Stochastic Systems7. Optimal Filtering and Prediction8. Parameter Estimation for Stochastic Dynamic Systems9. Adaptive Filtering and Prediction10. Control of Stochastic Systems11. Adaptive Control of Stochastic SystemsAppendicesA. A Brief Review of Some Results from Systems TheoryB. A Summary o

  16. Sampling strong tracking nonlinear unscented Kalman filter and its application in eye tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu-Tao, Zhang; Jia-Shu, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The unscented Kalman filter is a developed well-known method for nonlinear motion estimation and tracking. However, the standard unscented Kalman filter has the inherent drawbacks, such as numerical instability and much more time spent on calculation in practical applications. In this paper, we present a novel sampling strong tracking nonlinear unscented Kalman filter, aiming to overcome the difficulty in nonlinear eye tracking. In the above proposed filter, the simplified unscented transform sampling strategy with n + 2 sigma points leads to the computational efficiency, and suboptimal fading factor of strong tracking filtering is introduced to improve robustness and accuracy of eye tracking. Compared with the related unscented Kalman filter for eye tracking, the proposed filter has potential advantages in robustness, convergence speed, and tracking accuracy. The final experimental results show the validity of our method for eye tracking under realistic conditions. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  17. Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P H; Schmand, Ben A; Kessels, Roy P C; Aldenkamp, Albert P

    2016-01-01

    Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the identification of suboptimal performance using an analogue study design. The patient group consisted of 59 mixed-etiology patients; the experimental malingerers were 50 healthy individuals who were asked to simulate cognitive impairment as a result of a traumatic brain injury; the last group consisted of 50 healthy controls who were instructed to put forth full effort. Experimental malingerers performed significantly lower on all WMS-IV-NL tasks than did the patients and healthy controls. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed on the experimental malingerers and the patients. The first model contained the visual working memory subtests (Spatial Addition and Symbol Span) and the recognition tasks of the following subtests: Logical Memory, Verbal Paired Associates, Designs, Visual Reproduction. The results showed an overall classification rate of 78.4%, and only Spatial Addition explained a significant amount of variation (p < .001). Subsequent logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis supported the discriminatory power of the subtest Spatial Addition. A scaled score cutoff of <4 produced 93% specificity and 52% sensitivity for detection of suboptimal performance. The WMS-IV-NL Spatial Addition subtest may provide clinically useful information for the detection of suboptimal performance.

  18. Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Z.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Schmand, B.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the

  19. Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P. H.; Schmand, Ben A.; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.

    2016-01-01

    Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the identification of

  20. Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale : Fourth Edition (WMS-IV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Z.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Schmand, B.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the

  1. Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P.H.; Schmand, Ben A.; Kessels, Roy P.C.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the

  2. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, MY; Hunter, IC

    2016-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  3. Analog Electronic Filters Theory, Design and Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Hercules G

    2012-01-01

    Filters are essential subsystems in a huge variety of electronic systems. Filter applications are innumerable; they are used for noise reduction, demodulation, signal detection, multiplexing, sampling, sound and speech processing, transmission line equalization and image processing, to name just a few. In practice, no electronic system can exist without filters. They can be found in everything from power supplies to mobile phones and hard disk drives and from loudspeakers and MP3 players to home cinema systems and broadband Internet connections. This textbook introduces basic concepts and methods and the associated mathematical and computational tools employed in electronic filter theory, synthesis and design.  This book can be used as an integral part of undergraduate courses on analog electronic filters. Includes numerous, solved examples, applied examples and exercises for each chapter. Includes detailed coverage of active and passive filters in an independent but correlated manner. Emphasizes real filter...

  4. UV filters for lighting of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.; Seidlitz, H.K.; Payer, H.D. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Different filter glasses are available which provide absorption properties suitable for gradual changes of the spectral UV-B illumination of artificial lighting. Using a distinct set of lamps and filter glasses an acceptable simulation of the UV-B part of natural global radiation can be achieved. The ageing of these and other filter materials under the extreme UV radiation in the lamphouse of a solar simulator is presently unavoidable. This instability can be dealt with only by a precise spectral monitoring and by replacing the filters accordingly. For this reason attempts would be useful to develop real ozone filters which can replace glass filters. In any case chamber experiments require a careful selection of the filter material used and must be accompanied by a continuous UV-B monitoring.

  5. Sub-optimal birth weight in newborns of a high socioeconomic status population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Aparecida de Mattos Segre

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare sub-optimal birth weight (2,500 to 2,999 g term newborns to appropriate for gestational age (birth weight ≥ 3,000 g term newborns, regarding maternal data and newborn morbidity and mortality. Methods: Single term newborns, appropriate for gestational age from a high socioeconomic population (n = 1,242 with birth weight ranging from 2,500 to 2,999 g (Group I were compared to 4,907 newborns with birth weight ≥ than 3,000 g (Group II. Maternal and newborn characteristics were compared between the groups. The Mann-Whitney test, χ2 test and multivariate analysis were used. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Rresults: The frequency of sub-optimal birth weight newborns in the population studied was 20.2%. There was a significant association between sub-optimal birth weight and maternal weight before pregnancy and body mass index, maternal weight gain, height, smoking habit and hypertension. Newborns’ 1-minute Apgar score, neonatal hypoglycemia, jaundice, transient tachypnea, congenital pneumonia and hospital stay were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05. A significant relationship could not be established with the 5-minute Apgar score and pulmonary hypertension in both groups. Neonatal mortality did not differ between the groups. Cconclusions: Socioeconomic status was not a risk factor for sub-optimal birth weight in the studied population. Genetic and environmental factors were associated to sub-optimal weight and neonatal diseases. According to these data, this group of newborns should receive special attention from the health team.

  6. Suboptimal treatment adherence in bipolar disorder: impact on clinical outcomes and functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes JM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jose Manuel Montes1, Jorge Maurino2, Consuelo de Dios3, Esteban Medina21Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitario del Sureste, 2AstraZeneca Medical Department, 3Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, SpainBackground: The primary aim of this study was to assess drug treatment adherence in patients with bipolar disorder and to identify factors associated with adherence. The secondary aim was to analyze the impact of suboptimal adherence on clinical and functional outcomes.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of outpatients receiving an oral antipsychotic drug. Medication adherence was assessed combining the 10-item Drug Attitude Inventory, the Morisky Green Adherence Questionnaire, and the Compliance Rating Scale. Logistic regression was used to determine significant variables associated with suboptimal adherence to medication.Results: Three hundred and three patients were enrolled into the study. The mean age was 45.9 ± 12.8 years, and 59.7% were females. Sixty-nine percent of patients showed suboptimal adherence. Disease severity and functioning were significantly worse in the suboptimal group than in the adherent group. Multivariate analysis showed depressive polarity of the last acute episode, presence of subsyndromal symptoms, and substance abuse/dependence to be significantly associated with suboptimal treatment adherence (odds ratios 3.41, 2.13, and 1.95, respectively.Conclusion: A high prevalence of nonadherence was found in an outpatient sample with bipolar disorder. Identification of factors related to treatment adherence would give clinicians the opportunity to select more adequately patients who are eligible for potential adherence-focused interventions.Keywords: bipolar disorder, treatment adherence, functioning, polarity, subsyndromal symptoms

  7. Filtering and control of wireless networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Dan; Yu, Li

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained book, written by leading experts, offers a cutting-edge, in-depth overview of the filtering and control of wireless networked systems. It addresses the energy constraint and filter/controller gain variation problems, and presents both the centralized and the distributed solutions. The first two chapters provide an introduction to networked control systems and basic information on system analysis. Chapters (3–6) then discuss the centralized filtering of wireless networked systems, presenting different approaches to deal with energy efficiency and filter/controller gain variation problems. The next part (chapters 7–10) explores the distributed filtering of wireless networked systems, addressing the main problems of energy constraint and filter gain variation. The final part (chapters 11–14) focuses on the distributed control of wireless networked systems.

  8. Filter case for separating out radioactive effluents from gas flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannakos, K.; Zabel, G.

    1982-01-01

    A remotely operated change of filter in a filter case can be done with an annular or cylindrical filter insert, where the contaminated air side remains separate from the clean air side. A lid is provided which can be divided into two parts, and by which the openings of the filter insert and also in the intermediate floor can be opened or closed using the double lid technique. When closing the filter case lid, the double lid closure is always opened. (DG) [de

  9. Selection vector filter framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.

  10. A non-destructive selection method for faster growth at suboptimal temperature in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, E.; Oeveren, J.C. van; Jansen, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A non-destructive method has been developed to select common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants whose growth is less effected at a suboptimal temperature. Shoot weight was determined at a suboptimal (14°C) and optimal temperature (20°C), 38 days after sowing and accessions identified with a

  11. Suboptimal bonding impairs hormonal, epigenetic and neuronal development in preterm infants, but these impairments can be reversed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, D.R.; Oei, S.G.; Chen, W.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Bambang Oetomo, S.

    This review aimed to raise awareness of the consequences of suboptimal bonding caused by prematurity. In addition to hypoxia–ischaemia, infection and malnutrition, suboptimal bonding is one of the many unnatural stimuli that preterm infants are exposed to, compromising their physiological

  12. Statin therapy reduces the likelihood of suboptimal blood pressure control among Ugandan adult diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumu W

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available William Lumu,1 Leaticia Kampiire,2 George Patrick Akabwai,3 Daniel Ssekikubo Kiggundu,4 Davis Kibirige5 1Department of Medicine and Diabetes/Endocrine Unit, Mengo Hospital, 2Infectious Disease Research Collaboration, 3Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation, 4Nephrology Unit, Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital, 5Department of Medicine, Uganda Martyrs Hospital Lubaga, Kampala, Uganda Background: Hypertension is one of the recognized risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in adult diabetic patients. High prevalence of suboptimal blood pressure (BP control has been well documented in the majority of studies assessing BP control in diabetic patients in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, there is a dearth of similar studies. This study evaluated the prevalence and correlates of suboptimal BP control in an adult diabetic population in Uganda.Patients and methods: This was a cross-sectional study that enrolled 425 eligible ambulatory adult diabetic patients attending three urban diabetic outpatient clinics over 11 months. Data about their sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Suboptimal BP control was defined according to the 2015 American Diabetes Association standards of diabetes care guideline as BP levels ≥140/90 mmHg.Results: The mean age of the study participants was 52.2±14.4 years, with the majority being females (283, 66.9%. Suboptimal BP control was documented in 192 (45.3% study participants and was independently associated with the study site (private hospitals; odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.18–3.43, P=0.01 and use of statin therapy (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.26–0.96, P=0.037.Conclusion: Suboptimal BP control was highly prevalent in this study population. Strategies to improve optimal BP control, especially in the private hospitals, and the use of statin therapy should be encouraged in adult diabetic patients

  13. Strong Tracking Filter for Nonlinear Systems with Randomly Delayed Measurements and Correlated Noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel strong tracking filter (STF, which is suitable for dealing with the filtering problem of nonlinear systems when the following cases occur: that is, the constructed model does not match the actual system, the measurements have the one-step random delay, and the process and measurement noises are correlated at the same epoch. Firstly, a framework of decoupling filter (DF based on equivalent model transformation is derived. Further, according to the framework of DF, a new extended Kalman filtering (EKF algorithm via using first-order linearization approximation is developed. Secondly, the computational process of the suboptimal fading factor is derived on the basis of the extended orthogonality principle (EOP. Thirdly, the ultimate form of the proposed STF is obtained by introducing the suboptimal fading factor into the above EKF algorithm. The proposed STF can automatically tune the suboptimal fading factor on the basis of the residuals between available and predicted measurements and further the gain matrices of the proposed STF tune online to improve the filtering performance. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed STF has been proved through numerical simulation experiments.

  14. Recirculating electric air filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  15. Event-triggered Kalman-consensus filter for two-target tracking sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Housheng; Li, Zhenghao; Ye, Yanyan

    2017-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of event-triggered Kalman-consensus filter for two-target tracking sensor networks. According to the event-triggered protocol and the mean-square analysis, a suboptimal Kalman gain matrix is derived and a suboptimal event-triggered distributed filter is obtained. Based on the Kalman-consensus filter protocol, all sensors which only depend on its neighbors' information can track their corresponding targets. Furthermore, utilizing Lyapunov method and matrix theory, some sufficient conditions are presented for ensuring the stability of the system. Finally, a simulation example is presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed event-triggered protocol. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R.

    2015-06-15

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  17. Filter replacement lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2017-10-25

    Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.

  18. Influence of Suboptimally and Optimally Presented Affective Pictures and Words on Consumption-Related Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkielman, Piotr; Gogolushko, Yekaterina

    2018-01-01

    Affective stimuli can influence immediate reactions as well as spontaneous behaviors. Much evidence for such influence comes from studies of facial expressions. However, it is unclear whether these effects hold for other affective stimuli, and how the amount of stimulus processing changes the nature of the influence. This paper addresses these issues by comparing the influence on consumption behaviors of emotional pictures and valence-matched words presented at suboptimal and supraliminal durations. In Experiment 1, both suboptimal and supraliminal emotional facial expressions influenced consumption in an affect-congruent, assimilative way. In Experiment 2, pictures of both high- and low-frequency emotional objects congruently influenced consumption. In comparison, words tended to produce incongruent effects. We discuss these findings in light of privileged access theories, which hold that pictures better convey affective meaning than words, and embodiment theories, which hold that pictures better elicit somatosensory and motor responses. PMID:29434556

  19. Suboptimal investments and M&A deals in emerging capital markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkasova Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the efficiency of target-company investment decisions before and after Merger & Acquisition deals. We study whether M&A deals help to solve the problem of suboptimal investment after the acquisition. Using a sample of 145 target companies from BRICS countries that were acquired during the period 2004-2014, we outline those that had over- or underinvested before the deal and show that more than half the companies managed to optimize the investment level after the deal. We determine the key factors that improve the inefficiency of investment decisions and demonstrate that the industry and country have an impact on the degree of suboptimal investment.

  20. Suboptimal Partial Transmit Sequence-Active Interference Cancellation with Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasak Poramate

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Active interference cancellation (AIC is an effective technique to provide interference avoidance feature for an ultrawideband (UWB OFDM transmitter. Partial transmit sequence-AIC (PTS-AIC, which was recently proposed as an improvement of AIC, requires high computational complexity by doing the exhaustive search of all possible weighting factors whose number grows exponentially with the number of subblocks used. To reduce the complexity of PTS-AIC, this paper proposes a suboptimal way, called particle swarm optimization (PSO, to choose the weighting factors suboptimally without much performance degradation. Both continuous and discrete versions of PSO have been evaluated, and it has been shown that the discrete PSO is able to reduce the complexity significantly without sacrificing the performance of PTS-AIC in many cases.

  1. Sub-optimal control of fuzzy linear dynamical systems under granular differentiability concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazandarani, Mehran; Pariz, Naser

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with sub-optimal control of a fuzzy linear dynamical system. The aim is to keep the state variables of the fuzzy linear dynamical system close to zero in an optimal manner. In the fuzzy dynamical system, the fuzzy derivative is considered as the granular derivative; and all the coefficients and initial conditions can be uncertain. The criterion for assessing the optimality is regarded as a granular integral whose integrand is a quadratic function of the state variables and control inputs. Using the relative-distance-measure (RDM) fuzzy interval arithmetic and calculus of variations, the optimal control law is presented as the fuzzy state variables feedback. Since the optimal feedback gains are obtained as fuzzy functions, they need to be defuzzified. This will result in the sub-optimal control law. This paper also sheds light on the restrictions imposed by the approaches which are based on fuzzy standard interval arithmetic (FSIA), and use strongly generalized Hukuhara and generalized Hukuhara differentiability concepts for obtaining the optimal control law. The granular eigenvalues notion is also defined. Using an RLC circuit mathematical model, it is shown that, due to their unnatural behavior in the modeling phenomenon, the FSIA-based approaches may obtain some eigenvalues sets that might be different from the inherent eigenvalues set of the fuzzy dynamical system. This is, however, not the case with the approach proposed in this study. The notions of granular controllability and granular stabilizability of the fuzzy linear dynamical system are also presented in this paper. Moreover, a sub-optimal control for regulating a Boeing 747 in longitudinal direction with uncertain initial conditions and parameters is gained. In addition, an uncertain suspension system of one of the four wheels of a bus is regulated using the sub-optimal control introduced in this paper. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Suboptimal control of pressurized water reactor power plant using approximate model-following method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Masashi; Ogawa, Yuichi

    1987-01-01

    We attempted to develop an effective control system that can successfully manage the nuclear steam supply (NSS) system of a PWR power plant in an operational mode requiring relatively small variations of power. A procedure is proposed for synthesizing control system that is a simple, yet practiced, suboptimal control system. The suboptimal control system is designed in two steps; application of the optimal control theory, based on the linear state-feedback control and the use of an approximate model-following method. This procedure can appreciably reduce the complexity of the structure of the controller by accepting a slight deviation from the optimality and by the use of the output-feedback control. This eliminates the engineering difficulty caused by an incompletely state-feedback that is sometimes encountered in practical applications of the optimal state-feedback control theory to complex large-scale dynamical systems. Digital simulations and graphical studies based on the Bode-diagram demonstrate the effectiveness of the suboptimal control, and the applicability of the proposed design method as well. (author)

  3. Comparative Performance Analysis of G-RAKE Receivers with Suboptimal Finger Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Baltzis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Generalized RAKE (G-RAKE reception reduces the total amount of interference and provides enhanced diversity by comprising extra fingers to collect information about interference and further using channel and impairment correlation estimates for fingers allocation. However, the hardware complexity and the excessive computational requirements of GRAKE receivers may restrict their application in real systems; thus, suboptimal solutions are commonly used. In this paper, we propose and evaluate three maximum likelihood G-RAKE structures for colored noise with suboptimal finger placement. In all implementations, the fingers are optimally distributed within a time window that spans from several chip periods before the first arriving multipath to several chip periods after the latest one. The first receiver has its fingers at integer multiples of the chip period while in the rest two structures the search window is segmented in halves and tenths of the chip duration. This work also extends earlier studies by thoroughly investigating the impact of fractionally spaced finger placement on system performance. Our analysis shows that a suboptimal finger allocation reduces hardware complexity with negligible performance loss. The impact of channel delay spread and processing gain on system performance is also investigated and gives interesting results.

  4. Self-care practices of Malaysian adults with diabetes and sub-optimal glycaemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming Yeong; Magarey, Judy

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the self-care practices of Malaysian adults with diabetes and sub-optimal glycaemic control. Using a one-to-one interviewing approach, data were collected from 126 diabetic adults from four settings. A 75-item questionnaire was used to assess diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices regarding, diet, medication, physical activity and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Most subjects had received advice on the importance of self-care in the management of their diabetes and recognised its importance. Sixty-seven subjects (53%) scored below 50% in their diabetes-related knowledge. Subjects who consumed more meals per day (80%), or who did not include their regular sweetened food intakes in their daily meal plan (80%), or who were inactive in daily life (54%), had higher mean fasting blood glucose levels (p=0.04). Subjects with medication non-adherence (46%) also tended to have higher fasting blood glucose levels. Only 15% of the subjects practiced SMBG. Predictors of knowledge deficit and poor self-care were low level of education (p = <0.01), older subjects (p=0.04) and Type 2 diabetes subjects on oral anti-hyperglycaemic medication (p = <0.01). There were diabetes-related knowledge deficits and inadequate self-care practices among the majority of diabetic patients with sub-optimal glycaemic control. This study should contribute to the development of effective education strategies to promote health for adults with sub-optimal diabetes control.

  5. The fate of suboptimal anastomosis after colon resection: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Mehmet Kamil; Okan, İsmail; Nazik, Hasan; Bas, Gurhan; Alimoglu, Orhan; İlktac, Mehmet; Daldal, Emin; Sahin, Mustafa; Kuvat, Nuray; Ongen, Betugul

    2014-11-01

    The fate of suboptimal anastomosis is unknown and early detection of anastomotic leakage after colon resection is crucial for the proper management of patients. Twenty-six rats were assigned to "Control", "Leakage" and "Suboptimal anastomosis" groups where they underwent either sham laparotomy, cecal ligation, and puncture or anastomosis with four sutures following colon resection, respectively. At the fifth hour and on the third and ninth days; peripheral blood and peritoneal washing samples through relaparotomy were obtained. The abdomen was inspected macroscopically for anastomotic healing. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 16s rRNA and E.coli-specific primers were run on all samples along with aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR on different bodily fluids with 16s rRNA and E.coli-specific primers were 100% and 78%, respectively. All samples of peritoneal washing fluids on the third and ninth days showed presence of bacteria in both PCR and culture. The inspection of the abdomen revealed signs of anastomotic leakage in eight rats (80%), whereas mortality related with anastomosis was detected in two (20%). Anastomotic leakage with suboptimal anastomosis after colon resection is high and the early detection is possible by running PCR on peritoneal samples as early as 72 hours.

  6. Point prevalence of suboptimal footwear features among ambulant older hospital patients: implications for fall prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, Satyan R; McRae, Prue; Stewart, Matthew J; Webster, Joan; Fenn, Mary; Haines, Terry P

    2016-09-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to establish the point prevalence of 'suboptimal' features in footwear reported to have been used by older hospital patients when ambulating, and to explore underpinning factors for their choice of footwear. Method A cross-sectional investigation was undertaken on 95 of 149 eligible in-patients across 22 high fall-risk wards in a large metropolitan hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Results Over 70% of participants experienced an unplanned admission. Although most participants had access to some form of footwear in hospital (92%), nearly all reported ambulating in footwear with 'suboptimal' features (99%). Examples included slippers (27%), backless slippers (16%) or bare feet (27%). For patients who ambulated in bare feet, only one-third reported 'lack of access to footwear' as the primary cause, with others citing foot wounds, pain, oedema and personal choice as the main reason for bare foot ambulation. Conclusions Admitted patients frequently use footwear with 'suboptimal' features for ambulation in hospital. While some footwear options (for example well-fitting slippers) could be suited for limited in-hospital ambulation, others are clearly hazardous and might cause falls. Since footwear choices are influenced by multiple factors in this population, footwear education strategies alone may be insufficient to address the problem of hazardous footwear in at-risk patients. Footwear requirements may be more effectively addressed within a multidisciplinary team approach encompassing foot health, mobility and safety. What is known about the topic? Accidental falls while ambulating are an important health and safety concern for older people. Because certain footwear characteristics have been negatively linked to posture and balance, and specific footwear types linked to falls among seniors, the use of footwear with fewer suboptimal characteristics is generally recommended as a means of reducing the risk of falling. While footwear

  7. Filter-adsorber aging assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winegardner, W.K. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    An aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This evaluation of the general process in which characteristics of these two components gradually change with time or use included the compilation of information concerning failure experience, stressors, aging mechanisms and effects, and inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods (ISMM). Stressors, the agents or stimuli that can produce aging degradation, include heat, radiation, volatile contaminants, and even normal concentrations of aerosol particles and gasses. In an experimental evaluation of degradation in terms of the tensile breaking strength of aged filter media specimens, over forty percent of the samples did not meet specifications for new material. Chemical and physical reactions can gradually embrittle sealants and gaskets as well as filter media. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance are associated with the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the exposure of the carbon to airborne moisture or volatile organic compounds. Inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods have been established to observe filter pressure drop buildup, check HEPA filters and adsorbers for bypass, and determine the retention effectiveness of aged carbon. These evaluations of installed filters do not reveal degradation in terms of reduced media strength but that under normal conditions aged media can continue to effectively retain particles. However, this degradation may be important when considering the likelihood of moisture, steam, and higher particle loadings during severe accidents and the fact it is probable that the filters have been in use for an extended period.

  8. Laboratory for filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, W.

    1987-07-01

    Filters used for mine draining in brown coal surface mines are tested by the Mine Draining Department of Poltegor. Laboratory tests of new types of filters developed by Poltegor are analyzed. Two types of tests are used: tests of scale filter models and tests of experimental units of new filters. Design and operation of the test stands used for testing mechanical properties and hydraulic properties of filters for coal mines are described: dimensions, pressure fluctuations, hydraulic equipment. Examples of testing large-diameter filters for brown coal mines are discussed.

  9. Flat microwave photonic filter based on hybrid of two filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Chunhui; Pei, Li; Ning, Tigang; Li, Jing; Gao, Song

    2010-01-01

    A new microwave photonic filter (MPF) hybrid of two filters that can realize both multiple taps and a flat bandpass or bandstop response is presented. Based on the phase character of a Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM), a two taps finite impulse response (FIR) filter is obtained as the first part. The second part is obtained by taking full advantage of the wavelength selectivity of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and the gain of a erbium-doped fiber (EDF). Combining the two filters, the flat bandpass or bandstop response is realized by changing the coupler's factor k, the reflectivity of FBG1 R 1 or the gain of the EDF g. Optimizing the system parameters, a flat bandpass response with amplitude depth of more than 45 dB is obtained at k = 0.5, R 1 = 0.33, g = 10, and a flat bandstop response is also obtained at k = 0.4, R 1 = 0.5, g = 2. In addition, the free-spectral range (FSR) can be controlled by changing the length of the EDF and the length difference between two MZMs. The method is proved feasible by some experiments. Such a method offers realistic solutions to support future radio-frequency (RF) optical communication systems

  10. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC...

  11. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state....... The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Simon-nitinol filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Kim, D.; Porter, D.H.; Kleshinski, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a filter that exploits the thermal shape-memory properties of the nitinol alloy to achieve an optimized filter shape and a fine-bore introducer. Experimental methods and materials are given and results are analyzed

  13. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  14. Association of Suboptimal Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence With Inflammation in Virologically Suppressed Individuals Enrolled in the SMART Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo-Mancilla, Jose R; Phillips, Andrew N; Neaton, James D

    2018-01-01

    Suboptimal (ie, <100%) antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence has been associated with heightened inflammation in cohort studies, even among people with virologic suppression. We aimed to evaluate this association among participants in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMAR...

  15. Exogenous recombinant human growth hormone effects during suboptimal energy and zinc intake

    OpenAIRE

    Rising, Russell; Scaglia, Julio F; Cole, Conrad; Tverskaya, Rozalia; Duro, Debora; Lifshitz, Fima

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Energy and Zinc (Zn) deficiencies have been associated with nutritional related growth retardation as well as growth hormone (GH) resistance. In this study, the relationship between suboptimal energy and/or Zn intake and growth in rats and their response to immunoreactive exogenous recombinant human GH (GHi), was determined. Results Rats treated with GHi and fed ad-libitum energy and Zn (100/100) had increased IGFBP-3 (p < 0.05) as compared with NSS (215 ± 23 vs. 185 ± 17 ...

  16. A Suboptimal Scheme for Multi-User Scheduling in Gaussian Broadcast Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes a suboptimal multi-user scheduling scheme for Gaussian broadcast channels which improves upon the classical single user selection, while considerably reducing complexity as compared to the optimal superposition coding with successful interference cancellation. The proposed scheme combines the two users with the maximum weighted instantaneous rate using superposition coding. The instantaneous rate and power allocation are derived in closed-form, while the long term rate of each user is derived in integral form for all channel distributions. Numerical results are then provided to characterize the prospected gains of the proposed scheme.

  17. A Suboptimal Scheme for Multi-User Scheduling in Gaussian Broadcast Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2014-05-28

    This work proposes a suboptimal multi-user scheduling scheme for Gaussian broadcast channels which improves upon the classical single user selection, while considerably reducing complexity as compared to the optimal superposition coding with successful interference cancellation. The proposed scheme combines the two users with the maximum weighted instantaneous rate using superposition coding. The instantaneous rate and power allocation are derived in closed-form, while the long term rate of each user is derived in integral form for all channel distributions. Numerical results are then provided to characterize the prospected gains of the proposed scheme.

  18. High frequency of sub-optimal semen quality in an unselected population of young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A G; Jensen, T K; Carlsen, E

    2000-01-01

    for military service, this provided a unique opportunity to study the reproductive function in an unbiased population. Altogether 891 young men delivered a blood sample in which reproductive hormones were measured. From 708 of these men data were also obtained on semen quality and testis size. The median sperm...... immotile spermatozoa and follicle stimulating hormone. Possible causes for this high frequency of young men with suboptimal semen quality are obscure and need to be explored. Whether these findings apply for young male populations of comparable countries remains to be seen....

  19. Suboptimal inhibition of protease activity in human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Effects on virion morphogenesis and RNA maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Michael D.; Fu, William; Soheilian, Ferri; Nagashima, Kunio; Ptak, Roger G.; Pathak, Vinay K.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2008-01-01

    Protease activity within nascently released human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles is responsible for the cleavage of the viral polyproteins Gag and Gag-Pol into their constituent parts, which results in the subsequent condensation of the mature conical core surrounding the viral genomic RNA. Concomitant with viral maturation is a conformational change in the packaged viral RNA from a loosely associated dimer into a more thermodynamically stable form. In this study we used suboptimal concentrations of two protease inhibitors, lopinavir and atazanavir, to study their effects on Gag polyprotein processing and on the properties of the RNA in treated virions. Analysis of the treated virions demonstrated that even with high levels of inhibition of viral infectivity (IC 90 ), most of the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins were processed, although slight but significant increases in processing intermediates of Gag were detected. Drug treatments also caused a significant increase in the proportion of viruses displaying either immature or aberrant mature morphologies. The aberrant mature particles were characterized by an electron-dense region at the viral periphery and an electron-lucent core structure in the viral center, possibly indicating exclusion of the genomic RNA from these viral cores. Intriguingly, drug treatments caused only a slight decrease in overall thermodynamic stability of the viral RNA dimer, suggesting that the dimeric viral RNA was able to mature in the absence of correct core condensation

  20. CHANGE DETECTION VIA SELECTIVE GUIDED CONTRASTING FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Vizilter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Change detection scheme based on guided contrasting was previously proposed. Guided contrasting filter takes two images (test and sample as input and forms the output as filtered version of test image. Such filter preserves the similar details and smooths the non-similar details of test image with respect to sample image. Due to this the difference between test image and its filtered version (difference map could be a basis for robust change detection. Guided contrasting is performed in two steps: at the first step some smoothing operator (SO is applied for elimination of test image details; at the second step all matched details are restored with local contrast proportional to the value of some local similarity coefficient (LSC. The guided contrasting filter was proposed based on local average smoothing as SO and local linear correlation as LSC. In this paper we propose and implement new set of selective guided contrasting filters based on different combinations of various SO and thresholded LSC. Linear average and Gaussian smoothing, nonlinear median filtering, morphological opening and closing are considered as SO. Local linear correlation coefficient, morphological correlation coefficient (MCC, mutual information, mean square MCC and geometrical correlation coefficients are applied as LSC. Thresholding of LSC allows operating with non-normalized LSC and enhancing the selective properties of guided contrasting filters: details are either totally recovered or not recovered at all after the smoothing. These different guided contrasting filters are tested as a part of previously proposed change detection pipeline, which contains following stages: guided contrasting filtering on image pyramid, calculation of difference map, binarization, extraction of change proposals and testing change proposals using local MCC. Experiments on real and simulated image bases demonstrate the applicability of all proposed selective guided contrasting filters. All

  1. Rotationally invariant correlation filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing and designing optical correlation filters that have tailored rotational invariance properties. The concept of a correlation of an image with a rotation of itself is introduced. A unified theory of rotation-invariant filtering is then formulated. The unified approach describes matched filters (with no rotation invariance) and circular-harmonic filters (with full rotation invariance) as special cases. The continuum of intermediate cases is described in terms of a cyclic convolution operation over angle. The angular filtering approach allows an exact choice for the continuous trade-off between loss of the correlation energy (or specificity regarding the image) and the amount of rotational invariance desired

  2. Retina-Inspired Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutsi, Effrosyni; Fillatre, Lionel; Antonini, Marc; Gaulmin, Julien

    2018-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel filter, which is inspired by the human retina. The human retina consists of three different layers: the Outer Plexiform Layer (OPL), the inner plexiform layer, and the ganglionic layer. Our inspiration is the linear transform which takes place in the OPL and has been mathematically described by the neuroscientific model "virtual retina." This model is the cornerstone to derive the non-separable spatio-temporal OPL retina-inspired filter, briefly renamed retina-inspired filter, studied in this paper. This filter is connected to the dynamic behavior of the retina, which enables the retina to increase the sharpness of the visual stimulus during filtering before its transmission to the brain. We establish that this retina-inspired transform forms a group of spatio-temporal Weighted Difference of Gaussian (WDoG) filters when it is applied to a still image visible for a given time. We analyze the spatial frequency bandwidth of the retina-inspired filter with respect to time. It is shown that the WDoG spectrum varies from a lowpass filter to a bandpass filter. Therefore, while time increases, the retina-inspired filter enables to extract different kinds of information from the input image. Finally, we discuss the benefits of using the retina-inspired filter in image processing applications such as edge detection and compression.

  3. Changing ventilation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.

    1980-01-01

    A filter changing unit has a door which interlocks with the door of a filter chamber so as to prevent contamination of the outer surfaces of the doors by radioactive material collected on the filter element and a movable support which enables a filter chamber thereonto to be stored within the unit in such a way that the doors of the unit and the filter chamber can be replaced. The door pivots and interlocks with another door by means of a bolt, a seal around the periphery lip of the first door engages the periphery of the second door to seal the gap. A support pivots into a lower filter element storage position. Inspection windows and glove ports are provided. The unit is releasably connected to the filter chamber by bolts engaging in a flange provided around an opening. (author)

  4. A bag adapted for the handling of a filtering element or filter unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a transparent, flexible, synthetic plastics bag adapted to contain a filter element or filter unit so that the latter can be inserted into or removed from a filter casing or duct while being contained in the bag. The bag has a neck portion which is capable of being removably secured in an air-tight manner on to a part of the casing, and gloves or glove portions are provided in, or are formed in, the wall of the bag to permit handles on the filter element or unit to be grasped. (author)

  5. Suboptimal and optimal order policies for fixed and varying replenishment interval with declining market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wee, H. M.; Yang, P. C.; Wu, Simon

    2016-06-01

    One of the supply chain risks for hi-tech products is the result of rapid technological innovation; it results in a significant decline in the selling price and demand after the initial launch period. Hi-tech products include computers and communication consumer's products. From a practical standpoint, a more realistic replenishment policy is needed to consider the impact of risks; especially when some portions of shortages are lost. In this paper, suboptimal and optimal order policies with partial backordering are developed for a buyer when the component cost, the selling price, and the demand rate decline at a continuous rate. Two mathematical models are derived and discussed: one model has the suboptimal solution with the fixed replenishment interval and a simpler computational process; the other one has the optimal solution with the varying replenishment interval and a more complicated computational process. The second model results in more profit. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the two replenishment models. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate the relationship between the parameters and the net profit.

