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Sample records for suboesophageal ganglion sog

  1. Interactions of suboesophageal ganglion and frontal ganglion motor patterns in the locust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David; Gueijman, Ariel; Zilberstein, Yael; Ayali, Amir

    2008-05-01

    Although locust feeding has been well studied, our understanding of the neural basis of feeding-related motor patterns is still far from complete. This paper focuses on interactions between the pattern of rhythmic movements of the mouth appendages, governed by the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG), and the foregut movements, controlled by the frontal ganglion (FG), in the desert locust. In vitro simultaneous extracellular nerve recordings were made from totally isolated ganglia as well as from fully interconnected SOG-FG and brain-SOG-FG preparations. SOG-confined bath application of the nitric oxide donor, SNP, or the phosphodiesterase antagonist, IBMX, each followed by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine, consistently induced robust fictive motor patterns in the SOG. This was observed in both isolated and interconnected preparations. In the brain-SOG-FG configuration the SOG-confined modulator application had an indirect excitatory effect on spontaneous FG rhythmic activity. Correlation between fictive motor patterns of the two ganglia was demonstrated by simultaneous changes in burst frequency. These interactions were found to be brain-mediated. Our results indicate the presence of intricate neuromodulation-mediated circuit interactions, even in the absence of sensory inputs. These interactions may be instrumental in generating the complex rhythmic motor patterns of the mandibles and gut muscles during locust feeding or ecdysis-related air swallowing.

  2. Two closely located areas in the suboesophageal ganglion and the tritocerebrum receive projections of gustatory receptor neurons located on the antennae and the proboscis in the moth Heliothis virescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Kari; Kvello, Pål; Almaas, Tor Jørgen; Mustaparta, Hanna

    2006-05-01

    Sucrose stimulation of gustatory receptor neurons on the antennae, the tarsi, and the mouthparts elicits the proboscis extension reflex in many insect species, including lepidopterans. The sensory pathways involved in this reflex have only partly been investigated, and in hymenopterans only. The present paper concerns the pathways of the gustatory receptor neurons on the antennae and on the proboscis involved in the proboscis extension reflex in the moth Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae). Fluorescent dyes were applied to the contact chemosensilla, sensilla chaetica on the antennae, and sensilla styloconica on the proboscis, permitting tracing of the axons of the gustatory receptor neurons in the central nervous system. The stained axons showed projections from the two appendages in two closely located but distinct areas in the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG)/tritocerebrum. The projections of the antennal gustatory receptor neurons were located posterior-laterally to those from the proboscis. Electrophysiological recordings from the receptor neurons in s. chaetica during mechanical and chemical stimulation were performed, showing responses of one mechanosensory and of several gustatory receptor neurons. Separate neurons showed excitatory responses to sucrose and sinigrin. The effect of these two tastants on the proboscis extension reflex was tested by repeated stimulations with solutions of the two compounds. Whereas sucrose elicited extension in 100% of the individuals in all repetitions, sinigrin elicited extension in fewer individuals, a number that decreased with repeated stimulation.

  3. Analysis of Neural Oscillations on Drosophila’s Subesophageal Ganglion Based on Approximate Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Mei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The suboesophageal ganglion (SOG, which connects to both central and peripheral nerves, is the primary taste-processing center in the Drosophila’s brain. The neural oscillation in this center may be of great research value yet it is rarely reported. This work aims to determine the amount of unique information contained within oscillations of the SOG and describe the variability of these patterns. The approximate entropy (ApEn values of the spontaneous membrane potential (sMP of SOG neurons were calculated in this paper. The arithmetic mean (MA, standard deviation (SDA and the coefficient of variation (CVA of ApEn were proposed as the three statistical indicators to describe the irregularity and complexity of oscillations. The hierarchical clustering method was used to classify them. As a result, the oscillations in SOG were divided into five categories, including: (1 Continuous spike pattern; (2 Mixed oscillation pattern; (3 Spikelet pattern; (4 Busting pattern and (5 Sparse spike pattern. Steady oscillation state has a low level of irregularity, and vice versa. The dopamine stimulation can distinctly cut down the complexity of the mixed oscillation pattern. The current study provides a quantitative method and some critera on mining the information carried in neural oscillations.

  4. Allatotropic activity in the suboesophageal ganglia and corpora cardiaca of the adult male loreyi leafworm, Mythimna loreyi.

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    Kou, R; Chen, S J

    2000-02-01

    Allatotropic activity was found in the methanolic extract of the suboesophageal ganglia (SOG) and the corpora cardiaca (CC) of the Mythimna loreyi virgin males. No allatotropic activity was observed in the extract of brain or corpora allata (CA). Although CA can be activated by the SOG and CC extract, respectively, CC extract inhibited the response to the SOG extract. A significant in vitro allatotropic effect was exerted by the SOG and CC extract within 10 and 15 min, respectively, and this effect can be sustained for several hours even after transferring to fresh medium without extracts. The time course pattern of the CA activation ratio in both the SOG and CC extract-treated group is very similar to, but with significantly higher level than, that in the control group, suggesting the existence of an intrinsic pacemaker or an in vitro effect that controls the fluctuation of the CA biosynthetic activity. Synthetic Manduca sexta allatotropin had no significant effect on the M. loreyi CA. The results of treatment with the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin, the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX, and the cAMP analogue dibutyryl-cAMP did not indicate that cAMP might be involved in the allatotropic control of CA. Arch. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Characterization by immunocytochemistry of ionic channels in Helix aspersa suboesophageal brain ganglia neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, M J; Pérez-Castejón, C; Pes, N; Pérez-Bruzón, R N; Aisa, J; Junquera, C; Maestú, C; Lahoz, M; Martínez-Ciriano, C; Vera-Gil, A; Del Moral, A

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize several ionic channels in nervous cells of the suboesophageal visceral, left and right parietal, and left and right pleural brain ganglia complex of the snail Helix aspersa by immunocytochemistry. We have studied the immunostaining reaction for a wide panel of eleven polyclonal antibodies raised against mammal antigens as follows: voltage-gated-Na+ channel; voltage-gated-delayed-rectifier-K+ channel; SK2-small-conductance-Ca2+-dependent-K+ channel apamin sensitive; SK3 potassium channel; charybdotoxin-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium channel; BKCa-maxi-conductance-Ca2+-dependent-K+ channel; hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4; G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channel GIRK2 and voltage-gated-calcium of L, N and P/Q type channels. Our results show positive reaction in neurons, but neither in glia cells nor in processes in the Helix suboesophageal ganglia. Our results suggest the occurrence of molecules in Helix neurons sharing antigenic determinants with mammal ionic channels. The reaction density and distribution of immunoreactive staining within neurons is specific for each one of the antisera tested. The studies of co-localization of immunoreaction, on alternate serial sections of the anterior right parietal ganglion, have shown for several recognized mapped neurons that they can simultaneously be expressed among two and seven different ionic protein channels. These results are considered a key structural support for the interpretation of Helix aspersa neuron electrophysiological activity.

  6. Creation of a Sog morphogen gradient in the Drosophila embryo.

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    Srinivasan, Shaila; Rashka, Kay E; Bier, Ethan

    2002-01-01

    A variety of genetic evidence suggests that a gradient of Decapentaplegic (Dpp) activity determines distinct cell fates in the dorsal region of the Drosophila embryo, and that this gradient may be generated indirectly by an inverse gradient of the BMP antagonist Short gastrulation (Sog). It has been proposed that Sog diffuses dorsally from the lateral neuroectoderm where it is produced, and is cleaved and degraded dorsally by the metalloprotease Tolloid (Tld). Here we show directly that Sog is distributed in a graded fashion in dorsal cells and that Tld degradation limits the levels of Sog dorsally. In addition, we find that Dynamin-dependent retrieval of Sog acts in parallel with degradation by Tld as a dorsal sink for active Sog.

  7. die effek van speenouderdom op die produksievermoe van die sog

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lonsequcntty the early weaned sows produced significantly more piglets per annum (22,5 vs 20,1). OPSOMIIiING: Die effek van speenouderdom, toegepas vir die eerste vyf agtereenvolgende laktasieperiodes van die sog, op die produksievermod van ...

  8. Local inhibition and long-range enhancement of Dpp signal transduction by Sog.

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    Ashe, H L; Levine, M

    1999-04-01

    Extracellular gradients of signalling molecules can specify different thresholds of gene activity in development. A gradient of Decapentaplegic (Dpp) activity subdivides the dorsal ectoderm of the Drosophila embryo into amnioserosa and dorsal epidermis. The proteins Short gastrulation (Sog) and Tolloid (Tld) are required to shape this gradient. Sog has been proposed to form an inhibitory complex with either Dpp or the related ligand Screw, and is subsequently processed by the protease Tld. Paradoxically, Sog appears to be required for amnioserosa formation, which is specified by peak Dpp signalling activity. Here we show that the misexpression of sog using the even-skipped stripe-2 enhancer redistributes Dpp signalling in a mutant background in which dpp is expressed throughout the embryo. Dpp activity is diminished near the Sog stripe and peak Dpp signalling is detected far from this stripe. However, a tethered form of Sog suppresses local Dpp activity without augmenting Dpp activity at a distance, indicating that diffusion of Sog may be required for enhanced Dpp activity and consequent amnioserosa formation. The long-distance stimulation of Dpp activity by Sog requires Tld, whereas Sog-mediated inhibition of Dpp does not. The heterologous Dpp inhibitor Noggin inhibits Dpp signalling but fails to augment Dpp activity. These results suggest an unusual strategy for generating a gradient threshold of growth-factor activity, whereby Sog and its protease specify peak Dpp signalling far from a localized source of Sog.

  9. Octopamine-like immunoreactivity in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion of two parasitic wasps, Cotesia glomerata and Cotesia rubecula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.K.; Zee, van der B.; Smid, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Two closely related parasitoid wasp species, Cotesia glomerata L. and C. rubecula Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), differ in their display of associative learning and memory during host searching. As octopamine is involved in learning and memory in insects we investigated octopaminergic pathways

  10. Processing of the Drosophila Sog protein creates a novel BMP inhibitory activity.

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    Yu, K; Srinivasan, S; Shimmi, O; Biehs, B; Rashka, K E; Kimelman, D; O'Connor, M B; Bier, E

    2000-05-01

    Structurally unrelated neural inducers in vertebrate and invertebrate embryos have been proposed to function by binding to BMP4 or Dpp, respectively, and preventing these homologous signals from activating their receptor(s). In this study, we investigate the functions of various forms of the Drosophila Sog protein using the discriminating assay of Drosophila wing development. We find that misexpression of Drosophila Sog, or its vertebrate counterpart Chordin, generates a very limited vein-loss phenotype. This sog misexpression phenotype is very similar to that of viable mutants of glass-bottom boat (gbb), which encodes a BMP family member. Consistent with Sog selectively interfering with Gbb signaling, Sog can block the effect of misexpressing Gbb, but not Dpp in the wing. In contrast to the limited BMP inhibitory activity of Sog, we have identified carboxy-truncated forms of Sog, referred to as Supersog, which when misexpressed cause a broad range of dpp(-) mutant phenotypes. In line with its phenotypic effects, Supersog can block the effects of both misexpressing Dpp and Gbb in the wing. Vertebrate Noggin, on the other hand, acts as a general inhibitor of Dpp signaling, which can interfere with the effect of overexpressing Dpp, but not Gbb. We present evidence that Sog processing occurs in vivo and is biologically relevant. Overexpression of intact Sog in embryos and adult wing primordia leads to the developmentally regulated processing of Sog. This in vivo processing of Sog can be duplicated in vitro by treating Sog with a combination of the metalloprotease Tolloid (Tld) plus Twisted Gastrulation (Tsg), another extracellular factor involved in Dpp signaling. In accord with this result, coexpression of intact Sog and Tsg in developing wings generates a phenotype very similar to that of Supersog. Finally, we provide evidence that tsg functions in the embryo to generate a Supersog-like activity, since Supersog can partially rescue tsg(-) mutants. Consistent with

  11. dHIP14-dependent palmitoylation promotes secretion of the BMP antagonist Sog

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    Kang, Kyung-Hwa; Bier, Ethan

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of diverse signaling systems has revealed that one important level of control is regulation of membrane trafficking of ligands and receptors. The activities of some ligands are also regulated by whether they are membrane bound or secreted. In Drosophila, several morphogenetic signals that play critical roles in development have been found to be subject to such regulation. For example, activity of the Hedgehog (Hh) is regulated by Raspberry, which palmitoylates Hh. Similarly, the palmitoylases Porcupine and Raspberry increase the activities of Wingless (Wg) and the EGF-ligand Spitz (Spi) respectively. In contrast to its vertebrate homologues, which have typical N-terminal signal sequences, the precursor form of Drosophila Hh contains an internal type-II secretory signal motif. The Short Gastrulation (Sog) protein is another secreted Drosophila protein that contains a type-II signal and differs from its vertebrate ortholog Chordin which contains a standard signal peptide. In this study, we examine the regulation of Sog secretion and regulation by dHIP14, the ortholog of a mammalian palmitoylase first identified as Huntington Interacting Protein (HIP). We show that dHIP14 binds to Sog and that Sog is palmitoylated. In S2 cells, dHIP14 promotes secretion of Sog as well as stabilizing a membrane associated form of Sog. We examined the requirement for candidate Cysteine residues in the N-terminal predicted cytoplasmic domain of Sog and find that Cys27, one of two adjacent Cysteines (Cys27,28), is essential for the full activity of dHIP14 and its effect on Sog. Finally, we find that dHIP14 promotes the activity of Sog in vivo. These studies highlight the growing importance of lipid modification in regulating signaling at the level of ligand production and localization. PMID:20599894

  12. dHIP14-dependent palmitoylation promotes secretion of the BMP antagonist Sog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Hwa; Bier, Ethan

    2010-10-01

    Analysis of diverse signaling systems has revealed that one important level of control is regulation of membrane trafficking of ligands and receptors. The activities of some ligands are also regulated by whether they are membrane bound or secreted. In Drosophila, several morphogenetic signals that play critical roles in development have been found to be subject to such regulation. For example, activity of the Hedgehog (Hh) is regulated by Raspberry, which palmitoylates Hh. Similarly, the palmitoylases Porcupine and Raspberry increase the activities of Wingless (Wg) and the EGF-ligand Spitz (Spi), respectively. In contrast to its vertebrate homologues, which have typical N-terminal signal sequences, the precursor form of Drosophila Hh contains an internal type-II secretory signal motif. The Short Gastrulation (Sog) protein is another secreted Drosophila protein that contains a type-II signal and differs from its vertebrate ortholog Chordin which contains a standard signal peptide. In this study, we examine the regulation of Sog secretion and regulation by dHIP14, the ortholog of a mammalian palmitoylase first identified as Huntington Interacting Protein (HIP). We show that dHIP14 binds to Sog and that Sog is palmitoylated. In S2 cells, dHIP14 promotes secretion of Sog as well as stabilizing a membrane associated form of Sog. We examined the requirement for candidate cysteine residues in the N-terminal predicted cytoplasmic domain of Sog and find that Cys27, one of two adjacent cysteines (Cys27 and Cys28), is essential for the full activity of dHIP14 and its effect on Sog. Finally, we find that dHIP14 promotes the activity of Sog in vivo. These studies highlight the growing importance of lipid modification in regulating signaling at the level of ligand production and localization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, David B; Schmid, Frederick

    2008-01-18

    The rapid growth of the photovoltaics (PV) industry is threatened by the ongoing shortage of suitable solar grade (SoG) silicon. Until 2004, the PV industry relied on the off spec polysilicon from the electronics industry for feedstock. The rapid growth of PV meant that the demand for SoG silicon predictably surpassed this supply. The long-term prospects for PV are very bright as costs have come down, and efficiencies and economies of scale make PV generated electricity ever more competitive with grid electricity. However, the scalability of the current process for producing poly silicon again threatens the future. A less costly, higher volume production technique is needed to supply the long-term growth of the PV industry, and to reduce costs of PV even further. This long-term need was the motivation behind this SBIR proposal. Upgrading metallurgical grade (MG) silicon would fulfill the need for a low-cost, large-scale production. Past attempts to upgrade MG silicon have foundered/failed/had trouble reducing the low segregation coefficient elements, B, P, and Al. Most other elements in MG silicon can be purified very efficiently by directional solidification. Thus, in the Phase I program, Crystal Systems proposed a variety of techniques to reduce B, P, and Al in MG silicon to produce a low cost commercial technique for upgrading MG silicon. Of the variety of techniques tried, vacuum refining and some slagging and additions turned out to be the most promising. These were pursued in the Phase II study. By vacuum refining, the P was reduced from 14 to 0.22 ppmw and the Al was reduced from 370 ppmw to 0.065 ppmw. This process was scaled to 40 kg scale charges, and the results were expressed in terms of half-life, or time to reduce the impurity concentration in half. Best half-lives were 2 hours, typical were 4 hours. Scaling factors were developed to allow prediction of these results to larger scale melts. The vacuum refining required the development of new crucibles

  14. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of SOGS-RA in the Polish Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Jarczyńska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to adapt the American pathological gambling screening tool /SOGS-RA The South Oaks Gambling Screen - Revised for Adolescent/ by K. Winters, R. Stinchfield and J. Fulkerson (1993 and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Method: The adapted tool was used in research on a randomly selected sample of 2,617 adolescents aged 13-20 years in the 2012/2013 school year. Results: On the SOGS-RA scale, 2.6% of the trial participants achieved a score indicating past year problem gambling before the survey, 4.1% were classified as problem gamblers, whereas 17.3% of adolescents engaged in social gambling that did not pose a problem gambling risk at the time. The SOGS-RA demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.78. Conclusions: The Polish adaptation of the SOGS-RA scale is reliable and accurate, which is why it is worth recommending it for use in further research on Polish adolescents.

  15. Distinct localization of FMRFamide- and bovine pancreatic polypeptide-like material in the brain, retrocerebral complex and suboesophageal ganglion of the cockroach Periplaneta americana L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhaert, P; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; De Loof, A

    1985-01-01

    L. Double immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that the same perikarya and processes were stained by both the BPP and FMRFamide antisera. This was caused by cross-reaction of the BPP and FMRFamide antisera with common antigenic determinants as was shown by a number of solid-phase absorptions....... Application of a third FMRFamide antiserum, which was especially selected for its inability to react with bovine and avian pancreatic polypeptide, showed that more than half of the structures that were stained with the 'unspecific' BPP and FMRFamide antisera, contained material which was genuinely FMRFamide...

  16. Role of sog polypeptides specified by plasmid ColIb-P9 and their transfer between conjugating bacteria.

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    Merryweather, A; Rees, C E; Smith, N M; Wilkins, B M

    1986-11-01

    The sog gene of the conjugative plasmid ColIb-P9 specifies two sequence-related polypeptides with the N-terminal third of the larger product having DNA primase activity. To resolve the function of the C-terminal portion of the polypeptides, we constructed a ColIb mutant containing a Tn5 insertion in the 3' region of sog. The mutation truncated sog gene products without inactivating DNA primase and rendered the plasmid defective in conjugation. Tests for the presence of conjugative pili, for complementation by a sog+ recombinant, and for mobilization of small origin of transfer (oriT) recombinant plasmids indicated that the mutant ColIb allows conjugative aggregation of cells but it is defective in DNA transfer at some stage subsequent to its initiation at oriT. Physical evidence is given that normal sog polypeptides are among a group of proteins transferred selectively from the donor to the recipient cell by a conjugation-specific process. No transfer of the mutant sog proteins was detected. It is proposed that the C-terminal region of sog polypeptides facilitates transfer of single-stranded ColIb DNA between conjugating cells following initiation of transfer at the oriT site, and that in this role the proteins are transmitted to the recipient cell.

  17. Characterization of silanization and antibody immobilization on spin-on glass (SOG) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagare, Gajanan D. [School of Biosciences and Bio-Engineering, IIT Bombay (India); Mukherji, S. [School of Biosciences and Bio-Engineering, IIT Bombay (India)], E-mail: mukherji@iitb.ac.in

    2009-01-01

    Most embedded optical waveguide biosensors require low dielectric optical material. The prerequisites for such applications include the selection of an appropriate material and effective bio-functionalization. Spin-on glass (SOG) is one of the preferred polymers that can be easily deposited. Further, the chemical properties of the polymer make it amenable for bio-functionalization. This paper reports a detailed study of a protocol for immobilization of antibodies on SOG for possible immunobiosensor applications. The effect of silanization at different pH values on the number of free and usable amine sites was quantified by fluorimetry. Contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, AFM, and fluorescence microscopy was used for assessing the surface properties at various stages of preparation, functionalization and biomolecule immobilization.

  18. Selective Photocatalytic Disinfection by Coupling StrepMiniSog to the Antibody Catalyzed Water Oxidation Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Wurtzler

    Full Text Available For several decades reactive oxygen species have been applied to water quality engineering and efficient disinfection strategies; however, these methods are limited by disinfection byproduct and catalyst-derived toxicity concerns which could be improved by selectively targeting contaminants of interest. Here we present a targeted photocatalytic system based on the fusion protein StrepMiniSOG that uses light within the visible spectrum to produce reactive oxygen species at a greater efficiency than current photosensitizers, allowing for shorter irradiation times from a fully biodegradable photocatalyst. The StrepMiniSOG photodisinfection system is unable to cross cell membranes and like other consumed proteins, can be degraded by endogenous digestive enzymes in the human gut, thereby reducing the consumption risks typically associated with other disinfection agents. We demonstrate specific, multi-log removal of Listeria monocytogenes from a mixed population of bacteria, establishing the StrepMiniSOG disinfection system as a valuable tool for targeted pathogen removal, while maintaining existing microbial biodiversity.

  19. Localization of connexins in neurons and glia cells of the Helix aspersa suboesophageal brain ganglia by immunocytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, M J; Pes, N; Pérez-Bruzón, R N; Aisa, J; Raso, M; Junquera, C; Lahoz, J M; Maestú, C; Martínez-Ciriano, C; Pérez-Castejón, C; Vera-Gil, A; Del Moral, A

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the distribution of cells expressing connexin 26 (Cx26) in the suboesophageal visceral, left and right parietal and left and right pleural ganglia of the snail Helix aspersa by immunocytochemistry. Altogether we have found approximately 452 immunoreactive neurons which represent the 4.7% of the total neurons counted. The stained large neurons (measured diameter 55-140 microm) occurred mostly on the peripheral surface of the ganglia while the small immunostained cells (5-25 microm diameter) were observed in groups near the neuropil. The number of large neurons giving positive Cx26-like immunostaining was small in comparison with that for medium (30-50 microm diameter) and small sized cells. The expression of Cx26 was also observed in the processes of glia cells localized among neurons somata and in the neuropil showing that the antiserum recognized epitopes in both protoplasmic and fibrous glia cells of Helix aspersa. The neuropils of all ganglia showed fibers densely immunostained. While we have observed a good specificity for Cx26-antiserum in neurons, a lack of reaction for Cx43 antiserum was observed in neurons and glia cells. The reaction for enolase antiserum in neurons was light and non-specific and a lack of reaction in glia cells and processes for GFAP antiserum was observed. Although the percentage of positive neurons for Cx26 antiserum was low is suggested that in normal physiological conditions or under stimulation the expression of connexin could be increased. The observed results can be considered of interest in the interpretation of Helix aspersa elemental two neuron networks synchronizing activity, observed under applied extremely low frequency magnetic fields.

  20. Laterally-actuated inside-driven RF MEMS switches fabricated by a SOG process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Feng; Han, Lei; Tang, Jie-Ying; Huang, Qing-An

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents two RF MEMS switches, both of them are laterally-actuated and inside-driven. One is the push-pull type switch controlled by only one actuation signal, and the other is the low voltage three-state switch actuated by rhombic structures. To fabricate RF MEMS switches, the silicon on glass (SOG) based microwave transmission line is redesigned, and an electroplated gold layer is added to the standard SOG process flow. The measured insertion loss and isolation of the push-pull type switch at 6 GHz are -0.28 dB and -38.4 dB, respectively, and its measured pull-in voltage is 57 V. The measured insertion loss and isolation of the low voltage three-state switch at 6 GHz are -0.77 dB and -53 dB, respectively, and the measured pull-in voltage is only 15 V. Preliminary lifetime tests show the lifetimes of both switches exceed the magnitude of 107 cycles.

  1. Treatment of ganglion cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Matthew; Fung, B; Lung, C P

    2013-01-01

    Ganglion cysts are soft tissue swellings occurring most commonly in the hand or wrist. Apart from swelling, most cysts are asymptomatic. Other symptoms include pain, weakness, or paraesthesia. The two main concerns patients have are the cosmetic appearance of the cysts and the fear of future malignant growth. It has been shown that 58% of cysts will resolve spontaneously over time. Treatment can be either conservative or through surgical excision. This review concluded that nonsurgical treatment is largely ineffective in treating ganglion cysts. However, it advised to patients who do not surgical treatment but would like symptomatic relief. Compared to surgery, which has a lower recurrence rate but have a higher complication rate with longer recovery period. It has been shown that surgical interventions do not provide better symptomatic relief compared to conservative treatment. If symptomatic relief is the patient's primary concern, a conservative approach is preferred, whilst surgical intervention will decrease the likelihood of recurrence.

  2. A map of taste neuron projections in the Drosophila CNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    KWON, JAE YOUNG; DAHANUKAR, ANUPAMA; WEISS, LINNEA A; CARLSON, JOHN R

    2014-01-01

    We provide a map of the projections of taste neurons in the CNS of Drosophila. Using a collection of 67 GAL4 drivers representing the entire repertoire of Gr taste receptors, we systematically map the projections of neurons expressing these drivers in the thoracico-abdominal ganglion and the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG). We define 9 categories of projections in the thoracico-abdominal ganglia and 10 categories in the SOG. The projection patterns are modular, and can be interpreted as combinations of discrete pattern elements. The elements can be interpreted in terms of the taste organ from which the projections originate, the structures from which they originate, and the quality of taste information that they represent. The extensive diversity in projection patterns provides an anatomical basis for functional diversity in responses elicited by different taste stimuli. PMID:25116611

  3. Tibial periosteal ganglion cyst: The ganglion in disguise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghunath, Anjuna; Mittal, Mahesh K; Khanna, Geetika; Anil, V

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue ganglions are commonly encountered cystic lesions around the wrist presumed to arise from myxomatous degeneration of periarticular connective tissue. Lesions with similar pathology in subchondral location close to joints, and often simulating a geode, is the less common entity called intraosseous ganglion. Rarer still is a lesion produced by mucoid degeneration and cyst formation of the periostium of long bones, rightly called the periosteal ganglion. They are mostly found in the lower extremities at the region of pes anserinus, typically limited to the periosteum and outer cortex without any intramedullary component. We report the case of a 62 year-old male who presented with a tender swelling on the mid shaft of the left tibia, which radiologically suggested a juxtacortical lesion extending to the soft tissue or a soft tissue neoplasm eroding the bony cortex of tibia. It was later diagnosed definitively as a periosteal ganglion in an atypical location, on further radiologic work-up and histopathological correlation. PMID:28515597

  4. Sphenopalatine ganglion neuromodulation in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sabrina; Schoenen, Jean; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    has gained increasing interest within recent years, as current treatment strategies often fail to provide adequate relief from this debilitating headache. Common migraine symptoms include lacrimation, nasal congestion, and conjunctival injection, all parasympathetic manifestations. In addition......, studies have suggested that parasympathetic activity may also contribute to the pain of migraineurs. The SPG is the largest extracranial parasympathetic ganglion of the head, innervating the meninges, lacrimal gland, nasal mucosa, and conjunctiva, all structures involved in migraine with cephalic...

  5. Italian Adolescent Gambling Behaviour: Psychometric Evaluation of the South Oaks Gambling Screen: Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA) among a sample of Italian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasante, Emanuela; Gori, Mercedes; Bastiani, Luca; Scalese, Marco; Siciliano, Valeria; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2014-12-01

    Since no Italian validated instrument focuses specifically on the measurement of pathological gambling in very young people, with this study, we aim to adapt an international instrument (SOGS-RA) and assess its psychometric properties in a sample (n = 14.910) of young Italian students aged between 15 and 19 years. Cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument was performed through translation, synthesis of translation, back-translation, expert committee review, and pre-testing. The kappa statistic for test-retest concordance ranged from 0.53 to 0.80. Internal validity was assessed by the MCA that identified one principal component with eigenvalue equal to 3,875: the Divgi index and very simple structure analysis also pointed out one common factor, so uni-dimensionality of the SOGS-RA was accepted. Moreover the SOGS-RA was found to have acceptable internal consistency (α = 0.780). Cronbach's alpha was also assessed separately among males and females (respectively 0.786 and 0.707). The SOGS-RA was assessed in relation to gambling frequency, alcohol and drug use: Chi squared test revealed a strong association both for males and females with gambling frequency (p value ≤ 0.0001), frequent use of illicit drugs (for each drug p value ≤ 0.0001) and having had 3 or more occasions of binge drinking in the last month (p value ≤ 0.0001). At the end we can say that, the results of our study suggest that the SOGS-RA screen may be useful to assess at-risk or problem gambling for both genders in comprehensive youth surveys.

  6. Ganglion Cyst of the Wrist and Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a weed which will grow back if the root is not removed. In many cases, the ganglion cyst returns a er an aspiration procedure. Aspiration procedures ... is called an excision. Surgery involves removing the cyst as well as part of the ... which is considered the root of the ganglion. Even a er excision, there ...

  7. Genetically targeted 3D visualisation of Drosophila neurons under Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microscopy using miniSOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Julian; Browning, Alyssa; Lechner, Lorenz; Terada, Masako; Howard, Gillian; Jefferis, Gregory S X E

    2016-12-13

    Large dimension, high-resolution imaging is important for neural circuit visualisation as neurons have both long- and short-range patterns: from axons and dendrites to the numerous synapses at terminal endings. Electron Microscopy (EM) is the favoured approach for synaptic resolution imaging but how such structures can be segmented from high-density images within large volume datasets remains challenging. Fluorescent probes are widely used to localise synapses, identify cell-types and in tracing studies. The equivalent EM approach would benefit visualising such labelled structures from within sub-cellular, cellular, tissue and neuroanatomical contexts. Here we developed genetically-encoded, electron-dense markers using miniSOG. We demonstrate their ability in 1) labelling cellular sub-compartments of genetically-targeted neurons, 2) generating contrast under different EM modalities, and 3) segmenting labelled structures from EM volumes using computer-assisted strategies. We also tested non-destructive X-ray imaging on whole Drosophila brains to evaluate contrast staining. This enabled us to target specific regions for EM volume acquisition.

  8. Substance and Sense: Objects of Power in the Life, Writings, and Legacy of the Tibetan Ritual Master Sog bzlog pa Blo gros rgyal mtshan

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, James Duncan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is a reflection upon objects of power and their roles in the lives of people through the lens of a single case example: power objects as they appear throughout the narrative, philosophical, and ritual writings of the Tibetan Buddhist ritual specialist Sog bzlog pa Blo gros rgyal mtshan (1552-1624) and his milieu. This study explores their discourse on power objects specifically for what it reveals about how human interactions with certain kinds of objects encourage the flow of po...

  9. The suitability of the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA) as a screening tool: IRT-based evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesi, Francesca; Donati, Maria Anna; Galli, Silvia; Primi, Caterina

    2013-03-01

    The South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA) is one of the most widely used measures of adolescent gambling. We aimed to provide evidence of its suitability as a screening tool applying item response theory (IRT). The scale was administered to 981 adolescents (64% males; mean age = 16.57 years, SD = 1.63 years) attending high school. Analyses were carried out with a sample of 871 respondents, that is, adolescents who have gambled at least once during the previous year. Once the prerequisite of unidimensionality was confirmed through confirmatory factor analysis, unidimensional IRT analyses were performed. The 2-parameter logistic model was used in order to estimate item parameters (severity and discrimination) and the test information function. Results showed that item severity ranged from medium to high, and most of the items showed large discrimination parameters, indicating that the scale accurately measures medium to high levels of problem gambling. These regions of the trait were associated with the greatest amount of information, indicating that the SOGS-RA provides a reliable measure for identifying both problem gamblers and adolescents at risk of developing maladaptive behaviors deriving from gambling. The IRT-based evidence supports the suitability of the SOGS-RA as a screening tool in adolescent populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Production of solar grade (SoG) silicon by refining liquid metallurgical grade (MG) silicon: Annual Report: June 10 1998--October 19, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, C.P.; Joyce, D.B.; Schmid, F.

    1999-12-13

    Pyro-metallurgical refining techniques are being developed for use with molten metallurgical-grade (MG) silicon so that directionally solidified refined MG silicon can be used as solar-grade (SoG) silicon feedstock for photovoltaic applications. The most problematic impurity elements are B and P because of their high segregation coefficients. Refining processes such as evacuation, formation of impurity complexes, oxidation of impurities, and slagging have been effective in removal of impurities from MG silicon. Charge sizes have been scaled up to 60 kg. Impurity analysis of 60-kg charges after refining and directional solidification has shown reduction of most impurities to <1 ppma and B and P to the 10-ppma level. It has been demonstrated that B and P, as well as other impurities, can be reduced from MG silicon. Further reduction of impurities will be necessary for use as SoG silicon. The procedures developed are simple and scaleable to larger charge sizes and carried out in a foundry or MG silicon production plant. Therefore, SoG silicon production using these procedures should be at low cost.

  11. Dry Arthroscopic Excision of Dorsal Wrist Ganglion

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Jason; Zuhlke, Todd; Eizember, Shane; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Ganglions are common soft tissue masses of the hand. High recurrence rates are associated with nonsurgical treatment; thus, excision is often indicated. Arthroscopic excision and open excision have similar recurrence rates; however, the latter is associated with prolonged healing time and increased scarring. Recently, dry wrist arthroscopic techniques have been used. This technique allows easier confirmation of complete ganglion removal, easier conversion to open surgery, earlier return of mo...

  12. Post-traumatic extensive knee ganglion cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Mahvash

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of a posttraumatic extensive ganglion cyst of the anterolateral thigh with connection to the knee joint is presented. A 54- year-old man presented a palpable mass in the anterolateral region of his right thigh with a 15 months existing sense of fullness and tightness. He had an accident with his bicycle 21 months ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed showing a cyst inside the quadriceps femoris muscle between vastus lateralis and intermedius with connection to recessus suprapatellaris and knee joint. In addition MRI detected a traumatic lesion in the quadriceps femoris tendon in the near of the knee joint. The ganglion cyst was 18 cm long and was excised completely. Intraope - ratively, the knee joint connection was confirmed and excised as well. The ganglion cyst was filled with a gelatinous and viscous fluid.

  13. Prevalence estimates of adolescent gambling: a comparison of the SOGS-RA, DSM-IV-J, and the GA 20 questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevensky, J L; Gupta, R

    2000-01-01

    Concerns over the rising prevalence of adolescent gambling problems have become more commonplace. A recent meta analysis of studies examining adolescent prevalence rates by Shaffer and Hall (1996) has suggested that between 77-83% of adolescents are engaging in some form of gambling behavior with between 9.9% and 14.2% of youth remaining at risk for a serious gambling problem. Their results further suggest that between 4.4% and 7.4% of adolescents exhibit serious adverse gambling related problems and/or pathological gambling behavior. Comparisons of studies are often difficult due to the use of alternative measures, differing classification schemes, and nomenclature. The present study examined the gambling behaviors of 980 adolescents who were administered three screening measures used with adolescents; the SOGS-RA, DSM-IV-J, and the GA 20 Questions. The DSM-IV-J was found to be the most conservative measure identifying 3.4% of the population as problem/pathological gamblers while the SOGS-GA identified 5.3% and the GA 20 Questions identified 6% of youth as experiencing serious gambling problems. The degree of concordance amongst the measures, gender differences, and classification systems are discussed.

  14. Intratendinous Ganglion of the Extensor Tendon of the Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Poong-Taek; Chang, Hyo-Won

    2015-01-01

    Ganglion is a common benign lesion that usually arises adjacent to the joints or tendons of the hand. However, an intratendinous ganglion is a rare condition. We report two cases of intratendinous ganglion of the extensor tendon of the hand which were treated with excision.

  15. Piriformis ganglion: An uncommon cause of sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Jeong, H J; Shin, H K; Park, S J; Lee, J H; Kim, E

    2016-04-01

    Sciatica can occur due to a spinal lesion, intrapelvic tumor, diabetic neuropathy, and rarely piriformis syndrome. The causes of piriformis syndrome vary by a space-occupying lesion. A ganglionic cyst can occur in various lesions in the body but seldom around the hip joint. In addition, sciatica due to a ganglionic cyst around the hip joint has been reported in one patient in Korea who underwent surgical treatment. We experienced two cases of sciatica from a piriformis ganglionic cyst and we report the clinical characterics and progress after non-operative treatment by ultrasonography-guided aspiration. The two cases were diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and were treated by ultrasonography-guided aspiration. We followed the patients for more than 6months. The symptoms of piriformis syndrome from the ganglion improved following aspiration and this conservative treatment is a treatment method that can be used without extensive incision or cyst excision. Level IV historical case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Retinal ganglion cell topography in elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzano, A; Collin, S P

    2000-04-01

    Retinal wholemounts are used to examine the topographic distribution of retinal cells within the ganglion cell layer in a range of elasmobranchs from different depths. The retina is examined for regional specializations for acute vision in six species of selachians, Galeocerdo cuvieri, Hemiscyllium ocellatum, Scyliorhinus canicula, Galeus melastomus, Etmopterus spinax, Isistius brasiliensis, one species of batoid, Raja bigelowi and one species of chimaera, Hydrolagus mirabilis. These species represent a range of lifestyles including pelagic, mesopelagic and benthic habitats, living from shallow water to the sea bottom at a depth of more than 3000 m. The topography of cells within the ganglion cell layer is non-uniform and changes markedly across the retina. Most species possess an increased density of cells across the horizontal (dorsal) meridian or visual streak, with a density range of 500 to 2,500 cells per mm(2) with one or more regional increases in density lying within this specialized horizontal area. It is proposed that the higher spatial resolving power provided by the horizontal streak in these species mediates panoramic vision in the lower frontal visual field. Only I. brasiliensis possesses a concentric arrangement of retinal iso-density contours in temporal retina or an area centralis, thereby increasing spatial resolving power in a more specialized part of the visual field, an adaptation for its unusual feeding behavior. In Nissl-stained material, amacrine and ganglion cell populations could be distinguished on the criteria of soma size, soma shape and nuclear staining. Quantitative analyses show that the proportion of amacrine cells lying within the ganglion cell layer is non-uniform and ranges between 0.4 and 12.3% in specialized retinal areas and between 8.2 and 48.1% in the peripheral non-specialized regions. Analyses of soma area of the total population of cells in the ganglion cell layer also show that the pelagic species possess significantly

  17. Neurohormones as putative circadian clock output signals in the central nervous system of two cricket species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehadová, H; Shao, Q-M; Sehnal, F; Takeda, M

    2007-04-01

    Antisera to the neuropeptides corazonin (Crz) and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and to the diapause hormone (DH) react with small sets of neurones in the cephalic ganglia of the crickets Dianemobius nigrofasciatus and Allonemobius allardi. The distribution of their immunoreactivities is similar in the two species and overlaps with the locations of presumed circadian clock components in the optic lobes, protocerebrum, tritocerebrum, suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) and frontal ganglion. D. nigrofasciatus contains two Crz-immunoreactive (Crz-ir) cells in each optic lobe, six cell groups in the protocerebrum, four in the tritocerebrum, and one in SOG, whereas A. allardi harbours only five Crz-ir groups in the protocerebrum and four in the tritocerebrum. CCAP immunoreactivity occurs in both species in four protocerebrum cell clusters, four tritocerebrum cell clusters, four SOG cell clusters, one frontal ganglion cell cluster, and two optic lobe cell clusters; D. nigrofasciatus possesses two additional cells with unique links to the lamina in the optic lobe. DH-related antigens are present in four cell clusters in the optic lobe, six (D. nigrofasciatus) or eight (A. allardi) in the protocerebrum, four in the tritocerebrum, and three (A. allardi) or five (D. nigrofasciatus) in the SOG. Some of the detected cells also react with antibody to the clock protein Period (PER) or lie close to PER-ir cells. Crickets reared at two different photoperiods do not differ in the distribution and intensity of immunoreactivities. No changes have been detected during the course of diurnal light/dark cycles, possibly because the antisera react with persistent prohormones, whereas circadian fluctuations may occur at the level of their processing or of hormone release. The projection of immunoreactive fibres to several brain regions, the stomatogastric nervous system and the neurohaemal organs indicates multiple functions of the respective hormones.

  18. Retinal ganglion cell dendritic atrophy in DBA/2J glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete A Williams

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a complex disease affecting an estimated 70 million people worldwide, characterised by the progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and accompanying visual field loss. The common site of damage to retinal ganglion cells is thought to be at the optic nerve head, however evidence from other optic neuropathies and neurodegenerative disorders suggests that dendritic structures undergo a prolonged period of atrophy that may accompany or even precede soma loss and neuronal cell death. Using the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma this investigation aims to elucidate the impact of increasing intraocular pressure on retinal ganglion cell dendrites using DBA/2J mice that express YFP throughout the retinal ganglion cells driven by Thy1 (DBA/2J.Thy1(YFP and DiOlistically labelled retinal ganglion cells in DBA/2J mice. Here we show retinal ganglion cell dendritic degeneration in DiOlistically labelled DBA/2J retinal ganglion cells but not in the DBA/2J.Thy1(YFP retinal ganglion cells suggesting that a potential downregulation of Thy1 allows only 'healthy' retinal ganglion cells to express YFP. These data may highlight alternative pathways to retinal ganglion cell loss in DBA/2J glaucoma.

  19. Learning LM Specificity for Ganglion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Unsupervised learning models have been proposed based on experience (Ahumada and Mulligan, 1990;Wachtler, Doi, Lee and Sejnowski, 2007) that allow the cortex to develop units with LM specific color opponent receptive fields like the blob cells reported by Hubel and Wiesel on the basis of visual experience. These models used ganglion cells with LM indiscriminate wiring as inputs to the learning mechanism, which was presumed to occur at the cortical level.

  20. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA and tyramine (TA, as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes.

  1. Intraneural ganglion in superficial radial nerve mimics de quervain tenosynovitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Justin M; Potter, Michael Q; Sinclair, Micah; Hutchinson, Douglas T

    2014-11-01

    Background Intraneural ganglions in peripheral nerves of the upper extremity are extremely rare and poorly understood. Case Description We report a patient with symptoms consistent with de Quervain tenosynovitis who was found to have an intraneural ganglion in the superficial radial nerve. The ganglion did not communicate with the wrist joint. We removed the intraneural ganglion, and the patient's symptoms resolved. At her 6-month postoperative follow-up, she remained asymptomatic.  There is only one case report of intraneural ganglion in the superficial radial nerve. In that case, the patient had symptoms consistent with nerve irritation, including radiating pain and paresthesias. In contrast to that previous report, the patient in the current case had only localized pain, no paresthesias, and a physical exam consistent with de Quervain tenosynovitis. Clinical Relevance This case demonstrates that an intraneural ganglion cyst can mimic the symptoms of de Quervain tenosynovitis without the more usual presentation of painful paresthesias.

  2. Sensory Neurons in the Human Geniculate Ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tadasu; Yamaguma, Yu; Sasaki, Yu; Kanda, Noriyuki; Sasahara, Nobuyuki; Kokubun, Souichi; Yajima, Takehiro; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The geniculate ganglion (GG) contains visceral and somatic sensory neurons of the facial nerve. In this study, the number and cell size of sensory neurons in the human GG were investigated. The estimated number of GG neurons ranged from 1,580 to 2,561 (mean ± SD = 1,960 ± 364.6). The cell size of GG neurons ranged from 393.0 to 2,485.4 μm2 (mean ± SD = 1,067.4 ± 99.5 μm2). Sensory neurons in the GG were significantly smaller in size than those in the dorsal root (range = 326.6-5343.4 μm2, mean ± SD = 1,683.2 ± 203.8 μm2) or trigeminal ganglia (range = 349.6-4,889.28 μm2, mean ± SD = 1,529.0 ± 198.48 μm2). Sensory neurons had similar cell body sizes in the GG and nodose ganglion (range = 357.2-3,488.33 μm2, mean ± SD = 1,160.4 ± 156.61 μm2). These findings suggest that viscerosensory neurons have smaller cell bodies than somatosensory neurons. In addition, immunohistochemistry for several neurochemical substances was performed on the human GG. In the ganglion, sensory neurons were mostly immunoreactive for secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine-like 1 (94.3%). One third of GG neurons showed vesicular glutamate transporter 2 immunoreactivity (31.3%). Only 7.3% of GG neurons were immunoreactive for transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1. Sensory neurons in the human GG may respond to gustatory, nociceptive, and/or mechanoreceptive stimuli from tongues, soft palates, and external auditory canals. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. A ganglionic model of "learned helplessness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, E M; Carlson, A D; Harris, J T

    1997-01-01

    The phenomenon known as "learned helplessness" (LH) is seen broadly across the animal kingdom. Some of the basic characteristics of this behavior are: failure to escape shock when it is possible to do so following non-escapable shock; reversion to non-escape behavior even after successful escape; if the animal is given escape/avoidance training prior to being given inescapable shocks, the latter will not interfere with its ability to later show normal escape/avoidance behavior (generally described as an immunization effect); following inescapable shock training the animals often become "passive and still" when confronted with an inescapable shock. These behaviors are seen in intact mammals, lower vertebrates, and invertebrates. In fact, the basic characteristics are even seen in a spinal rat and, with the exception of one characteristic not yet examined, in an isolated thoracic ganglion of an insect. The brain is evidently not essential either in mammals or in invertebrates for demonstrating this behavior. Not only can an insect ganglion show the behavioral characteristics of LH, but the neural information underlying the phenomenon of LH can be shown to transfer from one ganglion innervating one pair of legs to another ganglion innervating a different pair of legs. Thus, how CNS information underlying LH is coded and transferred from one site to another within the CNS can be examined in such a system. The LH model has provided valuable insights into the physiology of depression. This model suggests that human depression is caused by one's lack of control over traumatic events. It is supported by a number of parallels between depression and LH behavior. Tricyclic antidepressants, MAO inhibitors, and ECT, which are effective in treating depression, also can prevent and reverse LH in mammals. It would be important to find out if they are also effective in invertebrate models. The fact that the characteristics of the behavior called LH are seen in invertebrates such as

  4. Sciatica and claudication caused by ganglion cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wen, Xiaoyu; Gong, Yubao; Yang, Chen

    2013-12-15

    Case report. We report a rare case that a ganglion cyst compressed the sciatic nerve and caused sciatica and claudication in a 51-year-old male. Sciatica and claudication commonly occurs in spinal stenosis. To our knowledge, only 4 cases have been reported on sciatica resulting from posterior ganglion cyst of hip. A 51-year-old male had a 2-month history of radiating pain on his right leg. He could only walk 20 to 30 m before stopping and standing to rest for 1 to 3 minutes. Interestingly, he was able to walk longer distances (about 200 m) when walking slowly in small steps, without any rest. He had been treated as a case of lumbar disc herniation, but conservative treatment was ineffective. On buttock examination, a round, hard, and fixative mass was palpated at the exit of the sciatic nerve. MR imaging of hip revealed a multilocular cystic mass located on the posterior aspect of the superior gemellus and obturator internus, compressing the sciatic nerve. On operation, we found that the cyst extended to the superior gemellus and the obturator internus, positioned right at the outlet of the sciatic nerve. At 18 months of follow-up, the patient continued to be symptom free. He returned to comprehensive physical activity with no limitations. For an extraspinal source, a direct compression on the sciatic nerve also resulted in sciatica and claudication. A meticulous physical examination is very important for the differential diagnosis of extraspinal sciatica from spinal sciatica.

  5. Anterior cruciate ligament ganglion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pedrinelli

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: A ganglion is a cystic formation close to joints or tendinous sheaths, frequently found in the wrist, foot or knee. Intra-articular ganglia of the knee are rare, and most of them are located in the anterior cruciate ligament. The clinical picture for these ganglia comprises pain and movement restrictions in the knee, causing significant impairment to the patient. Symptoms are non-specific, and anterior cruciate ligament ganglia are usually diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging or arthroscopy. Not all ganglia diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging need to undergo surgical treatment: only those that cause clinical signs and symptoms do. Surgical results are considered good or excellent in the vast majority of cases. CASE REPORT: A 29-year-old male presented with pain in the left knee during a marathon race. Physical examination revealed limitation in the maximum range of knee extension and pain in the posterior aspect of the left knee. Radiographs of the left knee were normal, but magnetic resonance imaging revealed a multi-lobed cystic structure adjacent to the anterior cruciate ligament, which resembled a ganglion cyst. The mass was removed through arthroscopy, and pathological examination revealed a synovial cyst. Patient recovery was excellent, and he resumed his usual training routine five months later.

  6. Diagnostic imaging of tibial periosteal ganglion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valls, R. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Consorci Hospitalari del Parc Tauli, Sabadell (Spain); Melloni, P. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Consorci Hospitalari del Parc Tauli, Sabadell (Spain); Darnell, A. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Consorci Hospitalari del Parc Tauli, Sabadell (Spain); Munoz, J. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Consorci Hospitalari del Parc Tauli, Sabadell (Spain); Canalies, J. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Consorci Hospitalari del Parc Tauli, Sabadell (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    A case of a soft tissue tumor situated in the anterior surface of the proximal end of the tibia in an adult patient is demonstrated by conventional radiographs, CT, and MRI. The lesion was well defined with respect to the adjacent soft tissue. The CT exam showed a soft tissue mass with external cortical erosion and thick spicules by periosteal reaction. On T1-weighted images the mass was homogeneous and of low signal intensity, whereas on T2-weighted images it showed a high signal intensity, with some septa in the mass. The differential considerations include a periosteal chondroma, a lipoma, a subperiosteal hematoma, an inflammatory process, a giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, and a parosteal osteosarcoma. The CT and MR features of these entities are reviewed as an aid in differential diagnosis of the periosteal ganglion. (orig.). With 4 figs.

  7. Stellate ganglion blockade for analgesia following upper limb surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, J G

    2012-01-31

    We report the successful use of a stellate ganglion block as part of a multi-modal postoperative analgesic regimen. Four patients scheduled for orthopaedic surgery following upper limb trauma underwent blockade of the stellate ganglion pre-operatively under ultrasound guidance. Patients reported excellent postoperative analgesia, with postoperative VAS pain scores between 0 and 2, and consumption of morphine in the first 24 h ranging from 0 to 14 mg. While these are preliminary findings, and must be confirmed in a clinical trial, they highlight the potential for stellate ganglion blockade to provide analgesia following major upper limb surgery.

  8. Ionic channel changes in glaucomatous retinal ganglion cells: multicompartment modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Matias I; Turpin, Andrew; McKendrick, Allison M; Kameneva, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    This research takes a step towards discovering underlying ionic channel changes in the glaucomatous ganglion cells. Glaucoma is characterized by a gradual death of retinal ganglion cells. In this paper, we propose a hypothesis that the ionic channel concentrations change during the progression of glaucoma. We use computer simulation of a multi-compartment morphologically correct model of a mouse retinal ganglion cell to verify our hypothesis. Using published experimental data, we alter the morphology of healthy ganglion cells to replicate glaucomatous cells. Our results suggest that in glaucomatous cell, the sodium channel concentration decreases in the soma by 30% and by 60% in the dendrites, calcium channel concentration decreases by 10% in all compartments, and leak channel concentration increases by 40% in the soma and by 100% in the dendrites.

  9. CT brain demonstration of basal ganglion calcification in adult HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brain barrier has been postulated. Calcification of the basal ganglia in encephalopathic HIV/AIDS children has been relatively well documented. Only two adult HIV cases with basal ganglion calcification (BGC) have been reported in the literature.

  10. Melanopsin retinal ganglion cell loss in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Morgia, Chiara; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Koronyo, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are photoreceptors driving circadian photoentrainment, and circadian dysfunction characterizes Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated mRGCs in AD, hypothesizing their contribution to circadian dysfunction. METHODS: We assessed retinal nerve...

  11. Troxler Fading, Eye Movements, and Retinal Ganglion Cell Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Bachy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present four movies demonstrating the effect of flicker and blur on the magnitude and speed of adaptation for foveal and peripheral vision along the three color axes that isolate retinal ganglion cells projecting to magno, parvo, and konio layers of the LGN. The demonstrations support the eye movement hypothesis for Troxler fading for brightness and color, and demonstrate the effects of flicker and blur on adaptation of each class of retinal ganglion cells.

  12. Troxler Fading, Eye Movements, and Retinal Ganglion Cell Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Bachy; Qasim Zaidi

    2014-01-01

    We present four movies demonstrating the effect of flicker and blur on the magnitude and speed of adaptation for foveal and peripheral vision along the three color axes that isolate retinal ganglion cells projecting to magno, parvo, and konio layers of the LGN. The demonstrations support the eye movement hypothesis for Troxler fading for brightness and color, and demonstrate the effects of flicker and blur on adaptation of each class of retinal ganglion cells.