  6. Common experiences of patients following suboptimal treatment outcomes: implications for epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Dinusha K; McIntosh, Anne M; Bladin, Peter F; Wilson, Sarah J

    2014-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the patient experience of unsuccessful medical interventions, particularly in the epilepsy surgery field. The present review aimed to gain insight into the patient experience of seizure recurrence after epilepsy surgery by examining the broader literature dealing with suboptimal results after medical interventions (including epilepsy surgery). To capture the patient experience, the literature search focused on qualitative research of patients who had undergone medically unsuccessful interventions, published in English in scholarly journals. Twenty-two studies were found of patients experiencing a range of suboptimal outcomes, including seizure recurrence, cancer recurrence and progression, unsuccessful joint replacement, unsuccessful infertility treatment, organ transplant rejection, coronary bypass graft surgery, and unsuccessful weight-loss surgery. In order of frequency, the most common patient experiences included the following: altered social dynamics and stigma, unmet expectations, negative emotions, use of coping strategies, hope and optimism, perceived failure of the treating team, psychiatric symptoms, and control issues. There is support in the epilepsy surgery literature that unmet expectations and psychiatric symptoms are key issues for patients with seizure recurrence, while other common patient experiences have been implied but not systematically examined. Several epilepsy surgery specific factors influence patient perceptions of seizure recurrence, including the nature of postoperative seizures, the presence of postoperative complications, and the need for increased postoperative medications. Knowledge of common patient experiences can assist in the delivery of patient follow-up and rehabilitation services tailored to differing outcomes after epilepsy surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of different seed treatments on maize seed germination parameters under optimal and suboptimal temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujošević Bojana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different seed treatments on germination parameters of three maize genotypes under optimal and suboptimal temperature conditions. Seed was treated with recommended doses of three commercial pesticide formulations: metalaxyl-m 10 g/L + fludioxonil 25 g/L, metalaxyl 20 g/kg + prothioconazole 100 g/kg and thiacloprid 400 g/L. Testing was conducted at 25°C and 15°C. Results of the study indicate that there are differences in response of maize genotypes to applied seed treatments, as well as to a specific treatment at optimal and suboptimal temperatures. Some treatments, depending on the mixing partner and temperature conditions, can affect final germination. In other cases, germination rate can be accelerated or prolonged, but with no effect on final germination. In order to provide fast and uniform emergence under different temperature conditions, further examination of the response of maize genotypes to specific seed treatments would be beneficial.

  8. Design Of Real-Time Implementable Distributed Suboptimal Control: An LQR Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan

    2017-09-29

    We propose a framework for multiagent systems in which the agents compute their control actions in real time, based on local information only. The novelty of the proposed framework is that the process of computing a suboptimal control action is divided into two phases: an offline phase and an online phase. In the offline phase, an approximate problem is formulated with a cost function that is close to the optimal cost in some sense and is distributed, i.e., the costs of non-neighboring nodes are not coupled. This phase is centralized and is completed before the deployment of the system. In the online phase, the approximate problem is solved in real time by implementing any efficient distributed optimization algorithm. To quantify the performance loss, we derive upper bounds for the maximum error between the optimal performance and the performance under the proposed framework. Finally, the proposed framework is applied to an example setup in which a team of mobile nodes is assigned the task of establishing a communication link between two base stations with minimum energy consumption. We show through simulations that the performance under the proposed framework is close to the optimal performance and the suboptimal policy can be efficiently implemented online.

  9. Passive target tracking using marginalized particle filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A marginalized particle filtering(MPF)approach is proposed for target tracking under the background of passive measurement.Essentially,the MPF is a combination of particle filtering technique and Kalman filter.By making full use of marginalization,the distributions of the tractable linear part of the total state variables are updated analytically using Kalman filter,and only the lower-dimensional nonlinear state variable needs to be dealt with using particle filter.Simulation studies are performed on an illustrative example,and the results show that the MPF method leads to a significant reduction of the tracking errors when compared with the direct particle implementation.Real data test results also validate the effectiveness of the presented method.

  10. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longqiang Bai

    Full Text Available Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr. Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr

  11. Evaluation of self-contained HEPA filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, T.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of a self-contained high-efficiency particulate air filter (SHEPA) used in nuclear applications. A SCHEPA consists of filter medium encapsulated in a casing that is part of the system boundary. The SCHEPA filter serves as a combination of filter housing and filter. The filter medium is attached directly to the casing using adhesive as a bonding agent. A cylindrical connection in the middle of the end caps connects the filter assembly to adjoining ductwork. The SCHEPA must perform the functions of a filter housing, filter frame, and filter. It was recognized that the codes and standards do not address the SCHEPA specifically. Therefore, the investigation evaluated the SCHEPA against current codes and standards related to the functional requirements of an air-cleaning system. The specific standards used are required by DOE Order 6430.1A{sup 1} and include ASME N509{sup 3}, ASME N510{sup 4}, ERDA 76-21{sup 5}, MIL-F-51068F{sup 6}, NFPA 90A, {sup 7} and NFPA 91{sup 8}. The evaluation does not address whether the SCHEPA as a standard (off-the-shelf) filter could be upgraded to meet the current code requirements for an air-cleaning unit. The evaluation also did not consider how the SCHEPA was used in a system (e.g., whether it was under positive or negative pressure or whether it served as an air inlet filter to prevent contamination releases under system pressurization). The results of the evaluation show that, the SCHEPA filter does not meet design, fabrication, testing, and documentation requirements of ASME N509{sup 3} and ASME N510{sup 4}. The paper will identify these deficiencies. Specific exhaust system requirements and application should be considered when an evaluation of the SCHEPA filter is being performed in existing systems. When new designs are being comtemplated, other types of HEPA filter housings can be used in lieu of the SCHEPA filter.

  12. Filter material charging apparatus for filter assembly for radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.M.; O'Nan, A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A filter charging apparatus for a filter assembly is described. The filter assembly includes a housing with at least one filter bed therein and the filter charging apparatus for adding filter material to the filter assembly includes a tank with an opening therein, the tank opening being disposed in flow communication with opposed first and second conduit means, the first conduit means being in flow communication with the filter assembly housing and the second conduit means being in flow communication with a blower means. Upon activation of the blower means, the blower means pneumatically conveys the filter material from the tank to the filter housing

  13. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  14. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  15. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  16. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  17. Backflushable filter insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, R.C.; Vandenberg, T.; Randolph, M.C.; Lewis, T.B.; Gillis, P.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Filter elements are mounted on a tube plate beneath an accumulator chamber whose wall is extended by skirt and flange to form a closure for the top of pressure vessel. The accumulator chamber is annular around a central pipe which serves as the outlet for filtered water passing from the filter elements. The chamber contains filtered compressed air from supply. Periodically the filtration of water is stopped and vessel is drained. Then a valve is opened, allowing the accumulated air to flow from chamber up a pipe and down pipe, pushing the filtered water from pipe back through the filter elements to clean them. The accumulator chamber is so proportioned, relative to the volume of the system communicating therewith during backflushing, that the equilibrium pressure during backflushing cannot exceed the pressure rating of the vessel. However a line monitors the pressure at the top of the vessel, and if it rises too far a bleed valve is automatically opened to depressurise the system. The chamber is intended to replace the lid of an existing vessel to convert a filter using filter aid to one using permanent filter elements. (author)

  18. Filters in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, K.H.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The topics of the nine papers given include the behavior of HEPA filters during exposure to air flows of high humidity as well as of high differential pressure, the development of steel-fiber filters suitable for extreme operating conditions, and the occurrence of various radioactive iodine species in the exhaust air from boiling water reactors. In an introductory presentation the German view of the performance requirements to be met by filters in nuclear facilities as well as the present status of filter quality assurance are discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Washing method of filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumidani, Masakiyo; Tanno, Kazuo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic filter operation and facilitate back-washing operation by back-washing filters used in a bwr nuclear power plant utilizing an exhaust gas from a ventilator or air conditioner. Method: Exhaust gas from an exhaust pipe of an ventilator or air conditioner is pressurized in a compressor and then introduced in a back-washing gas tank. Then, the exhaust gas pressurized to a predetermined pressure is blown from the inside to the outside of a filter to thereby separate impurities collected on the filter elements and introduce them to a waste tank. (Furukawa, Y.)

  20. Inverse problems for ODEs using contraction maps and suboptimality of the 'collage method'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, H. E.; Hicken, J. E.; Vrscay, E. R.

    2004-06-01

    Broad classes of inverse problems in differential and integral equations can be cast in the following framework: the optimal approximation of a target x of a suitable metric space X by the fixed point \\bar x of a contraction map T on X. The 'collage method' attempts to solve such inverse problems by finding an operator Tc that maps the target x as close as possible to itself. In the case of ODEs, the appropriate contraction maps are integral Picard operators. In practice, the target solutions possibly arise from an interpolation of experimental data points. In this paper, we investigate the suboptimality of the collage method. A simple inequality that provides upper bounds on the improvement over collage coding is presented and some examples are studied. We conclude that, at worst, the collage method provides an excellent starting point for further optimization, in contrast to more traditional searching methods that must first select a good starting point.

  1. A Suboptimal Power-Saving Transmission Scheme in Multiple Component Carrier Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yao-Liang; Tsai, Zsehong

    Power consumption due to transmissions in base stations (BSs) has been a major contributor to communication-related CO2 emissions. A power optimization model is developed in this study with respect to radio resource allocation and activation in a multiple Component Carrier (CC) environment. We formulate and solve the power-minimization problem of the BS transceivers for multiple-CC networks with carrier aggregation, while maintaining the overall system and respective users' utilities above minimum levels. The optimized power consumption based on this model can be viewed as a lower bound of that of other algorithms employed in practice. A suboptimal scheme with low computation complexity is proposed. Numerical results show that the power consumption of our scheme is much better than that of the conventional one in which all CCs are always active, if both schemes maintain the same required utilities.

  2. A Suboptimal PTS Algorithm Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Lung Hung

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A suboptimal partial transmit sequence (PTS based on particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is presented for the low computation complexity and the reduction of the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system. In general, PTS technique can improve the PAPR statistics of an OFDM system. However, it will come with an exhaustive search over all combinations of allowed phase weighting factors and the search complexity increasing exponentially with the number of subblocks. In this paper, we work around potentially computational intractability; the proposed PSO scheme exploits heuristics to search the optimal combination of phase factors with low complexity. Simulation results show that the new technique can effectively reduce the computation complexity and PAPR reduction.

  3. A Suboptimal PTS Algorithm Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shu-Hong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A suboptimal partial transmit sequence (PTS based on particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is presented for the low computation complexity and the reduction of the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system. In general, PTS technique can improve the PAPR statistics of an OFDM system. However, it will come with an exhaustive search over all combinations of allowed phase weighting factors and the search complexity increasing exponentially with the number of subblocks. In this paper, we work around potentially computational intractability; the proposed PSO scheme exploits heuristics to search the optimal combination of phase factors with low complexity. Simulation results show that the new technique can effectively reduce the computation complexity and PAPR reduction.

  4. Suboptimal Regulation of a Class of Bilinear Interconnected Systems with Finite-Time Sliding Planning Horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Sen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the suboptimization of a class of multivariable discrete-time bilinear systems consisting of interconnected bilinear subsystems with respect to a linear quadratic optimal regulation criterion which involves the use of state weighting terms only. Conditions which ensure the controllability of the overall system are given as a previous requirement for optimization. Three transformations of variables are made on the system equations in order to implement the scheme on an equivalent linear system. This leads to an equivalent representation of the used quadratic performance index that involves the appearance of quadratic weighting terms related to both transformed input and state variables. In this way, a Riccati-matrix sequence, allowing the synthesis of a standard feedback control law, is obtained. Finally, the proposed control scheme is tested on realistic examples.

  5. Suboptimal decision making by children with ADHD in the face of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lin; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Eichele, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Suboptimal decision making in the face of risk (DMR) in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be mediated by deficits in a number of different neuropsychological processes. We investigated DMR in children with ADHD using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT......-matched group of typically developing children (n = 34) performed the CGT. Results: As predicted, children with ADHD were not more prone to making risky choices (i.e., risk proneness). However, they had difficulty adjusting to changing risk levels and were more delay aversive-with these 2 effects being...... correlated. Conclusions: Our findings add to the growing body of evidence that children with ADHD do not favor risk taking per se when performing gambling tasks, but rather may lack the cognitive skills or motivational style to appraise changing patterns of risk effectively....

  6. Filtering suspension e.g. gas from nuclear reactor etc. by separating some of its solids, passing it through filter and recycling fraction rich in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfertzel, R.; Quenault, M.

    1987-01-01

    Gas or liquid contaminated by radioactive particles are filtered for extraction of a part of the purified fluid, a part of particles in the fluid are extracted by a cyclone separator or an electrostatic filter; this fluid poor in particles or the fluid rich in particles from the filtration is recycled after addition of the initial fluid. The process avoid filter clogging [fr

  7. [Associations between health-promoting lifestyle and suboptimal health status in Guangdong: a cross sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Yu; Yang, Le-Bin; Jiang, Ping-Ping; Sun, Xiao-Min; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Li, Fei; Wu, Sheng-Wei; Ji, Yan-Zhao; Zhao, Xiao-Shan; Luo, Ren

    2016-04-01

    To investigate associations between health-promoting lifestyle and suboptimal health status (SHS) in the population of Guangdong province. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a clustered sample of 24 159 individuals aged 12-80 years from 2012 to 2013. Health-promoting lifestyle was assessed via the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II), and SHS was evaluated using the medical examination report and Sub-health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0). Of the 24159 participants, subjects with SHS (46.0%) and disease status (35.2%) accounted for a much higher percentage than healthy subjects (18.8%). Regression analyses revealed a significant association between health status and healthy lifestyle (PUnhealthy lifestyle was an important risk factor for SHS and disease, especially the former. Compared with the participants with a healthy lifestyle (minimal exposure), after demographic adjustment, subjects with a 'poor' lifestyle (maximal exposure) were at a 43 times higher risk of developing SHS (OR: 42.825, 95% CI: 30.567-59.997), those with a general lifestyle were at a 21 times higher risk of SHS (OR: 21.072, 95%CI: 17.258-25.729), and those with a suboptimal lifestyle had a 4 times higher risk (OR: 4.085, 95%CI: 3.352-4.979). In the general population, the major risk factors for SHS included poor stress management, poor self-actualization, inactive exercise and poor interpersonal relationship. s Unhealthy lifestyles are significantly related to an increased risk of SHS. Intervention of unhealthy lifestyles, controlling the risk factors of SHS, and rigorous management of the time window of SHS are necessary to promote the heath status.

  8. A PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING OPTIMAL FACILITY LOCATION AND SUB-OPTIMAL POSITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Dan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This research presents a methodology for determining the optimal location of a new facility, having physical flow interaction of various degrees with other existing facilities in the presence of barriers impeding the shortest flow-path as well as the sub-optimal iso-cost positions. It also determines sub-optimal iso-cost positions with additional cost or penalty for not being able to site it at the computed optimal point. The proposed methodology considers all types of quadrilateral barrier or forbidden region configurations to generalize and by-pass such impenetrable obstacles, and adopts a scheme of searching through the vertices of the quadrilaterals to determine the alternative shortest flow-path. This procedure of obstacle avoidance is novel. Software has been developed to facilitate computations for the search algorithm to determine the optimal and iso-cost co-ordinates. The test results are presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die navorsing behandel ‘n procedure vir die bepaling van optimum stigtingsposisie vir ‘n onderneming met vloei vanaf ander bestaande fasiliteite in die teenwoordigheid van ‘n verskeidenheid van randvoorwaardes. Die prodedure lewer as resultaat suboptimale isokoste-stigtingsplekke met bekendmaking van die koste wat onstaan a.g.v. afwyking van die randvoorwaardlose optimum oplossingskoste, die prosedure maak gebruik van ‘n vindingryke soekmetode wat toegepas word op niersydige meerkundige voorstellings vir die bepaling van korste roetes wat versperring omseil. Die prosedure word onderskei deur programmatuur. Toetsresultate word voorgehou.

  9. Alternate MIMO AF relaying networks with interference alignment: Spectral efficient protocol and linear filter design

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop relaying network consisting of one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays with multiple antennas. To compensate for the capacity prelog factor loss of 1/2$ due to the half-duplex relaying, alternate transmission is performed among three relays, and the inter-relay interference due to the alternate relaying is aligned to make additional degrees of freedom. In addition, suboptimal linear filter designs at the nodes are proposed to maximize the achievable sum rate for different fading scenarios when the destination utilizes a minimum mean-square error filter. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  10. 21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter... Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter nonbiologic...

  11. Diatomite Type Filters for Swimming Pools. Standard No. 9, Revised October, 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Pressure and vacuum diatomite type filters are covered in this standard. The filters herein described are intended to be designed and used specifically for swimming pool water filtration, both public and residential. Included are the basic components which are a necessary part of the diatomite type filter such as filter housing, element supports,…

  12. On-line filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day electronic detectors used in high energy physics make it possible to obtain high event rates and it is likely that future experiments will face even higher data rates than at present. The complexity of the apparatus increases very rapidly with time and also the criteria for selecting desired events become more and more complex. So complex in fact that the fast trigger system cannot be designed to fully cope with it. The interesting events become thus contaminated with multitudes of uninteresting ones. To distinguish the 'good' events from the often overwhelming background of other events one has to resort to computing techniques. Normally this selection is made in the first part of the analysis of the events, analysis normally performed on a powerful scientific computer. This implies however that many uninteresting or background events have to be recorded during the experiment for subsequent analysis. A number of undesired consequences result; and these constitute a sufficient reason for trying to perform the selection at an earlier stage, in fact ideally before the events are recorded on magnetic tape. This early selection is called 'on-line filtering' and it is the topic of the present lectures. (Auth.)

  13. Virtual analysis of influence of a filter on mould filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhian Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic filters are used to avoid slag and impurities in foundry applications. When not properly applied, the presence of these filters may have a significant influence on mould filling. 3-D casting simulation has been applied to study the effects of the use of a ceramic filter on the metal flow in a gating system. Instead of using a pressure drop model to represent the behaviour of a fluid metal flow passing through a filter, a real exact filter geometry, which is created by a high resolution CT-scan and a non-destructive imaging technique, in the gating system is applied in the simulation. In this research, nodular cast iron is poured into a block casting. A depressurized gating system is used. After a choke, a filter with different orientations is placed in the system. Mould filling coupled with temperature is simulated. Geometries using different orientations of the filter, and without the filter have been researched. The simulated results show that the filter has no influence on the pouring time of the casting if the choke section is small enough compared to the effective section of the filter. Although the filter has no significant influence on the flow patterns in the block casting itself, the flow patterns in the filter zone are different. When the liquid metal passes a horizontal filter, it will be broken into many small streams and show a shower effect. After the part under the filter is full, the shower effect disappears. When the filter is located at the vertical position, due to the gravity, the shower effect is less. If no filter presents on the system, the liquid metal passes through the filter zone with a high speed and causes surface turbulence.

  14. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey; Hoel, Haakon; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  15. Neutron Beam Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of filters is to transmit neutrons with selected energy, while remove unwanted ones from the incident neutron beam. This reduces the background, and the number of spurious. The types of commonly used now-a-day neutron filters and their properties are discussed in the present work. There are three major types of neutron filters. The first type is filter of selective thermal neutron. It transmits the main reflected neutrons from a crystal monochromate, while reject the higher order contaminations accompanying the main one. Beams coming from the moderator always contain unwanted radiation like fast neutrons and gamma-rays which contribute to experimental background and to the biological hazard potential. Such filter type is called filter of whole thermal neutron spectrum. The third filter type is it transmits neutrons with energies in the resonance energy range (En . 1 KeV). The main idea of such neutron filter technique is the use of large quantities of a certain material which have the deep interference minima in its total neutron cross-section. By transmitting reactor neutrons through bulk layer of such material, one can obtain the quasimonochromatic neutron lines instead of white reactor spectrum.

  16. Side loading filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    A side loading filter chamber for use with radioactive gases is described. The equipment incorporates an inexpensive, manually operated, mechanism for aligning filter units with a number of laterally spaced wall openings and for removing the units from the chamber. (U.K.)

  17. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  18. Filtering and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Fristedt, B; Krylov, N

    2007-01-01

    Filtering and prediction is about observing moving objects when the observations are corrupted by random errors. The main focus is then on filtering out the errors and extracting from the observations the most precise information about the object, which itself may or may not be moving in a somewhat random fashion. Next comes the prediction step where, using information about the past behavior of the object, one tries to predict its future path. The first three chapters of the book deal with discrete probability spaces, random variables, conditioning, Markov chains, and filtering of discrete Markov chains. The next three chapters deal with the more sophisticated notions of conditioning in nondiscrete situations, filtering of continuous-space Markov chains, and of Wiener process. Filtering and prediction of stationary sequences is discussed in the last two chapters. The authors believe that they have succeeded in presenting necessary ideas in an elementary manner without sacrificing the rigor too much. Such rig...

  19. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  20. Sub-micron filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Frederick [Sanford, FL; Kaledin, Leonid [Port Orange, FL

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  1. Applications of sub-optimality in dynamic programming to location and construction of nuclear fuel processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, L.; Deledicq, A.

    1968-09-01

    First, the point of applying Dynamic Programming to optimization and Operational Research problems in chemical industries are recalled, as well as the conditions in which a dynamic program is illustrated by a sequential graph. A new algorithm for the determination of sub-optimal politics in a sequential graph is then developed. Finally, the applications of sub-optimality concept is shown when taking into account the indirect effects related to possible strategies, or in the case of stochastic choices and of problems of the siting of plants... application examples are given. (authors) [fr

  2. Relationship between stress-related psychosocial work factors and suboptimal health among Chinese medical staff: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying-Zhi; Chu, Xi; Meng, Shi-Jiao; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Li-Juan; Yan, Yu-Xiang

    2018-03-06

    The study aimed to develop and validate a model to measure psychosocial factors at work among medical staff in China based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The second aim of the current study was to clarify the association between stress-related psychosocial work factors and suboptimal health status. The cross-sectional study was conducted using clustered sampling method. Xuanwu Hospital, a 3A grade hospital in Beijing. Nine hundred and fourteen medical staff aged over 40 years were sampled. Seven hundred and ninety-seven valid questionnaires were collected and used for further analyses. The sample included 94% of the Han population. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) and the Suboptimal Health Status Questionnaires-25 were used to assess the psychosocial factors at work and suboptimal health status, respectively. CFA was conducted to establish the evaluating method of COPSOQ. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the relationship between suboptimal health status and stress-related psychosocial work factors among Chinese medical staff. There was a strong correlation among the five dimensions of COPSOQ based on the first-order factor model. Then, we established two second-order factors including negative and positive psychosocial work stress factors to evaluate psychosocial factors at work, and the second-order factor model fit well. The high score in negative (OR (95% CI)=1.47 (1.34 to 1.62), Pwork factors increased and decreased the risk of suboptimal health, respectively. This relationship remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounders and when using different cut-offs of suboptimal health status. Among medical staff, the second-order factor model was a suitable method to evaluate the COPSOQ. The negative and positive psychosocial work stress factors might be the risk and protective factors of suboptimal health, respectively. Moreover, negative psychosocial work stress was the most associated

  3. Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY

    2014-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  4. Bank of Weight Filters for Deep CNNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-22

    very large even on the best available hardware . In some studies in transfer learning it has been observed that the network learnt on one task can be...CNNs. Keywords: CNN, deep learning , neural networks, transfer learning , bank of weigh filters, BWF 1. Introduction Object recognition is an important...of CNNs (or, in general, of deep neural networks) is that feature generation part is fused with the classifier part and both parts are learned together

  5. Wien filter for a polarized ions source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez A, P.I.

    1977-01-01

    In order to carry out investigation works about nuclear structure, the Nuclear Center of Mexico has an accelerator Tandem Van de Graff of 12 Mv. Now in this center there is a polarized ions source, in a setting phase, totally constructed in the workshop of the accelerator. This source, supplies an ion beam with a polarization whose propagation direction is not the adequate one for the dispersion and reaction processes wanted to be realized. A filter Wien was used to obtain the correct direction of the polarization vector. The purpose of this work is the study of the filter necessary conditions in order to reach the desirable objective. In the first part some generalities are given about: polarization phenomena, polarized ions source and description of the performance of the Wien filter. In the second part, the problem of the passage of a polarized beam through the filter is tried and solved. Finally, the design and construction of the filter is presented together with the results of the experimentation with the object to justify the suppositions which were taken into consideration in the solution of the filter problem. (author)

  6. Gabor filter based fingerprint image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Xiang

    2013-03-01

    Fingerprint recognition technology has become the most reliable biometric technology due to its uniqueness and invariance, which has been most convenient and most reliable technique for personal authentication. The development of Automated Fingerprint Identification System is an urgent need for modern information security. Meanwhile, fingerprint preprocessing algorithm of fingerprint recognition technology has played an important part in Automatic Fingerprint Identification System. This article introduces the general steps in the fingerprint recognition technology, namely the image input, preprocessing, feature recognition, and fingerprint image enhancement. As the key to fingerprint identification technology, fingerprint image enhancement affects the accuracy of the system. It focuses on the characteristics of the fingerprint image, Gabor filters algorithm for fingerprint image enhancement, the theoretical basis of Gabor filters, and demonstration of the filter. The enhancement algorithm for fingerprint image is in the windows XP platform with matlab.65 as a development tool for the demonstration. The result shows that the Gabor filter is effective in fingerprint image enhancement technology.

  7. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  8. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  9. Development and evaluation of a cleanable high efficiency steel filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Weber, F.; Wilson, P.; Lopez, R.; Valha, G.; Conner, J.; Garr, J.; Williams, K.; Biermann, A.; Wilson, K.; Moore, P.; Gellner, C.; Rapchun, D.; Simon, K.; Turley, J.; Frye, L.; Monroe, D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a high efficiency steel filter that can be cleaned in-situ by reverse air pulses. The filter consists of 64 pleated cylindrical filter elements packaged into a 6l0 x 6l0 x 292 mm aluminum frame and has 13.5 m 2 of filter area. The filter media consists of a sintered steel fiber mat using 2 μm diameter fibers. We conducted an optimization study for filter efficiency and pressure drop to determine the filter design parameters of pleat width, pleat depth, outside diameter of the cylinder, and the total number of cylinders. Several prototype cylinders were then built and evaluated in terms of filter cleaning by reverse air pulses. The results of these studies were used to build the high efficiency steel filter. We evaluated the prototype filter for efficiency and cleanability. The DOP filter certification test showed the filter has a passing efficiency of 99.99% but a failing pressure drop of 0.80 kPa at 1,700 m 3 /hr. Since we were not able to achieve a pressure drop less than 0.25 kPa, the steel filter does not meet all the criteria for a HEPA filter. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned by reverse air pulses. The next phase of the prototype evaluation consisted of installing the unit and support housing in the exhaust duct work of a uranium grit blaster for a field evaluation at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. The grit blaster is used to clean the surface of uranium parts and generates a cloud of UO 2 aerosols. We used a 1,700 m 3 /hr slip stream from the 10,200 m 3 /hr exhaust system

  10. Bone marrow concentrate promotes bone regeneration with a suboptimal-dose of rhBMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egashira, Kazuhiro; Sumita, Yoshinori; Zhong, Weijian; I, Takashi; Ohba, Seigo; Nagai, Kazuhiro; Asahina, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    Bone marrow concentrate (BMC), which is enriched in mononuclear cells (MNCs) and platelets, has recently attracted the attention of clinicians as a new optional means for bone engineering. We previously reported that the osteoinductive effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) could be enhanced synergistically by co-transplantation of peripheral blood (PB)-derived platelet-rich plasma (PRP). This study aims to investigate whether BMC can effectively promote bone formation induced by low-dose BMP-2, thereby reducing the undesirable side-effects of BMP-2, compared to PRP. Human BMC was obtained from bone marrow aspirates using an automated blood separator. The BMC was then seeded onto β-TCP granules pre-adsorbed with a suboptimal-dose (minimum concentration to induce bone formation at 2 weeks in mice) of recombinant human (rh) BMP-2. These specimens were transplanted subcutaneously to the dorsal skin of immunodeficient-mice and the induction of ectopic bone formation was assessed 2 and 4 weeks post-transplantation. Transplantations of five other groups [PB, PRP, platelet-poor plasma (PPP), bone marrow aspirate (BM), and BM-PPP] were employed as experimental controls. Then, to clarify the effects on vertical bone augmentation, specimens from the six groups were transplanted for on-lay placement on the craniums of mice. The results indicated that BMC, which contained an approximately 2.5-fold increase in the number of MNCs compared to PRP, could accelerate ectopic bone formation until 2 weeks post-transplantation. On the cranium, the BMC group promoted bone augmentation with a suboptimal-dose of rhBMP-2 compared to other groups. Particularly in the BMC specimens harvested at 4 weeks, we observed newly formed bone surrounding the TCP granules at sites far from the calvarial bone. In conclusion, the addition of BMC could reduce the amount of rhBMP-2 by one-half via its synergistic effect on early-phase osteoinduction. We propose here that BMC transplantation

  11. Adaptive Filtering Using Recurrent Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Menon, Sunil K.; Atiya, Amir F.

    2005-01-01

    A method for adaptive (or, optionally, nonadaptive) filtering has been developed for estimating the states of complex process systems (e.g., chemical plants, factories, or manufacturing processes at some level of abstraction) from time series of measurements of system inputs and outputs. The method is based partly on the fundamental principles of the Kalman filter and partly on the use of recurrent neural networks. The standard Kalman filter involves an assumption of linearity of the mathematical model used to describe a process system. The extended Kalman filter accommodates a nonlinear process model but still requires linearization about the state estimate. Both the standard and extended Kalman filters involve the often unrealistic assumption that process and measurement noise are zero-mean, Gaussian, and white. In contrast, the present method does not involve any assumptions of linearity of process models or of the nature of process noise; on the contrary, few (if any) assumptions are made about process models, noise models, or the parameters of such models. In this regard, the method can be characterized as one of nonlinear, nonparametric filtering. The method exploits the unique ability of neural networks to approximate nonlinear functions. In a given case, the process model is limited mainly by limitations of the approximation ability of the neural networks chosen for that case. Moreover, despite the lack of assumptions regarding process noise, the method yields minimum- variance filters. In that they do not require statistical models of noise, the neural- network-based state filters of this method are comparable to conventional nonlinear least-squares estimators.

  12. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  13. EMI filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Ozenbaugh, Richard Lee

    2011-01-01

    With today's electrical and electronics systems requiring increased levels of performance and reliability, the design of robust EMI filters plays a critical role in EMC compliance. Using a mix of practical methods and theoretical analysis, EMI Filter Design, Third Edition presents both a hands-on and academic approach to the design of EMI filters and the selection of components values. The design approaches covered include matrix methods using table data and the use of Fourier analysis, Laplace transforms, and transfer function realization of LC structures. This edition has been fully revised

  14. Randomized Filtering Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed...... in the expected sense. The second scheme is a Las Vegas algorithm using filtering triggers: Its effectiveness is the same as enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while in the expected case it is faster by a factor of m/n, where n and m are, respectively, the number of nodes and edges...

  15. Preconditioning Filter Bank Decomposition Using Structured Normalized Tight Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ehler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We turn a given filter bank into a filtering scheme that provides perfect reconstruction, synthesis is the adjoint of the analysis part (so-called unitary filter banks, all filters have equal norm, and the essential features of the original filter bank are preserved. Unitary filter banks providing perfect reconstruction are induced by tight generalized frames, which enable signal decomposition using a set of linear operators. If, in addition, frame elements have equal norm, then the signal energy is spread through the various filter bank channels in some uniform fashion, which is often more suitable for further signal processing. We start with a given generalized frame whose elements allow for fast matrix vector multiplication, as, for instance, convolution operators, and compute a normalized tight frame, for which signal analysis and synthesis still preserve those fast algorithmic schemes.

  16. Study of different filters; Etude de differents filtres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochinal, R.; Rouby, R.

    1959-07-01

    This note first contains a terminology related to filters and to their operation, and then proposes an overview of general characteristics of filters such as load loss with respect to gas rate, efficiency, and clogging with respect to filter pollution. It also indicates standard aerosols which are generally used, how they are dosed, and how efficiency is determined with a standard aerosol. Then, after a presentation of the filtration principle, this note reports the study of several filters: glass wool, filter papers provided by different companies, Teflon foam, English filters, Teflon wool, sintered Teflonite, quartz wool, polyvinyl chloride foam, synthetic filter, sintered bronze. The third part reports the study of some aerosol and dust separators.

  17. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AND BUSINESS DIVERSIFICATION: SUSTAINABILITY LIVELIHOODS IMPROVEMENT SCENARIO OF RICE FARMER HOUSEHOLD IN SUB-OPTIMAL LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased role of the sub-optimal land to support food security continue to be encouraged in Indonesia, given the more limited expansion for potential land. But until recently, development of sub-optimal land becomes not an easy thing. Ecological and technical barriers became the main issue. A series of these issues resulted in a high number of underemproleymeny and poverty in agriculture region. Technological inovation of agriculture and the business diversification can be seen be the solution to those issues. This research aims to analyze the impact of the technological innovation and business diversification on underemployment, working time, household income and also sustainable livelihoods of farmers on the sub-optimal land. The research was carried out in Pemulutan District, Ogan Ilir Regency, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia. The objects of research are farmers which adopter and non adopter technological innovation, and also work outside of paddy farming (business diversification. The research method is the survey. Method of sampling is stratified random sampling. Data obtained in the field analyses using descriptive statistics and inferesia. The results showed there are positive impact of technological innovation on the allocation of working time farmer households, the numbers underemployment, household income and livelihood sustainability. Determinant factors for farmers in applying technology and business diversification are paddy farming income, off-farm income, and age. The use of technology and business diversification proves to be one of the positive scenarios for sustainable livelihood of farmers in sub-optimal land.

  18. Methanol degradation in granular sludge reactors at sub-optimal metal concentrations: role of iron, nickel and cobalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, M.H.; Geerts, R.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of sub-optimal trace metal concentrations on the conversion of methanol in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was investigated by studying the effect of decreased influent trace metal concentrations on the reactor efficiency, methanol conversion route and sludge

  19. Socioeconomic factors explain suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected Australian adults with viral suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siefried, Krista J; Mao, Limin; Kerr, Stephen; Cysique, Lucette A; Gates, Thomas M; McAllister, John; Maynard, Anthony; de Wit, John; Carr, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Missing more than one tablet of contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART) per month increases the risk of virological failure. Recent studies evaluating a comprehensive range of potential risk factors for suboptimal adherence are not available for high-income settings. METHODS: Adults on

  20. Ensemble Kalman filtering with one-step-ahead smoothing

    KAUST Repository

    Raboudi, Naila F.

    2018-01-11

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is widely used for sequential data assimilation. It operates as a succession of forecast and analysis steps. In realistic large-scale applications, EnKFs are implemented with small ensembles and poorly known model error statistics. This limits their representativeness of the background error covariances and, thus, their performance. This work explores the efficiency of the one-step-ahead (OSA) smoothing formulation of the Bayesian filtering problem to enhance the data assimilation performance of EnKFs. Filtering with OSA smoothing introduces an updated step with future observations, conditioning the ensemble sampling with more information. This should provide an improved background ensemble in the analysis step, which may help to mitigate the suboptimal character of EnKF-based methods. Here, the authors demonstrate the efficiency of a stochastic EnKF with OSA smoothing for state estimation. They then introduce a deterministic-like EnKF-OSA based on the singular evolutive interpolated ensemble Kalman (SEIK) filter. The authors show that the proposed SEIK-OSA outperforms both SEIK, as it efficiently exploits the data twice, and the stochastic EnKF-OSA, as it avoids observational error undersampling. They present extensive assimilation results from numerical experiments conducted with the Lorenz-96 model to demonstrate SEIK-OSA’s capabilities.

  1. Effects of Suboptimally Presented Erotic Pictures on Moral Judgments: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Olivera-La Rosa

    Full Text Available Previous research has identified a set of core factors that influence moral judgments. The present study addresses the interplay between moral judgments and four factors: (a incidental affects, (b sociocultural context, (c type of dilemma, and (d participant's sex. We asked participants in two different countries (Colombia and Spain to judge the acceptability of actions in response to personal and impersonal moral dilemmas. Before each dilemma an affective prime (erotic, pleasant or neutral pictures was presented suboptimally. Our results show that: a relative to neutral priming, erotic primes increase the acceptance of harm for a greater good (i.e., more utilitarian judgments, b relative to Colombians, Spanish participants rated causing harm as less acceptable, c relative to impersonal dilemmas, personal dilemmas reduced the acceptance of harm, and d relative to men, women were less likely to consider harm acceptable. Our results are congruent with findings showing that sex is a crucial factor in moral cognition, and they extend previous research by showing the interaction between culture and incidental factors in the making of moral judgments.

  2. Effects of Suboptimally Presented Erotic Pictures on Moral Judgments: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera-La Rosa, Antonio; Corradi, Guido; Villacampa, Javier; Martí-Vilar, Manuel; Arango, Olber Eduardo; Rosselló, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified a set of core factors that influence moral judgments. The present study addresses the interplay between moral judgments and four factors: (a) incidental affects, (b) sociocultural context, (c) type of dilemma, and (d) participant's sex. We asked participants in two different countries (Colombia and Spain) to judge the acceptability of actions in response to personal and impersonal moral dilemmas. Before each dilemma an affective prime (erotic, pleasant or neutral pictures) was presented suboptimally. Our results show that: a) relative to neutral priming, erotic primes increase the acceptance of harm for a greater good (i.e., more utilitarian judgments), b) relative to Colombians, Spanish participants rated causing harm as less acceptable, c) relative to impersonal dilemmas, personal dilemmas reduced the acceptance of harm, and d) relative to men, women were less likely to consider harm acceptable. Our results are congruent with findings showing that sex is a crucial factor in moral cognition, and they extend previous research by showing the interaction between culture and incidental factors in the making of moral judgments.

  3. Metabonomics-Based Study of Clinical Urine Samples in Suboptimal Health with Different Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Zhen Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the urinary biochemistry features of syndromes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM such as syndrome of stagnation of liver Qi, spleen deficiency, liver Qi stagnation, and spleen deficiency (LSSDS in sub-optimal health status (SHS. Methods. 12 cases for each syndrome group in SHS were selected, 12 subjects were used as a normal control group, and 1H NMR detection was, respectively, carried out, and the data was corrected by the orthogonal signal correction (OSC and then adopted a partial least squares (PLS method for discriminate analysis. Results. The OSC-PLS (ctr analysis results of the nuclear overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY detection indicated that the syndromes in SHS could be differentiated, and there were significant differences in the levels of metabolites of the urine samples of the four groups; the biomarkers of LSSDS in SHS were found out. The contents of citric acid (2.54 and 2.66, trimethylamineoxide (3.26, and hippuric acid (3.98, 7.54, 7.58, 7.62, 7.66, 7.82, and 7.86 in the urine samples of LSSDS group were lower than that of the normal control group. Conclusion. There are differences in the 1H-NMR metabolic spectrum of the urine samples of the four groups, and the specific metabolic products of the LSSDS in SHS can be identified from metabonomics analysis.

  4. Clinical significance of suboptimal hormonal levels in men with prostate cancer treated with LHRH agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Jun; Morales, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    We examined the serum levels of testosterone (T) (total and bioavailable) dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in men receiving treatment with luteinizing hormone releasing-hormone (LHRH) agonists for metastatic prostate cancer. In doing this, we want to determine the efficacy of these agents in lowering T levels and whether a possible relationship exists between PSA values, as a surrogate measure of tumour activity, and hormone levels. This was a single centre prospective study of patients on LHRH agonists. Of all the 100 eligible patients, 31 did not qualify (10 were receiving their first injection, 13 were on intermittent hormonal therapy, 7 refused to enter the trial and 1 patient's blood sample was lost). Therefore in total, 69 patients were included in the final analysis. Each patient had their blood sample drawn immediately before the administration of a LHRH agonist. The new proposed criteria of values are more commonly found in patients with suboptimal levels of testosterone receiving LHRH analogs, but the clinical importance of this finding has not been established. There is no significant difference with respect to hormonal levels reached among patients on a variety of LHRH agonists. Total testosterone determinations should be considered in patients on LHRH agonist therapy, particularly when the PSA values begin to rise since it may lead to further beneficial hormonal manipulation.

  5. Lansoprazole induces sensitivity to suboptimal doses of paclitaxel in human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarito, Tommaso; Venturi, Giulietta; Cesolini, Albino; Fais, Stefano

    2015-01-28

    Tumor acidity is now considered an important determinant of drug-resistance and tumor progression, and anti-acidic approaches, such as Proton Pump inhibitors (PPIs), have demonstrated promising antitumor and chemo-sensitizing efficacy. The main purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possible PPI-induced sensitization of human melanoma cells to Paclitaxel (PTX). Our results show that PTX and the PPI Lansoprazole (LAN) combination was extremely efficient against metastatic melanoma cells, as compared to the single treatments, both in vitro and in vivo. We also showed that acidity plays an important role on the anti-tumor activity of these drugs, being detrimental for PTX activity, while crucial for the synergistic effect of PTX following pretreatment with LAN, due to its nature of pro-drug needing protonation for a full activation. We obtained straightforward results in a human melanoma xenograft model combining well tolerated LAN doses with suboptimal and poorly toxic doses of PTX. With this study we provide a clear evidence that the PPI LAN may be included in new combined therapy of human melanoma together with low doses of PTX. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sunk cost and work ethic effects reflect suboptimal choice between different work requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Paula; White, K Geoffrey

    2013-03-01

    We investigated suboptimal choice between different work requirements in pigeons (Columba livia), namely the sunk cost effect, an irrational tendency to persist with an initial investment, despite the availability of a better option. Pigeons chose between two keys, one with a fixed work requirement to food of 20 pecks (left key), and the other with a work requirement to food which varied across conditions (center key). On some trials within each session, such choices were preceded by an investment of 35 pecks on the center key, whereas on others they were not. On choice trials preceded by the investment, the pigeons tended to stay and complete the schedule associated with the center key, even when the number of pecks to obtain reward was greater than for the concurrently available left key. This result indicates that pigeons, like humans, commit the sunk cost effect. With higher work requirements, this preference was extended to trials where there was no initial investment, so an overall preference for the key associated with more work was evident, consistent with the work ethic effect. We conclude that a more general work ethic effect is amplified by the effect of the prior investment, that is, the sunk cost effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Suboptimal HIV Testing Uptake Among Men Who Engage in Commercial Sex Work with Men in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Harry; Friedman, Mackey Reuel; Lim, Sin How; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Wei, Chongyi

    2016-12-01

    Men who have sex with men and are sex workers (MSMSW) are disproportionately affected by the growing and emerging HIV epidemic. As sex work and same-sex behavior are heavily stigmatized and often illegal in most Asian countries, HIV research focusing on MSMSW has been limited. The goal of this analysis is to examine HIV testing practices and identify correlates of HIV testing among MSMSW in Asia. The Asia Internet MSM Sex Survey, an online cross-sectional survey of 10,861 men who have sex with men (MSM), was conducted in 2010. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, HIV testing behaviors, and sexual behaviors were collected. Five hundred and seventy-four HIV-negative/unknown respondents reported receiving payment for sex with men at least once in the past 6 months and were included in this analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify independent correlates of HIV testing in the past year. About half (48.6%) of the participants had been tested for HIV at least once within the past year, and 30.5% had never been tested. We also found that MSMSW participants who engaged in risky behaviors were less likely to be tested. While one might expect a high HIV testing rate among MSMSW due to the risks associated with engaging in sex work, we found that HIV testing uptake is suboptimal among MSMSW in Asia. These results suggest that targeted HIV prevention and testing promotion among MSMSW are needed.

  8. Altered Innate Immune Responses in Neutrophils from Patients with Well- and Suboptimally Controlled Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca S. M. Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Respiratory infections are a major cause of asthma exacerbations where neutrophilic inflammation dominates and is associated with steroid refractory asthma. Structural airway cells in asthma differ from nonasthmatics; however it is unknown if neutrophils differ. We investigated neutrophil immune responses in patients who have good (AGood and suboptimal (ASubopt asthma symptom control. Methods. Peripheral blood neutrophils from AGood (ACQ 0.75, n=7, and healthy controls (HC (n=9 were stimulated with bacterial (LPS (1 μg/mL, fMLF (100 nM, and viral (imiquimod (3 μg/mL, R848 (1.5 μg/mL, and poly I:C (10 μg/mL surrogates or live rhinovirus (RV 16 (MOI1. Cell-free supernatant was collected after 1 h for neutrophil elastase (NE and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 measurements or after 24 h for CXCL8 release. Results. Constitutive NE was enhanced in AGood neutrophils compared to HC. fMLF stimulated neutrophils from ASubopt but not AGood produced 50% of HC levels. fMLF induced MMP-9 was impaired in ASubopt and AGood compared to HC. fMLF stimulated CXCL8 but not MMP-9 was positively correlated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. ASubopt and AGood responded similarly to other stimuli. Conclusions. Circulating neutrophils are different in asthma; however, this is likely to be related to airflow limitation rather than asthma control.

  9. Suboptimal Nutritional Characteristics in Male and Female Soldiers Compared to Sports Nutrition Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Prostate-specific antigen density is predictive of outcome in suboptimal prostate seed brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaquen, David; Delouya, Guila; Ménard, Cynthia; Barkati, Maroie; Taussky, Daniel

    In prostate seed brachytherapy, a D 90 of prostate-specific antigen + 2). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed, adjusting for known prognostic factors such as D 90 and prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) of ≥0.15 ng/mL/cm 3 , to evaluate their ability to predict BF. Median followup for patients without BF was 72 months (interquartile range 56-96). BF-free recurrence rate at 5 years was 95% and at 8 years 88%. In univariate analysis, PSAD and cancer of the prostate risk assessment score were predictive of BF. On multivariate analysis, none of the factors remained significant. The best prognosis had patients with a low PSAD (<0.15 ng/mL/cm 3 ) and an optimal implant at 30 days after implantation (as defined by D 90  ≥ 130 Gy) compared to patients with both factors unfavorable (p = 0.006). A favorable PSAD was associate with a good prognosis, independently of the D 90 (<130 Gy vs. ≥130 Gy, p = 0.7). Patients with a PSAD of <0.15 ng/mL/cm 3 have little risk of BF, even in the case of a suboptimal implant. These results need to be validated in other patients' cohorts. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Economic and disease burden of breast cancer associated with suboptimal breastfeeding practices in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Meza, Rafael; Colchero, M Arantxa; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; de Cosío, Teresita Gonzalez

    2017-12-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding and longer breastfeeding reduce women's breast cancer risk but Mexico has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide. We estimated the lifetime economic and disease burden of breast cancer in Mexico if 95% of parous women breastfeed each child exclusively for 6 months and continue breastfeeding for over a year. We used a static microsimulation model with a cost-of-illness approach to simulate a cohort of Mexican women. We estimated breast cancer incidence, premature mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), medical costs, and income losses due to breast cancer and extrapolated the results to 1.116 million Mexican women of age 15 in 2012. Costs were expressed in 2015 US dollars and discounted at a 3% annual rate. We estimated that 2,186 premature deaths (95% CI 2,123-2,248), 9,936 breast cancer cases (95% CI 9,651-10,220), 45,109 DALYs (95% CI 43,000-47,217), and $245 million USD (95% CI 234-256) in medical costs and income losses owing to breast cancer could be saved over a cohort's lifetime. Medical costs account for 80% of the economic burden; income losses and opportunity costs for caregivers account for 15 and 5%, respectively. In Mexico, the burden of breast cancer due to suboptimal breastfeeding in women is high in terms of morbidity, premature mortality, and the economic costs for the health sector and society.

  12. Critical phenomena in communication/computation networks with various topologies and suboptimal to optimal resource allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoni, Marco; Busonera, Giovanni; Anedda, Paolo; Zanetti, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    We generalize previous studies on critical phenomena in communication networks [1,2] by adding computational capabilities to the nodes. In our model, a set of tasks with random origin, destination and computational structure is distributed on a computational network, modeled as a graph. By varying the temperature of a Metropolis Montecarlo, we explore the global latency for an optimal to suboptimal resource assignment at a given time instant. By computing the two-point correlation function for the local overload, we study the behavior of the correlation distance (both for links and nodes) while approaching the congested phase: a transition from peaked to spread g(r) is seen above a critical (Montecarlo) temperature Tc. The average latency trend of the system is predicted by averaging over several network traffic realizations while maintaining a spatially detailed information for each node: a sharp decrease of performance is found over Tc independently of the workload. The globally optimized computational resource allocation and network routing defines a baseline for a future comparison of the transition behavior with respect to existing routing strategies [3,4] for different network topologies.

  13. Suboptimal Iodine Concentration in Breastmilk and Inadequate Iodine Intake among Lactating Women in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henjum, Sigrun; Lilleengen, Anne Marie; Aakre, Inger; Dudareva, Anna; Gjengedal, Elin Lovise Folven; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise

    2017-06-22

    Breastfed infants depend on sufficient maternal iodine intake for optimal growth and neurological development. Despite this, few studies have assessed iodine concentrations in human milk and there is currently no published data on iodine status among lactating women in Norway. The aim of this study was to assess iodine concentrations in breast milk (BMIC) in lactating women and estimate iodine intake. Five Mother and Child Health Centres in Oslo were randomly selected during 2016, and 175 lactating women between 2nd and 28th weeks postpartum participated. Each of the women provided four breastmilk samples which were pooled and analysed for iodine concentrations. Participants also provided information on iodine intake from food and supplements covering the last 24 h and the habitual iodine intake (food frequency questionnaire). The median (p25, p75 percentiles) BMIC was 68 (45, 98) µg/L and 76% had BMIC food (p25, p75) was 121 (82, 162) µg/day and the total intake (food and supplements) was 134 (95, 222) µg/day. The majority of lactating women had suboptimal BMIC and inadequate intake of iodine from food and supplements.

  14. Application of Federal Kalman Filter with Neural Networks in the Velocity and Attitude Matching of Transfer Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The centralized Kalman filter is always applied in the velocity and attitude matching of Transfer Alignment (TA. But the centralized Kalman has many disadvantages, such as large amount of calculation, poor real-time performance, and low reliability. In the paper, the federal Kalman filter (FKF based on neural networks is used in the velocity and attitude matching of TA, the Kalman filter is adjusted by the neural networks in the two subfilters, the federal filter is used to fuse the information of the two subfilters, and the global suboptimal state estimation is obtained. The result of simulation shows that the federal Kalman filter based on neural networks is better in estimating the initial attitude misalignment angle of inertial navigation system (INS when the system dynamic model and noise statistics characteristics of inertial navigation system are unclear, and the estimation error is smaller and the accuracy is higher.

  15. Metalcasting: Filtering Molten Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauren Poole; Lee Recca

    1999-01-01

    A more efficient method has been created to filter cast molten metal for impurities. Read about the resulting energy and money savings that can accrue to many different industries from the use of this exciting new technology

  16. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-01

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  17. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  18. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter requires that criteria be met to demonstrate that the outcome instrument meets...... the criteria for content, face, and construct validity. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed a variety of ways in which case studies of current OMERACT Working Groups complied with the Truth component of the Filter and what issues remained to be resolved. RESULTS: The case studies showed...... that there is broad agreement on criteria for meeting the Truth criteria through demonstration of content, face, and construct validity; however, several issues were identified that the Filter Working Group will need to address. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on how Truth...

  19. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John R; Boers, Maarten; Hewlett, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes...... for defining core areas of measurement ("Filter 2.0 Core Areas of Measurement") was presented at OMERACT 11 to explore areas of consensus and to consider whether already endorsed core outcome sets fit into this newly proposed framework. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed the extent to which case......, presentation, and clarity of the framework were questioned. The discussion groups and subsequent feedback highlighted 20 such issues. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on accepting the proposed Filter 2.0 framework of Core Areas as the basis for the selection of Core Outcome...

  20. Paul Rodgersi filter Kohilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.

  1. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-07

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  2. Spatial filter issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.E.; Estabrook, K.G.; Milam, D.; Sell, W.D.; Van Wonterghem, R.M.; Feil, M.D.; Rubenchick, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments and calculations indicate that the threshold pressure in spatial filters for distortion of a transmitted pulse scales approximately as I O.2 and (F number-sign) 2 over the intensity range from 10 14 to 2xlO 15 W/CM 2 . We also demonstrated an interferometric diagnostic that will be used to measure the scaling relationships governing pinhole closure in spatial filters

  3. Microwave Resonators and Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    1 Microwave Resonators and Filters Daniel E. Oates MIT Lincoln Laboratory 244 Wood St. Lexington, MA 02478 USA Email: oates@ll.mit.edu...explained in other chapters, the surface resistance of superconductors at microwave frequencies can be as much as three orders of magnitude lower than the...resonators and filters in the first edition of this handbook (Z.-Y. Shen 2003) discussed the then state of the art of microwave frequency applications

  4. Staging with spatial filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.

    1974-01-01

    It is known that small scale beam instabilities limit the focusable energy that can be achieved from a terawatt laser chain. Spatial filters are currently being used on CYCLOPS to ameliorate this problem. Realizing the full advantage of such a filter, however, may require certain staging modifications. A staging methodology is discussed that should be applicable to the CYCLOPS, 381, and SHIVA systems. Experiments are in progress on CYCLOPS that will address directly the utility of the proposed approach

  5. Suggestions for removing operational faults in air filter plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochs, H J

    1980-11-01

    Air filters are expected to achieve certain performances within their duty, viz. to precipitate air-alien matter in the air stream, the results of which will have to be checked. As a number of external influences affect the function of the air filter and, therefore, may alter the pre-defined data, checking should not only cover the air filter but also the other parts of the ventilating plant, to assure a faultless continuous operation.

  6. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  7. Alternating minimisation for glottal inverse filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleyer, Ismael Rodrigo; Lybeck, Lasse; Auvinen, Harri; Siltanen, Samuli; Airaksinen, Manu; Alku, Paavo

    2017-01-01

    A new method is proposed for solving the glottal inverse filtering (GIF) problem. The goal of GIF is to separate an acoustical speech signal into two parts: the glottal airflow excitation and the vocal tract filter. To recover such information one has to deal with a blind deconvolution problem. This ill-posed inverse problem is solved under a deterministic setting, considering unknowns on both sides of the underlying operator equation. A stable reconstruction is obtained using a double regularization strategy, alternating between fixing either the glottal source signal or the vocal tract filter. This enables not only splitting the nonlinear and nonconvex problem into two linear and convex problems, but also allows the use of the best parameters and constraints to recover each variable at a time. This new technique, called alternating minimization glottal inverse filtering (AM-GIF), is compared with two other approaches: Markov chain Monte Carlo glottal inverse filtering (MCMC-GIF), and iterative adaptive inverse filtering (IAIF), using synthetic speech signals. The recent MCMC-GIF has good reconstruction quality but high computational cost. The state-of-the-art IAIF method is computationally fast but its accuracy deteriorates, particularly for speech signals of high fundamental frequency ( F 0). The results show the competitive performance of the new method: With high F 0, the reconstruction quality is better than that of IAIF and close to MCMC-GIF while reducing the computational complexity by two orders of magnitude. (paper)

  8. Workshop on polarized neutron filters and polarized pulsed neutron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi

    2004-07-01

    The workshop was held in KEK by thirty-three participants on April 26, 2004. The polarized neutron filter method was only discussed. It consists of three parts; the first part was discussed on the polarized neutron methods, the second part on the polarized neutron experiments and the third on the pulse neutron spectrometer and polarized neutron experiments. The six papers were presented such as the polarized 3 He neutron spin filter, neutron polarization by proton polarized filter, soft master and neutron scattering, polarized neutron in solid physics, polarization experiments by chopper spectroscope and neutron polarization system in superHRPD. (S.Y.)

  9. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS)—an intermediate state between health and illness—refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work−life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15−60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency (“rarely, sometimes, or always”). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically “rare” were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49–1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance (“sometimes”) were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62–1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be accurate behavioral indicia of a healthy lifestyle. Poor work-recreation balance is

  10. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2016-03-19

    Suboptimal health status (SHS)-an intermediate state between health and illness--refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although- SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work-life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15-60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency ("rarely, sometimes, or always"). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically "rare" were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49-1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance ("sometimes") were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62-1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be accurate behavioral indicia of a healthy lifestyle. Poor work-recreation balance is associated with

  11. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Suboptimal health status (SHS—an intermediate state between health and illness—refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work−life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15−60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency (“rarely, sometimes, or always”. Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0 were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3% is higher than health status (18.4% or disease status (35.3%. Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p < 0.001 after demographic adjustment. In comparison with those reporting a frequent work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically “rare” were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR: 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.49–1.92, and those with infrequent work-recreation balance (“sometimes” were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62–1.81. These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and

  12. Suboptimal management of central nervous system infections in children: a multi-centre retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Christine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We aimed to audit the regional management of central nervous system (CNS infection in children. Methods The study was undertaken in five district general hospitals and one tertiary paediatric hospital in the Mersey region of the UK. Children admitted to hospital with a suspected CNS infection over a three month period were identified. Children were aged between 4 weeks and 16 years old. Details were recorded from the case notes and electronic records. We measured the appropriateness of management pathways as outlined by national and local guidelines. Results Sixty-five children were identified with a median age of 6 months (range 1 month to 15 years. Ten had a CNS infection: 4 aseptic meningitis, 3 purulent meningitis, 3 encephalitis [2 with herpes simplex virus (HSV type 1]. A lumbar puncture (LP was attempted in 50 (77% cases but only 43 had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF available for analysis. Of these 24 (57% had a complete standard set of tests performed. Fifty eight (89% received a third generation cephalosporin. Seventeen (26% also received aciclovir with no obvious indication in 9 (53%. Only 11 (65% of those receiving aciclovir had CSF herpes virus PCR. Seventeen had cranial imaging and it was the first management step in 14. Treatment lengths of both antibiotics and aciclovir were highly variable: one child with HSV encephalitis was only treated with aciclovir for 7 days. Conclusions The clinical management of children with suspected CNS infections across the Mersey region is heterogeneous and often sub-optimal, particularly for the investigation and treatment of viral encephalitis. National guidelines for the management of viral encephalitis are needed.

  13. The burden of suboptimal breastfeeding in the United States: a pediatric cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartick, Melissa; Reinhold, Arnold

    2010-05-01

    A 2001 study revealed that $3.6 billion could be saved if breastfeeding rates were increased to levels of the Healthy People objectives. It studied 3 diseases and totaled direct and indirect costs and cost of premature death. The 2001 study can be updated by using current breastfeeding rates and adding additional diseases analyzed in the 2007 breastfeeding report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Using methods similar to those in the 2001 study, we computed current costs and compared them to the projected costs if 80% and 90% of US families could comply with the recommendation to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months. Excluding type 2 diabetes (because of insufficient data), we conducted a cost analysis for all pediatric diseases for which the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality reported risk ratios that favored breastfeeding: necrotizing enterocolitis, otitis media, gastroenteritis, hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections, atopic dermatitis, sudden infant death syndrome, childhood asthma, childhood leukemia, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. We used 2005 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention breastfeeding rates and 2007 dollars. If 90% of US families could comply with medical recommendations to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months, the United States would save $13 billion per year and prevent an excess 911 deaths, nearly all of which would be in infants ($10.5 billion and 741 deaths at 80% compliance). Current US breastfeeding rates are suboptimal and result in significant excess costs and preventable infant deaths. Investment in strategies to promote longer breastfeeding duration and exclusivity may be cost-effective.

  14. Suboptimal vitamin K status despite supplementation in children and young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kelly A; Schall, Joan I; Stallings, Virginia A

    2010-09-01

    For children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency, the efficacy of routine vitamin K supplementation to normalize vitamin K status remains unclear. This study examined and determined predictors of vitamin K status in subjects aged 8-25 y with CF and pancreatic insufficiency taking various vitamin K supplements. In 97 subjects, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], dietary intake, vitamin K supplement intake, and vitamin K statusmdashdetermined on the basis of the percentage of serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC; sufficient: lt 20%) and plasma proteins induced by vitamin K absence-factor II (PIVKA-II; n = 60; sufficient: le 2 microg/L)mdashwere assessed. The vitamin K supplementation groups were as follows: lt 150 microg/d (low; multivitamins or no supplement), 150-999 microg/d (middle; CF-specific vitamins), and ge 1000 microg/d (high; mephyton). %ucOC values were compared with 140 healthy subjects aged 6-21 y. In subjects with CF, the median (range) %ucOC was 35% (3%, 76%) and the median (range) for PIVKA-II was 2 (0, 42) micro g/L. Subjects with CF had a higher %ucOC with low [45% (10%, 76%)] and medium [41% (3%, 66%)] supplement intakes but not with a high supplement intake [16% (4%, 72%)] compared with healthy subjects [23% (0%, 43%); both P lt 0.05]. Supplementation group for males and females and 25(OH)D and age for males were significant predictors of vitamin K status. Vitamin K status was often suboptimal despite routine supplementation. Only subjects taking high-dose vitamin K achieved a status similar to healthy subjects, and only the vitamin K supplementation dose predicted vitamin K status for males and females. These data suggest that higher doses of vitamin K are required.

  15. Suboptimal Addiction Interventions for Patients Hospitalized with Injection Drug Use-Associated Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Elana S; Karchmer, Adolf W; Theisen-Toupal, Jesse; Castillo, Roger Araujo; Rowley, Chris F

    2016-05-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious infection, often resulting from injection drug use. Inpatient treatment regularly focuses on management of infection without attention to the underlying addiction. We aimed to determine the addiction interventions done in patients hospitalized with injection drug use-associated infective endocarditis. This is a retrospective review of patients hospitalized with injection drug use-associated infective endocarditis from January, 2004 through August, 2014 at a large academic tertiary care center in Boston, Massachusetts. For the initial and subsequent admissions, data were collected regarding addiction interventions, including consultation by social work, addiction clinical nurse and psychiatry, documentation of addiction in the discharge summary plan, plan for medication-assisted treatment and naloxone provision. There were 102 patients admitted with injection drug use-associated infective endocarditis, 50 patients (49.0%) were readmitted and 28 (27.5%) patients had ongoing injection drug use at readmission. At initial admission, 86.4% of patients had social work consultation, 23.7% had addiction consultation, and 24.0% had psychiatry consultation. Addiction was mentioned in 55.9% of discharge summary plans, 7.8% of patients had a plan for medication-assisted treatment, and naloxone was never prescribed. Of 102 patients, 26 (25.5%) are deceased. The median age at death was 40.9 years (interquartile range 28.7-48.7). We found that patients hospitalized with injection drug use-associated infective endocarditis had high rates of readmission, recurrent infective endocarditis and death. Despite this, addiction interventions were suboptimal. Improved addiction interventions are imperative in the treatment of injection drug use-associated infective endocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlations in state space can cause sub-optimal adaptation of optimal feedback control models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprasoff, Jonathan; Donchin, Opher

    2012-04-01

    Control of our movements is apparently facilitated by an adaptive internal model in the cerebellum. It was long thought that this internal model implemented an adaptive inverse model and generated motor commands, but recently many reject that idea in favor of a forward model hypothesis. In theory, the forward model predicts upcoming state during reaching movements so the motor cortex can generate appropriate motor commands. Recent computational models of this process rely on the optimal feedback control (OFC) framework of control theory. OFC is a powerful tool for describing motor control, it does not describe adaptation. Some assume that adaptation of the forward model alone could explain motor adaptation, but this is widely understood to be overly simplistic. However, an adaptive optimal controller is difficult to implement. A reasonable alternative is to allow forward model adaptation to 're-tune' the controller. Our simulations show that, as expected, forward model adaptation alone does not produce optimal trajectories during reaching movements perturbed by force fields. However, they also show that re-optimizing the controller from the forward model can be sub-optimal. This is because, in a system with state correlations or redundancies, accurate prediction requires different information than optimal control. We find that adding noise to the movements that matches noise found in human data is enough to overcome this problem. However, since the state space for control of real movements is far more complex than in our simple simulations, the effects of correlations on re-adaptation of the controller from the forward model cannot be overlooked.

  17. Burnout and self-reported suboptimal patient care amongst health care workers providing HIV care in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazenga, Alick C.; Simon, Katie; Yu, Xiaoying; Ahmed, Saeed; Nyasulu, Phoebe; Kazembe, Peter N.; Ngoma, Stanley; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2018-01-01

    Background The well-documented shortages of health care workers (HCWs) in sub-Saharan Africa are further intensified by the increased human resource needs of expanding HIV treatment programs. Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and a sense of low personal accomplishment (PA). HCWs’ burnout can negatively impact the delivery of health services. Our main objective was to examine the prevalence of burnout amongst HCWs in Malawi and explore its relationship to self-reported suboptimal patient care. Methods A cross-sectional study among HCWs providing HIV care in 89 facilities, across eight districts in Malawi was conducted. Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory defined as scores in the mid-high range on the EE or DP subscales. Nine questions adapted for this study assessed self-reported suboptimal patient care. Surveys were administered anonymously and included socio-demographic and work-related questions. Validated questionnaires assessed depression and at-risk alcohol use. Chi-square test or two-sample t-test was used to explore associations between variables and self-reported suboptimal patient care. Bivariate analyses identified candidate variables (p burnout. In the three dimensions of burnout, 55% reported moderate-high EE, 31% moderate-high DP, and 46% low-moderate PA. The majority (89%) reported engaging in suboptimal patient care/attitudes including making mistakes in treatment not due to lack of knowledge/experience (52%), shouting at patients (45%), and not performing diagnostic tests due to a desire to finish quickly (35%). In multivariate analysis, only burnout remained associated with self-reported suboptimal patient care (OR 3.22, [CI 2.11 to 4.90]; pBurnout was common among HCWs providing HIV care and was associated with self-reported suboptimal patient care practices/attitudes. Research is needed to understand factors that contribute to and protect against burnout and that inform the

  18. Level of suboptimal adherence to first line antiretroviral treatment & its determinants among HIV positive people in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Beena; Chauhan, Sanjay; Pasi, Achhelal; Kulkarni, Ragini; Sunil, Nithya; Bachani, Damodar; Mankeshwar, Ranjit

    2014-07-01

    National Anti-retroviral treatment (ART) programme in India was launched in 2004. Since then, there has been no published country representative estimate of suboptimal adherence among people living with HIV (PLHIV) on first line ART in public settings. Hence a multicentric study was undertaken in 15 States of India to assess the level of suboptimal adherence and its determinants among PLHIV. Using a prospective observational study design, 3285 PLHIV were enrolled and followed up to six months across 30 ART centres in India. Adherence was assessed using pill count and self-reported recall method and determinants of suboptimal adherence were explored based on the responses to various issues as perceived by them. Suboptimal adherence was found in 24.5 per cent PLHIV. Determinants of suboptimal adherence were illiteracy (OR--1.341, CI--1.080-1.665), on ART for less than 6 months (OR--1.540, CI--1.280-1.853), male gender (OR for females--0.807, CI--0.662-0.982), tribals (OR--2.246, CI--1.134-4.447), on efavirenz (EFA) regimen (OR--1.479, CI--1.190-1.837), presence of anxiety (OR--1.375, CI--1.117-1.692), non-disclosure of HIV status to family (OR--1.549, CI--1.176-2.039), not motivated for treatment (OR--1.389, CI--1.093-1.756), neglect from friends (OR--1.368, CI--1.069-1.751), frequent change of residence (OR--3.373, CI--2.659-4.278), travel expenses (OR--1.364, CI--1.138-1.649), not meeting the PLHIV volunteer/community care coordinator at the ART center (OR--1.639, CI--1.330-2.019). To enhance identification of PLHIV vulnerable to suboptimal adherence, the existing checklist to identify the barriers to adherence in the National ART Guidelines needs to be updated based on the study findings. Quality of comprehensive adherence support services needs to be improved coupled with vigilant monitoring of adherence measurement.

  19. Level of suboptimal adherence to first line antiretroviral treatment & its determinants among HIV positive people in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: National Anti-retroviral treatment (ART programme in India was launched in 2004. Since then, there has been no published country representative estimate of suboptimal adherence among people living with HIV (PLHIV on first line ART in public settings. Hence a multicentric study was undertaken in 15 States of India to assess the level of suboptimal adherence and its determinants among PLHIV. Methods: Using a prospective observational study design, 3285 PLHIV were enrolled and followed up to six months across 30 ART centres in India. Adherence was assessed using pill count and self-reported recall method and determinants of suboptimal adherence were explored based on the responses to various issues as perceived by them. Results: Suboptimal adherence was found in 24.5 per cent PLHIV. Determinants of suboptimal adherence were illiteracy (OR-1.341, CI-1.080-1.665 , on ART for less than 6 months (OR-1.540, CI- 1.280-1.853, male gender (OR for females -0.807, CI- 0.662-0.982, tribals (OR-2.246, CI-1.134-4.447, on efavirenz (EFA regimen (OR- 1.479, CI - 1.190 - 1.837, presence of anxiety (OR- 1.375, CI - 1.117 - 1.692, non-disclosure of HIV status to family (OR- 1.549, CI - 1.176 - 2.039, not motivated for treatment (OR- 1.389, CI - 1.093 - 1.756, neglect from friends (OR-1.368, CI-1.069-1.751, frequent change of residence (OR- 3.373, CI - 2.659 - 4.278, travel expenses (OR- 1.364, CI - 1.138-1.649, not meeting the PLHIV volunteer/community care coordinator at the ART center (OR-1.639, CI-1.330-2.019. Interpretation & conclusions: To enhance identification of PLHIV vulnerable to suboptimal adherence, the existing checklist to identify the barriers to adherence in the National ART Guidelines needs to be updated based on the study findings. Quality of comprehensive adherence support services needs to be improved coupled with vigilant monitoring of adherence measurement.