  13. [Patterns of lipofuscin accumulation in ganglionic nerve cells of superior cervical ganglion in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivković, Vladimir; Stefanović, Natalija; Durović-Filipović, Tatjana; Pavlović, Snezana; Stojanović, Vesna; Bakić, Mirjana; Kundalić, Braca; Pavlović, Miljana

    2008-10-01

    Considering available literature lipofuscin is a classical age pigment of postmitotic cells, and a consistently recognized phenomenon in humans and animals. Lipofuscin accumulation is characteristic for nerve cells that are postmitotic. This research was focused on lipofuscin accumulation in ganglionic cells (GC) (postganglionic sympathetic cell bodies) of superior cervical ganglion in humans during ageing. We analysed 30 ganglions from cadavers ranging from 20 to over 80 years of age. As material the tissue samples were used from the middle portion of the ganglion, which was separated from the surrounding tissue by the method of macrodissection. The tissue samples were routinely fixed in 10% neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin for classical histological analysis, then three consecutive (successive) sections 5 microm thick were made and stained with hematoxylin and eosin method (HE), silver impregnation technique by Masson Fontana and trichrome stain by Florantin. Immersion microscopy was used to analyse patterns of lipofuscin accumulation during ageing making possible to distinguish diffuse type (lipofuscin granules were irregularly distributed and non-confluent), unipolar type (lipofuscin granules were grouped at the end of the cell), bipolar type (lipofuscin granules were concentrated at the two opposite ends of a cell with the nucleus in between at the center of a cell), annular type (lipofuscin granules were in the shape of a complete or incomplete ring around the nucleus) and a cell completely filled with lipofuscin (two subtypes distinguishing, one with visible a nucleus, and the other with invisible one). Even at the age of 20 there were cells with lipofuscin granules accumulated in diffuse way, but in smaller numbers; the GC without lipofuscin were dominant. Growing older, especially above 60 years, all of the above mentioned patterns of lipofuscin accumulation were present with the evident increase in cells completely filled with lipofuscin, but

  14. MR Imaging of the Superior Cervical Ganglion and Inferior Ganglion of the Vagus Nerve: Structures That Can Mimic Pathologic Retropharyngeal Lymph Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, H; Mukai, H; Hattori, S; Yamada, K; Anzai, Y; Uno, T

    2017-11-09

    The superior cervical ganglion and inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve can mimic pathologic retropharyngeal lymph nodes. We studied the cross-sectional anatomy of the superior cervical ganglion and inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve to evaluate how they can be differentiated from the retropharyngeal lymph nodes. This retrospective study consists of 2 parts. Cohort 1 concerned the signal intensity of routine neck MR imaging with 2D sequences, apparent diffusion coefficient, and contrast enhancement of the superior cervical ganglion compared with lymph nodes with or without metastasis in 30 patients. Cohort 2 used 3D neurography to assess the morphology and spatial relationships of the superior cervical ganglion, inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve, and the retropharyngeal lymph nodes in 50 other patients. All superior cervical ganglions had homogeneously greater enhancement and lower signal on diffusion-weighted imaging than lymph nodes. Apparent diffusion coefficient values of the superior cervical ganglion (1.80 ± 0.28 × 10-3mm2/s) were significantly higher than normal and metastatic lymph nodes (0.86 ± 0.10 × 10-3mm2/s, P vagus nerve (P vagus nerve and the superior cervical ganglion (P vagus nerve formed a line from anteromedial to posterolateral. The superior cervical ganglion and the inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve can be almost always differentiated from retropharyngeal lymph nodes on MR imaging by evaluating the signal, size, and position. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  15. Ganglion cysts in the paediatric wrist: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, Jennifer; Bartlett, Murray [Royal Children' s Hospital, Medical Imaging Department, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    The majority of published literature on ganglion cysts in children has been from a surgical perspective, with no dedicated radiologic study yet performed. Our aim was to assess the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of ganglion cysts in a series of paediatric MR wrist examinations. Ninety-seven consecutive paediatric MR wrist examinations were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of ganglion cysts. Only those studies with wrist ganglia were included. Cysts were assessed for location, size, internal characteristics and secondary effect(s). Forty-one ganglion cysts (2-32 mm in size) were seen in 35/97 (36%) patients (24 female, 11 male), mean age: 13 years 11 months (range: 6 years 3 months-18 years). The majority were palmar (63.4%) with the remainder dorsal. Of the cysts, 43.9% were related to a wrist ligament(s), 36.6% to a joint and 17.1% to the triangular fibrocartilage complex. Of the patients, 91.4% had wrist symptoms: pain (n=29, 82.9%), swelling (n=7, 20%) and/or palpable mass (n=4, 11.4%); 71.4% patients had significant additional wrist abnormalities. Ganglion cysts were frequently found in children referred for wrist MRI. (orig.)

  16. Validity Study of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS among distinct groups of Brazilian gamblers Estudo de validade da escala South Oaks Gambling Screen junto a grupos distintos de jogadores brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula MT Oliveira

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to assess the internal consistency and to perform a factor analysis of the Brazilian version of the SOGS - South Oaks Gambling Screen - scale, as well as its ability to discriminate between different profiles of gamblers. METHOD: Two hundred and seventeen subjects were enrolled in the study: 46 gamblers under treatment at the Gamblers Treatment Unit of PROAD - Program for Orientation and Attention of Dependent Persons- of the Federal University of São Paulo; 96 social gamblers and 75 subjects screened as pathological gamblers recruited at the local Jockey Club, video poker and bingo clubs. RESULTS: Differences in the score means of all three groups were statistically significant and were able to discriminate between social gamblers, pathological gamblers interviewed in a gambling site and the clinical sample. The internal consistency of the 20-item scale measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.9304. Factor analysis resulted in a three-dimensional solution accounting for 58,6% of the total variance: a first factor composed mainly by questions related to the consequences of gambling; a second factor encompassing questions related to the gambling behavior of pathological gamblers; and a third and less expressive factor involving only two questions, probably a hybrid one of difficult interpretation. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the SOGS was a useful screen to discriminate Brazilian pathological gamblers from social gamblers as well as to differentiate clinical pathological from non-clinical pathological gamblers, and to identify different levels of severity.OBJETIVOS: O objetivo desse estudo é avaliar a consistência interna e a dimensionalidade da versão da South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS adaptada para uso em população brasileira e sua capacidade de discriminar diferentes tipos de jogadores. MÉTODO: O estudo envolveu 217 jogadores ¾ contatados no Jockey Clube de São Paulo, em casas de

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  20. A Rare Cause of Compression Neuropathy of Upper Limbs – Ganglionic Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Yin Mak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a 51-year-old Chinese male with a ganglion in the Guyon canal causing ulnar nerve palsy and a 54-year-old Chinese male with a ganglion in the elbow causing posterior interosseous nerve (PIN palsy. Exploration and excision of the ganglions were performed. Both patients made a good recovery.

  1. Repeatability of Perimacular Ganglion Cell Complex Analysis with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy S. K. Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the repeatability of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to measure macular and perimacular ganglion cell complex thicknesses and compare retinal ganglion cell parameters between algorithms. Methods. Ninety-two nonglaucomatous eyes from 92 participants underwent macular and perimacular ganglion cell complex thickness measurement using OCT-HS100 Glaucoma 3D algorithm and these measurements were repeated for 34 subjects. All subjects also had macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness measured by Cirrus HD-OCT Ganglion Cell Analysis algorithm. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson’s correlation analyses were performed. Results. Subfields of both macular and perimacular ganglion cell complex thicknesses had high intraclass correlation coefficient values between 0.979 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.958–0.989 and 0.981 (95% CI: 0.963, 0.991 and between 0.70 (95% CI: 0.481–0.838 and 0.987 (95% CI: 0.956–0.989, respectively. The overall average ganglion cell complex and macular average ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thicknesses were strongly correlated (r=0.83, P<0.001.  Conclusions. The assessment of macular and perimacular retinal ganglion cell parameters by OCT-HS100 Glaucoma 3D algorithm is highly repeatable, and strongly correlates to retinal ganglion cell parameters assessed by Ganglion Cell Analysis algorithm. A comprehensive evaluation of retinal ganglion cells may be possible with OCT-HS100.

  2. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell function in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The activity of melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive ganglion retinal cells (ipRGC) can be assessed by a means of pupil responses to bright blue (appr.480 nm) light. Due to age related factors in the eye, particularly, structural changes of the lens, less light reaches retina. The a...

  3. Processing of natural temporal stimuli by macaque retinal ganglion cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Rüttiger, L.; Lee, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies the performance of primate retinal ganglion cells in response to natural stimuli. Stimuli were confined to the temporal and chromatic domains and were derived from two contrasting environments, one typically northern European and the other a flower show. The performance of the

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Ganglion Cell Complex Parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr femi Oderinlo

    glaucoma. It is also valuable for evaluating the retinal anatomy in several macular diseases, including macular hole, age-related macular degeneration and macular oedema. OCT provides high resolution and reproducible images of the RNFL that discriminate glaucomatous from healthy subjects. Ganglion cell loss is best ...

  5. Bilateral ganglion cyst of the common peroneal nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrazzini, Massimo; Cusmano, Ferdinando; Armaroli, Sara; Pavone, Paolo [Institute of Radiology, University of Parma, Viale Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Pogliacomi, Francesco; Rinaldi, Elio [Institute of Clinical Orthopedics and Traumatology, University of Parma, Viale Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2002-11-01

    Ganglion cysts of the common peroneal nerve are rarely described in the literature and a bilateral lesion has not been previously reported. We present a case of a 41-year-old man with a bilateral cyst of the common peroneal nerve diagnosed with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Ganglion Cell Complex Parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To evaluate the differences between ganglion cell complex (GCC) of primary open angle glaucoma and ocular disorders affecting the macula. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven patients diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma and 27 patients with macular diseases of different aetiology were enrolled in this ...

  7. Petrosal Ganglion: a more complex role than originally imagined.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Antonio Retamal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The petrosal ganglion is a peripheral sensory ganglion, composed of pseudomonopolar sensory neurons that innervate the posterior third of the tongue and the carotid sinus and body. According to their electrical properties petrosal ganglion neurons can be ascribed to one of two categories: i neurons with action potentials presenting an inflection (hump on its repolarizing phase and ii neurons with fast and brisk action potentials. Although there is some correlation between the electrophysiological properties and the sensory modality of the neurons in some species, no general pattern can be easily recognized. On the other hand, petrosal neurons projecting to the carotid body are activated by several transmitters, with acetylcholine and ATP being the most conspicuous in most species. Petrosal neurons are completely surrounded by a multi-cellular sheet of glial (satellite cells that prevents the formation of chemical or electrical synapses between neurons. Thus, petrosal ganglion neurons are regarded as mere wires that communicate the periphery (i.e., carotid body and the central nervous system. However, it has been shown that in other sensory ganglia satellite glial cells and their neighboring neurons can interact, partly by the release of chemical neuro-glio transmitters. This intercellular communication can potentially modulate the excitatory status of sensory neurons and thus the afferent discharge. In this mini review, we will briefly summarize the general properties of petrosal ganglion neurons and the current knowledge about the glial-neuron communication in sensory neurons and how this phenomenon could be important in the chemical sensory processing generated in the carotid body.

  8. Age-Related Change in Vestibular Ganglion Cell Populations in Individuals With Presbycusis and Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Michael B; Nelson, Erik G

    2017-04-01

    We sought to establish that the decline of vestibular ganglion cell counts uniquely correlates with spiral ganglion cell counts, cochlear hair cell counts, and hearing phenotype in individuals with presbycusis. The relationship between aging in the vestibular system and aging in the cochlea is a topic of ongoing investigation. Histopathologic age-related changes the vestibular system may mirror what is seen in the cochlea, but correlations with hearing phenotype and the impact of presbycusis are not well understood. Vestibular ganglion cells, spiral ganglion cells, and cochlear hair cells were counted in specimens from individuals with presbycusis and normal hearing. These were taken from within a large collection of processed human temporal bones. Correlations between histopathology and hearing phenotype were investigated. Vestibular ganglion cell counts were positively correlated with spiral ganglion cell counts and cochlear hair cell counts and were negatively correlated with hearing phenotype. There was no statistical evidence on linear regression to suggest that the relationship between age and cell populations differed significantly according to whether presbycusis was present or not. Superior vestibular ganglion cells were more negatively correlated with age than inferior ganglion cells. No difference in vestibular ganglion cells was noted based on sex. Vestibular ganglion cell counts progressively deteriorate with age, and this loss correlates closely with changes in the cochlea, as well as hearing phenotype. However, these correlations do not appear to be unique in individuals with presbycusis as compared with those with normal hearing.

  9. Feedback stimulation strategy: control of retinal ganglion cells activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameneva, Tatiana; Grayden, David B; Meffin, Hamish; Burkitt, Anthony N

    2014-01-01

    It is possible to cause a sensation of light in patients who have lost photoreceptors due to degenerative eye diseases by targeting surviving neurons with electrical stimulation by means of visual prosthetic devices. All stimulation strategies in currently used visual prostheses are open-loop, that is, the stimulation parameters do not depend on the level of activation of neurons surrounding stimulating electrodes. In this paper, we investigate a closed-loop stimulation strategy using computer simulations of previously constrained models of ON and OFF retinal ganglion cells. Using a proportional-integral-type controller we show that it is possible to control activation level of both types of retinal ganglion cells. We also demonstrate that the controller tuned for a particular combination of synaptic currents continues to work during retina degeneration when excitatory currents are reduced by 20%.

  10. Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Diabetes Associated with Elevated Homocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Shindler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have suggested that homocysteine may be a contributing factor to development of retinopathy in diabetic patients based on observed correlations between elevated homocysteine levels and the presence of retinopathy. The significance of such a correlation remains to be determined, and potential mechanisms by which homocysteine might induce retinopathy have not been well characterized. Ganapathy and colleagues1 used mutant mice that have endogenously elevated homocysteine levels due to heterozygous deletion of the cystathionine-β-synthase gene to examine changes in retinal pathology following induction of diabetes. Their finding that elevated homocysteine levels hastens loss of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer suggests that toxicity to ganglion cells may warrant further investigation as a potential mechanism of homocysteine enhanced susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy.

  11. High speed coding for velocity by archerfish retinal ganglion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretschmer Viola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Archerfish show very short behavioural latencies in response to falling prey. This raises the question, which response parameters of retinal ganglion cells to moving stimuli are best suited for fast coding of stimulus speed and direction. Results We compared stimulus reconstruction quality based on the ganglion cell response parameters latency, first interspike interval, and rate. For stimulus reconstruction of moving stimuli using latency was superior to using the other stimulus parameters. This was true for absolute latency, with respect to stimulus onset, as well as for relative latency, with respect to population response onset. Iteratively increasing the number of cells used for reconstruction decreased the calculated error close to zero. Conclusions Latency is the fastest response parameter available to the brain. Therefore, latency coding is best suited for high speed coding of moving objects. The quantitative data of this study are in good accordance with previously published behavioural response latencies.

  12. Ganglionic cysts related to the scapula: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ae Kyeong; Kim, Sung Moon; Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Myung Jin; Chun, Jae Myeung [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Joong Mo [Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of ganglionic cysts related to the scapula. We retrospectively reviewed 15 ganglionic cysts diagnosed by MR imaging in 14 patients who subsequently underwent surgical excision (n=8) or needle aspiration (n=1). Five other patients whose lesion-related symptoms were not too severe to manage underwent conservative treatment. We analyzed MR findings with regard to the size, shape and presence of internal septa, the location and signal intensity of the lesion, and associated findings such as change of rotator cuff muscle, labral tear and bone erosion. We also evaluated the presence of tear of rotator cuff tendon, tendinosis, and subacromial enthesophyte. The diameter of ganglionic cysts was 0.5-5.5 (mean, 2.8)cm, and they were round (n=2), ovoid (n=6), or elongated (n=7). Where internal septa were present (n=13), cysts were lobulated. Lesions were located in both scapular and spinoglenoid notches (n=9), only in the scapular notch (n=2), only in the spinoglenoid notch (n=2) or within the bone (n=2). In eleven cases they were very close to the superoposterior aspect of the glenoid labrum (n=11). On T1-weighted images, all lesions were seen to be iso- or hypointense to muscle, while on T2-weighted images, they were hyperintense, resembling joint fluid (n=14), except in one patient with hemorrhage. Associated findings were edema of the infraspinatus muscle (n=4), pressure erosion of the scapular neck (n=1), and labral tear (n=1). A torn supraspinatus tendon (n=2), supraspinatus tendinosis (n=3), and subacromial enthesophyte (n=2) were also present. MR imaging was helpful in diagnosing ganglionic cysts and detecting associated lesions.

  13. Purification of Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons from Rat by Immunopanning

    OpenAIRE

    Zuchero, J. Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGs) are sensory neurons that facilitate somatosensation and have been used to study neurite outgrowth, regeneration, and degeneration and PNS and CNS myelination. Studies of DRGs have relied on cell isolation strategies that generally involve extended culture in the presence of antimitotic agents or other cytotoxic treatments that target dividing cells. The surviving cells typically are dependent on serum for growth. Other methods, involving purification of DRG...

  14. Veratridine increases the survival of retinal ganglion cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.F. Pereira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal cell death is an important phenomenon involving many biochemical pathways. This degenerative event has been studied to understand how the cells activate the mechanisms that lead to self-destruction. Target cells and afferent cells play a relevant role in the regulation of natural cell death. We studied the effect of veratridine (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 µM on the survival of neonatal rat retinal ganglion cells in vitro. Veratridine (3.0 µM, a well-known depolarizing agent that opens the Na+ channel, promoted a two-fold increase in the survival of retinal ganglion cells kept in culture for 48 h. This effect was dose-dependent and was blocked by 1.0 µM tetrodotoxin (a classical voltage-dependent Na+ channel blocker and 30.0 µM flunarizine (a Na+ and Ca2+ channel blocker. These results indicate that electrical activity is also important for the maintenance of retinal ganglion cell survival in vitro

  15. Agmatine protects retinal ganglion cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis in transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agmatine is an endogenous polyamine formed by the decarboxylation of L-arginine. We investigated the protective effects of agmatine against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of immortalized rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5. RGC-5 cells were cultured in a closed hypoxic chamber (5% O2 with or without agmatine. Cell viability was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay and apoptosis was examined by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Expression and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; JNK, ERK p44/42, and p38 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB were investigated by Western immunoblot analysis. The effects of agmatine were compared to those of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a well-known protective neurotrophin for retinal ganglion cells. Results After 48 hours of hypoxic culture, the LDH assay showed 52.3% cell loss, which was reduced to 25.6% and 30.1% when agmatine and BDNF were administered, respectively. This observed cell loss was due to apoptotic cell death, as established by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Although total expression of MAPKs and NF-κB was not influenced by hypoxic injury, phosphorylation of these two proteins was increased. Agmatine reduced phosphorylation of JNK and NF-κB, while BDNF suppressed phosphorylation of ERK and p38. Conclusion Our results show that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell damage in RGC-5 cells and that its effects may act through the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Our data suggest that agmatine may lead to a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce retinal ganglion cell injury related to hypoxia.

  16. Motor program initiation and selection in crickets, with special reference to swimming and flying behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Tetsuya; Kanou, Masamichi; Yamaguchi, Tsuneo

    2002-01-01

    An air puff stimulus to the cerci of a cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) evokes flying when it is suspended in air, while the same stimulus evokes swimming when it is placed on the water surface. After bilateral dissection of the connectives between the suboesophageal and the prothoracic ganglia or between the brain and the suboesophageal ganglion, the air puff stimulus evokes flying even when the operated cricket is placed on the water surface. A touch stimulus on the body surface of crickets placed on the water surface elicits only flying when the connectives between suboesophageal and prothoracic ganglia are dissected, while the same stimulus elicits either swimming or flying when the connectives between the brain and the suboesophageal ganglion are dissected. These results suggest that certain neurons running through the ventral nerve cords between the brain and the suboesophageal ganglion or between the suboesophageal and the prothoracic ganglia play important but different roles in the initiation and/or switching of swimming and flying. In the suboesophageal ganglion, we physiologically and morphologically identified four types of "swimming initiating neurons". Depolarization of any one of these neurons resulted in synchronized activities of paired legs with a similar temporal sequence to that observed during swimming.

  17. Central projections of the wing afferents in the hawkmoth, Agrius convolvuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Noriyasu; Wang, Hao; Shirai, Koji; Kiguchi, Kenji; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2011-11-01

    Flight behaviors in various insect species are closely correlated with their mechanical and neuronal properties. Compared to locusts and flies which have been intensively studied, moths have "intermediate" properties in terms of the neurogenic muscle activations, power generation by indirect muscles, and two-winged-insect-like flapping behavior. Despite these unique characteristics, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms of flight control in moths. We investigated projections of the wing mechanosensory afferents in the central nervous system (CNS) of the hawkmoth, Agrius convolvuli, because the mechanosensory proprioceptive feedback has an essential role for flight control and would be presumably optimized for insect species. We conducted anterograde staining of nine afferent nerves from the fore- and hindwings. All of these afferents projected into the prothoracic, mesothoracic and metathoracic ganglia (TG1, 2 and 3) and had ascending fibers to the head ganglia. Prominent projection areas in the TG1-3 and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) were common between the forewing, hindwing and contralateral forewing afferents, suggesting that information from different wings are converged at multiple levels presumably for coordinating wing flapping. On the other hand, differences of projections between the fore- and hindwing afferents were observed especially in projection areas of the tegulae in the TG1 and contralateral projections of the anterior forewing nerve in the TGs and SOG, which would reflect functional differences between corresponding mechanoreceptors on each wing. Afferents comprising groups of the campaniform sensilla at the wing bases had prominent ascending pathways to the SOG, resembling the head-neck motor system for gaze control in flies. Double staining of the wing afferents and flight or neck motoneurons also indicated potential connectivity between them. Our results suggest multiple roles of the wing proprioceptive feedback for flight and provide

  18. Ganglion cyst of the foot treated with electroacupuncture: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitzik, Erin; Kissel, Jaclyn

    2013-12-01

    To present the clinical management of a ganglion cyst presenting on the dorsolateral aspect of the foot. A 45-year-old female cyclist complaining of ganglion cyst following training period. Patient was treated with high-frequency electroacupuncture in four consecutive sessions over four weeks, and reported resolution of the cyst following therapeutic intervention. Ganglion cysts of the foot are relatively rare connective tissue tumours with variable treatment approaches. Electroacupuncture may be a novel and non-invasive conservative approach for the treatment of ganglion cysts. Further evaluation of the efficacy of such treatment is warranted.

  19. Angiotensin II induces catecholamine release by direct ganglionic excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendorfer, Andreas; Thornagel, Alexandra; Raasch, Walter; Grisk, Olaf; Tempel, Klaus; Dominiak, Peter

    2002-09-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG) is known to facilitate catecholamine release from peripheral sympathetic neurons by enhancing depolarization-dependent exocytosis. In addition, a direct excitation by ANG of peripheral sympathetic nerve activity has recently been described. This study determined the significance of the latter mechanism for angiotensin-induced catecholamine release in the pithed rat. Rats were anesthetized and instrumented for measuring either hemodynamics and renal sympathetic nerve activity or plasma catecholamine concentrations in response to successively increasing doses of angiotensin infusions. Even during ganglionic blockade by hexamethonium (20 mg/kg), angiotensin dose-dependently elevated sympathetic nerve activity, whereas blood pressure-equivalent doses of phenylephrine were ineffective. Independently of central nervous sympathetic activity and ganglionic transmission, angiotensin (0.1 to 1 microg/kg) also induced an up-to 27-fold increase in plasma norepinephrine levels, reaching 2.65 ng/mL. Preganglionic electrical stimulation (0.5 Hz) raised basal norepinephrine levels 11-fold and further enhanced the angiotensin-induced increase in norepinephrine (4.04 ng/mL at 1 microg/kg ANG). Stimulation of sympathetic nerve activity and norepinephrine release were suppressed by candesartan (1 mg/kg) or tetrodotoxin (100 microg/kg), respectively. Angiotensin enhanced plasma norepinephrine, heart rate, and sympathetic nerve activity at similar threshold doses (0.3 to 1 microg/kg), but raised blood pressure at a significantly lower dose (0.01 microg/kg). It is concluded that direct stimulation of ganglionic angiotensin type 1 (AT(1)) receptors arouses electrical activity in sympathetic neurons, leading to exocytotic junctional catecholamine release. In both the absence and presence of preganglionic sympathetic activity, this mechanism contributes significantly to ANG-induced enhancement of catecholamine release.

  20. Phantom Extremity Pain Responding to Stellate Ganglion Blockage: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edip Gonullu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phantom extremity pain is that which continues to be felt in a non-existent extremity after amputation. The pathophysiological mechanism and etiology of phantom extremity pain are not exactly known, Phantom extremity pain affects the patients in physical and psycho-social aspects. This paper presents a patient with phantom extremity pain that had not responded to medical treatment. A stellate ganglion blockage was performed using lidocaine, bupivacaine and fentanyl and the patient%u2019s pain was observed to be reduced.

  1. Retinal ganglion cell analysis in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britze, Josefine; Pihl-Jensen, Gorm; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise existing findings regarding optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of ganglion cell layer (GCL) alterations in optic neuritis (ON) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Peer-reviewed studies published prior to April 2016 were searched using PubMed, EMBASE, Web...... in MS patients both with and without previous ON compared to healthy controls. GCL thinning was associated with visual function in most studies (n = 10) and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores (n = 6). In acute ON, thinning of the GCL is measurable prior to RNFL thinning, and GCL thickness...

  2. Cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Teotônio de Oliveira

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The case of a Brazilian patient with cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD is presented. Since three years ago, a 71-year old male displays asymmetric ideomotor apraxia, gait apraxia, cortical sensory impairment, myoclonus, limp dystonia and rigidity. His mental status is spared. There is neither consanguinity nor similar cases in his family. The differential diagnosis of CBGD is discussed. A brief review of the literature is made stressing the clinical and pathological features of CBGD. This disease is poorly known and probably underdiagnosed. Its diagnosis can be safely made based on clinical grounds.

  3. Target recognition and synapse formation by ciliary-ganglion neurons in tissue culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, W.F.; Slaaf, D.W.; Hooisma, J.; Magchielse, T.; Meeter, E.

    1978-01-01

    A less complicated source of neurons suitable for this type of studies is the parasympathetic ciliary ganglion. In the pigeon and in the chick this ganglion is known to contain only two classes of neurons, both of which are cholinoceptive and cholinergic and that innervate the muscle fibres of the

  4. Cercal sensory regulation of ganglionic protein metabolism in the field cricket, Gryllotalpa africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, V; Dayanand, Y; Madhusudhuna, L; Srinivasulu, Y; Reddy, G R

    1991-07-01

    The effect of cercal deafferentation (cercectomy) on the ganglionic protein metabolism of the cricket, Gryllotalpa africana was studied. Significant changes in the activities of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase, glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were observed in the terminal ganglion following unilateral and bilateral cercectomy.

  5. Soldier-specific modification of the mandibular motor neurons in termites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Social insects exhibit a variety of caste-specific behavioral tendencies that constitute the basis of division of labor within the colony. In termites, the soldier caste display distinctive defense behaviors, such as aggressively attacking enemies with well-developed mandibles, while the other castes retreat into the colony without exhibiting any aggressive response. It is thus likely that some form of soldier-specific neuronal modification exists in termites. In this study, the authors compared the brain (cerebral ganglion and the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG of soldiers and pseudergates (workers in the damp-wood termite, Hodotermopsis sjostedti. The size of the SOG was significantly larger in soldiers than in pseudergates, but no difference in brain size was apparent between castes. Furthermore, mandibular nerves were thicker in soldiers than in pseudergates. Retrograde staining revealed that the somata sizes of the mandibular motor neurons (MdMNs in soldiers were more than twice as large as those of pseudergates. The enlargement of MdMNs was also observed in individuals treated with a juvenile hormone analogue (JHA, indicating that MdMNs become enlarged in response to juvenile hormone (JH action during soldier differentiation. This enlargement is likely to have two functions: a behavioral function in which soldier termites will be able to defend more effectively through relatively faster and stronger mandibular movements, and a developmental function that associates with the development of soldier-specific mandibular muscle morphogenesis in termite head. The soldier-specific enlargement of mandibular motor neurons was observed in all examined species in five termite families that have different mechanisms of defense, suggesting that such neuronal modification was already present in the common ancestor of termites and is significant for soldier function.

  6. Lumbosacral intraspinal extradural ganglion cyst in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca de Strobel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 16-year-old neutered female domestic shorthair cat was referred for chronic history of reluctance to jump, stiffness of the tail and lower back pain. Mild pelvic limb ataxia, reduced perianal reflex and lumbosacral discomfort were present on neurological examination. On magnetic resonance imaging, a well-defined rounded structure of 3 mm in diameter was identified on the right dorsal aspect of the epidural space at L7–S1, causing displacement of the cauda equina. The lesion was hyperintense to spinal cord parenchyma on T2-weighted images and hypointense on T1-weighted images, consistent with a fluid-filled structure. A Lumbosacral dorsal laminectomy was performed. A clear fluid-containing structure was identified between the right L7 nerve root and the cauda equina. Following surgical excision, histopathology confirmed the cystic nature of the lesion and revealed thick disorganised sheaths of fibrocollagenous tissue and flattened mesenchymal cells lining the luminal part of the cyst wall. A diagnosis of intraspinal ganglion cyst was made. The cat recovered uneventfully. Seven months after surgery euthanasia was performed for unrelated reasons; no neurological deficits were present. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported case of intraspinal ganglion cyst in a cat. Intraspinal extradural cysts should be considered among other differential diagnoses for cats with lumbosacral myelopathy/radiculopathy.

  7. Intraneural ganglion cyst: a 200-year-old mystery solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Robert J; Vincent, Jean-François; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P; Scheithauer, Bernd W

    2008-10-01

    We describe the first reported case of an intraneural ganglion cyst, an ulnar ("cubital") intraneural cyst, which, on literature review, dated to 1810. For over 80 years, its original brief description by Beauchêne was wrongly attributed to Duchenne, effectively making the reference and specimen inaccessible to scrutiny. Fortunately, the intact cyst had been safely housed in the Musée Dupuytren, Paris, France, thus permitting its examination. Although originally described as a "serous" cyst, our present understanding of the anatomy of the ulnar nerve and of peripheral nerve pathology allowed us to reinterpret it as a mucin-filled, elbow-level, ulnar intraneural ganglion cyst. In addition to its description as a fusiform cystic enlargement of the nerve, we documented similar enlargement of a lumen-bearing branch, the articular branch at the level of the elbow. Based on our assessment of the specimen and with a modern perspective, we concluded that the origin of the cyst was from the postero-medial aspect of the elbow joint and that its fluid content, having dissected through a capsular defect, followed the path of the articular branch into the parent ulnar nerve. The purpose of this report is to clarify historical misconceptions regarding the pathogenesis of this controversial entity. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Ganglion and Synovial Cyst of the Temporomandibular Joint: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, M Willemijn; Hofstede, Diederik J

    2015-09-01

    Ganglion and synovial cysts of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are rare. Although histopathological findings differ, clinical presentation is comparable. This study adds a case report of a ganglion of the TMJ to existing literature and a review of all available case reports on ganglion and synovial cysts of the TMJ. Including our own case report, we reviewed 49 cases of ganglion and synovial cysts of the TMJ. They occurred in a female:male ratio of 3:1, at an median age of 46 years (range, 11-64 years). Patients mainly presented with preauricular swelling and pain. After imaging, the ganglion or synovial cyst was most commonly excised under general anesthesia. No recurrences were described.

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  17. Association Between Regular Cannabis Use and Ganglion Cell Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitzer, Thomas; Schwan, Raymund; Albuisson, Eliane; Giersch, Anne; Lalanne, Laurence; Angioi-Duprez, Karine; Laprevote, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Because cannabis use is a major public health concern and cannabis is known to act on central neurotransmission, studying the retinal ganglion cells in individuals who regularly use cannabis is of interest. To determine whether the regular use of cannabis could alter the function of retinal ganglion cells in humans. For this case-control study, individuals who regularly use cannabis, as well as healthy controls, were recruited, and data were collected from February 11 to October 28, 2014. Retinal function was used as a direct marker of brain neurotransmission abnormalities in complex mental phenomena. Amplitude and implicit time of the N95 wave on results of pattern electroretinography. Twenty-eight of the 52 participants were regular cannabis users (24 men and 4 women; median age, 22 years [95% CI, 21-24 years]), and the remaining 24 were controls (20 men and 4 women; median age, 24 years [95% CI, 23-27 years]). There was no difference between groups in terms of age (P = .13) or sex (P = .81). After adjustment for the number of years of education and alcohol use, there was a significant increase for cannabis users of the N95 implicit time on results of pattern electroretinography (median, 98.6 milliseconds [95% CI, 93.4-99.5]) compared with controls (median, 88.4 milliseconds [95% CI, 85.0-91.1]), with 8.4 milliseconds as the median of the differences (95% CI, 4.9-11.5; P cannabis users and controls in their corresponding group. The positive predictive value was 78.6% (95% CI, 60.5%-89.8%), and the negative predictive value was 75.0% (95% CI, 55.1%-88.0%). Our results demonstrate a delay in transmission of action potentials by the ganglion cells in regular cannabis users, which could support alterations in vision. Our findings may be important from a public health perspective since they could highlight the neurotoxic effects of cannabis use on the central nervous system as a result of how it affects retinal processing.

  18. Regenerating reptile retinas: a comparative approach to restoring retinal ganglion cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D L

    2017-02-01

    Transection or damage to the mammalian optic nerve generally results in loss of retinal ganglion cells by apoptosis. This cell death is seen less in fish or amphibians where retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration leads to recovery of sight. Reptiles lie somewhere in the middle of this spectrum of nerve regeneration, and different species have been reported to have a significant variation in their retinal ganglion cell regenerative capacity. The ornate dragon lizard Ctenophoris ornatus exhibits a profound capacity for regeneration, whereas the Tenerife wall lizard Gallotia galloti has a more variable response to optic nerve damage. Some individuals regain visual activity such as the pupillomotor responses, whereas in others axons fail to regenerate sufficiently. Even in Ctenophoris, although the retinal ganglion cell axons regenerate adequately enough to synapse in the tectum, they do not make long-term topographic connections allowing recovery of complex visually motivated behaviour. The question then centres on where these intraspecies differences originate. Is it variation in the innate ability of retinal ganglion cells from different species to regenerate with functional validity? Or is it variances between different species in the substrate within which the nerves regenerate, the extracellular environment of the damaged nerve or the supporting cells surrounding the regenerating axons? Investigations of retinal ganglion cell regeneration between different species of lower vertebrates in vivo may shed light on these questions. Or perhaps more interesting are in vitro studies comparing axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells from various species placed on differing substrates.

  19. Cluster headache attack remission with sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads C J; Jürgens, Tim P; May, Arne

    2016-01-01

    ; p = 0.2188). Post-remission headache disability (HIT-6) was significantly improved versus baseline (67.7 ± 6.0 before, 55.2 ± 11.4 after; p = 0.0118). Six of the 10 remission patients experienced clinical improvements in their preventive medication use. At 24 months post insertion headache...... in a subset of these. Some patients experiencing remission were also able to reduce or stop their preventive medication and remissions were accompanied by an improvement in headache disability.......Background: Cluster headache (CH) is a debilitating headache disorder with severe consequences for patient quality of life. On-demand neuromodulation targeting the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) is effective in treating the acute pain and a subgroup of patients experience a decreased frequency of CH...

  20. Neuropeptides associated with the frontal ganglion of larval Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audsley, Neil; Matthews, June; Weaver, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of neuropeptides in the frontal ganglia of larvae of the tobacco hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea and the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis was investigated using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only three types of peptides could be identified or assigned from frontal ganglion extracts; M. sexta allatostatin (Manse-AS), M. sexta allatotropin (Manse-AT), and F/YXFGL-NH2 allatostatins. The peptide profiles of frontal ganglion of L. oleracea and S. littoralis were similar, with ten identical [M+H]+ ions, seven of which could be assigned to known lepidopteran peptides (Manse-AT, cydiastatin 2, 3, 4 and helicostatin 1, 5, 9). In addition, mass ions corresponding to helicostatin 7 (which was confirmed by MALDI-post source decay analysis) and Manse-AS were present in frontal ganglia of L. oleracea and helicostatin 6 in frontal ganglia of S. littoralis. Only four mass ions from M. sexta frontal ganglia corresponded to known peptides, cydiastatin 3 and 4, helicostatin 1, and Manse-AT. The only difference between the profiles of frontal ganglia from different stages of L. oleracea were mass ions which could not be assigned, and no differences were observed in the allatoregulatory peptides present. In HPLC fractions of M. sexta frontal ganglia, F/YXFGL-NH2 allatostatin-like immunoreactivity was widespread suggesting that more allatostatins were present than were identified.

  1. Hypoxia-ischemia and retinal ganglion cell damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charanjit Kaur

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Charanjit Kaur1, Wallace S Foulds2, Eng-Ang Ling11Department of Anatomy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, SingaporeAbstract: Retinal hypoxia is the potentially blinding mechanism underlying a number of sight-threatening disorders including central retinal artery occlusion, ischemic central retinal vein thrombosis, complications of diabetic eye disease and some types of glaucoma. Hypoxia is implicated in loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs occurring in such conditions. RGC death occurs by apoptosis or necrosis. Hypoxia-ischemia induces the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and its target genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Increased production of VEGF results in disruption of the blood retinal barrier leading to retinal edema. Enhanced expression of NOS results in increased production of nitric oxide which may be toxic to the cells resulting in their death. Excess glutamate release in hypoxic-ischemic conditions causes excitotoxic damage to the RGCs through activation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Activation of glutamate receptors is thought to initiate damage in the retina by a cascade of biochemical effects such as neuronal NOS activation and increase in intracellular Ca2+ which has been described as a major contributing factor to RGC loss. Excess production of proinflammatory cytokines also mediates cell damage. Besides the above, free-radicals generated in hypoxic-ischemic conditions result in RGC loss because of an imbalance between antioxidant- and oxidant-generating systems. Although many advances have been made in understanding the mediators and mechanisms of injury, strategies to improve the damage are lacking. Measures to prevent neuronal injury have to be developed.Keywords: retinal hypoxia, retinal ganglion cells, glutamate receptors, neuronal injury, retina

  2. Depicting the pterygopalatine ganglion on 3 Tesla magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratbak, Daniel Fossum; Folvik, Mari; Nordgård, Ståle; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Dodick, David W; Matharu, Manjit; Tronvik, Erling

    2017-12-22

    The pterygopalatine ganglion has yet not been identified on medical images in living humans. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether the pterygopalatine ganglion could be identified on 3 T MR imaging. This study was performed on medical images of 20 Caucasian subjects on both sides (n = 40 ganglia) with an exploratory design. 3 T MR images were assessed by two physicians for the presence and size of the pterygopalatine ganglion. The distance from the pterygopalatine ganglion to four bony landmarks was registered from fused MR and CT images. In an equivalence analysis, the distances were compared to those obtained in an anatomical cadaveric study serving as historical controls (n = 50). A structure assumed to be the pterygopalatine ganglion was identified on MR images in all patients on both sides by both physicians. The mean size was depth 2.1 ± 0.5 mm, width 4.2 ± 1.1 mm and height 5.1 ± 1.4 mm, which is in accordance with formerly published data. Equivalence of the measurements on MR images and the historical controls was established, suggesting that the structure identified on the MR images is the pterygopalatine ganglion. Our findings suggest that the pterygopalatine ganglion can be detected on 3 T MR images. Identification of the pterygopalatine ganglion may be important for image-guided interventions targeting the pterygopalatine ganglion, and has the potential to increase the efficacy, safety and reliability for these treatments.

  3. A Guyon's canal ganglion presenting as occupational overuse syndrome: A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2008-01-01

    Occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) can present as Guyon\\'s canal syndrome in computer keyboard users. We report a case of Guyon\\'s canal syndrome caused by a ganglion in a computer user that was misdiagnosed as OOS.

  4. Effects of ACTH4–10 on synaptic transmission in frog sympathetic ganglion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, W.; Bercken, J. van den

    1979-01-01

    The influenced of ACHT4−10, a behaviourally active fragment of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) devoid of endocrine activity, on synaptic transmission in the paravertebral sympathetic ganglion of the frog was investigated. Postsynaptic potentials evoked by electrical stimulation of preganglionic

  5. Case Report: Intraneural Intracanalicular Ganglion Cyst of the Hypoglossal Nerve Treated by Extradural Transcondylar Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin-Freiert, Arzu; Fugleholm, Kåre; Poulsgaard, Lars

    2015-07-01

    We report a case of an intraneural ganglion cyst of the hypoglossal canal. The patient presented with unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a small lesion in the hypoglossal canal with no contrast enhancement and high signal on T2-weighted imaging. The lesion was assumed to be a cystic schwannoma of the hypoglossal nerve. Stereotactic irradiation was considered, but in accordance with the patient's wishes, surgical exploration was performed. This revealed that, rather than a schwannoma, the patient had an intraneural ganglion cyst, retrospectively contraindicating irradiation as an option. This case illustrates a very rare location of an intraneural ganglion cyst in the hypoglossal nerve. To our knowledge there are no previous reports of an intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the hypoglossal canal.

  6. Cortical Proteins are Chemokinetic to Cells from the Medial Ganglionic Eminence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-28

    Neuroscience Program Director During embryonic development, a majority of neocortical interneurons originate from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE...day vaginal plug is seen) EGF Epidermal growth factor ErbB EGF receptor GABA Gamma-aminobutyric acid GE Ganglionic eminence HGF Hepatocyte...species, all mammals have GABAergic precursors residing in the GE producing neurons that migrate along the same tangential route to the neocortex

  7. Nimodipine Aggravates Systemic Kainic Acid Toxicity in Retinal Ganglion Cells of Intact Mice

    OpenAIRE

    GEPDIREMEN, Akçahan

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the L-type voltage dependent Ca2+ channel blocker, nimodipine, in kainate induced toxicity in retinal ganglion cells of mice. Kainate in 10mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally following the vehicle or nimodipine. Nimodipine, 45 minutes prior to kainate in 10, 15, 25, 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg doses was administered intraperitoneally. Surprisingly, nimodipine potentiated the ganglional cell death induced by kainate, with re...

  8. Ganglion cyst in the lumbar anterior epidural space:a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sung Chan; Park, Dong Woo; Lee, Seoung Ro; Joo, Kyung Bin [Hanyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    A ganglion cyst is a tumor-like lesion that contains mucous or myxoid material in the fibrous capsule. We report a case of ganglion cyst located in the lumbar anterior epidural space and causing lumbar radiculopathy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the cyst as a cystic lesion with wall enhancement. Myelography showed that it was not filled with contrast medium and not connected with the dura, nerve root, or facet joint.

  9. Dorsal root ganglion compression as an animal model of sciatica and low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Jing; LI, HUI-MING; Hu, San-Jue; Xing, Jun-Ling

    2012-01-01

    As sciatica and low back pain are among the most common medical complaints, many studies have duplicated these conditions in animals. Chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion (CCD) is one of these models. The surgery is simple: after exposing the L4/L5 intervertebral foramina, stainless steel rods are implanted unilaterally, one rod for each vertebra, to chronically compress the lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Then, CCD can be used to simulate the clinical conditions caused by steno...

  10. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with aphasia due to basal ganglionic lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Shin; Kato, Toshiaki; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Terashi, Akiro

    1987-03-01

    Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in right handed eight patients with subcortical lesion and aphasia were measured to investigate the correlation between aphasia and functional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO/sub 2/) in the cortex and the basal ganglionic region. All patients had no lesion in the cortex, but in the basal ganglionic region (putamen, caudate nucleus, internal capsule, and periventricular white matter) on CT images. Patients with bilateral lesion were excluded in this study. Six patients with cerebral infarction in the left basal ganglionic region and two patients with the left putammal hemorrhage were examined. Five patients had non fluent Broca's type speech, two patients had poor comprehension, fluent Wernicke-type speech and one patient was globally aphasic. CBF, CMRO/sub 2/, and oxygen extraction fraction were measured by the positron emission tomography using /sup 15/O/sub 2/, C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ inhalation technique. In addition to reduction of CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ in the basal ganglionic region, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ decreased in the left frontal cortex especially posterior part in four patients with Broca's aphasia. In two patients with Wernicke type aphasia, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ decreased in the basal ganglionic region and the left temporal cortex. In a globally aphasic patient, marked reduction of CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ was observed in the left frontal and temporal cortex, in addition to the basal ganglionic region. These results suggest that dysfunction of cortex as well as that of basal ganglionic region might be related to the occurence of aphasia. However, in one patient with Broca's ahasia, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ were preserved in the cortex and metabolic reduction was observed in only basal ganglia. This case indicates the relation between basal ganglionic lesion and the occurrence of aphasia.

  11. Large Ganglion Cyst with Unusual Location on the Back-A Case Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoellhammer, Liv; Nielsen, Thomas Wagner; Berg, Jais Oliver

    2016-01-01

    A ganglion cyst is a soft tissue tumor-like lesion filled with colloid material commonly located on the hand and wrist. We report a case of a large ganglion cyst with an unusual location on the back. The patient presented with a mass growing over 2 months measuring 11.2 × 4.7 × 7.2 cm on magnetic...

  12. Focal loss volume of ganglion cell complex in diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Pritchard, Nicola; Sampson, Geoff P; Edwards, Katie; Vagenas, Dimitrios; Russell, Anthony W; Malik, Rayaz A; Efron, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the relationship between diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and abnormalities in ganglion cell complex (GCC); specifically, focal loss volume (FLV) and global loss volume (GLV). The ganglion cell complex was evaluated using optical coherence tomography on 193 individuals (84 with type 1 diabetes, 67 with type 2 diabetes and 42 without diabetes). In those with diabetes, 88 had diabetes but no diabetic retinopathy (no DR group) and 63 had diabetes with diabetic retinopathy (DR group). Seventeen individuals in the no DR group and 27 in the DR group had diabetic peripheral neuropathy according to the neuropathy disability score (NDS). The probability of FLV and GLV being abnormal was determined. Forty four individuals had diabetic peripheral neuropathy (NDS of three or greater). Binary logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for the presence of diabetic retinopathy, age, sex, type of diabetes, duration of diabetes and HbA1c levels. Twenty-five per cent of individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy had abnormal FLV compared to 11 per cent of those with diabetes but no diabetic peripheral neuropathy and five per cent in the control group (p = 0.011). Fourteen per cent of individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, 10 per cent without diabetic peripheral neuropathy and two per cent in the control group had abnormal GLV (p = 0.185). For every unit increase in the neuropathy disability score, the odds of having an abnormal FLV increased by a factor of 1.25 (p = 0.007), after adjusting for potentially confounding factors. Abnormal GCC FLV is an independent predictor of diabetic neuropathy, (odds ratio = 2.94, 95 per cent CI [1.16, 7.40], p = 0.023). Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is associated with abnormal GCC FLV at the macula, which is independent of diabetic retinopathy, age, sex, type of diabetes, duration of diabetes and HbA1c levels. An abnormality in GCC FLV is an independent predictor of diabetic peripheral

  13. Cell type-specific bipolar cell input to ganglion cells in the mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, S; Hüser, L; Ondreka, K; Auler, N; Haverkamp, S

    2016-03-01

    Many distinct ganglion cell types, which are the output elements of the retina, were found to encode for specific features of a visual scene such as contrast, color information or movement. The detailed composition of retinal circuits leading to this tuning of retinal ganglion cells, however, is apart from some prominent examples, largely unknown. Here we aimed to investigate if ganglion cell types in the mouse retina receive selective input from specific bipolar cell types or if they sample their synaptic input non-selectively from all bipolar cell types stratifying within their dendritic tree. To address this question we took an anatomical approach and immunolabeled retinae of two transgenic mouse lines (GFP-O and JAM-B) with markers for ribbon synapses and type 2 bipolar cells. We morphologically identified all green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing ganglion cell types, which co-stratified with type 2 bipolar cells and assessed the total number of bipolar input synapses and the proportion of synapses deriving from type 2 bipolar cells. Only JAM-B ganglion cells received synaptic input preferentially from bipolar cell types other than type 2 bipolar cells whereas the other analyzed ganglion cell types sampled their bipolar input most likely from all bipolar cell terminals within their dendritic arbor. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of radiographer CT-guided dorsal ganglion block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, T.C., E-mail: tombooth@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, Royal Free Hospital NHS Trust, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG (United Kingdom); Edwards, D.; Platts, A.D.; Savy, L.E. [Department of Radiology, Royal Free Hospital NHS Trust, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Radiographer-performed, CT-guided, therapeutic dorsal ganglion block (DGB) for lumbar radiculopathy was prospectively evaluated for firstly, short-term pain outcomes and secondly, complications. Methods: A prospective outcome audit was undertaken for all patients with radiculopathic pain undergoing radiographer-performed CT-guided DGB over a 12 month period. The indicators and standards were derived from published evidence. The complications were analysed by a neuroradiologist retrospectively. Findings: The pain indicator was defined as 'the percentage of patients referred for CT-guided DGB experiencing improvement or resolution of pain at two weeks post-procedure'. The standard chosen was 64% thus with an outcome of 67% the target was achieved. The complication indicator was defined as 'the percentage of all patients referred for CT-guided DGB who were complication-free over two weeks'. The standard chosen was 97% thus with an outcome of 81% the target was not achieved. Complications resulted from positioning or inaccurate nerve root selection. Conclusion: Radiographer CT-guided DGB is effective in improving or removing pain at two weeks post-procedure. It is safe and not associated with major complications. However, less patients were complication-free following DGB than would be expected. Pre-procedural review of the patient's MRI by a neuroradiologist is recommended to avoid incorrect nerve root selection.

  15. Photoreceptor adaptation in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwoon Y; Dunn, Felice A; Berson, David M

    2005-12-22

    A rare type of mammalian retinal ganglion cell (RGC) expresses the photopigment melanopsin and is a photoreceptor. These intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs) drive circadian-clock resetting, pupillary constriction, and other non-image-forming photic responses. Both the light responses of ipRGCs and the behaviors they drive are remarkably sustained, raising the possibility that, unlike rods and cones, ipRGCs do not adjust their sensitivity according to lighting conditions ("adaptation"). We found, to the contrary, that ipRGC sensitivity is plastic, strongly influenced by lighting history. When exposed to a constant, bright background, the background-evoked response decayed, and responses to superimposed flashes grew in amplitude, indicating light adaptation. After extinction of a light-adapting background, sensitivity recovered progressively in darkness, indicating dark adaptation. Because these adjustments in sensitivity persisted when synapses were blocked, they constitute "photoreceptor adaptation" rather than "network adaptation." Implications for the mechanisms generating various non-image-forming visual responses are discussed.

  16. Brimonidine prevents axonal and somatic degeneration of retinal ganglion cell neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crish Samuel D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brimonidine is a common drug for lowering ocular pressure and may directly protect retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma. The disease involves early loss of retinal ganglion cell transport to brain targets followed by axonal and somatic degeneration. We examined whether brimonidine preserves ganglion cell axonal transport and abates degeneration in rats with elevated ocular pressure induced by laser cauterization of the episcleral veins. Results Ocular pressure was elevated unilaterally by 90% for a period of 8 weeks post- cauterization. During this time, brimonidine (1mg/kg/day or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline was delivered systemically and continuously via subcutaneous pump. Animals received bilateral intravitreal injections of fluorescent cholera toxin subunit β (CTB two days before sacrifice to assess anterograde transport. In retinas from the vehicle group, elevated pressure induced a 44% decrease in the fraction of ganglion cells with intact uptake of CTB and a 14-42% reduction in the number of immuno-labelled ganglion cell bodies, with the worst loss occurring nasally. Elevated pressure also caused a 33% loss of ganglion cell axons in vehicle optic nerves and a 70% decrease in CTB transport to the superior colliculus. Each of these components of ganglion cell degeneration was either prevented or significantly reduced in the brimonidine treatment group. Conclusions Continuous and systemic treatment with brimonidine by subcutaneous injection significantly improved retinal ganglion cell survival with exposure to elevated ocular pressure. This effect was most striking in the nasal region of the retina. Brimonidine treatment also preserved ganglion cell axon morphology, sampling density and total number in the optic nerve with elevated pressure. Consistent with improved outcome in the optic projection, brimonidine also significantly reduced the deficits in axonal transport to the superior colliculus associated with

  17. CT-guided injection for ganglion impar blockade: a radiological approach to the management of coccydynia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datir, A., E-mail: apdatir@gmail.co [Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Connell, D. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Aim: To evaluate the role of computed tomography (CT) in needle placement for ganglion impar blocks, and to determine the efficacy of CT-guided ganglion impar blocks in the management of coccydynia. Materials and methods: The results of ganglion impar blockade in eight patients with coccydynia secondary to trauma or unknown cause were reviewed. The diagnosis of coccydynia was based on clinical history, location of pain, and response to previous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The eight patients were treated with CT-guided ganglion impar blocks to manage their coccyx pain after conservative procedures, including oral medication and cushions, failed to provide relief. All patients were subjected to ganglion impar blocks under a thin-section CT-guided technique for needle placement, using a mixture of bupivacaine and triamcinolone. The patients were followed-up for a period of 6-months. Results: Eight patients were treated in this study with a total of 11 injections. A technical success of 100% was achieved in all cases with accurate needle placement without any complications and all the patients tolerated the procedure well. Out of eight, three patients (37%) had complete relief of pain on the follow-up intervals up to 6 months. Three out of eight patients (37%), had partial relief of symptoms and a second repeat injection was given at the 3 month interval of the follow-up period. At the end of the 6-month follow-up period, six out of eight patients (75%) experienced symptomatic relief (four complete relief and two partial relief) without any additional resort to conventional pain management. Twenty-five percent (two out of eight) did not have any symptomatic improvement. The mean visual analogue score (VAS) pre-procedure was 8 (range 6-10) and had decreased to 2 (range 0-5) in six out of eight patients. Conclusion: CT can be used as an imaging method to identify the ganglion and guide the needle in ganglion impar blockade. The advantages of CT

  18. Retinal Ganglion Cell Distribution and Spatial Resolving Power in Deep-Sea Lanternfishes (Myctophidae)

    KAUST Repository

    De Busserolles, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    Topographic analyses of retinal ganglion cell density are very useful in providing information about the visual ecology of a species by identifying areas of acute vision within the visual field (i.e. areas of high cell density). In this study, we investigated the neural cell distribution in the ganglion cell layer of a range of lanternfish species belonging to 10 genera. Analyses were performed on wholemounted retinas using stereology. Topographic maps were constructed of the distribution of all neurons and both ganglion and amacrine cell populations in 5 different species from Nissl-stained retinas using cytological criteria. Amacrine cell distribution was also examined immunohistochemically in 2 of the 5 species using anti-parvalbumin antibody. The distributions of both the total neuron and the amacrine cell populations were aligned in all of the species examined, showing a general increase in cell density toward the retinal periphery. However, when the ganglion cell population was topographically isolated from the amacrine cell population, which comprised up to 80% of the total neurons within the ganglion cell layer, a different distribution was revealed. Topographic maps of the true ganglion cell distribution in 18 species of lanternfishes revealed well-defined specializations in different regions of the retina. Different species possessed distinct areas of high ganglion cell density with respect to both peak density and the location and/or shape of the specialized acute zone (i.e. elongated areae ventro-temporales, areae temporales and large areae centrales). The spatial resolving power was calculated to be relatively low (varying from 1.6 to 4.4 cycles per degree), indicating that myctophids may constitute one of the less visually acute groups of deep-sea teleosts. The diversity in retinal specializations and spatial resolving power within the family is assessed in terms of possible ecological functions and evolutionary history.