  20. Choosing and using astronomical filters

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2014-01-01

    As a casual read through any of the major amateur astronomical magazines will demonstrate, there are filters available for all aspects of optical astronomy. This book provides a ready resource on the use of the following filters, among others, for observational astronomy or for imaging: Light pollution filters Planetary filters Solar filters Neutral density filters for Moon observation Deep-sky filters, for such objects as galaxies, nebulae and more Deep-sky objects can be imaged in much greater detail than was possible many years ago. Amateur astronomers can take

  1. Anti-clogging filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Erik P.

    2015-05-19

    An anti-clogging filter system for filtering a fluid containing large particles and small particles includes an enclosure with at least one individual elongated tubular filter element in the enclosure. The individual elongated tubular filter element has an internal passage, a closed end, an open end, and a filtering material in or on the individual elongated tubular filter element. The fluid travels through the open end of the elongated tubular element and through the internal passage and through the filtering material. An anti-clogging element is positioned on or adjacent the individual elongated tubular filter element and provides a fluid curtain that preferentially directs the larger particulates to one area of the filter material allowing the remainder of the filter material to remain more efficient.

  2. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon

    2016-01-08

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  3. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon; Chernov, Alexey; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  4. Adaptive digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    “Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  5. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides a framework for the validation of outcome measures for use in rheumatology clinical research. However, imaging and biochemical measures may face additional validation challenges because of their technical nature. The Imaging...... using the original OMERACT Filter and the newly proposed structure. Breakout groups critically reviewed the extent to which the candidate biomarkers complied with the proposed stepwise approach, as a way of examining the utility of the proposed 3-dimensional structure. RESULTS: Although...... was obtained for a proposed tri-axis structure to assess validation of imaging and soluble biomarkers; nevertheless, additional work is required to better evaluate its place within the OMERACT Filter 2.0....

  6. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  7. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  8. Quantum reality filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudder, Stan

    2010-01-01

    An anhomomorphic logic A* is the set of all possible realities for a quantum system. Our main goal is to find the 'actual reality' Φ a element of A* for the system. Reality filters are employed to eliminate unwanted potential realities until only φ a remains. In this paper, we consider three reality filters that are constructed by means of quantum integrals. A quantum measure μ can generate or actualize a Φ element of A* if μ(A) is a quantum integral with respect to φ for a density function f over events A. In this sense, μ is an 'average' of the truth values of φ with weights given by f. We mainly discuss relations between these filters and their existence and uniqueness properties. For example, we show that a quadratic reality generated by a quantum measure is unique. In this case we obtain the unique actual quadratic reality.

  9. International Space Station (ISS) Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs): Filter Efficiency and Pressure Testing of Returned Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    The air revitalization system aboard the International Space Station (ISS) provides the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation due to the microgravity environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) media filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Segment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. These filters see a replacement interval, as part of maintenance, of 2-5 years dependent on location in the ISS. In this work, we present particulate removal efficiency, pressure drop, and leak test results for a sample set of 8 BFEs returned from the ISS after filter replacement. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS beyond 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  10. Consumer perception and preference for suboptimal food under the emerging practice of expiration date based pricing in supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    , it is unclear which contextual, individual, and product-related factors impact consumer likelihood of choice and thus acceptance of the practice in the long run. The study aimed at exploring the effect of communicating different motives for purchase, the product being organic, familiarity with the practice...... and the interaction with gender is observed for milk in particular. Overall, perceived quality and estimated likelihood of consumption at home majorly determine likelihood of choice. Consumer acceptance of expiration date based pricing of suboptimal food can be increased through furthering consumer familiarity......Consumers have been found to majorly prefer ‘optimal’ food over ‘suboptimal’ when purchasing food. To provide an incentive for consumers to select suboptimal food and thus decrease food waste in the supply chain, expiration date based pricing is suggested and increasingly applied. However...

  11. Real-time discrete suboptimal control for systems with input and state delays: Experimental tests on a dehydration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Guerrero, Liliam; Santos-Sánchez, Omar-Jacobo; Cervantes-Escorcia, Nicolás; Romero, Hugo

    2017-11-01

    This article presents a suboptimal control strategy with finite horizon for affine nonlinear discrete systems with both state and input delays. The Dynamic Programming Approach is used to obtain the suboptimal control sequence, but in order to avoid the computation of the Bellman functional, a numerical approximation of this function is proposed in every step. The feasibility of our proposal is demonstrated via an experimental test on a dehydration process and the obtained results show a good performance and behavior of this process. Then in order to demonstrate the benefits of using this kind of control strategy, the results are compared with a non optimal control strategy, particularly with respect to results produced by an industrial Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Honeywell controller, which is tuned using the Ziegler-Nichols method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  13. Alarm filtering and presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses alarm filtering and presentation in the control room of nuclear and other process control plants. Alarm generation and presentation is widely recognized as a general process control problem. Alarm systems often fail to provide meaningful alarms to operators. Alarm generation and presentation is an area in which computer aiding is feasible and provides clear benefits. Therefore, researchers have developed several computerized alarm filtering and presentation approaches. This paper discusses problems associated with alarm generation and presentation. Approaches to improving the alarm situation and installation issues of alarm system improvements are discussed. The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) technology on alarm system improvements is assessed. (orig.)

  14. Pilot study on the additive effects of berberine and oral type 2 diabetes agents for patients with suboptimal glycemic control

    OpenAIRE

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Villanova,Nicola; Agostini,Federica; Soverini,Valentina; Marchesini,Giulio; Marzocchi,Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Francesco Di Pierro,1 Nicola Villanova,2 Federica Agostini,2 Rebecca Marzocchi,2 Valentina Soverini,2 Giulio Marchesini21Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milano, 2Diseases of Metabolism, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, ItalyBackground: Suboptimal glycemic control is a common situation in diabetes, regardless of the wide range of drugs available to reach glycemic targets. Basic research in diabetes is endeavoring to identify new actives working as insulin savers, use of which coul...

  15. Consumer behaviour towards price-reduced suboptimal foods in the supermarket and the relation to food waste in households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Jensen, Jacob Haagen; Jensen, Mette Hyldetoft; Kulikovskaja, Viktorija

    2017-09-01

    To combat food waste, supermarkets offer food items at a reduced price in-store when they are close to the expiration date or perceived as suboptimal. It is yet unknown, however, which considerations consumers engage in when deciding about the offer, and whether focusing particularly on the price during food purchase might be related to greater food waste at home. Knowledge about both the consumers' food purchase process for these price-reduced foods and the potential wastage of price-focused consumers can contribute to the assessment of whether or not offering suboptimal food at reduced prices in-store actually reduces food waste across the supply chain. We explore these questions in a mixed-method study including 16 qualitative accompanied shopping interviews and a quantitative online experimental survey with 848 consumers in Denmark. The interviews reveal that the consumers interviewed assess their ability to consume the price-reduced suboptimal food at home already while in the store. Consumers consider the relation between product-related factors of package unit, expiration date, and product quality, in interaction with household-related factors of freezing/storing, household size/demand, and possible meal/cooking. The survey shows that consumers who are more price-focused report lower food waste levels and lower tendency to choose the optimal food item first at home, than those who are not emphasizing the price-quality relation or do not search for price offers to the same extent. Higher age and high education also played a role, and the price-focus is lower in high-income groups and among single households. The findings allow deriving recommendations for retailers and policy makers to support both the marketability and the subsequent actual consumption of price-reduced suboptimal food, but they also raise questions for further research of this underexplored area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics influencing therapy switch behavior after suboptimal response to first-line treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Barbara; Agashivala, Neetu; Kavak, Katelyn; Chouhfeh, Lynn; Hashmonay, Ron; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2014-06-01

    Factors driving disease-modifying therapy (DMT) switch behavior are not well understood. The objective of this paper is to identify patient characteristics and clinical events predictive of therapy switching in patients with suboptimal response to DMT. This retrospective study analyzed patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and a suboptimal response to initial therapy with either interferon β or glatiramer acetate. Suboptimal responders were defined as patients with ≥1 MS event (clinical relapse, worsening disability, or MRI worsening) while on DMT. Switchers were defined as those who changed DMT within six to 12 months after the MS event. Of 606 suboptimal responders, 214 (35.3%) switched therapy. Switchers were younger at symptom onset (p = 0.012), MS diagnosis (p = 0.004), DMT initiation (p < 0.001), and first MS event (p = 0.011) compared with nonswitchers. Compared with one relapse alone, MRI worsening alone most strongly predicted switch behavior (odds ratio 6.3; 95% CI, 3.1-12.9; p < 0.001), followed by ≥2 relapses (2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.3; p = 0.040), EDSS plus MRI worsening (2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.9; p = 0.031) and EDSS worsening alone (2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.1; p = 0.009). Younger patients with disease activity, especially MRI changes, are more likely to have their therapy switched sooner than patients who are older at the time of MS diagnosis and DMT initiation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Method of producing monolithic ceramic cross-flow filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, David A.; Bacchi, David P.; Connors, Timothy F.; Collins, III, Edwin L.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic filter of various configuration have been used to filter particulates from hot gases exhausted from coal-fired systems. Prior ceramic cross-flow filters have been favored over other types, but those previously horn have been assemblies of parts somehow fastened together and consequently subject often to distortion or delamination on exposure hot gas in normal use. The present new monolithic, seamless, cross-flow ceramic filters, being of one-piece construction, are not prone to such failure. Further, these new products are made by novel casting process which involves the key steps of demolding the ceramic filter green body so that none of the fragile inner walls of the filter is cracked or broken.

  18. Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, II: Linear Phase Filter Banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The theory of group lifting structures is applied to linear phase lifting factorizations for the two nontrivial classes of two-channel linear phase perfect reconstruction filter banks, the whole-and half-sample symmetric classes. Group lifting structures defined for the reversible and irreversible classes of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are shown to satisfy the hypotheses of the uniqueness theorem for group lifting structures. It follows that linear phase lifting factorizations of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are therefore independent of the factorization methods used to compute them. These results cover the specification of user-defined whole-sample symmetric filter banks in Part 2 of the ISO JPEG 2000 standard.

  19. FEATURES OF THE REGENERATION PROCESS OF THE FILTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Panov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration system exercises significant influence on the efficiency and reliability of the filters. During operation of the filter it continuously increases the hydraulic resistance and the gas permeability of the filter material decreases as the deposition of the disperse phase capturable on the filter element, and to maintain the bandwidth of the filter in the filter element within the set must be periodically changed or regenerated. Thus, regeneration of a process of removing part of the dust layer with the purpose of full or partial reduction of the initial filter partitioning properties. On the basis of theoretical synthesis, physico-chemical effects of dust in layers, analysis of energy effects, developed methods of intensification of the process of regeneration of particulate filters. Pneumopulse regeneration of bag filter has been investigated, and based on it a regression equation for regeneration efficiency has been derived. It has been shown that pulse pressure exerts the dominant influence on the regeneration efficiency. The obtained model was used for assessment and prediction of the efficiency of the pneumopulse system of regeneration of bag filters at a number of structural materials producing enterprises in the Voronezh region.

  20. Quantifying Unnecessary Normal Tissue Complication Risks due to Suboptimal Planning: A Secondary Study of RTOG 0126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Kevin L.; Schmidt, Rachel; Moiseenko, Vitali; Olsen, Lindsey A.; Tan, Jun; Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James; Pugh, Stephanie; Seider, Michael J.; Dicker, Adam P.; Bosch, Walter; Michalski, Jeff; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the frequency and clinical severity of quality deficiencies in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol. Methods and Materials: A total of 219 IMRT patients from the high-dose arm (79.2 Gy) of RTOG 0126 were analyzed. To quantify plan quality, we used established knowledge-based methods for patient-specific dose-volume histogram (DVH) prediction of organs at risk and a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model for grade ≥2 rectal complications to convert DVHs into normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). The LKB model was validated by fitting dose-response parameters relative to observed toxicities. The 90th percentile (22 of 219) of plans with the lowest excess risk (difference between clinical and model-predicted NTCP) were used to create a model for the presumed best practices in the protocol (pDVH 0126,top10% ). Applying the resultant model to the entire sample enabled comparisons between DVHs that patients could have received to DVHs they actually received. Excess risk quantified the clinical impact of suboptimal planning. Accuracy of pDVH predictions was validated by replanning 30 of 219 patients (13.7%), including equal numbers of presumed “high-quality,” “low-quality,” and randomly sampled plans. NTCP-predicted toxicities were compared to adverse events on protocol. Results: Existing models showed that bladder-sparing variations were less prevalent than rectum quality variations and that increased rectal sparing was not correlated with target metrics (dose received by 98% and 2% of the PTV, respectively). Observed toxicities were consistent with current LKB parameters. Converting DVH and pDVH 0126,top10% to rectal NTCPs, we observed 94 of 219 patients (42.9%) with ≥5% excess risk, 20 of 219 patients (9.1%) with ≥10% excess risk, and 2 of 219 patients (0.9%) with ≥15% excess risk. Replanning demonstrated the predicted NTCP

  1. Quantifying Unnecessary Normal Tissue Complication Risks due to Suboptimal Planning: A Secondary Study of RTOG 0126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin L; Schmidt, Rachel; Moiseenko, Vitali; Olsen, Lindsey A; Tan, Jun; Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James; Pugh, Stephanie; Seider, Michael J; Dicker, Adam P; Bosch, Walter; Michalski, Jeff; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the frequency and clinical severity of quality deficiencies in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol. A total of 219 IMRT patients from the high-dose arm (79.2 Gy) of RTOG 0126 were analyzed. To quantify plan quality, we used established knowledge-based methods for patient-specific dose-volume histogram (DVH) prediction of organs at risk and a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model for grade ≥2 rectal complications to convert DVHs into normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). The LKB model was validated by fitting dose-response parameters relative to observed toxicities. The 90th percentile (22 of 219) of plans with the lowest excess risk (difference between clinical and model-predicted NTCP) were used to create a model for the presumed best practices in the protocol (pDVH0126,top10%). Applying the resultant model to the entire sample enabled comparisons between DVHs that patients could have received to DVHs they actually received. Excess risk quantified the clinical impact of suboptimal planning. Accuracy of pDVH predictions was validated by replanning 30 of 219 patients (13.7%), including equal numbers of presumed "high-quality," "low-quality," and randomly sampled plans. NTCP-predicted toxicities were compared to adverse events on protocol. Existing models showed that bladder-sparing variations were less prevalent than rectum quality variations and that increased rectal sparing was not correlated with target metrics (dose received by 98% and 2% of the PTV, respectively). Observed toxicities were consistent with current LKB parameters. Converting DVH and pDVH0126,top10% to rectal NTCPs, we observed 94 of 219 patients (42.9%) with ≥5% excess risk, 20 of 219 patients (9.1%) with ≥10% excess risk, and 2 of 219 patients (0.9%) with ≥15% excess risk. Replanning demonstrated the predicted NTCP reductions while maintaining the volume of the PTV

  2. Rising burden of gout in the UK but continuing suboptimal management: a nationwide population study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chang-Fu; Grainge, Matthew J; Mallen, Christian; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe trends in the epidemiology of gout and patterns of urate-lowering treatment (ULT) in the UK general population from 1997 to 2012. Methods We used the Clinical Practice Research Datalink to estimate the prevalence and incidence of gout for each calendar year from 1997 to 2012. We also investigated the pattern of gout management for both prevalent and incident gout patients. Results In 2012, the prevalence of gout was 2.49% (95% CI 2.48% to 2.51%) and the incidence was 1.77 (95% CI 1.73 to 1.81) per 1000 person-years. Prevalence and incidence both were significantly higher in 2012 than in 1997, with a 63.9% increase in prevalence and 29.6% increase in incidence over this period. Regions with highest prevalence and incidence were the North East and Wales. Among prevalent gout patients in 2012, only 48.48% (95% CI 48.08% to 48.89%) were being consulted specifically for gout or treated with ULT and of these 37.63% (95% CI 37.28% to 38.99%) received ULT. In addition, only 18.6% (95% CI 17.6% to 19.6%) of incident gout patients received ULT within 6 months and 27.3% (95% CI 26.1% to 28.5%) within 12 months of diagnosis. The management of prevalent and incident gout patients remained essentially the same during the study period, although the percentage of adherent patients improved from 28.28% (95% CI 27.33% to 29.26%) in 1997 to 39.66% (95% CI 39.11% to 40.22%) in 2012. Conclusions In recent years, both the prevalence and incidence of gout have increased significantly in the UK. Suboptimal use of ULT has not changed between 1997 and 2012. Patient adherence has improved during the study period, but it remains poor. PMID:24431399

  3. Model Adaptation for Prognostics in a Particle Filtering Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the key motivating factors for using particle filters for prognostics is the ability to include model parameters as part of the state vector to be estimated....

  4. Kidney outer medulla mitochondria are more efficient compared to cortex mitochondria as a strategy to sustain ATP production in a suboptimal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Tomas A; Gustafsson, Håkan; Palm, Fredrik

    2018-05-30

    The kidneys receive approximately 25% of cardiac output, which is a prerequisite in order to maintain sufficient glomerular filtration rate. However, both intrarenal regional renal blood flow and tissue oxygen levels are heterogeneous with decreasing levels in the inner part of the medulla. These differences in combination with the heterogeneous metabolic activity of the different nephron segment located in the different parts of the kidney may constitute a functional problem when challenged. The proximal tubule and the medullary thick ascending limb of Henle are considered to have the highest metabolic rate, which is relating to the high mitochondria content needed to sustain sufficient ATP production from oxidative phosphorylation in order to support high electrolyte transport activity in these nephron segments. Interestingly, the cells located in kidney medulla functions at the verge of hypoxia and the mitochondria may have adapted to the surrounding environment. However, little is known about intrarenal differences in mitochondria function. We therefore investigated functional differences between mitochondria isolated from kidney cortex and medulla of healthy normoglycemic rats were estimated using high-resolution respirometry. The results demonstrate that medullary mitochondria had a higher degree of coupling, are more efficient and have higher oxygen affinity, which would make them more suitable to function in an environment with limited oxygen supply. Furthermore, these results support the hypothesis that mitochondria of medullary cells have adapted to the normal hypoxic in vivo situation as a strategy of sustaining ATP production in a suboptimal environment.

  5. The ATLAS event filter

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H P; Boissat, C; Davis, R; Duval, P Y; Etienne, F; Fede, E; Francis, D; Green, P; Hemmer, F; Jones, R; MacKinnon, J; Mapelli, Livio P; Meessen, C; Mommsen, R K; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Nacasch, R; Negri, A; Pinfold, James L; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rafflin, C; Scannicchio, D A; Stanescu, C; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the studies for the ATLAS Event Filter is given. The architecture and the high level design of the DAQ-1 prototype is presented. The current status if the prototypes is briefly given. Finally, future plans and milestones are given. (11 refs).

  6. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  7. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  8. Filter assembly for metallic and intermetallic tube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Lippert, Thomas E.; Bruck, Gerald J.; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    2001-01-01

    A filter assembly (60) for holding a filter element (28) within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel is provided, containing: a filter housing (62), said filter housing having a certain axial length and having a peripheral sidewall, said sidewall defining an interior chamber (66); a one piece, all metal, fail-safe/regenerator device (68) within the interior chamber (66) of the filter housing (62) and/or extending beyond the axial length of the filter housing, said device containing an outward extending radial flange (71) within the filter housing for seating an essential seal (70), the device also having heat transfer media (72) disposed inside and screens (80) for particulate removal; one compliant gasket (70) positioned next to and above the outward extending radial flange of the fail-safe/regenerator device; and a porous metallic corrosion resistant superalloy type filter element body welded at the bottom of the metal fail-safe/regenerator device.

  9. Digital Simulation of a Hybrid Active Filter - An Active Filter in Series with a Shunt Passive Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Sitaram, Mahesh I; Padiyar, KR; Ramanarayanan, V

    1998-01-01

    Active filters have long been in use for the filtering of power system load harmonics. In this paper, the digital simulation results of a hybrid active power filter system for a rectifier load are presented. The active filter is used for filtering higher order harmonics as the dominant harmonics are filtered by the passive filter. This reduces the rating of the active filter significantly. The DC capacitor voltage of the active filter is controlled using a PI controller.

  10. Experimental study of filter cake formation on different filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.

    2009-01-01

    Removal of particulate matter from gases generated in the process industry is important for product recovery as well as emission control. Dynamics of filtration plant depend on operating conditions. The models, that predict filter plant behaviour, involve empirical resistance parameters which are usually derived from limited experimental data and are characteristics of the filter media and filter cake (dust deposited on filter medium). Filter cake characteristics are affected by the nature of filter media, process parameters and mode of filter regeneration. Removal of dust particles from air is studied in a pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter facility resembling closely to the industrial filters. Limestone dust and ambient air are used in this study with two widely different filter media. All important parameters like pressure drop, gas flow rate, dust settling, are recorded continuously at 1s interval. The data is processed for estimation of the resistance parameters. The pressure drop rise on test filter media is compared. Results reveal that the surface of filter media has an influence on pressure drop rise (concave pressure drop rise). Similar effect is produced by partially jet pulsed filter surface. Filter behaviour is also simulated using estimated parameters and a simplified model and compared with the experimental results. Distribution of cake area load is therefore an important aspect of jet pulse cleaned bag filter modeling. Mean specific cake resistance remains nearly constant on thoroughly jet pulse cleaned membrane coated filter bags. However, the trend can not be confirmed without independent cake height and density measurements. Thus the results reveal the importance of independent measurements of cake resistance. (author)

  11. Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Lukac

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.

  12. A Differential Geometric Approach to Nonlinear Filtering: The Projection Filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, D.; Hanzon, B.; LeGland, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new and systematic method of approximating exact nonlinear filters with finite dimensional filters, using the differential geometric approach to statistics. The projection filter is defined rigorously in the case of exponential families. A convenient exponential family is

  13. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4270 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator...

  14. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  15. Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENGÜL, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...

  16. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  17. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  18. Stochastic stacking without filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Marriner, J.

    1982-12-01

    The rate of accumulation of antiprotons is a critical factor in the design of p anti p colliders. A design of a system to accumulate higher anti p fluxes is presented here which is an alternative to the schemes used at the CERN AA and in the Fermilab Tevatron I design. Contrary to these stacking schemes, which use a system of notch filters to protect the dense core of antiprotons from the high power of the stack tail stochastic cooling, an eddy current shutter is used to protect the core in the region of the stack tail cooling kicker. Without filters one can have larger cooling bandwidths, better mixing for stochastic cooling, and easier operational criteria for the power amplifiers. In the case considered here a flux of 1.4 x 10 8 per sec is achieved with a 4 to 8 GHz bandwidth

  19. Multilevel particle filter

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2016-01-06

    This talk will pertain to the filtering of partially observed diffusions, with discrete-time observations. It is assumed that only biased approximations of the diffusion can be obtained, for choice of an accuracy parameter indexed by l. A multilevel estimator is proposed, consisting of a telescopic sum of increment estimators associated to the successive levels. The work associated to O( 2) mean-square error between the multilevel estimator and average with respect to the filtering distribution is shown to scale optimally, for example as O( 2) for optimal rates of convergence of the underlying diffusion approximation. The method is illustrated on some toy examples as well as estimation of interest rate based on real S&P 500 stock price data.

  20. The Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter: A Filter Bank Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Rickard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For computational efficiency, it is important to utilize model structure in particle filtering. One of the most important cases occurs when there exists a linear Gaussian substructure, which can be efficiently handled by Kalman filters. This is the standard formulation of the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF. This contribution suggests an alternative formulation of this well-known result that facilitates reuse of standard filtering components and which is also suitable for object-oriented programming. Our RBPF formulation can be seen as a Kalman filter bank with stochastic branching and pruning.

  1. Filter Paper: Solution to High Self-Attenuation Corrections in HEPA Filter Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberer, R.B.; Harold, N.B.; Gunn, C.A.; Brummett, M.; Chaing, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    An 8 by 8 by 6 inch High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter was measured as part of a uranium holdup survey in June of 2005 as it has been routinely measured every two months since 1998. Although the survey relies on gross gamma count measurements, this was one of a few measurements that had been converted to a quantitative measurement in 1998. The measurement was analyzed using the traditional Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) approach, using HMS3 software, with an area calibration and self-attenuation corrected with an empirical correction factor of 1.06. A result of 172 grams of 235 U was reported. The actual quantity of 235 U in the filter was approximately 1700g. Because of this unusually large discrepancy, the measurement of HEPA filters will be discussed. Various techniques for measuring HEPA filters will be described using the measurement of a 24 by 24 by 12 inch HEPA filter as an example. A new method to correct for self attenuation will be proposed for this measurement Following the discussion of the 24 by 24 by 12 inch HEPA filter, the measurement of the 8 by 8 by 6 inch will be discussed in detail

  2. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We demonstrate that nearest neighbors algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, are highly susceptible to manipulation and introduce new collaborative filtering algorithms that are relatively robust.

  3. Quick-change filter cartridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Ortiz, Carlos A.

    1995-01-01

    A quick-change filter cartridge. In sampling systems for measurement of airborne materials, a filter element is introduced into the sampled airstream such that the aerosol constituents are removed and deposited on the filter. Fragile sampling media often require support in order to prevent rupture during sampling, and careful mounting and sealing to prevent misalignment, tearing, or creasing which would allow the sampled air to bypass the filter. Additionally, handling of filter elements may introduce cross-contamination or exposure of operators to toxic materials. Moreover, it is desirable to enable the preloading of filter media into quick-change cartridges in clean laboratory environments, thereby simplifying and expediting the filter-changing process in the field. The quick-change filter cartridge of the present invention permits the application of a variety of filter media in many types of instruments and may also be used in automated systems. The cartridge includes a base through which a vacuum can be applied to draw air through the filter medium which is located on a porous filter support and held there by means of a cap which forms an airtight seal with the base. The base is also adapted for receiving absorbing media so that both particulates and gas-phase samples may be trapped for investigation, the latter downstream of the aerosol filter.

  4. Filter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), as well as Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) treated with mono-olein to simulate the effects of biodiesel . Results...fuel. Sufficient analysis and qualification of filter products is becoming increasingly crucial in ground transportation vehicles to promote the...well as a simulated biodiesel composed of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and mono-olein. As written in the scope of work, the alternative aviation

  5. Matched-Filter Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Tabatabaei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional infrared thermography techniques, including pulsed and lock-in thermography, have shown great potential for non-destructive evaluation of broad spectrum of materials, spanning from metals to polymers to biological tissues. However, performance of these techniques is often limited due to the diffuse nature of thermal wave fields, resulting in an inherent compromise between inspection depth and depth resolution. Recently, matched-filter thermography has been introduced as a means for overcoming this classic limitation to enable depth-resolved subsurface thermal imaging and improving axial/depth resolution. This paper reviews the basic principles and experimental results of matched-filter thermography: first, mathematical and signal processing concepts related to matched-fileting and pulse compression are discussed. Next, theoretical modeling of thermal-wave responses to matched-filter thermography using two categories of pulse compression techniques (linear frequency modulation and binary phase coding are reviewed. Key experimental results from literature demonstrating the maintenance of axial resolution while inspecting deep into opaque and turbid media are also presented and discussed. Finally, the concept of thermal coherence tomography for deconvolution of thermal responses of axially superposed sources and creation of depth-selective images in a diffusion-wave field is reviewed.

  6. Carbon nanotube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A.; Srivastava, O. N.; Talapatra, S.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.

    2004-09-01

    Over the past decade of nanotube research, a variety of organized nanotube architectures have been fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. The idea of using nanotube structures in separation technology has been proposed, but building macroscopic structures that have controlled geometric shapes, density and dimensions for specific applications still remains a challenge. Here we report the fabrication of freestanding monolithic uniform macroscopic hollow cylinders having radially aligned carbon nanotube walls, with diameters and lengths up to several centimetres. These cylindrical membranes are used as filters to demonstrate their utility in two important settings: the elimination of multiple components of heavy hydrocarbons from petroleum-a crucial step in post-distillation of crude oil-with a single-step filtering process, and the filtration of bacterial contaminants such as Escherichia coli or the nanometre-sized poliovirus (~25 nm) from water. These macro filters can be cleaned for repeated filtration through ultrasonication and autoclaving. The exceptional thermal and mechanical stability of nanotubes, and the high surface area, ease and cost-effective fabrication of the nanotube membranes may allow them to compete with ceramic- and polymer-based separation membranes used commercially.

  7. A THEORETICAL STUDY ON SIMPLIFIED KALMAN FILTER IN DATA ASSIMILATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Zhai-pu; Huang Da-ji; Zhang Ben-zhao

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we put forward a new method to reduce the calculation amount of the gain matrix of Kalman filter in data assimilation. We rewrite the vector describing the total state variables with two vectors whose dimensions are small and thus obtain the main parts and the trivial parts of the state variables. On the basis of the rewrittten formula, we not only develop a reduced Kalman filter scheme, but also obtain the transition equations about truncation errors, with which the validity of the main parts acting for the total state variables can be evaluated quantitatively. The error transition equations thus offer an indirect testimony to the rationality of the main parts.

  8. Controlling flow conditions of test filters in iodine filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.; Laine, J.

    1979-03-01

    Several different iodine filter and test filter designs and experience gained from their operation are presented. For the flow experiments, an iodine filter system equipped with flow regulating and measuring devices was built. In the experiments the influence of the packing method of the iodine sorption material and the influence of the flow regulating and measuring divices upon the flow conditions in the test filters was studied. On the basis of the experiments it has been shown that the flows through the test filters always can be adjusted to a correct value if there only is a high enough pressure difference available across the test filter ducting. As a result of the research, several different methods are presented with which the flows through the test filters in both operating and future iodine sorption system can easily be measured and adjusted to their correct values. (author)

  9. Filtração de aerossóis em altas temperaturas utilizando filtros cerâmicos de dupla camada: influência do diâmetro de partícula na eficiência de coleta Filtration of aerosols at high temperatures using a double layer ceramic filter: influence of the particle diameter in the collection efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L de Freitas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram utilizados filtros cerâmicos para filtração de aerossóis, constituídos por dupla camada, onde a primeira camada é formada por um suporte celular de elevada porosidade com diâmetro de poro controlado e a segunda formada por uma película filtrante. A camada suporte foi obtida pela técnica de replicação cerâmica de espuma poliuretânica, por meio da impregnação de uma suspensão aquosa de Al2O3. Foram utilizados suportes de 45 e 75 poros/polegada. A membrana filtrante (Al2O3 e argila foi a mesma para ambos os suportes, sendo composta por uma massa granular cerâmica de baixa porosidade. Os experimentos de filtração foram realizados em temperaturas de 25 a 700 ºC onde mediu-se a capacidade dos filtros de limpar um aerossol de partículas finas polidispersas (diâmetro mediano de 4,6 µm e calculou-se a eficiência de coleta para diâmetros de partícula entre 0,4 e 8,5 µm. Os resultados mostraram que a eficiência diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura e aumentou com o diâmetro da partícula.In this work, ceramic filters were used for aerosol filtration. The filters were constituted by two layers, where the first layer was formed by of a highly porous ceramic support with controlled pore size and the second layer constituted by a fine membrane. The ceramic support was obtained from polymeric foams utilizing a technique of alumina impregnation. The supports had 45 and 75 pores per inch (ppi. The membrane (a mixture of alumina and clay was the same for the two supports, with much smaller pore sizes. The filtration experiments were accomplished at temperatures varying from 25 to 700 ºC, where the ability of the filters for cleaning an aerosol constituted by fine particles (median diameter of 4.6 µm was measured. The collection efficiency was calculated for particle diameters between 0.4 and 8.5 µm. The results showed that the collection efficiency decreased with the increase of the temperature and increased

  10. A Robust Suboptimal Current Control of an Interlink Converter for a Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismi Rosyiana Fitri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid AC/DC microgrid is established with the aim of exploiting numerous types of renewable energy to meet the needs of different loads. The microgrid is decomposed by AC DC sub-grids which are connected by an interlink converter (IC. To maintain the security and reliability of the microgrid, an automatic controller for the interlink converter is needed. In this paper, we propose a Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI-based current control method for the interlink converter. As the main features here, the interlink converter permits bidirectional power exchange between both sub-grids when a power–demand imbalance occurs in one sub-grid regardless of the converter system parameters. Simulations with various filter parameters are performed using the Matlab/Simulink software to validate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. In comparison with the existing Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR-based current control, the proposed method is more robust against unknown system parameters and high load perturbation.

  11. Pilot study on the additive effects of berberine and oral type 2 diabetes agents for patients with suboptimal glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Nicola Villanova,2 Federica Agostini,2 Rebecca Marzocchi,2 Valentina Soverini,2 Giulio Marchesini21Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milano, 2Diseases of Metabolism, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, ItalyBackground: Suboptimal glycemic control is a common situation in diabetes, regardless of the wide range of drugs available to reach glycemic targets. Basic research in diabetes is endeavoring to identify new actives working as insulin savers, use of which could delay the introduction of injectable insulin or reduce the insulin dose needed. Commonly available as a nutraceutical, berberine is a potential candidate.Methods and results: Because its low oral bioavailability can be overcome by P-glycoprotein inhibitors like herbal polyphenols, we have tested the nutraceutical combination of Berberis aristata extract and Silybum marianum extract (Berberol® in type 2 diabetes in terms of its additive effect when combined with a conventional oral regimen for patients with suboptimal glycemic control. After 90 days of treatment, the nutraceutical association had a positive effect on glycemic and lipid parameters, significantly reducing glycosylated hemoglobin, basal insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. A relevant effect was also observed in terms of liver function by measuring aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase. The product had a good safety profile, with distinctive gastrointestinal side effects likely due to its acarbose-like action.Conclusion: Although further studies should be carried out to confirm our data, Berberol could be considered a good candidate as an adjunctive treatment option in diabetes, especially in patients with suboptimal glycemic control.Keywords: berberine, silymarin, glycosylated hemoglobin, diabetes

  12. Hardware Implementation of a Bilateral Subtraction Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Watson, Robert; Villalpando, Carlos; Goldberg, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A bilateral subtraction filter has been implemented as a hardware module in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). In general, a bilateral subtraction filter is a key subsystem of a high-quality stereoscopic machine vision system that utilizes images that are large and/or dense. Bilateral subtraction filters have been implemented in software on general-purpose computers, but the processing speeds attainable in this way even on computers containing the fastest processors are insufficient for real-time applications. The present FPGA bilateral subtraction filter is intended to accelerate processing to real-time speed and to be a prototype of a link in a stereoscopic-machine- vision processing chain, now under development, that would process large and/or dense images in real time and would be implemented in an FPGA. In terms that are necessarily oversimplified for the sake of brevity, a bilateral subtraction filter is a smoothing, edge-preserving filter for suppressing low-frequency noise. The filter operation amounts to replacing the value for each pixel with a weighted average of the values of that pixel and the neighboring pixels in a predefined neighborhood or window (e.g., a 9 9 window). The filter weights depend partly on pixel values and partly on the window size. The present FPGA implementation of a bilateral subtraction filter utilizes a 9 9 window. This implementation was designed to take advantage of the ability to do many of the component computations in parallel pipelines to enable processing of image data at the rate at which they are generated. The filter can be considered to be divided into the following parts (see figure): a) An image pixel pipeline with a 9 9- pixel window generator, b) An array of processing elements; c) An adder tree; d) A smoothing-and-delaying unit; and e) A subtraction unit. After each 9 9 window is created, the affected pixel data are fed to the processing elements. Each processing element is fed the pixel value for

  13. Fuzzy Logic-Based Filter for Removing Additive and Impulsive Noise from Color Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuhong; Li, Hongyang; Jiang, Huageng

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an efficient filter method based on fuzzy logics for adaptively removing additive and impulsive noise from color images. The proposed filter comprises two parts including noise detection and noise removal filtering. In the detection part, the fuzzy peer group concept is applied to determine what type of noise is added to each pixel of the corrupted image. In the filter part, the impulse noise is deducted by the vector median filter in the CIELAB color space and an optimal fuzzy filter is introduced to reduce the Gaussian noise, while they can work together to remove the mixed Gaussian-impulse noise from color images. Experimental results on several color images proves the efficacy of the proposed fuzzy filter.

  14. The history of ceramic filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishima, S

    2000-01-01

    The history of ceramic filters is surveyed. Included is the history of piezoelectric ceramics. Ceramic filters were developed using technology similar to that of quartz crystal and electro-mechanical filters. However, the key to this development involved the theoretical analysis of vibration modes and material improvements of piezoelectric ceramics. The primary application of ceramic filters has been for consumer-market use. Accordingly, a major emphasis has involved mass production technology, leading to low-priced devices. A typical ceramic filter includes monolithic resonators and capacitors packaged in unique configurations.

  15. Patterns of marijuana and tobacco use associated with suboptimal self-rated health among US adult ever users of marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, James; Rolle, Italia V.; Singh, Tushar; Boulet, Sheree L.; McAfee, Timothy A.; Grant, Althea M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patterns of marijuana and tobacco use and their associations with suboptimal self-rated health (SRH) among US adults who reported ?ever, even once, using marijuana or hashish.? Data came from the 2009?2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, restricting to respondents aged 20 years and older who reported using marijuana at least once in their lifetime (n?=?3,210). We assessed the age-adjusted prevalence of mutually exclusive groups of...

  16. Economical Implementation of a Filter Engine in an FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, James E.

    2009-01-01

    A logic design has been conceived for a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) that would implement a complex system of multiple digital state-space filters. The main innovative aspect of this design lies in providing for reuse of parts of the FPGA hardware to perform different parts of the filter computations at different times, in such a manner as to enable the timely performance of all required computations in the face of limitations on available FPGA hardware resources. The implementation of the digital state-space filter involves matrix vector multiplications, which, in the absence of the present innovation, would ordinarily necessitate some multiplexing of vector elements and/or routing of data flows along multiple paths. The design concept calls for implementing vector registers as shift registers to simplify operand access to multipliers and accumulators, obviating both multiplexing and routing of data along multiple paths. Each vector register would be reused for different parts of a calculation. Outputs would always be drawn from the same register, and inputs would always be loaded into the same register. A simple state machine would control each filter. The output of a given filter would be passed to the next filter, accompanied by a "valid" signal, which would start the state machine of the next filter. Multiple filter modules would share a multiplication/accumulation arithmetic unit. The filter computations would be timed by use of a clock having a frequency high enough, relative to the input and output data rate, to provide enough cycles for matrix and vector arithmetic operations. This design concept could prove beneficial in numerous applications in which digital filters are used and/or vectors are multiplied by coefficient matrices. Examples of such applications include general signal processing, filtering of signals in control systems, processing of geophysical measurements, and medical imaging. For these and other applications, it could be

  17. Kaon Filtering For CLAS Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNabb, J.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of data from CLAS is a multi-step process. After the detectors for a given running period have been calibrated, the data is processed in the so called pass-1 cooking. During the pass-1 cooking each event is reconstructed by the program a1c which finds particle tracks and computes momenta from the raw data. The results are then passed on to several data monitoring and filtering utilities. In CLAS software, a filter is a parameterless function which returns an integer indicating whether an event should be kept by that filter or not. There is a main filter program called g1-filter which controls several specific filters and outputs several files, one for each filter. These files may then be analyzed separately, allowing individuals interested in one reaction channel to work from smaller files than using the whole data set would require. There are several constraints on what the filter functions should do. Obviously, the filtered files should be as small as possible, however the filter should also not reject any events that might be used in the later analysis for which the filter was intended

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-04-30

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench

  19. Preconditioner-free Wiener filtering with a dense noise matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffenberger, Kevin M.

    2018-05-01

    This work extends the Elsner & Wandelt (2013) iterative method for efficient, preconditioner-free Wiener filtering to cases in which the noise covariance matrix is dense, but can be decomposed into a sum whose parts are sparse in convenient bases. The new method, which uses multiple messenger fields, reproduces Wiener-filter solutions for test problems, and we apply it to a case beyond the reach of the Elsner & Wandelt (2013) method. We compute the Wiener-filter solution for a simulated Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) map that contains spatially varying, uncorrelated noise, isotropic 1/f noise, and large-scale horizontal stripes (like those caused by atmospheric noise). We discuss simple extensions that can filter contaminated modes or inverse-noise-filter the data. These techniques help to address complications in the noise properties of maps from current and future generations of ground-based Microwave Background experiments, like Advanced ACTPol, Simons Observatory, and CMB-S4.

  20. [Investigation of fast filter of ECG signals with lifting wavelet and smooth filter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuefei; Mao, Yuxing; He, Wei; Yang, Fan; Zhou, Liang

    2008-02-01

    The lifting wavelet is used to decompose the original ECG signals and separate them into the approach signals with low frequency and the detail signals with high frequency, based on frequency characteristic. Parts of the detail signals are ignored according to the frequency characteristic. To avoid the distortion of QRS Complexes, the approach signals are filtered by an adaptive smooth filter with a proper threshold value. Through the inverse transform of the lifting wavelet, the reserved approach signals are reconstructed, and the three primary kinds of noise are limited effectively. In addition, the method is fast and there is no time delay between input and output.

  1. Advances in Collaborative Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Yehuda; Bell, Robert

    The collaborative filtering (CF) approach to recommenders has recently enjoyed much interest and progress. The fact that it played a central role within the recently completed Netflix competition has contributed to its popularity. This chapter surveys the recent progress in the field. Matrix factorization techniques, which became a first choice for implementing CF, are described together with recent innovations. We also describe several extensions that bring competitive accuracy into neighborhood methods, which used to dominate the field. The chapter demonstrates how to utilize temporal models and implicit feedback to extend models accuracy. In passing, we include detailed descriptions of some the central methods developed for tackling the challenge of the Netflix Prize competition.

  2. Adaptive projective filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikusar, N.D.

    1993-01-01

    The new approach to solving of the finding problem is proposed. The method is based on Discrete Projective Transformations (DPT), the List Square Fitting (LSF) and uses the information feedback in tracing for linear or quadratic track segments (TS). The fast and stable with respect to measurement errors and background points recurrent algorithm is suggested. The algorithm realizes the family of digital adaptive projective filters (APF) with known nonlinear weight functions-projective invariants. APF can be used in adequate control systems for collection, processing and compression of data, including tracking problems for the wide class of detectors. 10 refs.; 9 figs

  3. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2016-06-14

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  4. Interdigital filter design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, WP

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available to the general inverter-coupled resonator bandpass filter structure in Figure 2 [6] by using the inverter shown in Figure 3. The admittance of the inverter in Figure 3 is 4 J= Y mn sin(βl) (1) where β is the propagation factor and l is the length... of the resonators (a quarter wavelength in this case). While the series quarter-wave line alone can approximate an inverter, the structure shown in Figure 3 is more accurate over wide bandwidths. At this point the circuits in Figures 1 and 2 still differ because...

  5. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  6. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  7. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements.

  8. Optimal and Suboptimal Finger Selection Algorithms for MMSE Rake Receivers in Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Mung

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of choosing the optimal multipath components to be employed at a minimum mean square error (MMSE selective Rake receiver is considered for an impulse radio ultra-wideband system. First, the optimal finger selection problem is formulated as an integer programming problem with a nonconvex objective function. Then, the objective function is approximated by a convex function and the integer programming problem is solved by means of constraint relaxation techniques. The proposed algorithms are suboptimal due to the approximate objective function and the constraint relaxation steps. However, they perform better than the conventional finger selection algorithm, which is suboptimal since it ignores the correlation between multipath components, and they can get quite close to the optimal scheme that cannot be implemented in practice due to its complexity. In addition to the convex relaxation techniques, a genetic-algorithm- (GA- based approach is proposed, which does not need any approximations or integer relaxations. This iterative algorithm is based on the direct evaluation of the objective function, and can achieve near-optimal performance with a reasonable number of iterations. Simulation results are presented to compare the performance of the proposed finger selection algorithms with that of the conventional and the optimal schemes.

  9. Digital Filters for Low Frequency Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyril, Marni; Abildgaard, J.; Rubak, Per

    2001-01-01

    Digital filters with high resolution in the low-frequency range are studied. Specifically, for a given computational power, traditional IIR filters are compared with warped FIR filters, warped IIR filters, and modified warped FIR filters termed warped individual z FIR filters (WizFIR). The results...

  10. High flow ceramic pot filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Halem, D; van der Laan, H; Soppe, A I A; Heijman, S G J

    2017-11-01

    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more water without sacrificing their microbial removal efficacy. High flow pot filters, produced by increasing the rice husk content, had a higher initial flow rate (6-19 L h -1 ), but initial LRVs for E. coli of high flow filters was slightly lower than for regular ceramic pot filters. This disadvantage was, however, only temporarily as the clogging in high flow filters had a positive effect on the LRV for E. coli (from below 1 to 2-3 after clogging). Therefore, it can be carefully concluded that regular ceramic pot filters perform better initially, but after clogging, the high flow filters have a higher flow rate as well as a higher LRV for E. coli. To improve the initial performance of new high flow filters, it is recommended to further utilize residence time of the water in the receptacle, since additional E. coli inactivation was observed during overnight storage. Although a relationship was observed between flow rate and LRV of MS2 bacteriophages, both regular and high flow filters were unable to reach over 2 LRV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of the stopping power of various filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madelaine, G.

    1964-01-01

    The first part is devoted to a study of aerosols obtained from the combustion of various smoke-producing compounds. A trial aerosol of which the size distribution is the closest possible to that of atmospheric dusts has been defined. The efficiency of various filters has been determined for successive increments of the dimensions and not for the whole range of its diameter distribution. The variation in the efficiency of the filtering layers as a function of the filtering speed and particle size has been studied for aerosols having particle diameters of over 0.3 μ. The second part describes an original method for measuring the efficiency of filters for ultra-fine particles (under 0.1 μ) using the fixation properties of radioactive atoms resulting from the decay of thoron. (author) [fr

  12. Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The relevance of this thesis to energy and environment lies in its application to remote sensing such as for instance sea floor mapping and seismic pattern recognition. The focus is on the design of two-dimensional filters for feature extraction, segmentation, and classification of digital images with textural content. The features are extracted by filtering with a linear filter and estimating the local energy in the filter response. The thesis gives a review covering broadly most previous approaches to texture feature extraction and continues with proposals of some new techniques. 143 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Color and motion-based particle filter target tracking in a network of overlapping cameras with multi-threading and GPGPU Rastreo de objetivos por medio de filtros de partículas basados en color y movimiento en una red de cámaras con multi-hilo y GPGPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Francisco Madrigal Díaz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an efficient implementation of multiple-target multiple-view tracking in video-surveillance sequences. It takes advantage of the capabilities of multiple core Central Processing Units (CPUs and of graphical processing units under the Compute Unifie Device Arquitecture (CUDA framework. The principle of our algorithm is 1 in each video sequence, to perform tracking on all persons to track by independent particle filters and 2 to fuse the tracking results of all sequences. Particle filters belong to the category of recursive Bayesian filters. They update a Monte-Carlo representation of the posterior distribution over the target position and velocity. For this purpose, they combine a probabilistic motion model, i.e. prior knowledge about how targets move (e.g. constant velocity and a likelihood model associated to the observations on targets. At this first level of single video sequences, the multi-threading library Threading Buildings Blocks (TBB has been used to parallelize the processing of the per-target independent particle filters. Afterwards at the higher level, we rely on General Purpose Programming on Graphical Processing Units (generally termed as GPGPU through CUDA in order to fuse target-tracking data collected on multiple video sequences, by solving the data association problem. Tracking results are presented on various challenging tracking datasets.Este artículo describe una implementación eficiente de un algoritmo de seguimiento de múlti­ples objetivos en múltiples vistas en secuencias de video vigilancia. Aprovecha las capacidades de las Unidades Centrales de Procesamiento (CPUs, por sus siglas en inglés de múltiples núcleos y de las unidades de procesamiento gráfico, bajo el entorno de desarrollo de Arquitec­tura Unificada de Dispositivos de Cómputo (CUDA, por sus siglas en inglés. El principio de nuestro algoritmo es: 1 aplicar el seguimiento visual en cada secuencia de video sobre todas las

  14. Evaluation of data from HEPA filter quality assurance testing stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.T.; Bellamy, R.R.; Allen, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    In Revision 1 to Regulatory Guide 1.52, issued in July 1976, the NRC recommended that high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters for use in engineered safety features (ESF) atmosphere cleanup systems be visually inspected and dioctylphtalate (DOP) tested at either of two Department of Energy (DOE) operated QA Filter Testing Stations prior to their installation and use in commercial nuclear power plants. This practice was initiated because filter vendors were unable to consistently provide a HEPA filter that would meet the stringent requirements established by DOE and NRC and its predecessor the AEC. In 1977, the NRC staff undertook a program to revise Regulatory Guide 1.52 to reflect recently issued industry standards (e.g., ANSI N509 and N510) and current industry practices. Revision 2 to Regulatory Guide 1.52 was formally issued in March 1978. In conducting this review, the recommendation that HEPA filters, intended for use in ESF systems in commercial nuclear power plants, be routinely tested at the DOE-QA Filter Testing Stations was revaluated. As part of this evluation a detailed analysis of the filter test results recorded by the two QA Testing Stations during the period 1971 to 1977 was conducted. This paper summarizes the results of the analysis and explains the rationale for deleting the requirement that all HEPA filters intended for use in ESF systems be tested at the AQ Testing Station

  15. Experience with HEPA filters at United States nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    Part 50 of Title 10 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations requires that a number of atmosphere cleanup systems be included in the design of commercial nuclear power plants to be licensed in the United States. These filtering systems are to contain high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters for removal of radioactive particulate matter generated during normal and accident conditions. Recommendations for the design, testing and maintenance of the filtering systems and HEPA filter components are contained in a number of United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission documents and industry standards. This paper will discuss this published guidance available to designers of filtering systems and the plant operators of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The paper will also present a survey of published reports of experience with HEPA filters, failures and possible causes for the failures, and other abnormal occurrences pertaining to HEPA filters installed in U.S. nuclear power installations. A discussion will be included of U.S. practices for qualification of HEPA filters before installation, and verification of continued performance capability at scheduled intervals during operation

  16. Correlator filters for feedback at SRS and NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykes, D.M.; Galayda, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    In order to amplify signals that are produced by an oscillating beam, it is desirable to first reject that part of the signal produced when the beam is not oscillating. This can be done through the use of correlator filters which have the advantages of simplicity, at least 200 MHz working bandwidth, and broadband matching to 50 ohms at both input and output. Correlator filters have been built for the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), the Daresbury SRS storage ring, and the NSLS x-ray ring. This report describes the performance of the filters and their associated electronic circuits. (FI)

  17. Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofer Afzal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.

  18. Stabilization void-fill encapsulation high-efficiency particulate filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, R.G.; Stewart, W.E.; Phillips, S.J.; Serkowski, M.M.; England, J.L.; Boynton, H.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter systems that which are contaminated with radionuclides are part of the nuclear fuel processing systems conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and require replacement and safe and efficient disposal for plant safety. Two K-3 HEPA filters were removed from service, placed burial boxes, buried, and safely and efficiently stabilized remotely which reduced radiation exposure to personnel and the environment

  19. Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

  20. The muon filter of the L3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriani, O.; Bocciolini, M.; Cartacci, A.M.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Gallo, E.; Landi, G.; Marchionni, A.; Meschini, M.; Monteleoni, B.; Pieri, M.; Spillantini, P.; Wang, Y.F.; Florence Univ.

    1991-01-01

    In this article we describe the outer part (Muon Filter) of the Hadron Calorimeter of the L3 detector. Construction and performance of the brass chambers, which form the sensitive part of the detector, are reviewed. We also report the results from data taken on two beam tests, at CERN. (orig.)

  1. DSP Control of Line Hybrid Active Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Stan George; Benjamin, Doniga Daniel; Magureanu, R.

    2005-01-01

    Active Power Filters have been intensively explored in the past decade. Hybrid active filters inherit the efficiency of passive filters and the improved performance of active filters, and thus constitute a viable improved approach for harmonic compensation. In this paper a parallel hybrid filter...... is studied for current harmonic compensation. The hybrid filter is formed by a single tuned Le filter and a small-rated power active filter, which are directly connected in series without any matching transformer. Thus the required rating of the active filter is much smaller than a conventional standalone...... active filter. Simulation and experimental results obtained in laboratory confirmed the validity and effectiveness of the control....

  2. Multi-filter spectrophotometry simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Kim A. S.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    To complement both the multi-filter observations of quasar environments described in these proceedings, as well as the proposed UBC 2.7 m Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT) redshift survey, we have initiated a program of simulated multi-filter spectrophotometry. The goal of this work, still very much in progress, is a better quantitative assessment of the multiband technique as a viable mechanism for obtaining useful redshift and morphological class information from large scale multi-filter surveys.

  3. Digital filtering in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.R.; Sampathkumaran, S.

    1982-01-01

    Digital filtering is a powerful mathematical technique in computer analysis of nuclear medicine studies. The basic concepts of object-domain and frequency-domain filtering are presented in simple, largely nonmathemaical terms. Computational methods are described using both the Fourier transform and convolution techniques. The frequency response is described and used to represent the behavior of several classes of filters. These concepts are illustrated with examples drawn from a variety of important applications in nuclear medicine

  4. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia; Walther, Jens H; Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders

    2017-08-29

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet), something notoriously difficult to visualize but sporadically observed in the related choanocytes (sponges). A CFD model with a flagellar vane correctly predicts the filtration rate of D. grandis , and using a simple model we can account for the filtration rates of other microbial filter feeders. We finally predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling.

  5. Box-particle intensity filter

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, Marek; Gning, Amadou; Mihaylova, Lyudmila; Cremers, Daniel; Koch, Wofgang; Streit, Roy

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a novel approach for multi-target tracking, called box-particle intensity filter (box-iFilter). The approach is able to cope with unknown clutter, false alarms and estimates the unknown number of targets. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic and data association uncertainty. The box-iFilter reduces the number of particles significantly, which improves the runtime considerably. The low particle number enables thi...

  6. Autoregressive Moving Average Graph Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Isufi, Elvin; Loukas, Andreas; Simonetto, Andrea; Leus, Geert

    2016-01-01

    One of the cornerstones of the field of signal processing on graphs are graph filters, direct analogues of classical filters, but intended for signals defined on graphs. This work brings forth new insights on the distributed graph filtering problem. We design a family of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) recursions, which (i) are able to approximate any desired graph frequency response, and (ii) give exact solutions for tasks such as graph signal denoising and interpolation. The design phi...

  7. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.; Alvarez, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters on infrared and blue transitions of some alkali atoms is calculated. A composite system is designed to further increase the background noise rejection. The measured results of the solar background rejection and image quality through the filter are presented. The results show that the filter may provide high transmission and high background noise rejection with excellent image quality.

  8. Intelligent medical information filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Y

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent information filtering system to assist users to be notified of updates to new and relevant medical information. Among the major problems users face is the large volume of medical information that is generated each day, and the need to filter and retrieve relevant information. The Internet has dramatically increased the amount of electronically accessible medical information and reduced the cost and time needed to publish. The opportunity of the Internet for the medical profession and consumers is to have more information to make decisions and this could potentially lead to better medical decisions and outcomes. However, without the assistance from professional medical librarians, retrieving new and relevant information from databases and the Internet remains a challenge. Many physicians do not have access to the services of a medical librarian. Most physicians indicate on surveys that they do not prefer to retrieve the literature themselves, or visit libraries because of the lack of recent materials, poor organisation and indexing of materials, lack of appropriate and available material, and lack of time. The information filtering system described in this paper records the online web browsing behaviour of each user and creates a user profile of the index terms found on the web pages visited by the user. A relevance-ranking algorithm then matches the user profiles to the index terms of new health care web pages that are added each day. The system creates customised summaries of new information for each user. A user can then connect to the web site to read the new information. Relevance feedback buttons on each page ask the user to rate the usefulness of the page to their immediate information needs. Errors in relevance ranking are reduced in this system by having both the user profile and medical information represented in the same representation language using a controlled vocabulary. This system also updates the user profiles

  9. Spatial filtering with photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maigyte, Lina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona 08010 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.

  10. Immobilized Filters for Air Filtration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahle, John J; Zaiee, Saeed

    2002-01-01

    ... (settling performance) and attrition resistance. The fabricated filter samples will be analyzed in order to determine the physical and chemical factors affecting mechanical strength and chemical filtration...

  11. Adaptive filtering and change detection

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive filtering is a classical branch of digital signal processing (DSP). Industrial interest in adaptive filtering grows continuously with the increase in computer performance that allows ever more conplex algorithms to be run in real-time. Change detection is a type of adaptive filtering for non-stationary signals and is also the basic tool in fault detection and diagnosis. Often considered as separate subjects Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection bridges a gap in the literature with a unified treatment of these areas, emphasizing that change detection is a natural extensi

  12. The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-05-01

    When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the 'filter problem'. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the 'filter problem'. These reveal a period of intense focus on the 'filter problem' that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate

  13. Traditional Chinese medicine and new concepts of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine in diagnosis and treatment of suboptimal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Russell, Alyce; Yan, Yuxiang

    2014-02-13

    The premise of disease-related phenotypes is the definition of the counterpart normality in medical sciences. Contrary to clinical practices that can be carefully planned according to clinical needs, heterogeneity and uncontrollability is the essence of humans in carrying out health studies. Full characterization of consistent phenotypes that define the general population is the basis to individual difference normalization in personalized medicine. Self-claimed normal status may not represent health because asymptomatic subjects may carry chronic diseases at their early stage, such as cancer, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Currently, treatments for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) are implemented after disease onset, which is a very much delayed approach from the perspective of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM). A NCD pandemic will develop and be accompanied by increased global economic burden for healthcare systems throughout both developed and developing countries. This paper examples the characterization of the suboptimal health status (SHS) which represents a new PPPM challenge in a population with ambiguous health complaints such as general weakness, unexplained medical syndrome (UMS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS) and chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS). We applied clinical informatic approaches and developed a questionnaire-suboptimal health status questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25) for measuring SHS. The validity and reliability of this approach were evaluated in a small pilot study and then in a cross-sectional study of 3,405 participants in China. We found a correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol among men, and a correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides

  14. Socioeconomic factors explain suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected Australian adults with viral suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista J Siefried

    Full Text Available Missing more than one tablet of contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART per month increases the risk of virological failure. Recent studies evaluating a comprehensive range of potential risk factors for suboptimal adherence are not available for high-income settings.Adults on ART with undetectable viral load (UDVL were recruited into a national, multi-centre cohort, completing a comprehensive survey assessing demographics, socio-economic indicators, physical health, well-being, life stressors, social supports, HIV disclosure, HIV-related stigma and discrimination, healthcare access, ART regimen, adherence, side effects, costs and treatment beliefs. Baseline data were assessed, and suboptimal adherence was defined as self-reported missing ≥1 ART dose/month over the previous 3-months; associated factors were identified using bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression.We assessed 522 participants (494 [94.5%] men, mean age = 50.8 years, median duration UDVL = 3.3 years [IQR = 1.2-6.8] at 17 sexual health, hospital, and general practice clinics across Australia. Seventy-eight participants (14.9% reported missing ≥1 dose/month over the previous three months, which was independently associated with: being Australian-born (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] = 2.4 [95%CI = 1.2-4.9], p = 0.014, not being in a relationship (AOR = 3.3 [95%CI = 1.5-7.3], p = 0.004, reaching the "Medicare safety net" (capping annual medical/pharmaceutical costs (AOR = 2.2 [95%CI = 1.1-4.5], p = 0.024, living in subsidised housing (AOR = 2.5 [95%CI = 1.0-6.2], p = 0.045, receiving home-care services (AOR = 4.4 [95%CI = 1.0-18.8], p = 0.046, HIV community/outreach services linkage (AOR = 2.4 [95%CI = 1.1-5.4], p = 0.033, and starting ART following self-request (AOR = 3.0 [95%CI = 1.3-7.0], p = 0.012.In this population, 15% reported recent suboptimal ART adherence at levels associated in prospective studies with subsequent virological failure, despite all having an

  15. Effect of stress induced by suboptimal growth factors on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttendaele, M; Taverniers, I; Debevere, J

    2001-05-21

    This study investigated the growth and survival of E. coli O157:H7 exposed to a combination of suboptimal factors (22 degrees C, 7 degrees C, -18 degrees C/0.5% NaCl, 5.0% NaCl/pH 7.0, pH 5.4, pH 4.5/addition of lactic acid) in a simulation medium for red meat (beef gravy). Prolonged survival was noted as the imposed stress was more severe, and as multiple growth factors became suboptimal. At a defined temperature (7 degrees C or -18 degrees C), survival was prolonged at the more acid, more suboptimal pH (pH 4.5 > pH 5.4 > pH 7.0) while at a defined pH (pH 4.5), better survival was observed at 7 degrees C than at 22 degrees C. This suggests that application of the hurdle concept for preservation of food may inhibit outgrowth but induce prolonged survival of E. coli O157:H7 in minimal processed foods. At both 22 degrees C and 7 degrees C, the addition of lactic acid instead of HCl to reduce pH (to pH 4.5) resulted in a more rapid decrease of E. coli O157:H7. High survival was observed in beef gravy, pH 5.4 at -18 degrees C (simulation of frozen meat)-reduction of log 3.0 to log 1.9 after 43 days--and in beef gravy, pH 4.5 and 5% NaCl at 7 degrees C (simulation of a fermented dried meat product kept in refrigeration)--less than 1 log reduction in 43 days. In these circumstances, however, a high degree of sublethal damage of the bacterial cells was noted. The degree of sublethal damage can be estimated from the difference in recovery of the pathogen on the non-selective TSA medium and the selective SMAC medium.

  16. Modulation of redox homeostasis under suboptimal conditions by Arabidopsis nudix hydrolase 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambunathan Niranjani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nudix hydrolases play a key role in maintaining cellular homeostasis by hydrolyzing various nuceloside diphosphate derivatives and capped mRNAs. Several independent studies have demonstrated that Arabidopsis nudix hydrolase 7 (AtNUDT7 hydrolyzes NADH and ADP-ribose. Loss of function Atnudt7-1 mutant plants (SALK_046441 exhibit stunted growth, higher levels of reactive oxygen species, enhanced resistance to pathogens. However, using the same T-DNA line, two other groups reported that mutant plants do not exhibit any visible phenotypes. In this study we analyze plausible factors that account for differences in the observed phenotypes in Atnudt7. Secondly, we evaluate the biochemical and molecular consequences of increased NADH levels due to loss of function of AtNUDT7 in Arabidopsis. Results We identified a novel conditional phenotype of Atnudt7-1 knockout plants that was contingent upon nutrient composition of potting mix. In nutrient-rich Metro-Mix, there were no phenotypic differences between mutant and wild-type (WT plants. In the nutrient-poor mix (12 parts vermiculite: 3 parts Redi-earth and 1 part sand, mutant plants showed the characteristic stunted phenotype. Compared with WT plants, levels of glutathione, NAD+, NADH, and in turn NADH:NAD+ ratio were higher in Atnudt7-1 plants growing in 12:3:1 potting mix. Infiltrating NADH and ADP-ribose into WT leaves was sufficient to induce AtNUDT7 protein. Constitutive over-expression of AtNudt7 did not alter NADH levels or resistance to pathogens. Transcriptome analysis identified nearly 700 genes differentially expressed in the Atnudt7-1 mutant compared to WT plants grown in 12:3:1 potting mix. In the Atnudt7-1 mutant, genes associated with defense response, proteolytic activities, and systemic acquired resistance were upregulated, while gene ontologies for transcription and phytohormone signaling were downregulated. Conclusions Based on these observations, we conclude that the

  17. From Microwave Filter to Digital Filter and Back Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1989-01-01

    A new very simple state variable flow graph representation for interdigital transmission line bandpass filters is presented, which has led to two important results: 1) A new type of digital filter with properties, that surpass the properties of most other (all pole) digital filtertypes. 2) The st...

  18. AER image filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, F.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Paz, R.; Miró-Amarante, L.; Jiménez, G.; Civit, A.

    2007-05-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows real-time virtual massive connectivity among huge number of neurons located on different chips.[1] By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timing), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Neurons generate "events" according to their activity levels. That is, more active neurons generate more events per unit time and access the interchip communication channel more frequently than neurons with low activity. In Neuromorphic system development, AER brings some advantages to develop real-time image processing system: (1) AER represents the information like time continuous stream not like a frame; (2) AER sends the most important information first (although this depends on the sender); (3) AER allows to process information as soon as it is received. When AER is used in artificial vision field, each pixel is considered like a neuron, so pixel's intensity is represented like a sequence of events; modifying the number and the frequency of these events, it is possible to make some image filtering. In this paper we present four image filters using AER: (a) Noise addition and suppression, (b) brightness modification, (c) single moving object tracking and (d) geometrical transformations (rotation, translation, reduction and magnification). For testing and debugging, we use USB-AER board developed by Robotic and Technology of Computers Applied to Rehabilitation (RTCAR) research group. This board is based on an FPGA, devoted to manage the AER functionality. This board also includes a micro-controlled for USB communication, 2 Mbytes RAM and 2 AER ports (one for input and one for output).

  19. Particle Kalman Filtering: A Nonlinear Framework for Ensemble Kalman Filters

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2010-09-19

    Optimal nonlinear filtering consists of sequentially determining the conditional probability distribution functions (pdf) of the system state, given the information of the dynamical and measurement processes and the previous measurements. Once the pdfs are obtained, one can determine different estimates, for instance, the minimum variance estimate, or the maximum a posteriori estimate, of the system state. It can be shown that, many filters, including the Kalman filter (KF) and the particle filter (PF), can be derived based on this sequential Bayesian estimation framework. In this contribution, we present a Gaussian mixture‐based framework, called the particle Kalman filter (PKF), and discuss how the different EnKF methods can be derived as simplified variants of the PKF. We also discuss approaches to reducing the computational burden of the PKF in order to make it suitable for complex geosciences applications. We use the strongly nonlinear Lorenz‐96 model to illustrate the performance of the PKF.

  20. Application of DFT Filter Banks and Cosine Modulated Filter Banks in Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pei; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    None given. This is a proposal for a paper to be presented at APCCAS '94 in Taipei, Taiwan. (From outline): This work is organized as follows: Sec. II is devoted to the construction of the new 2m channel under-decimated DFT filter bank. Implementation and complexity of this DFT filter bank are discussed therein. IN a similar manner, the new 2m channel cosine modulated filter bank is discussed in Sec. III. Design examples are given in Sec. IV.

  1. Consumer perception and preference for suboptimal food under the emerging practice of expiration date based pricing in supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Consumers have been found to majorly prefer ‘optimal’ food over ‘suboptimal’ when purchasing food. To provide an incentive for consumers to select suboptimal food and thus decrease food waste in the supply chain, expiration date based pricing is suggested and increasingly applied. However......, it is unclear which contextual, individual, and product-related factors impact consumer likelihood of choice and thus acceptance of the practice in the long run. The study aimed at exploring the effect of communicating different motives for purchase, the product being organic, familiarity with the practice......, individual preferences, and product-related factors. An online survey experiment among 842 Danish consumers realistically mimicked the current market context. Findings reveal that neither communicating budget saving or food waste avoidance nor the product being organic has an influence. However...

  2. An Extension to a Filter Implementation of Local Quadratic Surface for Image Noise Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    1999-01-01

    Based on regression analysis this paper gives a description for simple image filter design. Specifically 3x3 filter implementations of a quadratic surface, residuals from this surface, gradients and the Laplacian are given. For the residual a 5x5 filter is given also. It is shown that the 3x3......) it is concluded that if striping is to be considered as a part of the noise, the residual from a 3x3 median filter seems best. If we are interested in a salt-and-pepper noise estimator the proposed extension to the 3x3 filter for the residual from a quadratic surface seems best. Simple statistics...

  3. Are consistent equal-weight particle filters possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Particle filters are fully nonlinear data-assimilation methods that could potentially change the way we do data-assimilation in highly nonlinear high-dimensional geophysical systems. However, the standard particle filter in which the observations come in by changing the relative weights of the particles is degenerate. This means that one particle obtains weight one, and all other particles obtain a very small weight, effectively meaning that the ensemble of particles reduces to that one particle. For over 10 years now scientists have searched for solutions to this problem. One obvious solution seems to be localisation, in which each part of the state only sees a limited number of observations. However, for a realistic localisation radius based on physical arguments, the number of observations is typically too large, and the filter is still degenerate. Another route taken is trying to find proposal densities that lead to more similar particle weights. There is a simple proof, however, that shows that there is an optimum, the so-called optimal proposal density, and that optimum will lead to a degenerate filter. On the other hand, it is easy to come up with a counter example of a particle filter that is not degenerate in high-dimensional systems. Furthermore, several particle filters have been developed recently that claim to have equal or equivalent weights. In this presentation I will show how to construct a particle filter that is never degenerate in high-dimensional systems, and how that is still consistent with the proof that one cannot do better than the optimal proposal density. Furthermore, it will be shown how equal- and equivalent-weights particle filters fit within this framework. This insight will then lead to new ways to generate particle filters that are non-degenerate, opening up the field of nonlinear filtering in high-dimensional systems.