  19. Phenytoin blocks retinal ganglion cell death after partial optic nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Rita; Quinto, Kristine; Romann, Ilka; Schuettauf, Frank; Zurakowski, David

    2002-06-01

    Phenytoin is a well-characterized sodium channel blocker in widespread use as an anticonvulsant. In 1972, Becker and co-workers reported that phenytoin could reverse visual field loss from glaucoma. The authors therefore explored whether phenytoin could protect retinal ganglion cells from optic nerve crush. The optic nerve of Long-Evans rats was partially crushed; animals were given a single dose of either intraperitoneal phenytoin or vehicle. A third group underwent sham optic nerve crush. In a second set of experiments, the effect of phenytoin was compared to the N -methyl- D -receptor antagonist, memantine. Retinal ganglion survival was evaluated 1 week later. In addition, the effect of memantine and phenytoin on glutamate-induced intracellular calcium fluxes was evaluated.Phenytoin and memantine significantly reduced ganglion cell loss after optic nerve crush, and blunted the rise in intracellular calcium seen after administration of glutamate. Co-administration of the two agents, however, did not increase ganglion cell survival, and had no effect on ganglion cell calcium fluxes. Phenytoin can preserve retinal ganglion cells after partial optic nerve crush. This effect was not additive with a glutamate antagonist, suggesting that both agents alone are equally protective at saving the same population of ganglion cells at risk. In fact, the neuroprotective effect of the combined administration of phenytoin and memantine was significantly less than either of the two drugs alone. Phenytoin is known to decrease neuronal firing and neurotransmitter release; this may underlie its ability to serve as a neuro-protectant in this experimental paradigm.

  20. Melanopsin ganglion cells extend dendrites into the outer retina during early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, Jordan M; Chellappa, Deepa K; Ross, Christopher L; Stabio, Maureen E; Berson, David M

    2015-09-01

    Melanopsin ganglion cells express the photopigment melanopsin and are the first functional photoreceptors to develop in the mammalian retina. They have been shown to play a variety of important roles in visual development and behavior in the early postnatal period (Johnson et al., 2010; Kirkby and Feller, 2013; Rao et al., 2013; Renna et al., 2011). Here, we probed the maturation of the dendritic arbors of melanopsin ganglion cells during this developmental period in mice. We found that some melanopsin ganglion cells (mainly the M1-subtype) transiently extend their dendrites not only into the inner plexiform layer (where they receive synaptic inputs from bipolar and amacrine cells) but also into the outer plexiform layer, where in mature retina, rod and cone photoreceptors are thought to contact only bipolar and horizontal cells. Thus, some immature melanopsin ganglion cells are biplexiform. This feature is much less common although still present in the mature retina. It reaches peak incidence 8-12 days after birth, before the eyes open and bipolar cells are sufficiently mature to link rods and cones to ganglion cells. At this age, some outer dendrites of melanopsin ganglion cells lie in close apposition to the axon terminals of cone photoreceptors and express a postsynaptic marker of glutamatergic transmission, postsynaptic density-95 protein (PSD-95). These findings raise the possibility of direct, monosynaptic connections between cones and melanopsin ganglion cells in the early postnatal retina. We provide a detailed description of the developmental profile of these processes and consider their possible functional and evolutionary significance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. MR-guided perineural injection of the ganglion impar: technical considerations and feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, David R.; Carrino, John A.; Fritz, Jan [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); U-Thainual, Paweena [Queen' s University, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Kingston, ON (Canada); Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor [Queen' s University, School of Computing, Kingston, ON (Canada); Flammang, Aaron J. [Siemens Corporate Research, Center for Applied Medical Imaging, Baltimore, MD (United States); Iordachita, Iulian I. [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Laboratory for Computational Sensing and Robotics, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Perineural ganglion impar injections are used in the management of pelvic pain syndromes; however, there is no consensus regarding the optimal image guidance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides high soft tissue contrast and the potential to directly visualize and target the ganglion. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of MR-guided percutaneous perineural ganglion impar injections. Six MR-guided ganglion impar injections were performed in six human cadavers. Procedures were performed with a clinical 1.5-Tesla MRI system through a far lateral transgluteus approach. Ganglion impar visibility, distance from the sacrococcygeal joint, number of intermittent MRI control steps required to place the needle, target error between the intended and final needle tip location, inadvertent punctures of non-targeted vulnerable structures, injectant distribution, and procedure time were determined. The ganglion impar was seen on MRI in 4/6 (66 %) of cases and located 0.8 mm cephalad to 16.3 mm caudad (average 1.2 mm caudad) to the midpoint of the sacrococcygeal joint. Needle placement required an average of three MRI control steps (range, 2-6). The average target error was 2.2 ± 2.1 mm. In 6/6 cases (100 %), there was appropriate periganglionic distribution and filling of the presacrococcygeal space. No punctures of non-targeted structures occurred. The median procedure time was 20 min (range, 12-29 min). Interventional MRI can visualize and directly target the ganglion impar for accurate needle placement and successful periganglionic injection with the additional benefit of no ionizing radiation exposure to patient and staff. Our results support clinical evaluation. (orig.)

  2. Expression of EFR3A in the mouse cochlea during degeneration of spiral ganglion following hair cell loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Nie

    Full Text Available Retrograde degeneration of spiral ganglion cells in the cochlea following hair cell loss is similar to dying back in pathology. The EFR3A gene has recently been discovered to be involved in the pathogenesis of dying back. The relationship of EFR3A and spiral ganglion degeneration, however, was rarely investigated. In this study, we destroyed the hair cells of the mouse cochlea by co-administration of kanamycin and furosemide and then investigated the EFR3A expression during the induced spiral ganglion cell degeneration. Our results revealed that co-administration of kanamycin and furosemide quickly induced hair cell loss in the C57BL/6J mice and then resulted in progressive degeneration of the spiral ganglion beginning at day 5 following drug administration. The number of the spiral ganglion cells began to decrease at day 15. The expression of EFR3A increased remarkably in the spiral ganglion at day 5 and then decreased to near normal level within the next 10 days. Our study suggested that the change of EFR3A expression in the spiral ganglion was coincident with the time of the spiral ganglion degeneration, which implied that high expression of EFR3A may be important to prompt initiation of spiral ganglion degeneration following hair cell loss.

  3. Gene expression changes during caste-specific neuronal development in the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyakawa Hitoshi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the key characters of social insects is the division of labor, in which different tasks are allocated to various castes. In termites, one of the representative groups of social insects, morphological differences as well as behavioral differences can be recognized among castes. However, very little is known about the neuronal and molecular bases of caste differentiation and caste-specific behavior. In almost all termite species, soldiers play defensive roles in their colonies, and their morphology and behavior are largely different from workers (or pseudergates. Therefore, we predicted that some genes linked to defensive behavior and/or those required for neuronal changes are differentially expressed between workers and soldiers, or during the soldier differentiation, respectively. Results Using the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG of the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we first screened genes specifically expressed in soldiers or during soldier differentiation by the differential display method, followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. No distinctive differences in expression patterns were detected between pseudergates and soldiers. In the course of soldier differentiation, however, five genes were found to be up-regulated in brain and/or SOG: 14-3-3epsilon, fibrillin2, beta-tubulin, ciboulot, and a hypothetical protein containing a SAP motif. Some of these genes are thought to be associated with cytoskeletal structure or motor-associated proteins in neuronal tissues. Conclusion The identified five genes could be involved in soldier-specific neuronal modifications, resulting in defensive behaviors in termite soldiers. The temporal expression patterns of these genes were consistent with the neuronal changes during soldier differentiation, suggesting that molecular machineries, in which the identified factors would participate, play important roles in behavioral differentiation of

  4. Differential protection of injured retinal ganglion cell dendrites by brimonidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, James D; Duong-Polk, Karen X; Hammond, Dustin; Chindasub, Panida; Leung, Christopher Kai-Shun; Weinreb, Robert N

    2015-01-29

    To determine whether brimonidine protects against the retraction and loss of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendrites after optic nerve crush (ONC). Fluorescent RGCs of mice expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) under the control of the Thy-1 promoter (Thy1-YFP mice) were imaged in vivo and assigned to one of six groups according to dendrite structure. The mice then received brimonidine every other day starting 2 days before, or 2 or 6 days after, unilateral ONC. Control animals received vehicle every other day starting 2 days before ONC. Control animals received vehicle every other day starting 2 days before ONC. Total dendrite length, dendrite branching complexity, and the time until complete loss of dendrites were assessed weekly for 4 weeks. Overall, brimonidine treatment significantly slowed the complete loss of RGC dendrites and significantly slowed the reduction of total dendrite length and branching complexity. Separate analysis of each RGC group showed brimonidine significantly delayed the time until complete loss of dendrites in four of the RGC groups. These delays generally were similar when treatment started either 2 days before or 2 days after ONC, but were smaller or absent when treatment started 6 days after ONC Protection against loss of total dendrite length and loss of branching complexity was observed in three of the RGC groups. In two of these RGC groups, protective effects persisted until the end of the study. Brimonidine protects many RGC types against dendrite retraction, loss of branching complexity, and complete loss of dendrites following ONC. However, the pattern and magnitude of this protection differs substantially among different RGC types. These results indicate that requirements for RGC-protective therapies following optic nerve injury may differ among RGC types. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  5. Melanopsin, photosensitive ganglion cells, and seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roecklein, Kathryn A; Wong, Patricia M; Miller, Megan A; Donofry, Shannon D; Kamarck, Marissa L; Brainard, George C

    2013-03-01

    In two recent reports, melanopsin gene variations were associated with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and in changes in the timing of sleep and activity in healthy individuals. New studies have deepened our understanding of the retinohypothalamic tract, which translates environmental light received by the retina into neural signals sent to a set of nonvisual nuclei in the brain that are responsible for functions other than sight including circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral regulation. Because this pathway mediates seasonal changes in physiology, behavior, and mood, individual variations in the pathway may explain why approximately 1-2% of the North American population develops mood disorders with a seasonal pattern (i.e., Major Depressive and Bipolar Disorders with a seasonal pattern, also known as seasonal affective disorder/SAD). Components of depression including mood changes, sleep patterns, appetite, and cognitive performance can be affected by the biological and behavioral responses to light. Specifically, variations in the gene sequence for the retinal photopigment, melanopsin, may be responsible for significant increased risk for mood disorders with a seasonal pattern, and may do so by leading to changes in activity and sleep timing in winter. The retinal sensitivity of SAD is hypothesized to be decreased compared to controls, and that further decrements in winter light levels may combine to trigger depression in winter. Here we outline steps for new research to address the possible role of melanopsin in seasonal affective disorder including chromatic pupillometry designed to measure the sensitivity of melanopsin containing retinal ganglion cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pigment epithelium-derived factor protects retinal ganglion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleenor Debra L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are responsible for the transmission of visual signals to the brain. Progressive death of RGCs occurs in glaucoma and several other retinal diseases, which can lead to visual impairment and blindness. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF is a potent antiangiogenic, neurotrophic and neuroprotective protein that can protect neurons from a variety of pathologic insults. We tested the effects of PEDF on the survival of cultured adult rat RGCs in the presence of glaucoma-like insults, including cytotoxicity induced by glutamate or withdrawal of trophic factors. Results Cultured adult rat RGCs exposed to glutamate for 3 days showed signs of cytotoxicity and death. The toxic effect of glutamate was concentration-dependent (EC50 = 31 μM. In the presence of 100 μM glutamate, RGC number decreased to 55 ± 4% of control (mean ± SEM, n = 76; P 50 values of 13.6 ng/mL (glutamate and 3.4 ng/mL (trophic factor withdrawal, respectively. At 100 ng/mL, PEDF completely protected the cells from both insults. Inhibitors of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 significantly reduced the protective effects of PEDF. Conclusion We demonstrated that PEDF potently and efficaciously protected adult rat RGCs from glutamate- and trophic factor withdrawal-mediated cytotoxicity, via the activation of the NFκB and ERK1/2 pathways. The neuroprotective effect of PEDF represents a novel approach for potential treatment of retinopathies, such as glaucoma.

  7. Taurine provides neuroprotection against retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Froger

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cell (RGC degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats. After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%, whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases.

  8. Interaural comparison of spiral ganglion cell counts in profound deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyedi, Mohammad; Eddington, Donald K; Nadol, Joseph B

    2011-12-01

    This study is designed to measure the degree to which spiral ganglion cell (SGC) survival in the left and right ears is similar in profoundly hearing-impaired human patients with symmetric (right/left) etiology and sensitivity. This is of interest because a small difference between ears would imply that one ear could be used as a control ear in temporal bone studies evaluating the impact on SGC survival of a medical intervention in the other ear. Forty-two temporal bones from 21 individuals with bilaterally symmetric profound hearing impairment were studied. Both ears in each individual were impaired by the same etiology. Rosenthal's canal was reconstructed in two dimensions and segmental and total SGCs were counted. Correlation analysis and t-tests were used to compare segmental and total counts of left and right ears. Statistical power calculations illustrate how the results can be used to estimate the effect size (right/left difference in SGC count) that can be reliably identified as a function of sample size. Left counts (segmental and total) were significantly correlated with those in the right ears (p total count were respectively 0.64, 0.91, 0.93, 0.91 and 0.98. The hypothesis that mean segmental and total counts of right and left are the same could not be rejected by paired t-test. The variance in the between-ear difference across the temporal bones studied indicates that useful effect sizes can be reliably identified using subject numbers that are practical for temporal bone studies. For instance, there is 95% likelihood that an interaural difference in SGC count of approximately 1000 cells associated with a treatment/manipulation of one ear will be reliably detected in a bilaterally-symmetric profound hearing loss population of temporal bones from approximately 10 subjects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation for the treatment of cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Láinez, Miguel J A; Puche, Miguel; Garcia, Ana; Gascón, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    Cluster headache is a severe, debilitating disorder with pain that ranks among the most severe known to humans. Patients with cluster headaches have few therapeutic options and further, 10-20% develop drug-resistant attacks. The often brief duration of cluster attacks makes abortive therapy a challenge, and preventive medications are almost always provided to patients, but the side effects of these preventive medications can be significant. The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) is believed to play a role in headache pain and cranial autonomic symptoms associated with cluster headache, which is a result of activation of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex. For over 100 years, the SPG has been a clinical target to treat primary headache disorders using pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods. Radiofrequency lesioning and nerve-resection therapies, while initially beneficial, are irreversible procedures, and the use of neurostimulation provides one method of interfacing with the neural pathways without causing permanent damage to neural tissue. SPG neurostimulation is both reversible and adjustable, and has recently been tested in both proof-of-concept work and in a randomized, sham-controlled trial for the treatment of cluster headache. A randomized, sham-controlled study of 32 patients was performed to evaluate further the use of SPG stimulation for the acute treatment of chronic cluster headache. Of the 32 patients, 28 completed the randomized experimental period. Overall, 68% of patients experienced an acute response, a frequency response, or both. In this study the majority of adverse events were related to the implantation procedure, which typically resolved or remained mild in nature at 3 months following the implant procedure. This and other studies highlight the promise of using SPG stimulation to treat the pain-associated cluster headache. SPG stimulation could be a safe and effective option for chronic cluster headache.

  10. A map of taste neuron projections in the Drosophila CNS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We provide a map of the projections of taste neurons in the CNS of Drosophila. Using a collection of 67 GAL4 drivers representing the entire repertoire of Gr taste receptors, we systematically map the projections of neurons expressing these drivers in the thoracico-abdominal ganglion and the suboesophageal ganglion ...

  11. The celiac ganglion modulates LH-induced inhibition of androstenedione release in late pregnant rat ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastrilla Ana M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the control of ovarian production of steroid hormones is mainly of endocrine nature, there is increasing evidence that the nervous system also influences ovarian steroidogenic output. The purpose of this work was to study whether the celiac ganglion modulates, via the superior ovarian nerve, the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the rat ovary. Using mid- and late-pregnant rats, we set up to study: 1 the influence of the noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion on the ovarian production of the luteotropic hormone androstenedione; 2 the modulatory effect of noradrenaline at the celiac ganglion on the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the ovary; and 3 the involvement of catecholaminergic neurotransmitters released in the ovary upon the combination of noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion and LH treatment of the ovary. Methods The ex vivo celiac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve-ovary integrated system was used. This model allows studying in vitro how direct neural connections from the celiac ganglion regulate ovarian steroidogenic output. The system was incubated in buffer solution with the ganglion and the ovary located in different compartments and linked by the superior ovarian nerve. Three experiments were designed with the addition of: 1 noradrenaline in the ganglion compartment; 2 LH in the ovarian compartment; and 3 noradrenaline and LH in the ganglion and ovarian compartments, respectively. Rats of 15, 19, 20 and 21 days of pregnancy were used, and, as an end point, the concentration of the luteotropic hormone androstenedione was measured in the ovarian compartment by RIA at various times of incubation. For some of the experimental paradigms the concentration of various catecholamines (dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline was also measured in the ovarian compartment by HPLC. Results The most relevant result concerning the action of noradrenaline in the celiac ganglion

  12. Ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments. MR findings with clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, G.S.; Hsueh, C.-J.; Juan, C.J.; Chen, C.Y. [Tri-Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiology; Lee, C.H. [Tri-Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center, Taipei (China). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Chan, W.P. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiology; Taylor, J.A.M. [New York Chiropractic College, Seneca Falls, NY (United States). Dept. of Diagnosis; Yu, J.S. [Ohio State Univ. Medical Center, Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the MR findings of ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments in correlation with clinical findings. Material and Methods:We reviewed 12 patients with ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments obtained from a medical record of 4153 consecutive patients referred for knee MR examinations. All patients presented with chronic knee pain and 4 had restriction of knee motion. The MR imaging findings of the cysts were evaluated and correlated with clinical manifestations. Results:Seven ganglion cysts were found in the posterior cruciate ligaments and 5 in the anterior cruciate ligaments. All cysts were lobulated (n=7) or fusiform (n=5) in shape, 1.8-4.5 cm in size, along the posterior surface in the proximal or distal end of the ligaments. Ten patients had arthroscopic resection or aspiration of their cysts, became symptom free and had no recurrence on follow-up MR examinations. Two cysts reduced in size spontaneously by conservative treatment. Conclusion:MR imaging can offer useful information in detection and diagnosis of patients with chronic knee pain due to ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments. The size and location of the ganglion cysts can attribute to the clinical manifestations.

  13. Extra-articular soft tissue ganglion cyst around the knee: focus on the associated findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jee-Young; Jung, Sun-Ah; Park, Young-Ha [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, 93-6 Ji-dong, Paldal-ku, Suwon, 442-723, Kyounggi-do (Korea); Sung, Mi-Sook [Department of Radiology, Holy Family Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, Sosa-dong, Puchun (Korea); Kang, Yong-Koo [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, St. Vincent' s Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, 93-6 Ji-dong, Paldal-ku, Suwon, 442-723, Kyounggi-do (Korea)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate MR imaging findings of the associated findings in surrounding tissues of the extra-articular soft tissue ganglion cysts around the knee. We retrospectively reviewed MR images of 30 patients who had surgically confirmed extra-articular soft tissue ganglion cysts around the knee with focus on the associated findings in surrounding tissues, such as muscle, subcutaneous fat, bone, and nerve. The most common associated finding was the visualization of channel between ganglion cyst and the joint, which was demonstrated in 20 cases (continuous type in 12 cases and discontinuous type in 8 cases). Other associated findings were seen in 15 cases; pericystic edema (n=9), bony remodelling (n=3), and nerve involvement (n=3). The bony remodelling involved the proximal metaphysis of tibia in all 3 cases. Two patients with nerve involvement had deep peroneal nerve in subacute phase and one involved common peroneal nerve in chronic phase. The MR imaging is a useful imaging modality to evaluate the associated findings in extra-articular soft tissue ganglion cysts around the knee. The evaluation of these associated findings is helpful for the differentiation of ganglion cysts from other cystic lesions around the knee. (orig.)

  14. Endoscopically-assisted transmastoid approach to the geniculate ganglion and labyrinthine facial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jufas, Nicholas; Bance, Manohar

    2017-08-22

    Endoscopic transcanal approaches to the facial nerve allow excellent exposure of the tympanic facial nerve. This approach becomes limited when access is required to the more proximal geniculate ganglion and labyrinthine portion of the facial nerve. The aim of this report was to determine the feasibility of a transmastoid endoscopically assisted approach to the geniculate ganglion and labyrinthine facial nerve. This is an endoscopic cadaveric dissection and video review at a university anatomical laboratory. A total of 12 endoscopic cadaveric dissections were performed. A cortical mastoidectomy and perilabyrinthine air cell removal was performed using an operating microscope. Beyond this, dissection was performed with an endoscope. In all dissections, an endoscopically assisted transmastoid approach allowed complete access to the geniculate ganglion, and at least 1.5 mm of the distal labyrinthine facial nerve. Further transcrusal drilling through the anterior crus of the superior semicircular canal allowed access to the entire labyrinthine facial nerve. The entire geniculate ganglion and labyrinthine facial nerve is difficult to access with microscopic techniques. Adding endoscopic visualization allows for complete visualization of the geniculate ganglion. Clinical reports will further strengthen these preliminary cadaveric results.

  15. Ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments: a series of 31 cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Yongtao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A case series for ganglion cyst of the cruciate ligament with MRI findings, clinical presentation, and management options along with review of literature is presented. Methods Of 8663 consecutive patients referred for knee MR imaging, 31 were diagnosed with ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments, including 21 men and 10 women of ages 12 to 73 years (mean: 37. A review of charts revealed that knee pain was the chief complaint in all cases. Arthroscopic debridement of ganglion cyst was performed in 11 patients. Results MRI proved to be a valuable tool in diagnosing and deciding management of these cases. All 11 patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment were symptom-free on a minimum follow-of one year. Conclusion Cyst formation associated with cruciate ligament of the knee is an infrequent cause of knee pain. MR imaging was important in confirming the cyst lesions and provided useful information prior to arthroscopy. Arthroscopic debridement of ganglion cyst produced excellent outcome without recurrence. This study describes the pertinent MRI and intraoperative findings of ganglion cyst.

  16. Hypothermia Protects and Prolongs the Tolerance Time of Retinal Ganglion Cells against Ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Schultheiss

    Full Text Available Hypothermia has been shown to be neuroprotective in the therapy of ischemic stroke in the brain. To date no studies exist on the level of the inner retina and it is unclear if hypothermia would prolong the ischemic tolerance time of retinal ganglion cells, which are decisive in many ischemic retinopathies.Bovine eyes were enucleated and stored either at 21°C or 37°C for 100 or 340 minutes, respectively. Afterwards the globes were dissected, the retina was prepared and either the spontaneous ganglion cell responses were measured or the retina was incubated as an organotypic culture for additional 24 hours. After incubation the retina was either processed for histology (H&E and DAPI staining or real-time PCR (Thy-1 expression was performed.Hypothermia prolonged ganglion cell survival up to 340 minutes under ischemic conditions. In contrast to eyes kept at 37°C the eyes stored at 21°C still showed spontaneous ganglion cell spiking (56.8% versus 0%, a 5.8 fold higher Thy-1 mRNA expression (not significant, but a trend and a preserved retinal structure after 340 minutes of ischemia.Hypothermia protects retinal ganglion cells against ischemia and prolongs their ischemic tolerance time.

  17. Pseudotumoral ganglion cyst of a finger with unexpected remote origin: multimodality imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilleau, Loic; Malghem, Jacques; Omoumi, Patrick; Simoni, Paolo; Vande Berg, Bruno C.; Lecouvet, Frederic E. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Barbier, Olivier [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-04-15

    The case of a ganglion cyst in the pulp of a fifth finger in an elderly woman initially mimicking a soft tissue tumor is described. Most typical sites of ganglion cysts are well documented at the wrist and in the vicinity of inter-phalangeal and metacarpo-phalangeal joints. In this case, ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a cystic lesion within the pulp of the fifth finger and indicated carpal osteoarthritis as the distant - and unexpected - origin of the lesion. The suggested diagnosis of ganglion cyst was confirmed by computed tomography arthrography (CT arthrography) of the wrist, which showed opacification of the cyst on delayed acquisitions after intra-articular injection into the mid-carpal joint, through the fifth flexor digitorum tendon sheath. The communications between the degenerative carpal joint, the radio-ulnar bursa, the fifth flexor digitorum tendon sheath and the pedicle of the cyst were well demonstrated. (orig.)

  18. Tibial nerve intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, Judy H. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Emery, Kathleen H.; Johnson, Neil [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Sorger, Joel [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Orthopedics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Intraneural ganglion cysts are uncommon cystic lesions of peripheral nerves that are typically encountered in adults. In the lower extremity, the peroneal nerve is most frequently affected with involvement of the tibial nerve much less common. This article describes a tibial intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy. Although extremely rare, intraneural ganglion cysts of the tibial nerve should be considered when a nonenhancing cystic structure with intra-articular extension is identified along the course of the nerve. This report also details the unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous treatment with US-guided cyst aspiration and steroid injection, an option recently reported as a viable alternative to open surgical resection. (orig.)

  19. Ulnar Nerve Compression in the Cubital Tunnel by an Epineural Ganglion: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Christos G.

    2006-01-01

    Epineural ganglia are considered to be a usual cause of peripheral nerve compression. In this report, we present a rare case of ulnar nerve compression by an epineural ganglion in the cubital tunnel. A 28-year-old right-handed female secretary developed progressive pain, numbness, and weakness in her right elbow, forearm, and hand for 6 months. Atrophy of the adductor pollicis and the first dorsal interosseous muscles was apparent. Clinical examination revealed a cystic mass at the posterior side of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging identified a ganglion while electrophysiologic studies revealed a severe conduction block of the ulnar nerve at the elbow. During surgery a 2-cm diameter epineural ganglion was identified compressing the ulnar nerve and was excised using microsurgery techniques. Two months postoperatively, the clinical recovery of the patient was very satisfactory, although the postoperative electrophysiologic studies demonstrated a less dramatic improvement. PMID:18780042

  20. A quantitative study of ganglion cells in the German shepherd dog retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Soriano, J; Rodriguez-Veiga, E; Martinez-Sainz, P; Mayayo-Vicente, S; Marin-Garcia, P

    1995-03-01

    As in the number of mammals, the most prominent feature of the ganglion-cell layer in the retina of the German shepherd dog is the sharp increase in the density of ganglion cells in the central area. There is an area of maximum density and also a 'cat-like' visual streak, located dorsal to the optic disc. The isodensity lines of ganglion-cell distribution is roughly concentric. Their values vary from 5300-13,000 cells/mm2 in the central area, with the cells densely packed, to 1000 cells/mm2 or less in the periphery, where the cells are sparsely distributed. There were some individual differences amongst the animals studied, although all of them were pure-bred dogs. This suggests that the configuration of the retina in the canine species is not only dependent on the breed itself but also on some other parameters such as phylogenetic heritage, environment, aptitude, lifestyle, or even training.

  1. Effects of lumbar sympathetic ganglion block for a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitoh, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Koichi; Ina, Hiroaki; Ofusa, Yukihiro; Otagiri, Tetsutaro; Tanaka, Satoshi; Ono, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    A 59-year-old man with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) received lumbar epidural and sympathetic ganglion blocks to increase regional blood flow and improve his clinical symptoms. After a lumbar epidural block (0.5% mepivacaine), the skin temperature of his affected lower extremities rose by 7.0 degrees C and became close to that of the intact side, and the distance he was able to walk with his cane increased from 2 to 8 m. The clinical effects produced by the lumbar sympathetic ganglion block (99.5% alcohol) were sustained for approximately 8 weeks after the first block and for approximately 6 weeks after the second block. There were no particular adverse effects or complications associated with these nerve block procedures. Epidural and sympathetic ganglion blocks for an ALS patient, albeit their effects are of a transient nature, may improve related clinical symptoms, and were thought to play a contributory role in improving our patient's quality of life.

  2. [Effects of stellate ganglion block on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-quan; Hu, Guang-xiang; Fu, Qun; Jin, Xiao-ju

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of stellate ganglion block (SGB) on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHRs). Thirty-two 10-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHRs) were assigned randomly into four groups: left stellate ganglion block group(Group LS), right stellate ganglion block group(Group RS), captopril group(Group D) and control group(Group C). Arterial systolic blood pressure(SBP) was measured, and endothelin (ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS) in blood vessels were detected by radioimmunoassay. Compared with baseline value, the blood pressure of Group LS gradually increased significantly (P0.05) and increased only at week 2(P block can significantly lower blood pressure, down-regulate ET-1 and up-regulate eNOS protein expression.

  3. [Effect of stellate ganglion block on reconstruction of the left ventricle in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongquan; Hu, Guangxiang; Fu, Qun; Jin, Xiaoju

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effect of stellate ganglion block on reconstruction of the left ventricle in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Thirty-two 10-week-old male SHRs were randomly assigned into 4 groups: a left stellate ganglion block group (group LS), a right stellate ganglion block group (group RS), a captopril group (group D) and a control group (group C). The arterial systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by ALC-NIBP measuring system. After 10 weeks, we observed the left ventricular mass index (LVMI), myocardial pathologic changes, and detected the endothelin (ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) level in the left ventricle by radioimmunoassay and the collagen protein level in the left ventricle by immunohistochemical method. Compared with group LS and group C, the LVMI in group RS was lowered most notably (Pblock can not only decrease the arterial pressure but also reverse the reconstruction of the left ventricle.

  4. Ganglion block. When and how?; Ganglienblockade. Wann und wie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bale, R. [Medizinische Universitaet Innsbruck, Sektion fuer Mikroinvasive Therapie Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    Increasing understanding of the anatomy and physiology of neural structures has led to the development of surgical and percutaneous neurodestructive methods in order to target and destroy various components of afferent nociceptive pathways. The dorsal root ganglia and in particular the ganglia of the autonomous nervous system are targets for radiological interventions. The autonomous nervous system is responsible for the regulation of organ functions, sweating, visceral and blood vessel-associated pain. Ganglia of the sympathetic chain and non-myelinized autonomous nerves can be irreversibly destroyed by chemical and thermal ablation. Computed tomography (CT)-guided sympathetic nerve blocks are well established interventional radiological procedures which lead to vasodilatation, reduction of sweating and reduction of pain associated with the autonomous nervous system. Sympathetic blocks are applied for the treatment of various vascular diseases including critical limb ischemia. Other indications for thoracic and lumbar sympathectomy include complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), chronic tumor associated pain and hyperhidrosis. Neurolysis of the celiac plexus is an effective palliative pain treatment particularly in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. Percutaneous dorsal root ganglion rhizotomy can be performed in selected patients with radicular pain that is resistant to conventional pharmacological and interventional treatment. (orig.) [German] Anatomische und physiologische Kenntnisse ueber die Funktion von Schmerzbahnen fuehrten zur Entwicklung chirurgischer und perkutaner destruktiver Verfahren, um einzelne Komponenten afferenter Schmerzbahnen anzusteuern bzw. auszuschalten. Neben anderen nervalen Strukturen gelten Hinterstrangganglien und insbesondere die Ganglien des autonomen Nervensystems als Ziele fuer radiologische Interventionen. Das vegetative Nervensystem ist fuer die Organfunktion durch Regulation des Gefaesstonus und fuer die Leitung

  5. Tetrandrine protects mouse retinal ganglion cells from ischemic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li WY

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Weiyi Li,1,2 Chen Yang,2 Jing Lu,2 Ping Huang,1 Colin J Barnstable,2 Chun Zhang,1 Samuel S Zhang2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University Eye Center, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Neural and Behavioral Sciences, Penn State University, Hershey, PA, USA; 3Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore Abstract: This study aimed to determine the protective effects of tetrandrine (Tet on murine ischemia-injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. For this, we used serum deprivation cell model, glutamate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced RGC-5 cell death models, and staurosporine-differentiated neuron-like RGC-5 in vitro. We also investigated cell survival of purified primary-cultured RGCs treated with Tet. An in vivo retinal ischemia/reperfusion model was used to examine RGC survival after Tet administration 1 day before ischemia. We found that Tet affected RGC-5 survival in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Compared to dimethyl sulfoxide treatment, Tet increased the numbers of RGC-5 cells by 30% at 72 hours. After 48 hours, Tet protected staurosporine-induced RGC-5 cells from serum deprivation-induced cell death and significantly increased the relative number of cells cultured with 1 mM H2O2 (P<0.01. Several concentrations of Tet significantly prevented 25-mM-glutamate-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Tet also increased primary RGC survival after 72 and 96 hours. Tet administration (10 µM, 2 µL 1 day before retinal ischemia showed RGC layer loss (greater survival, which was less than those in groups with phosphate-buffered saline intravitreal injection plus ischemia in the central (P=0.005, n=6, middle (P=0.018, n=6, and peripheral (P=0.017, n=6 parts of the retina. Thus, Tet conferred protective effects on serum deprivation models of staurosporine-differentiated neuron-like RGC-5 cells and primary cultured murine RGCs. Furthermore, Tet showed

  6. Ganglion cervicale superius: eine anatomische Besonderheit. Variationen der A. carotis interna als Risiko einer akzidentellen intravasalen Injektion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirz, S.; Wartenberg, H. C.; Nadstawek, J.; Kinsky, I.

    2008-01-01

    A variation of the cranial carotid artery is demonstrated in an anatomical specimen revealing possible complications of ganglionic local opioid analgesia at the superior cervical ganglion. Located in the area of the puncture site, a loop of the aberrant carotid artery adheres closely to the

  7. Superficial peroneal nerve paresis in a dancer caused by a midfoot ganglion: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Darrell; Dowling, Jamie; Rowan, Fiachra; Casey, Mary; O'Grady, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Ganglion cysts are common benign masses, usually occurring in the hands and feet. This report describes the case of a young female Irish dancer who presented with paresthesia of her foot due to a ganglion in near proximity to the superficial peroneal nerve. Midfoot ganglia in young girls engaged in Irish dance can limit their ability to participate. This pathology requires further epidemiological studies to investigate its prevalence. In the event of failed conservative management, surgical intervention to excise the cyst and decompress the nerve is an effective treatment to facilitate return to dancing.

  8. Therapeutic potential of stellate ganglion block in orofacial pain: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Younghoon

    2016-09-01

    Orofacial pain is a common complaint of patients that causes distress and compromises the quality of life. It has many etiologies including trauma, interventional procedures, nerve injury, varicella-zoster (shingles), tumor, and vascular and idiopathic factors. It has been demonstrated that the sympathetic nervous system is usually involved in various orofacial pain disorders such as postherpetic neuralgia, complex regional pain syndromes, and atypical facial pain. The stellate sympathetic ganglion innervates the head, neck, and upper extremity. In this review article, the effect of stellate ganglion block and its mechanism of action in orofacial pain disorders are discussed.

  9. MR imaging findings of neurosarcoidosis of the gasserian ganglion: an unusual presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Mercedes; Iglesias, Alfonso; Vila, Oscar; Brasa, Jose [Unidad de Resonancia Magnetica (MEDTEC), Hospital Xeral-Cies, 36204 Vigo (Spain); Conde, Cesareo [Servicio de Neurocirugia, Hospital Xeral-Cies, 36204 Vigo (Spain)

    2002-11-01

    We report the MR imaging findings of an unusual case of neurosarcoidosis of the gasserian ganglion associated with trigeminal neuralgia. No other neurological or extraneurological localization was found. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass in the Meckel's diverticulum that was isointense on T1-weighted images and hypointense on T2-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging showed heterogeneous enhancement. Although rare, sarcoid infiltration of the gasserian ganglion must be considered in the differential diagnosis of an isolated mass in this localization in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. (orig.)

  10. One is the loneliest number: a review of the ganglion impar and its relation to pelvic pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Andrew; Muhleman, Mitchel; Osiro, Stephen; Bubb, Kathleen; Snosek, Michael; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2013-10-01

    The ganglion impar is often overlooked as a component of the sympathetic nervous system. Despite its obscurity, this ganglion provides a pathway for neurons by accommodating postganglionic sympathetics, visceral afferents, and somatic fibers traveling to and from the pelvis. Its classic anatomic location as described in the 1720's held up until recently, with the current literature now revealing a great deal of anatomical variability. This variation becomes important when the ganglion impar is used as a treatment target for patients with chronic pelvic pain - its primary clinical implication. The aim of this review was to provide a better understanding of the anatomy of ganglion impar, accounting for variation in size, shape, and location. In addition, the clinical importance and treatment modalities associated with the ganglion impar are outlined. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. KYNA analogue SZR72 modifies CFA-induced dural inflammation- regarding expression of pERK1/2 and IL-1β in the rat trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukács, M; Warfvinge, K; Kruse, L S

    2016-01-01

    modify the neurogenic inflammatory response in the trigeminal ganglion. METHODS: Inflammation in the trigeminal ganglion was induced by local dural application of Complete Freunds Adjuvant (CFA). Levels of phosphorylated MAP kinase pERK1/2 and IL-1β expression in V1 region of the trigeminal ganglion were...

  12. A Thy1-CFP DBA/2J mouse line with cyan fluorescent protein expression in retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Iona D; Pool, Angela L; Vila, Alejandro; Brecha, Nicholas C

    2009-11-01

    A DBA/2J (D2) transgenic mouse line with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) reporter expression in ganglion cells was developed for the analysis of ganglion cells during progressive glaucoma. The Thy1-CFP D2 (CFP-D2) line was created by congenically breeding the D2 line, which develops pigmentary glaucoma, and the Thy1-CFP line, which expresses CFP in ganglion cells. Microsatellite marker analysis of CFP-D2 progeny verified the genetic inclusion of the D2 isa and ipd loci. Specific mutations within these loci lead to dysfunctional melanosomal proteins and glaucomatous phenotype in D2 mice. Polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the inclusion of the Thy1-CFP transgene. CFP-fluorescent ganglion cells, 6-20 microm in diameter, were distributed in all retinal regions, CFP processes were throughout the inner plexiform layer, and CFP-fluorescent axons were in the fiber layer and optic nerve head. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to ganglion cell markers NF-L, NeuN, Brn3a, and SMI32 was used to confirm CFP expression in ganglion cells. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to amacrine cell markers HPC-1 and ChAT was used to confirm weak CFP expression in cholinergic amacrine cells. CFP-D2 mice developed a glaucomatous phenotype, including iris disease, ganglion cell loss, attrition of the fiber layer, and elevated intraocular pressure. A CFP-D2 transgenic line with CFP-expressing ganglion cells was developed, which has (1) a predominantly D2 genetic background, (2) CFP-expressing ganglion cells, and (3) age-related progressive glaucoma. This line will be of value for experimental studies investigating ganglion cells and their axons in vivo and in vitro during the progressive development of glaucoma.

  13. Is FDG-PET a useful tool in clinical practice for diagnosing corticobasal ganglionic degeneration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulier, IMF; de Vries, JJ; Leenders, KL

    2003-01-01

    Seven consecutive patients were suspected to suffer from corticobasal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD) and were studied with F-[18]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging of the brain. At the time of their FDG-PET scan, 4 of 7 patients fulfilled the clinical criteria of CBGD as proposed by Lang and

  14. Stellate-ganglion block as a treatment for severe postmenopausal flushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastel, P. van; Kallewaard, J.W.; Zanden, M. van der; Boer, H. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hormone replacement therapy is the most effective treatment for postmenopausal flushing. Unfortunately, its use is often contraindicated. A limited amount of uncontrolled data suggests that stellate-ganglion block (SGB) may be useful for the treatment of hot flushes. In the present study,

  15. Retinal ganglion cell topography in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Temminck and Schlegel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Taeko

    2014-02-01

    The retinal ganglion cell distribution, which is known to reflect fish feeding behavior, was investigated in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis. During the course of examination, regularly arrayed cells with a distinctive larger soma, which may be regarded as motion-sensitive cells, were found. The topographical distribution of ordinary-sized ganglion cells, which is usually utilized to estimate fish visual axis and/or visual field characteristics, showed that the highest-density area, termed the area centralis, was localized in the ventral-temporal retina. The retinal topography of ordinary-sized ganglion cells seems to reflect the bluefin tuna's foraging behavior; while cruising, cells in the area centralis may signal potential prey, such as small schooling pelagic fishes or squids, that are present in the upward-forward direction. Judging from morphological characteristics, the large ganglion cells localized in the small temporal retinal area seem to be equivalent to physiologically categorized off-center Y-cells of cat, which are stimulated by a transient dark spot in a bright visual field. It was inferred that presumed large off-center cells in the temporal retina detect movements of agile prey animals escaping from bluefin tuna as a silhouette against environmental light.

  16. Post-Ganglionic Horner’s Syndrome: An Unusual Presentation of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Silva Ruiz e Resende

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the rare case of a patient with cervical lymphadenopathy diagnosed as a T-cell-rich B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that manifested Horner’s syndrome due to a post-ganglionic sympathetic neuron lesion caused by the tumor.

  17. Stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) for cluster headache treatment. Pathway CH-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenen, Jean; Jensen, Rigmor Højland; Lantéri-Minet, Michel

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundThe pain and autonomic symptoms of cluster headache (CH) result from activation of the trigeminal parasympathetic reflex, mediated through the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG). We investigated the safety and efficacy of on-demand SPG stimulation for chronic CH (CCH).MethodsA multicenter, m...

  18. Electrical Stimulation of Mammalian Retinal Ganglion Cells Using Dense Arrays of Small-Diameter Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekirnjak, Chris; Hottowy, Pawel; Sher, Alexander; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Litke, Alan M.; Chichilnisky, E. J.

    Current epiretinal implants contain a small number of electrodes with diameters of a few hundred microns. Smaller electrodes are desirable to increase the spatial resolution of artificial sight. To lay the foundation for the next generation of retinal prostheses, we assessed the stimulation efficacy of micro-fabricated arrays of 61 platinum disk electrodes with diameters 8-12 μm, spaced 60 μm apart. Isolated pieces of rat, guinea pig, and monkey retina were placed on the multi-electrode array ganglion cell side down and stimulated through individual electrodes with biphasic, charge-balanced current pulses. Spike responses from retinal ganglion cells were recorded either from the same or a neighboring electrode. Most pulses evoked only 1-2 spikes with short latencies (0.3-10 ms), and rarely was more than one recorded ganglion cell stimulated. Threshold charge densities for eliciting spikes in ganglion cells were typically below 0.15 mC/cm2 for pulse durations between 50 and 200 μs, corresponding to charge thresholds of ˜ 100 pC. Stimulation remained effective after several hours and at frequencies up to 100 Hz. Application of cadmium chloride did not abolish evoked spikes, implying direct activation. Thus, electrical stimulation of mammalian retina with small-diameter electrodes is achievable, providing high temporal and spatial precision with low charge densities.

  19. Expression of squid iridescence depends on environmental luminance and peripheral ganglion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bellido, P T; Wardill, T J; Buresch, K C; Ulmer, K M; Hanlon, R T

    2014-03-15

    Squid display impressive changes in body coloration that are afforded by two types of dynamic skin elements: structural iridophores (which produce iridescence) and pigmented chromatophores. Both color elements are neurally controlled, but nothing is known about the iridescence circuit, or the environmental cues, that elicit iridescence expression. To tackle this knowledge gap, we performed denervation, electrical stimulation and behavioral experiments using the long-fin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. We show that while the pigmentary and iridescence circuits originate in the brain, they are wired differently in the periphery: (1) the iridescence signals are routed through a peripheral center called the stellate ganglion and (2) the iridescence motor neurons likely originate within this ganglion (as revealed by nerve fluorescence dye fills). Cutting the inputs to the stellate ganglion that descend from the brain shifts highly reflective iridophores into a transparent state. Taken together, these findings suggest that although brain commands are necessary for expression of iridescence, integration with peripheral information in the stellate ganglion could modulate the final output. We also demonstrate that squid change their iridescence brightness in response to environmental luminance; such changes are robust but slow (minutes to hours). The squid's ability to alter its iridescence levels may improve camouflage under different lighting intensities.

  20. The clinico-anatomic explanation for tibial intraneural ganglion cysts arising from the superior tibiofibular joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Robert J; Mokhtarzadeh, Ali; Schiefer, Terry K; Krishnan, Kartik G; Kliot, Michel; Amrami, Kimberly K

    2007-04-01

    To demonstrate that tibial intraneural ganglia in the popliteal fossa are derived from the posterior portion of the superior tibiofibular joint, in a mechanism similar to that of peroneal intraneural ganglia, which have recently been shown to arise from the anterior portion of the same joint. Retrospective clinical study and prospective anatomic study. The clinical records and MRI findings of three patients with tibial intraneural ganglion cysts were analyzed and compared with those of one patient with a tibial extraneural ganglion cyst and one volunteer. Seven cadaveric limbs were dissected to define the articular anatomy of the posterior aspect of the superior tibiofibular joint. The condition of the three patients with intraneural ganglia recurred because their joint connections were not identified initially. In two patients there was no cyst recurrence when the joint connection was treated at revision surgery; the third patient did not wish to undergo additional surgery. The one patient with an extraneural ganglion had the joint connection identified at initial assessment and had successful surgery addressing the cyst and the joint connection. Retrospective evaluation of the tibial intraneural ganglion cysts revealed stereotypic features, which allowed their accurate diagnosis and distinction from extraneural cases. The intraneural cysts had tubular (rather than globular) appearances. They derived from the postero-inferior portion of the superior tibiofibular joint and followed the expected course of the articular branch on the posterior surface of the popliteus muscle. The cysts then extended intra-epineurially into the parent tibial nerves, where they contained displaced nerve fascicles. The extraneural cyst extrinsically compressed the tibial nerve but did not directly involve it. All cadaveric specimens demonstrated a small single articular branch, which derived from the tibial nerve to the popliteus. The branch coursed obliquely across the posterior

  1. A slowly inactivating K+ current in retinal ganglion cells from postnatal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucher, N J; Lipton, S A

    1992-02-01

    The whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was used to study voltage-gated K+ conductances in retinal ganglion cells from postnatal rat. Retinal ganglion cells were fluorescently labeled in situ, dissociated from the retina, and maintained in culture. With physiological solutions in the bath and the pipette, depolarizing voltage steps from physiological holding potentials activated Na(+)-(INa), Ca2+ (ICa), and K(+)-currents studied previously in retinal ganglion cells. Here we report on a slowly decaying K+ current, not heretofore reported in rat. With 4-AP, TEA, and Co2+ in the bath, to block IA, IK, and IK(Ca), respectively, a slowly decaying outward current was activated from -80 mV by steps positive to -40 mV. This current was present in 92% of all ganglion cells tested (n = 83). It activated within 10 ms and inactivated with a voltage-independent time constant of about 70 ms at 35 degrees C. Inactivation was voltage-dependent, half-maximal at -55 mV, and almost complete at 0 mV. The current was blocked by internal Cs+ and TEA, or by external application of 1 mM Ba2+, but not by 3 mM extracellular Co2+. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of this current are distinctly different from those of slowly inactivating K+ currents studied in other rat neurons. It was very similar, however, to a slowly inactivating K+ current previously reported in ganglion cells of tiger salamander retina. This last finding indicates conservation of a defined K+ channel type in functionally related cells in both lower vertebrates and mammals.

  2. A Thy1-CFP DBA/2J mouse line with cyan fluorescent protein expression in retinal ganglion cells

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, Iona D.; POOL, ANGELA L.; Vila, Alejandro; Nicholas C Brecha

    2009-01-01

    A DBA/2J (D2) transgenic mouse line with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) reporter expression in ganglion cells was developed for the analysis of ganglion cells during progressive glaucoma. The Thy1-CFP D2 (CFP-D2) line was created by congenically breeding the D2 line, which develops pigmentary glaucoma, and the Thy1-CFP line, which expresses CFP in ganglion cells. Microsatellite marker analysis of CFP-D2 progeny verified the genetic inclusion of the D2 isa and ipd loci. Specific mutations with...

  3. Resección guiada por ecografía de gangliones dorsales de muñeca. [Ultrasound-Guided resection of dorsal wrist ganglion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián G. Bustos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ción: el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar prospectivamente los resultados del drenaje de gangliones dorsales de muñeca y la ruptura de su pedículo guiada por ecografía, y determinar su tasa de recidiva, las complicaciones y los resultados subjetivos. Materiales ­y ­Métodos: se evaluaron prospectivamente 32 pacientes con gangliones dorsales sintomáticos de muñeca tratados mediante punción guiada por ecografía, aspiración del contenido y ruptura del pedículo con un trocar, entre enero de 2010 y junio de 2011. La edad de los pacientes promedió 31 años. Todos realizaban tareas administrativas, y retornaron a sus tareas habituales al día siguiente del procedimiento. El puntaje DASH previo al procedimiento fue, en promedio, de 2,90. El dolor previo al procedimiento promedió 7,75 puntos. Se separó a los pacientes en dos grupos, gangliones primarios (grupo 1: 19 pacientes y gangliones recurrentes con cirugía previa (grupo 2: 13 pacientes. Resultados: once pacientes tuvieron recidivas (34,3% al año de seguimiento: 5 del grupo 1 (26,31% y 6 del grupo 2 (46,1%. El puntaje DASH a los 6 meses promedió 1,91 (rango 1,02-3,98. El dolor a los 6 meses promedió 1,53 puntos (rango 0-4. Ningún paciente presentó complicaciones neurológicas o tendinosas, infección o hematomas (seguimiento promedio 6 meses. Conclusión:­ la técnica bajo control ecográfico es mínimamente invasiva con una tasa de recurrencia aceptable (26% en pacientes sin antecedente quirúrgico, considerando que plantea menores riesgos que los procedimientos quirúrgicos al igual que un menor costo y bajo costo laboral.

  4. Three dimensional-magnetic resonance imaging of dorsal root. Ganglion in lumbosacral disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, Gaku [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used for the diagnosis of lumbosacral disease. However, there are certain pitfalls in the use of this imaging technique. In particular, MRI is inadequate for accurate diagnosis of lateral spinal root lesions. Furthermore, it is also difficult to show the root ganglion of both sides on a plane by classical 2D-MRI. Moreover 2D-coronal views do not show several roots in one image because each lumbosacral nerve root is on a different plane. We have developed a new method of three-dimensional MRI (3D-MRI) which enables a stereoscopic view of the spinal cord and both sides of spinal nerve roots in one image. We evaluated three techniques of 3D-MRI, including rapid imaging spin echo (RISE), small tip angle gradient echo (STAGE) and short TI inversion recovery (STIR), in 30 patients with lumbar disc herniation. In a separate anatomical study lumbosacral nerve roots and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were investigated by 3D-MRI in 20 normal subjects. In a pathophysiological study the use of 3D-MRI defects the signal changes following damage to the spinal nerve roots or ganglion in 70 patients. Our results indicated that the STIR method is the best for identifying abnormalities of the spinal cord, roots and intervertebral disc. It was possible to image the lateral part of damaged nerve roots. The S1 angulations and length were significantly smaller than those of others (p<0.05). The S1 DRG was oval and was the largest. With regard to signal changes in damaged root ganglion, a good correlation between root compression and root edema was detected by basic experiments. We are currently examining the relationship between the damaged root ganglion, pain and sensory disturbance. This study showed that the dorsal root ganglion plays an important role in sensory control of radiculopathy. In conclusion, our new data show a close relationship between sensory loss, pain and DRG finding on 3D-MRI. (author)

  5. Enlarged superior cervical sympathetic ganglion mimicking a metastatic lymph node in the retropharyngeal space: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Jin Na; Kim, Se Hoon; Choi, Eun Chang [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The superior cervical sympathetic ganglion, the largest and most cranial of the three cervical sympathetic ganglia, transfers sympathetic signals to specific targets on the head and neck. This ganglion is located just lateral to the retropharyngeal space along the medial margin of the carotid sheath. Located thus, an enlarged superior cervical sympathetic ganglion can mimic a metastatic lymph node in the retropharyngeal space of the suprahyoid neck in head and neck cancer patients. However, this is often disregarded by radiologists due to lack of interest in its anatomic location. We present a case of an enlarged superior cervical sympathetic ganglion mimicking a retropharyngeal metastatic lymph node in a 42-year-old man with oral tongue cancer.

  6. Studies of Scleral Biomechanical Behavior Related to Susceptibility for Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Experimental Mouse Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Cathy; Cone, Frances E.; Nguyen, Thao D.; Coudrillier, Baptiste; Pease, Mary E.; Steinhart, Matthew R.; Ericka N Oglesby; Joan L Jefferys; Quigley, Harry A.

    2013-01-01

    With chronic experimental glaucoma, B6 mice are less resistant to ganglion cell loss than CD1 mice. The two strains are shown to differ in the mechanical properties of the sclera and its change in thickness with glaucoma.

  7. Nitric oxide in prepubertal rat ovary contribution of the ganglionic nitric oxide synthase system via superior ovarian nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casais, Marilina; Delgado, Silvia Marcela; Vallcaneras, Sandra; Sosa, Zulema; Rastrilla, Ana María

    2007-02-01

    Both peripheral innervation and nitric oxide (NO) participate in ovarian steroidogenesis. Considering the existence of the nitric oxide/ nitric oxide synthase system in the peripheral neural system and in the ovary, the aim of this work was to analyze if the liberation of NO in the ovarian compartment of prepubertal rats is of ovarian and/or ganglionic origin. The analysis is carried out from a physiological point of view using the experimental coeliac ganglion--Superior Ovarian Nerve--ovary model with and without ganglionic cholinergic stimulus Acetylcholine (Ach) 10(-6) M. Non selective and selective inhibitors of the synthase nitric oxide enzyme were added to the ovarian and ganglionic compartment, and the liberation of nitrites (soluble metabolite of the nitric oxide) in the ovarian incubation liquid was measured. We found that the non-selective inhibitor L-nitro-arginina methyl ester (L-NAME) in the ovarian compartment decreased the liberation of nitrites, and that Aminoguanidine (AG) in two concentrations in a non-dose dependent form provoked the same effect. The addition of Ach in ganglion magnified the effect of the inhibitors of the NOS enzyme. The most relevant results after the addition of inhibitors in ganglion were obtained with AG 400 and 800 microM. The inhibition was made evident with and without the joint action of Ach in ganglion. These data suggest that the greatest production of NO in the ovarian compartment comes from the ovary, mainly the iNOS isoform, though the coeliac ganglion also contributes through the superior ovarian nerve but with less quantity.