  4. The Effect of Testosterone Topical Solution in Hypogonadal Men With Suboptimal Response to a Topical Testosterone Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Patrick R; Kim, Edward D; Ruff, Dustin D; Seftel, Allen D

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of axillary administration of a 2% testosterone solution (Axiron ® ) in hypogonadal (HGN) men who had had a suboptimal response to treatment with a commercially available topical testosterone gel. HGN men averaging 57 years old, with a mean body mass index of 31.9 kg/m 2 and median baseline testosterone level (T-level) of 185.2 ng/dL, who had failed to reach normal T-levels with a topical testosterone gel (Androgel 1.62%, Androgel, Testim, or Fortesta) were treated with a 2% testosterone solution until T-levels reached a normal range (from ≥300 to ≤1,050 ng/dL) or for up to 9 weeks. Outcomes included the cumulative percentage of men with a serum T-level in the normal range during treatment with Axiron and improvement in symptoms of low energy level and low sexual drive. During the study, 95% of HGN men (72/78) attained a T-level in the normal range. The median T-level at endpoint was 495.7 ng/dL, a threefold increase over baseline, p levels within the first 2 weeks of treatment. In a post hoc analysis, all subjects with baseline body mass indexes >35 kg/m 2 ( n = 19) achieved T-levels in the normal range. Prior to treatment, over 61% of subjects (48/78) reported impairment in either energy level or sexual drive. After treatment (or testosterone normalization), energy level improved in 75% of subjects and sexual drive improved in 70%. Topical 2% testosterone solution is a safe and effective treatment for HGN men who have had a suboptimal response to previous treatment with topical testosterone gels.

  5. Filters in Fuzzy Class Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 14 (2008), s. 1773-1787 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR KJB100300502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : filter * prime filter * fuzzy class theory Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2008

  6. Derivative free filtering using Kalmtool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Hansen, Søren; Ravn, Ole

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a toolbox enabling easy evaluation and comparison of different filtering algorithms. The toolbox is called Kalmtool 4 and is a set of MATLAB tools for state estimation of nonlinear systems. The toolbox contains functions for extended Kalman filtering as well as for DD1 fi...

  7. Chopped filter for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, J.

    1980-12-01

    Some of the theoretical and practical factors affecting the energy resolution of a spectrometry system are considered, specially those related to t he signal-to-noise ratio, and a time-variant filter with the transfer function of the theoretical optimum filter, during its active time, is proposed. A prototype has been tested and experimental results are presented. (Author) [pt

  8. Cluster Based Vector Attribute Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiwanuka, Fred N.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological attribute filters operate on images based on properties or attributes of connected components. Until recently, attribute filtering was based on a single global threshold on a scalar property to remove or retain objects. A single threshold struggles in case no single property or

  9. Some arithmetically symmetrical bandpass filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranasi, P.; Roy, S. C. D.

    1981-01-01

    A combination of the conventional and Matthaei lowpass-bandpass transformations is shown to result in some bandpass filters having very good arithmetic symmetry. The technique presented is applicable to the Butterworth and inverse Chebyshev types of magnitude approximations and the Bessel type of delay approximations. It is not valid, however, for the Chebyshev and elliptic varieties of filters.

  10. Properties of auxiliary filtering materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudenko, L.I.; Sklyar, V.T.

    1981-01-01

    The authors have studied the physicochemical and filtering properties of the perlites FP-1 and FP-2, kieselguhr, diatomite, asbestos, wood pulp, and the diatomite powders Spidplace and Saperaid. They propose a classification for filtering materials according to their properties when mechanical impurities are being removed from the additives.

  11. High flow ceramic pot filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Halem, D.; van der Laan, H.; Soppe, A. I.A.; Heijman, S.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more

  12. Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoungmoon; Ryu, Duchwan; Mallick, Bani K.; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class

  13. Mobile filters in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuter, R.

    1979-01-01

    The need for filters with high efficiencies which may be used at any place originated in nuclear power plants. Filters of this type, called Filtermobil, have been developed by Sulzer. They have been used successfully in nuclear plants for several years. (orig.) [de

  14. Implicit LES using adaptive filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangrui; Domaradzki, Julian A.

    2018-04-01

    In implicit large eddy simulations (ILES) numerical dissipation prevents buildup of small scale energy in a manner similar to the explicit subgrid scale (SGS) models. If spectral methods are used the numerical dissipation is negligible but it can be introduced by applying a low-pass filter in the physical space, resulting in an effective ILES. In the present work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the numerical dissipation produced by different filtering operations in a turbulent channel flow simulated using a non-dissipative, pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solver. The amount of numerical dissipation imparted by filtering can be easily adjusted by changing how often a filter is applied. We show that when the additional numerical dissipation is close to the subgrid-scale (SGS) dissipation of an explicit LES the overall accuracy of ILES is also comparable, indicating that periodic filtering can replace explicit SGS models. A new method is proposed, which does not require any prior knowledge of a flow, to determine the filtering period adaptively. Once an optimal filtering period is found, the accuracy of ILES is significantly improved at low implementation complexity and computational cost. The method is general, performing well for different Reynolds numbers, grid resolutions, and filter shapes.

  15. Reliable Recognition of Partially Occluded Objects with Correlation Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Ruchay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of conventional correlation filters requires explicit knowledge of the appearance and shape of a target object, so the performance of correlation filters is significantly affected by changes in the appearance of the object in the input scene. In particular, the performance of correlation filters worsens when objects to be recognized are partially occluded by other objects, and the input scene contains a cluttered background and noise. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for the design of a system consisting of a set of adaptive correlation filters for recognition of partially occluded objects in noisy scenes. Since the input scene may contain different fragments of the target, false objects, and background to be rejected, the system is designed in such a manner to guarantee equally high correlation peaks corresponding to parts of the target in the scenes. The key points of the system are as follows: (i it consists of a bank of composite optimum filters, which yield the best performance for different parts of the target; (ii it includes a fragmentation of the target into a given number of parts in the training stage to provide equal intensity responses of the system for each part of the target. With the help of computer simulation, the performance of the proposed algorithm for recognition partially occluded objects is compared with that of common algorithms in terms of objective metrics.

  16. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude......; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet...

  17. Apparatus for filtering radioactive fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gischel, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for filtering radioactive particles from the cooling and/or auxiliary process water of a nuclear reactor, or nuclear fuel processing plant, or other installations wherein radioactive fluid systems are known to exist. The apparatus affords disposal of the captured particles in a manner which minimizes the exposure of operating personnel to radioactivity. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to contain a removable filter cartridge assembly, a valve normally closing the lower end of the housing, an upwardly-open shipping cask located below the valve, and an elongated operating rod assembly projecting upwardly from the filter cartridge assembly and through the upper end of the housing to enable a workman to dismount the filter cartridge assembly from its housing and to lower the filter cartridge assembly through the valve and into the cask from a remote location above the housing. (U.S.)

  18. Vectorization of linear discrete filtering algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiess, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Linear filters, including the conventional Kalman filter and versions of square root filters devised by Potter and Carlson, are studied for potential application on streaming computers. The square root filters are known to maintain a positive definite covariance matrix in cases in which the Kalman filter diverges due to ill-conditioning of the matrix. Vectorization of the filters is discussed, and comparisons are made of the number of operations and storage locations required by each filter. The Carlson filter is shown to be the most efficient of the filters on the Control Data STAR-100 computer.

  19. Tracking speckle displacement by double Kalman filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ A tracking technique using two sequentially-connected Kalman filter for tracking laser speckle displacement is presented. One Kalman filter tracks temporal speckle displacement, while another Kalman filter tracks spatial speckle displacement. The temporal Kalman filter provides a prior for the spatial Kalman filter, and the spatial Kalman filter provides measurements for the temporal Kalman filter. The contribution of a prior to estimations of the spatial Kalman filter is analyzed. An optical analysis system was set up to verify the double-Kalman-filter tracker's ability of tracking laser speckle's constant displacement.

  20. Development of the code for filter calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritzay, O.O.; Vakulenko, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a calculation method, which commonly used in the Neutron Physics Department to develop a new neutron filter or to improve the existing neutron filter. This calculation is the first step of the traditional filter development procedure. It allows easy selection of the qualitative and quantitative contents of a composite filter in order to receive the filtered neutron beam with given parameters

  1. Optimized digital filtering techniques for radiation detection with HPGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salathe, Marco, E-mail: marco.salathe@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Kihm, Thomas, E-mail: mizzi@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes state-of-the-art digital filtering techniques that are part of GEANA, an automatic data analysis software used for the GERDA experiment. The discussed filters include a novel, nonlinear correction method for ballistic deficits, which is combined with one of three shaping filters: a pseudo-Gaussian, a modified trapezoidal, or a modified cusp filter. The performance of the filters is demonstrated with a 762 g Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector, produced by Canberra, that measures γ-ray lines from radioactive sources in an energy range between 59.5 and 2614.5 keV. At 1332.5 keV, together with the ballistic deficit correction method, all filters produce a comparable energy resolution of ~1.61 keV FWHM. This value is superior to those measured by the manufacturer and those found in publications with detectors of a similar design and mass. At 59.5 keV, the modified cusp filter without a ballistic deficit correction produced the best result, with an energy resolution of 0.46 keV. It is observed that the loss in resolution by using a constant shaping time over the entire energy range is small when using the ballistic deficit correction method.

  2. Correlation of Spatially Filtered Dynamic Speckles in Distance Measurement Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Dmitry V.; Nippolainen, Ervin; Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Miridonov, Serguei V.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper statistical properties of spatially filtered dynamic speckles are considered. This phenomenon was not sufficiently studied yet while spatial filtering is an important instrument for speckles velocity measurements. In case of spatial filtering speckle velocity information is derived from the modulation frequency of filtered light power which is measured by photodetector. Typical photodetector output is represented by a narrow-band random noise signal which includes non-informative intervals. Therefore more or less precious frequency measurement requires averaging. In its turn averaging implies uncorrelated samples. However, conducting research we found that correlation is typical property not only of dynamic speckle patterns but also of spatially filtered speckles. Using spatial filtering the correlation is observed as a response of measurements provided to the same part of the object surface or in case of simultaneously using several adjacent photodetectors. Found correlations can not be explained using just properties of unfiltered dynamic speckles. As we demonstrate the subject of this paper is important not only from pure theoretical point but also from the point of applied speckle metrology. E.g. using single spatial filter and an array of photodetector can greatly improve accuracy of speckle velocity measurements

  3. High T-cell immune activation and immune exhaustion among individuals with suboptimal CD4 recovery after 4 years of antiretroviral therapy in an African cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colebunders Robert

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART partially corrects immune dysfunction associated with HIV infection. The levels of T-cell immune activation and exhaustion after long-term, suppressive ART and their correlation with CD4 T-cell count reconstitution among ART-treated patients in African cohorts have not been extensively evaluated. Methods T-cell activation (CD38+HLA-DR+ and immune exhaustion (PD-1+ were measured in a prospective cohort of patients initiated on ART; 128 patient samples were evaluated and subcategorized by CD4 reconstitution after long-term suppressive treatment: Suboptimal [median CD4 count increase 129 (-43-199 cells/μl], N = 34 ], optimal [282 (200-415 cells/μl, N = 64] and super-optimal [528 (416-878 cells/μl, N = 30]. Results Both CD4+ and CD8 T-cell activation was significantly higher among suboptimal CD4 T-cell responders compared to super-optimal responders. In a multivariate model, CD4+CD38+HLADR+ T-cells were associated with suboptimal CD4 reconstitution [AOR, 5.7 (95% CI, 1.4-23, P = 0.014]. T-cell exhaustion (CD4+PD1+ and CD8+PD1+ was higher among suboptimal relative to optimal (P P = 0.022]. Conclusion T-cell activation and exhaustion persist among HIV-infected patients despite long-term, sustained HIV-RNA viral suppression. These immune abnormalities were associated with suboptimal CD4 reconstitution and their regulation may modify immune recovery among suboptimal responders to ART.

  4. High Prevalence of Suboptimal Vitamin D Status and Bone Loss in Adult Short Bowel Syndrome Even After Weaning Off Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shengxian; Ni, Xiaodong; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Yongliang; Tao, Shen; Kong, Wencheng; Li, Yousheng; Li, Jieshou

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have noticed the high incidence of suboptimal vitamin D (VtD) status and bone loss in short bowel syndrome (SBS) with parenteral nutrition (PN) dependence. However, limited data have focused on adult SBS without PN dependence. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of suboptimal VtD status and bone loss in adult SBS even after weaning off PN. We performed a prospective study of 60 adult patients with SBS. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Medical records and various laboratory parameters were collected in all participants. Suboptimal VtD status was identified in all individuals, including 3 (5.0%) with VtD insufficiency and 57 (95.0%) with VtD deficiency. Residual small bowel length (B, 0.072, P = .001) and duration of SBS (B, -0.066, P = .020) were both significantly correlated with suboptimal VtD levels. Overall, only 2 patients presented a normal BMD; osteopenia and osteoporosis were noted in 41 (68.3%) and 17 (28.3%) individuals, respectively. Low 25-OHD concentration was associated with a decreased BMD (B, 0.065, P = .029). There were no other demographic characteristics or clinical examinations associated with suboptimal VtD levels and bone loss. Suboptimal VtD status and bone loss were common in adult SBS even after weaning off PN. Despite routine oral VtD supplementation, most patients did not achieve satisfactory status. This emphasizes the critical importance of routine surveillance of 25-OHD and BMD, as well as consideration of alternative methods of supplementation after weaning off PN.

  5. Filter Media Tests Under Simulated Martian Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars will require the optimal utilization of planetary resources. One of its abundant resources is the Martian atmosphere that can be harvested through filtration and chemical processes that purify and separate it into its gaseous and elemental constituents. Effective filtration needs to be part of the suite of resource utilization technologies. A unique testing platform is being used which provides the relevant operational and instrumental capabilities to test articles under the proper simulated Martian conditions. A series of tests were conducted to assess the performance of filter media. Light sheet imaging of the particle flow provided a means of detecting and quantifying particle concentrations to determine capturing efficiencies. The media's efficiency was also evaluated by gravimetric means through a by-layer filter media configuration. These tests will help to establish techniques and methods for measuring capturing efficiency and arrestance of conventional fibrous filter media. This paper will describe initial test results on different filter media.

  6. A CLT on the SNR of Diagonally Loaded MVDR Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Francisco; Mestre, Xavier; Hachem, Walid

    2012-08-01

    This paper studies the fluctuations of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of minimum variance distorsionless response (MVDR) filters implementing diagonal loading in the estimation of the covariance matrix. Previous results in the signal processing literature are generalized and extended by considering both spatially as well as temporarily correlated samples. Specifically, a central limit theorem (CLT) is established for the fluctuations of the SNR of the diagonally loaded MVDR filter, under both supervised and unsupervised training settings in adaptive filtering applications. Our second-order analysis is based on the Nash-Poincar\\'e inequality and the integration by parts formula for Gaussian functionals, as well as classical tools from statistical asymptotic theory. Numerical evaluations validating the accuracy of the CLT confirm the asymptotic Gaussianity of the fluctuations of the SNR of the MVDR filter.

  7. Regenerative-filter-incinerator device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosebrock, T.L.

    1977-10-18

    A regenerative-filter-incinerator device, for use in the exhaust system of a diesel engine, includes a drum-like regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly rotatably mounted within a housing that is adapted to be installed directly in the exhaust gas stream discharged from a diesel engine as close to the engine as possible. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly provides an inner chamber which serves as a reaction chamber for the secondary combustion of exhaust gases including particulates discharged from the engine. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly includes separately rotatable heat exchange-filter elements pervious to radial flow of fluid therethrough and adapted to filter out particulates from the exhaust gases and to carry them into the reaction chamber. During engine operation, the reaction chamber is provided with a quantity of heat, as necessary, to effect secondary combustion of the exhaust gases and particulates by means of an auxiliary heat source and the heat generated within the reaction chamber is stored in the individual heat exchange-filter elements during the discharge of exhaust gases therethrough from the reaction chamber and this heat is then transferred to the inflowing volume of the exhaust gases so that, in effect, exhaust gas is discharged from the device at substantially the same temperature as it was during its inlet into the device from the engine.

  8. Removing Pathogens Using Nano-Ceramic-Fiber Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Frederick; Kaledin, Leonid

    2005-01-01

    particle size is only 2 nanometers, about the size of a DNA molecule, yet the NanoCeram syringe filter is capable of retaining the dyes as the fluid is passed through the syringe, without much back-pressure. Endotoxins, which are contaminants that are part of the residue of destroyed bacteria, can cause toxic shock and are therefore of major concern in pharmaceutical products. The NanoCeram syringe filter is capable of removing greater than 99.96 percent of the endotoxins.

  9. Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, M.S.; Waggoner, Ch.A.

    2009-01-01

    Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size

  10. Filters for radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshiba, Yukihiko; Kawashima, Akio

    1980-01-01

    In the crud generated in the reactor cooling water for nuclear power plants, iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) are contained as the main components, and also Co, Mn, Fe, Cr exist as radioactive nuclides. A new filter to separate these cruds, nuclepore membrane filter (NPMF), was investigated for its adaptability, and has been adopted as a practical filter for radioactive liquid wastes. The NPMF has such features as the possibility of complete automation of operation, no generation of secondary wastes, and easy maintenance, because the NPMF has uniform circular holes in poly-carbonate thin films, and shows the properties of stable filtering of particulates, capability of back washing, and others. The elements mounted in a practical system have such construction that the membrane is cut in the form of doughnut, and sandwiched with 100 mesh polyester nets (spacer); the obtained unit filter (cassette) is mounted on the stackable plate of the same size; and 80 pieces of this cassette are formed in a filter of 4 m 2 filtering area. The performance varies with the properties of suspended matters and the turbidity of wastes. For example, the filtered liquid of 0.1 ppm or less can be obtained when the 1 μm filter material is used to treat the liquid waste containing 1 to 100 ppm suspended matters. Usually back washed water is produced by about 1/100 of treated liquid wastes. The lifetime of the membrane is expected to be 1 or 2 years if crud is the main component. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Cryptosporidium: A Guide to Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tap Water Many but not all available home water filters remove Cryptosporidium . Some filter designs are more suitable for removal of Cryptosporidium than others. Filters that have the words "reverse osmosis" on the label protect against Cryptosporidium . Some other ...

  12. Simplified design of filter circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1999-01-01

    Simplified Design of Filter Circuits, the eighth book in this popular series, is a step-by-step guide to designing filters using off-the-shelf ICs. The book starts with the basic operating principles of filters and common applications, then moves on to describe how to design circuits by using and modifying chips available on the market today. Lenk's emphasis is on practical, simplified approaches to solving design problems.Contains practical designs using off-the-shelf ICsStraightforward, no-nonsense approachHighly illustrated with manufacturer's data sheets

  13. High flow ceramic pot filters

    OpenAIRE

    van Halem, D.; van der Laan, H.; Soppe, A. I.A.; Heijman, S.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more water without sacrificing their microbial removal efficacy. High flow pot filters, produced by increasing the rice husk content, had a higher initial flow rate (6–19 L h−1), but initial LRVs for E. coli o...

  14. Face Recognition using Gabor Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad MOHSIN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An Elastic Bunch Graph Map (EBGM algorithm is being proposed in this research paper that successfully implements face recognition using Gabor filters. The proposed system applies 40 different Gabor filters on an image. As aresult of which 40 images with different angles and orientation are received. Next, maximum intensity points in each filtered image are calculated and mark them as Fiducial points. The system reduces these points in accordance to distance between them. The next step is calculating the distances between the reduced points using distance formula. At last, the distances are compared with database. If match occurs, it means that the image is recognized.

  15. Inadvertent filtering bleb following sutureless cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Sunil

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The case history of a sixty-two-year-old lady, who presented with a bleb in the upper part of her left eye following cataract surgery was studied. The patient had no prior history of any glaucoma surgery. Gonioscopy revealed fishmouthing of the internal aspect of the scleral tunnel incision. The diagnosis of post-cataract filtering bleb was made which was managed by resuturing the wound. This case highlights the use of gonioscopy to visualise and evaluate the internal wound and discusses intraoperative recognition of internal leak and its management with horizontal sutures.

  16. The ''Nuclear-Karlsruhe'' air-filter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berliner, P.; Ohlmeyer, M.; Stotz, W.

    1976-01-01

    Increasing requirements for exhaust-air filter systems used in nuclear facilities induced the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung to develop the ''Nuclear-Karlsruhe'' HEPA filter system. This novel development has profited by experience gained in previous incidents as well as by maitenance and decontamination work performed with different HEPA filter systems. The proved ''Nuclear-Karlsruhe'' system takes equally into account the demands for optimum safety, maximum efficiency and economy, and is distinguished by the following features: (1) The air current is defected by 180 0 in the casing. Deflection causes quite a number of improvements, results in substantial reduction of space requirements, and avoids the dispersion of pollutants to the clean-air side. Besides, the HEPA filter is protected from damage by condensed particles or foreign materials entrained; (2) The ''Nuclear-Karlsruhe'' system allows gas-tight filter replacement. Special replacement collars have been provided at the casing, which allow the tight fastening of replacement bags which are self-locking. (3) In-place testing in the operating condition can be carried out very conveniently because the air is deflected. Minimum leaks in the filter medium or in the filter gasket can be detected by the high-sensitivity visual oil-thread test, which makes leaks distinctly visible as oil mist threads through a transparent front window provided on the clean-air side. The test takes only some minutes and its sensitivity is hardly matched by any other technique. (4) The clamping mechanism is installed outside the casing, i.e. outside the polluted or aggressive media. The contact force is spring-loaded absolutely uniformly to the circular filter gasket. (5) For practical and econmic reasons the filter casings can be locked individually so as to be gas-tight. (6) The entire system is made of stainless or coated steel and metal parts which are corrosion and fire-resistant. (author)

  17. Remotely operated top loading filter housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.J.; Carter, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    A high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter system was developed for the Fuel Processing Facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The system utilizes commercially available HEPA filters and allows in-cell filters to be maintained using operator-controlled remote handling equipment. The remote handling tasks include transport of filters before and after replacement, removal and replacement of the filter from the housing, and filter containment

  18. The Design of Polymer Planar Optical Triplexer with MMI Filter and Directional Coupler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jerabek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical bidirectional WDM transceiver is a key component of the Passive Optical Network of the Fiber to the Home topology. Essential parts of such transceivers are filters that combine multiplexing and demultiplexing function of optical signal (triplexing filters. In this paper we report about a design of a new planar optical multi-wavelength selective system triplexing filter, which combines a multimode interference filter with directional coupler based on the epoxy polymer SU-8 on Si/SiO2 substrate. The optical triplexing filter was designed using the Beam Propagation Method. The aim of this project was to optimize the triplexing filter optical parameters and to minimize the planar optical wavelength selective system dimensions. The multimode interference filter was used for separation of downstream optical signal in designed optoelectronic integrated WDM transceiver. The directional coupler was used for adding of upstream optical signal.

  19. Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J; Tong, Xin T

    2015-08-25

    The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature.

  20. Optimum color filters for CCD digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Kai; Kunz, Rino E.; Seitz, Peter; Brunner, Harald; Knop, Karl

    1993-12-01

    As part of the ESPRIT II project No. 2103 (MASCOT) a high performance prototype color CCD still video camera was developed. Intended for professional usage such as in the graphic arts, the camera provides a maximum resolution of 3k X 3k full color pixels. A high colorimetric performance was achieved through specially designed dielectric filters and optimized matrixing. The color transformation was obtained by computer simulation of the camera system and non-linear optimization which minimized the perceivable color errors as measured in the 1976 CIELUV uniform color space for a set of about 200 carefully selected test colors. The color filters were designed to allow perfect colorimetric reproduction in principle and at the same time with imperceptible color noise and with special attention to fabrication tolerances. The camera system includes a special real-time digital color processor which carries out the color transformation. The transformation can be selected from a set of sixteen matrices optimized for different illuminants and output devices. Because the actual filter design was based on slightly incorrect data the prototype camera showed a mean colorimetric error of 2.7 j.n.d. (CIELUV) in experiments. Using correct input data in the redesign of the filters, a mean colorimetric error of only 1 j.n.d. (CIELUV) seems to be feasible, implying that it is possible with such an optimized color camera to achieve such a high colorimetric performance that the reproduced colors in an image cannot be distinguished from the original colors in a scene, even in direct comparison.

  1. Regenerable Carbon Filter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Regenerable Carbon Filter (RCF) is proposed for the removal of carbonaceous particulate matter produced in Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) processes....

  2. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  3. Sensor-augmented pump therapy lowers HbA(1c) in suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes; a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanides, J.; Nørgaard, K.; Bruttomesso, D.; Mathieu, C.; Frid, A.; Dayan, C. M.; Diem, P.; Fermon, C.; Wentholt, I. M. E.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; DeVries, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of sensor-augmented pump therapy vs. multiple daily injection therapy in patients with suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes. In this investigator-initiated multi-centre trial (the Eurythmics Trial) in eight outpatient centres in Europe, we randomized 83 patients with

  4. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among ART-naïve HIV-positive individuals in an urban cohort in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeere, Aggrey S; Nakanjako, Damalie; Ddungu, Henry; Kambugu, Andrew; Manabe, Yukari C; Colebunders, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition is common among HIV-infected individuals and is often accompanied by low serum levels of micronutrients. Vitamin B-12 deficiency has been associated with various factors including faster HIV disease progression and CD4 depletion in resource-rich settings. To describe prevalence and factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve adults in a resource-poor setting, we performed a cross-sectional study with a retrospective chart review among individuals attending either the Mulago-Mbarara teaching hospitals' Joint AIDS Program (MJAP) or the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) clinics, in Kampala, Uganda. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12. The mean vitamin B-12 level was 384 pg/ml, normal range (200-900). Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (ART (CD4ART-naïve adult clinic population in urban Uganda. We recommend prospective studies to further clarify the causal relationships of sub-optimal vitamin B-12, and explore the role of vitamin B-12 supplementation in immune recovery.

  5. Effects of feeding frequency on apparent energy and nutrient digestibility/availability of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, reared at optimal and suboptimal temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effects of feeding frequency (daily versus every other day [EOD]) on nutrient digestibility/availability of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, reared at optimal (30 C) and suboptimal (24 C) temperatures. A 28% protein practical diet was used as the test diet, and chromic o...

  6. The effect of plant-based diet and suboptimal environmental conditions on digestive function and diet-induced enteropathy in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosberian-Tanha, P.; Schrama, J.W.; Landsverk, T.; Mydland, L.T.; Øverland, M.

    2018-01-01

    This experiment investigated intestinal enteropathy and digestive function of rainbow trout challenged with soybean meal-based diet (SBM) at optimal or suboptimal environments created by normal or reduced water flow, respectively. Oxygen level remained above 7 mg L-1 for optimal environment and

  7. Ion trajectories quadrupole mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, D.; Lupsa, N.; Muntean, F.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper aims at bringing some contributions to the understanding of ion motion in quadrupole mass filters. The theoretical treatment of quadrupole mass filter is intended to be a concise derivation of the important physical relationships using Mathieu functions. A simple iterative method of numerical computation has been used to simulate ion trajectories in an ideal quadrupole field. Finally, some examples of calculation are presented with the aid of computer graphics. (Author) 14 Figs., 1 Tab., 20 Refs

  8. Filter indexing for spectrophotometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamran, M.M.; Scott, L.B.; Williams, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    A spectrophotometer system has an optical system for transmitting a beam from a source at select wavelengths onto a detector. A plurality of filters are positioned in a tray. A stepper mechanism indexes the tray along a path. A microcomputer controls the stepper mechanism and the optical system. The wavelength is successively changed over a range, the tray is indexed to move a select filter into the beam at a predetermined wavelength and the changing is discontinued during indexing

  9. New iodine filter pack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackbee, B.A.

    1977-10-01

    To enable Naval Emergency Monitoring Teams to fulfil their role in the field it was necessary to locate or design a replacement filter pack for the collection of radioactive iodine air samples. Collaboration with the Berkeley Laboratories of the Central Electricity Generating Board provided the necessary starting point for a suitable type of package. Further development by NGTE (West Drayton) yielded the improved filter pack which is the subject of this memorandum. (author)

  10. Stochastic processes and filtering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jazwinski, Andrew H

    1970-01-01

    This unified treatment of linear and nonlinear filtering theory presents material previously available only in journals, and in terms accessible to engineering students. Its sole prerequisites are advanced calculus, the theory of ordinary differential equations, and matrix analysis. Although theory is emphasized, the text discusses numerous practical applications as well.Taking the state-space approach to filtering, this text models dynamical systems by finite-dimensional Markov processes, outputs of stochastic difference, and differential equations. Starting with background material on probab

  11. Approximate bandpass and frequency response models of the difference of Gaussian filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Philip; Mitra, Bhargav; Bangalore, Nagachetan M.; Rehman, Saad; Young, Rupert; Chatwin, Chris

    2010-12-01

    The Difference of Gaussian (DOG) filter is widely used in optics and image processing as, among other things, an edge detection and correlation filter. It has important biological applications and appears to be part of the mammalian vision system. In this paper we analyse the filter and provide details of the full width half maximum, bandwidth and frequency response in order to aid the full characterisation of its performance.

  12. Stochastic Optimal Estimation with Fuzzy Random Variables and Fuzzy Kalman Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yu-hu

    2005-01-01

    By constructing a mean-square performance index in the case of fuzzy random variable, the optimal estimation theorem for unknown fuzzy state using the fuzzy observation data are given. The state and output of linear discrete-time dynamic fuzzy system with Gaussian noise are Gaussian fuzzy random variable sequences. An approach to fuzzy Kalman filtering is discussed. Fuzzy Kalman filtering contains two parts: a real-valued non-random recurrence equation and the standard Kalman filtering.

  13. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among ART-naive HIV-positive individuals in an urban cohort in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggrey S Semeere

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is common among HIV-infected individuals and is often accompanied by low serum levels of micronutrients. Vitamin B-12 deficiency has been associated with various factors including faster HIV disease progression and CD4 depletion in resource-rich settings. To describe prevalence and factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART naïve adults in a resource-poor setting, we performed a cross-sectional study with a retrospective chart review among individuals attending either the Mulago-Mbarara teaching hospitals' Joint AIDS Program (MJAP or the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI clinics, in Kampala, Uganda. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12. The mean vitamin B-12 level was 384 pg/ml, normal range (200-900. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (<300 pg/ml were found in 75/204 (36.8%. Twenty-one of 204 (10.3% had vitamin B-12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml while 54/204 (26.5% had marginal depletion (200-300 pg/ml. Irritable mood was observed more among individuals with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (OR 2.5, 95% CI; 1.1-5.6, P=0.03. Increasing MCV was associated with decreasing serum B-12 category; 86.9 fl (± 5.1 vs. 83 fl (± 8.4 vs. 82 fl (± 8.4 for B-12 deficiency, marginal and normal B-12 categories respectively (test for trend, P=0.017. Compared to normal B-12, individuals with vitamin B-12 deficiency had a longer known duration of HIV infection: 42.2 months (± 27.1 vs. 29.4 months (± 23.8; P=0.02. Participants eligible for ART (CD4<350 cells/µl with sub-optimal B-12 had a higher mean rate of CD4 decline compared to counterparts with normal B-12; 118 (± 145 vs. 22 (± 115 cells/µl/year, P=0.01 respectively. The prevalence of a sub-optimal vitamin B-12 was high in this HIV-infected, ART-naïve adult clinic population in urban Uganda. We recommend prospective studies to further clarify the causal relationships of sub-optimal

  14. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emzir, Muhammad F; Woolley, Matthew J; Petersen, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements. (paper)

  15. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emzir, Muhammad F.; Woolley, Matthew J.; Petersen, Ian R.

    2017-06-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements.

  16. Suboptimal T-cell receptor signaling compromises protein translation, ribosome biogenesis, and proliferation of mouse CD8 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thomas C J; Knight, John; Sbarrato, Thomas; Dudek, Kate; Willis, Anne E; Zamoyska, Rose

    2017-07-25

    Global transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of T cells have been rich sources of unbiased data for understanding T-cell activation. Lack of full concordance of these datasets has illustrated that important facets of T-cell activation are controlled at the level of translation. We undertook translatome analysis of CD8 T-cell activation, combining polysome profiling and microarray analysis. We revealed that altering T-cell receptor stimulation influenced recruitment of mRNAs to heavy polysomes and translation of subsets of genes. A major pathway that was compromised, when TCR signaling was suboptimal, was linked to ribosome biogenesis, a rate-limiting factor in both cell growth and proliferation. Defective TCR signaling affected transcription and processing of ribosomal RNA precursors, as well as the translation of specific ribosomal proteins and translation factors. Mechanistically, IL-2 production was compromised in weakly stimulated T cells, affecting the abundance of Myc protein, a known regulator of ribosome biogenesis. Consequently, weakly activated T cells showed impaired production of ribosomes and a failure to maintain proliferative capacity after stimulation. We demonstrate that primary T cells respond to various environmental cues by regulating ribosome biogenesis and mRNA translation at multiple levels to sustain proliferation and differentiation.

  17. Do pigeons (Columba livia) use information about the absence of food appropriately? A further look into suboptimal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Inês; Machado, Armando; Vasconcelos, Marco

    2017-11-01

    In the natural environment, when an animal encounters a stimulus that signals the absence of food-a 'bad-news' stimulus-it will most likely redirect its search to another patch or prey. Because the animal does not pay the opportunity cost of waiting in the presence of a bad-news stimulus, the properties of the stimulus (e.g., its duration and probability) may have little impact in the evolution of the decision processes deployed in these circumstances. Hence, in the laboratory, when animals are forced to experience a bad-news stimulus they seem to ignore its duration, even though they pay the cost of waiting. Under certain circumstances, this insensitivity to the opportunity cost can lead to suboptimal preferences, such as a preference for an option yielding a low rather than a high rate of reinforcement. In 2 experiments, we tested Vasconcelos, Monteiro, and Kacelnik's (2015) assumption that, if given the opportunity, animals will escape the bad-news stimulus. To predict when an escape response should occur, we incorporated ideas from the prey choice model into Vasconcelos et al. (2015) model and made 2 novel predictions. Namely, both longer intertrial intervals and longer durations of signals predicting food or no food should lead to higher proportions of escape responses. The results of 2 experiments with pigeons supported these predictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. DETERMINANTS OF SUBOPTIMAL BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS: 24-HOUR AMBULATORY BLOOD PRES-SURE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Moazenzadeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    INTRODUCTION: The study was conducted to define the determinants of suboptimal blood pressure (BP control among hypertensive patients under treatment and explore a predictive model for detecting the patients at risk for increased BP.    METHODS: We enrolled 97 patients (40 males, 57 females under treatment for hypertension between June 2006 and May 2007 in Shafa hospital, Kerman, Iran. BP was measured at clinic twice within 5-minute intervals. After setting up ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM, BP was measured at 30-minute intervals during the day and 60-minute intervals during the night. The frequency of increased BP (more than 140/90 mmHg was included in a regression model as dependent variable and all the others such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI, drugs and baseline clinical measurements as the predictors.    RESULTS: Increased BP was detected in 44% (95% CI: 38.79%-49.65% of all measurements during 24-hour monitoring. The frequency of increased BP had a significant relationship with BMI (b=0.35, P=0.001. Clinic's pulse pressure was a significant predicting factor for BP increase (P=0.02.    CONCLUSION: BMI and pulse pressure are the best predictors for being hypertensive during lifetime. Ineffective treatment of hypertension is frequent among the hypertensive patients.      Keywords: Blood pressure control, Pulse pressure, Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM, BMI.