  8. Axonal transmission in the retina introduces a small dispersion of relative timing in the ganglion cell population response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Zeck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual stimuli elicit action potentials in tens of different retinal ganglion cells. Each ganglion cell type responds with a different latency to a given stimulus, thus transforming the high-dimensional input into a temporal neural code. The timing of the first spikes between different retinal projection neurons cells may further change along axonal transmission. The purpose of this study is to investigate if intraretinal conduction velocity leads to a synchronization or dispersion of the population signal leaving the eye. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We 'imaged' the initiation and transmission of light-evoked action potentials along individual axons in the rabbit retina at micron-scale resolution using a high-density multi-transistor array. We measured unimodal conduction velocity distributions (1.3±0.3 m/sec, mean ± SD for axonal populations at all retinal eccentricities with the exception of the central part that contains myelinated axons. The velocity variance within each piece of retina is caused by ganglion cell types that show narrower and slightly different average velocity tuning. Ganglion cells of the same type respond with similar latency to spatially homogenous stimuli and conduct with similar velocity. For ganglion cells of different type intraretinal conduction velocity and response latency to flashed stimuli are negatively correlated, indicating that differences in first spike timing increase (up to 10 msec. Similarly, the analysis of pair-wise correlated activity in response to white-noise stimuli reveals that conduction velocity and response latency are negatively correlated. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Intraretinal conduction does not change the relative spike timing between ganglion cells of the same type but increases spike timing differences among ganglion cells of different type. The fastest retinal ganglion cells therefore act as indicators of new stimuli for postsynaptic neurons. The intraretinal dispersion

  9. A Learning Model for L/M Specificity in Ganglion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2016-01-01

    An unsupervised learning model for developing LM specific wiring at the ganglion cell level would support the research indicating LM specific wiring at the ganglion cell level (Reid and Shapley, 2002). Removing the contributions to the surround from cells of the same cone type improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the chromatic signals. The unsupervised learning model used is Hebbian associative learning, which strengthens the surround input connections according to the correlation of the output with the input. Since the surround units of the same cone type as the center are redundant with the center, their weights end up disappearing. This process can be thought of as a general mechanism for eliminating unnecessary cells in the nervous system.

  10. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    for 3 days. Hearing loss and cochlear damage were assessed by distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem response at 16 kHz, and spiral ganglion neuron density. Results: Fifty-six days after infection, auditory brainstem response showed no significant differences between groups......, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions showed significant hearing loss at the low frequencies in animals treated with intratympanic steroid compared with animals treated with systemic saline (p neurons...... treatment prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. This finding is clinically relevant in relation to postmeningitic hearing rehabilitation by cochlear implantation. However, the drug instillation in the middle ear induced local fibrosis and a concurrent low...

  11. Histopathological findings of hemorrhagic ganglion cyst causing acute radicular pain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hyun; Im, Soo Bin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Hwang, Sun Chul; Shin, Dong-Seung; Shin, Won Han; Kim, Bum-Tae

    2013-12-01

    Although juxtafacet cysts of the lumbar spine are being reported with increasing frequency, hemorrhage from a ganglion cyst is rare, and the pathophysiologic mechanism of the hemorrhage from the cyst is still unclear. A 75-year-old male presented with sudden radicular leg pain caused by hemorrhage from the ganglion cyst. Computed tomography revealed bony erosion of vertebral body and multiple punched-out lesions on facets. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the neural structure was compressed by a sharply delineating mass. Capsule and old hematoma with elastic consistency that extended to the epidural space were removed through a paramedian transforaminal approach, which led to the resolution of the patient's symptoms. Histopathologically, chronic inflammation with neovascularization and myxoid degeneration were present in the capsule. Alcian blue staining demonstrated the mixture of mucin and hematoma. The probable pathogenesis of hemorrhage from the cyst was discussed from the unique histopathological findings of surgical specimen.

  12. Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells are resistant to neurodegeneration in mitochondrial optic neuropathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Morgia, C; Ross-Cisneros, F.N.; Sadun, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial optic neuropathies, that is, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and dominant optic atrophy, selectively affect retinal ganglion cells, causing visual loss with relatively preserved pupillary light reflex. The mammalian eye contains a light detection system based on a subset of retinal....... We studied the integrity of the retinohypothalamic tract in five patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, in four with dominant optic atrophy and in nine controls by testing the light-induced suppression of nocturnal melatonin secretion. This response was maintained in optic neuropathy...... subjects as in controls, indicating that the retinohypothalamic tract is sufficiently preserved to drive light information detected by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells. We then investigated the histology of post-mortem eyes from two patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and one case...

  13. Diversity of retinal ganglion cells identified by transient GFP transfection in organotypic tissue culture of adult marmoset monkey retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritoh, Satoru; Komatsu, Yusuke; Yamamori, Tetsuo; Koizumi, Amane

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian retina has more diversity of neurons than scientists had once believed in order to establish complicated vision processing. In the monkey retina, morphological diversity of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) besides dominant midget and parasol cells has been suggested. However, characteristic subtypes of RGCs in other species such as bistratified direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGC) have not yet been identified. Increasing interest has been shown in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkey as a "super-model" of neuroscientific research. Here, we established organotypic tissue culture of the adult marmoset monkey retina with particle-mediated gene transfer of GFP to survey the morphological diversity of RGCs. We successfully incubated adult marmoset monkey retinas for 2 to 4 days ex vivo for transient expression of GFP. We morphologically examined 121 RGCs out of more than 3240 GFP-transfected cells in 5 retinas. Among them, we identified monostratified or broadly stratified ganglion cells (midget, parasol, sparse, recursive, thorny, and broad thorny ganglion cells), and bistratified ganglion cells (recursive, large, and small bistratified ganglion cells [blue-ON/yellow-OFF-like]). By this survey, we also found a candidate for bistratified DSGC whose dendrites were well cofasciculated with ChAT-positive starburst dendrites, costratified with ON and OFF ChAT bands, and had honeycomb-shaped dendritic arbors morphologically similar to those in rabbits. Our genetic engineering method provides a new approach to future investigation for morphological and functional diversity of RGCs in the monkey retina.

  14. The Formation of a Pretibial Ganglion Cyst After the Reconstruction of an Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seok Jin; Park, Ji Seon; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Park, Yong Goo; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, So Young; Jin, Wook [Kyung Hee University East-West NEO Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    The formation of a pretibial ganglion cyst after the reconstruction of an anterior cruciate ligament is an uncommon complication which may be a result of the degradation of the biodegradable screw or a variety of other reasons. The authors report a case of a significantly large pretibial cyst, which probably occurred as a result of no treatment over a long period, along with a description of the clinical manifestations and radiologic findings

  15. Mechanotransduction and hyperpolarization-activated currents contribute to spontaneous activity in mouse vestibular ganglion neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Geoffrey C.; Risner-Janiczek, Jessica R.

    2014-01-01

    The hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide–sensitive current, Ih, is present in vestibular hair cells and vestibular ganglion neurons, and is required for normal balance function. We sought to identify the molecular correlates and functional relevance of Ih in vestibular ganglion neurons. Ih is carried by channels consisting of homo- or heteromeric assemblies of four protein subunits from the Hcn gene family. The relative expression of Hcn1–4 mRNA was examined using a quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) screen. Hcn2 was the most highly expressed subunit in vestibular neuron cell bodies. Immunolocalization of HCN2 revealed robust expression in cell bodies of all vestibular ganglion neurons. To characterize Ih in vestibular neuron cell bodies and at hair cell–afferent synapses, we developed an intact, ex vivo preparation. We found robust physiological expression of Ih in 89% of cell bodies and 100% of calyx terminals. Ih was significantly larger in calyx terminals than in cell bodies; however, other biophysical characteristics were similar. Ih was absent in calyces lacking Hcn1 and Hcn2, but small Ih was still present in cell bodies, which suggests expression of an additional subunit, perhaps Hcn4. To determine the contributions of hair cell mechanotransduction and Ih to the firing patterns of calyx terminals, we recorded action potentials in current-clamp mode. Mechanotransduction currents were modulated by hair bundle defection and application of calcium chelators to disrupt tip links. Ih activity was modulated using ZD7288 and cAMP. We found that both hair cell transduction and Ih contribute to the rate and regularity of spontaneous action potentials in the vestibular afferent neurons. We propose that modulation of Ih in vestibular ganglion neurons may provide a mechanism for modulation of spontaneous activity in the vestibular periphery. PMID:24638995

  16. Seasonally Changing Cryptochrome 1b Expression in the Retinal Ganglion Cells of a Migrating Passerine Bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Nießner

    Full Text Available Cryptochromes, blue-light absorbing proteins involved in the circadian clock, have been proposed to be the receptor molecules of the avian magnetic compass. In birds, several cryptochromes occur: Cryptochrome 2, Cryptochrome 4 and two splice products of Cryptochrome 1, Cry1a and Cry1b. With an antibody not distinguishing between the two splice products, Cryptochrome 1 had been detected in the retinal ganglion cells of garden warblers during migration. A recent study located Cry1a in the outer segments of UV/V-cones in the retina of domestic chickens and European robins, another migratory species. Here we report the presence of cryptochrome 1b (eCry1b in retinal ganglion cells and displaced ganglion cells of European Robins, Erithacus rubecula. Immuno-histochemistry at the light microscopic and electron microscopic level showed eCry1b in the cell plasma, free in the cytosol as well as bound to membranes. This is supported by immuno-blotting. However, this applies only to robins in the migratory state. After the end of the migratory phase, the amount of eCry1b was markedly reduced and hardly detectable. In robins, the amount of eCry1b in the retinal ganglion cells varies with season: it appears to be strongly expressed only during the migratory period when the birds show nocturnal migratory restlessness. Since the avian magnetic compass does not seem to be restricted to the migratory phase, this seasonal variation makes a role of eCry1b in magnetoreception rather unlikely. Rather, it could be involved in physiological processes controlling migratory restlessness and thus enabling birds to perform their nocturnal flights.

  17. Loss of Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells in Patients With Diabetic Retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obara, Elisabeth Anne; Hannibal, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Photo-entrainment of the circadian clock is mediated by melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) located in the retina. Patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy (DR) show impairment of light regulated circadian activity such as sleep disorders, altered blood pressure...... nuclear layer (INL), respectively. Conclusions: Our findings show that DR affects the expression of mRGCs in the human retina and could explain the abnormal circadian activity observed in patients with DR....

  18. Nerve Growth Factor Regulates Synaptophysin Expression In Developing Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Tarsa, L.; Balkowiec, A.

    2008-01-01

    The role of neuronal growth factors in synaptic maturation of sensory neurons, including trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons, remains poorly understood. Here, we show that nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates the intracellular distribution of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin (Syp) in newborn rat TG neurons in vitro. While reducing the number of Syp-positive cell bodies, NGF dramatically increases Syp immunoreactivity in both proximal and distal segments of the neurite. Intriguingly, the...

  19. Comparative visual function in elasmobranchs: spatial arrangement and ecological correlates of photoreceptor and ganglion cell distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litherland, Lenore; Collin, Shaun P

    2008-01-01

    The topographic analysis of retinal ganglion and photoreceptor cell distributions yields valuable information for assessing the visual capabilities and behavioral ecology of vertebrates. This study examines whole-mounted retinas of four elasmobranch species, the ornate wobbegong, Orectolobus ornatus; the whitetip reef shark, Triaenodon obesus; the epaulette shark, Hemiscyllium ocellatum; and the east Australia shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata, for regional specializations mediating zones of improved visual ability. These species represent a range of lifestyles: benthic, mid-water, diurnal, and nocturnal. Both photoreceptors (visualized using differential interference contrast optics) and ganglion cells (stained with cresyl violet) in the retina are extensively sampled, and their spatial distribution is found to be nonuniform, exhibiting areae or In general, the topographic distributions of both cell populations are in register and match well with respect to the location of regions of high density. However, the location of peaks in rod and cone densities can vary within a retina, indicating that preferential sampling of different regions of the visual field may occur in photopic and scotopic vision. Anatomical measures of the optical limits of resolving power, indicated by intercone spacing, range from 3.8 to 13.1 cycles/deg. Spatial limits of resolving power, calculated from ganglion cell spacing, range from 2.6 to 4.3 cycles/deg. Summation ratios, assessed by direct comparison of cell densities of photoreceptors (input cells) and ganglion cells (output cells), at more than 150 different loci across the retina, show topographic differences in signal convergence (ranging from 25:1 to over 70:1). Species-specific retinal specializations strongly correlate to the habitat and feeding behavior of each species.

  20. Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in the river hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius).

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    Coimbra, João Paulo; Bertelsen, Mads F; Manger, Paul R

    2017-08-01

    The river hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), one of the closest extant relatives to cetaceans, is a large African even-toed ungulate (Artiodactyla) that grazes and has a semiaquatic lifestyle. Given its unusual phenotype, ecology, and evolutionary history, we sought to measure the topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cell density using stereology and retinal wholemounts. We estimated a total of 243,000 ganglion cells of which 3.4% (8,300) comprise alpha cells. The topographic distribution of both total and alpha cells reveal a dual topographic organization of a temporal and nasal area embedded within a well-defined horizontal streak. Using maximum density of total ganglion cells and eye size (35 mm, axial length), we estimated upper limits of spatial resolving power of 8 cycles/deg (temporal area, 1,800 cells/mm2 ), 7.7 cycles/deg (nasal area, 1,700 cells/mm2 ), and 4.2 cycles/deg (horizontal streak, 250 cells/mm2 ). Enhanced resolution of the temporal area toward the frontal visual field may facilitate grazing, while resolution of the horizontal streak and nasal area may help the discrimination of objects (predators, conspecifics) in the lateral and posterior visual fields, respectively. Given the presumed role of alpha cells to detect brisk transient stimuli, their similar distribution to the total ganglion cell population may facilitate the detection of approaching objects in equivalent portions of the visual field. Our finding of a nasal area in the river hippopotamus retina supports the notion that this specialization may enhance visual sampling in the posterior visual field to compensate for limited neck mobility as suggested for rhinoceroses and cetaceans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, João Paulo; Manger, Paul R

    2017-08-01

    This study sought to determine whether the retinal organization of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), a large African herbivore with lips specialized for grazing in open savannahs, relates to its foraging ecology and habitat. Using stereology and retinal wholemounts, we estimated a total of 353,000 retinal ganglion cells. Their density distribution reveals an unusual topographic organization of a temporal (2,000 cells/mm2 ) and a nasal (1,800 cells/mm2 ) area embedded within a well-defined horizontal visual streak (800 cells/mm2 ), which is remarkably similar to the retinal organization in the black rhinoceros. Alpha ganglion cells comprise 3.5% (12,300) of the total population of ganglion cells and show a similar distribution pattern with maximum densities also occurring in the temporal (44 cells/mm2 ) and nasal (40 cells/mm2 ) areas. We found higher proportions of alpha cells in the dorsal and ventral retinas. Given their role in the detection of brisk transient stimuli, these higher proportions may facilitate the detection of approaching objects from the front and behind while grazing with the head at 45 °. Using ganglion cell peak density and eye size (29 mm, axial length), we estimated upper limits of spatial resolving power of 7 cycles/deg (temporal area), 6.6 cycles/deg (nasal area), and 4.4 cycles/deg (horizontal streak). The resolution of the temporal area potentially assists with grazing, while the resolution of the streak may be used for panoramic surveillance of the horizon. The nasal area may assist with detection of approaching objects from behind, potentially representing an adaptation compensating for limited neck and head mobility. J. Comp. Neurol., 525:2484-2498, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Intraosseous ganglion of the talus with extension in the subtalar joint

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    Pulak Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraosseous ganglion is a benign bony cyst that mainly involves the epiphysis and metaphysis of long bones. Intraosseous ganglions are rare in talus, and in all the cases reported in literature, the patients had symptoms pertaining to the ankle joint. No case has been reported where the lesion in the talus has caused symptoms specific to the subtalar joint. A 20-year-old female presented to our hospital with pain in the right foot from last 6 months. Ankle joint movements were within normal limits, but the subtalar movement were significantly reduced. Plain radiographs of the foot and ankle were normal. Computed tomography (CT scan of the foot and ankle showed a cystic lesion (0.5 × 0.5 cm involving the base of the talar body which communicated with the subtalar joint. The patient was treated by curettage of the lesion through a curvilinear incision over the medial aspect of the subtalar joint. The clinical results after 3 months were excellent. The patient returned to her regular and light recreational activities with full, painless range of motion. There was no recurrence of symptoms at 6 months. Intraosseous ganglion is of talus is a rare entity. Symptomatic patient should be treated surgically.

  3. Vision Recovery Despite Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Ann L

    2016-12-01

    To report vision recovery in a single case of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) (mtDNA14484/ND6 mutation) with longitudinal documentation of retinal ganglion cell layer by ocular coherence tomography (OCT) that includes the pre-onset, acute, and chronic stages of vision loss. We report LHON in a 16-year-old male patient with Type 1 diabetes and known and documented family history of LHON. The patient presented with best-corrected visual acuities of right eye 20/150 and left eye 20/25-. His retinal nerve fiber layer had thickened compared with baseline measures obtained 19 months before the onset of vision loss. Vision rapidly reduced to "hand movements" vision in each eye over the following 2 months. Despite OCT-documented significant recalcitrant loss of ganglion cell layer, visual acuity remarkably recovered to right eye 20/40+ left eye 20/50+ 16 months after onset of neuropathy. A selective loss of ganglion cells and nerve fiber layer can be documented in LHON. Significant recovery of visual acuity can occur without apparent structural recovery.

  4. GDF15 is elevated in mice following retinal ganglion cell death and in glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Norimitsu; Siegfried, Carla J; Lin, Jonathan B; Shui, Ying-Bo; Sein, Julia; Pita-Thomas, Wolfgang; Sene, Abdoulaye; Santeford, Andrea; Gordon, Mae; Lamb, Rachel; Dong, Zhenyu; Kelly, Shannon C; Cavalli, Valeria; Yoshino, Jun; Apte, Rajendra S

    2017-05-04

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Physicians often use surrogate endpoints to monitor the progression of glaucomatous neurodegeneration. These approaches are limited in their ability to quantify disease severity and progression due to inherent subjectivity, unreliability, and limitations of normative databases. Therefore, there is a critical need to identify specific molecular markers that predict or measure glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Here, we demonstrate that growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is associated with retinal ganglion cell death. Gdf15 expression in the retina is specifically increased after acute injury to retinal ganglion cell axons and in a murine chronic glaucoma model. We also demonstrate that the ganglion cell layer may be one of the sources of secreted GDF15 and that GDF15 diffuses to and can be detected in aqueous humor (AH). In validating these findings in human patients with glaucoma, we find not only that GDF15 is increased in AH of patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), but also that elevated GDF15 levels are significantly associated with worse functional outcomes in glaucoma patients, as measured by visual field testing. Thus, GDF15 maybe a reliable metric of glaucomatous neurodegeneration, although further prospective validation studies will be necessary to determine if GDF15 can be used in clinical practice.

  5. Edible wild vegetable, Gymnaster koraiensis protects retinal ganglion cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-A; Kang, Kui Dong; Lee, Eun Ha; Nho, Chu Won; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether Gymnaster koraiensis is effective at blunting the negative influence of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on the retinas of rats and on oxidative stress induced cell death in transformed retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5). The ethyl acetate fraction of G. koraiensis (EAGK) and the isolated compound, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3,5-DCQA), were shown to significantly attenuate the negative effect of H(2)O(2) on the RGC-5 cells tested by various procedures. The inclusion of EAGK or 3,5-DCQA in the culture reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and replenished the reduced glutathione levels caused by various radical species such as H(2)O(2,) O(2)()(-) or ()OH. Moreover, EAGK or 3,5-DCQA inhibited lipid peroxidation caused by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in rat brain homogenates. From in vivo experiments, the presence of NMDA in the retina affected the thickness of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) in positive ganglion cells. EAGK or 3,5-DCQA protected the thinning of the IPL and increased TUNEL positive cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Our results clearly demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of EAGK both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, 3,5-DCQA is suggested to be the active compound of EAGK. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A ganglion of the patellar tendon in patellar tendon-lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraine, Sébastien; Lagadec, Matthieu; Petrover, David; Genah, Idan; Parlier-Cuau, Caroline; Bousson, Valérie; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2013-09-01

    Intratendinous ganglia are rare. We report the case of a sedentary woman with chronic mechanical anterolateral pain of the knee and an extensive ganglion of the patellar tendon as indicated on magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound (US) examinations. There was evidence of a high-riding patella, patellar malalignment and patellar tendon-lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome with significantly close contact between the patellar tendon and the lateral facet of the femoral trochlea. The ultrasound-guided aspiration of the ganglion enabled a localized injection of an anti-inflammatory drug (cortivazol) and the cytopathological examination of the fluid, which confirmed the diagnosis. Clinical improvement was maintained with knee rehabilitation and was satisfactory at follow-up after 1 year. To our knowledge, we report the first case of a ganglion of the patellar tendon subsequent to patellar tendon-lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome. We found that this case was illustrative of mucoid degeneration in connective tissue due to chronic repetitive microtraumas. Additionally, this case provided the opportunity to discuss the management of this condition in a sedentary individual with a high-riding patella and patellar malalignment.

  7. Expression of Nav1.9 channels in human dental pulp and trigeminal ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jason E; Bingham, Val; Rowland, Kevin C; Hatton, John

    2007-10-01

    There is a higher incidence of local anesthetic failure in endodontic patients experiencing pulpal hyperalgesia. Up-regulation of Nav1.9, a voltage-gated sodium channel isoform, might play a key role in local anesthetic failure because Nav1.9 channels increase neuronal excitability and have low sensitivity to blockade by local anesthetics. Immunocytochemistry was used to examine Nav1.9 channel expression in axons of symptomatic (painful) versus asymptomatic human dental pulp and to determine Nav1.9 expression levels in neuronal somata of the human trigeminal ganglion. Nav1.9 channel immunoreactivity on pulpal axons was significantly increased in painful teeth. Nav1.9 channels were expressed in membranes and cytoplasm of human trigeminal ganglion neurons, with the highest expression in small neuronal somata. Nav1.9 expression in the trigeminal ganglion coupled with increased expression in symptomatic pulp might contribute to hypersensitivity of inflamed pulps and local anesthetic failure. Furthermore, the present study suggests that Nav1.9 channels are potential targets for novel anesthetics.

  8. A Guyon's canal ganglion presenting as occupational overuse syndrome: A case report

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    Hennessy Michael J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational overuse syndrome (OOS can present as Guyon's canal syndrome in computer keyboard users. We report a case of Guyon's canal syndrome caused by a ganglion in a computer user that was misdiagnosed as OOS. Case presentation A 54-year-old female secretary was referred with a six-month history of right little finger weakness and difficulty with adduction. Prior to her referral, she was diagnosed by her general practitioner and physiotherapist with a right ulnar nerve neuropraxia at the level of the Guyon's canal. This was thought to be secondary to computer keyboard use and direct pressure exerted on a wrist support. There was obvious atrophy of the hypothenar eminence and the first dorsal interosseous muscle. Both Froment's and Wartenberg's signs were positive. A nerve conduction study revealed that both the abductor digiti minimi and the first dorsal interosseus muscles showed prolonged motor latency. Ulnar conduction across the right elbow was normal. Ulnar sensory amplitude across the right wrist to the fifth digit was reduced while the dorsal cutaneous nerve response was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the right wrist showed a ganglion in Guyon's canal. Decompression of the Guyon's canal was performed and histological examination confirmed a ganglion. The patient's symptoms and signs resolved completely at four-month follow-up. Conclusion Clinical history, occupational history and examination alone could potentially lead to misdiagnosis of OOS when a computer user presents with these symptoms and we recommend that nerve conduction or imaging studies be performed.

  9. Spatially and Temporally Regulated NRF2 Gene Therapy Using Mcp-1 Promoter in Retinal Ganglion Cell Injury

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    Kosuke Fujita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cell degeneration triggered by axonal injury is believed to underlie many ocular diseases, including glaucoma and optic neuritis. In these diseases, retinal ganglion cells are affected unevenly, both spatially and temporally, such that healthy and unhealthy cells coexist in different patterns at different time points. Herein, we describe a temporally and spatially regulated adeno-associated virus gene therapy aiming to reduce undesired off-target effects on healthy retinal neurons. The Mcp-1 promoter previously shown to be activated in stressed retinal ganglion cells following murine optic nerve injury was combined with the neuroprotective intracellular transcription factor Nrf2. In this model, Mcp-1 promoter-driven NRF2 expression targeting only stressed retinal ganglion cells showed efficacy equivalent to non-selective cytomegalovirus promoter-driven therapy for preventing cell death. However, cytomegalovirus promoter-mediated NRF2 transcription induced cellular stress responses and death of Brn3A-positive uninjured retinal ganglion cells. Such undesired effects were reduced substantially by adopting the Mcp-1 promoter. Combining a stress-responsive promoter and intracellular therapeutic gene is a versatile approach for specifically targeting cells at risk of degeneration. This strategy may be applicable to numerous chronic ocular and non-ocular conditions.

  10. [Progression of nerve fiber layer defects in retrobulbar optic neuritis by the macular ganglion cell complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, D; Bosc, C; Chiambaretta, F

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies with SD OCT had shown early axonal damage to the macular ganglion cell complex (which consists of the three innermost layers of the retina: Inner Plexiform Layer [IPL], Ganglion Cell Layer [GCL], Retinal Nerve Fibre layer [RNFL]) in optic nerve pathology. Retrobulbar optic neuritis (RBON), occurring frequently in demyelinating diseases, leads to atrophy of the optic nerve fibers at the level of the ganglion cell axons, previously described in the literature. The goal of this study is to evaluate the progression of optic nerve fiber defects and macular ganglion cell complex defects with the SPECTRALIS OCT via a reproducible method by calculating a mean thickness in each quadrant after an episode of retrobulbar optic neuritis. This is a prospective monocentric observational study including 8 patients at the Clermont-Ferrand university medical center. All patients underwent ocular examination with macular and disc OCT analysis and a Goldmann visual field at the time of inclusion (onset or recurrence of RBON), at 3 months and at 6 months. Patients were 40-years-old on average at the time of inclusion. After 6 months of follow-up, there was progression of the atrophy of the macular ganglion cell complex in the affected eye on (11.5% or 11μm) predominantly inferonasally (13.9% or 16μm) and superonasally (12.9% or 14μm) while the other eye remained stable. The decrease in thickness occurred mainly in the most internal 3 layers of the retina. On average, the loss in thickness of the peripapillary RNFL was predominantly inferotemporal (24.9% or 39μm) and superotemporal (21.8% or 28μm). In 3 months of progression, the loss of optic nerve fibers is already seen on macular and disc OCT after an episode of RBON, especially in inferior quadrants in spite of the improvement in the Goldmann visual field and visual acuity. Segmentation by quadrant was used here to compare the progression of the defect by region compared to the fovea in a global and reproducible

  11. Comparative study of photoreceptor and retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in Dipsadidae snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauzman, Einat; Bonci, Daniela M O; Grotzner, Sonia R; Mela, Maritana; Liber, André M P; Martins, Sonia L; Ventura, Dora F

    2014-01-01

    The diurnal Dipsadidae snakes Philodryas olfersii and P. patagoniensis are closely related in their phylogeny but inhabit different ecological niches. P. olfersii is arboreal, whereas P. patagoniensis is preferentially terrestrial. The goal of the present study was to compare the density and topography of neurons, photoreceptors, and cells in the ganglion cell layer in the retinas of these two species using immunohistochemistry and Nissl staining procedures and estimate the spatial resolving power of their eyes based on the ganglion cell peak density. Four morphologically distinct types of cones were observed by scanning electron microscopy, 3 of which were labeled with anti-opsin antibodies: large single cones and double cones labeled by the antibody JH492 and small single cones labeled by the antibody JH455. The average densities of photoreceptors and neurons in the ganglion cell layer were similar in both species (∼10,000 and 7,000 cells·mm(-2), respectively). The estimated spatial resolving power was also similar, ranging from 2.4 to 2.7 cycles·degree(-1). However, the distribution of neurons had different specializations. In the arboreal P. olfersii, the isodensity maps had a horizontal visual streak, with a peak density in the central region and a lower density in the dorsal retina. This organization might be relevant for locomotion and hunting behavior in the arboreal layer. In the terrestrial P. patagoniensis, a concentric pattern of decreasing cell density emanated from an area centralis located in the naso-ventral retina. Lower densities were observed in the dorsal region. The ventrally high density improves the resolution in the superior visual field and may be an important adaptation for terrestrial snakes to perceive the approach of predators from above. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Density, proportion, and dendritic coverage of retinal ganglion cells of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus

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    F.L. Gomes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We performed a quantitative analysis of M and P cell mosaics of the common-marmoset retina. Ganglion cells were labeled retrogradely from optic nerve deposits of Biocytin. The labeling was visualized using horseradish peroxidase (HRP histochemistry and 3-3'diaminobenzidine as chromogen. M and P cells were morphologically similar to those found in Old- and New-World primates. Measurements were performed on well-stained cells from 4 retinas of different animals. We analyzed separate mosaics for inner and outer M and P cells at increasing distances from the fovea (2.5-9 mm of eccentricity to estimate cell density, proportion, and dendritic coverage. M cell density decreased towards the retinal periphery in all quadrants. M cell density was higher in the nasal quadrant than in other retinal regions at similar eccentricities, reaching about 740 cells/mm² at 2.5 mm of temporal eccentricity, and representing 8-14% of all ganglion cells. P cell density increased from peripheral to more central regions, reaching about 5540 cells/mm² at 2.5 mm of temporal eccentricity. P cells represented a smaller proportion of all ganglion cells in the nasal quadrant than in other quadrants, and their numbers increased towards central retinal regions. The M cell coverage factor ranged from 5 to 12 and the P cell coverage factor ranged from 1 to 3 in the nasal quadrant and from 5 to 12 in the other quadrants. These results show that central and peripheral retinal regions differ in terms of cell class proportions and dendritic coverage, and their properties do not result from simply scaling down cell density. Therefore, differences in functional properties between central and peripheral vision should take these distinct regional retinal characteristics into account.

  13. Treatment of patients with painful blind eye using stellate ganglion block

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    Tatiana Vaz Horta Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: management of pain in painful blind eyes is still a challenge. Corticosteroids and hypotensive agents, as well as evisceration and enucleation, are some of the strategies employed so far that are not always effective and, depending on the strategy, cause a deep emotional shock to the patient. Given these issues, the aim of this case report is to demonstrate a new and viable option for the management of such pain by treating the painful blind eye with the stellate ganglion block technique, a procedure that has never been described in the literature for this purpose. CASE REPORT: six patients with painful blind eye, all caused by glaucoma, were treated; in these patients, VAS (visual analogue scale for pain assessment, in which 0 is the absence of pain and 10 is the worst pain ever experienced ranged from 7 to 10. We opted for weekly sessions of stellate ganglion block with 4 mL of bupivacaine (0.5% without vasoconstrictor and clonidine 1 mcg/kg. Four patients had excellent results at VAS, ranging between 0 and 3, and two remained asymptomatic (VAS = 0, without the need for additional medication. The other two used gabapentin 300 mg every 12 h. CONCLUSION: currently, there are several therapeutic options for the treatment of painful blind eye, among which stand out the retrobulbar blocks with chlorpromazine, alcohol and phenol. However, an effective strategy with low rate of serious complications, which is non-mutilating and improves the quality of life of the patient, is essential. Then, stellate ganglion block arises as a demonstrably viable and promising option to meet this demand.

  14. PERCUTANEOUS BALLOON COMPRESSION OF GASSERIAN GANGLION FOR THE TREATMENT OF TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA: AN EXPERIENCE FROM INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anurag; Dhama, Vipin; Manik, Yogesh K; Upadhyaya, M K; Singh, C S; Rastogi, V

    2015-02-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by unilateral, lancinating, paroxysmal pain in the dermatomal distribution area of trigeminal nerve. Percutaneous balloon compression (PBC) of Gasserian ganglion is an effective, comparatively cheaper and simple therapeutic modality for treatment of TN. Compression secondary to PBC selectively injures the large myelinated A-alfa (afferent) fibers that mediate light touch and does not affect A-delta and C-fibres, which carry pain sensation. Balloon compression reduces the sensory neuronal input, thus turning off the trigger to the neuropathic trigeminal pain. In this current case series, we are sharing our experience with PBC of Gasserian Ganglion for the treatment of idiopathic TN in our patients at an academic university-based medical institution in India. During the period of August 2012 to October 2013, a total of twelve PBCs of Gasserian Ganglion were performed in eleven patients suffering from idiopathic TN. There were nine female patients and two male patients with the age range of 35-70 years (median age: 54 years). In all patients cannulation of foramen ovale was done successfully in the first attempt. In eight out of eleven (72.7%) patients ideal 'Pear-shaped' balloon visualization could be achieved. In the remaining three patients (27.3%), inflated balloon was 'Bullet-shaped'. In one patient final placement of Fogarty balloon was not satisfactory and it ruptured during inflation. This case was deferred for one week when it was completed successfully with 'Pear-shaped' balloon inflation. During the follow up period of 1-13 months, there have been no recurrences of TN. Eight out of eleven patients (72.7%) are completely off medicines (carbamazepine and baclofen) and other two patients are stable on very low doses of carbamazepine. All patients have reported marked improvement in quality of life. This case series shows that percutaneous balloon compression is a useful minimally invasive intervention for the

  15. Membrane properties of type II spiral ganglion neurones identified in a neonatal rat cochlear slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Daniel J; Housley, Gary D

    2003-01-01

    Neuro-anatomical studies in the mammalian cochlea have previously identified a subpopulation of approximately 5% of primary auditory neurones, designated type II spiral ganglion neurones (sgnII). These neurones project to outer hair cells and their supporting cells, within the ‘cochlear amplifier’ region. Physiological characterization of sgnII has proven elusive. Whole-cell patch clamp of spiral ganglion neurones in P7-P10 rat cochlear slices provided functional characterization of sgnII, identified by biocytin or Lucifer yellow labelling of their peripheral neurite projections (outer spiral fibres) subsequent to electrophysiological characterisation. SgnII terminal fields comprised multiple outer hair cells and supporting cells, located up to 370 μm basal to their soma. SgnII firing properties were defined by rapidly inactivating A-type-like potassium currents that suppress burst firing of action potentials. Type I spiral ganglion neurones (sgnI), had shorter radial projections to single inner hair cells and exhibited larger potassium currents with faster activation and slower inactivation kinetics, compatible with the high temporal firing fidelity seen in auditory nerve coding. Based on these findings, sgnII may be identified in future by the A-type current. Glutamate-gated somatic currents in sgnII were more potentiated by cyclothiazide than those in sgnI, suggesting differential AMPA receptor expression. ATP-activated desensitising inward currents were comparable in sgn II and sgnI. These data support a role for sgnII in providing integrated afferent feedback from the cochlear amplifier. PMID:14561834

  16. Radiofrequency ablation of stellate ganglion in a patient with complex regional pain syndrome

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    Chinmoy Roy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is characterized by a combination of sensory, motor, vasomotor, pseudomotor dysfunctions and trophic signs. We describe the use of radiofrequency (RF ablation of Stellate ganglion (SG under fluoroscopy, for long-term suppression of sympathetic nervous system, in a patient having CRPS-not otherwise specified. Although the effects of thermal RF neurolysis may be partial or temporary, they may promote better conditions toward rehabilitation. The beneficial effect obtained by the RF neurolysis of SG in this particular patient strongly advocates the use of this mode of therapy in patients with CRPS.

  17. A Pixel-Encoder Retinal Ganglion Cell with Spatially Offset Excitatory and Inhibitory Receptive Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Keith P. Johnson; Lei Zhao; Daniel Kerschensteiner

    2018-01-01

    The spike trains of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the only source of visual information to the brain. Here, we genetically identify an RGC type in mice that functions as a pixel encoder and increases firing to light increments (PixON-RGC). PixON-RGCs have medium-sized dendritic arbors and non-canonical center-surround receptive fields. From their receptive field center, PixON-RGCs receive only excitatory input, which encodes contrast and spatial information linearly. From their receptive ...

  18. The pattern of retinal ganglion cell dysfunction in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majander, A; Robson, A G; João, C; Holder, G E; Chinnery, P F; Moore, A T; Votruba, M; Stockman, A; Yu-Wai-Man, P

    2017-09-01

    Leber inherited optic neuropathy (LHON) is characterized by subacute bilateral loss of central vision due to dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Comprehensive visual electrophysiological investigations (including pattern reversal visual evoked potentials, pattern electroretinography and the photopic negative response) performed on 13 patients with acute and chronic LHON indicate early impairment of RGC cell body function and severe axonal dysfunction. Temporal, spatial and chromatic psychophysical tests performed on 7 patients with acute LHON and 4 patients with chronic LHON suggest severe involvement or loss of the midget, parasol and bistratified RGCs associated with all three principal visual pathways. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Retinal ganglion cells electrophysiology: the effect of cell morphology on impulse waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Matias I; Wong, Raymond; Cloherty, Shaun L; Ibbotson, Michael R; Hadjinicolaou, Alex E; Grayden, David B; Burkitt, Anthony N; Meffin, Hamish; O'Brien, Brendan J; Kameneva, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    There are 16 morphologically defined classes of rats retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Using computer simulation of a realistic anatomically correct A1 mouse RGC, we investigate the effect of the cell's morphology on its impulse waveform, using the first-, and second-order time derivatives as well as the phase plot features. Using whole cell patch clamp recordings, we recorded the impulse waveform for each of the rat RGCs types. While we found some clear differences in many features of the impulse waveforms for A2 and B2 cells compared to other cell classes, many cell types did not show clear differences.

  20. Distribution pattern of dorsal root ganglion neurons synthesizing nitric oxide synthase in different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesár, Dalibor; Kolesárová, Mária; Kyselovič, Ján

    2017-04-01

    The main aim of the present review is to provide at first a short survey of the basic anatomical description of sensory ganglion neurons in relation to cell size, conduction velocity, thickness of myelin sheath, and functional classification of their processes. In addition, we have focused on discussing current knowledge about the distribution pattern of neuronal nitric oxide synthase containing sensory neurons especially in the dorsal root ganglia in different animal species; hence, there is a large controversy in relation to interpretation of the results dealing with this interesting field of research.

  1. Compression Neuropathy of the Peroneal Nerve Secondary to a Ganglion Cyst

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    Eyup Cagatay Zengin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An 43-year-old man presented to our outpatient clinic with a three-month history of pain over the fibular head area and gait difficulty and foot drop. Physical examination and electromyogram studies verified a peroneal nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lobulated, multilocular, cystic-appearing mass extending around the fibular neck. Surgical decompression of the nerve with removal of the mass and careful articular branch ligation was performed. Surgical pathology reports confirmed the diagnosis of a ganglion cyst. The patient regained full motor function within six months of the decompression.

  2. Sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation induces changes in cardiac autonomic regulation in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, MC; Petersen, Anja Sofie; Guo, Song

    2017-01-01

    -frequency stimulation, there was a greater increase in heart rate compared to sham (Pattacks were reported (six following low......INTRODUCTION: Cluster headache is characterized by attacks of severe unilateral pain accompanied by cranial and systemic autonomic changes. Our knowledge of the latter is imperfect. This study aimed to investigate the effect of low-frequency sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation on cardiac autonomic...... regulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled crossover design, patients received low-frequency and sham stimulation. RR intervals were recorded, and heart rate variability was analysed (time-domain, frequency-domain, nonlinear parameters). Headache characteristics...

  3. Selective sensitivity to direction of movement in ganglion cells of the rabbit retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARLOW, H B; HILL, R M

    1963-02-01

    Among the ganglion cells in the rabbit's retina there is a class that responds to movement of a stimulus in one direction, and does not respond to movement in the opposite direction. The same directional selectivity holds over the whole receptive field of one such cell, but the selected direction differs in different cells. The discharge is almost uninfluenced by the intensity of the stimulus spot, and the response occurs for the same direction of movement when a black spot is substituted for a light spot.

  4. [Effect of stellate ganglion block on cardiomyocyte apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2/Bax protein in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongquan; Hu, Guangxiang; Fu, Qun; Jin, Xiaoju

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between apoptosis of myocardial cells in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax protein, and the protective effect of stellate ganglion block on apoptosis of myocardial cells. A total of 32 ten-week-old male SHRs were assigned randomly into 4 groups: a left stellate ganglion block group (group LS), a right stellate ganglion block group (group RS), a captopril group (group D) and a control group (group C). The arterial systolic blood pressure was measured by ALC-NIBP system. After 10 weeks, all rats were anaesthetized by 3% pentobarbital sodium, cardiomyocyte apoptosis index of left ventricle was assessed by TUNEL, and the localization of myocardium Bcl-2, Bax was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Compared with group LS and C, the apoptotic index decreased (Pblock can reduce the apoptosis of myocardial cells and reverse the reconstruction of the left ventricle in SHRs via regulation of apoptosis-related gene proteins.

  5. Differentiation of human neural progenitor cell-derived spiral ganglion-like neurons: a time-lapse video study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edin, Fredrik; Liu, Wei; Boström, Marja; Magnusson, Peetra U; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2014-05-01

    Human neural progenitor cells can differentiate into spiral ganglion-like cells when exposed to inner ear-associated growth factors. The phenotype bears resemblance to human sphere-derived neurons. To establish an in vitro model for the human auditory nerve to replace and complement in vivo animal experiments and ultimately human in vivo transplantation. Human neural progenitors were differentiated under conditions developed for in vitro survival of human primary spiral ganglion culture with media containing growth factors associated with inner ear development. Differentiation was documented using time-lapse video microscopy. Time-dependent marker expression was evaluated using immunocytochemistry with fluorescence and laser confocal microscopy. Within 14 days of differentiation, neural progenitors adopted neural phenotype and expressed spiral ganglion-associated markers.

  6. Cyan fluorescent protein expression in ganglion and amacrine cells in a thy1-CFP transgenic mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Iona D; Vila, Alejandro; Huynh, Uyen-Chi N; Brecha, Nicholas C

    2008-08-25

    To characterize cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) expression in the retina of the thy1-CFP (B6.Cg-Tg(Thy1-CFP)23Jrs/J) transgenic mouse line. CFP expression was characterized using morphometric methods and immunohistochemistry with antibodies to neurofilament light (NF-L), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), POU-domain protein (Brn3a) and calretinin, which immunolabel ganglion cells, and syntaxin 1 (HPC-1), glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD(67)), GABA plasma membrane transporter-1 (GAT-1), and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), which immunolabel amacrine cells. CFP was extensively expressed in the inner retina, primarily in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), nerve fiber layer, and optic nerve. CFP fluorescent cell bodies were in all retinal regions and their processes ramified in all laminae of the IPL. Some small, weakly CFP fluorescent somata were in the inner nuclear layer (INL). CFP-containing somata in the GCL ranged from 6 to 20 microm in diameter, and they had a density of 2636+/-347 cells/mm2 at 1.5 mm from the optic nerve head. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated colocalization of CFP with the ganglion cell markers NF-L, NeuN, Brn3a, and calretinin. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to HPC-1, GAD(67), GAT-1, and ChAT indicated that the small, weakly fluorescent CFP cells in the INL and GCL were cholinergic amacrine cells. The total number and density of CFP-fluorescent cells in the GCL were within the range of previous estimates of the total number of ganglion cells in the C57BL/6J line. Together these findings suggest that most ganglion cells in the thy1-CFP mouse line 23 express CFP. In conclusion, the thy1-CFP mouse line is highly useful for studies requiring the identification of ganglion cells.

  7. Estimation of Stellate Ganglion Block Injection Point Using the Cricoid Cartilage as Landmark Through X-ray Review

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jeong Soo; Kim, Ki Jun; Lee, Youn Woo; Yoon, Duck Mi; Yoon, Kyung Bong; Han, Min Young; Choi, Jong Bum

    2011-01-01

    Background Stellate ganglion block is usually performed at the transverse process of C6, because the vertebral artery is located anterior to the transverse process of C7. The purpose of this study is to estimate the location of the transverse process of C6 using the cricoid cartilage in the performance of stellate ganglion block. Methods We reviewed cervical lateral neutral-flexion-extension views of 48 patients who visited our pain clinic between January and June of 2010. We drew a horizonta...

  8. Progressive ganglion cell loss and optic nerve degeneration in DBA/2J mice is variable and asymmetric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen Katherine T

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of the retina, characterized by the degeneration of axons in the optic nerve and retinal ganglion cell apoptosis. DBA/2J inbred mice develop chronic hereditary glaucoma and are an important model system to study the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease and novel therapeutic interventions designed to attenuate the loss of retinal ganglion cells. Although the genetics of this disease in these mice are well characterized, the etiology of its progression, particularly with respect to retinal degeneration, is not. We have used two separate labeling techniques, post-mortem DiI labeling of axons and ganglion cell-specific expression of the βGeo reporter gene, to evaluate the time course of optic nerve degeneration and ganglion cell loss, respectively, in aging mice. Results Optic nerve degeneration, characterized by axon loss and gliosis is first apparent in mice between 8 and 9 months of age. Degeneration appears to follow a retrograde course with axons dying from their proximal ends toward the globe. Although nerve damage is typically bilateral, the progression of disease is asymmetric between the eyes of individual mice. Some nerves also exhibit focal preservation of tracts of axons generally in the nasal peripheral region. Ganglion cell loss, as a function of the loss of βGeo expression, is evident in some mice between 8 and 10 months of age and is prevalent in the majority of mice older than 10.5 months. Most eyes display a uniform loss of ganglion cells throughout the retina, but many younger mice exhibit focal loss of cells in sectors extending from the optic nerve head to the retinal periphery. Similar to what we observe in the optic nerves, ganglion cell loss is often asymmetric between the eyes of the same animal. Conclusion A comparison of the data collected from the two cohorts of mice used for this study suggests that the initial site of damage in this disease is

  9. Cellular Origin of Spontaneous Ganglion Cell Spike Activity in Animal Models of Retinitis Pigmentosa

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    David J. Margolis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we review evidence that loss of photoreceptors due to degenerative retinal disease causes an increase in the rate of spontaneous ganglion spike discharge. Information about persistent spike activity is important since it is expected to add noise to the communication between the eye and the brain and thus impact the design and effective use of retinal prosthetics for restoring visual function in patients blinded by disease. Patch-clamp recordings from identified types of ON and OFF retinal ganglion cells in the adult (36–210 d old rd1 mouse show that the ongoing oscillatory spike activity in both cell types is driven by strong rhythmic synaptic input from presynaptic neurons that is blocked by CNQX. The recurrent synaptic activity may arise in a negative feedback loop between a bipolar cell and an amacrine cell that exhibits resonant behavior and oscillations in membrane potential when the normal balance between excitation and inhibition is disrupted by the absence of photoreceptor input.

  10. A Novel Retinal Ganglion Cell Promoter for Utility in AAV Vectors

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    Killian S. Hanlon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances in gene therapy have enabled exploration of therapies for inherited retinal disorders, many of which are in preclinical development or clinical evaluation. Gene therapy for retinal conditions has led the way in this growing field. The loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs is a hallmark of a number of retinal disorders. As the field matures innovations that aid in refining therapies and optimizing efficacy are in demand. Gene therapies under development for RGC-related disorders, when delivered with recombinant adeno associated vectors (AAV, have typically been expressed from ubiquitous promoter sequences. Here we describe how a novel promoter from the murine Nefh gene was selected to drive transgene expression in RGCs. The Nefh promoter, in an AAV2/2 vector, was shown to drive preferential EGFP expression in murine RGCs in vivo following intravitreal injection. In contrast, EGFP expression from a CMV promoter was observed not only in RGCs, but throughout the inner nuclear layer and in amacrine cells located within the ganglion cell layer (GCL. Of note, the Nefh promoter sequence is sufficiently compact to be readily accommodated in AAV vectors, where transgene size represents a significant constraint. Moreover, this promoter should in principle provide a more targeted and potentially safer alternative for RGC-directed gene therapies.

  11. Implementing dynamic clamp with synaptic and artificial conductances in mouse retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin Y; Stiefel, Klaus M; Protti, Dario A

    2013-05-16

    Ganglion cells are the output neurons of the retina and their activity reflects the integration of multiple synaptic inputs arising from specific neural circuits. Patch clamp techniques, in voltage clamp and current clamp configurations, are commonly used to study the physiological properties of neurons and to characterize their synaptic inputs. Although the application of these techniques is highly informative, they pose various limitations. For example, it is difficult to quantify how the precise interactions of excitatory and inhibitory inputs determine response output. To address this issue, we used a modified current clamp technique, dynamic clamp, also called conductance clamp (1, 2, 3) and examined the impact of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs on neuronal excitability. This technique requires the injection of current into the cell and is dependent on the real-time feedback of its membrane potential at that time. The injected current is calculated from predetermined excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances, their reversal potentials and the cell's instantaneous membrane potential. Details on the experimental procedures, patch clamping cells to achieve a whole-cell configuration and employment of the dynamic clamp technique are illustrated in this video article. Here, we show the responses of mouse retinal ganglion cells to various conductance waveforms obtained from physiological experiments in control conditions or in the presence of drugs. Furthermore, we show the use of artificial excitatory and inhibitory conductances generated using alpha functions to investigate the responses of the cells.

  12. Color vision impairment in multiple sclerosis points to retinal ganglion cell damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, E J; Andorra, M; Torres-Torres, R; Ortiz-Pérez, S; Llufriu, S; Sepúlveda, M; Sola, N; Saiz, A; Sánchez-Dalmau, B; Villoslada, P; Martínez-Lapiscina, Elena H

    2015-11-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) results in color vision impairment regardless of optic neuritis (ON). The exact location of injury remains undefined. The objective of this study is to identify the region leading to dyschromatopsia in MS patients' NON-eyes. We evaluated Spearman correlations between color vision and measures of different regions in the afferent visual pathway in 106 MS patients. Regions with significant correlations were included in logistic regression models to assess their independent role in dyschromatopsia. We evaluated color vision with Hardy-Rand-Rittler plates and retinal damage using Optical Coherence Tomography. We ran SIENAX to measure Normalized Brain Parenchymal Volume (NBPV), FIRST for thalamus volume and Freesurfer for visual cortex areas. We found moderate, significant correlations between color vision and macular retinal nerve fiber layer (rho = 0.289, p = 0.003), ganglion cell complex (GCC = GCIP) (rho = 0.353, p dyschromatopsia [OR = 0.88 95 % CI (0.80-0.97) p = 0.016]. This association remained significant when we also added sex, age, and disease duration as covariates in the regression model. Dyschromatopsia in NON-eyes is due to damage of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in MS. Color vision can serve as a marker of RGC damage in MS.

  13. Case report: intra-tendinous ganglion of the anterior cruciate ligament in a young footballer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Thomas P

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 20-year-old male medical student and keen rugby player presented with a 12-month history of progressively worsening right knee pain and stiffness with no history of trauma. Clinical examination revealed effusion and posterior knee pain exacerbated by end range movement and an extension lag of 15 degrees. Physiotherapy to improve the range of motion proved unsuccessful. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the ACL was grossly thickened and displaced by material reported as mucoid in nature. There were also areas of focally high signal in relation to its tibial attachment and intra osseous small cysts. Arthroscopic examination revealed a ganglion related to the tibial attachment of the ACL and gross thickening and discoloration of the ACL. Biopsies were taken showing foci of mucoid degeneration in the ACL. A large intra-ACL mass of brownish coloured tissue was excised arthroscopically. Already at 2 weeks follow up the patient had greatly improved range of movement and was pain free. However, upon returning to rugby, joint instability was noticed and a tear of the ACL was confirmed. This rare clinical condition can be diagnosed with MRI and arthroscopic debridement effectively relieves symptoms. This case report illustrates that augmentation or reconstruction may end up being the definitive treatment for athletes. It may also offer some support to the argument that mucoid degeneration and ganglion cyst formation share a similar pathogenesis to intra-osseous cyst formation.

  14. Spatial relationship of organized rotational and focal sources in human atrial fibrillation to autonomic ganglionated plexi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykaner, Tina; Zografos, Theodoros A; Zaman, Junaid A B; Pantos, Ioannis; Alhusseini, Mahmood; Navara, Rachita; Krummen, David E; Narayan, Sanjiv M; Katritsis, Demosthenes G

    2017-08-01

    One approach to improve ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is to focus on physiological targets including focal or rotational sources or ganglionic plexi (GP). However, the spatial relationship between these potential mechanisms has never been studied. We tested the hypothesis that rotors and focal sources for AF may co-localize with ganglionated plexi (GP). We prospectively identified locations of AF rotors and focal sources, and correlated these to GP sites in 97 consecutive patients (age 59.9±11.4, 73% persistent AF). AF was recorded with 64-pole catheters with activation/phase mapping, and related to anatomic GP sites on electroanatomic maps. AF sources arose in 96/97 (99%) patients for 2.6±1.4 sources per patient (left atrium: 1.7±0.9 right atrium: 1.1±0.8), each with an area of 2-3cm2. On area analyses, the probability of an AF source randomly overlapping a GP area was 26%. Left atrial sources were seen in 94 (97%) patients, in whom ≥1 source co-localized with GP in 75 patients (80%; psources were more likely to colocalize with left vs right GPs (p65, diabetes; psources in the left atrium often colocalize with regions of autonomic innervation. Studies should define if the role of AF sources differs by their anatomical location. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel astrovirus associated with encephalitis and ganglionitis in domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, F; Schlottau, K; Scholes, S; Courtenay, A; Hoffmann, B; Höper, D; Beer, M

    2017-06-01

    In June 2013, a 4-year-old Welsh Mountain ewe and in March 2014 a 10-day-old lamb of the same breed and the same flock presented progressive neurological signs including depressed sensorium, tremor, and unusual behaviour. Neuropathological examination of the brain and spinal cord detected non-suppurative polioencephalomyelitis and dorsal root ganglionitis, characteristic of a neurotropic viral agent in both sheep. Metagenomic analysis of different tissue samples from both animals identified a novel Ovine Astrovirus (OvAstV). The presence of viral genome in the central nervous system was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Although the cases presented nine months apart, the identified OvAstV shared nearly identical sequences, differing in only three nucleotide positions across the complete genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relation of OvAstV to neurotropic bovine astroviruses and an enteric OvAstV. In conclusion, these are the first reported cases of astrovirus infection in domestic sheep that were associated with encephalitis and ganglionitis. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Without Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karti, Omer; Nalbantoglu, Ozlem; Abali, Saygin; Ayhan, Ziya; Tunc, Selma; Kusbeci, Tuncay; Ozkan, Behzat

    2017-06-01

    Early diabetic retinal changes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without diabetic retinopathy (DR) were examined using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Sixty children with T1DM without DR and 60 normal children were enrolled in the study. SD-OCT was used to measure the ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) and retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) thicknesses in all participants. The GC-IPL thickness was significantly decreased in all quadrants except the superior-nasal quadrant in children with diabetes (P .05). There was a decreased GC-IPL thickness in children with T1DM without DR, suggesting that T1DM has an early neurodegenerative effect on retinal ganglion cells that occurs when the vascular component of DR is absent. SD-OCT may be more useful than ophthalmoscopic evaluation for detecting the earlier retinal structural changes of diabetes. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:473-477.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Autophagy in retinal ganglion cells in a rhesus monkey chronic hypertensive glaucoma model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuifeng Deng

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by physiological intraocular hypertension that causes damage to the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. In the past, RGC damage in POAG was suggested to have been attributed to RGC apoptosis. However, in the present study, we applied a model closer to human POAG through the use of a chronic hypertensive glaucoma model in rhesus monkeys to investigate whether another mode of progressive cell death, autophagy, was activated in the glaucomatous retinas. First, in the glaucomatous retinas, the levels of LC3B-II, LC3B-II/LC3B-I and Beclin 1 increased as demonstrated by Western blot analyses, whereas early or initial autophagic vacuoles (AVi and late or degraded autophagic vacuoles (AVd accumulated in the ganglion cell layer (GCL and in the inner plexiform layer (IPL as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis. Second, lysosome activity and autophagosome-lysosomal fusion increased in the RGCs of the glaucomatous retinas, as demonstrated by Western blotting against lysosome associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP1 and double labeling against LC3B and LAMP1. Third, apoptosis was activated in the glaucomatous eyes with increased levels of caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3 and an increased number of TUNEL-positive RGCs. Our results suggested that autophagy was activated in RGCs in the chronic hypertensive glaucoma model of rhesus monkeys and that autophagy may have potential as a new target for intervention in glaucoma treatment.

  18. Arthroscopic versus open excision of dorsal ganglion cysts: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Catherine; Keswani, Aakash; Lovy, Andrew J; Levy, Isaiah; Lutz, Kristina; Kim, Jaehon; Hausman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review comparing recurrence and complication rate following open versus arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts. Sixteen full-text articles were included. The pooled recurrence rate of open excision was 20% (range: 5.6-40.7%) with Q value of 27 and I2 of 82%. The pooled recurrence rate of arthroscopic excision was 9% (range: 0-17%) with Q value of 10 and I2 of 2%. Eleven of 16 studies were low quality or had a high risk of bias; however, excluding low quality studies or those with high risk of bias produced similar recurrence rates in arthroscopic and open excision (7.9% versus 9.8%). For the subset of studies with complete reporting of complications, rates were similar in open and arthroscopic excision (6% versus 4%). Our review suggests that arthroscopic and open approaches have comparable outcome profiles. Nevertheless, standardized study methods with adequate powering are required to collect high quality data, allowing for greater confidence in conclusions regarding these two approaches for existing ganglion cysts. II.

  19. Ganglion Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo Quistes sinoviales Síndrome del túnel carpiano Epicondilitis lateral (codo ... de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo Quistes sinoviales Síndrome del túnel carpiano Resources All Topics ...

  20. A family of chemoreceptors in Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohatmed Abdel-Latief

    Full Text Available Chemoperception in invertebrates is mediated by a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. To date nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms of chemoperception in coleopteran species. Recently the genome of Tribolium castaneum was sequenced for use as a model species for the Coleoptera. Using blast searches analyses of the T. castaneum genome with previously predicted amino acid sequences of insect chemoreceptor genes, a putative chemoreceptor family consisting of 62 gustatory receptors (Grs and 26 olfactory receptors (Ors was identified. The receptors have seven transmembrane domains (7TMs and all belong to the GPCR receptor family. The expression of the T. castaneum chemoreceptor genes was investigated using quantification real- time RT-PCR and in situ whole mount RT-PCR analysis in the antennae, mouth parts, and prolegs of the adults and larvae. All of the predicted TcasGrs were expressed in the labium, maxillae, and prolegs of the adults but TcasGr13, 19, 28, 47, 62, 98, and 61 were not expressed in the prolegs. The TcasOrs were localized only in the antennae and not in any of the beetles gustatory organs with one exception; the TcasOr16 (like DmelOr83b, which was localized in the antennae, labium, and prolegs of the beetles. A group of six TcasGrs that presents a lineage with the sugar receptors subfamily in Drosophila melanogaster were localized in the lacinia of the Tribolium larvae. TcasGr1, 3, and 39, presented an ortholog to CO(2 receptors in D. melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae was recorded. Low expression of almost all of the predicted chemoreceptor genes was observed in the head tissues that contain the brains and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG. These findings demonstrate the identification of a chemoreceptor family in Tribolium, which is evolutionarily related to other insect species.

  1. A family of chemoreceptors in Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latief, Mohatmed

    2007-12-19

    Chemoperception in invertebrates is mediated by a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). To date nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms of chemoperception in coleopteran species. Recently the genome of Tribolium castaneum was sequenced for use as a model species for the Coleoptera. Using blast searches analyses of the T. castaneum genome with previously predicted amino acid sequences of insect chemoreceptor genes, a putative chemoreceptor family consisting of 62 gustatory receptors (Grs) and 26 olfactory receptors (Ors) was identified. The receptors have seven transmembrane domains (7TMs) and all belong to the GPCR receptor family. The expression of the T. castaneum chemoreceptor genes was investigated using quantification real- time RT-PCR and in situ whole mount RT-PCR analysis in the antennae, mouth parts, and prolegs of the adults and larvae. All of the predicted TcasGrs were expressed in the labium, maxillae, and prolegs of the adults but TcasGr13, 19, 28, 47, 62, 98, and 61 were not expressed in the prolegs. The TcasOrs were localized only in the antennae and not in any of the beetles gustatory organs with one exception; the TcasOr16 (like DmelOr83b), which was localized in the antennae, labium, and prolegs of the beetles. A group of six TcasGrs that presents a lineage with the sugar receptors subfamily in Drosophila melanogaster were localized in the lacinia of the Tribolium larvae. TcasGr1, 3, and 39, presented an ortholog to CO(2) receptors in D. melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae was recorded. Low expression of almost all of the predicted chemoreceptor genes was observed in the head tissues that contain the brains and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG). These findings demonstrate the identification of a chemoreceptor family in Tribolium, which is evolutionarily related to other insect species.

  2. CT and SPECT in two-cell-pattern germinoma arising from a unilateral thalamus and a basal ganglion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Kamisato, Nobuo; Kowada, Masayoshi; Ogayama, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kazuo.

    1988-06-01

    A case of primary intracranial germ-cell tumor involving a unilateral thalamus and a basal ganglion is presented. A 15-year-old boy was referred to the hospital for an evaluation of right hemiparesis and diabetes insipidus. A CT scan showed a slightly hyperdense mass lesion involving the left thalamic and basal ganglionic regions. The mass was homogeneously enhanced after the intravenous administration of a contrast medium. Serial cerebral angiograms revealed an avascular mass lesion, and neither tumor vessels nor tumor stains were visualized. Single-photon emission CT (SPECT) revealed that the mean cerebral blood flow in the entire affected hemisphere decreased by 12 - 15 %. The tumor was biopsied by a left subtemporal approach using an operating microscope; the histological diagnosis was that of ''two-cell-pattern'' germinoma. Postoperatively the patient underwent cranial irradiation (53.5 Gy) over a period of six weeks. Subsequent CT scans showed a complete disappearance of the enhancing lesion at the left basal ganglion. Primary germ-cell tumors arising from the unilateral thalamus and basal ganglion, as reported in the literature, are reviewed, with special reference to their CT appearances; the possible mechanism of an extensive decrease in the mean hemispheric cerebral blood flow, as delineated by SPECT in the present case, is also discussed.

  3. Ultrasound-guided bilateral stellate ganglion blockade to treat digital ischemia in a patient with sepsis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Benoît; Nucci, Bastian; Mora, Michel; Silva, Stein; Cocquet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the use of ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion blockade to treat sepsis-related digital ischemia in the intensive care unit (ICU). A 71-yr-old female was admitted to the ICU with septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) following an initial right hemicolectomy complicated by an anastomotic leak and peritonitis. The patient's condition was further complicated by an abdominal abscess 22 days later. She had type-2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension but no history of vascular disease. With continuing sepsis from the abscess and requiring mechanical ventilation due to ARDS, she developed upper limb digital ischemia refractory to treatment with a low dose of dobutamine and isosorbide dinitrate. We subsequently performed ultrasound-guided bilateral stellate ganglion blockade with the intent of restoring perfusion to her fingers before digital necrosis developed. One hour after each stellate ganglion block, the symptoms of digital ischemia completely resolved. The benefit persisted for two days, and then a repeat block was performed with similar results. This case illustrates the potential advantages of ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion blockade for the treatment of sepsis-related digital ischemia refractory to standard therapy.

  4. Glia-Neuron Interactions in the Retina Can Be Studied in Cocultures of Muller Cells and Retinal Ganglion Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytt, D. M.; Toft-Kehler, A. K.; Braendstrup, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Glia-neuron partnership is important for inner retinal homeostasis and any disturbances may result in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Müller cells support RGCs with essential functions such as removing excess glutamate and providing energy sources. The aim was to explore the impact of Müller c...

  5. Bilateral Ganglion Cysts of the Ligamentum Flavum in the Cervical Spine Causing a Progressive Cervical Radiculomyelopathy and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juneki Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a unique case of bilateral ganglion cysts originating from the ligamentum flavum in the cervical spine. Degenerative cysts of the ligamentum flavum are rare lesions, and most had been reported in the lumbar spine. Its occurrence in the cervical spine is extremely rare: only eight have been reported. A 66-year-old male patient presented with progressive paraparesis, pain, and paresthesia in his bilateral T1 dermatomes that had lasted for three weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine demonstrated a well-demarcated cystic lesion in the bilateral dorsolateral aspects of the C7/T1 segment and significant compression of the cervical cord. All case reports of ganglion cysts of the cervical ligamentum flavum including the present one showed characteristic symptoms and signs of myelopathy such as paraparesis or quadriparesis associated with varying degrees of paresthesia or pain in the upper extremities. Ganglion cysts of the cervical ligamentum flavum are considered a cause of cervical radiculomyelopathy due to cervical intraspinal cystic lesions. Bilateral occurrence and associated subluxation of the involved cervical segments again support the degenerative pathogenesis of ganglion cysts of the ligamentum flavum in the cervical spine.

  6. Influence of the sodium channel band on retinal ganglion cell excitation during electric stimulation--a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werginz, P; Fried, S I; Rattay, F

    2014-04-25

    Electric stimulation using retinal implants allows blind people to re-experience a rudimentary kind of vision. The elicited percepts or so called 'phosphenes' are highly inconstant and therefore do not restore vision properly. The better knowledge of how retinal neurons, especially retinal ganglion cells, respond to electric stimulation will help to develop more sophisticated stimulation strategies. Special anatomic and physiologic properties like a band of highly dense sodium channels in retinal ganglion cells may help to achieve a focal activation of target cells and as a result better restoration of vision. A portion of retinal ganglion cell axons, about 40μm from the soma and between 25 and 40μm in length, shows a specific biophysical property. Electrode locations close to a band of highly dense sodium channels which were identified immunochemically show lowest thresholds during electric stimulation. The (modeled) thresholds for this kind of structure result in lowest thresholds as well. The influence on the location where action potentials are generated within the axon is far reaching. When a stimulating electrode is positioned far outside the actual band region the site of spike initiation still remains within the sodium channel band. These findings suggest to further examine the key mechanisms of activation for retinal ganglion cells because focal activation without influencing passing axons of neurons located far away can improve the outcome of electric stimulation and therefore the development of retinal implants. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anatomical study on the relationship between the dorsal root ganglion and the intervertebral disc in the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Vialle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To describe the location of the dorsal root ganglion in relation to the intervertebral disc, including the "triangular" safety zone for minimally invasive surgery in the lumbar spine. METHODS: Eight adult cadavers were dissected bilaterally in the lumbar region, using a posterolateral approach, so as to expose the L3L4 and L4L5 spaces, thereby obtaining measurements relating to the space between the intervertebral disc, pedicles cranial and caudal to the disc, path of the nerve root, dorsal ganglion and safety triangle. RESULTS: The measurements obtained were constant, without significant differences between levels or any laterality. The dorsal ganglion occupied the lateral border of the triangular safety zone in all the specimens analyzed. CONCLUSION: Precise localization of the ganglion shows that the safety margin for minimally invasive procedures is less than what is presented in studies that only involve measurements of the nerve root, thus perhaps explaining the presence of neuropathic pain after some of these procedures.

  8. Anti-Epileptic Drugs Delay Age-Related Loss of Spiral Ganglion Neurons via T-type Calcium Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Debin; Gao, Xia; Perez, Philip; Ohlemiller, Kevin K; Chen, Chien-Chang; Campbell, Kevin P.; Hood, Aizhen Yang; Bao, Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Loss of spiral ganglion neurons is a major cause of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis). Despite being the third most prevalent condition afflicting elderly persons, there are no known medications to prevent presbycusis. Because calcium signaling has long been implicated in age-related neuronal death, we investigated T-type calcium channels. This family is comprised of three members (Cav3.1, Cav3.2, and Cav3.3), based on their respective main pore-forming alpha subunits: α1G, α1H, and α1I. In the present study, we report a significant delay of age-related loss of cochlear function and preservation of spiral ganglion neurons in α1H null and heterozygous mice, clearly demonstrating an important role for Cav3.2 in age-related neuronal loss. Furthermore, we show that anticonvulsant drugs from a family of T-type calcium channel blockers can significantly preserve spiral ganglion neurons during aging. To our knowledge, this is the first report of drugs capable of diminishing age-related loss of spiral ganglion neurons. PMID:21640179

  9. Increased population of immature enteric glial cells in the resected proximal ganglionic bowel of Hirschsprung's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Gakuto; Tomuschat, Christian; O'Donnell, Anne Marie; Coyle, David; Puri, Prem

    2017-10-01

    Enteric glial cells are essential for normal gastrointestinal function. Abnormalities in glial structure, development, or function lead to disturbances in gastrointestinal physiology. Fatty acid-binding protein 7 (FABP7) is a marker of immature enteric glial cells, whereas S100 is expressed only by mature glial cells. Patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) often suffer from dysmotility and enterocolitis despite proper surgery. We designed this study to determine the distribution and expression of glial cells in patients with HSCR compared to normal controls. We investigated FABP7, S100, and PGP 9.5 expressions in both the ganglionic and aganglionic bowel of patients with HSCR (n = 6) versus normal control colon (n = 6). Protein distribution was assessed by using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Gene and protein expressions were quantified using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Western blot analysis, and densitometry. qPCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated a significantly increased FABP7 expression in ganglionic specimens compared to control specimen (P < 0.05). Confocal microscopy revealed FABP7+ glia cells lie under the colonic epithelium and in close apposition to enteric neurons in the ganglionic bowel. The significantly increased number of immature enteric glial cells (EGCs) in the ganglionic bowel of HSCR patients may have adverse effect on the function of enteric neurons and intestinal barrier and thus predispose these patients to intestinal motility problems and enterocolitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. One-day high-fat diet induces inflammation in the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waise, T M Zaved; Toshinai, Koji; Naznin, Farhana; NamKoong, Cherl; Md Moin, Abu Saleh; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2015-09-04

    A high-fat diet (HFD) induces inflammation in systemic organs including the hypothalamus, resulting in obesity and diabetes. The vagus nerve connects the visceral organs and central nervous system, and the gastric-derived orexigenic peptide ghrelin transmits its starvation signals to the hypothalamus via the vagal afferent nerve. Here we investigated the inflammatory response in vagal afferent neurons and the hypothalamus in mice following one day of HFD feeding. This treatment increased the number of macrophages/microglia in the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus. Furthermore, one-day HFD induced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in the goblet cells of the colon and upregulated mRNA expressions of the proinflammatory biomarkers Emr1, Iba1, Il6, and Tnfα in the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus. Both subcutaneous administration of ghrelin and celiac vagotomy reduced HFD-induced inflammation in these tissues. HFD intake triggered inflammatory responses in the gut, nodose ganglion, and subsequently in the hypothalamus within 24 h. These findings suggest that the vagal afferent nerve may transfer gut-derived inflammatory signals to the hypothalamus via the nodose ganglion, and that ghrelin may protect against HFD-induced inflammation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chiropractic management of work-related upper limb disorder complicated by intraosseous ganglion cysts: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crafts, Glenn J.; Snow, Gregory J.; Ngoc, Kim Hong

    2011-01-01

    Objective Work-related upper limb disorder (WRULD) encompasses a broad array of occupational upper limb injuries, the most common being carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Carpal tunnel syndrome occasionally presents with concomitant ganglion cysts. The purpose of this case report is to describe the chiropractic management of a patient with bilateral WRULD complicated by ganglion cysts. Clinical Features The patient was diagnosed previously with bilateral CTS and presented with common CTS symptoms that were nonresponsive to several previous courses of care. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral ganglion cysts, and electrodiagnostic studies found left CTS and bilateral radial neuralgia. Right limb findings appeared more consistent with nonspecific arm pain. Intervention and Outcome Chiropractic manipulative therapy, soft-tissue approaches, and physiotherapy modalities were applied to the arms and wrists over a 3-month period. Home care included exercises using elastic tubing and a gyroscopic handheld device. Chiropractic manipulative therapy and other conservative approaches resulted in subjective improvements of decreased hand paresthesias and muscle weakness and objective improvements in range of motion and neurologic deficits. Although the patient's symptoms and function improved, she remained with a level of permanent impairment. Conclusion This case demonstrates successful chiropractic management of a patient with WRULD complicated by ganglion cysts. Further larger-scale studies are recommended to determine if chiropractic management demonstrates positive outcomes for this condition. PMID:22014905

  12. Radiological anatomy assessment of the fissura pterygomaxillaris for a surgical approach to ganglion pterygopalatinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche-Torres, Miguel; Blasco-Serra, Arantxa; Campos-Peláez, Ana; Valverde-Navarro, Alfonso A

    2017-12-01

    The ganglion pterygopalatinum has become a therapeutic target to treat various pain syndromes in recent years. It is located in the fossa pterygopalatina, and the fissura pterygomaxillaris is the main access to surgically approach this structure. Recently, the neuromodulation of the ganglion pterygopalatinum by microstimulator implantation has become the first therapeutic line in refractory cluster headache treatment. This invasive technique is performed transorally through the fissura pterygomaxillaris, and is limited by the size of the implantation device, which requires an opening of at least 2 mm. Therefore, extensive knowledge about the anatomy of the fissura pterygomaxillaris prior to surgery is necessary to predict the success of both the approach and intervention. Likewise, establishing a morphological typology of the different fissura pterygomaxillaris variations would be a valuable predictive tool in the clinical practice. In this work, an anatomical analysis was performed of the morphological characteristics of the 242 fissurae pterygomaxillares, which corresponded to 121 adult patients, 58 males and 63 females, aged between 18 and 87 years. For each subject, right and left fissures were studied with radiological computed tomography images. Aperture fissura pterygomaxillaris measurements were taken in an upper (Measure A), middle (Measure B) and lower craneo-caudal third (Measure C). Intra-subject differences were studied between the measurements taken of each patient's right and left fissures, and the inter-subject measures in which fissures were compared according to patients' age and gender. The obtained results showed no significant differences between each patient's right and left fissures in any three measurements taken. Intra-subject differences were not significant for gender or age. No statistically significant differences were found for the inter-subject measures between the measures of fissures according to patients' age. However, our data

  13. Pulsed Radiofrequency to the Dorsal Root Ganglion in Acute Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Koohyun; Jo, Daehyun; Kim, EungDon

    2017-03-01

    Latent varicella zoster virus reactivates mainly in sensory ganglia such as the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) or trigeminal ganglion. The DRG contains many receptor channels and is an important region for pain signal transduction. Sustained abnormal electrical activity to the spinal cord via the DRG in acute herpes zoster can result in neuropathic conditions such as postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Although the efficacy of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) application to the DRG in various pain conditions has been previously reported, the application of PRF to the DRG in patients with herpes zoster has not yet been studied. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical effects of PRF to the DRG in patients with herpes zoster to those of PRF to the DRG in patients with PHN. Retrospective comparative study. University hospital pain center in Korea. The medical records of 58 patients who underwent PRF to the DRG due to zoster related pain (herpes zoster or PHN) were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the timing of PRF after zoster onset: an early PRF group (within 90 days) and a PHN PRF group (more than 90 days). The efficacy of PRF was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS) and by recording patient medication doses before PRF and at one week, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks after PRF. Pain intensity was decreased after PRF in all participants. However, the degree of pain reduction was significantly higher in the early PRF group. Moreover, more patients discontinued their medication in the early PRF group, and the PRF success rate was also higher in the early PRF group. The relatively small sample size from a single center, short duration of review of medical records, and the retrospective nature of the study. PRF to the DRG is a useful treatment for treatment-resistant cases of herpes zoster and PHN. Particularly in herpes zoster patients with intractable pain, application of PRF to the DRG should be considered for pain control

  14. The trophic effect of ouabain on retinal ganglion cells is mediated by IL-1β and TNF-α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles von-Held-Ventura, Juliana; Mázala-de-Oliveira, Thalita; Cândida da Rocha Oliveira, Amanda; Granja, Marcelo Gomes [Departamento de Neurobiologia, Programa de Neurociências, Outeiro de São João Batista s/n CEP: 24020-150, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano Felippe; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire [Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacodinâmica, Av., no 4365, Manguinhos, 21045-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Giestal-de-Araujo, Elizabeth, E-mail: egiestal@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Neurobiologia, Programa de Neurociências, Outeiro de São João Batista s/n CEP: 24020-150, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-09-09

    Ouabain is a steroid hormone that binds to the enzyme Na{sup +}, K{sup +} – ATPase and stimulates different intracellular pathways controlling growth, proliferation and cell survival. IL-1β and TNF-α are pleiotropic molecules, conventionally regarded as pro-inflammatory cytokines with well-known effects in the immune system. In addition, IL-1β and TNF-α also play important roles in the nervous system including neuroprotective effects. Previous data from our group showed that ouabain treatment is able to induce an increase in retinal ganglion cell survival kept in mixed retinal cell cultures. The aim of this work was to investigate if IL-1β and TNF-α could be mediating the trophic effect of ouabain on retinal ganglion cells. Our results show that the trophic effect of ouabain on retinal ganglion cell was inhibited by either anti-IL-1β or anti-TNF-α antibodies. In agreement, IL-1β or TNF-α increased the retinal ganglion cells survival in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, ouabain treatment induces a temporal release of TNF-α and IL-1β from retinal cell cultures. Interestingly, TNF-α and IL-1β regulate each other intracellular levels. Our results suggest that ouabain treatment triggers the activation of TNF-α and IL-1β signaling pathways leading to an increase in retinal ganglion cell survival. - Highlights: • Pro-inflammatory cytokines regulates the ouabain effect on RGC survival. • Ouabain treatment modulates the intracellular levels of TNF-α and IL-1β. • Ouabain induces the release of TNF-α and IL-1β in retinal cell cultures.

  15. Pathological evaluation of ganglion cells in biopsies from upper side of the dentate line in patients with perianal problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Joudi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Constipation is one of the most common complaints of individuals, which may present with complication like hemorrhoid and fissure. Hirschsprung is a disease presenting with chronic constipation and its diagnosis may be delayed until adulthood. It is diagnosed by biopsies from anorectal transitional zone. This study aimed to evaluate the association between Hirschsprung and anorectal problems. Method: Sixty three patients with anorectal problems who underwent surgery enrolled in this study. Some consecutive biopsies were obtained from anal canal at 2, 4 and 6 cm above the dentate line. Biopsies were assessed for ganglion cells changes. Patients' data and biopsies results were analyzed with SPSS version18. Results: Out of 63 patients 29 (46 % patients were female and 34 (54 % were male with the mean of 32.65 ± 13.73 years. Fifty six (73 % patients complained from constipation with the mean time of 57.65 ± 45.21 months. Aganglionic zone were reported in six patients with the mean length of 43.33 mm. There was not any relation between anal ganglion cells pathology and constipation (p=0.363, but there was a significant relation between duration of constipation and pathologic changes (p=0.001. The ratio of constipation duration to age was related to anal ganglion cell pathology (p=0.001. Hemorrhoid degree was also affected anal ganglion cells pathology (p=0.037. Conclusion: The relation between Hirschsprung's disease and anorectal problems in adults were significant. The pathologic findings were more presented in younger patients, and those with longer history of constipation and lower degree hemorrhoids. Key words: Anal ganglion cells, Hemorrhoids, Constipation  

  16. Immunohistochemical demonstration of inducible nitric oxide and nuclear factor-kappa B with reference to age-related changes in the mouse spiral and vestibular ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inafuku, S; Wu, M; Kimura, M; Nakayama, M; Nakano, T; Ishigami, H

    2000-10-01

    The morphology and immunohistochemistry of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) were studied on the spiral and vestibular ganglion of young and old ddy mice. The significant decrease in the number of the spiral ganglion cells and a significant expression of iNOS and NF-kappa B were observed in old mice. In contrast, in the vestibular ganglion of all animals examined, decrease in the number of the ganglion cells or expression of iNOS and NF-kappa B were not observed. Although the relevance of enzymatic systems for the protection of vestibular ganglion cells in old individuals from harmful oxidative stress increased with aging should be further clarified, lack of harmful stress due to nitric oxide (NO) may be one of the plausible reasons for that the vestibular ganglion cells were not decreased in number with aging, since iNOS was not detected in the vestibular ganglion cells in the animals tested in the present study.

  17. Revalidation of a modified and safe approach of stellate ganglion block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Jadon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stellate ganglion block (SGB is very effective in management of chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS-1. However, serious complication may occur due to accidental intravascular (intra-arterial injection of local anaesthetic agents. Abdi and others, has suggested a modified technique in which fluoroscopy-guided block is given at the junction of uncinate process and body of vertebra at C7 level. In this approach vascular structures remain away from the trajectory of needle and thus avoid accidental vascular injection. We have used this technique of SGB in nine patients who were treated for CRPS-I. The blocks were effective in all the patients all the time without any vascular or other serious complication.

  18. Synaptic potentials in nerve cells of the stellate ganglion of the squid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miledi, R.

    1972-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from nerve cells in the stellate ganglion of the squid. 2. Stimulation of the preganglionic nerve evoked excitatory or inhibitory synaptic potentials, or a combination of both. Antidromic stimulation of the stellar nerves also evoked excitatory and inhibitory potentials in the cells. With both types of stimulation the synaptic potentials were built up of contributions from several axons indicating considerable convergence of excitatory and inhibitory inputs on the cells. 3. Inhibitory, as well as excitatory, miniature synaptic potentials were recorded from the cells even after impulse activity had been blocked by tetrodotoxin. 4. Glutamate applied iontophoretically to some cells produced a depolarization of their membranes. In other cases glutamate evoked a hyperpolarizing potential. Application of glutamate caused a decrease in the amplitude of excitatory synaptic potentials. PMID:5074410

  19. Multicompartment retinal ganglion cells response to high frequency bi-phasic pulse train stimulation: Simulation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Matias I; Grayden, David B; Burkitt, Anthony N; Meffin, Hamish; Kameneva, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the sole output neurons of the retina that carry information about a visual scene to the brain. By stimulating RGCs with electrical stimulation, it is possible to elicit a sensation of light for people with macular degeneration or retinitis pigmentosa. To investigate the responses of RGCs to high frequency bi-phasic pulse train stimulation, we use previously constrained models of multi-compartment OFF RGCs. The morphologies of mouse RGCs are taken from the Chalupa set of the NeuroMorpho database. The cell models are divided into compartments representing the dendrites, soma and axon that vary between the cells. A total of 132 cells are simulated in the NEURON environment. Results show that the cell morphology plays an important role in the response characteristics of the cell to high frequency bi-phasic pulse train stimulation.

  20. Gamma knife radiosurgery to the trigeminal ganglion for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia secondary to vertebrobasilar ectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaza, Salvador; Hurtado, Wendy; Montilla, Eglee; Ghaleb, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Background: We report the result obtained using Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery on the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in a patient with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) secondary to vertebrobasilar ectasia (VBE). Case Description: Retrospective review of medical records corresponding to one patient with VBE-related trigeminal pain treated with radiosurgery. Because of the impossibility of visualization of the entry zone or the path of trigeminal nerve through the pontine cistern, we proceeded with stereotactic radiosurgery directed to the TG. The maximum radiation dose was 86 Gy with a 8-mm and a 4-mm collimator. The follow-up period was 24 months. The pain disappeared in 15 days, passing from Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) grade V to BNI grade IIIa in 4 months and then to grade I. The patient did not experience noticeable subjective facial numbness. Conclusions: This experience showed that Gamma knife radiosurgery was effective in the management of VBE-related trigeminal pain, using the TG as radiosurgical target. PMID:25593782

  1. Case report 343: Neurofibroma arising in sympathetic ganglion with probable associated spinal neuroarthopathy (presumptive diagnosis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartoris, D.J.; Jones, H.

    1986-01-01

    In summary, the case of a 50-year-old man with a past medical history of neurofibromatosis is presented. The patient had developed the symptoms and signs of a neurological disorder, which radiologically was localized to the L1-L2 area. Infective spondylitis was simulated, but at surgery a neurofibroma arising from the sympathetic ganglion near L1-L2 was discovered. The clinical, radiological and pathological findings were considered compatible with spinal neuroarthropathy, which has not been reported previously in neurofibromatosis. Due to inherent problems of sampling, associated with a surgical biopsy, the involvement of the L1-L2 are by neurofibromatous tissue without associated Charcot arthropathy cannot be excluded in this case as a tenable diagnosis and indeed the radiological features are consistent with such a diagnosis. (orig./SHA).

  2. Coati Bodies: Cytoplasmic Hyaline Globules in the Ganglionic Neurons of Aging Captive Coatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Timothy K; Garner, Michael M; Baccon, Jennifer; Mani, Haresh

    2017-09-01

    Intensely eosinophilic and glassy intracytoplasmic inclusions were present in the neurons of the peripheral autonomic ganglia, Meissner's and Auerbach's plexus, and spinal ganglia in 20 aged white-nosed coatis ( Nasua narica, 7-19 years old) and in 4 of 7 brown-nosed coatis ( Nasua nasua, 2-21 years old) from multiple zoological institutions. Inclusions were single to numerous, sometimes distorting the cell. Pheochromocytomas were present in 5 of 16 white-nosed and 2 of 6 brown-nosed coatis, although no inclusions were present in the adrenal glands. Histochemically, immunohistochemically, and ultrastructurally, these inclusions were consistent with dense neurosecretory granules. Although similar inclusions have been reported sporadically in the adrenal medulla of humans and several other mammalian species as both incidental and pathologic findings, ganglionic inclusions reported herein appear to be unique and related to age in these species.

  3. Large Intra-Articular Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ganglion Cyst, Presenting with Inability to Flex the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Sloane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old female presented with a 3-month history of gradually worsening anterior knee pain, swelling and inability to flex the knee. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a large intra-articular cystic swelling anterior to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL, extending into the Hoffa's infrapatellar fat pad. Following manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic debridement of the cyst, the patient's symptoms were relieved with restoration of normal knee motion. ACL ganglion cysts are uncommon intra-articular pathological entities, which are usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally by MRI. This is the first reported case of an ACL cyst being so large as to cause a mechanical block to knee flexion.

  4. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothesis: Intratympanic steroid treatment prevents hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Background: Sensorineural hearing loss is a long-term complication of meningitis affecting up to a third of survivors. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the bacterial species...... treatment prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. This finding is clinically relevant in relation to postmeningitic hearing rehabilitation by cochlear implantation. However, the drug instillation in the middle ear induced local fibrosis and a concurrent low...... most often associated with a hearing loss. Methods: Rats were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups: a group treated with intratympanic betamethasone and 2 control groups treated with either intratympanic or systemic saline. Treatment was initiated 21 hours after infection and repeated once a day...

  5. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor prevents dendritic retraction of adult mouse retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binley, Kate E; Ng, Wai S; Barde, Yves-Alain; Song, Bing; Morgan, James E

    2016-08-01

    We used cultured adult mouse retinae as a model system to follow and quantify the retraction of dendrites using diolistic labelling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) following explantation. Cell death was monitored in parallel by nuclear staining as 'labelling' with RGC and apoptotic markers was inconsistent and exceedingly difficult to quantify reliably. Nuclear staining allowed us to delineate a lengthy time window during which dendrite retraction can be monitored in the absence of RGC death. The addition of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) produced a marked reduction in dendritic degeneration, even when application was delayed for 3 days after retinal explantation. These results suggest that the delayed addition of trophic factors may be functionally beneficial before the loss of cell bodies in the course of conditions such as glaucoma. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effect of eye NGF administration on two animal models of retinal ganglion cells degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Colafrancesco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF administration on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in experimentally induced glaucoma (GL and diabetic retinopathy (DR. GL was induced in adult rats by injection of hypertonic saline into the episcleral vein of the eye and diabetes (DT was induced by administration of streptozoticin. Control and experimental rats were treated daily with either ocular application of NGF or vehicle solution. We found that both animal models present a progressive degeneration of RGCs and changing NGF and VEGF levels in the retina and optic nerve. We then proved that NGF eye drop administration exerts a protective effect on these models of retinal degeneration. In brief, our findings indicate that NGF can play a protective role against RGC degeneration occurring in GL and DR and suggest that ocular NGF administration might be an effective pharmacological approach.

  7. Long-term effectiveness of sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation for cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgens, Tim P; Barloese, Mads; May, Arne

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) plays a pivotal role in cluster headache (CH) pathophysiology as the major efferent parasympathetic relay. We evaluated the long-term effectiveness of SPG stimulation in medically refractory, chronic CH patients. METHODS: Thirty-three patients were...... response through the 24-month evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: In the population of disabled, medically refractory chronic CH patients treated in this study, SPG stimulation is an effective acute therapy in 45% of patients, offering sustained effectiveness over 24 months of observation. In addition, a maintained...... enrolled in an open-label follow-up study of the original Pathway CH-1 study, and participated through 24 months post-insertion of a microstimulator. Response to therapy was defined as acute effectiveness in ≥ 50% of attacks or a ≥ 50% reduction in attack frequency versus baseline. RESULTS: In total, 5956...

  8. Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells are resistant to cell injury, but not always.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg, Birgitte; Ghelli, Anna; Giordano, Carla; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Sadun, Alfredo A; Carelli, Valerio; Hannibal, Jens; La Morgia, Chiara

    2017-09-01

    Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are intrinsically photosensitive RGCs deputed to non-image forming functions of the eye such as synchronization of circadian rhythms to light-dark cycle. These cells are characterized by unique electrophysiological, anatomical and biochemical properties and are usually more resistant than conventional RGCs to different insults, such as axotomy and different paradigms of stress. We also demonstrated that these cells are relatively spared compared to conventional RGCs in mitochondrial optic neuropathies (Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and Dominant Optic Atrophy). However, these cells are affected in other neurodegenerative conditions, such as glaucoma and Alzheimer's disease. We here review the current evidences that may underlie this dichotomy. We also present our unpublished data on cell experiments demonstrating that melanopsin itself does not explain the robustness of these cells and some preliminary data on immunohistochemical assessment of mitochondria in mRGCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental activation of the sphenopalatine ganglion provokes cluster-like attacks in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik W; Barløse, Mads; Guo, Song

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundHigh frequency (HF) stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) is an emerging abortive treatment for cluster headache (CH) attacks. HF SPG stimulation is thought to exert its effect by physiologically blocking parasympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that low frequency (LF) SPG...... stimulation may activate the SPG, causing increased parasympathetic outflow and thereby provoking cluster attacks in CH patients.MethodsIn a double-blind randomized cross-over study, seven CH patients implanted with an SPG neurostimulator were randomly allocated to receive HF or LF stimulation for 3 min on 2...... separate days. We recorded headache characteristics and autonomic symptoms during and after stimulation.ResultsSix patients completed the study. Three out of six patients (50%) reported ipsilateral cluster-like attacks during or within 30 min of LF SPG stimulation. These cluster-like attacks were all...

  10. Synchronized Firings in Retinal Ganglion Cells in Response to Natural Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Xiao, Lei; Liu, Wen-Zhong; Gong, Hai-Qing; Liang, Pei-Ji

    2011-02-01

    The response of synchronously firing groups of population retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to natural movies (NMs) and pseudo-random white-noise checker-board flickering (CB, as control) are investigated using an information-theoretic algorithm. The main results are: (1) the population RGCs tend to fire in synchrony far more frequently than expected by chance during both NM and CB stimulation; (2) more synchronous groups could be formed and each group contains more neurons under NM than CB stimulation; (3) the individual neurons also participate in more groups and have more distinct partners in NM than CB stimulation. All these results suggest that the synchronized firings in RGCs are more extensive and diverse, which may account for more effective information processing in representing the natural visual environment.

  11. Acetylation preserves retinal ganglion cell structure and function in a chronic model of ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsarraf, Oday; Fan, Jie; Dahrouj, Mohammad; Chou, C James; Yates, Phillip W; Crosson, Craig E

    2014-10-30

    The current studies investigate if the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), can limit retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration in an ocular-hypertensive rat model. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was elevated unilaterally in Brown Norway rats by hypertonic saline injection. Rats received either vehicle or VPA (100 mg/kg) treatment for 28 days. Retinal ganglion cell function and number were assessed by pattern electroretinogram (pERG) and retrograde FluoroGold labeling. Western blotting and a fluorescence assay were used for determination of histone H3 acetylation and HDAC activity, respectively, at 3-day, 1-week, and 2-week time points. Hypertonic saline injections increased IOPs by 7 to 14 mm Hg. In vehicle-treated animals, ocular hypertension resulted in a 29.1% and 39.4% decrease in pERG amplitudes at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, and a 42.9% decrease in mean RGC density at 4 weeks. In comparison, VPA treatment yielded significant amplitude preservation at 2 and 4 weeks and showed significant RGC density preservation at 4 weeks. No significant difference in RGC densities or IOPs was measured between control eyes of vehicle- and VPA-treated rats. In ocular-hypertensive eyes, class I HDAC activity was significantly elevated within 1 week (13.3 ± 2.2%) and histone H3 acetylation was significantly reduced within 2 weeks following the induction of ocular hypertension. Increase in HDAC activity is a relatively early retinal event induced by elevated IOP, and suppressing HDAC activity can protect RGCs from ocular-hypertensive stress. Together these data provide a basis for developing HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of optic neuropathies. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  12. Effectiveness of Stellate Ganglion Block Under Fuoroscopy or Ultrasound Guidance in Upper Extremity CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Farnad; Hemati, Karim; Rahimzadeh, Poupak; Kazemi, Mohamad Reza; Hejazian, Kokab

    2016-01-01

    Stellate Ganglion Block (SGB) is an effective technique which may be used to manage upper extremities pain due to Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), in this study we tried to evaluate the effectiveness of this procedure under two different guidance for management of this syndrome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrsound guide SGB by comparing it with the furoscopy guided SGB in upper extermities CRPS patients in reducing pain & dysfuction of the affected link. Fourteen patients with sympathetic CRPS in upper extremities in a randomized method with block randomization divided in two equal groups (with ultrasound or fluoroscopic guidance). First group was blocked under fluoroscopic guidance and second group blocked under ultrasound guidance. After correct positioning of the needle, a mixture of 5 ml bupivacaine 0.25% and 1 mL of triamcinolone was injected. These data represent no meaningful statistical difference between the two groups in terms of the number of pain attacks before the blocks, a borderline correlation between two groups one week and one month after the block and a significant statistical correlation between two groups three month after the block. These data represent no meaningful statistical difference between the patients of any group in terms of the pain intensity (from one week to six months after block), p-value = 0.61. These data represent a meaningful statistical difference among patients of any group and between the two groups in terms of the pain intensity (before the block until six months after block), p-values were 0.001, 0.031 respectively. According the above mentioned data, in comparison with fluoroscopic guidance, stellate ganglion block under ultrasound guidance is a safe and effective method with lower complication and better improvement in patient's disability indexes.

  13. Dendritic thickness: a morphometric parameter to classify mouse retinal ganglion cells

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    L.D. Loopuijt

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the dendritic morphology of retinal ganglion cells in wild-type mice we intracellularly injected these cells with Lucifer yellow in an in vitro preparation of the retina. Subsequently, quantified values of dendritic thickness, number of branching points and level of stratification of 73 Lucifer yellow-filled ganglion cells were analyzed by statistical methods, resulting in a classification into 9 groups. The variables dendritic thickness, number of branching points per cell and level of stratification were independent of each other. Number of branching points and level of stratification were independent of eccentricity, whereas dendritic thickness was positively dependent (r = 0.37 on it. The frequency distribution of dendritic thickness tended to be multimodal, indicating the presence of at least two cell populations composed of neurons with dendritic diameters either smaller or larger than 1.8 µm ("thin" or "thick" dendrites, respectively. Three cells (4.5% were bistratified, having thick dendrites, and the others (95.5% were monostratified. Using k-means cluster analysis, monostratified cells with either thin or thick dendrites were further subdivided according to level of stratification and number of branching points: cells with thin dendrites were divided into 2 groups with outer stratification (0-40% and 2 groups with inner (50-100% stratification, whereas cells with thick dendrites were divided into one group with outer and 3 groups with inner stratification. We postulate, that one group of cells with thin dendrites resembles cat ß-cells, whereas one group of cells with thick dendrites includes cells that resemble cat a-cells.

  14. Ganglion cell loss in relation to visual disability in multiple sclerosis.

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    Walter, Scott D; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Galetta, Kristin M; Sakai, Reiko E; Feller, Daniel J; Henderson, Sam B; Wilson, James A; Maguire, Maureen G; Galetta, Steven L; Frohman, Elliot; Calabresi, Peter A; Schuman, Joel S; Balcer, Laura J

    2012-06-01

    We used high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with retinal segmentation to determine how ganglion cell loss relates to history of acute optic neuritis (ON), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning, visual function, and vision-related quality of life (QOL) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of patients with MS (n = 122; 239 eyes) and disease-free controls (n = 31; 61 eyes). Among MS eyes, 87 had a history of ON before enrollment. The SD-OCT images were captured using Macular Cube (200×200 or 512×128) and ONH Cube 200×200 protocols. Retinal layer segmentation was performed using algorithms established for glaucoma studies. Thicknesses of the ganglion cell layer/inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL), RNFL, outer plexiform/inner nuclear layers (OPL+INL), and outer nuclear/photoreceptor layers (ONL+PRL) were measured and compared in MS versus control eyes and MS ON versus non-ON eyes. The relation between changes in macular thickness and visual disability was also examined. The OCT measurements of GCL+IPL and RNFL thickness; high contrast visual acuity (VA); low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA) at 2.5% and 1.25% contrast; on the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) and 10-Item Neuro-Ophthalmic Supplement composite score. Macular RNFL and GCL+IPL were significantly decreased in MS versus control eyes (Pvisual function and vision-specific QOL in MS, and may serve as a useful structural marker of disease. Our findings parallel those of magnetic resonance imaging studies that show gray matter disease is a marker of neurologic disability in MS. Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Behavioral changes and trigeminal ganglion sodium channel regulation in an orofacial neuropathic pain model.

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    Eriksson, Jonas; Jablonski, Aleksandra; Persson, Anna-Karin; Hao, Jing-Xia; Kouya, Poli Francois; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Zsuzsanna; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Fried, Kaj

    2005-12-15

    We used a photochemical method to generate a partial ischemic injury to the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve in rats. Following injury, rats developed a bilateral persistent hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation in the territory innervated by the infraorbital nerve. In addition, spread of mechanical hypersensitivity beyond the facial region was noted. Heat hypersensitivity was also present, although to a lesser extent and of a shorter duration. In some rats, excessive facial grooming/scratching were observed. Morphological examination revealed a graded damage to the irradiated portion of the infraorbital nerve that was related to the duration of laser irradiation. Investigations of gene expression changes in injured trigeminal ganglion neurons of animals with behavioral signs of neuropathic pain demonstrated that the sodium channel alpha-subunit Na(v)1.3-absent in sham-operated animals-was expressed to a limited extent. mRNAs for Na(v)1.8 and Na(v)1.9 were reduced both with respect to proportions of expressing neurons and to intensities, whereas the beta 3 subunit was markedly upregulated. mRNA levels of p11, a regulatory factor that facilitates the surface expression of Na(v)1.8, were unchanged. Previous findings have shown that injury to the trigeminal nerve branches may elicit responses that differ from those of segmental spinal nerves. Despite this we conclude that the key sodium channel regulations that are reported as consequences of nerve damage in the dorsal root ganglia seem to appear also in the trigeminal ganglion. Thus, novel analgesic drugs designed to target the sodium channel subtypes involved could be of use for the treatment of orofacial pain.

  16. Retinal ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer thickness in patients with Parkinson’s disease

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    Maja Živković

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the paper was to analyze the changes in the macular ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer (GCL-IPL thickness in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Material and methods : The study enrolled 46 patients with established diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease and 46 healthy subjects. Both groups were age- and gender-matched. An OCT protocol, namely standardized Ganglion Cell Analysis algorithm was used to measure the thickness of the macular GCL-IPL layer. The average, minimum, and six sectoral (superotemporal, superior, superonasal, inferonasal, inferior, inferotemporal GCL-IPL thicknesses were measured from the elliptical annulus centered on the fovea. Results : The mean value of the clinical severity of Parkinson’s disease was between 2 and 3, according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Statistically significant thinning of the GCL-IPL layer was registered in average and minimum GCL-IPL thickness, as well as in the sectoral layer thicknesses in patients with Parkinson’s disease in comparison to the controls. There was no correlation between structural changes in the retina and disease duration or severity. A statistically significant difference in thickness between the different stages of the disease was registered only in the inferior sector. Conclusions : Parkinson’s disease is accompanied by thinning of the GCL-IPL complex of macula even in the earliest stages. This may indicate a possible retinal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. There is no correlation between duration or severity of Parkinson’s disease with thinning of the GCL-IPL complex.

  17. [Diagnosis and treatment of the ganglion cysts and synovial cysts arising from the temporomandibular joints].

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    Meng, Juan-hong; Guo, Chuan-bin; Ma, Xu-chen

    2014-02-18

    To give a reference for the early diagnosis and treatment of the cysts arising from the temporomandibular joint. Nine patients finally diagnosed as temporomandibular joint cysts at the Peking University Hospital of Stomatology from May 1998 to August 2013 were selected and reviewed. Their clinical manifestations, imaging features, diagnoses and differential diagnoses, treatments and follow-ups were summarized and discussed. In the 9 patients, 3 were males and 6 females. Their ages ranged from 33 to 62 years with a median age of 39 years; the course of the disease ranged from 2 weeks to 3 years with a median of 4 months. The image examinations were performed with conventional X-ray examinations in 7 cases, CT scans in 8 cases, MRI in 6 cases and ultrasound in one case. Of the 9 cases, 7 were finally diagnosed as ganglion cyst and 2 as synovial cyst. Ganglion cysts mainly presented as the mass of preauricular area or joint area, with no obvious symptoms or only local discomfort, occasionally with pain. The synovial cysts manifested as the painful swelling of preauricular area and limited mouth-opening, accompanying with occlusal disorders. The treatments included surgical resection in 8 cases, repeated arthrocenteses and lavages in one case. The follow-ups were from 3 months to 9 years, one case with recurrence, and the remaining eight cases without recurrence. MRI examinations are very helpful in the early diagnosis and treatment planning of temporomandibular joint cysts. Surgical resection can have good results. Repeated arthrocenteses and lavages also have a good result, which may be an alternative choice for synovial cyst, but more accumulation of clinical experience is further needed.

  18. Cubital tunnel syndrome caused by ganglion cysts: a review of 59 cases.

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    Tong, Jinsong; Xu, Bin; Dong, Zhen; Liu, Jingbo; Zhang, Chenggang; Gu, Yudong

    2017-07-01

    Cubital tunnel syndrome caused by ganglion cysts is rare and reports are few. This study aimed to review a patient cohort with ganglion cysts in the cubital tunnel and identify prognostic factors. Fifty-seven patients (59 extremities; McGowan grade I, 4; IIa, 4; IIb, 3; III, 48) were evaluated retrospectively with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Extraneural cysts were excised completely, while intraneural cysts were incised and drained. All cases underwent subcutaneous transposition. Spearman's rank correlation and the ordinal logistic regression model were used to assess the effect of independent variables on the postoperative McGowan grade. VAS pain and weakness, 2-PD, key-pinch strength, grip strength, first dorsal interosseous muscle strength, Wartenberg sign, and claw hand all improved significantly. DASH scores improved from an average of 43.8 points preoperatively to 10.7 points postoperatively. According to the modified Bishop scoring system, 55 extremities (93.2%) were graded good or excellent. At the last follow-up, 29 hands (49.2%) returned to normal, and improvement by at least one McGowan grade was reached in 51 cases (86.4%). Older age, smoking, and shorter postoperative follow-up were associated with a higher postoperative McGowan grade. Satisfactory surgical outcomes could be expected in these patients following subcutaneous transposition with excision of extraneural cysts and draining of intraneural cysts. Older age, smoking, and shorter postoperative follow-up were found to be independent risk factors for poor outcomes.

  19. Pulsed infrared radiation excites cultured neonatal spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons by modulating mitochondrial calcium cycling.

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    Lumbreras, Vicente; Bas, Esperanza; Gupta, Chhavi; Rajguru, Suhrud M

    2014-09-15

    Cochlear implants are currently the most effective solution for profound sensorineural hearing loss, and vestibular prostheses are under development to treat bilateral vestibulopathies. Electrical current spread in these neuroprostheses limits channel independence and, in some cases, may impair their performance. In comparison, optical stimuli that are spatially confined may result in a significant functional improvement. Pulsed infrared radiation (IR) has previously been shown to elicit responses in neurons. This study analyzes the response of neonatal rat spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons in vitro to IR (wavelength = 1,863 nm) using Ca(2+) imaging. Both types of neurons responded consistently with robust intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) transients that matched the low-frequency IR pulses applied (4 ms, 0.25-1 pps). Radiant exposures of ∼637 mJ/cm(2) resulted in continual neuronal activation. Temperature or [Ca(2+)] variations in the media did not alter the IR-evoked transients, ruling out extracellular Ca(2+) involvement or primary mediation by thermal effects on the plasma membrane. While blockage of Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) plasma membrane channels did not alter the IR-evoked response, blocking of mitochondrial Ca(2+) cycling with CGP-37157 or ruthenium red reversibly inhibited the IR-evoked [Ca(2+)]i transients. Additionally, the magnitude of the IR-evoked transients was dependent on ryanodine and cyclopiazonic acid-dependent Ca(2+) release. These results suggest that IR modulation of intracellular calcium cycling contributes to stimulation of spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons. As a whole, the results suggest selective excitation of neurons in the IR beam path and the potential of IR stimulation in future auditory and vestibular prostheses. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Cobalamin C Deficiency Shows a Rapidly Progressing Maculopathy With Severe Photoreceptor and Ganglion Cell Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, Lucas; Ficicioglu, Can H.; Serrano, Leona; Han, Grace; Morgan, Jessica I. W.; Mills, Monte D.; Forbes, Brian J.; Davidson, Stefanie L.; Binenbaum, Gil; Kaplan, Paige B.; Nichols, Charles W.; Verloo, Patrick; Leroy, Bart P.; Maguire, Albert M.; Aleman, Tomas S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe in detail the retinal structure and function of a group of patients with cobalamin C (cblC) disease. Methods Patients (n = 11, age 4 months to 15 years) with cblC disease (9/11, early onset) diagnosed by newborn screening underwent complete ophthalmic examinations, fundus photography, near-infrared reflectance imaging, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Electroretinograms (ERGs) were performed in a subset of patients. Results Patients carried homozygous or compound heterozygote mutations in the methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C (MMACHC) gene. Late-onset patients had a normal exam. All early-onset patients showed a maculopathy; older subjects had a retina-wide degeneration (n = 4; >7 years of age). In general, retinal changes were first observed before 1 year of age and progressed within months to a well-established maculopathy. Pseudocolobomas were documented in three patients. Measurable visual acuities ranged from 20/200 to 20/540. Nystagmus was present in 8/11 patients; 5/6 patients had normal ERGs; 1/6 had reduced rod-mediated responses. Spectral-domain OCT showed macular thinning, with severe ganglion cell layer (GCL) and outer nuclear layer (ONL) loss. Inner retinal thickening was observed in areas of total GCL/ONL loss. A normal lamination pattern in the peripapillary nasal retina was often seen despite severe central and/or retina-wide disease. Conclusions Patients with early-onset cblC and MMACHC mutations showed an early-onset, unusually fast-progressing maculopathy with severe central ONL and GCL loss. An abnormally thickened inner retina supports a remodeling response to both photoreceptor and ganglion cell degeneration and/or an interference with normal development in early-onset cblC. PMID:26658511

  1. Developmental Profiling of Spiral Ganglion Neurons Reveals Insights into Auditory Circuit Assembly

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    Lu, Cindy C.; Appler, Jessica M.; Houseman, E. Andres; Goodrich, Lisa V.