  19. Influence of prebiotics on Lactobacillus reuteri death kinetics under sub-optimal temperatures and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Clelia; Iorio, Maria Clara; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2016-01-01

    Eaten foodstuffs are usually fortified with prebiotic ingredients, such as inulin and oligofructose (FOS). The main goal of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of inulin and FOS with either suboptimal pH or storage temperature on the viability of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016. Data were modeled through Weibull equation for the evaluation of the microbiological shelf life and the survival time. Prebiotics enhanced the microbiological shelf life and enhanced the survival time of the target bacterium. The use of the factorial ANOVA highlighted that inulin and FOS exerted a different effect as a function of pH and temperature. Inulin prolonged survival time under acidic conditions, while the effect of glucose + FOS was significant at pH 8. Finally, temperature could act by increasing or decreasing the effect of prebiotics, as they could exert a protective effect at 30 °C but not at 44 °C. As the main output of this research, we could suggest that the effect of prebiotics on L. reuteri could be significantly affected by pH and temperature, thus pinpointing that the design of a symbiotic food should also rely on these factors.

  20. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide and virginiamycin on the cecal microbial community and intestinal morphology of chickens raised under suboptimal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabedin, Mohsen; Xu, Zhengxin; Baurhoo, Bushansingh; Chevaux, Eric; Zhao, Xin

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing movement against use of antibiotic growth promoters in animal feed. Prebiotic supplementation is a potential alternative to enhance the host's natural defense through modulation of gut microbiota. In the present study, the effect of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and virginiamycin (VIRG) on cecal microbial ecology and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens raised under suboptimal conditions was evaluated. MOS and VIRG induced different bacterial community structures, as revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA. The antibiotic treatment reduced cecal microbial diversity while the community equitability increased. A higher bacterial diversity was observed in the cecum of MOS-supplemented birds. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results indicated that MOS changed the cecal microbiota in favor of the Firmicutes population but not the Bacteroidetes population. No difference was observed in total bacterial counts among treatments. MOS promoted the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. in the cecum and increased villus height and goblet cell numbers in the ileum and jejunum. These results provide a deeper insight into the microbial ecological changes after supplementation of MOS prebiotic in poultry diets.

  1. Experience with three percutaneous vena cava filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCowan, T.C.; Ferris, E.J.; Harshfield, D.L.; Hassell, D.R.; Baker, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-one Kimray-Greenfield, 33 bird's nest, and 19 Amplatz vena cava filters were placed percutaneously. The Kimray-Greenfield filter was the most difficult to insert. The major problem was the insertion site, which required venipuncture with a 24-F catheter. Minor hemorrhage was frequent, and femoral vein thrombosis occurred in four patients. No migration, caval thrombosis, or pulmonary emboli were seen after Kimray-Greenfield filter placement. The bird's nest filter was relatively easy to insert, although in two cases the filter prongs could not be adequately seated in the wall of the inferior vena cava. Three patients with bird's nest filters had thrombosis below the filter, and three filters migrated to the heart. One migrated filter could not be removed. One patient had multiple small pulmonary emboli at autopsy. No other pulmonary emboli after filter placement were noted. The Amplatz filter was the easiest of the three filters to insert. Only one patient with an Amplatz filter had thrombosis of the vena cava below the filter. No filter migrations were documented, and no recurrent pulmonary emboli were found on clinical or radiologic follow-up. The Amplatz vena cava filter is easier to place than percutaneous Kimray-Greenfield or bird's nest filters, has a low complication rate, and has proven to be clinically effective in preventing pulmonary emboli

  2. Suboptimal care and maternal mortality among foreign-born women in Sweden: maternal death audit with application of the 'migration three delays' model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esscher, Annika; Binder-Finnema, Pauline; Bødker, Birgit; Högberg, Ulf; Mulic-Lutvica, Ajlana; Essén, Birgitta

    2014-04-12

    Several European countries report differences in risk of maternal mortality between immigrants from low- and middle-income countries and host country women. The present study identified suboptimal factors related to care-seeking, accessibility, and quality of care for maternal deaths that occurred in Sweden from 1988-2010. A subset of maternal death records (n = 75) among foreign-born women from low- and middle-income countries and Swedish-born women were audited using structured implicit review. One case of foreign-born maternal death was matched with two native born Swedish cases of maternal death. An assessment protocol was developed that applied both the 'migration three delays' framework and a modified version of the Confidential Enquiry from the United Kingdom. The main outcomes were major and minor suboptimal factors associated with maternal death in this high-income, low-maternal mortality context. Major and minor suboptimal factors were associated with a majority of maternal deaths and significantly more often to foreign-born women (p = 0.01). The main delays to care-seeking were non-compliance among foreign-born women and communication barriers, such as incongruent language and suboptimal interpreter system or usage. Inadequate care occurred more often among the foreign-born (p = 0.04), whereas delays in consultation/referral and miscommunication between health care providers where equally common between the two groups. Suboptimal care factors, major and minor, were present in more than 2/3 of maternal deaths in this high-income setting. Those related to migration were associated to miscommunication, lack of professional interpreters, and limited knowledge about rare diseases and pregnancy complications. Increased insight into a migration perspective is advocated for maternity clinicians who provide care to foreign-born women.

  3. Design of a study on suboptimal cognitive acts in the diagnostic process, the effect on patient outcomes and the influence of workload, fatigue and experience of physician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wal Gerrit

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic error is an important error type since diagnostic adverse events are regularly judged as being preventable and the consequences are considered to be severe. Existing research often focuses on either diagnostic adverse events or on the errors in diagnostic reasoning. Whether and when an incorrect diagnostic process results in adverse outcomes has not been studied extensively. The present paper describes the design of a study that aims to study the relationship between a suboptimal diagnostic process and patient outcomes. In addition, the role of personal and circumstantial factors on the quality of the diagnostic process will be examined. Methods/Design The research questions were addressed using several data sources. First, the differential diagnosis was assessed concurrently to the diagnostic process. Second, the patient records of 248 patients suffering from shortness of breath were reviewed by expert internists in order to reveal suboptimal cognitive acts and (potential consequences for the patient. The suboptimal cognitive acts were discussed with the treating physicians and classified with the taxonomy of unsafe acts. Third, workload, fatigue and work experience were measured during the physicians work. Workload and fatigue were measured during the physicians shift using the NASA tlx questionnaire on a handheld computer. Physicians participating in the study also answered questions about their work experience. Discussion The design used in this study provides insight into the relationship between suboptimal cognitive acts in the diagnostic process and possible consequences for the patient. Suboptimal cognitive acts in the diagnostic process and its causes can be revealed. Additional measurements of workload, fatigue and experience allow examining the influence of these factors on the diagnostic process. In conclusion, the present design provides a method with which insights in weaknesses of the diagnostic

  4. Cost-effectiveness of extended-release methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder sub-optimally treated with immediate release methylphenidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjen van der Schans

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at school often leads to reduced compliance, sub-optimal treatment, and therefore economic loss. Replacement of IR-MPH with a single-dose extended release (ER-MPH formulation may improve drug response and economic efficiency.To evaluate the cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective of a switch from IR-MPH to ER-MPH in patients who are sub-optimally treated.A daily Markov-cycle model covering a time-span of 10 years was developed including four different health states: (1 optimal response, (2 sub-optimal response, (3 discontinued treatment, and (4 natural remission. ER-MPH options included methylphenidate osmotic release oral system (MPH-OROS and Equasym XL/Medikinet CR. Both direct costs and indirect costs were included in the analysis, and effects were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. Univariate, multivariate as well as probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted and the main outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Switching sub-optimally treated patients from IR-MPH to MPH-OROS or Equasym XL/Medikinet CR led to per-patient cost-savings of €4200 and €5400, respectively, over a 10-year treatment span. Sensitivity analysis with plausible variations of input parameters resulted in cost-savings in the vast majority of estimations.This study lends economic support to switching patients with ADHD with suboptimal response to short-acting IR-MPH to long-acting ER-MPH regimens.

  5. Sensory pollution from bag-type fiberglass ventilation filters: Conventional filter compared with filters containing various amounts of activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Fadeyi, M.O.; Clausen, Geo

    2009-01-01

    filter and three modifications of a bag-type fiberglass combination filter: the "Heavy" corresponded to a commercially available filter containing 400 g of carbon per square meter of filter area, the "Medium" contained half as much carbon (200 g/m(2)), and the "Light" contained a quarter as much carbon...

  6. Fabrication of TiO2/EP super-hydrophobic thin film on filter paper surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhengxin; Zhai, Xianglin; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Ming; Zang, Deli; Wang, Chengyu

    2015-09-05

    A composite filter paper with super-hydrophobicity was obtained by adhering micro/nano structure of amorphous titanium dioxide on the filter paper surface with modifying low surface energy material. By virtue of the coupling agent, which plays an important part in bonding amorphous titanium dioxide and epoxy resin, the structure of super-hydrophobic thin film on the filter paper surface is extremely stable. The microstructure of super-hydrophobic filter paper was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the images showed that the as-prepared filter paper was covered with uniform amorphous titanium dioxide particles, generating a roughness structure on the filter paper surface. The super-hydrophobic performance of the filter paper was characterized by water contact angle measurements. The observations showed that the wettability of filter paper samples transformed from super-hydrophilicity to super-hydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 153 ± 1°. Some experiments were also designed to test the effect of water-oil separation and UV-resistant by the super-hydrophobic filter paper. The prepared super-hydrophobic filter paper worked efficiently and simply in water-oil separation as well as enduringly in anti-UV property after the experiments. This method offers an opportunity to the practical applications of the super-hydrophobic filter paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of cooling methods and thickness considerations in the filter/window assembly for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.; Hahn, U.

    1993-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray windows are vacuum separators and are usually made of thin beryllium metal. Filters are provided upstream to absorb the soft x-rays so that the window can be protected from overheating, which could result in failure. The filters are made of thin carbon products or sometimes beryllium, the same material as the window. When the synchrotron x-rays pass through a filter or window, part of the photons will be absorbed by the filter or window. The absorbed photons cause heat to build up within the filter or window. Successful filter and window designs should effectively dissipate the heat generated by the absorbed photons and guarantee the safety of the filter and window. The cooling methods typically used in a filter or window design are conduction and radiation cooling or a combination of the two. The different cooling methods were first examined with regard to efficiency and effectiveness in different temperature ranges. Analysis results are presented for temperature distribution and corresponding thermal stresses in the filter and window. Another important issue to be resolved in designing a filter/window assembly is how to select the thickness of the filters and windows. This paper focuses on the criteria for choosing the thickness of a filter: whether it is better to use a few thick filters or a series of thin ones; how to determine the minimum/maximum thickness; and the difference in thickness considerations for the window versus the filter. Numerical investigations are presented

  8. Subspace System Identification of the Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Di Ruscio

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Some proofs concerning a subspace identification algorithm are presented. It is proved that the Kalman filter gain and the noise innovations process can be identified directly from known input and output data without explicitly solving the Riccati equation. Furthermore, it is in general and for colored inputs, proved that the subspace identification of the states only is possible if the deterministic part of the system is known or identified beforehand. However, if the inputs are white, then, it is proved that the states can be identified directly. Some alternative projection matrices which can be used to compute the extended observability matrix directly from the data are presented. Furthermore, an efficient method for computing the deterministic part of the system is presented. The closed loop subspace identification problem is also addressed and it is shown that this problem is solved and unbiased estimates are obtained by simply including a filter in the feedback. Furthermore, an algorithm for consistent closed loop subspace estimation is presented. This algorithm is using the controller parameters in order to overcome the bias problem.

  9. Best Management Practice Fact Sheet. 12, Filtering Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Sample, David; Barlow, Stefani

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet is one of a 15-part series on urban stormwater management practices. This fact sheet discusses filtering practices, what they are, where they are used, how they work, maintenance, limitations, performance, expected costs and includes a glossary of terms.

  10. Accuracy Enhancement of CT Measurements using Data Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolfi, Alessandro; Kallasse, Maarja-Helena; Carli, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of data filtering on CT capability to inspect assemblies. The investigation was carried out using an industrial multi-material assembly provided by Novo Nordisk A/S. The assembly comprises two parts made of polyoxymethylene (POM) and of an alloy comprising polycarb...

  11. Filtering the internet for copyrighted content in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelopoulos, C.

    2009-01-01

    One issue that has been frequently discussed in the IRIS plus series is the unauthorised supply of copyright protected works via the Internet. The resulting threat of copyright infringements could, at least partly, be prevented through the use of Internet filters, an option that forms the subject of

  12. Topology on grill-filter space and continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamapada Modak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss about a new topology, obtained from a grill and a filter on the same set. The Characterizations and open base of the new topology are also aim of this paper. The generalized continuity is also a part of this paper.

  13. 21 CFR 211.72 - Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filters. 211.72 Section 211.72 Food and Drugs FOOD... shall not release fibers into such products. Fiber-releasing filters may be used when it is not possible to manufacture such products without the use of these filters. If use of a fiber-releasing filter is...

  14. Decentralized Social Filtering based on Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a decentralised approach to social filtering based on trust between agents in a multiagent system. The social filtering in the proposed approach is built on the interactions between collaborative software agents performing content-based filtering. This means that it uses a mixture of content-based and social filtering and thereby, it takes advantage of both methods.

  15. A class of orthogonal nonrecursive binomial filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    The time- and frequency-domain properties of the orthogonal binomial sequences are presented. It is shown that these sequences, or digital filters based on them, can be generated using adders and delay elements only. The frequency-domain behavior of these nonrecursive binomial filters suggests a number of applications as low-pass Gaussian filters or as inexpensive bandpass filters.

  16. Complementary filter implementation in the dynamic language Lua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Damian; Sawicki, Aleksander; Lukšys, Donatas; Slanina, Zdenek

    2017-08-01

    The article presents the complementary filter implementation, that is used for the estimation of the pitch angle, in Lua script language. Inertial sensors as accelerometer and gyroscope were used in the study. Methods of angles estimation using acceleration and angular velocity sensors were presented in the theoretical part of the article. The operating principle of complementary filter has been presented. The prototype of Butterworth's analogue filter and its digital equivalent have been designed. Practical implementation of the issue was performed with the use of PC and DISCOVERY evaluation board equipped with STM32F01 processor, L3GD20 gyroscope and LS303DLHC accelerometer. Measurement data was transmitted by UART serial interface, then processed with the use of Lua software and luaRS232 programming library. Practical implementation was divided into two stages. In the first part, measurement data has been recorded and then processed with help of a complementary filter. In the second step, coroutines mechanism was used to filter data in real time.

  17. Digital notch filter based active damping for LCL filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Yang, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    . In contrast, the active damping does not require any dissipation elements, and thus has become of increasing interest. As a result, a vast of active damping solutions have been reported, among which multi-loop control systems and additional sensors are necessary, leading to increased cost and complexity....... In this paper, a notch filter based active damping without the requirement of additional sensors is proposed, where the inverter current is employed as the feedback variable. Firstly, a design method of the notch filter for active damping is presented. The entire system stability has then been investigated...... in the z-domain. Simulations and experiments are carried out to verify the proposed active damping method. Both results have confirmed that the notch filter based active damping can ensure the entire system stability in the case of resonances with a good system performance....

  18. FIONDA (Filtering Images of Niobium Disks Application): Filter application for Eddy Current Scanner data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffo, C.; Bauer, P.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the material QC process, each Niobium disk from which a superconducting RF cavity is built must undergo an eddy current scan [1]. This process allows to discover embedded defects in the material that are not visible to the naked eye because too small or under the surface. Moreover, during the production process of SC cavities the outer layer of Nb is removed via chemical or electro-chemical etching, thus it is important to evaluate the quality of the subsurface layer (in the order of 100nm) where superconductivity will happen. The reference eddy current scanning machine is operated at DESY; at Fermilab we are using the SNS eddy current scanner on loan, courtesy of SNS. In the past year, several upgrades were implemented aiming at raising the SNS machine performance to that of the DESY reference machine [2]. As part of this effort an algorithm that enables the filtering of the results of the scans and thus improves the resolution of the process was developed. The description of the algorithm and of the software used to filter the scan results is presented in this note. This filter application is a useful tool when the coupling between the signal associated to the long range probe distance (or sample thickness) variation and that associated to inclusions masks the presence of defects. Moreover instead of using indirect criteria (such as appearance on screen), the filter targets precisely the topology variations of interest. This application is listed in the FermiTools database and is freely available

  19. New common mode emi filter for motor drive using a fourth leg in the inverter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.; Ferreira, B.; Roc'h, A.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, status and recent research trends related to the EMC issues in the variable speed drive system are first reviewed. The existing remedies are discussed in two parts. They are, passive filtering and active filtering. Their merits and demerits are presented. Based on the present

  20. Visualizing the Perception Filter and Breaching It with Active-Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold B.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' perception filter operates in all realms of their consciousness. It plays an important part in what and how students learn and should play a central role in what and how they teach. This may be obvious, but having a visual model of a perception filter can guide the way they think about education. In this article, the author talks about…

  1. From Pixels to Response Maps: Discriminative Image Filtering for Face Alignment in the Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asthana, Akshay; Asthana, Ashish; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Cheng, Shiyang; Pantic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    We propose a face alignment framework that relies on the texture model generated by the responses of discriminatively trained part-based filters. Unlike standard texture models built from pixel intensities or responses generated by generic filters (e.g. Gabor), our framework has two important

  2. Increased generalization capability of trainable COSFIRE filters with application to machine vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzopardi, George; Fernandez-Robles, Laura; Alegre, Enrique; Petkov, Nicolai

    2017-01-01

    The recently proposed trainable COSFIRE filters are highly effective in a wide range of computer vision applications, including object recognition, image classification, contour detection and retinal vessel segmentation. A COSFIRE filter is selective for a collection of contour parts in a certain

  3. Progress towards the use of disposable filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macphail, I.

    1979-08-01

    Thermally degradable materials have been evaluated for service in HEPA filter units used to filter gases from active plants. The motivation was to reduce the bulk storage problems of contaminated filters by thermal decomposition to gaseous products and a solid residue substantially comprised of the filtered particulates. It is shown that while there are no commercially available alternatives to the glass fibre used in the filter medium, it would be feasible to manufacture the filter case and spacers from materials which could be incinerated. Operating temperatures, costs and the type of residues for disposal are discussed for filter case materials. (U.K.)

  4. Risk Sensitive Filtering with Poisson Process Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, W. P.; James, M. R.; Elliott, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we consider risk sensitive filtering for Poisson process observations. Risk sensitive filtering is a type of robust filtering which offers performance benefits in the presence of uncertainties. We derive a risk sensitive filter for a stochastic system where the signal variable has dynamics described by a diffusion equation and determines the rate function for an observation process. The filtering equations are stochastic integral equations. Computer simulations are presented to demonstrate the performance gain for the risk sensitive filter compared with the risk neutral filter

  5. Novel Simplex Unscented Transform and Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Chun Li; Ping Wei; Xian-Ci Xiao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new simplex unscented transform (UT) based Schmidt orthogonal algorithm and a new filter method based on this transform are proposed. This filter has less computation consumption than UKF (unscented Kalman filter), SUKF (simplex unscented Kalman filter) and EKF (extended Kalman filter). Computer simulation shows that this filter has the same performance as UKF and SUKF, and according to the analysis of the computational requirements of EKF, UKF and SUKF, this filter has preferable practicality value. Finally, the appendix shows the efficiency for this UT.

  6. Iodine filters in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The present report discusses the significance for environmental exposure of the iodine released with the gaseous effluents of nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants in relation to releases of other airborne radionuclides. Iodine filtration processes are described. The release pathways and the composition of airborne fission product iodine mixtures and their bearing on environmental exposure are discussed on the basis of measured fission product iodine emissions. The sorbents which can be used for iodine filtration, their removal efficiencies and range of applications are dealt with in detail. The particular conditions governing iodine removal, which are determined by the various gaseous iodine species, are illustrated on the basis of experimentally determined retention profiles. Particular attention is given to the limitations imposed by temperature, humidity, radiation and filter poisoning. The types of filter normally used are described, their advantages and drawbacks discussed, the principles underlying their design are outlined and the sources of error indicated. The methods normally applied to test the efficiency of various iodine sorbents are described and assessed. Operating experience with iodine filters, gathered from surveillance periods of many years, is supplemented by a large number of test results and the findings of extensive experiments. Possible ways of prolonging the permissible service lives of iodine filters are discussed and information is given on protective measures. The various iodine removal processes applied in reprocessing plants are described and compared with reference to efficiency and cost. The latest developments in filter technology in reprocessing plants are briefly outlined

  7. A biological oil adsorption filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasila, A [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology

    2005-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  8. A biological oil adsorption filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasila, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  9. GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .

  10. Spectral filtering for plant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.E.; McMahon, M.J.; Rajapakse, N.C.; Becoteau, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Research to date suggests that spectral filtering can be an effective alternative to chemical growth regulators for altering plant development. If properly implemented, it can be nonchemical and environmentally friendly. The aqueous CuSO{sub 4}, and CuCl{sub 2} solutions in channelled plastic panels have been shown to be effective filters, but they can be highly toxic if the solutions contact plants. Some studies suggest that spectral filtration limited to short EOD intervals can also alter plant development. Future research should be directed toward confirmation of the influence of spectral filters and exposure times on a broader range of plant species and cultivars. Efforts should also be made to identify non-noxious alternatives to aqueous copper solutions and/or to incorporate these chemicals permanently into plastic films and panels that can be used in greenhouse construction. It would also be informative to study the impacts of spectral filters on insect and microbal populations in plant growth facilities. The economic impacts of spectral filtering techniques should be assessed for each delivery methodology.

  11. The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-01-01

    Background When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the ‘filter problem’. These extensive filter resea...

  12. Multiplier-free filters for wideband SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Christensen, Erik Lintz

    2001-01-01

    This paper derives a set of parameters to be optimized when designing filters for digital demodulation and range prefiltering in SAR systems. Aiming at an implementation in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), an approach for the design of multiplier-free filters is outlined. Design results...... are presented in terms of filter complexity and performance. One filter has been coded in VHDL and preliminary results indicate that the filter can meet a 2 GHz input sample rate....

  13. Characterization of fibromyalgia symptoms in patients 55-95 years old: a longitudinal study showing symptom persistence with suboptimal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sandra A; Simpson, Rachel G; Lubahn, Cheri; Hu, Chengcheng; Belden, Christine M; Davis, Kathryn J; Nicholson, Lisa R; Long, Kathy E; Osredkar, Tracy; Lorton, Dianne

    2015-02-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) has been understudied in the elderly population, a group with particular vulnerabilities to pain, reduced mobility, and sleep disruption. To characterize FM symptoms and treatments in a cohort of older subjects examined over time to determine the extent to which current, community-based treatment for older FM patients is in accord with published guidelines, and effective in reducing symptoms. A longitudinal, observational study of 51 subjects with FM (range 55-95 years) and 81 control subjects (58-95 years) performed at Banner Sun Health Research Institute in Sun City, AZ, USA. Serial history and examination data were obtained over a 6-year period. FM data included medical history, medications, physical examination, tender point examination, neuropsychological testing, sleep and pain ratings, the Physical Function Subscale of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and other standardized scales to evaluate depression and other psychiatric symptoms, and cognitive and functional impairment. Pain and stiffness that interfered with physical activity, sleep, and mood were reported by 80 % or more of subjects. Over time, pain involved an increasing number of body areas. Over half of subjects were treated with NSAIDs, one-quarter with opioids, and one-quarter with estrogen. Few were treated with dual-acting antidepressants or pregabalin. In this cohort of elders with suboptimally treated FM, substantial persistence of symptoms was seen over time. In general, recommended treatments were either not used or not tolerated. Age-appropriate treatments as well as education of primary care providers are needed to improve treatment of FM in the older population.

  14. Effects of TCMC on Transformation of Good Health Status to Suboptimal Health Status: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Xiang, Lei; Zhou, Lin; Li, Fei; Lin, Changsong; Jiang, Pingping; Wu, Shengwei; Xiao, Ya; Cheng, Jingru; Luo, Ren; Liu, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of traditional Chinese medicine constitution (TCMC) on transformation of good health status to suboptimal health status (SHS), we conducted a nested case-control study among college students in China. During the 18-month mean follow-up time, 543 cases of SHS (42.7%) occurred in 1273 healthy students. There was a significant (P = 0.000) and marked reduction in SHMS V1.0 total score in the case group at the 18-month follow-up (69.32 ± 5.45) compared with baseline (78.60 ± 4.70), but there was no significant change in the control group. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that respondents reporting Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency were, respectively, 2.247 and 2.198 times more likely to develop SHS, while tendency to Yin-deficiency and tendency to Damp-heat were, respectively, 1.642 and 1.506 times more likely to develop SHS. However, the Balanced Constitution was a significant protective factor (OR 0.649; P < 0.05). Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Yin-deficiency, Qi-deficiency, tendency to Yin-deficiency, and tendency to Damp-heat appeared to induce a change in health status to SHS, while the Balanced Constitution seemed to restrain this change. We conclude that regulating the unbalanced TCMC (such as Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency) may prevent a healthy status developing into SHS or lead to the regression of SHS. PMID:26346320

  15. Effects of TCMC on Transformation of Good Health Status to Suboptimal Health Status: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the effects of traditional Chinese medicine constitution (TCMC on transformation of good health status to suboptimal health status (SHS, we conducted a nested case-control study among college students in China. During the 18-month mean follow-up time, 543 cases of SHS (42.7% occurred in 1273 healthy students. There was a significant (P=0.000 and marked reduction in SHMS V1.0 total score in the case group at the 18-month follow-up (69.32 ± 5.45 compared with baseline (78.60 ± 4.70, but there was no significant change in the control group. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that respondents reporting Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency were, respectively, 2.247 and 2.198 times more likely to develop SHS, while tendency to Yin-deficiency and tendency to Damp-heat were, respectively, 1.642 and 1.506 times more likely to develop SHS. However, the Balanced Constitution was a significant protective factor (OR 0.649; P<0.05. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Yin-deficiency, Qi-deficiency, tendency to Yin-deficiency, and tendency to Damp-heat appeared to induce a change in health status to SHS, while the Balanced Constitution seemed to restrain this change. We conclude that regulating the unbalanced TCMC (such as Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency may prevent a healthy status developing into SHS or lead to the regression of SHS.

  16. Suboptimal adherence to doxycycline and treatment outcomes among men with non-gonococcal urethritis: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosropour, Christine M; Manhart, Lisa E; Colombara, Danny V; Gillespie, Catherine W; Lowens, M Sylvan; Totten, Patricia A; Golden, Matthew R; Simoni, Jane

    2014-02-01

    Doxycycline, one of two recommended therapies for non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), consists of a 7-day course of therapy (100 mg BID). Since suboptimal adherence may contribute to poor treatment outcomes, we examined the association between self-reported imperfect adherence to doxycycline and clinical and microbiologic failure among men with NGU. Men aged ≥16 years with NGU attending a Seattle, WA, sexually transmitted diseases clinic were enrolled in a double-blind, parallel-group superiority trial from January 2007 to July 2011. Men were randomised to active doxycycline/placebo azithromycin or placebo doxycycline/active azithromycin. Imperfect adherence was defined as missing ≥1 dose in 7 days. Urine was tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and Ureaplasma urealyticum-biovar 2 (UU-2) using nucleic acid amplification tests. Clinical failure (symptoms and ≥5 PMNs/HPF or discharge) and microbiologic failure (positive tests for CT, MG, and/or UU-2) were determined after 3 weeks. 184 men with NGU were randomised to active doxycycline and provided data on adherence. Baseline prevalence of CT, MG and UU-2 was 26%, 13% and 27%, respectively. 28% of men reported imperfect adherence, and this was associated with microbiologic failure among men with CT (aRR=9.33; 95% CI 1.00 to 89.2) and UU-2 (aRR=3.08; 95% CI 1.31 to 7.26) but not MG. Imperfect adherence was not significantly associated with clinical failure overall or for any specific pathogens, but it was more common among imperfectly adherent men with CT (aRR=2.63; 0.93-7.41, p=0.07). Adherence may be important for microbiologic cure of select pathogens. Factors other than adherence should be considered for CT-negative men with persistent NGU.

  17. Sub-optimal adherence to doxycycline and treatment outcomes among men with non-gonococcal urethritis: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosropour, Christine M.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Colombara, Danny V.; Gillespie, Catherine W.; Lowens, M. Sylvan; Totten, Patricia A.; Golden, Matthew R.; Simoni, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Objective Doxycycline, one of two recommended therapies for non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), consists of a seven-day course of therapy (100mg BID). Since suboptimal adherence may contribute to poor treatment outcomes, we examined the association between self-reported imperfect adherence to doxycycline and clinical and microbiologic failure among men with NGU. Methods Men aged ≥16 years with NGU attending a Seattle, WA sexually transmitted diseases clinic were enrolled in a double-blind, parallel-group superiority trial from January 2007 to July 2011. Men were randomized to active doxycycline/placebo azithromycin or placebo doxycycline/active azithromycin. Imperfect adherence was defined as missing ≥1 dose in 7 days. Urine was tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and Ureaplasma urealyticum-biovar2 (UU-2) using nucleic acid amplification tests. Clinical failure (symptoms and ≥5 PMNs/HPF or discharge) and microbiologic failure (positive tests for CT, MG, and/or UU-2) were determined after 3-weeks. Results 184 men with NGU were randomized to active doxycycline and provided data on adherence. Baseline prevalence of CT, MG, and UU-2 was 26%, 13%, and 27%, respectively. 28% of men reported imperfect adherence and this was associated with microbiologic failure among men with CT (aRR=9.33; 95% CI=1.00–89.2) and UU-2 (aRR=3.08; 95% CI=1.31–7.26) but not MG. Imperfect adherence was not significantly associated with clinical failure overall or for any specific pathogens, but it was more common among imperfectly adherent men with CT (aRR=2.63; 0.93–7.41, p=0.07). Conclusions Adherence may be important for microbiologic cure of select pathogens. Factors other than adherence should be considered for CT-negative men with persistent NGU. PMID:24106340

  18. Food insecurity, food based coping strategies and suboptimal dietary practices of adolescents in Jimma zone Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tefera Belachew

    Full Text Available Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified random sampling methods. Food insecurity was measured using scales validated in developing countries. Dietary practices were measured using dietary diversity score, food variety score and frequency of consuming animal source food. Multivariable regression models were used to compare dietary behaviors by food security status after controlling for socio-demographic and economic covariates. Food insecure adolescents had low dietary diversity score (P<0.001, low mean food variety score (P<0.001 and low frequency of consuming animal source foods (P<0.001. After adjusting for other variables in a multivariable logistic regression model, adolescent food insecurity (P<0.001 and rural residence (P<0.001 were negatively associated with the likelihood of having a diversified diet (P<0.001 and frequency of consuming animal source foods, while a high household income tertile was positively associated. Similarly, multivariable linear regression model showed that adolescent food insecurity was negatively associated with food variety score, while residence in semi-urban areas (P<0.001, in urban areas (P<0.001 and high household income tertile (P = 0.013 were positively associated. Girls were less likely to have diversified diet (P = 0.001 compared with boys. Our findings suggest that food insecurity has negative consequence on optimal dietary intake of adolescents. Food security interventions should look into ways of targeting adolescents to mitigate these dietary consequences

  19. Micron-pore-sized metallic filter tube membranes for filtration of particulates and water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, T J; Palumbo, A V; Bischoff, B L; Miller, C J; Fagan, L A; McNeilly, M S; Judkins, R R

    2008-07-01

    Robust filtering techniques capable of efficiently removing particulates and biological agents from water or air suffer from plugging, poor rejuvenation, low permeance, and high backpressure. Operational characteristics of pressure-driven separations are in part controlled by the membrane pore size, charge of particulates, transmembrane pressure and the requirement for sufficient water flux to overcome fouling. With long term use filters decline in permeance due to filter-cake plugging of pores, fouling, or filter deterioration. Though metallic filter tube development at ORNL has focused almost exclusively on gas separations, a small study examined the applicability of these membranes for tangential filtering of aqueous suspensions of bacterial-sized particles. A mixture of fluorescent polystyrene microspheres ranging in size from 0.5 to 6 microm in diameter simulated microorganisms in filtration studies. Compared to a commercial filter, the ORNL 0.6 microm filter averaged approximately 10-fold greater filtration efficiency of the small particles, several-fold greater permeance after considerable use and it returned to approximately 85% of the initial flow upon backflushing versus 30% for the commercial filter. After filtering several liters of the particle-containing suspension, the ORNL composite filter still exhibited greater than 50% of its initial permeance while the commercial filter had decreased to less than 20%. When considering a greater filtration efficiency, greater permeance per unit mass, greater percentage of rejuvenation upon backflushing (up to 3-fold), and likely greater performance with extended use, the ORNL 0.6 microm filters can potentially outperform the commercial filter by factors of 100-1,000 fold.

  20. Optimal Matched Filter in the Low-number Count Poisson Noise Regime and Implications for X-Ray Source Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek, Eran O.; Zackay, Barak

    2018-04-01

    Detection of templates (e.g., sources) embedded in low-number count Poisson noise is a common problem in astrophysics. Examples include source detection in X-ray images, γ-rays, UV, neutrinos, and search for clusters of galaxies and stellar streams. However, the solutions in the X-ray-related literature are sub-optimal in some cases by considerable factors. Using the lemma of Neyman–Pearson, we derive the optimal statistics for template detection in the presence of Poisson noise. We demonstrate that, for known template shape (e.g., point sources), this method provides higher completeness, for a fixed false-alarm probability value, compared with filtering the image with the point-spread function (PSF). In turn, we find that filtering by the PSF is better than filtering the image using the Mexican-hat wavelet (used by wavdetect). For some background levels, our method improves the sensitivity of source detection by more than a factor of two over the popular Mexican-hat wavelet filtering. This filtering technique can also be used for fast PSF photometry and flare detection; it is efficient and straightforward to implement. We provide an implementation in MATLAB. The development of a complete code that works on real data, including the complexities of background subtraction and PSF variations, is deferred for future publication.

  1. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  2. Fast algorithm for Morphological Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Shan; Jiang Xiangqian; Scott, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    In surface metrology, morphological filters, which evolved from the envelope filtering system (E-system) work well for functional prediction of surface finish in the analysis of surfaces in contact. The naive algorithms are time consuming, especially for areal data, and not generally adopted in real practice. A fast algorithm is proposed based on the alpha shape. The hull obtained by rolling the alpha ball is equivalent to the morphological opening/closing in theory. The algorithm depends on Delaunay triangulation with time complexity O(nlogn). In comparison to the naive algorithms it generates the opening and closing envelope without combining dilation and erosion. Edge distortion is corrected by reflective padding for open profiles/surfaces. Spikes in the sample data are detected and points interpolated to prevent singularities. The proposed algorithm works well both for morphological profile and area filters. Examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and superiority on efficiency of this algorithm over the naive algorithm.

  3. Filtered containment venting in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindau, L.; Ellisson, K.

    1989-01-01

    After the TMI accident, Swedish authorities decided that all Swedish nuclear power plants should be upgraded with respect to mitigation of the consequences of severe accidents. One contribution to meet these ends is filtered containment venting, i.e. means to relieve containment overpressure and to clean the relief gas from radioactive components. The first system in operation was built at the Barsebaeck site (2 BWR's) where a gravel bed filter was installed. For the remaining Swedish units (7 BWR's and 3 PWR's) a passive, self-controlling wet scrubber system, FILTRA-MVSS, is now under installation. The principle of the FILTRA-MVSS is a self-controlling, self-pumping venturi collector submerged in a pool, and it is used to filter out emissions of solid and gaseous radioactive components

  4. HEPA filter concerns - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J.F. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently initiated a complete review of the DOE High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Program to identify areas for improvement. Although this process is currently ongoing, various issues and problems have already been identified for action that not only impacts the DOE HEPA filter program, but potentially the national and international air cleaning community as well. This paper briefly reviews a few of those concerns that may be of interest, and discusses actions initiated by the DOE to address the associated issues and problems. Issues discussed include: guidance standards, in-place testing, specifications, Test Facilities, portable units, vacuum cleaners, substitute aerosols, filter efficiencies, aging/shelf life/service life, fire suppression, handbook, Quality Products List (QPL), QA testing, and evaluations.

  5. Filtering reducer of flushing fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secu, P; Apostu, M; Basarabescu, T; Popescu, F

    1981-02-28

    This is a patent of a filtering reducer of flushing fluid on a water base with low content of solid particles used at temperatures of roughly 200/sup 0/C. With the use of the proposed filtering reducer, there is no excessive increase in viscosity and gelatinization of the flushing fluids without restriction in the quantity of reducer needed to guarantee the required filtering. There is a possibility of recovering the polyalkylphenol vat residues obtained in the production of nonyl phenol. It is possible to reduce the time of treatment and dissolving of the product; there is no danger of plugging of the productive oil beds. The process of hydration of clay is excluded.

  6. Adaptive filtering primer with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Poularikas, Alexander D

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONSignal ProcessingAn ExampleOutline of the TextDISCRETE-TIME SIGNAL PROCESSINGDiscrete Time SignalsTransform-Domain Representation of Discrete-Time SignalsThe Z-TransformDiscrete-Time SystemsProblemsHints-Solutions-SuggestionsRANDOM VARIABLES, SEQUENCES, AND STOCHASTIC PROCESSESRandom Signals and DistributionsAveragesStationary ProcessesSpecial Random Signals and Probability Density FunctionsWiener-Khinchin RelationsFiltering Random ProcessesSpecial Types of Random ProcessesNonparametric Spectra EstimationParametric Methods of power Spectral EstimationProblemsHints-Solutions-SuggestionsWIENER FILTERSThe Mean-Square ErrorThe FIR Wiener FilterThe Wiener SolutionWiener Filtering ExamplesProblemsHints-Solutions-SuggestionsEIGENVALUES OF RX - PROPERTIES OF THE ERROR SURFACEThe Eigenvalues of the Correlation MatrixGeometrical Properties of the Error SurfaceProblemsHints-Solutions-SuggestionsNEWTON AND STEEPEST-DESCENT METHODOne-Dimensional Gradient Search MethodSteepest-Descent AlgorithmProblemsHints-Sol...

  7. Evaluation of residential furnace filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowser, D. [Bowser Technical Inc. (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Various filters rotated through six houses in southern Ontario during the heating season were evaluated for their filtration efficiency, including their ability to trap respirable particulate matter. Particulate levels were continuously monitored in the outside air, before and after the filter in the ducting system; also in the air in two rooms in each house. Results show that the filters performed according to their respective efficiency ratings. The integrated breathing zone exposure reading were not considered as significant as the reductions in the ducting system, dur to the fact that the integrated breathing zone exposure reflects both dust generation and dust removal mechanisms. Electronic air filters were found to produce ozone inside the home when the air-handling system was in operation. There was no evidence of any particular relationship between cleanliness and ozone production. Indoor ozone levels were always lower than outdoor levels. Continuous blower operation was found to improve filtration efficiency , however, it could result in an increase of about $250 in annual energy expenses. Bypass filters recorded significantly higher electrical energy consumption than full-flow systems. Continuous low-speed air handler fan operation appeared to be the most effective strategy. Portable air cleaners were shown to be highly effective in removing particulates in a single room. Removing footwear on entering the house, keeping major dust generators out of the house, frequent vacuuming, improving the air tightness of the house, and installing an air intake filter on the air supply may all be all be helpful in controlling exposure to particulates. 21 refs., 8 tabs., 32 figs.

  8. The filtering effect of buildings on airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, G.C.; Mustonen, R.

    1987-06-01

    Within the radioecological programme of the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy (NKA), the possible consequences of a major reactor accident are one of its main research branches. This study of the filtering effect of buildings on airborne particulate matter has been one part of this branch. The absorbed dose to a person from a passing radioactive cloud will be lower if he has been indoors and not ourdoors during the cloud passage. The aim of this study has been to find filtering factors for typical Finnish and Norwegian houses to use in model work

  9. A decentralized square root information filter/smoother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, G. J.; Belzer, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    A number of developments has recently led to a considerable interest in the decentralization of linear least squares estimators. The developments are partly related to the impending emergence of VLSI technology, the realization of parallel processing, and the need for algorithmic ways to speed the solution of dynamically decoupled, high dimensional estimation problems. A new method is presented for combining Square Root Information Filters (SRIF) estimates obtained from independent data sets. The new method involves an orthogonal transformation, and an information matrix filter 'homework' problem discussed by Schweppe (1973) is generalized. The employed SRIF orthogonal transformation methodology has been described by Bierman (1977).

  10. The 2D Hotelling filter - a quantitative noise-reducing principal-component filter for dynamic PET data, with applications in patient dose reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, Jan; Sörensen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we apply the principal-component analysis filter (Hotelling filter) to reduce noise from dynamic positron-emission tomography (PET) patient data, for a number of different radio-tracer molecules. We furthermore show how preprocessing images with this filter improves parametric images created from such dynamic sequence. We use zero-mean unit variance normalization, prior to performing a Hotelling filter on the slices of a dynamic time-series. The Scree-plot technique was used to determine which principal components to be rejected in the filter process. This filter was applied to [ 11 C]-acetate on heart and head-neck tumors, [ 18 F]-FDG on liver tumors and brain, and [ 11 C]-Raclopride on brain. Simulations of blood and tissue regions with noise properties matched to real PET data, was used to analyze how quantitation and resolution is affected by the Hotelling filter. Summing varying parts of a 90-frame [ 18 F]-FDG brain scan, we created 9-frame dynamic scans with image statistics comparable to 20 MBq, 60 MBq and 200 MBq injected activity. Hotelling filter performed on slices (2D) and on volumes (3D) were compared. The 2D Hotelling filter reduces noise in the tissue uptake drastically, so that it becomes simple to manually pick out regions-of-interest from noisy data. 2D Hotelling filter introduces less bias than 3D Hotelling filter in focal Raclopride uptake. Simulations show that the Hotelling filter is sensitive to typical blood peak in PET prior to tissue uptake have commenced, introducing a negative bias in early tissue uptake. Quantitation on real dynamic data is reliable. Two examples clearly show that pre-filtering the dynamic sequence with the Hotelling filter prior to Patlak-slope calculations gives clearly improved parametric image quality. We also show that a dramatic dose reduction can be achieved for Patlak slope images without changing image quality or quantitation. The 2D Hotelling-filtering of dynamic PET data is a computer

  11. Improving Filtered Backprojection Reconstruction by Data-Dependent Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Pelt (Daniël); K.J. Batenburg (Joost)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractFiltered backprojection, one of the most widely used reconstruction methods in tomography, requires a large number of low-noise projections to yield accurate reconstructions. In many applications of tomography, complete projection data of high quality cannot be obtained, because of

  12. Filter-extruded liposomes revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinna, Askell; Steiniger, Frank; Hupfeld, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    (pore-size, number of filter passages, and flow-rate), flow field-flow fractionation in conjunction with multi-angle laser light scattering (AF4-MALLS, Wyatt Technology Corp., Santa Barbara, CA) was employed. Liposome size-distributions determined by AF4-MALLS were compared with those of dynamic light...... is suggested to prepare large (300 nm) liposomes with rather narrow size distribution, based on the filter extrusion at defined flow-rates in combination with freeze-/ thaw-cycling and bench-top centrifugation....

  13. Process for washing electromagnetic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guittet, Maurice; Treille, Pierre.

    1980-01-01

    This process concerns the washing of an electro-magnetic filter used, inter alia, for filtering the drain-off waters of nuclear power station steam generators, by means of a washing water used in closed circuit and freed, after each cleaning, of the solids in suspension it contains, by settlement of these solids. This invention enables the volume of water to be evaporated to be divided by 50, thereby providing a solid assurance of better safety, apart from a very significant saving [fr

  14. Quantized, piecewise linear filter network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    1993-01-01

    A quantization based piecewise linear filter network is defined. A method for the training of this network based on local approximation in the input space is devised. The training is carried out by repeatedly alternating between vector quantization of the training set into quantization classes...... and equalization of the quantization classes linear filter mean square training errors. The equalization of the mean square training errors is carried out by adapting the boundaries between neighbor quantization classes such that the differences in mean square training errors are reduced...

  15. Modeling of memristor-based chaotic systems using nonlinear Wiener adaptive filters based on backslash operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yibo; Jiang, Yi; Feng, Jiuchao; Wu, Lifu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel nonlinear Wiener adaptive filters based on the backslash operator are proposed. • The identification approach to the memristor-based chaotic systems using the proposed adaptive filters. • The weight update algorithm and convergence characteristics for the proposed adaptive filters are derived. - Abstract: Memristor-based chaotic systems have complex dynamical behaviors, which are characterized as nonlinear and hysteresis characteristics. Modeling and identification of their nonlinear model is an important premise for analyzing the dynamical behavior of the memristor-based chaotic systems. This paper presents a novel nonlinear Wiener adaptive filtering identification approach to the memristor-based chaotic systems. The linear part of Wiener model consists of the linear transversal adaptive filters, the nonlinear part consists of nonlinear adaptive filters based on the backslash operator for the hysteresis characteristics of the memristor. The weight update algorithms for the linear and nonlinear adaptive filters are derived. Final computer simulation results show the effectiveness as well as fast convergence characteristics. Comparing with the adaptive nonlinear polynomial filters, the proposed nonlinear adaptive filters have less identification error.

  16. Interpolation Filter Design for Hearing-Aid Audio Class-D Output Stage Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Bruun, Erik; Llimos Muntal, Pere

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a design of a digital interpolation filter for a 3rd order multi-bit ΣΔ modulator with over-sampling ratio OSR = 64. The interpolation filter and the ΣΔ modulator are part of the back-end of an audio signal processing system in a hearing-aid application. The aim in this paper...... is to compare this design to designs presented in other state-of-the-art works ranging from hi-fi audio to hearing-aids. By performing comparison, trends and tradeoffs in interpolation filter design are indentified and hearing-aid specifications are derived. The possibilities for hardware reduction...... in the interpolation filter are investigated. Proposed design simplifications presented here result in the least hardware demanding combination of oversampling ratio, number of stages and number of filter taps among a number of filters reported for audio applications....

  17. Particulate matter concentrations in residences: an intervention study evaluating stand-alone filters and air conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, S; Du, L; Mentz, G; Mukherjee, B; Parker, E; Godwin, C; Chin, J-Y; O'Toole, A; Robins, T; Rowe, Z; Lewis, T

    2012-06-01

    This study, a randomized controlled trial, evaluated the effectiveness of free-standing air filters and window air conditioners (ACs) in 126 low-income households of children with asthma. Households were randomized into a control group, a group receiving a free-standing HEPA filter placed in the child's sleeping area, and a group receiving the filter and a window-mounted AC. Indoor air quality (IAQ) was monitored for week-long periods over three to four seasons. High concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and carbon dioxide were frequently seen. When IAQ was monitored, filters reduced PM levels in the child's bedroom by an average of 50%. Filter use varied greatly among households and declined over time, for example, during weeks when pollutants were monitored, filter use was initially high, averaging 84±27%, but dropped to 63±33% in subsequent seasons. In months when households were not visited, use averaged only 34±30%. Filter effectiveness did not vary in homes with central or room ACs. The study shows that measurements over multiple seasons are needed to characterize air quality and filter performance. The effectiveness of interventions using free-standing air filters depends on occupant behavior, and strategies to ensure filter use should be an integral part of interventions. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) increased particulate matter (PM) levels by about 14 μg/m3 and was often detected using ETS-specific tracers despite restrictions on smoking in the house as reported on questionnaires administered to caregivers. PM concentrations depended on season, filter usage, relative humidity, air exchange ratios, number of children, outdoor PM levels, sweeping/dusting, and presence of a central air conditioner (AC). Free-standing air filters can be an effective intervention that provides substantial reductions in PM concentrations if the filters are used. However, filter use was variable across the study population and declined over the study duration, and

  18. Computerized tomographic scanner with shaped radiation filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Walters, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    The invention comprises a shaped filter and a filter correction circuitry for computerized tomographic scanners. The shaped filter is a generally u-shaped block of filter material which is adapted to be mounted between the source of radiation and the scan circle. The u-shaped block has a parabolic recess. The filter material may be beryllium, aluminum, sulphur, calcium, titanium, erbium, copper, and compounds including oxides and alloys thereof. The filter correction circuit comprises a first filter correction profile adding circuit for adding a first scaler valve to each intensity valve in a data line. The data line is operated on by a beam hardness correction polynomial. After the beam hardness polynomial correction operation, a second filter correction circuit adds a second filter correction profile consisting of a table of scalor values, one corresponding to each intensity reading in the data line

  19. Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, Charles K

    2009-01-01

    Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications presents a thorough discussion of the mathematical theory and computational schemes of Kalman filtering. The filtering algorithms are derived via different approaches, including a direct method consisting of a series of elementary steps, and an indirect method based on innovation projection. Other topics include Kalman filtering for systems with correlated noise or colored noise, limiting Kalman filtering for time-invariant systems, extended Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems, interval Kalman filtering for uncertain systems, and wavelet Kalman filtering for multiresolution analysis of random signals. Most filtering algorithms are illustrated by using simplified radar tracking examples. The style of the book is informal, and the mathematics is elementary but rigorous. The text is self-contained, suitable for self-study, and accessible to all readers with a minimum knowledge of linear algebra, probability theory, and system engineering.

  20. Robust Ensemble Filtering and Its Relation to Covariance Inflation in the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    A robust ensemble filtering scheme based on the H∞ filtering theory is proposed. The optimal H∞ filter is derived by minimizing the supremum (or maximum) of a predefined cost function, a criterion different from the minimum variance used

  1. Coadministration of Hedera helix L. Extract Enabled Mice to Overcome Insufficient Protection against Influenza A/PR/8 Virus Infection under Suboptimal Treatment with Oseltamivir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eun-Hye; Song, Jae-Hyoung; Shim, Aeri; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kwon, Bo-Eun; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Kim, Yeon-Jeong; Chang, Sun-Young; Jeong, Hyeon Gun; Kim, Jong Geal; Seo, Sang-Uk; Kim, HyunPyo; Kwon, YongSoo; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Several anti-influenza drugs that reduce disease manifestation exist, and although these drugs provide clinical benefits in infected patients, their efficacy is limited by the emergence of drug-resistant influenza viruses. In the current study, we assessed the therapeutic strategy of enhancing the antiviral efficacy of an existing neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir, by coadministering with the leaf extract from Hedera helix L, commonly known as ivy. Ivy extract has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and antihelminthic properties. In the present study, we investigated its potential antiviral properties against influenza A/PR/8 (PR8) virus in a mouse model with suboptimal oseltamivir that mimics a poor clinical response to antiviral drug treatment. Suboptimal oseltamivir resulted in insufficient protection against PR8 infection. Oral administration of ivy extract with suboptimal oseltamivir increased the antiviral activity of oseltamivir. Ivy extract and its compounds, particularly hedrasaponin F, significantly reduced the cytopathic effect in PR8-infected A549 cells in the presence of oseltamivir. Compared with oseltamivir treatment alone, coadministration of the fraction of ivy extract that contained the highest proportion of hedrasaponin F with oseltamivir decreased pulmonary inflammation in PR8-infected mice. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, were reduced by treatment with oseltamivir and the fraction of ivy extract. Analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in the bronchial alveolar of PR8-infected mice revealed that CD11b+Ly6G+ and CD11b+Ly6Cint cells were recruited after virus infection; coadministration of the ivy extract fraction with oseltamivir reduced infiltration of these inflammatory cells. In a model of suboptimal oseltamivir treatment, coadministration of ivy extract fraction that includes hedrasaponin F increased protection against PR8 infection that could be

  2. Coadministration of Hedera helix L. Extract Enabled Mice to Overcome Insufficient Protection against Influenza A/PR/8 Virus Infection under Suboptimal Treatment with Oseltamivir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hye Hong

    Full Text Available Several anti-influenza drugs that reduce disease manifestation exist, and although these drugs provide clinical benefits in infected patients, their efficacy is limited by the emergence of drug-resistant influenza viruses. In the current study, we assessed the therapeutic strategy of enhancing the antiviral efficacy of an existing neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir, by coadministering with the leaf extract from Hedera helix L, commonly known as ivy. Ivy extract has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and antihelminthic properties. In the present study, we investigated its potential antiviral properties against influenza A/PR/8 (PR8 virus in a mouse model with suboptimal oseltamivir that mimics a poor clinical response to antiviral drug treatment. Suboptimal oseltamivir resulted in insufficient protection against PR8 infection. Oral administration of ivy extract with suboptimal oseltamivir increased the antiviral activity of oseltamivir. Ivy extract and its compounds, particularly hedrasaponin F, significantly reduced the cytopathic effect in PR8-infected A549 cells in the presence of oseltamivir. Compared with oseltamivir treatment alone, coadministration of the fraction of ivy extract that contained the highest proportion of hedrasaponin F with oseltamivir decreased pulmonary inflammation in PR8-infected mice. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2, were reduced by treatment with oseltamivir and the fraction of ivy extract. Analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in the bronchial alveolar of PR8-infected mice revealed that CD11b+Ly6G+ and CD11b+Ly6Cint cells were recruited after virus infection; coadministration of the ivy extract fraction with oseltamivir reduced infiltration of these inflammatory cells. In a model of suboptimal oseltamivir treatment, coadministration of ivy extract fraction that includes hedrasaponin F increased protection against PR8

  3. [Effects of different NO3--N/NH4+-N ratios on cucumber seedlings growth, nitrogen absorption and metabolism under suboptimal temperature and light intensity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Cui; Liu, Yu Mei; Bai, Long Qiang; He, Chao Xing; Yu, Xian Chang; Li, Yan Su

    2016-08-01

    Cucumber (cv. Zhongnong 26) was used as material, the effects of NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N ratios on growth and physiological characteristics of cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature and light intensity (18 ℃/10 ℃,180 ± 20 μmol·m -2 ·s -1 ) were studied. Total nitrogen in the nutrient solution was equal and three NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N ratios, 26:2, 21:7 and 14:14, were applied as treatments. The results showed that cucumber treated by NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N=21:7 had the longest total root length, the biggest root volume and root surface area, and the maximum number of root tips. H + -ATPase activity and relative expression of genes encoding nitrate transporter (NRT) and ammonium transporter (AMT) in cucumber roots were increased significantly by the treatment of NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N=21:7. In addition, nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in cucumber leaves under the treatment of NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N=21:7 were higher. As a result, the nitrogen content and biomass of cucumber were significantly increased. Compared with the plants under the treatment of NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N=26:2 or 14:14, cucumber seedlings under the treatment of NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N=21:7 had the highest biomass and total dry mass (DM) which were increased by 14.0% and 19.3% respectively under suboptimal temperature and light intensity. In conclusion, under suboptimal environmental conditions, NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N ratio could be adjusted to increase nitrogen absorption and metabolism of cucumber and alleviate the de-trimental effects caused by suboptimal conditions and promoted the cucumber growth.

  4. Suboptimal Weight Loss and Weight Regain after Gastric Bypass Surgery?Postoperative Status of Energy Intake, Eating Behavior, Physical Activity, and Psychometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsen, Tina; Str?mmen, Magnus; Martins, Catia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suboptimal weight loss (SWL) and weight regain (WR) after gastric bypass surgery (GB) remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare GB patients experiencing SWL or significant WR (SigWR) with successful controls, regarding postoperative food intake, eating behavior, physical activity (PA), and psychometrics. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with >1 year post-surgery were classified as either experiencing SWL (excess body weight loss, EWL,

  5. Differences in the association between sickness absence and long-term sub-optimal health by occupational position: a 14-year follow-up in the GAZEL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Jane E; Kivimäki, Mika; Westerlund, Hugo; Head, Jenny; Melchior, Maria; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Alexanderson, Kristina; Vahtera, Jussi

    2011-10-01

    Although sickness absence is a strong predictor of health, whether this association varies by occupational position has rarely been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate overall and diagnosis-specific sickness absence as a predictor of future long-term sub-optimal health by occupational position. This was a prospective occupational cohort study of 15 320 employees (73% men) aged 37-51. Sickness absences (1990-1992), included in 13 diagnostic categories, were examined by occupational position in relation to self-rated health measured annually during 1993-2006. 60% of employees in higher occupational positions and 22% in lower positions had no sickness absence. Conversely, 9.5% of employees in higher positions and 40% in lower positions had over 30 sick-leave days. Repeated-measures logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and chronic disease showed employees with over 30 days absence, compared to those with no absence, had approximately double the risk of sub-optimal health over the 14-year follow-up in all occupational positions. 1-30 days sick-leave was associated with greater odds of sub-optimal health in the high (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.27 to 1.72) and intermediate (1.29; 1.15 to 1.45) but not lower occupational positions (1.06; 0.82 to 1.38). Differences by occupational position in the association between sickness absence in 13 specific diagnostic categories and sub-optimal health over the ensuing 14 years were limited to stronger associations observed with cancer and mental disorders in the higher occupational positions. The association between sickness absence of more than 30 days over 3 years and future long-term self-rated health appears to differ little by occupational position.

  6. Suboptimal etravirine activity is common during failure of nevirapine-based combination antiretroviral therapy in a cohort infected with non-B subtype HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, Babafemi; Chaplin, Beth; Penugonda, Sudhir; Meloni, Seema; Akanmu, Sulaimon; Gashau, Wadzani; Idoko, John; Adewole, Isaac; Murphy, Robert; Kanki, Phyllis

    2010-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate etravirine activity in a cohort of patients infected with non-B subtype HIV-1 and failing nevirapine-based therapy. Genotypic resistance testing was performed if viral load was >OR= 1,000 copies/ml after receiving at least six months of therapy. Suboptimal response to etravirine was predicted by a score >OR= 2.5 on the Tibotec weighting schema, >OR= 4 in the Monogram schema, or classification as high to low-level resistant by a modification of the Stanford HIVdb algorithm (Version 5.1.2). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine the risk factors for suboptimal etravirine activity. The patients (n=91) were receiving nevirapine and lamivudine plus stavudine (57.1%) or zidovudine (42.9%). Median duration of nevirapine exposure was 53 weeks (IQR 46-101 weeks). The most common etravirine resistance associated mutations were Y181C (42.9%), G190A (25.3%), H221Y (19.8%), A98G (18.7%), K101E (16.5%), and V90I (12.1%). Suboptimal etravirine activity was predicted in 47.3 to 56.0%. There were disparities in mutations listed in Tibotec versus Monogram Schemas. Predicted suboptimal activity was not associated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) used, gender, pretreatment or current CD4 cell count or viral load, subtype or NRTI mutations. Etravirine has compromised activity in approximately half of the patients failing nevirapine-based first-line treatment in this cohort, which supports guidelines that caution against using it with NRTIs alone in such patients.

  7. Filtering and control of stochastic jump hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Xiuming; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research work on stochastic jump hybrid systems. Specifically, the considered stochastic jump hybrid systems include Markovian jump Ito stochastic systems, Markovian jump linear-parameter-varying (LPV) systems, Markovian jump singular systems, Markovian jump two-dimensional (2-D) systems, and Markovian jump repeated scalar nonlinear systems. Some sufficient conditions are first established respectively for the stability and performances of those kinds of stochastic jump hybrid systems in terms of solution of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Based on the derived analysis conditions, the filtering and control problems are addressed. The book presents up-to-date research developments and novel methodologies on stochastic jump hybrid systems. The contents can be divided into two parts: the first part is focused on robust filter design problem, while the second part is put the emphasis on robust control problem. These methodologies provide a framework for stability and performance analy...

  8. Enhancement of Non-Stationary Speech using Harmonic Chirp Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the issue of single channel speech enhancement of non-stationary voiced speech is addressed. The non-stationarity of speech is well known, but state of the art speech enhancement methods assume stationarity within frames of 20–30 ms. We derive optimal distortionless filters that take...... the non-stationarity nature of voiced speech into account via linear constraints. This is facilitated by imposing a harmonic chirp model on the speech signal. As an implicit part of the filter design, the noise statistics are also estimated based on the observed signal and parameters of the harmonic chirp...... model. Simulations on real speech show that the chirp based filters perform better than their harmonic counterparts. Further, it is seen that the gain of using the chirp model increases when the estimated chirp parameter is big corresponding to periods in the signal where the instantaneous fundamental...

  9. BPSK Receiver Based on Recursive Adaptive Filter with Remodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Milosevic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new binary phase shift keying (BPSK signal receiver intended for reception under conditions of significant carrier frequency offsets. The recursive adaptive filter with least mean squares (LMS adaptation is used. The proposed receiver has a constant, defining the balance between the recursive and the nonrecursive part of the filter, whose proper choice allows a simple construction of the receiver. The correct choice of this parameter could result in unitary length of the filter. The proposed receiver has performance very close to the performance of the BPSK receiver with perfect frequency synchronization, in a wide range of frequency offsets (plus/minus quarter of the signal bandwidth. The results obtained by the software simulation are confirmed by the experimental results measured on the receiver realized with the universal software radio peripheral (USRP, with the baseband signal processing at personal computer (PC.

  10. Ballistic target tracking algorithm based on improved particle filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xiao-lei; Chen, Zhan-qi; Li, Xiao-yang

    2015-10-01

    Tracking ballistic re-entry target is a typical nonlinear filtering problem. In order to track the ballistic re-entry target in the nonlinear and non-Gaussian complex environment, a novel chaos map particle filter (CMPF) is used to estimate the target state. CMPF has better performance in application to estimate the state and parameter of nonlinear and non-Gassuian system. The Monte Carlo simulation results show that, this method can effectively solve particle degeneracy and particle impoverishment problem by improving the efficiency of particle sampling to obtain the better particles to part in estimation. Meanwhile CMPF can improve the state estimation precision and convergence velocity compared with EKF, UKF and the ordinary particle filter.

  11. High gradient magnetic filters for boiler water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harland, J.R.; Nichols, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Heavy metal oxide suspended solids in those steam condensates recycled to the boilers produce buildup within the boiler tubes which can lead to unequal and reduced heat transfer efficiency, and indirectly, to boiler tube failures. Recommended reductions in such suspended solids in feedwater to the economizers of modern high pressure boilers to levels of under 10 ppb have been published. The industrially-available SALA-HGMF magnetic filter has achieved these desired suspended solids levels in treating steam condensates. The high gradient magnetic filter has been shown in pilot tests to achieve and even exceed the recommended low level suspended solids in a practical and efficient industrial system. Such electromagnetic filters, when combined with good system chemistry, have achieved low single number parts per billion levels of several heavy metals with very high single-pass efficiencies

  12. Filtering Undesirable Flows in Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polevoy, G.; Trajanovski, S.; Grosso, P.; de Laat, C.; Gao, X.; Du, H.; Han, M.

    2017-01-01

    We study the problem of fully mitigating the effects of denial of service by filtering the minimum necessary set of the undesirable flows. First, we model this problem and then we concentrate on a subproblem where every good flow has a bottleneck. We prove that unless P=NP, this subproblem is

  13. Pressure transients across HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.; Reynolds, G.; Ricketts, C.; Smith, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle facilities require ventilation for health and safety reasons. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are located within ventilation systems to trap radioactive dust released in reprocessing and fabrication operations. Pressure transients within the air cleaning systems may be such that the effectiveness of the filtration system is questioned under certain accident conditions. These pressure transients can result from both natural and man-caused phenomena: atmospheric pressure drop caused by a tornado or explosions and nuclear excursions initiate pressure pulses that could create undesirable conditions across HEPA filters. Tornado depressurization is a relatively slow transient as compared to pressure pulses that result from combustible hydrogen-air mixtures. Experimental investigation of these pressure transients across air cleaning equipment has been undertaken by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and New Mexico State University. An experimental apparatus has been constructed to impose pressure pulses across HEPA filters. The experimental equipment is described as well as preliminary results using variable pressurization rates. Two modes of filtration of an aerosol injected upstream of the filter is examined. A laser instrumentation for measuring the aerosol release, during the transient, is described

  14. Service discovery using Bloom filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goering, P.T.H.; Heijenk, Geert; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; de Laat, C.T.A.M.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.

    A protocol to perform service discovery in adhoc networks is introduced in this paper. Attenuated Bloom filters are used to distribute services to nodes in the neighborhood and thus enable local service discovery. The protocol has been implemented in a discrete event simulator to investigate the

  15. Relevance Models for Collaborative Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Wang (Jun)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractCollaborative filtering is the common technique of predicting the interests of a user by collecting preference information from many users. Although it is generally regarded as a key information retrieval technique, its relation to the existing information retrieval theory is unclear.

  16. Radioactive liquid waste filtering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inami, Ichiro; Tabata, Masayuki; Kubo, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent clogging in filter materials and improve the filtration performance for radioactive liquid wastes without increasing the amount of radioactive wastes. Constitution: In a radioactive waste filtering device, a liquid waste recycling pipe and a liquid recycling pump are disposed for recycling the radioactive liquid wastes in a liquid wastes vessel. In this case, the recycling pipe and the recycling pump are properly selected so as to satisfy the conditions capable of making the radioactive liquid wastes flowing through the pipe to have the Reynolds number of 10 4 - 10 5 . By repeating the transportation of radioactive liquid wastes in the liquid waste vessel through the liquid waste recycling pipe by the liquid waste recycling pump and then returning them to the liquid waste vessel again, particles of fine grain size in the suspended liquids are coagulated with each other upon collision to increase the grain size of the suspended particles. In this way, clogging of the filter materials caused by the particles of fine grain size can be prevented, thereby enabling to prevent the increase in the rising rate of the filtration differential pressure, reduce the frequency for the occurrence of radioactive wastes such as filter sludges and improve the processing performance. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Spectral Diagonal Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasanický, Ivan; Mandel, Jan; Vejmelka, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), s. 485-497 ISSN 1023-5809 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF(US) DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * ensemble Kalman filter * spectral representation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2015

  18. Tests of Event Filter Configuration Software

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F.J.

    TDAQ - Tests of Event Filter configuration software Within Trigger/DAQ a major consideration is how well the performance of the system components scale in going from the small set-ups used for development work to the final system with many hundreds of processors and links. In the case of the Event Filter, which makes the final stage of on-line event selection, plus on-line calibrations and monitoring, more than a thousand processors are envisaged. These processors will be divided into sub-farms, most will be remote from the detector and some could even be at institutes far from CERN. As part of the on-line system it is important that the software in the sub-farms can be reconfigured rapidly as runs start and stop, and that the system be fault tolerant. The flow of data inside a sub-farm involves many processes, for distribution and collection of results in addition to those for event processing itself. Supervision code written in Java has been developed to manage the processes within a cluster, with XML f...

  19. Sand filter clogging by septic tank effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychała, M; Błazejewski, R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise conditions and factors affecting fine sand clogging by septic tank effluent on the basis of physical modelling. The physical model consisted of 12 sand columns dosed with sewage from one household (5 persons), preliminary treated in a septic tank. Hydraulic loadings of the sand filters were equal to 82 mm/d. The mean discharge from sand columns, measured as the effluent volume collected during 10 minutes, decreased significantly over the experiment period from 34 cm3/min in August 2000 to 20 cm3/min in August 2001 at the same temperature of about 20 degrees C. First the columns clogged almost completely after 480 days in December 2001, however six columns had remained unclogged till the end of the experiment (March 2002). The temperature had a significant impact on hydraulic conductivity. A vertical distribution of accumulated mass and biomass was investigated in partly clogged sand. Microscopic survey of the clogging layer showed a presence of live micro-organisms, residuals of dead micro-organisms, particularly pieces of small animal armour and many fibres. These particles accelerated the accumulation of solids in the upper clogging layer. The study indicated that temperature impact on the filter hydraulic conductivity was more significant for biological activity, than for sewage viscosity.

  20. Performance of multiple HEPA filters against plutonium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, M.; Elder, J.; Ettinger, H.

    1975-01-01

    Performance of multiple stages of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters against aerosols similar to those produced by plutonium processing facilities has been verified as part of an experimental program. A system of three HEPA filters in series was tested against 238 PuO 2 aerosol concentrations as high as 3.3 x 10 10 d/s-m 3 . An air nebulization aerosol generation system, using ball milled plutonium oxide suspended in water, provided test aerosols with size characteristics similar to those defined by a field sampling program at several different AEC plutonium processing facilities. Aerosols have been produced ranging from 0.22 μm activity median aerodynamic diameter (amad) to 1.6 μm amad. The smaller size distributions yield 10 to 30 percent of the total activity in the less than 0.22 μm size range allowing efficiency measurement as a function of size for the first two HEPA filters in series. The low level of activity on the sampler downstream of the third HEPA filter (approximately 0.01 c/s) precludes aerosol size characterization downstream of this filter. For the first two HEPA filters, overall efficiency, and efficiency as a function of size, exceeds 99.98 percent including the <0.12 μm and the 0.12 to 0.22 μm size intervals. Efficiency of the third HEPA filter is somewhat lower with an overall average efficiency of 99.8 percent and an apparent minimum efficiency of 99.5 percent. This apparently lower efficiency is an artifact due to the low level of activity on the sampler downstream of HEPA No. 3 and the variations due to counting statistics. Recent runs with higher concentrations, thereby improving statistical variations, show efficiencies well within minimum requirements. (U.S.)