    2011-01-01

    The sense of hearing depends on the faithful transmission of sound information from the ear to the brain by spiral ganglion (SG) neurons. However, how SG neurons develop the connections and properties that underlie auditory processing is largely unknown. We catalogued gene expression in mouse SG neurons from embryonic day 12 (E12), when SG neurons first extend projections, up until postnatal day 15 (P15), after the onset of hearing. For comparison, we also analyzed the closely-related vestibular ganglion (VG). Gene ontology analysis confirmed enriched expression of genes associated with gene regulation and neurite outgrowth at early stages, with the SG and VG often expressing different members of the same gene family. At later stages, the neurons transcribe more genes related to mature function, and exhibit a dramatic increase in immune gene expression. Comparisons of the two populations revealed enhanced expression of TGFβ pathway components in SG neurons and established new markers that consistently distinguish auditory and vestibular neurons. Unexpectedly, we found that Gata3, a transcription factor commonly associated with auditory development, is also expressed in VG neurons at early stages. We therefore defined new cohorts of transcription factors and axon guidance molecules that are uniquely expressed in SG neurons and may drive auditory-specific aspects of their differentiation and wiring. We show that one of these molecules, the receptor guanylyl cyclase Npr2, is required for bifurcation of the SG central axon. Hence, our data set provides a useful resource for uncovering the molecular basis of specific auditory circuit assembly events. PMID:21795542

  2. Endothelin B receptors contribute to retinal ganglion cell loss in a rat model of glaucoma.

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    Alena Z Minton

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy, commonly associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP characterized by optic nerve degeneration, cupping of the optic disc, and loss of retinal ganglion cells which could lead to loss of vision. Endothelin-1 (ET-1 is a 21-amino acid vasoactive peptide that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma; however, the receptors mediating these effects have not been defined. In the current study, endothelin B (ET(B receptor expression was assessed in vivo, in the Morrison's ocular hypertension model of glaucoma in rats. Elevation of IOP in Brown Norway rats produced increased expression of ET(B receptors in the retina, mainly in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, nerve fiber layer (NFL, and also in the inner plexiform layer (IPL and inner nuclear layer (INL. To determine the role of ET(B receptors in neurodegeneration, Wistar-Kyoto wild type (WT and ET(B receptor-deficient (KO rats were subjected to retrograde labeling with Fluoro-Gold (FG, following which IOP was elevated in one eye while the contralateral eye served as control. IOP elevation for 4 weeks in WT rats caused an appreciable loss of RGCs, which was significantly attenuated in KO rats. In addition, degenerative changes in the optic nerve were greatly reduced in KO rats compared to those in WT rats. Taken together, elevated intraocular pressure mediated increase in ET(B receptor expression and its activation may contribute to a decrease in RGC survival as seen in glaucoma. These findings raise the possibility of using endothelin receptor antagonists as neuroprotective agents for the treatment of glaucoma.

  3. Type I vs type II spiral ganglion neurons exhibit differential survival and neuritogenesis during cochlear development

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    Housley Gary D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms that consolidate neural circuitry are a major focus of neuroscience. In the mammalian cochlea, the refinement of spiral ganglion neuron (SGN innervation to the inner hair cells (by type I SGNs and the outer hair cells (by type II SGNs is accompanied by a 25% loss of SGNs. Results We investigated the segregation of neuronal loss in the mouse cochlea using β-tubulin and peripherin antisera to immunolabel all SGNs and selectively type II SGNs, respectively, and discovered that it is the type II SGN population that is predominately lost within the first postnatal week. Developmental neuronal loss has been attributed to the decline in neurotrophin expression by the target hair cells during this period, so we next examined survival of SGN sub-populations using tissue culture of the mid apex-mid turn region of neonatal mouse cochleae. In organotypic culture for 48 hours from postnatal day 1, endogenous trophic support from the organ of Corti proved sufficient to maintain all type II SGNs; however, a large proportion of type I SGNs were lost. Culture of the spiral ganglion as an explant, with removal of the organ of Corti, led to loss of the majority of both SGN sub-types. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF added as a supplement to the media rescued a significant proportion of the SGNs, particularly the type II SGNs, which also showed increased neuritogenesis. The known decline in BDNF production by the rodent sensory epithelium after birth is therefore a likely mediator of type II neuron apoptosis. Conclusion Our study thus indicates that BDNF supply from the organ of Corti supports consolidation of type II innervation in the neonatal mouse cochlea. In contrast, type I SGNs likely rely on additional sources for trophic support.

  4. Impaired axonal regeneration by isolectin B4-binding dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro.

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    Leclere, Pascal G; Norman, Emma; Groutsi, Filitsa; Coffin, Robert; Mayer, Ulrike; Pizzey, John; Tonge, David

    2007-01-31

    The subpopulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons recognized by Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4) differ from other neurons by expressing receptors for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) rather than neurotrophins. Additionally, IB4-labeled neurons do not express the laminin receptor, alpha7-integrin (Gardiner et al., 2005), necessary for optimal axonal regeneration in the peripheral nervous system. In cultures of dissociated DRG neurons of adult mice on laminin, robust spontaneous neurite outgrowth from IB4-negative neurons occurs and is strongly enhanced by previous axotomy. In contrast, IB4-labeled neurons show little neurite outgrowth and do not express GAP 43, even after axotomy or culture with GDNF. Moreover, growth of their axons through collagen gels is impaired compared with other DRG neurons. To determine whether the sparse neurite outgrowth of IB4-labeled neurons is attributable to lack of integrin expression, DRG cultures were infected with a herpes simplex 1 vector encoding alpha7-integrin, but its forced expression failed to promote neurite outgrowth in either IB4-labeled or other DRG neurons or in cultured adult retinal ganglion cells. Forced coexpression of both alpha7-integrin and GAP 43 also failed to promote neurite outgrowth in IB4-labeled neurons. In addition, cultured sciatic nerve segments were found to release much lower levels of GDNF, demonstrated by ELISA, than nerve growth factor. These findings together with their impaired intrinsic axonal regeneration capacity may contribute to the known vulnerability of the IB4-labeled population of DRG neurons to peripheral nerve injury.

  5. Mechanism of blood pressure and R-R variability: insights from ganglion blockade in humans

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    Zhang, Rong; Iwasaki, Kenichi; Zuckerman, Julie H.; Behbehani, Khosrow; Crandall, Craig G.; Levine, Benjamin D.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous blood pressure (BP) and R-R variability are used frequently as 'windows' into cardiovascular control mechanisms. However, the origin of these rhythmic fluctuations is not completely understood. In this study, with ganglion blockade, we evaluated the role of autonomic neural activity versus other 'non-neural' factors in the origin of BP and R-R variability in humans. Beat-to-beat BP, R-R interval and respiratory excursions were recorded in ten healthy subjects (aged 30 +/- 6 years) before and after ganglion blockade with trimethaphan. The spectral power of these variables was calculated in the very low (0.0078-0.05 Hz), low (0.05-0.15 Hz) and high (0.15-0.35 Hz) frequency ranges. The relationship between systolic BP and R-R variability was examined by cross-spectral analysis. After blockade, R-R variability was virtually abolished at all frequencies; however, respiration and high frequency BP variability remained unchanged. Very low and low frequency BP variability was reduced substantially by 84 and 69 %, respectively, but still persisted. Transfer function gain between systolic BP and R-R interval variability decreased by 92 and 88 % at low and high frequencies, respectively, while the phase changed from negative to positive values at the high frequencies. These data suggest that under supine resting conditions with spontaneous breathing: (1) R-R variability at all measured frequencies is predominantly controlled by autonomic neural activity; (2) BP variability at high frequencies (> 0.15 Hz) is mediated largely, if not exclusively, by mechanical effects of respiration on intrathoracic pressure and/or cardiac filling; (3) BP variability at very low and low frequencies (activity and intrinsic vasomotor rhythmicity; and (4) the dynamic relationship between BP and R-R variability as quantified by transfer function analysis is determined predominantly by autonomic neural activity rather than other, non-neural factors.

  6. Topographic prominence discriminator for the detection of short-latency spikes of retinal ganglion cells

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    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Ahn, Jungryul; Park, Dae Jin; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Kwangsoo; Cho, Dong-il Dan; Senok, Solomon S.; Koo, Kyo-in; Goo, Yong Sook

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Direct stimulation of retinal ganglion cells in degenerate retinas by implanting epi-retinal prostheses is a recognized strategy for restoration of visual perception in patients with retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration. Elucidating the best stimulus-response paradigms in the laboratory using multielectrode arrays (MEA) is complicated by the fact that the short-latency spikes (within 10 ms) elicited by direct retinal ganglion cell (RGC) stimulation are obscured by the stimulus artifact which is generated by the electrical stimulator. Approach. We developed an artifact subtraction algorithm based on topographic prominence discrimination, wherein the duration of prominences within the stimulus artifact is used as a strategy for identifying the artifact for subtraction and clarifying the obfuscated spikes which are then quantified using standard thresholding. Main results. We found that the prominence discrimination based filters perform creditably in simulation conditions by successfully isolating randomly inserted spikes in the presence of simple and even complex residual artifacts. We also show that the algorithm successfully isolated short-latency spikes in an MEA-based recording from degenerate mouse retinas, where the amplitude and frequency characteristics of the stimulus artifact vary according to the distance of the recording electrode from the stimulating electrode. By ROC analysis of false positive and false negative first spike detection rates in a dataset of one hundred and eight RGCs from four retinal patches, we found that the performance of our algorithm is comparable to that of a generally-used artifact subtraction filter algorithm which uses a strategy of local polynomial approximation (SALPA). Significance. We conclude that the application of topographic prominence discrimination is a valid and useful method for subtraction of stimulation artifacts with variable amplitudes and shapes. We propose that our algorithm

  7. The RNA binding protein RBPMS is a selective marker of ganglion cells in the mammalian retina

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    Rodriguez, Allen R.; de Sevilla Müller, Luis Pérez; Brecha, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    There are few neurochemical markers that reliably identify retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which are a heterogeneous population of cells that integrate and transmit the visual signal from the retina to the central visual nuclei. We have developed and characterized a new set of affinity purified guinea pig and rabbit antibodies against RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS). On Western blots these antibodies recognize a single band at ~24 kDa, corresponding to RBPMS, and they strongly label RGC and displaced RGC (dRGC) somata in mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit and monkey retina. RBPMS immunoreactive cells and RGCs identified by other techniques have a similar range of somal diameters and areas. The density of RBPMS cells in mouse and rat retina is comparable to earlier semi-quantitative estimates of RGCs. RBPMS is mainly expressed in medium and large DAPI-, DRAQ5-, NeuroTrace- and NeuN-stained cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL), and RBPMS is not expressed in syntaxin (HPC-1) immunoreactive cells in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and GCL, consistent with their identity as RGCs, and not displaced amacrine cells. In mouse and rat retina, most RBPMS cells are lost following optic nerve crush or transection at three weeks, and all Brn3a, SMI-32 and melanopsin immunoreactive RGCs also express RBPMS immunoreactivity. RBPMS immunoreactivity is localized to CFP-fluorescent RGCs in the B6.Cg-Tg(Thy1-CFP)23Jrs/J mouse line. These findings show that antibodies against RBPMS are robust reagents that exclusively identify RGCs and dRGCs in multiple mammalian species, and they will be especially useful for quantification of RGCs. PMID:24318667

  8. Retinal Ganglion Cell Topography of Five Species of Ground-Foraging Birds

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    Dolan, Tracy; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Birds that forage on the ground have been studied extensively in relation to behavioral trade-offs between foraging and scanning for predators; however, we know little about the topography of their retinas, which can influence how they gather visual information. We characterized the density of retinal ganglion cells across the retina and estimated visual acuity of four Passeriformes (European starling Sturnus vulgaris, brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater, house sparrow Passer domesticus, house finch Carpodacus mexicanus) and one Columbiforme (mourning dove Zenaida macroura) that forage on the ground. We used cresyl violet to stain retinal ganglion cells and estimated visual acuity based on cell density and eye size. All species contained a single area centralis, where cell densities were >20,000 cells/mm2. The proportion of the retina that fell in each of five cell density ranges varied between species. European starlings and house finches had the largest area of high cell density, mourning doves had the smallest. The largest proportion of the retina (>35%) of brown-headed cowbird and house sparrow was in the second-lowest cell density range. Considering the 25th percentile of highest cell densities, house finches and European starlings showed the highest cell densities and mourning doves the lowest. Estimated visual acuity increased from house finch, house sparrow, brown-headed cowbird, European starling to mourning dove, and was associated with both retinal area and cell density. Our findings suggest that these ground foragers do not have highly specialized retinas in relation to other types of foragers (e.g. tree foragers), probably because foraging on seeds and insects from the ground is not as visually demanding; however, the studied species showed variability in retinal topography that may be related to foraging techniques, eye size constraints, and size of the area centralis. PMID:20516656

  9. Presence of Functional Neurotrophin TrkB Receptors in the Rat Superior Cervical Ganglion

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    Pablo Valle-Leija

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic neurons express the neurotrophin receptors TrkA, p75NTR, and a non-functional truncated TrkB isoform (TrkB-Tc, but are not thought to express a functional full-length TrkB receptor (TrkB-Fl. We, and others, have demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF modulate synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in neurons of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG of the rat. To clarify whether TrkB is expressed in sympathetic ganglia and contributes to the effects of BDNF upon sympathetic function, we characterized the presence and activity of the neurotrophin receptors expressed in the adult SCG compared with their presence in neonatal and cultured sympathetic neurons. Here, we expand our previous study regarding the immunodetection of neurotrophin receptors. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that 19% of adult ganglionic neurons expressed TrkB-Fl immunoreactivity (IR, 82% expressed TrkA-IR, and 51% expressed p75NTR-IR; TrkB-Tc would be expressed in 36% of neurons. In addition, using Western-blotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analyses, we confirmed the expression of TrkB-Fl and TrkB-Tc protein and mRNA transcripts in adult SCG. Neonatal neurons expressed significantly more TrkA-IR and TrkB-Fl-IR than p75NTR-IR. Finally, the application of neurotrophin, and high frequency stimulation, induced the activation of Trk receptors and the downstream PI3-kinase (phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase signaling pathway, thus evoking the phosphorylation of Trk and Akt. These results demonstrate that SCG neurons express functional TrkA and TrkB-Fl receptors, which may contribute to the differential modulation of synaptic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity.

  10. The role of NgR-Rhoa-Rock signal pathway in retinal ganglion cell apoptosis of early diabetic rats

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    Yun-Jie Fu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the function and mechanism of the NgR-Rhoa-Rock signal pathways which exists in the retinal ganglion cells apoptosis in diabetes mellitus(DMrats. METHODS: Some healthy SD rats were operated by means of single intraperitoneal injection of 1% streptozotocin based on the standard of 50mg/kg wight, after that the blood sugar value was greater than 16.7mmol/L as DM model, then randomly divided into 3 groups, each group was 10 rats. In addition to take 10 healthy SD rats as control group. Four groups of rats were bilaterally eyeball intravitreal injection in turn with NgR-siRNA virus 10μL(siRNA group, NgR-siRNA virus diluted 10μL(DM group, NgR-siRNA virus-negative-control solution 10μL(siRNA blank group, NgR-siRNA virus diluted 10μL(normal control group, and fed normally. During that time, some life indexes like blood glucose, body mass, etc. were measured and recorded. After 12wk, the expression of NgR and Rhoa, HE staining, and TUNNEL staining were detected by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Western blot analysis: compared with normal control group, the expression of NgR and Rhoa in DM group and siRNA blank group increased significantly(PP>0.05; compared with DM group and siRNA blank group, the expression of those proteins significantly lowered in siRNA group. HE staining: compared with normal control group, some extent ganglion cells arranged disorder, irregular shape, spacing not consistent were all found in three groups of model rats; compared with DM group and siRNA blank group, there was some improvement in siRNA group of ganglion cells about the order and shape size. TUNEL staining: compared with normal control group, there were retinal ganglion cells apoptosis in all of three groups of model rats. Compared with DM group and siRNA blank group, the number of retinal ganglion cells apoptotic cells was less, and the shape of cells had improved significantly in siRNA group. CONCLUSION: In the DM phase, the expression of NgR and

  11. SOGS-RA gambling scores and substance use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buja, Alessandra; Lion, Camilla; Scioni, Manuela; Vian, Paolo; Genetti, Bruno; Vittadello, Fabio; Sperotto, Milena; Simeoni, Elisabetta; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims There is a well-established association between pathological gambling and substance use disorders in adolescents. The aim of this study was to shed light on the association between adolescents' different levels of involvement in gambling activities and substance use (smoking tobacco and cannabis and drinking alcoholic beverages), based on a large sample. Methods A survey was conducted in 2013 on 34,746 students attending 619 secondary schools, who formed a representative sample of the Italian 15- to 19-year-old population. The prevalence of different categories of gamblers was estimated by age group and gender. A multiple correspondence analysis (CA) was conducted to explain the multivariate associations between substance use and gambling. Results The prevalence of problem gambling was 2.7% among the 15- to 17-year-olds, and rose to 3.6% among the 18- and 19-year-olds. Multiple CA revealed that, even when it does not reach risk-related or problem levels, gambling is associated with the use of alcohol and tobacco. In particular, the analysis showed that non-problem gambling levels were associated with alcohol and tobacco use at least once in the previous month, and that higher-risk gambling levels related to the use of cannabis and episodes of drunkenness at least once in the previous month. Conclusion This study found that any gambling behavior, even below risk-related or problem levels, was associated with some degree of substance use by youths, and that adolescents' levels of gambling lay along a continuum of the categories of substance use.

  12. A streptavidin-SOG chimera for all-optical immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzler, Elizabeth M; Wendell, David

    2014-01-13

    Immunological detection has been developed into a sensitive and versatile technique and is based on two requisite elements: targeting antibodies and an indicator, usually in the form of horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase. The specificity and turnover rate of these enzymes provide an efficient means of signal amplification, but both require a stopping agent to prevent overdevelopment, which limits scalability to mechanized fluidic systems. As an alternative, we present a fully optical detection system based on a streptavidin-singlet oxygen generating chimeric protein that produces singlet oxygen from blue light. When used with trans-1-(2'-methoxyvinyl)pyrene, the photosynthetic streptavidin combines indicator development and reporting in sufficiently distinct visible wavelengths while retaining the sensitivity and scale of enzymatic systems that use horseradish peroxidase. By combining photosensitive development and detection into one system, we can enable future, highly parallel immunological testing to be controlled with the spatial and temporal precision of light.

  13. Pulsed and continuous radiofrequency current adjacent to the cervical dorsal root ganglion of the rat induces late cellular activity in the dorsal horn.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zundert, J. van; Louw, A.J. de; Joosten, E.A.J.; Kessels, A.G.H.; Honig, W.; Dederen, P.J.W.C.; Veening, J.G.; Vles, J.S.; Kleef, M. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulsed radiofrequency treatment has recently been described as a non-neurodestructive or minimally neurodestructive alternative to radiofrequency heat lesions. In clinical practice long-lasting results of pulsed radiofrequency treatment adjacent to the cervical dorsal root ganglion for

  14. Successful use of stellate ganglion block and a new centrally acting analgesic with dual mode of action in a resistant temporomandibular joint pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth Peter; Tripathi, Shiva Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Stellate ganglion blocks have been shown to provide effective pain relief in a number of different conditions involving the upper body. This was demonstrated in a 65-year-old woman who had experienced severe debilitating pain in her left temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the surrounding area of her face for over 10 years. The pain was unresponsive to indomethacin, carbamazepine, sodium valproate, gabapentin, lithium, melatonin and amitriptyline. She had also had four surgical procedures to the TMJ without success. The pain was partially responsive to Syndol tablets and pregabalin, although the use of pregabalin was limited by its adverse effects. The patient underwent 13 ultrasound guided stellate ganglion blocks over a 24-month period which demonstrated 90% pain relief for up to 10 weeks. Pulsed radio frequency lesioning showed no benefit over stellate ganglion block. More recently, tapentadol was found to be effective and this replaced the stellate ganglion blocks. PMID:24849638

  15. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 expression in the retina of ocular hypertension mice: a possible target to reduce ganglion cell apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma, a type of optic neuropathy, is characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells. It remains controversial whether c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK participates in the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma. This study sought to explore a possible mechanism of action of JNK signaling pathway in glaucoma-induced retinal optic nerve damage. We established a mouse model of chronic ocular hypertension by reducing the aqueous humor followed by photocoagulation using the laser ignition method. Results showed significant pathological changes in the ocular tissues after the injury. Apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells increased with increased intraocular pressure, as did JNK3 mRNA expression in the retina. These data indicated that the increased expression of JNK3 mRNA was strongly associated with the increase in intraocular pressure in the retina, and correlated positively with the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells.

  16. Localization of CGRP, CGRP receptor, PACAP and glutamate in trigeminal ganglion. Relation to the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Salvatore, Christopher A; Johansson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    ) and related this to the expression of CGRP and its receptor in rhesus trigeminal ganglion. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and glutamate were examined and related to the CGRP system. Furthermore, we examined if the trigeminal ganglion is protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB......), and the distribution of PACAP and glutamate in rhesus and rat TG. Evans blue was used to examine large molecule penetration into the rat TG. High receptor binding densities were found in rhesus TG. Immunofluorescence revealed expression of CGRP, CLR and RAMP1 in trigeminal cells. CGRP positive neurons expressed PACAP...... but not glutamate. Some neurons expressing CLR and RAMP1 co-localized with glutamate. Evans blue revealed that the TG is not protected by BBB. This study demonstrates CGRP receptor binding sites and expression of the CGRP receptor in rhesus and rat TG. The expression pattern of PACAP and glutamate suggests...

  17. High-Wattage Pulsed Irradiation of Linearly Polarized Near-Infrared Light to Stellate Ganglion Area for Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Momota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to apply high-wattage pulsed irradiation of linearly polarized near-infrared light to the stellate ganglion area for burning mouth syndrome (BMS and to assess the efficacy of the stellate ganglion area irradiation (SGR on BMS using differential time-/frequency-domain parameters (D parameters. Three patients with BMS received high-wattage pulsed SGR; the response to SGR was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS representing the intensity of glossalgia and D parameters used in heart rate variability analysis. High-wattage pulsed SGR significantly decreased the mean value of VAS in all cases without any adverse event such as thermal injury. D parameters mostly correlated with clinical condition of BMS. High-wattage pulsed SGR was safe and effective for the treatment of BMS; D parameters are useful for assessing efficacy of SGR on BMS.

  18. Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and Ganglion Cell Complex in Patients with Ocular Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Mumcu Taşlı

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the correlation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT with ganglion cell complex and central corneal thickness (CCT measurements in patients with ocular hypertension and healthy subjects. Material and Method: Seventy-six eyes of 38 patients with ocular hypertension and 76 eyes of 38 healthy subjects were included in this study. Both groups were stratified by CCT into 579 µm (p0.05. In the control group, there was no significant correlation between CCT and RNFLT (average, superior average, inferior average measurements (p>0.05. There was no significant correlation between CCT and average, superior average, inferior average ganglion cell complex in both groups. Discussion: Ocular hypertension patients with CCT <550 µm may represent patients who have very early undetected glaucoma. This may in part explain the higher risk of these patients for progression to glaucoma. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 385-90

  19. Caudal Ganglionic Eminence Precursor Transplants Disperse and Integrate as Lineage-Specific Interneurons but Do Not Induce Cortical Plasticity

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    Phillip Larimer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The maturation of inhibitory GABAergic cortical circuits regulates experience-dependent plasticity. We recently showed that the heterochronic transplantation of parvalbumin (PV or somatostatin (SST interneurons from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE reactivates ocular dominance plasticity (ODP in the postnatal mouse visual cortex. Might other types of interneurons similarly induce cortical plasticity? Here, we establish that caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE-derived interneurons, when transplanted into the visual cortex of neonatal mice, migrate extensively in the host brain and acquire laminar distribution, marker expression, electrophysiological properties, and visual response properties like those of host CGE interneurons. Although transplants from the anatomical CGE do induce ODP, we found that this plasticity reactivation is mediated by a small fraction of MGE-derived cells contained in the transplant. These findings demonstrate that transplanted CGE cells can successfully engraft into the postnatal mouse brain and confirm the unique role of MGE lineage neurons in the induction of ODP.

  20. Focal electrical stimulation of major ganglion cell types in the primate retina for the design of visual prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Lauren H; Hottowy, Pawel; Mathieson, Keith; Gunning, Deborah E; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Litke, Alan M; Chichilnisky, E J

    2013-04-24

    Electrical stimulation of retinal neurons with an advanced retinal prosthesis may eventually provide high-resolution artificial vision to the blind. However, the success of future prostheses depends on the ability to activate the major parallel visual pathways of the human visual system. Electrical stimulation of the five numerically dominant retinal ganglion cell types was investigated by simultaneous stimulation and recording in isolated peripheral primate (Macaca sp.) retina using multi-electrode arrays. ON and OFF midget, ON and OFF parasol, and small bistratified ganglion cells could all be activated directly to fire a single spike with submillisecond latency using brief pulses of current within established safety limits. Thresholds for electrical stimulation were similar in all five cell types. In many cases, a single cell could be specifically activated without activating neighboring cells of the same type or other types. These findings support the feasibility of direct electrical stimulation of the major visual pathways at or near their native spatial and temporal resolution.

  1. Cell responses to acoustic stimuli in the pterothoracic ganglion of two noctuoid moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coro, F; Alonso, N

    1989-01-01

    The spike activity of various types of cell responses in the pterothoracic ganglion of Ascalapha odorata (Noctuidae) and Empyreuma pugione (Arctiidae) was studied. Pure tones (16 kHz for A. odorata and 20 kHz for E. pugione, 45 ms pulses) were presented at a 1 Hz rate over 9 s and at intensities ranging from 25 to 95 dB SPL. The values of the latency period and the interspike intervals allowed us to describe the intensity-latency and intensity-response functions as well as the spike distribution during the responses, the latter being given by the 'instantaneous frequency', i.e., as the inverse value of the mean of the nine measurements of each interspike interval during the response time. 'Repeater' (RA1 and RA2) is a type of cell response that shows a phasic-tonic spike distribution similar to that of the receptor cells (A1 and A2), but that differs from the latter in a longer (ca. 1.0 ms) latency period, a lower number of spikes per pulse, and a lower instantaneous frequency during the response time. Another repeater type of cell response (RA) differs from the receptors and the other two repeaters in the form of its intensity-latency function, having the widest dynamic range (from 40 to 50 dB), and exhibiting the highest maximal number of spikes per pulse of all the response types recorded. We recorded also strictly phasic responses (1 or 2 spikes per pulse), which are considered as pulse markers. Of these, one (PM1) has a shorter latency period (ca. 10 ms) and higher sensitivity than the other (PM2). Two other types of cell responses showed significant differences in their latency period and the number of spikes per pulse under binaural and monoaural stimulation and are assumed to be the consequence of binaural summation, one by inhibition (BSI) and the other by excitation (BSE); they also differ in the spike distribution during the response. For the other types of cell responses recorded we used names that reflect the form of their spike distribution: chopper

  2. SPARCL1-containing neurons in the human brainstem and sensory ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Naoya; Sato, Tadasu; Yajima, Takehiro; Fujita, Masatoshi; Sato, Ayumi; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Shimada, Yusuke; Shoji, Noriaki; Sasano, Takashi; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine-like 1 (SPARCL1) is a member of the osteonectin family of proteins. In this study, immunohistochemistry for SPARCL1 was performed to obtain its distribution in the human brainstem, cervical spinal cord, and sensory ganglion. SPARCL1-immunoreactivity was detected in neuronal cell bodies including perikarya and proximal dendrites, and the neuropil. The motor nuclei of the IIIrd, Vth, VIth, VIIth, IXth, Xth, XIth, and XIIth cranial nerves and spinal nerves contained many SPARCL1-immunoreactive (-IR) neurons with medium-sized to large cell bodies. Small and medium-sized SPARCL1-IR neurons were distributed in sensory nuclei of the Vth, VIIth, VIIIth, IXth, and Xth cranial nerves. In the medulla oblongata, the dorsal column nuclei also had small to medium-sized SPARCL1-IR neurons. In addition, SPARCL1-IR neurons were detected in the nucleus of the trapezoid body and pontine nucleus within the pons and the arcuate nucleus in the medulla oblongata. In the cervical spinal cord, the ventral horn contained some SPARCL1-IR neurons with large cell bodies. These findings suggest that SPARCL1-containing neurons function to relay and regulate motor and sensory signals in the human brainstem. In the dorsal root (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia (TG), primary sensory neurons contained SPARCL1-immunoreactivity. The proportion of SPARCL1-IR neurons in the TG (mean ± SD, 39.9 ± 2.4%) was higher than in the DRG (30.6 ± 2.1%). SPARCL1-IR neurons were mostly medium-sized to large (mean ± SD, 1494.5 ± 708.3 μm(2); range, 320.4-4353.4 μm(2)) in the DRG, whereas such neurons were of various cell body sizes in the TG (mean ± SD, 1291.2 ± 532.8 μm(2); range, 209.3-4326.4 μm(2)). There appears to be a SPARCL1-containing sensory pathway in the ganglion and brainstem of the spinal and trigeminal nervous systems.

  3. Over-expression of TRESK K(+ channels reduces the excitability of trigeminal ganglion nociceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohua Guo

    Full Text Available TWIK-related spinal cord K(+ (TRESK channel is abundantly expressed in trigeminal ganglion (TG and dorsal root ganglion neurons and is one of the major background K(+ channels in primary afferent neurons. Mutations in TRESK channels are associated with familial and sporadic migraine. In rats, both chronic nerve injury and inflammation alter the expression level of TRESK mRNA. Functional studies indicate that reduction of endogenous TRESK channel activity results in hyper-excitation of primary afferent neurons, suggesting that TRESK is a potential target for the development of new analgesics. However, whether and how enhancing TRESK channel activity would decrease the excitability of primary afferent neurons has not been directly tested. Here, we over-expressed TRESK subunits in cultured mouse TG neurons by lipofectamine-mediated transfection and investigated how this altered the membrane properties and the excitability of the small-diameter TG population. To account for the heterogeneity of neurons, we further divided small TG neurons into two groups, based on their ability to bind to fluorescently-labeled isolectin B (IB4. The transfected TG neurons showed a 2-fold increase in the level of TRESK proteins. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the fraction of lamotrigine-sensitive persistent K(+ currents as well as the size of total background K(+ currents. Consequently, both IB4-positive and IB4-negative TG neurons over-expressing TRESK subunits exhibited a lower input resistance and a 2-fold increase in the current threshold for action potential initiation. IB4-negative TG neurons over-expressing TRESK subunits also showed a significant reduction of the spike frequency in response to supra-threshold stimuli. Importantly, an increase in TRESK channel activity effectively inhibited capsaicin-evoked spikes in TG neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that potent and specific TRESK channel openers likely would reduce the

  4. [Stellate ganglion catheter retention with discontinuous block on efficacy and safety in the treatment of sudden deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Zhang, Zhizhuo; Guo, Wenping; Zhang, Gaifang

    2015-07-01

    To investigate effect and safty evaluation of stellate ganglion catheter retention with discontinuous block on sudden deafness. One hundred and twenty-six patiens with sudden monaural deafness were randomly divided into Catheterp and block and control groups with 42 cases in each group. All patients' throats were given conventional blood activating drugs, hormone and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. stellate ganglion puncture retained catheter were administrated to the patients in catheter group followed by ropivacaine block 1 times/day, block group stellate ganglion puncture and ropivacaine block 1 times/day. The patients in control group were only received routine comprehensive treatment. Patients in both catheter group and block groups were treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy after the block treatment. Curative effects of three groups were observed. The patients' satisfaction, heart rate, the chages of blood pressure before and after the block, detachment of tubes, and adverse drug reaction were recorded. The effect of the treatment in both catheter group, block group was better than in control group (85.7%, 37 cases); 83.3%, 35 cases) vs 64.3%, 27 cases, P < 0.05). The satisfactory rate in the patients in catheter group was significantly higher than block group (83.3%, 35 cases vs 61.9%, 26 cases, P < 0.05). The heart rate and the blood pressure before and 5 minutes after catheterization in catheter group and block groupwere changed obviously. Moreover, no adverse drug reaction and detachment of tubes were observed. It is a safe and effective administration of stellate ganglion catheter retention with interrupted ropivacaine block.

  5. Characterization of Neuronal Populations in the Human Trigeminal Ganglion and Their Association with Latent Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Flowerdew, Sarah E.; Desiree Wick; Susanne Himmelein; Anja K E Horn; Inga Sinicina; Michael Strupp; Thomas Brandt; Diethilde Theil; Katharina Hüfner

    2013-01-01

    Following primary infection Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) establishes lifelong latency in the neurons of human sensory ganglia. Upon reactivation HSV-1 can cause neurological diseases such as facial palsy, vestibular neuritis or encephalitis. Certain populations of sensory neurons have been shown to be more susceptible to latent infection in the animal model, but this has not been addressed in human tissue. In the present study, trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons expressing six neuronal marker...

  6. Functional Properties and Toxin Pharmacology of a Dorsal Root Ganglion Sodium Channel Viewed through its Voltage Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Frank; Puopolo, Michelino; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Swartz, Kenton J.; Bean, Bruce Palmer

    2011-01-01

    The voltage-activated sodium (Nav) channel Nav1.9 is expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons where it is believed to play an important role in nociception. Progress in revealing the functional properties and pharmacological sensitivities of this non-canonical Nav channel has been slow because attempts to express this channel in a heterologous expression system have been unsuccessful. Here, we use a protein engineering approach to dissect the contributions of the four Nav1.9 voltage se...

  7. Functional Pattern of Increasing Concentrations of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Spiral Ganglion: Implications for Research on Cochlear Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emina Ramku

    2017-02-01

    CONCLUSION: The present finding show evidence that BDNF has a clear incremental effect on the number of neurites of spiral ganglia in the prehearing organ, but less on the neurite length. The upper threshold of exogenous BNDF concentration on spiral ganglion explant is 25 ƞg/ml. This means that concentration beyond this level has no further incremental impact. Therefore our suggestion for hydrogel concentration in NMRA mice in future research should be 25 ƞg/ml.

  8. Analysis the macular ganglion cell complex thickness in monocular strabismic amblyopia patients by Fourier-domain OCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Deng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To detect the macular ganglion cell complex thickness in monocular strabismus amblyopia patients, in order to explore the relationship between the degree of amblyopia and retinal ganglion cell complex thickness, and found out whether there is abnormal macular ganglion cell structure in strabismic amblyopia. METHODS: Using a fourier-domain optical coherence tomography(FD-OCTinstrument iVue®(Optovue Inc, Fremont, CA, Macular ganglion cell complex(mGCCthickness was measured and statistical the relation rate with the best vision acuity correction was compared Gman among 26 patients(52 eyesincluded in this study. RESULTS: The mean thickness of the mGCC in macular was investigated into three parts: centrial, inner circle(3mmand outer circle(6mm. The mean thicknesses of mGCC in central, inner and outer circle was 50.74±21.51μm, 101.4±8.51μm, 114.2±9.455μm in the strabismic amblyopia eyes(SAE, and 43.79±11.92μm,92.47±25.01μm, 113.3±12.88μm in the contralateral sound eyes(CSErespectively. There was no statistically significant difference among the eyes(P>0.05. But the best corrected vision acuity had a good correlation rate between mGcc thicknesses, which was better relative for the lower part than the upper part.CONCLUSION:There is a relationship between the amblyopia vision acuity and the mGCC thickness. Although there has not statistically significant difference of the mGCC thickness compared with the SAE and CSE. To measure the macular center mGCC thickness in clinic may understand the degree of amblyopia.

  9. STEAL PHENOMENON AFTER LUMBAR AND THORACIC SYMPATHETIC GANGLION BLOCKADE IN DOGS1 THE INFLUENCE OF INTRAVASCULAR VOLUME

    OpenAIRE

    Marunaka, Shu; Hashizume, Keiji; Yamagami, Hiroaki; MIYATA, Yoshihisa; Furuya, Hitoshi

    2000-01-01

    The steal phenomenon between the bilateral sides following unilateral sympathetic denervation can be influenced by intravascular blood volume. We studied the changes in skin temperature as an indicator of this phenomenon induced by unilateral lumbar or thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade in dogs under various hemodynamics. Each of 30 dogs in lumbar and thoracic experiments, which were divided into three groups according to mean right atrial pressure (RAP, mmHg) as hypovolemic (RAP<3 ; n=10...

  10. Intestinal Neuronal Dysplasia-Like Submucosal Ganglion Cell Hyperplasia at the Proximal Margins of Hirschsprung Disease Resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Maya; Oron, Assaf P; Chatterjee, Sumantra; Piper, Hannah; Cope-Yokoyama, Sandy; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Kapur, Raj P

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B (IND) denotes an increased proportion of hyperplastic submucosal ganglia, as resolved histochemically in 15-μm-thick frozen sections. IND has been reported proximal to the aganglionic segment in patients with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) and is putatively associated with a higher rate of postsurgical dysmotility. We developed and validated histological criteria to diagnose IND-like submucosal ganglion cell hyperplasia (IND-SH) in paraffin sections and used the approach to study the incidence and clinical and/or genetic associations of IND-SH at the proximal margins of HSCR pull-through resection specimens. Full-circumference paraffin sections from the proximal margins of 64 HSCR colonic pull-through specimens and 24 autopsy controls were immunostained for neuron-specific Hu antigen, and nucleated ganglion cells in each submucosal ganglion were counted. In controls, an age-related decline in the relative abundance of "giant" ganglia (≥7 nucleated Hu-positive [Hu+] ganglion cells) was observed. A conservative diagnostic threshold for IND-SH (control mean ± 3× standard deviation) was derived from 15 controls less than 25 weeks of age. No control exceeded this threshold, whereas in the same age range, IND-SH was observed at the proximal margins in 15% (7 of 46) of HSCR resections, up to 15 cm proximal to the aganglionic segment. No significant correlation was observed between IND-SH and length of or distance from the aganglionic segment, sex, trisomy 21, RET or SEMA3C/D polymorphisms, or clinical outcome, but analysis of more patients, with better long-term follow-up will be required to clarify the significance of this histological phenotype.

  11. Human organotypic retinal cultures (HORCs) as a chronic experimental model for investigation of retinal ganglion cell degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Andrew; Hopes, Marina; Wright, Phillip; David C Broadway; Sanderson, Julie

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing need for models of human diseases that utilise native, donated human tissue in order to model disease processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies. In this paper we assessed the suitability of adult human retinal explants as a potential model of chronic retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration. Our results confirmed that RGC markers commonly used in rodent studies (NeuN, bIII Tubulin and Thy-1) were appropriate for labelling human RGCs and followed the expected differ...

  12. Ganglion Cyst of Knee from Hoffa’s Fat Pad Protruding Anterolaterally Through Retinacular Rent: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Partha; Bandyopadhyay, Utpal; Mukhopadhyay, Anindya S.; Kundu, Srikanta; Mandal, Subhadip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee joint are rare occurrences. They are usually encountered as incidental findings in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or in arthroscopy. They may originate from both the cruciate ligaments and the menisci, from the popliteus tendon and alar folds, infrapatellar fat pad of Hoffa, and subchondral bone cysts. Those arising from the Hoffa’s fat pad, usually present as palpable mass at anterior aspect of the knee joint. We report a case of intraarticular ganglion cyst of knee arising from the infrapatellar fat pad and protruding anterolaterally through retinacular rent into the subcutaneous plane. Case Report: A 19-year-old young man, presented with a painless gradually increasing swelling at the anterior aspect of left knee of 9 months duration. MRI scan revealed a multilobulated, cyst with septations within the anterior aspect of the knee joint, just inferolateral to the patella, with deep extension into the infrapatellar fat pad, and superficial extension into the subcutaneous space across the retinaculum. After diagnostic arthroscopy, we performed an open excision of the cystic mass and confirmed the retinacular rent pre-operatively. Conclusion: Arthroscopic resection and debridement is the gold standard treatment in ganglion cyst of the knee. However, a subcutaneous extension may lead to incomplete arthroscopic resection: Leaving behind the residual tissue which may cause recurrence. Therefore, proper pre-operative evaluation of MR images of these cases is very important. PMID:27299075

  13. Gene transfection mediated by polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol nanocarrier prevents cisplatin-induced spiral ganglion cell damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-gui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol (PEI-PEG, a novel nanocarrier, has been used for transfection and gene therapy in a variety of cells. In our previous study, we successfully carried out PEI-PEG-mediated gene transfer in spiral ganglion cells. It remains unclear whether PEI-PEG could be used for gene therapy with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP in the inner ear. In the present study, we performed PEI-PEG-mediated XIAP gene transfection in the cochlea of Sprague-Dawley rats, via scala tympani fenestration, before daily cisplatin injections. Auditory brainstem reflex tests demonstrated the protective effects of XIAP gene therapy on auditory function. Immunohistochemical staining revealed XIAP protein expression in the cytoplasm of cells in the spiral ganglion, the organ of Corti and the stria vascularis. Reverse transcription-PCR detected high levels of XIAP mRNA expression in the cochlea. The present findings suggest that PEI-PEG nanocarrier-mediated XIAP gene transfection results in XIAP expression in the cochlea, prevents damage to cochlear spiral ganglion cells, and protects hearing.

  14. Sympathetic nerve sprouting fails to occur in the trigeminal ganglion after peripheral nerve injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongenhielm, U; Boissonade, F M; Westermark, A; Robinson, P P; Fried, K

    1999-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injury induces sprouting of sympathetic nerve fibers in dorsal root ganglia after spinal nerve injury. In the present study, we sought to determine the extent of intraganglionic noradrenergic sprouting in the trigeminal system. The inferior alveolar nerve, a major branch of the mandibular division, or the infraorbital nerve of the maxillary division was either ligated or chronically constricted in Sprague-Dawley rats and recovery permitted for either 2-3 or 6-9 weeks. In some animals both nerves were injured. Using immunohistochemistry with tyrosine hydroxylase antibodies, we found no signs of sympathetic nerve fiber sprouting in the trigeminal ganglion after injury. In contrast, sciatic nerve injury in rat littermates induced a widespread autonomic nerve outgrowth in affected DRGs. Thus, sensory ganglion sympathetic nerve sprouting does not seem to be a general outcome of PNS injury, but is restricted to certain specific locations. Sympathetic nerve fiber networks that surround primary sensory neurons have been suggested to form a structural basis for interactions between the sympathetic and sensory nervous systems after PNS injury. Such interactions, sometimes resulting in paraesthesia or dysaesthesia in patients, appear to be less common in territories innervated by the trigeminal nerve than in spinal nerve regions. The lack of injury-induced intraganglionic sympathetic sprouting in the trigeminal ganglion may help to explain this observation.

  15. Estimation of Stellate Ganglion Block Injection Point Using the Cricoid Cartilage as Landmark Through X-ray Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Soo; Kim, Ki Jun; Lee, Youn Woo; Yoon, Duck Mi; Yoon, Kyung Bong; Han, Min Young; Choi, Jong Bum

    2011-09-01

    Stellate ganglion block is usually performed at the transverse process of C6, because the vertebral artery is located anterior to the transverse process of C7. The purpose of this study is to estimate the location of the transverse process of C6 using the cricoid cartilage in the performance of stellate ganglion block. We reviewed cervical lateral neutral-flexion-extension views of 48 patients who visited our pain clinic between January and June of 2010. We drew a horizontal line at the surface of the cricoid cartilage in the neutral and extension views of cervical lateral x-rays. We then measured the change in the shortest distance from this horizontal line to the lowest point of the transverse process of C6 between the neutral and extension views. There was a statistically significant difference in the shortest distance from the horizontal line at the surface of the cricoid cartilage to the lowest point of transverse process of C6 between neutral position and neck extension position in both males and females, and between males and females in both neutral position and neck extension position. The cricoid cartilage level was 4.8 mm lower in males and 14.4 mm higher in females than the lowest point of transverse process of C6 in neck extension position. Practitioners should recognize that the cricoid cartilage has cephalad movement in neck extension. In this way, the cricoid cartilage can be still useful as a landmark for stellate ganglion block.

  16. Developmental markers of ganglion cells in the enteric nervous system and their application for evaluation of Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Hitomi; Satomi, Kaishi; Morishita, Yukio; Murata, Yoshihiko; Sugano, Masato; Nakano, Noriyuki; Noguchi, Masayuki

    2014-09-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital disease resulting from failure of neural crest-derived ganglion cells to colonize the colon. Conventional diagnostic methods are insufficient for evaluating the 'functional' prognosis of HSCR. In order to elucidate the maturation of ganglion cells, 17 immunohistochemical markers were examined. We examined the digestive tracts of 2 human early delivery patients, 2 miniature swine fetuses, 4 little infants, 3 infants, 3 children, 6 adults, and 3 aged individuals. With increasing age, the labeling index (LI) for both calretinin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) increased, whereas that for SOX10 decreased. We then examined the 'transitional zone' of HSCR in 21 affected patients and 18 controls for these three markers. The LI of calretinin and TH were significantly lower than in the controls (median: 3.7 in HSCR and 8.2 in controls, P < 0.001, median: 27.9 in HSCR and 44.4 in controls, P < 0.001, respectively). In contrast, the LI for SOX10 showed no significant difference (median: 33.7 in HSCR and 29.2 in controls, P = 0.666) however, hierarchical cluster analysis was able to divide HSCR patients into two groups. These results suggest that immature ganglion cells are present in the transitional zone of HSCR, and that HSCR may have two different pathophysiological processes. © 2014 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Abnormalities in spinal neurons and dorsal root ganglion cells in Tangier disease presenting with a syringomyelia-like syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalbruch, H; Stender, S; Boysen, G

    1987-09-01

    A woman with homozygous Tangier disease had progressive syringomyelia-like neuropathy. She died with cardiac failure at age 61. A sural nerve biopsy taken at age 60 had shown lipid storage in Schwann and interstitial cells, and a pronounced loss of unmyelinated fibers. The neurons of the L5 spinal ganglion and, to a lesser extent, all neurons of the sacral spinal cord, contained large lipid inclusions which in electron micrographs differed from those in Schwann and satellite cells. There was no storage material in glial cells. The neuronal inclusions were membrane-bound and consisted of electron-dense and electron-lucent components. There was evidence of neuronal death in the spinal ganglion, and a diameter histogram showed that small cytons had preferentially been lost. The inclusions probably were secondary lysosomes or residual bodies, and resembled giant lipofuscin granules. Nevertheless, they were uncolored and displayed weak autofluorescence as compared to the aging pigment in control ganglia. It is tentatively suggested that the syringomyelia-like neuropathy in Tangier disease represents a lysosomal storage disorder preferentially affecting small dorsal root ganglion cells.

  18. Effects of intraocular rifampicin on retinal ganglion cell structure: a stereological and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakici, Ozgür; Aksak, Selina; Unal, Deniz; Sipal, Sare; Keles, Sadullah; Dumlu, Talha; Karamese, Murat

    2013-01-01

    To determine the histopathological changes of rifampicin applied intravitreally on retinal ganglion cells by means of stereological and histopathological methods. For this study twenty-four New Zealand adult rabbits were divided into four groups (n=6 for each group). 50µg/0.1mL (group 1), 100µg/0.1mL (group 2), 150µg/0.1mL (group 3) and 200µg/0.1mL (group 4), rifampicin were injected into the vitreous of the right eyes of animals, their left eyes were used as control (group 5). After the 28(th) day of application, animals were anesthetised with xylazine (8mg/kg, IM) and then their eyes were enucleated immediately. Patterns were taken away and eyes were prepared for both stereological and electromicroscopic observation. Depending on the high dose of rifampicin, some histopathological changes such as cytoplasmic dilatation and damaged membrane were observed on the electromicroscopic level. Using quantitative examination, which was done at the light microscopic level, it was shown that the number of neurons decreased linearly as rifampicin dose increased when compared with the control group. Based on these findings, low-dose rifampicin (50µg/0.1mL) may be useful for treatment of the ocular diseases.

  19. Effects of free fatty acids on sodium currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Min-Pyo; Kim, Hong Im; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Lee, Chung Soo; Park, Mijung; Song, Jin-Ho

    2004-05-15

    Free fatty acids (FFAs), especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are potent modulators of muscle-type sodium channels. It is not known if they also modulate sodium channels of sensory neurons. In this study, we investigated the effects of FFAs on the fast tetrodotoxin-sensitive (fTTX-S) and the slow tetrodotoxin-resistant (sTTX-R) sodium currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. At a holding potential of -80 mV, PUFAs potently inhibited fTTX-S current, but monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to a lesser extent. All FFAs initially increased sTTX-R current, and then decreased it slightly. PUFAs and MUFAs produced a hyperpolarizing shift of the steady-state inactivation voltage for both types of sodium currents. The shift generally increased with the number of unsaturated bonds. FFAs did not change the maximum amplitude of fTTX-S current, but increased that of sTTX-R current. Most FFAs shifted the activation voltage for fTTX-S current in the hyperpolarizing direction, which was not dependent on the degree of unsaturation. MUFAs and SFAs shifted the activation voltage for sTTX-R current in the hyperpolarizing direction, but PUFAs were without effect. The modulation of sodium currents by FFAs, especially PUFAs, may have considerable impact on the excitability of sensory neurons.

  20. Neuronal Survival, Morphology and Outgrowth of Spiral Ganglion Neurons Using a Defined Growth Factor Combination.

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    Jana Schwieger

    Full Text Available The functionality of cochlear implants (CI depends, among others, on the number and excitability of surviving spiral ganglion neurons (SGN. The spatial separation between the SGN, located in the bony axis of the inner ear, and the CI, which is inserted in the scala tympani, results in suboptimal performance of CI patients and may be decreased by attracting the SGN neurites towards the electrode contacts. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs can support neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth.Since brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is well known for its neuroprotective effect and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF increases neurite outgrowth, we evaluated if the combination of BDNF and CNTF leads to an enhanced neuronal survival with extended neurite outgrowth. Both NTFs were added in effective high concentrations (BDNF 50 ng/ml, CNTF 100 ng/ml, alone and in combination, to cultured dissociated SGN of neonatal rats for 48 hours.The neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth were significantly higher in SGN treated with the combination of the two NTFs compared to treatment with each factor alone. Additionally, with respect to the morphology, the combination of BDNF and CNTF leads to a significantly higher number of bipolar neurons and a decreased number of neurons without neurites in culture.The combination of BDNF and CNTF shows a great potential to increase the neuronal survival and the number of bipolar neurons in vitro and to regenerate retracted nerve fibers.

  1. Effects of ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion block on acute pain after arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Mi; Kim, Eun Mi; Chung, Mi Hwa; Park, Jong Hee; Lee, Hyo Keun; Choi, Young Rong; Lee, Mihyeon

    2015-01-01

    Apart from a few case reports, the effectiveness of stellate ganglion block (SGB) as a monotherapy in acute nociceptive pain has not been determined. We aimed to assess the effects of SGB on postoperative pain after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Randomized, blind, controlled, clinical trial University Hospital outpatient Forty-six patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery were assigned randomly to 2 groups: group S included patients who underwent SGB prior to surgery and group C did not. In group S, subfascial ultrasound-guided SGB was conducted with 4 mL of 0.375% levobupivacaine. For the first postoperative 48 hours, postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) and analgesic requirements were compared. The results of 40 patients were included in the study. There was no difference between groups with regards to analgesics requirement for the first postoperative 48 hours and no difference in VAS score (P > 0.05). Small number of patients in study. Preoperative ultrasound-guided SGB did not reduce postoperative acute pain in arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

  2. rAAV-mediated subcellular targeting of optogenetic tools in retinal ganglion cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chaowen; Ivanova, Elena; Zhang, Yi; Pan, Zhuo-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Expression of optogenetic tools in surviving inner retinal neurons to impart retinal light sensitivity has been a new strategy for restoring vision after photoreceptor degeneration. One potential approach for restoring retinal light sensitivity after photoreceptor degeneration is to express optogenetic tools in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). For this approach, restoration of ON and OFF center-surround receptive fields in RGCs, a key feature of visual information processing, may be important. A possible solution is to differentially express depolarizing and hyperpolarizing optogenetic tools, such as channelrhodopsin-2 and halorhodopsin, to the center and peripheral regions of the RGC dendritic field by using protein targeting motifs. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have proven to be a powerful vehicle for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery, including in the retina. Therefore, the search for protein targeting motifs that can achieve rAAV-mediated subcellular targeted expression would be particularly valuable for developing therapeutic applications. In this study, we identified two protein motifs that are suitable for rAAV-mediated subcellular targeting for generating center-surround receptive fields while reducing the axonal expression in RGCs. Resulting morphological dendritic field and physiological response field by center-targeting were significantly smaller than those produced by surround-targeting. rAAV motif-mediated protein targeting could also be a valuable tool for studying physiological function and clinical applications in other areas of the central nervous system.

  3. Pattern of retinal ganglion cell loss in dominant optic atrophy due to OPA1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Wai-Man, P; Bailie, M; Atawan, A; Chinnery, P F; Griffiths, P G

    2011-05-01

    The majority of patients with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA) harbour pathogenic OPA1 mutations. Although DOA is characterised by the preferential loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), about 20% of patients with OPA1 mutations will develop a more severe disease variant (DOA+), with additional neuromuscular features. In this prospective, observational case series, optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to define the pattern of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) loss in patients with both the pure and syndromal forms of DOA. Forty patients with a molecular diagnosis of DOA due to OPA1 mutations were prospectively recruited from our neuro-ophthalmology clinic: 26 patients with isolated optic atrophy and 14 patients manifesting DOA+ features. Peripapillary RNFL thickness was measured with the Fast RNFL (3.4) acquisition protocol on a Stratus OCT. There was a statistically significant reduction in average RNFL thickness in the OPA1 group compared with normal controls (PDOA+ features had worse visual outcomes compared with patients with pure DOA. Except in the temporal quadrant, RNFL measurements were significantly thinner for the DOA+ group. There was an inverse correlation between average RNFL thickness and logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) visual acuity (PDOA is characterised by severe involvement of the temporal papillomacular bundle, with relative sparing of the nasal fibres. RNFL thinning is more pronounced in patients with DOA+ phenotypes.

  4. Effect of Active and Passive Smoking on Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer and Ganglion Cell Complex

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    Amany Abd El-Fattah El-Shazly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the possible structural and functional changes in the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL and the ganglion cell complex (GCC of chronic smokers and compare them with those of passive healthy smokers using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT and pattern electroretinogram (PERG. Materials and Methods. We include 80 active chronic smokers and 80 age- and sex-matched healthy passive smokers. After a full ophthalmological examination, SD-OCT and PERG were tested for all participants. Urinary levels of cotinine and creatinine with subsequent calculation of the cotinine creatinine ratio (CCR. Results. Inferior and superior quadrants of RNFL were thinner in group I, but nasal and temporal quadrants did not show significant difference between the groups. There were no significant differences of GCC values between the two groups. There was no significant difference of PERG-P50 amplitude and latency; however, PERG-N95 showed significant difference between the two groups. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the number of cigarettes/day, urinary cotinine, and PERG-N95 amplitude are the most important determinants for both superior and inferior RNFL thicknesses. Conclusion. RNFL thickness decreases in chronic, healthy, heavy cigarette smokers, and this thinning is related to the number of cigarettes/day, urinary cotinine, and PERG-N95 latency and amplitude.

  5. The effect of morphology upon electrophysiological responses of retinal ganglion cells: simulation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Matias I; Kameneva, Tatiana; Burkitt, Anthony N; Meffin, Hamish; Grayden, David B

    2014-04-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) display differences in their morphology and intrinsic electrophysiology. The goal of this study is to characterize the ionic currents that explain the behavior of ON and OFF RGCs and to explore if all morphological types of RGCs exhibit the phenomena described in electrophysiological data. We extend our previous single compartment cell models of ON and OFF RGCs to more biophysically realistic multicompartment cell models and investigate the effect of cell morphology on intrinsic electrophysiological properties. The membrane dynamics are described using the Hodgkin - Huxley type formalism. A subset of published patch-clamp data from isolated intact mouse retina is used to constrain the model and another subset is used to validate the model. Two hundred morphologically distinct ON and OFF RGCs are simulated with various densities of ionic currents in different morphological neuron compartments. Our model predicts that the differences between ON and OFF cells are explained by the presence of the low voltage activated calcium current in OFF cells and absence of such in ON cells. Our study shows through simulation that particular morphological types of RGCs are capable of exhibiting the full range of phenomena described in recent experiments. Comparisons of outputs from different cells indicate that the RGC morphologies that best describe recent experimental results are ones that have a larger ratio of soma to total surface area.

  6. Retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell complex thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Mehmet Demir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and ganglion cell complex (GCC thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Materials and Methods: Average, inferior, and superior values of RNFL and GCC thickness were measured in 123 patients using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The values of participants with DM were compared to controls. Diabetic patients were collected in Groups 1, 2 and 3. Group 1 = 33 participants who had no diabetic retinopathy (DR; Group 2 = 30 participants who had mild nonproliferative DR and Group 3 = 30 participants who had moderate non-proliferative DR. The 30 healthy participants collected in Group 4. Analysis of variance test and a multiple linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results: The values of RNFL and GCC in the type 2 diabetes were thinner than controls, but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: This study showed that there is a nonsignificant loss of RNFL and GCC in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Who's lost first? Susceptibility of retinal ganglion cell types in experimental glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Santina, Luca; Ou, Yvonne

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize our current knowledge about the susceptibility of specific retinal ganglion cell (RGC) types in experimental glaucoma, and to delineate the initial morphological and functional alterations that occur in response to intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. There has been debate in the field as to whether RGCs with large somata and axons are more vulnerable, with definitive conclusions still in progress because of the wide diversity of RGC types. Indeed, it is now estimated that there are greater than 30 different RGC types, and while we do not yet understand the complete details, we discuss a growing body of work that supports the selective vulnerability hypothesis of specific RGC types in experimental glaucoma. Specifically, structural and functional degeneration of various RGC types have been examined across different rodent models of experimental glaucoma (acute vs. chronic) and different strains, and an emerging consensus is that OFF RGCs appear to be more vulnerable to IOP elevation compared to ON RGCs. Understanding the mechanisms by which this selective vulnerability manifests across different RGC types should lead to novel and improved strategies for neuroprotection and neuroregeneration in glaucoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ganglionic GFAP + glial Gq-GPCR signaling enhances heart functions in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Alison Xiaoqiao; Lee, Jakovin J; McCarthy, Ken D

    2017-01-26

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) accelerates heart rate, increases cardiac contractility, and constricts resistance vessels. The activity of SNS efferent nerves is generated by a complex neural network containing neurons and glia. Gq G protein-coupled receptor (Gq-GPCR) signaling in glial fibrillary acidic protein-expressing (GFAP + ) glia in the central nervous system supports neuronal function and regulates neuronal activity. It is unclear how Gq-GPCR signaling in GFAP + glia affects the activity of sympathetic neurons or contributes to SNS-regulated cardiovascular functions. In this study, we investigated whether Gq-GPCR activation in GFAP + glia modulates the regulatory effect of the SNS on the heart; transgenic mice expressing Gq-coupled DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) (hM3Dq) selectively in GFAP + glia were used to address this question in vivo. We found that acute Gq-GPCR activation in peripheral GFAP + glia significantly accelerated heart rate and increased left ventricle contraction. Pharmacological experiments suggest that the glial-induced cardiac changes were due to Gq-GPCR activation in satellite glial cells within the sympathetic ganglion; this activation led to increased norepinephrine (NE) release and beta-1 adrenergic receptor activation within the heart. Chronic glial Gq-GPCR activation led to hypotension in female Gfap -hM3Dq mice. This study provides direct evidence that Gq-GPCR activation in peripheral GFAP + glia regulates cardiovascular functions in vivo.

  9. Home-based application of sphenopalatine ganglion block for head and neck cancer pain management

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    Priti R Sanghavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Head and neck cancer pain is intractable and difficult to manage. Many a times it is difficult to treat with oral opioids and adjuvants. Aim: This study aims to study the effects of transnasal sphenopalatine ganglion block (SPGB, administered using cotton swab/ear bud by patients' caretaker, at home, for pain management. Study Design: This is a prospective, single-arm observational study conducted on 100 head and neck cancer patients, from January 2014 to December 2015. Patients and caretaker were given a demonstration of the procedure using sterile cotton swab/ear buds. They were advised to repeat the procedure when their visual analog score (VAS was more than 5. They continued with the oral analgesics. They kept the records of pre- and post-procedure pain score (VAS, the frequency of repetition, ease of performance of procedure, and morphine requirement. A paired t-test (SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Results: A significant reduction in pain was noted by a decrease in mean VAS from 8.57 ± 1.31 to 2.46 ± 1.23 (P 0.05 mg per day, at the end of 2 months. Ease of performance was observed in 88 patients. Conclusion: The home-based application of SPGB is an easy, safe, and cost-effective method to manage cancer pain. It provides excellent immediate pain relief with a minimum side effect. It can be performed bilaterally, repeatedly and even with a feeding tube in place.

  10. Laser therapy reduces gelatinolytic activity in the rat trigeminal ganglion during temporomandibular joint inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiderá, A C; Nascimento, G C; Gerlach, R F; Leite-Panissi, C R A

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) alters the expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) during different stages of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation in rats. It also evaluated whether LLLT modifies mechanical allodynia and orofacial hyperalgesia. Wistar rats (±250 g) were divided into groups that received saline (SAL) or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, 50 μl) in the TMJ, and that later underwent LLLT (20 J cm(-2) ) at their TMJ or not (groups SAL, SAL + LLLT, CFA, and CFA + LLLT). LLLT was applied on days 3, 5, 7, and 9 after SAL or CFA. Mechanical allodynia was evaluated on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10; orofacial hyperalgesia was assessed on day 10. Gelatin zymography and in situ zymography aided quantification of MMPs in the TG. Low-level laser therapy abolished the reduction in the mechanical orofacial threshold and the increase in orofacial rubbing during the orofacial formalin test induced by CFA. LLLT also decreased the CFA-induced rise in the levels of MMP-9 and MMP-2 as well as the gelatinolytic activity in the TG. Low-level laser therapy could constitute an adjuvant therapy to treat temporomandibular disorders and prevent inflammation-induced alterations in the levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and in the gelatinolytic activity in TGs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Pan-retinal characterisation of Light Responses from Ganglion Cells in the Developing Mouse Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgen, Gerrit; Pirmoradian, Sahar; Pamplona, Daniela; Kornprobst, Pierre; Cessac, Bruno; Hennig, Matthias H.; Sernagor, Evelyne

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the ontogeny of light-driven responses in mouse retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Using a large-scale, high-density multielectrode array, we recorded from hundreds to thousands of RGCs simultaneously at pan-retinal level, including dorsal and ventral locations. Responses to different contrasts not only revealed a complex developmental profile for ON, OFF and ON-OFF responses, but also unveiled differences between dorsal and ventral RGC responses. At eye-opening, dorsal RGCs of all types were more responsive to light, perhaps indicating an environmental priority to nest viewing for pre-weaning pups. The developmental profile of ON and OFF responses exhibited antagonistic behaviour, with the strongest ON responses shortly after eye-opening, followed by an increase in the strength of OFF responses later on. Further, we found that with maturation receptive field (RF) center sizes decrease, spike-triggered averaged responses to white noise become stronger, and centers become more circular while maintaining differences between RGC types. We conclude that the maturation of retinal functionality is not spatially homogeneous, likely reflecting ecological requirements that favour earlier maturation of the dorsal retina. PMID:28186129

  12. KCC2-dependent subcellular ECl difference of ON-OFF retinal ganglion cells in larval zebrafish

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    Rongwei eZhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Subcellular difference in the reversal potential of Cl- (ECl has been found in many types of neurons. As local ECl largely determines the action of nearby GABAergic/glycinergic synapses, subcellular ECl difference can effectively regulate neuronal computation. The ON-OFF retinal ganglion cell (RGC processes both ON and OFF visual signals via its ON and OFF dendrites, respectively. It is thus interesting to investigate whether the ON and OFF dendrites of single RGCs exhibit different local ECl. Here, using in vivo gramicidin-perforated patch recording in larval zebrafish ON-OFF RGCs, we examine local ECl at the ON and OFF dendrites, and soma through measuring light-evoked ON and OFF inhibitory responses, and GABA-induced response at the soma, respectively. We find there are subcellular ECl differences between the soma and dendrite, as well as between the ON and OFF dendrites of single RGCs. These somato-dendritic and inter-dendritic ECl differences are dependent on the Cl- extruder, K+/Cl- co-transporter (KCC2, because they are largely diminished by down-regulating kcc2 expression with morpholino oligonucleotides or by blocking KCC2 function with furosemide. Thus, our findings indicate that there exists KCC2-dependent ECl difference between the ON and OFF dendrites of individual ON-OFF RGCs that may differentially affect visual processing in the ON and OFF pathways.

  13. Tlx3 Function in the Dorsal Root Ganglion is Pivotal to Itch and Pain Sensations

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    Chengcheng Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Itch, a sensation eliciting a desire to scratch, is distinct from but not completely independent of pain. Inspiring achievements have been made in the characterization of itch-related receptors and neurotransmitters, but the molecular mechanisms controlling the development of pruriceptors remain poorly understood. Here, our RNAseq and in situ hybridization data show that the transcription factor Tlx3 is required for the expression of a majority of itch-related molecules in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG. As a result, Tlx3F/F;Nav1.8-cre mice exhibit significantly attenuated acute and dry skin-induced chronic itch. Furthermore, our study indicates that TRPV1 plays a pivotal role in the chronic itch evoked by dry skin and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD. The mutants also display impaired response to cold and inflammatory pain and elevated response to capsaicin, whereas the responses to acute mechanical, thermal stimuli and neuropathic pain remain normal. In Tlx3F/F;Nav1.8-cre mice, TRPV1 is derepressed and expands predominantly into IB4+ non-peptidergic (NP neurons. Collectively, our data reveal a molecular mechanism in regulating the development of pruriceptors and controlling itch and pain sensations.

  14. Sialic acid contributes to hyperexcitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats with peripheral nerve injury.

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    Peng, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xiu-Lin; Fang, Yan; Xie, Wen-Rui; Xie, Yi-Kuan

    2004-11-12

    Axonal injury of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons may alter the synthesis of certain membrane proteins that are responsible for the development of abnormal hyperexcitability. The external domains of most of these membrane proteins are sialylated. Because sialic acid carries heavy negative charges, the increase of sialylated proteins may increase neurons' negative surface charges, which will have predictable effects on the voltage-gated channels, and affect the excitability of injured neurons. Using intracellular electrophysiological recording, we demonstrated that following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, Aalpha/beta DRG neurons become hyperexcitable, as indicated by a more depolarized resting membrane potential (Vm) and a lowered threshold current (TIC). More interestingly, the excitability of injured DRG neurons was reduced substantially when the extracellular sialic acid was removed by pretreatment with neuraminidase. The Vm was less depolarized and the TIC increased robustly as compared to the CCI neurons without neuraminidase treatment. However, desialylation of normal, intact neurons had no significant effect on the Vm and less effect on the TIC. Our results suggest that the hyperexcitability of injured sensory neurons may be associated with increased negatively charged sialic acid residues on the surface of the neuronal somata.

  15. The thermosensitive potassium channel TREK-1 contributes to coolness-evoked responses of Grueneberg ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebe, Sabrina; Schellig, Katharina; Lesage, Florian; Breer, Heinz; Fleischer, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Neurons of the Grueneberg ganglion (GG) residing in the vestibule of the murine nose are activated by cool ambient temperatures. Activation of thermosensory neurons is usually mediated by thermosensitive ion channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family. However, there is no evidence for the expression of thermo-TRPs in the GG, suggesting that GG neurons utilize distinct mechanisms for their responsiveness to cool temperatures. In search for proteins that render GG neurons responsive to coolness, we have investigated whether TREK/TRAAK channels may play a role; in heterologous expression systems, these potassium channels have been previously found to close upon exposure to coolness, leading to a membrane depolarization. The results of the present study indicate that the thermosensitive potassium channel TREK-1 is expressed in those GG neurons that are responsive to cool temperatures. Studies analyzing TREK-deficient mice revealed that coolness-evoked responses of GG neurons were clearly attenuated in these animals compared with wild-type conspecifics. These data suggest that TREK-1 channels significantly contribute to the responsiveness of GG neurons to cool temperatures, further supporting the concept that TREK channels serve as thermoreceptors in sensory cells. Moreover, the present findings provide the first evidence of how thermosensory GG neurons are activated by given temperature stimuli in the absence of thermo-TRPs.

  16. Can Variability of Pattern ERG Signal Help to Detect Retinal Ganglion Cells Dysfunction in Glaucomatous Eyes?

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    Alberto Mavilio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate variability of steady-state pattern electroretinogram (SS-PERG signal in normal, suspected, and glaucomatous eyes. Methods. Twenty-one subjects with suspected glaucoma due to disc abnormalities (GS, 37 patients with early glaucoma (EG, and 24 normal control (NC were tested with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, standard automated perimetry (SAP, and SS-PERG. Mean deviation (MD, pattern standard deviation (PSD, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL, and ganglionar complex cells (GCC were evaluated. The SS-PERG was recorded five consecutive times and the amplitude and phase of second harmonic were measured. PERG amplitude and coefficient of variation of phase (CVphase were recorded, and correlation with structural and functional parameters of disease, by means of one-way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation, was analysed. Results. PERG amplitude was reduced, as expression of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs dysfunction, in EG patients and GS subjects compared to NC patients (P<0.0001. CVphase was significantly increased in EG patients and GS subjects, compared to healthy (P<0.0001, and it was also correlated with PSD (P=0.0009, GCC (P=0.028, and RNFL (P=0.0078 only in EG patients. Conclusions. Increased intrasession variability of phase in suspected glaucomatous eyes may be a sign of RGCs dysfunction.

  17. Stanniocalcin-1 protects retinal ganglion cells by inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative damage.

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    Sang Jin Kim

    Full Text Available Optic neuropathy including glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible vision loss, and there are currently no effective therapies. The hallmark of pathophysiology of optic neuropathy is oxidative stress and apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, a population of neurons in the central nervous system with their soma in the inner retina and axons in the optic nerve. We here tested that an anti-apoptotic protein stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1 can prevent loss of RGCs in the rat retina with optic nerve transection (ONT and in cultures of RGC-5 cells with CoCl2 injury. We found that intravitreal injection of STC-1 increased the number of RGCs in the retina at days 7 and 14 after ONT, and decreased apoptosis and oxidative damage. In cultures, treatment with STC-1 dose-dependently increased cell viability, and decreased apoptosis and levels of reactive oxygen species in RGC-5 cells that were exposed to CoCl2. The expression of HIF-1α that was up-regulated by injury was significantly suppressed in the retina and in RGC-5 cells by STC-1 treatment. The results suggested that intravitreal injection of STC-1 might be a useful therapy for optic nerve diseases in which RGCs undergo apoptosis through oxidative stress.

  18. Orexin affects dorsal root ganglion neurons: a mechanism for regulating the spinal nociceptive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J-A; Ge, L; Huang, W; Song, B; Chen, X-W; Yu, Z-P

    2008-01-01

    Orexins (orexin A and B) are initially known to be a hypothalamic peptide critical for feeding and normal wakefulness. In addition, emerging evidence from behavioral tests suggests that orexins are also involved in the regulation of nociceptive processing, suggesting a novel potential therapeutic approach for pain treatment. Both spinal and supraspinal mechanisms appear to contribute to the role of orexin in nociception. In the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are primary afferent neurons that transmit peripheral stimuli to the pain-processing areas. Morphological results show that both orexin A and orexin-1 receptor are distributed in DRG neurons. Moreover, by using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and calcium imaging measurements we found that orexin A induced excitability and intracellular calcium concentration elevation in the isolated rat DRG neurons, which was mainly dependent on the activation of spinal orexin-1 receptor. Based on these findings, we propose a hypothesis that the direct effect of orexin A on DRG neurons would represent a possible mechanism for the orexinergic modulation of spinal nociceptive transmission.

  19. Neuroprotective Effect of Lutein on NMDA-Induced Retinal Ganglion Cell Injury in Rat Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chanjuan; Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Jiayi; Li, Qin; Huang, Cuiqin; Zhu, Lihong; Lu, Daxiang

    2016-05-01

    Lutein injection is a possible therapeutic approach for retinal diseases, but the molecular mechanism of its neuroprotective effect remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate its protective effects in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced retinal damage in vivo. Retinal damage was induced by intravitreal NMDA injection in rats. Each animal was given five daily intraperitoneal injections of Lutein or vehicle along with intravitreal NMDA injections. Electroretinograms were recorded. The number of viable RGCs was quantified using the retinal whole-mount method by immunofluorescence. Proteins were measured by Western blot assays. Lutein reduced the retinal damage and improved the response to light, as shown by an animal behavior assay (the black-and-white box method) in rats. Furthermore, Lutein treatment prevented the NMDA-induced reduction in phNR wave amplitude. Lutein increased RGC number after NMDA-induced retina damage. Most importantly, Bax, cytochrome c, p-p38 MAPK, and p-c-Jun were all upregulated in rats injected with NMDA, but these expression patterns were reversed by continuous Lutein uptake. Bcl-2, p-GSK-3β, and p-Akt in the Lutein-treated eyes were increased compared with the NMDA group. Lutein has neuroprotective effects against retinal damage, its protective effects may be partly mediated by its anti-excitability neurotoxicity, through MAPKs and PI3K/Akt signaling, suggesting a potential approach for suppressing retinal neural damage.

  20. Fast estimation of motion from selected populations of retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerquera, Alexander; Freund, Jan

    2011-02-01

    We explore how the reconstruction efficiency of fast spike population codes varies with population size, population composition and code complexity. Our study is based on experiments with moving light patterns which are projected onto the isolated retina of a turtle Pseudemys scripta elegans. The stimulus features to reconstruct are sequences of velocities kept constant throughout segments of 500 ms. The reconstruction is based on the spikes of a retinal ganglion cell (RGC) population recorded extracellularly via a multielectrode array. Subsequent spike sorting yields the parallel spike trains of 107 RGCs as input to the reconstruction method, here a discriminant analysis trained and tested in jack-knife fashion. Motivated by behavioral response times, we concentrate on fast reconstruction, i.e., within 150 ms following a trigger event defined via significant changes of the population spike rate. Therefore, valid codes involve only few (≤3) spikes per cell. Using only the latency t(1) of each cell (with reference to the trigger event) corresponds to the most parsimonious population code considered. We evaluate the gain in reconstruction efficiency when supplementing t(1) by spike times t(2) and t(3). Furthermore, we investigate whether sub-populations of smaller size benefit significantly from a selection process or whether random compilations are equally efficient. As selection criteria we try different concepts (directionality, reliability, and discriminability). Finally, we discuss the implications of a selection process and its inter-relation with code complexity for optimized reconstruction.

  1. CaMK II γ down regulation protects dorsal root ganglion neurons from ropivacaine hydrochloride neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xian-Jie; Li, Xiao-Hong; Li, Heng; Liang, Hua; Yang, Chen-Xiang; Wang, Han-Bing

    2017-07-12

    T-type calcium channels are intimately involved in the local anesthetics neurotoxicity. Does CaMKIIγ regulate T-type calcium currents in local anesthetics neurotoxicity? This study generated pAd-CaMKIIγ and pAd-shRNA adenovirus vectors to up- and down-regulate CaMKIIγ mRNA expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG). Normal DRG (Normal group), empty vector DRG (Empty vector group), pAd-CaMKIIγ DRG (pAd-CaMKIIγ group) and pAd-shRNA DRG (pAd-shRNA group) were treated or untreated with 3 mM ropivacaine hydrochloride for 4 h. Cell viability, apoptosis rate, CaMKIIγ, pCaMKIIγ, Cav3.2, and Cav3.3 expression were detected. Ultrastructural changes in DRG were observed under a transmission electron microscope. The results demonstrated that the cell viability of DRG treated with ropivacaine hydrochloride decreased markedly, the apoptosis rate, CaMKIIγ, pCaMKIIγ, Cav3.2, Cav3.3 expression increased significantly. CaMKIIγ up-regulation aggravated ropivacaine hydrochloride-induced cell damage and increased Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 expression. In conclusion, CaMKIIγ regulated Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 expression in DRG, which was involved with ropivacaine hydrochloride-induced cell injury.

  2. Losartan Treatment Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells and Alters Scleral Remodeling in Experimental Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Harry A; Pitha, Ian F; Welsbie, Derek S; Nguyen, Cathy; Steinhart, Matthew R; Nguyen, Thao D; Pease, Mary Ellen; Oglesby, Ericka N; Berlinicke, Cynthia A; Mitchell, Katherine L; Kim, Jessica; Jefferys, Joan J; Kimball, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    To determine if oral losartan treatment decreases the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death caused by experimental intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in mice. We produced IOP increase in CD1 mice and performed unilateral optic nerve crush. Mice received oral losartan, spironolactone, enalapril, or no drug to test effects of inhibiting angiotensin receptors. IOP was monitored by Tonolab, and blood pressure was monitored by tail cuff device. RGC loss was measured in masked axon counts and RGC bodies by β-tubulin labeling. Scleral changes that could modulate RGC injury were measured including axial length, scleral thickness, and retinal layer thicknesses, pressure-strain behavior in inflation testing, and study of angiotensin receptors and pathways by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Losartan treatment prevented significant RGC loss (median loss = 2.5%, p = 0.13), while median loss with water, spironolactone, and enalapril treatments were 26%, 28% and 43%; p IOP elevations was less in losartan-treated than in control glaucoma eyes (p = 0.007). Losartan inhibited effects of glaucoma, including reduction in extracellular signal-related kinase activity and modification of glaucoma-related changes in scleral thickness and creep under controlled IOP. The neuroprotective effect of losartan in mouse glaucoma is associated with adaptive changes in the sclera expressed at the optic nerve head.

  3. Extraction (DSX from Erigeron breviscapus modulates outward potassium currents in rat retinal ganglion cells

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    Shuo Yin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of DSX, an active component extracted from Erigeron breviscapus, on the voltage-gated outward K+ channel currents in rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs by using electrophysiological method, and to explore the possible mechanisms of DSX on optic nerve protection. METHODS: Outward K+ currents were recorded by using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques on acutely isolated rat RGCs. Outward K+ currents were induced by a series of depolarizing voltage pulses from a holding potential of -70 mV to +20 mV in an increment of 10 mV. RESULTS: Extracellular application of DSX voltage-dependently suppressed both the steady-state and peak current amplitudes of outward K+ currents in rat RGCs. Furthermore, DSX reversibly and dose-dependently inhibited the amplitudes of outward K+ currents of the cells. At +20 mV membrane potential DSX at the concentrations of 0.02 g/L and 0.05 g/L showed no significant effects on the currents. In contrast, DSX at higher concentrations (0.1 g/L, 0.2 g/L and 0.5 g/L significantly suppressed the current amplitudes. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that DSX reversibly and dose-dependently suppress outward K+ channel currents in rat RGCs, which may be one of the possible mechanisms underlying Erigeron breviscapus prevents vision loss and RGC damage caused by glaucoma.

  4. Protective effect of curcumin for retinal ganglion cells in adult rabbits with acute intraocular hypertension

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    Zhi-Gang Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To detect the protective effect of curcumin for retinal ganglion cells(RGCsin adult rabbits with acute intraocular hypertension.METHODS: Twenty-four adult rabbits were divided randomly into normal control group, model group and curcumin group. Except normal control group, the rabbit model with acute ocular hypertension was established by increasing intraocular pressure through anterior chamber infusion. After the establishment of the model, rabbits in curcumin group were injected intravitreally with curcumin(0.1mg/0.1mLfor 7d. Rabbits in mdodel group were injected with physiological saline replaced of the same volume curcumin. The oculars in normal control group without any treatments were acquired directly. The levels of Thy-1 in RGCs were detected by immunohistochemistry. The density of RGCs was counted too.RESULTS: Thy-1 expressed in the RGCs in normal control group and curcumin group had no significant difference(P>0.05.While the difference between model group and normal control group on Thy-1 expression was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: In this study on curcumin in adult rabbits with acute ocular hypertension, curcumin can increase the expression of Thy-1, which shows that it can partly reduce the injury of RGCs in rabbits with acute intraocular hypertension and curcumin may be able to protect the retina under certain situation.

  5. The types of retinal ganglion cells: current status and implications for neuronal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanes, Joshua R; Masland, Richard H

    2015-07-08

    In the retina, photoreceptors pass visual information to interneurons, which process it and pass it to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Axons of RGCs then travel through the optic nerve, telling the rest of the brain all it will ever know about the visual world. Research over the past several decades has made clear that most RGCs are not merely light detectors, but rather feature detectors, which send a diverse set of parallel, highly processed images of the world on to higher centers. Here, we review progress in classification of RGCs by physiological, morphological, and molecular criteria, making a particular effort to distinguish those cell types that are definitive from those for which information is partial. We focus on the mouse, in which molecular and genetic methods are most advanced. We argue that there are around 30 RGC types and that we can now account for well over half of all RGCs. We also use RGCs to examine the general problem of neuronal classification, arguing that insights and methods from the retina can guide the classification enterprise in other brain regions.

  6. Allicin protects auditory hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons from cisplatin - Induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianmin; Li, Xiaofei; Song, Yongdong; Li, He; Bai, Xiaohui; Liu, Wenwen; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo; Fan, Zhaomin

    2017-04-01

    Cisplatin is a broad-spectrum anticancer drug that is commonly used in the clinic. Ototoxicity is one of the major side effects of this drug, which caused irreversible sensorineural hearing loss. Allicin, the main biologically active compound derived from garlic, has been shown to exert various anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative activities in vitro and in vivo studies. We took advantage of C57 mice intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin alone or with cisplatin and allicin combined, to investigate whether allicin plays a protective role in vivo against cisplatin ototoxicity. The result showed that C57 mice in cisplatin group exhibited increased shift in auditory brainstem response, whereas the auditory fuction of mice in allicin + cisplatin group was protected in most frequencies, which was accordance with observed damages of outer hair cells (OHCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in the cochlea. Allicin markedly protected SGN mitochondria from damage and releasing cytochrome c, and significantly reduced pro-apoptosis factor expressions activated by cisplatin, including Bax, cleaved-caspase-9, cleaved-caspase-3and p53. Furthermore, allicin reduced the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA), but increased the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD). All data suggested that allicin could prevent hearing loss induced by cisplatin effectively, of which allicin protected SGNs from apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway while protected OHCs and supporting cells (SCs) from apoptosis through p53 pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Expanding the spectrum of human ganglionic eminence region anomalies on fetal magnetic resonance imaging

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    Righini, Andrea; Parazzini, Cecilia; Izzo, Giana [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Cesaretti, Claudia [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Medical Genetics Unit, Fondazione I.R.C.C.S. Ca' Granda, Milan (Italy); Conte, Giorgio [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Department of Health Sciences, Milan (Italy); Frassoni, Carolina; Inverardi, Francesca [Fondazione I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Neurologico ' ' C. Besta' ' , Clinical Epileptology and Experimental Neurophysiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Bulfamante, Gaetano; Avagliano, Laura [San Paolo Hospital, Division of Human Pathology, Milan (Italy); Rustico, Mariangela [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Prenatal Diagnosis, Milan (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Ganglionic eminence (GE) is a transient fetal brain structure that harvests a significant amount of precursors of cortical GABA-ergic interneurons. Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of GE anomalies (i.e., cavitations) have already been reported associated with severe micro-lissencephaly. The purpose of this report was to illustrate the MR imaging features of GE anomalies in conditions other than severe micro-lissencephalies. Among all the fetuses submitted to prenatal MR imaging at our center from 2005 to 2014, we collected eight cases with GE anomalies and only limited associated brain anomalies. The median gestational age at the time of MR imaging was 21 weeks ranging from 19 to 29 weeks. Two senior pediatric neuroradiologists categorized the anomalies of the GE region in two groups: group one showing cavitation in the GE region and group two showing enlarged GE region. For each fetal case, associated cranial anomalies were also reported. Five out of the eight cases were included in group one and three in group two. Besides the GE region abnormality, all eight cases had additional intracranial anomalies, such as mild partial callosal agenesis, vermian hypoplasia and rotation, cerebellar hypoplasia, ventriculomegaly, enlarged subarachnoid spaces, molar tooth malformation. Ultrasound generally detected most of the associated intracranial anomalies, prompting the MR investigation; on the contrary in none of the cases, GE anomalies had been detected by ultrasound. Our observation expands the spectrum of human GE anomalies, demonstrating that these may take place also without associated severe micro-lissencephalies. (orig.)

  8. Spontaneous oscillatory rhythms in the degenerating mouse retina modulate retinal ganglion cell responses to electrical stimulation

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    Yong Sook eGoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the electrical activity of the retina in the animal models of retinal degeneration has been carried out in part to understand the progression of retinal degenerative diseases like age-related macular degeneration (AMD and retinitis pigmentosa (RP, but also to determine optimum stimulus paradigms for use with retinal prosthetic devices. The models most studied in this regard have been the two lines of mice deficient in the β-subunit of phosphodiesterase (rd1 and rd10 mice, where the degenerating retinas exhibit characteristic spontaneous hyperactivity and oscillatory local field potentials (LFPs. Additionally, there is a robust ~10 Hz rhythmic burst of retinal ganglion cell (RGC spikes on the trough of the oscillatory LFP. In rd1 mice, the rhythmic burst of RGC spikes is always phase-locked with the oscillatory LFP and this phase-locking property is preserved regardless of postnatal ages. However, in rd10 mice, the frequency of the oscillatory rhythm changes according to postnatal age, suggesting that this rhythm might be a marker of the stage of degeneration. Furthermore when a biphasic current stimulus is applied to rd10 mice degenerate retina, distinct RGC response patterns that correlate with the stage of degeneration emerge. This review also considers the significance of these response properties.

  9. Hemicrania continua may respond to repetitive sphenopalatine ganglion block: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis, X Michelle; Krebs, Kaitlin A; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2016-03-01

    Hemicrania continua (HC) is a chronic headache disorder characterized by a continuous, strictly unilateral head pain accompanied by cranial autonomic symptoms, which completely responds to indomethacin; however, few alternative treatment options exist for the patients with this disorder who cannot tolerate indomethacin. Sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) block has been used for the treatment of various headaches, with the strongest evidence for efficacy in cluster headache. A 52-year-old woman with a 7-year history of HC was evaluated in our clinic for management of her headaches after she had stopped using indomethacin due to a bleeding gastrointestinal ulcer. After failing multiple pharmacologic therapies, she was treated with repetitive SPG blocks using bupivacaine (0.6 mL at 0.5%) twice a week for 6 weeks and followed by maintenance therapy. This treatment protocol resulted in significant improvement in her headaches, mood, and functional capacity. SPG block using a local anesthetic may be an effective treatment for patients with HC, specifically for those who cannot tolerate indomethacin, or when this drug is contraindicated. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  10. [Exclusive radiotherapy for a facial basal cell carcinoma with trigeminal ganglion involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longeac, M; Lapeyre, M; Delbet Dupas, C; Barthélémy, I; Pham Dang, N

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell carcinomas with symptomatic perineural invasion are rare entities. We report the case of a 60year-old man (with a grafted kidney), surgically treated in 2007 for a sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma infiltrating the left nostril. Five years later, a painful left hemifacial hypoesthesia associated with an ulcus rodens of the nasolabial fold appeared. A biopsy confirmed a recurrence. MRI showed an enhancement of the trigeminal ganglion. The patient had a trigeminal perineural invasion secondary to a cutaneous basal cell carcinoma. He received a local intensity-modulated radiotherapy alone (70Gy in 33 sessions), administered from the skin tumour to the skull base. Three years after the end of treatment, the patient is in radiological and clinical remission, with partial recovery of the hypoesthesia. Evolution was marked by iterative corneal ulcers and decreased visual acuity. Modalities of treatment by surgery and/or radiation therapy and complications are poorly described in the literature. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  11. NF-Protocadherin Regulates Retinal Ganglion Cell Axon Behaviour in the Developing Visual System.

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    Louis C Leung

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion molecules play a central role in mediating axonal tract development within the nascent nervous system. NF-protocadherin (NFPC, a member of the non-clustered protocadherin family, has been shown to regulate retinal ganglion cell (RGC axon and dendrite initiation, as well as influencing axonal navigation within the mid-optic tract. However, whether NFPC mediates RGC axonal behaviour at other positions within the optic pathway remains unclear. Here we report that NFPC plays an important role in RGC axonogenesis, but not in intraretinal guidance. Moreover, axons with reduced NFPC levels exhibit insensitivity to Netrin-1, an attractive guidance cue expressed at the optic nerve head. Netrin-1 induces rapid turnover of NFPC localized to RGC growth cones, suggesting that the regulation of NFPC protein levels may underlie Netrin-1-mediated entry of RGC axons into the optic nerve head. At the tectum, we further reveal a function for NFPC in controlling RGC axonal entry into the final target area. Collectively, our results expand our understanding of the role of NFPC in RGC guidance and illustrate that this adhesion molecule contributes to axon behaviour at multiple points in the optic pathway.

  12. PML bodies in reactive sensory ganglion neurons of the Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrá, Nuria T; Berciano, José; Altable, Marcos; Navascués, Joaquín; Casafont, Iñigo; Lafarga, Miguel; Berciano, María T

    2004-06-01

    Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) is a type of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) characterized by primary nerve demyelination sometimes with secondary axonal degeneration. Studies on the fine structure of dorsal root ganglia in AIDP are lacking. Our aim was to investigate the cytology and nuclear organization of primary sensory neurons in AIDP with axonal injury using ultrastructural and immunohistochemical analysis. The light cytology of the L5 dorsal ganglion showed the characteristic findings of neuronal axonal reaction. The organization of chromatin, nucleolus, Cajal bodies, and nuclear pores corresponded to transcriptionally active neurons. However, the hallmark of the nuclear response to axonal injury was the formation of numerous nuclear bodies (NBs; 6.37 +/- 0.6, in the AIDP, vs. 2.53 +/- 0.2, in the control, mean +/- SDM), identified as promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies by the presence of the protein PML. In addition to PML protein, nuclear bodies contained SUMO-1 and the transcriptional regulators CREB-binding protein (CBP) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The presence of proteasome 19S was also detected in some nuclear bodies. We suggest that neuronal PML bodies could regulate the nuclear concentration of active proteins, a process mediated by protein interactions with PML and SUMO-1 proteins. In the AIDP case, the proliferation of PML bodies may result from the overexpression of some nuclear proteins due to changes in gene expression associated with axonal injury.

  13. Trimetazidine protects retinal ganglion cells from acute glaucoma via the Nrf2/Ho-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peixing; Su, Wenru; Zhang, Yingying; Li, Zhidong; Deng, Caibin; Zhuo, Yehong

    2017-09-15

    Acute glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible vision impairment characterized by the rapid elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and consequent retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have been considered critical for the pathogenesis of RGC death in acute glaucoma. Trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-ischemic drug, possesses antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, contributing to its therapeutic potential in tissue damage. However, the role of TMZ in acute glaucoma and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that treatment with TMZ significantly attenuated retinal damage and RGC death in mice with acute glaucoma, with a significant decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokine production in the retina. Furthermore, TMZ treatment directly decreased ROS production and rebalanced the intracellular redox state, thus contributing to the survival of RGCs in vitro TMZ treatment also reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines in vitro Mechanistically, the TMZ-mediated inhibition of apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine production in RGCs occurred via the regulation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase 1/caspase-8 pathway. Moreover, the TMZ-mediated neuroprotection in acute glaucoma was abrogated when an HO-1 inhibitor, SnPP, was used. Our findings identify potential mechanisms of RGC apoptosis and propose a novel therapeutic agent, TMZ, which exerts a precise neuroprotective effect against acute glaucoma. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Losartan Treatment Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells and Alters Scleral Remodeling in Experimental Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitha, Ian F.; Nguyen, Cathy; Steinhart, Matthew R.; Nguyen, Thao D.; Pease, Mary Ellen; Oglesby, Ericka N.; Berlinicke, Cynthia A.; Mitchell, Katherine L.; Kim, Jessica; Jefferys, Joan J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if oral losartan treatment decreases the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death caused by experimental intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in mice. Methods We produced IOP increase in CD1 mice and performed unilateral optic nerve crush. Mice received oral losartan, spironolactone, enalapril, or no drug to test effects of inhibiting angiotensin receptors. IOP was monitored by Tonolab, and blood pressure was monitored by tail cuff device. RGC loss was measured in masked axon counts and RGC bodies by β-tubulin labeling. Scleral changes that could modulate RGC injury were measured including axial length, scleral thickness, and retinal layer thicknesses, pressure-strain behavior in inflation testing, and study of angiotensin receptors and pathways by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Results Losartan treatment prevented significant RGC loss (median loss = 2.5%, p = 0.13), while median loss with water, spironolactone, and enalapril treatments were 26%, 28% and 43%; p glaucoma eyes (p = 0.007). Losartan inhibited effects of glaucoma, including reduction in extracellular signal-related kinase activity and modification of glaucoma-related changes in scleral thickness and creep under controlled IOP. Conclusions The neuroprotective effect of losartan in mouse glaucoma is associated with adaptive changes in the sclera expressed at the optic nerve head. PMID:26505191

  15. Loss of Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells in Severely Staged Glaucoma Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obara, Elisabeth Anne; Hannibal, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multiple studies have shown overwhelming evidence supporting the impairment of melanopsin function due to glaucoma. However, few studies have been carried out in humans analyzing the histology of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) in retinas with glaucoma. The aim...... of this study was to analyze the pattern of expression of mRGCs relative to RGCs in the normal retina and retinas harboring varying stages of glaucoma. Methods: Paraffin-embedded human donor eyes with glaucoma (n = 11) and age-matched controls (n = 10) were obtained from Department of Pathology at Rigshospital...... difference was observed in mRGC expression in the normal retinas and mild-staged retinas with glaucoma; the densities of mRGCs were 3.08 ± 0.47 and 3.00 ± 0.13 cell counts/mm2, respectively. However, the severely staged retinas with glaucoma showed a significant loss in mRGCs density, 1.09 ± 0.35 cell counts...

  16. Effects of lysergic acid diethylamide on autonomic post-ganglionic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambache, N; Killick, S W; Srinivasan, V; Zar, M A

    1975-04-01

    1. Six sites of autonomic post-ganglionic transmission were examined for susceptibility to LSD. Inhibition of transmission by LSD was confined to the three sympathetic junctions. 2. Inhibition of sympathetic transmission was maximal with short trains of pulses and declined considerably as train length was increased. 3. Evidence for a presynaptic mode of action was obtained. This was the predominant effect of LSD in the rat anococcygeus and dog retractor penis because alpha-adrenoceptor-blocking properties were feeble or absent; but in dog splenic strips LSD produced marked post-synaptic alpha-blockade. 4. The presynaptic inhibitory effect of LSD was unrelated to its 5-hydroxytryptamine-blocking property because it was not shared by methysergide. Neither was it mediated by prostaglandin release because it was unaltered by indomethacin, which suppresses prostaglandin synthesis. 5. In the rat anococcygeus and dog retractor penis larger doses of LSD induced slow contractions and, as a result of the concurrent block of motor transmission, revealed relaxation responses on transmural stimulation, caused by the excitation of sacral inhibitory fibres present in these muscles. 6. The LSD contractions were due to stimulation of post-synaptic alpha-adrenoceptors because they were abolished by phentolamine or yohimbine but were present as usual in preparations taken from reserpinized animals. 7. LSD blocked presynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors in the cholinergic motor fibres to the longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig ileum.

  17. Hirschsprung Disease Diagnosis: Calretinin Marker Role in Determining the Presence or Absence of Ganglion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshani, Nasser; Araste, Mohammadreza; Imanzade, Farid; Panahi, Mahshid; Safarnezhad Tameshkel, Fahimeh; Sohrabi, Masoud Reza; Karbalaie Niya, Mohammad Hadi; Zamani, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease is a complex genetic disorder of the enteric nervous system (ENS), often called congenital aganglionic megacolon and characterized by the absence of enteric neurons along a variable length of the intestine. The definitive diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease relies on histologic and/or histochemical staining of sections from suction rectal biopsies. Calretinin immunohistochemistry (IHC) may be a useful in its diagnosis. This study aimed to proof the usefulness of immunohistochemical staining for calretinin in rule out of Hirschsprung disease. Paraffin blocks and slides were retrieved from the pathology archives of Ali Asghar Hospital, Tehran, Iran from 2007 to 2011 with pathology report based on the presence (14 patients) or absence (70 patients) of ganglion cells and transitional zone anatomical region (10 patients). Slides were stained with hematoxylin and eosin method to confirm the initial diagnosis was verification again. After preparing the slides, they were stained by IHC for calretinin. Then, the results were analyzed using SPSS software. In most patients, IHC for calretinin provided highly compatible results with hematoxylin-eosin findings in diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease. The values of specificity and accuracy between calretinin and standard histology (H&E) compared by the Fisher exact test declared calretinin presented significantly higher specificity and accuracy values than H&E staining (P Hirschsprung disease.

  18. The ciliary margin zone of the mammalian retina generates retinal ganglion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Florencia; Murcia-Belmonte, Veronica; Coca, Yaiza; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Wang, Qing; Kuwajima, Takaaki; Khalid, Sania; Ross, M. Elizabeth; Herrera, Eloisa; Mason, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Summary The retina of lower vertebrates grows continuously by integrating new neurons generated from progenitors in the ciliary margin zone (CMZ). Whether the mammalian CMZ provides the neural retina with retinal cells is controversial. Live-imaging of embryonic retina expressing eGFP in the CMZ shows that cells migrate laterally from the CMZ to the neural retina where differentiated retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) reside. As Cyclin D2, a cell-cycle regulator, is enriched in ventral CMZ, we analyzed Cyclin D2−/− mice to test whether the CMZ is a source of retinal cells. Neurogenesis is diminished in Cyclin D2 mutants, leading to a reduction of RGCs in the ventral retina. In line with these findings, in the albino retina, the decreased production of ipsilateral RGCs is correlated with fewer Cyclin D2+ cells. Together, these results implicate the mammalian CMZ as a neurogenic site that produces RGCs and whose proper generation depends on Cyclin D2 activity. PMID:28009286

  19. Preconditioning with inhalative carbon monoxide protects rat retinal ganglion cells from ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Julia; Lagrèze, Wolf A; Dimitriu, Cornelia; Stoykow, Christian; Goebel, Ulrich

    2010-07-01

    PURPOSE. Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury damages retinal neurons. Carbon monoxide (CO) recently attracted attention as cytoprotective because of its anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. Rapid preconditioning of retinal neurons by inhaled CO before I/R injury may reduce inflammation and apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). METHODS. I/R injury was performed on the left eyes of rats (n = 8) with or without inhaled CO preconditioning (250 ppm) for 1 hour before ischemia. Densities of fluorogold-prelabeled RGCs were analyzed 7 days after injury in whole-mounts. Retinal tissue was further harvested to analyze protein expression of TNF-alpha, HSP-70, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pERK1/2 and p-p38. DNA-binding activities of the transcription factors NF-kappaB, AP-1, CREB, and HSF-1 were determined to elucidate a possible pathway of neuroprotection. RESULTS. Seven days after I/R injury, RGC death decreased by 52% in the CO preconditioning group compared with controls receiving room air (P activity and TNF-alpha protein expression. In contrast, HSP-70 protein expression was elevated in the retina after CO. CREB and HSF-1 showed CO-dependent regulation and p-p38 MAPK. CONCLUSIONS. Rapid preconditioning with CO mediates anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects in retinal I/R injury, thus making it neuroprotective. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether CO posttreatment may represent a therapeutic option counteracting ischemic neuronal injury.

  20. Na+ Channel Scn1b Gene Regulates Dorsal Root Ganglion Nociceptor Excitability in Vivo*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Santiago, Luis F.; Brackenbury, William J.; Chen, Chunling; Isom, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons express tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) and -resistant (TTX-R) Na+ current (INa) mediated by voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs). In nociceptive DRG neurons, VGSC β2 subunits, encoded by Scn2b, selectively regulate TTX-S α subunit mRNA and protein expression, ultimately resulting in changes in pain sensitivity. We hypothesized that VGSCs in nociceptive DRG neurons may also be regulated by β1 subunits, encoded by Scn1b. Scn1b null mice are models of Dravet Syndrome, a severe pediatric encephalopathy. Many physiological effects of Scn1b deletion on CNS neurons have been described. In contrast, little is known about the role of Scn1b in peripheral neurons in vivo. Here we demonstrate that Scn1b null DRG neurons exhibit a depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of TTX-S INa inactivation, reduced persistent TTX-R INa, a prolonged rate of recovery of TTX-R INa from inactivation, and reduced cell surface expression of Nav1.9 compared with their WT littermates. Investigation of action potential firing shows that Scn1b null DRG neurons are hyperexcitable compared with WT. Consistent with this, transient outward K+ current (Ito) is significantly reduced in null DRG neurons. We conclude that Scn1b regulates the electrical excitability of nociceptive DRG neurons in vivo by modulating both INa and IK. PMID:21555511

  1. Glutamatergic motoneurons in the stomatogastric ganglion of the mantis shrimp Squilla oratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, C; Tazaki, K

    1992-07-01

    1. Transmitters of motoneurons in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of Squilla were identified by analyzing the excitatory neuromuscular properties of muscles in the posterior cardiac plate (pcp) and pyloric regions. 2. Bath and iontophoretic applications of glutamate produce depolarizations in these muscles. The pharmacological experiments and desensitization of the junctional receptors elucidate the glutamatergic nature of the excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs) evoked in the constrictor and dilator muscles. The reversal potentials for the excitatory junctional current (EJC) and for the glutamate-induced current are almost the same. 3. Some types of dilator muscle show sensitivity to both glutamate and acetylcholine (ACh) exogenously applied. The pharmacological evidence and desensitization of the junctional receptors indicate the glutamatergic nature of neuromuscular junctions in these dually sensitive muscles. The reversal potentials for the EJC and for the ACh-induced current are not identical. 4. Glutamate is a candidate as an excitatory neuro-transmitter at the neuromuscular junctions which the STG motoneurons named PCP, PY, PD, LA and VC make with the identified muscles. Kainic and quisqualic acids which act on glutamate receptors are potent excitants of these muscles. Extrajunctional receptors to ACh are present in two types of the muscle innervated by LA and VC. 5. Neurotransmitters used by the STG motoneurons of stomatopods are compared to those of decapods.

  2. Electrical properties of the pacemaker neurons in the heart ganglion of a stomatopod, Squilla oratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, A; Obara, S; Akiyama, T; Yumoto, K

    1967-03-01

    In the Squilla heart ganglion, the pacemaker is located in the rostral group of cells. After spontaneous firing ceased, the electrophysiological properties of these cells were examined with intracellular electrodes. Cells respond to electrical stimuli with all-or-none action potentials. Direct stimulation by strong currents decreases the size of action potentials. Comparison with action potentials caused by axonal stimulation and analysis of time relations indicate that with stronger currents the soma membrane is directly stimulated whereas with weaker currents the impulse first arises in the axon and then invades the soma. Spikes evoked in a neuron spread into all other neurons. Adjacent cells are interconnected by electrotonic connections. Histologically axons are tied with the side-junction. B spikes of adjacent cells are blocked simultaneously by hyperpolarization or by repetitive stimulation. Experiments show that under such circumstances the B spike is not directly elicited from the A spike but is evoked by invasion of an impulse or electrotonic potential from adjacent cells. On rostral stimulation a small prepotential precedes the main spike. It is interpreted as an action potential from dendrites.

  3. The spread of excitation among neurons in the heart ganglion of the stomatopod, Squillia oratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WATANABE, A; TAKEDA, K

    1963-03-01

    Neurons in the heart ganglion of the mantis shrimp (a stomatopod crustacean) are functionally tightly linked together. The extracellular action potential from the whole trunk very often shows a complex form, but the response is all-or-none to the applied stimulus, indicating that the excitation in one neuron spreads very rapidly to all others. Application of isotonic MgCl(2) solution or repetitive stimulation sometimes separates the spike into its components. The resting potential of the soma membrane is 50 to 60 mv. External stimulation elicits a spike of 60 to 80 mv amplitude with a step on its rising phase. Hyperpolarization reveals one more inflection on the rising phase. These inflections divide the soma action potential into three parts, A(1), A(2), and B spikes in that order from the foot. The B spike disappears on increasing the hyperpolarization, but A(1) and A(2) remain, indicating that B originates from the soma membrane, whereas A(1) and A(2) originate from the two axons of the bipolar cell. Thus the impulse invades the soma from two directions, one from the stimulated side, the other from the other side via the "parallel axons" and the "side-connections;" the latter are presumed to interconnect the axons. When the parallel axons are cut, conduction takes place across the soma with a greatly reduced safety factor and a prolonged conduction time. Neuron-to-neuron transmission takes place in either direction.

  4. The Spread of Excitation among Neurons in the Heart Ganglion of the Stomatopod, Squilla oratoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Takeda, Kimihisa

    1963-01-01

    Neurons in the heart ganglion of the mantis shrimp (a stomatopod crustacean) are functionally tightly linked together. The extracellular action potential from the whole trunk very often shows a complex form, but the response is all-or-none to the applied stimulus, indicating that the excitation in one neuron spreads very rapidly to all others. Application of isotonic MgCl2 solution or repetitive stimulation sometimes separates the spike into its components. The resting potential of the soma membrane is 50 to 60 mv. External stimulation elicits a spike of 60 to 80 mv amplitude with a step on its rising phase. Hyperpolarization reveals one more inflection on the rising phase. These inflections divide the soma action potential into three parts, A1, A2, and B spikes in that order from the foot. The B spike disappears on increasing the hyperpolarization, but A1 and A2 remain, indicating that B originates from the soma membrane, whereas A1 and A2 originate from the two axons of the bipolar cell. Thus the impulse invades the soma from two directions, one from the stimulated side, the other from the other side via the "parallel axons" and the "side-connections;" the latter are presumed to interconnect the axons. When the parallel axons are cut, conduction takes place across the soma with a greatly reduced safety factor and a prolonged conduction time. Neuron-to-neuron transmission takes place in either direction. PMID:13999080

  5. Pacemaker potentials for the periodic burst discharge in the heart ganglion of a stomatopod, Squilla oratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, A; Obara, S; Akiyama, T

    1967-03-01

    From somata of the pacemaker neurons in the Squilla heart ganglion, pacemaker potentials for the spontaneous periodic burst discharge are recorded with intracellular electrodes. The electrical activity is composed of slow potentials and superimposed spikes, and is divided into four types, which are: (a) "mammalian heart" type, (b) "slow generator" type, (c) "slow grower" type, and (d) "slow deficient" type. Since axons which are far from the somata do not produce slow potentials, the soma and dendrites must be where the slow potentials are generated. Hyperpolarization impedes generation of the slow potential, showing that it is an electrically excitable response. Membrane impedance increases on depolarization. Brief hyperpolarizing current can abolish the plateau but brief tetanic inhibitory fiber stimulation is more effective for the abolition. A single stimulus to the axon evokes the slow potential when the stimulus is applied some time after a previous burst. Repetitive stimuli to the axon are more effective in eliciting the slow potential, but the depolarization is not maintained on continuous stimulation. Synchronization of the slow potential among neurons is achieved by: (a) the electrotonic connections, with periodic change in resistance of the soma membrane, (b) active spread of the slow potential, and (c) synchronization through spikes.

  6. Calcium activity of upper thoracic dorsal root ganglion neurons in zucker diabetic Fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Marie Louise; Nyborg, Niels C B; Fjalland, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    or in combination with algogenic chemicals (bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E2 (all 10(-5)¿M), and adenosine (10(-3)¿M)) at pH 7.4 and 6.0. Neurons from diabetic animals exhibited an overall increased response to stimulation with 20¿mM¿K(+) compared to neurons from control. Stimulation with Capsaicin alone...... caused an augmented response in neurons from diabetic animals compared to control animals. When stimulated with a combination of Capsaicin and algogenic chemicals, no differences between the two groups of neurons were measured, neither at pH 7.4 nor 6.0. In conclusion, diabetes-induced alterations......The aim of the present study was to examine the calcium activity of C8-T5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In total, 8 diabetic ZDF fatty animals and 8 age-matched control ZDF lean rats were employed in the study. C8-T5 dorsal root ganglia were isolated...

  7. The effect of visual blue light on mitochondrial function associated with retinal ganglions cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Neville N; Núñez-Álvarez, Claudia; Del Olmo-Aguado, Susana

    2014-11-01

    The retina is the only part of the central nervous system that is exposed to light radiation between 400 and 780 nm. Short wavelength light (SWL) ranging between 400 and 480 nm are absorbed maximally by chromophores located in mitochondria. An abundance of mitochondria are located in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) intraocular axons and photoreceptor inner segments and as a consequence SWL will impact these organelles. The purpose of this article is to summarise the experimental evidence for the possible negative effects of SWL on RGC mitochondria, in situ. The threat of damage to photoreceptor mitochondria may be less than to RGCs, since macular carotenoid, located chiefly in Henle's layer of the photoreceptor inner segment absorbs SWL. The article underlines the hypothesis that SWL contributes to RGC death when these neurones are not in an optimum homoeostatic state as is likely to occur in conditions such as glaucoma and possibly other types of pathologies and even old age. A case therefore exists for the idea that shielding RGCs to slow down visual loss in certain circumstances. This can theoretically be achieved with lenses that reduce transmission of SWL but specifically allow for maximal transmission of 479 nm light to stimulate melanopsin and maintain an optimum sleep/wake cycle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Light might directly affect retinal ganglion cell mitochondria to potentially influence function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Olmo-Aguado, Susana; Manso, Alberto G; Osborne, Neville N

    2012-01-01

    Visible light (360-760 nm) entering the eye impinges on the many ganglion cell mitochondria in the non-myelinated part of their axons. The same light also disrupts isolated mitochondrial function in vitro and kills cells in culture with the blue light component being particularly lethal whereas red light has little effect. Significantly, a defined light insult only affects the survival of fibroblasts in vitro that contain functional mitochondria supporting the view that mitochondrial photosensitizers are influenced by light. Moreover, a blue light insult to cells in culture causes a change in mitochondrial structure and membrane potential and results in a release of cytochrome c. Blue light also causes an alteration in mitochondria located components of the OXPHOS (oxidative phosphorylation system). Complexes III and IV as well as complex V are significantly upregulated whereas complexes I and II are slightly but significantly up- and downregulated, respectively. Also, blue light causes Dexras1 and reactive oxygen species to be upregulated and for mitochondrial located apoptosis-inducing factor to be activated. A blue light detrimental insult to cells in culture does not involve the activation of caspases but is known to be attenuated by necrostatin-1, typical of a death mechanism named necroptosis. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  9. An inhibition of post-ganglionic motor transmission in the mammalian vas deferens by D-lysergic acid diethylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambache, N; Dunk, L P; Verney, J; Zar, M A

    1973-06-01

    1. Under certain conditions D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 10(-9)-10(-6) g/ml., exerted an immediate, prolonged and slowly reversible inhibitory effect upon the post-ganglionic motor transmission in desheathed guinea-pig vas deferens preparations.2. The most critical factor influencing this action of LSD appeared to be the train length. With short trains of less than 4 or 5 pulses the twitch inhibition produced by LSD was often total. With longer trains (5-20 pulses), the degree of inhibition declined with increase in train length. These results suggest the existence of two components in the motor response to post-ganglionic stimulation, distinguished by their susceptibility to LSD.3. The inhibition of the LSD-susceptible component was related to the dose of LSD in the range 10(-9)-10(-6) g/ml., reaching a maximum at 0.5-1 x 10(-6) g/ml. The response remnants elicited by trains of more than 5 pulses under these conditions could not be reduced further by a ten- to twenty-fold increase in LSD concentration to 10(-5) g/ml. and were in fact slightly potentiated.4. The inhibition of post-ganglionic motor transmission by LSD was not explicable on the basis of an alpha-adrenoceptor blockade because it was not associated with any reduction in motor responses to noradrenaline.5. The use of propranolol excluded mediation of the LSD-inhibition by beta-adrenoceptors.6. The LSD effect was not due to a non-specific smooth muscle depression because it was not associated with any reduction in motor responses to acetylcholine, ATP or bradykinin.7. The inhibitory effect of LSD on post-ganglionic transmission resembled that of noradrenaline in that it was antagonized by phentolamine; another alpha-adrenoceptor blocking agent, phenoxybenzamine, was less effective than phentolamine in this respect.8. The LSD-inhibition was obtained in preparations taken from reserpinized guinea-pigs.9. The inhibition of motor transmission in the vas deferens by LSD was confirmed in rats, Meriones

  10. An inhibition of post-ganglionic motor transmission in the mammalian vas deferens by D-lysergic acid diethylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambache, N.; Dunk, Linda P.; Verney, J.; Zar, M. Aboo

    1973-01-01

    1. Under certain conditions D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 10-9-10-6 g/ml., exerted an immediate, prolonged and slowly reversible inhibitory effect upon the post-ganglionic motor transmission in desheathed guinea-pig vas deferens preparations. 2. The most critical factor influencing this action of LSD appeared to be the train length. With short trains of less than 4 or 5 pulses the twitch inhibition produced by LSD was often total. With longer trains (5-20 pulses), the degree of inhibition declined with increase in train length. These results suggest the existence of two components in the motor response to post-ganglionic stimulation, distinguished by their susceptibility to LSD. 3. The inhibition of the LSD-susceptible component was related to the dose of LSD in the range 10-9-10-6 g/ml., reaching a maximum at 0·5-1 × 10-6 g/ml. The response remnants elicited by trains of more than 5 pulses under these conditions could not be reduced further by a ten- to twenty-fold increase in LSD concentration to 10-5 g/ml. and were in fact slightly potentiated. 4. The inhibition of post-ganglionic motor transmission by LSD was not explicable on the basis of an α-adrenoceptor blockade because it was not associated with any reduction in motor responses to noradrenaline. 5. The use of propranolol excluded mediation of the LSD-inhibition by β-adrenoceptors. 6. The LSD effect was not due to a non-specific smooth muscle depression because it was not associated with any reduction in motor responses to acetylcholine, ATP or bradykinin. 7. The inhibitory effect of LSD on post-ganglionic transmission resembled that of noradrenaline in that it was antagonized by phentolamine; another α-adrenoceptor blocking agent, phenoxybenzamine, was less effective than phentolamine in this respect. 8. The LSD-inhibition was obtained in preparations taken from reserpinized guinea-pigs. 9. The inhibition of motor transmission in the vas deferens by LSD was confirmed in rats, Meriones shawii and

  11. ["Point by point" approach to structure-function correlation of glaucoma on the ganglion cell complex in the posterior pole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, M

    2017-01-01

    To try to establish a "point by point" relationship between the local thickness of the retinal ganglion cell complex and its sensitivity. In total, 104 glaucomatous eyes of 89 patients with a confirmed 24-2 visual field, were measured by superimposing the visual field, using imaging software, with the Wide 40° by 30° measurements of retinal ganglion cell complex obtained from the Topcon© 3D 2000 OCT, after upward adjustment, inversion and scaling. Visual fields were classified into two groups according to the extent of the disease: 58 mild to moderate (MD up to -12dB), and 46 severe (MD beyond -12dB). The 6mm by 6mm central region, equipped with a normative database, was studied, corresponding to 16 points in the visual field. These points were individually matched one by one to the local ganglion cell complex, which was classified into 2 groups depending on whether it was greater or less than 70 microns. The normative database confirmed the pathological nature of the thin areas, with a significance of 95 to 99%. Displacement of central retinal ganglion cells was compensated for. Of 1664 points (16 central points for 104 eyes), 283 points were found to be "borderline" and excluded. Of the 1381 analyzed points, 727 points were classified as "over 70 microns" and 654 points "under 70 microns". (1) For all stages combined, 85.8% of the 727 points which were greater than 70 microns had a deviation between -3 and +3dB: areas above 70 microns had no observable loss of light sensitivity. (2) In total, 92.5% of the 428 points having a gap ranging from -6 to -35dB were located on ganglion cell complex areas below 70 microns: functional visual loss was identified in thin areas, which were less than 70 microns. (3) Areas which were less than 70 microns, that is 654 points, had quite variable sensitivity and can be divided into three groups: the first with preserved sensitivity, another with obliterated sensitivity, and an intermediate group connecting

  12. Diabetes accelerates retinal ganglion cell dysfunction in mice lacking sigma receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yonju; Saul, Alan; Tawfik, Amany; Zorrilla, Eric P; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Smith, Sylvia B

    2012-01-01

    Sigma receptor 1 (σR1) is a non-opioid transmembrane protein that may act as a molecular chaperone at the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial membrane. Ligands for σR1, such as (+)-pentazocine [(+)-PTZ], confer marked retinal neuroprotection in vivo and in vitro. Recently we analyzed the retinal phenotype of mice lacking σR1 (σR1 KO) and observed normal retinal morphology and function in young mice (5-30 weeks) but diminished negative scotopic threshold responses (nSTRs), retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, and disruption of optic nerve axons consistent with inner retinal dysfunction by 1 year. These data led us to test the hypothesis that σR1 may be critical in forestalling chronic retinal stress; diabetes was used as the model of chronic stress. To determine whether σR1 is required for (+)-PTZ neuroprotective effects, primary RGCs isolated from wild-type (WT) and σR1 KO mice were exposed to xanthine-xanthine oxidase (10 µM:2 mU/ml) to induce oxidative stress in the presence or absence of (+)-PTZ. Cell death was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis. To assess effects of chronic stress on RGC function, diabetes was induced in 3-week C57BL/6 (WT) and σR1 KO mice, using streptozotocin to yield four groups: WT nondiabetic (WT non-DB), WT diabetic (WT-DB), σR1 KO non-DB, and σR1 KO-DB. After 12 weeks of diabetes, when mice were 15-weeks old, intraocular pressure (IOP) was recorded, electrophysiologic testing was performed (including detection of nSTRs), and the number of RGCs was counted in retinal histological sections. In vitro studies showed that (+)-PTZ could not prevent oxidative stress-induced death of RGCs harvested from σR1 KO mice but afforded robust protection against death of RGCs harvested from WT mice. In the studies of chronic stress induced by diabetes, the IOP measured in the four mouse groups was within the normal range; however, there was a significant increase in the IOP of σR1 KO

  13. Comparison of the neuroprotective effects of brimonidine tartrate and melatonin on retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoz, Deniz; Guzel, Elif; Eyuboglu, Signem; Gumusel, Asli; Seckin, Ismail; Ciftci, Ferda; Yilmaz, Bayram; Yalvac, Ilgaz

    2017-11-20

    We aimed to compare the neuroprotective effects of brimonidine tartrate (BRT) and melatonin (MEL) on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a rat glaucoma model. Thirty-six adult Wistar albino rats were allocated into six groups: control (C), glaucoma (G), BRT, MEL, G + BRT and G + MEL. After establishing the glaucoma model, intraocular pressure (IOP) of all animals measured at day 4 and day 30 was compared statistically with day 0 and day 4, respectively. Prior to sacrification at day 30 for histological evaluation and TUNEL analysis, retrograde labeling of non-apoptotic RGCs with 3% Fluorogold was performed and RGCs were evaluated under fluorescein microscope. IOP measurements at day 4 were significantly higher than basal measurements in all glaucoma groups. BRT alone induced a time-dependent decrease in IOP (p < 0.05), while MEL alone failed to reduce IOP. However, both BRT and MEL reduced IOP in the presence of glaucoma at day 30 (p < 0.05). BRT treatment significantly reversed the reduced non-apoptotic RGC counts (p < 0.01) and increased TUNEL-positive RGCs (p < 0.001) to control group levels in the presence of glaucoma. However, no statistical significance was found between groups G and G + MEL considering 3% Fluorogold-labeled cell counts and apoptotic index values. Our study revealed that systemic administration of BRT also has an IOP reducing effect. MEL has no neuroprotective effect on RGCs; on the other hand, BRT acts as a neuroprotective agent against glaucomatous injury, when applied systemically.

  14. Mice deficient of glutamatergic signaling from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells exhibit abnormal circadian photoentrainment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Purrier

    Full Text Available Several aspects of behavior and physiology, such as sleep and wakefulness, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion exhibit daily oscillations known as circadian rhythms. These circadian rhythms are orchestrated by an intrinsic biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN of the hypothalamus which is adjusted to the daily environmental cycles of day and night by the process of photoentrainment. In mammals, the neuronal signal for photoentrainment arises from a small subset of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs that send a direct projection to the SCN. ipRGCs also mediate other non-image-forming (NIF visual responses such as negative masking of locomotor activity by light, and the pupillary light reflex (PLR via co-release of neurotransmitters glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP from their synaptic terminals. The relative contribution of each neurotransmitter system for the circadian photoentrainment and other NIF visual responses is still unresolved. We investigated the role of glutamatergic neurotransmission for circadian photoentrainment and NIF behaviors by selective ablation of ipRGC glutamatergic synaptic transmission in mice. Mutant mice displayed delayed re-entrainment to a 6 h phase shift (advance or delay in the light cycle and incomplete photoentrainment in a symmetrical skeleton photoperiod regimen (1 h light pulses between 11 h dark periods. Circadian rhythmicity in constant darkness also was reduced in some mutant mice. Other NIF responses such as the PLR and negative masking responses to light were also partially attenuated. Overall, these results suggest that glutamate from ipRGCs drives circadian photoentrainment and negative masking responses to light.

  15. Protection of pattern electroretinogram and retinal ganglion cells by oncostatin M after optic nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xia

    Full Text Available Injury to retinal ganglion cell (RGC axons leads to selective loss of RGCs and vision. Previous studies have shown that exogenous neurotrophic factors promote RGC survival. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of oncostatin M (OSM, a member of the IL-6 family of cytokines, on pattern electroretinogram (PERG and RGC survival after optic nerve crush (ON-crush in the mouse. BALB/C mice received ON-crush in the left eyes for either 4-second or 1-second duration (4-s or 1-s. Fluoro-gold retrograde labeling was used to identify RGCs. RGC function was assessed by PERG measurement. OSM or CNTF protein was injected intravitreally immediately after ON-crush. OSM responsive cells were identified by localization of increased STAT3 phosphorylation. Significant higher RGC survival (46% of untreated control was seen in OSM-treated eyes when assessed 2 weeks after 4-s ON-crush as compared to that (14% of untreated control of the PBS-treated eyes (P<0.001. In addition, PERG amplitude was significantly higher in eyes treated with OSM or CNTF 1 week after 1-s ON-crush (36% of baseline as compared with the amplitude of PBS-treated eyes (19% of the baseline, P = 0.003. An increase in STAT3 phosphorylation was localized in Müller layer after OSM treatment, suggesting that Müller cells mediate the effect of OSM. Our results demonstrate that one single injection of either OSM or CNTF after ON-crush improves RGC survival together with their electrophysiological activity. These data provide proof-of-concept for using neurotrophic factors OSM and CNTF for RGC degenerative diseases, including glaucoma and acute optic nerve trauma.

  16. Role of TRPM8 in dorsal root ganglion in nerve injury-induced chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Lin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neuropathic pain is an intractable pain with few effective treatments. Moderate cold stimulation can relieve pain, and this may be a novel train of thought for exploring new methods of analgesia. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8 ion channel has been proposed to be an important molecular sensor for cold. Here we investigate the role of TRPM8 in the mechanism of chronic neuropathic pain using a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI to the sciatic nerve. Results Mechanical allodynia, cold and thermal hyperalgesia of CCI rats began on the 4th day following surgery and maintained at the peak during the period from the 10th to 14th day after operation. The level of TRPM8 protein in L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG ipsilateral to nerve injury was significantly increased on the 4th day after CCI, and reached the peak on the 10th day, and remained elevated on the 14th day following CCI. This time course of the alteration of TRPM8 expression was consistent with that of CCI-induced hyperalgesic response of the operated hind paw. Besides, activation of cold receptor TRPM8 of CCI rats by intrathecal application of menthol resulted in the inhibition of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia and the enhancement of cold hyperalgesia. In contrast, downregulation of TRPM8 protein in ipsilateral L5 DRG of CCI rats by intrathecal TRPM8 antisense oligonucleotide attenuated cold hyperalgesia, but it had no effect on CCI-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Conclusions TRPM8 may play different roles in mechanical allodynia, cold and thermal hyperalgesia that develop after nerve injury, and it is a very promising research direction for the development of new therapies for chronic neuroapthic pain.

  17. Citral Sensing by TRANSient Receptor Potential Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Stephanie C.; Vriens, Joris; Martyn, Derek; Clardy, Jon; Clapham, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels mediate key aspects of taste, smell, pain, temperature sensation, and pheromone detection. To deepen our understanding of TRP channel physiology, we require more diverse pharmacological tools. Citral, a bioactive component of lemongrass, is commonly used as a taste enhancer, as an odorant in perfumes, and as an insect repellent. Here we report that citral activates TRP channels found in sensory neurons (TRPV1 and TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1), and produces long-lasting inhibition of TRPV1–3 and TRPM8, while transiently blocking TRPV4 and TRPA1. Sustained citral inhibition is independent of internal calcium concentration, but is state-dependent, developing only after TRP channel opening. Citral's actions as a partial agonist are not due to cysteine modification of the channels nor are they a consequence of citral's stereoisoforms. The isolated aldehyde and alcohol cis and trans enantiomers (neral, nerol, geranial, and geraniol) each reproduce citral's actions. In juvenile rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, prolonged citral inhibition of native TRPV1 channels enabled the separation of TRPV2 and TRPV3 currents. We find that TRPV2 and TRPV3 channels are present in a high proportion of these neurons (94% respond to 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate), consistent with our immunolabeling experiments and previous in situ hybridization studies. The TRPV1 activation requires residues in transmembrane segments two through four of the voltage-sensor domain, a region previously implicated in capsaicin activation of TRPV1 and analogous menthol activation of TRPM8. Citral's broad spectrum and prolonged sensory inhibition may prove more useful than capsaicin for allodynia, itch, or other types of pain involving superficial sensory nerves and skin. PMID:18461159

  18. Protection of retinal ganglion cells against optic nerve injury by induction of ischemic preconditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore if ischemic preconditioning (IPC can enhance the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs after optic nerve axotomy. METHODS: Twenty-four hours prior to retinal ischemia 60min or axotomy, IPC was applied for ten minutes in groups of (n=72 animals. The survival of RGCs, the cellular expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 and the numbers of retinal microglia in the different groups were quantified at 7 and 14d post-injury. The cellular expression of HSP27 and HSP70 and changes in the numbers of retinal microglia were quantified to detect the possible mechanism of the protection of the IPC. RESULTS: Ten minutes of IPC promoted RGC survival in both the optic nerve injury (IPC-ONT and the retinal ischemia 60min (IPC-IR60 groups, examined at 7d and 14d post-injury. Microglial proliferation showed little correlation with the extent of benefit effects of IPC on the rescue of RGCs. The number of HSP27-positive RGCs was significantly higher in the IPC-ONT group than in the sham IPC-ONT group, although the percentage of HSP27-positive RGCs did not significantly differ between groups. For the IPC-IR60 group, neither the number nor the percentage of the HSP27-positive RGCs differed significantly between the IPC and the sham-operated groups. The number of HSP70-positive RGCs was significantly higher for both the IPC-ONT and the IPC-IR60 experimental groups, but the percentages did not differ. CONCLUSION: The induction of IPC enhances the survival of RGCs against both axotomy and retinal ischemia.

  19. Protection of retinal ganglion cells against optic nerve injury by induction of ischemic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Liang, Jiu-Ping; Sha, Ou; Wang, Song-Juan; Li, Heng-Guo; Cho, Eric Y P

    2017-01-01

    To explore if ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can enhance the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after optic nerve axotomy. Twenty-four hours prior to retinal ischemia 60min or axotomy, IPC was applied for ten minutes in groups of (n=72) animals. The survival of RGCs, the cellular expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the numbers of retinal microglia in the different groups were quantified at 7 and 14d post-injury. The cellular expression of HSP27 and HSP70 and changes in the numbers of retinal microglia were quantified to detect the possible mechanism of the protection of the IPC. Ten minutes of IPC promoted RGC survival in both the optic nerve injury (IPC-ONT) and the retinal ischemia 60min (IPC-IR60) groups, examined at 7d and 14d post-injury. Microglial proliferation showed little correlation with the extent of benefit effects of IPC on the rescue of RGCs. The number of HSP27-positive RGCs was significantly higher in the IPC-ONT group than in the sham IPC-ONT group, although the percentage of HSP27-positive RGCs did not significantly differ between groups. For the IPC-IR60 group, neither the number nor the percentage of the HSP27-positive RGCs differed significantly between the IPC and the sham-operated groups. The number of HSP70-positive RGCs was significantly higher for both the IPC-ONT and the IPC-IR60 experimental groups, but the percentages did not differ. The induction of IPC enhances the survival of RGCs against both axotomy and retinal ischemia.

  20. Protection of retinal ganglion cells against optic nerve injury by induction of ischemic preconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Liang, Jiu-Ping; Sha, Ou; Wang, Song-Juan; Li, Heng-Guo; Cho, Eric Y.P.

    2017-01-01

    AIM To explore if ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can enhance the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after optic nerve axotomy. METHODS Twenty-four hours prior to retinal ischemia 60min or axotomy, IPC was applied for ten minutes in groups of (n=72) animals. The survival of RGCs, the cellular expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the numbers of retinal microglia in the different groups were quantified at 7 and 14d post-injury. The cellular expression of HSP27 and HSP70 and changes in the numbers of retinal microglia were quantified to detect the possible mechanism of the protection of the IPC. RESULTS Ten minutes of IPC promoted RGC survival in both the optic nerve injury (IPC-ONT) and the retinal ischemia 60min (IPC-IR60) groups, examined at 7d and 14d post-injury. Microglial proliferation showed little correlation with the extent of benefit effects of IPC on the rescue of RGCs. The number of HSP27-positive RGCs was significantly higher in the IPC-ONT group than in the sham IPC-ONT group, although the percentage of HSP27-positive RGCs did not significantly differ between groups. For the IPC-IR60 group, neither the number nor the percentage of the HSP27-positive RGCs differed significantly between the IPC and the sham-operated groups. The number of HSP70-positive RGCs was significantly higher for both the IPC-ONT and the IPC-IR60 experimental groups, but the percentages did not differ. CONCLUSION The induction of IPC enhances the survival of RGCs against both axotomy and retinal ischemia. PMID:28730074

  1. Retinal ganglion cell dysfunction in asymptomatic G11778A: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, John; Feuer, William J; Porciatti, Vittorio; Schiffman, Joyce; Abukhalil, Fawzi; Vandenbroucke, Ruth; Rosa, Potyra R; Lam, Byron L

    2014-02-10

    To report the serial evaluation of asymptomatic eyes of subjects with mutated G11778A mitochondrial DNA. Forty-five asymptomatic G11778A Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) carriers and two patients with the mutation who developed unilateral visual loss underwent testing that included visual acuity, automated visual field, pattern electroretinogram (PERG), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography every 6 months between September 2008 and March 2012. Visual acuity, visual fields, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness remained stable within the normal range. Mean PERG amplitudes of carriers dropped progressively by ∼ 40% from baseline to 36 months. In addition, comparisons with the fellow eyes of patients with unilateral optic neuritis revealed a 3.4 ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) letter loss in the LHON carriers. A single carrier developed visual loss, with PERG amplitudes dropping by half. In one of two LHON cases who presented with unilateral visual loss, visual acuity in the asymptomatic eye was ∼ 20/40 at baseline. The PERG amplitude of this eye was reduced to ∼ 30% of normal. Six months later, his visual acuity had dropped to ∼ 20/500. A second patient who was ∼ 20/20 and had a visual field defect in the asymptomatic eye at baseline remained at this level for the 18 months of follow-up. His PERG amplitudes were similar to those of asymptomatic carriers, with 0.78 μV at baseline that did not decline with follow-up. Declines of the PERG amplitude suggest subclinical retinal ganglion cell dysfunction in asymptomatic G11778A subjects, which is progressive.

  2. Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) Stimulation in the Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain (PLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldabe, Sam; Burger, Katja; Moser, Heinrich; Klase, Daniel; Schu, Stefan; Wahlstedt, Anders; Vanderick, Bernard; Francois, Eric; Kramer, Jeffery; Subbaroyan, Jeyakumar

    2015-10-01

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a neuropathic condition in which pain is perceived as arising from an amputated limb. PLP is distinct from, although associated with, pain in the residual limb and nonpainful phantom sensations of the missing limb. Its treatment is extremely challenging; pharmaceutical options, while commonly employed, may be insufficient or intolerable. Neuromodulatory interventions such as spinal cord stimulation have generated mixed results and may be limited by poor somatotopic specificity. It was theorized that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuromodulation may be more effective. Patients trialed a DRG neurostimulation system for their PLP and were subsequently implanted if results were positive. Retrospective chart review was completed, including pain ratings on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) and patient-reported outcomes. Across eight patients, the average baseline pain rating was 85.5 mm. At follow-up (mean of 14.4 months), pain was rated at 43.5 mm. Subjective ratings of quality of life and functional capacity improved. Some patients reduced or eliminated pain medications. Patients reported precise concordance of the paresthesia with painful regions, including in their phantom limbs; in one case, stimulation eliminated PLP as well as nonpainful phantom sensations. Three patients experienced a diminution of pain relief, despite good initial outcomes. DRG neuromodulation may be an effective tool in treating this pain etiology. Clinical outcomes in this report support recent converging evidence suggesting that the DRG may be the site of PLP generation and/or maintenance. Further research is warranted to elucidate mechanisms and optimal treatment pathways. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  3. Superior Cervical Sympathetic Ganglion: Normal Imaging Appearance on 3T-MRI

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    Lee, Joo Yeon; Lee, Jeong Hyun [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Joon Seon; Song, Min Jeong [Department of Pathology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Seung-Jun [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ra Gyoung [Department of Radiology, Catholic Kwandong University International St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Incheon 22711 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seung Won; Park, Ji Eun [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Young Jin [Department of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 47392 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Jun; Baek, Jung Hwan [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To identify superior cervical sympathetic ganglion (SCSG) and describe their characteristic MR appearance using 3T-MRI. In this prospective study, we recruited 53 consecutive patients without history of head and neck irradiation. Using anatomic location based on literature review, both sides of the neck were evaluated to identify SCSGs in consensus. SCSGs were divided into definite (medial to internal carotid artery [ICA] and lateral to longus capitis muscle [LCM]) and probable SCSGs based on relative location to ICA and LCM. Two readers evaluated signal characteristics including intraganglionic hypointensity of all SCSGs and relative location of probable SCSGs. Interrater and intrarater agreements were quantified using unweighted kappa. Ninety-one neck sites in 53 patients were evaluated after exclusion of 15 neck sites with pathology. Definite SCSGs were identified at 66 (73%) sites, and probable SCSGs were found in 25 (27%). Probable SCSGs were located anterior to LCM in 16 (18%), lateral to ICA in 6 (7%), and posterior to ICA in 3 (3%). Intraganglionic hypointensity was identified in 82 (90%) on contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images. There was no statistical difference in the relative location between definite and probable SCSGs of the right and left sides with intragnalionic hypointensity on difference pulse sequences. Interrater and intrarater agreements on the location and intraganglionic hypointensity were excellent (κ-value, 0.749–1.000). 3T-MRI identified definite SCSGs at 73% of neck sites and varied location of the remaining SCSGs. Intraganglionic hypointensity was a characteristic feature of SCSGs.

  4. Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion: Normal imaging appearance on 3T-MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Yeon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Song, Joon Seon [Dept. of Radiology, and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-09-15

    To identify superior cervical sympathetic ganglion (SCSG) and describe their characteristic MR appearance using 3T-MRI. In this prospective study, we recruited 53 consecutive patients without history of head and neck irradiation. Using anatomic location based on literature review, both sides of the neck were evaluated to identify SCSGs in consensus. SCSGs were divided into definite (medial to internal carotid artery [ICA] and lateral to longus capitis muscle [LCM]) and probable SCSGs based on relative location to ICA and LCM. Two readers evaluated signal characteristics including intraganglionic hypointensity of all SCSGs and relative location of probable SCSGs. Interrater and intrarater agreements were quantified using unweighted kappa. Ninety-one neck sites in 53 patients were evaluated after exclusion of 15 neck sites with pathology. Definite SCSGs were identified at 66 (73%) sites, and probable SCSGs were found in 25 (27%). Probable SCSGs were located anterior to LCM in 16 (18%), lateral to ICA in 6 (7%), and posterior to ICA in 3 (3%). Intraganglionic hypointensity was identified in 82 (90%) on contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images. There was no statistical difference in the relative location between definite and probable SCSGs of the right and left sides with intragnalionic hypointensity on difference pulse sequences. Interrater and intrarater agreements on the location and intraganglionic hypointensity were excellent (κ-value, 0.749–1.000). 3T-MRI identified definite SCSGs at 73% of neck sites and varied location of the remaining SCSGs. Intraganglionic hypointensity was a characteristic feature of SCSGs.

  5. Electrical receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells: Influence of presynaptic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Matias I; Apollo, Nicholas V; Garrett, David J; Kameneva, Tatiana; Cloherty, Shaun L; Grayden, David B; Burkitt, Anthony N; Ibbotson, Michael R; Meffin, Hamish

    2018-02-01

    Implantable retinal stimulators activate surviving neurons to restore a sense of vision in people who have lost their photoreceptors through degenerative diseases. Complex spatial and temporal interactions occur in the retina during multi-electrode stimulation. Due to these complexities, most existing implants activate only a few electrodes at a time, limiting the repertoire of available stimulation patterns. Measuring the spatiotemporal interactions between electrodes and retinal cells, and incorporating them into a model may lead to improved stimulation algorithms that exploit the interactions. Here, we present a computational model that accurately predicts both the spatial and temporal nonlinear interactions of multi-electrode stimulation of rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The model was verified using in vitro recordings of ON, OFF, and ON-OFF RGCs in response to subretinal multi-electrode stimulation with biphasic pulses at three stimulation frequencies (10, 20, 30 Hz). The model gives an estimate of each cell's spatiotemporal electrical receptive fields (ERFs); i.e., the pattern of stimulation leading to excitation or suppression in the neuron. All cells had excitatory ERFs and many also had suppressive sub-regions of their ERFs. We show that the nonlinearities in observed responses arise largely from activation of presynaptic interneurons. When synaptic transmission was blocked, the number of sub-regions of the ERF was reduced, usually to a single excitatory ERF. This suggests that direct cell activation can be modeled accurately by a one-dimensional model with linear interactions between electrodes, whereas indirect stimulation due to summated presynaptic responses is nonlinear.

  6. Alcohol percutaneous neurolysis of the sphenopalatine ganglion in the management of refractory cranio-facial pain

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    Kastler, Adrian [Grenoble University Hospital, Neuroradiology Department, Grenoble (France); Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory, EA4268, IFR133, Besancon (France); Cadel, Gilles; Gory, Guillaume [Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory, EA4268, IFR133, Besancon (France); Comte, Alexandre [University Hospital Besancon, Functional Imaging Research Department, Besancon (France); Piccand, Veronique [University Hospital Jean Minjoz, Pain Evaluation and Treatment Unit, Besancon (France); Tavernier, Laurent [Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory, EA4268, IFR133, Besancon (France); University Hospital Jean Minjoz, Head and Neck Surgery-Otolaryngology Unit, Besancon (France); Kastler, Bruno [Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory, EA4268, IFR133, Besancon (France); University Hospital Jean Minjoz, Interventional Pain Management Unit, Besancon (France)

    2014-07-15

    The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPN) has been proven to be involved in various types of facial pain syndromes. Management of these cranio-facial pain syndromes can be challenging, and existing specific treatments are sometimes inefficient and may fail. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate alcohol SPN in the management of cranio-facial pain. Forty-two patients suffering from refractory facial pain who underwent 58 consecutive SPN were included in this study between 2000 and 2013. Patients were divided into three groups: group ''cluster headache'' (CH), group ''persistent idiopathic facial pain'' (PFIP), and group ''Other''. Pain was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale scores (measured immediately before and after procedure and at regular intervals following the procedure). Alcohol SPN was considered to be effective when pain relief was equal to or greater than 50 % and lasting for at least 1 month. All procedures were realized ambulatory under CT guidance and consisted of an injection of 1 ml of absolute alcohol. Overall efficacy rate of alcohol SPN was 67.2 %, with mean pain relief duration of 10.3 months. Procedure was graded either not painful or tolerable by patients in 64.2 %. Analysis showed a higher efficacy rate in the groups CH (76.5 %) and PFIP (85.7 %) compared to the group Other (40 %). No difference was found between groups regarding the recurrence rate. Alcohol SPN under CT guidance appears as a safe and effective treatment of refractory facial pain, especially in cases of cluster headache and persistent idiopathic facial pain. (orig.)

  7. Reversal of retinal ganglion cell dysfunction after surgical reduction of intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehi, Mitra; Grewal, Dilraj S; Goodkin, Margot L; Greenfield, David S

    2010-12-01

    The pattern electroretinogram optimized for glaucoma screening (PERGLA) is a noninvasive method of objectively measuring retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function. This study was undertaken to quantify the RGC response to intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after glaucoma surgery. Prospective cohort study. Forty-seven eyes of 47 patients with uncontrolled IOP or progressive glaucomatous optic neuropathy receiving maximal medical therapy requiring trabeculectomy or aqueous drainage device implantation who met eligibility criteria. Eyes with visual acuity less than 20/30, corneal or retinal pathologic features, or unreliable standard automated perimetry (SAP) results were excluded. All patients underwent complete ocular examination, arterial blood pressure, SAP, and PERGLA at 2 sessions before surgery and at 3 months after surgery. Mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP) was calculated. Each measure of PERGLA amplitude and phase was an average of 600 artifact-free signal registrations. Intraocular pressure and PERGLA amplitude and phase. Forty-seven eyes of 47 patients (mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 69.9 ± 11.3 years) were enrolled. Thirty-four eyes (72%) underwent trabeculectomy with antifibrosis therapy; 13 eyes (28%) underwent glaucoma drainage implant surgery. Mean ± SD postoperative IOP (10.4 ± 4.6 mmHg) was significantly (Pradian) was significantly (P = 0.01) reduced compared with preoperative PERGLA phase (1.81 ± 0.22 π-radian). Mean ± SD postoperative MOPP (53.1 ± 6.4 mmHg) was significantly (P 0.05) was identified between change in PERGLA amplitude and change in IOP or MOPP. Reversal of RGC dysfunction occurs after surgical reduction of IOP and may be quantified using PERGLA. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary grape seed polyphenols repress neuron and glia activation in trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal nucleus caudalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durham Paul L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and pain associated with temporomandibular joint disorder, a chronic disease that affects 15% of the adult population, involves activation of trigeminal ganglion nerves and development of peripheral and central sensitization. Natural products represent an underutilized resource in the pursuit of safe and effective ways to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate effects of grape seed extract on neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis in response to persistent temporomandibular joint inflammation. Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 200 mg/kg/d MegaNatural-BP grape seed extract for 14 days prior to bilateral injections of complete Freund's adjuvant into the temporomandibular joint capsule. Results In response to grape seed extract, basal expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 was elevated in neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis, and expression of the glutamate aspartate transporter was increased in spinal glia. Rats on a normal diet injected with adjuvant exhibited greater basal levels of phosphorylated-p38 in trigeminal ganglia neurons and spinal neurons and microglia. Similarly, immunoreactive levels of OX-42 in microglia and glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes were greatly increased in response to adjuvant. However, adjuvant-stimulated levels of phosphorylated-p38, OX-42, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly repressed in extract treated animals. Furthermore, grape seed extract suppressed basal expression of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide in spinal neurons. Conclusions Results from our study provide evidence that grape seed extract may be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for temporomandibular joint disorders by suppressing development of peripheral and central sensitization.

  9. A Method to Culture GABAergic Interneurons Derived from the Medial Ganglionic Eminence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Sira A.; Macco, Romina; Astro, Veronica; Tonoli, Diletta; Savino, Elisa; Valtorta, Flavia; Sala, Kristyna; Botta, Martina; de Curtis, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms guiding interneuron development is a central aspect of the current research on cortical/hippocampal interneurons, which is highly relevant to brain function and pathology. In this methodological study we have addressed the setup of protocols for the reproducible culture of dissociated cells from murine medial ganglionic eminences (MGEs), to provide a culture system for the analysis of interneurons in vitro. This study includes the detailed protocols for the preparation of the dissociated cells, and for their culture on optimal substrates for cell migration or differentiation. These cultures enriched in interneurons may allow the investigation of the migratory behavior of interneuron precursors and their differentiation in vitro, up to the formation of morphologically identifiable GABAergic synapses. Live imaging of MGE–derived cells plated on proper substrates shows that they are useful to study the migratory behavior of the precursors, as well as the behavior of growth cones during the development of neurites. Most MGE-derived precursors develop into polarized GABAergic interneurons as determined by axonal, dendritic, and GABAergic markers. We present also a comparison of cells from WT and mutant mice as a proof of principle for the use of these cultures for the analysis of the migration and differentiation of GABAergic cells with different genetic backgrounds. The culture enriched in interneurons described here represents a useful experimental system to examine in a relatively easy and fast way the morpho-functional properties of these cells under physiological or pathological conditions, providing a powerful tool to complement the studies in vivo. PMID:29358905

  10. Retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection in a rat model of glaucoma following brimonidine, latanoprost or combined treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, María; Urcola, J Haritz; Vecino, Elena

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of two antiglaucomatous substances, regardless of their hypotensive effect in the eye. Brimonidine, which does not reduce IOP when administered intraperitoneally, and latanoprost, which has a renowned hypotensive effect topically. We examined rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and size distribution in experimental glaucoma in response to different glaucomatous agents. IOP was elevated by episcleral vein cauterization (EVC) prior to the application of different treatments: (I) PBS application (control group), (II) intraperitoneal administration of brimonidine (a general hypotensive agent), (III) topical application of latanoprost (an ocular hypotensive agent), and (IV) latanoprost combined with brimonidine. After 12 weeks, RGCs were retrogradely labeled with fluorogold and RGC density was analyzed. EVC caused a significant increase (42%) in IOP in each group before drug treatment. After 12weeks of EVC, RGC survival in control vs. EVC rats was 78.9+/-3.2%. No IOP reduction was observed in brimonidine injected rats, but RGC survival at 12 weeks was total (103.7+/-2.7%). In latanoprost treated rats, IOP dropped by around 22% and 94.7+/-3.7% of the RGC population survived. Finally in the latanoprost+brimonidine combined group, IOP was significantly reduced by 25% and 94.4+/-2.2% of RGCs survived. Surprisingly, whereas EVC led to a 6% increase in RGC soma size, brimonidine treatment was associated with a 9% reduction in the soma size of RGCs at 12 weeks. We conclude that brimonidine exerts a neuroprotective effect via a mechanism which is independent of IOP reduction. These findings indicate that cell survival in glaucoma may be enhanced by neuroprotective strategies which are independent of IOP reduction. No synergistic neuroprotective effect was observed when both treatments were applied simultaneously.

  11. Characterization of primary cilia during the differentiation of retinal ganglion cells in the zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepanto, Paola; Davison, Camila; Casanova, Gabriela; Badano, Jose L; Zolessi, Flavio R

    2016-04-06

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) differentiation in vivo is a highly stereotyped process, likely resulting from the interaction of cell type-specific transcription factors and tissue-derived signaling factors. The primary cilium, as a signaling hub in the cell, may have a role during this process but its presence and localization during RGC generation, and its contribution to the process of cell differentiation, have not been previously assessed in vivo. In this work we analyzed the distribution of primary cilia in vivo using laser scanning confocal microscopy, as well as their main ultrastructural features by transmission electron microscopy, in the early stages of retinal histogenesis in the zebrafish, around the time of RGC generation and initial differentiation. In addition, we knocked-down ift88 and elipsa, two genes with an essential role in cilia generation and maintenance, a treatment that caused a general reduction in organelle size. The effect on retinal development and RGC differentiation was assessed by confocal microscopy of transgenic or immunolabeled embryos. Our results show that retinal neuroepithelial cells have an apically-localized primary cilium usually protruding from the apical membrane. We also found a small proportion of sub-apical cilia, before and during the neurogenic period. This organelle was also present in an apical position in neuroblasts during apical process retraction and dendritogenesis, although between these stages cilia appeared highly dynamic regarding both presence and position. Disruption of cilia caused a decrease in the proliferation of retinal progenitors and a reduction of neural retina volume. In addition, retinal histogenesis was globally delayed albeit RGC layer formation was preferentially reduced with respect to the amacrine and photoreceptor cell layers. These results indicate that primary cilia exhibit a highly dynamic behavior during early retinal differentiation, and that they are required for the proliferation and

  12. Retinal ganglion cell complex changes using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in diabetic patients without retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. Hegazy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the ganglion cell complex (GCC thickness in diabetic eyes without retinopathy. METHODS: Two groups included 45 diabetic eyes without retinopathy and 21 non diabetic eyes. All subjects underwent full medical and ophthalmological history, full ophthalmological examination, measuring GCC thickness and central foveal thickness (CFT using the RTVue® spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, and HbA1C level. RESULTS: GCC focal loss volume (FLV% was significantly more in diabetic eyes (22.2% below normal than normal eyes (P=0.024. No statistically significant difference was found between the diabetic group and the control group regarding GCC global loss volume (GLV% (P=0.160. CFT was positively correlated to the average, superior and inferior GCC (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.001 respectively and negatively correlated to GLV% and FLV% (P=0.002 and 0.031 respectively in diabetic eyes. C/D ratio in diabetic eyes was negatively correlated to average, superior and inferior GCC (P=0.015, 0.007 and 0.017 respectively. The FLV% was negatively correlated to the refraction and level of HbA1c (P=0.019 and 0.013 respectively and positively correlated to the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA in logMAR in diabetic group (P=0.004. CONCLUSION: Significant GCC thinning in diabetes predates retinal vasculopathy, which is mainly focal rather than diffuse. It has no preference to either the superior or inferior halves of the macula. Increase of myopic error is significantly accompanied with increased focal GCC loss. GCC loss is accompanied with increased C/D ratio in diabetic eyes.

  13. The Shape of the Ganglion Cell plus Inner Plexiform Layers of the Normal Human Macula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, Robert W.; Gregori, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To use surfaces generated by two-dimensional penalized splines (2D P-splines) to characterize the shape of the macular ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layers (GCL+IPL) in a group of normal humans. Methods. Macular images of the right eyes of 23 normal subjects ranging in age from 18 to 75 years were obtained with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The thickness of GCL+IPL was determined by manual segmentation, areas with blood vessels were removed, and the resulting maps were fit by smooth surfaces in polar coordinates centered on the fovea. Results. Smooth surfaces based on 2D P-splines could precisely represent GCL+IPL thickness data, with errors comparable to the axial resolution of the SD-OCT instrument. Metrics were developed for the size, shape, and slope of the edge of the foveal depression and size and shape of the surrounding macular ridge. The slope of the foveal edge was negatively correlated with foveal size (r = −0.60). The size of the macular ridge was positively correlated with foveal size (r = 0.75), with a slope near unity (0.90 ± 0.18). The centroids of the foveal edge and macular ridge clustered near the foveal center. The foveal edge and macular ridge were well fit by ellipses. The mean GCL+IPL thickness formed an elliptical annulus elongated by approximately 30% in the horizontal direction. Conclusions. The methods developed here provide precise characterization of retinal layers for the study of glaucoma, foveal development, and other applications. PMID:23033389

  14. Downregulation of selective microRNAs in trigeminal ganglion neurons following inflammatory muscle pain

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    Wei Dong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active regulation of gene expression in the nervous system plays an important role in the development and/or maintenance of inflammatory pain. MicroRNA (miRNA negatively regulates gene expression via posttranscriptional or transcriptional inhibition of specific genes. To explore the possible involvement of miRNA in gene regulation during inflammatory pain, we injected complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA unilaterally into the rat masseter muscle and quantified changes in neuron-specific mature miRNAs in the trigeminal ganglion (TG. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed significant, but differential, downregulation of mature miR-10a, -29a, -98, -99a, -124a, -134, and -183 in the ipsilateral mandibular division (V3 of the TG within 4 hr after CFA. In contrast, levels of tested miRNAs did not change significantly in the contralateral V3 or the ipsilateral ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the TG from inflamed rats, nor in the ipsilateral V3 of saline-injected animals. The downregulated miRNAs recovered differentially to a level equal to or higher than that in naive animals. Full recovery time varied with miRNA species but was at least 4 days. Expression and downregulation of some miRNAs were further confirmed by in situ hybridization of TG neurons that innervate the inflamed muscle. Although neurons of all sizes expressed these miRNAs, their signals varied between neurons. Our results indicate that miRNA species specific to neurons are quickly regulated following inflammatory muscle pain.

  15. Mechanotransduction of trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating inner walls of rat anterior eye chambers.

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    Meng, Qingli; Fang, Peng; Hu, Zhuangli; Ling, Yun; Liu, Haixia

    2015-07-01

    To address mechanoreceptive roles of trigeminal ganglion (TG) nerve endings in the inner walls of rat anterior eye chambers, we investigated the mechanotransduction process and mechanosensitive (MS) channel on somata of TG neurons innervating this area in vitro. Rat TG neurons innervating inner walls of anterior chambers were labeled by anterior chamber injection of 1,1'-dilinoleyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine, 4-chlorobenzenesulfonate (FAST DiI). The neuronal cell bodies were voltage clamped using a whole cell patch-clamp technique, while it was deformed by ejection of bath solution to verify mechanotransduction. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on sections of TG ganglia to determine the specific MS channel proteins. Mechanical stimuli induced MS currents in 55 out of 96 FAST DiI-labeled TG neurons. The MS currents exhibited mechanical intensity-dependent and clamp voltage-dependent characteristics. Mechanical stimulation further enhanced the membrane potential and increased the frequency of action potentials. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), TRP vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) 2 and ASIC3 channel proteins were expressed in FAST DiI-labeled TG neurons. The inhibitory effect of HC-030031, a specific inhibitor of TRPA1, on MS currents demonstrated that TRPA1 was an essential MS channel protein. Taken together, our results show that mechanical stimuli induce MS currents via MS channels such as TRPA1 to trigger mechanotransduction in TG neurons innervating inner walls of anterior chambers. Our results indicate the existence of mechanoreceptive TG nerve endings in inner walls of anterior chambers. Whether the mechanoreceptive TG nerve endings play a role in intraocular pressure sensation warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Muscarinic modulation of TREK currents in mouse sympathetic superior cervical ganglion neurons.

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    Rivas-Ramírez, P; Cadaveira-Mosquera, A; Lamas, J A; Reboreda, A

    2015-07-01

    Muscarinic receptors play a key role in the control of neurotransmission in the autonomic ganglia, which has mainly been ascribed to the regulation of potassium M-currents and voltage-dependent calcium currents. Muscarinic agonists provoke depolarization of the membrane potential and a reduction in spike frequency adaptation in postganglionic neurons, effects that may be explained by M-current inhibition. Here, we report the presence of a riluzole-activated current (IRIL ) that flows through the TREK-2 channels, and that is also inhibited by muscarinic agonists in neurons of the mouse superior cervical ganglion (mSCG). The muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M (Oxo-M) inhibited the IRIL by 50%, an effect that was abolished by pretreatment with atropine or pirenzepine, but was unaffected in the presence of himbacine. Moreover, these antagonists had similar effects on single-channel TREK-2 currents. IRIL inhibition was unaffected by pretreatment with pertussis toxin. The protein kinase C blocker bisindolylmaleimide did not have an effect, and neither did the inositol triphosphate antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborane. Nevertheless, the IRIL was markedly attenuated by the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor ET-18-OCH3. Finally, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase inhibitor wortmannin strongly attenuated the IRIL , whereas blocking phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 ) depletion consistently prevented IRIL inhibition by Oxo-M. These results demonstrate that TREK-2 currents in mSCG neurons are inhibited by muscarinic agonists that activate M1 muscarinic receptors, reducing PIP2 levels via a PLC-dependent pathway. The similarities between the signaling pathways regulating the IRIL and the M-current in the same neurons reflect an important role of this new pathway in the control of autonomic ganglia excitability. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Activation of neurokinin-1 receptors increases the excitability of guinea pig dorsal root ganglion cells.

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    Zhang, Xiulin; Pietra, Claudio; Lovati, Emanuela; de Groat, William C

    2012-10-01

    The suppression of overactive bladder symptoms in patients and overactive bladder reflexes in animal models by neurokinin (NK)-1 receptor antagonists raises the possibility that these drugs target sensory neurons. This mechanism was evaluated by examining the interactions between a specific NK-1 agonist, [Sar(9),Met(O(2))(11)]-substance P (Sar-Met-SP), and a potent NK-1 antagonist, netupitant (NTP), on small size (20-30 μm) dissociated L6 and S1 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from female guinea pigs. Current-clamp recording revealed that Sar-Met-SP (1 μM) elicited membrane depolarization (average 8.05 ± 1.38 mV) in 27% (18 of 65) of DRG neurons. In 74% of the remaining neurons (35 of 47) Sar-Met-SP decreased the rheobase for action potential (AP) generation and increased the response to a suprathreshold stimulus (3 times rheobase) without changing the membrane potential. Sar-Met-SP also induced changes in the action potential (AP) wave form, including 1) an increase in overshoot (average 5 mV, n = 35 neurons), 2) a prolongation of AP duration (from 4.64 to 5.29 ms, n = 34), and 3) a reduction in the maximal rate of AP repolarization. NTP (200 nM) reversed the Sar-Met-SP-induced changes. Ca(2+) imaging showed that application of Sar-Met-SP (1 μM) decreased the tachyphylaxis induced by repeated application of capsaicin (0.5 μM), an effect blocked by pretreatment with NTP (200 nM). These results raise the possibility that activation of NK-1 receptors in primary sensory neurons plays a role in the generation of overactive bladder and that block of NK-1 receptors in these neurons may contribute to efficacy of NK-1 antagonists in the treatment of overactive bladder symptoms.

  18. Quantitative morphometric analysis of the myenteric nervous plexus ganglion structures along the human digestive tract

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    Mandić Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. All the functions of the digestive system are controlled, guided and initiated by the autonomic nervous system. A special part of this system placed in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract is known as the enteric or metasympathetic nervous system. The aim of this study was to analyse myenteric nervous plexus in different parts of the digestive tract. Methods. We examined the myenteric nervous plexus of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, transverse colon and rectum in tissue samples taken from 30 cadavers of persons aged 20-84 years. After standard histological processing sections were stained with hematoxylineosin, cresyl violet (CV and AgNO3 method. Multipurpose test system M42 was used in morphometric analysis. The results were analyzed by t-test and analysis of variance. Results. The number of neurons per cm2 surface was the lowest in the esophagus (2.045 ± 310.30 and the largest in the duodenum (65,511 ± 5,639. The statistical processing showed significant differences (p < 0.001 in the number of neurons between the esophagus and all other parts of the digestive tract. The maximal value of the average surface of the myenteric nervous plexus neurons was observed in the esophagus (588.93 ± 30.45 μm2 and the lowest in the stomach (296.46 ± 22.53 μm2. Conclusion. There are differences in the number of ganglion cells among different parts of the human digestive tract. The differences range from a few to several tens of thousands of neuron/cm2. The myenteric nervous plexus of the esophagus was characterized by a significantly smaller number of neurons but their bodies and nuclei are significantly larger compared to other parts of the digestive tract.

  19. Inflammatory stimulation preserves physiological properties of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury

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    Henrike eStutzki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Axonal injury in the optic nerve is associated with retinal ganglion cell (RGC degeneration and irreversible loss of vision. However, inflammatory stimulation (IS by intravitreal injection of Pam3Cys transforms RGCs into an active regenerative state enabling these neurons to survive injury and to regenerate axons into the injured optic nerve. Although morphological changes have been well studied, the functional correlates of RGCs transformed either into a de- or regenerating state at a sub-cellular level remain unclear. In the current study, we investigated the signal propagation in single intraretinal axons as well as characteristic activity features of RGCs in a naive, a degenerative or a regenerative state in ex vivo retinae one week after either optic nerve cut alone (ONC or additional inflammatory stimulation (ONC+IS. Recordings of single RGCs using high-density microelectrode arrays demonstrate that the mean intraretinal axonal conduction velocity significantly decreased within the first week after ONC. In contrast, when ONC was accompanied by regenerative Pam3Cys treatment the mean intraretinal velocity was undistinguishable from control RGCs, indicating a protective effect on the proximal axon. Spontaneous RGC activity decreased for the two most numerous RGC types (ON- and OFF-sustained cells within one post-operative week, but did not significantly increase in RGCs after inflammatory stimulation. The analysis of light-induced activity revealed that RGCs in ONC animals respond on average later and with fewer spikes than control RGCs. IS significantly improved the responsiveness of the two studied RGC types.These results show that the transformation into a regenerative state by IS preserves, at least transiently, the physiological functional properties of injured RGCs.

  20. Gender Differences in Histamine-Induced Depolarization and Inward Currents in Vagal Ganglion Neurons in Rats

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    Li, Jun-Nan; Qian, Zhao; Xu, Wen-Xiao; Xu, Bing; Lu, Xiao-Long; Yan, Zhen-Yu; Han, Li-Min; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Mei; Schild, John; Qiao, Guo-Fen; Li, Bai-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Evidence has shown gender differences regarding the critical roles of histamine in the prevalence of asthma, anaphylaxis, and angina pectoris. Histamine depolarizes unmyelinated C-type neurons without any effects on myelinated A-type vagal ganglion neurons (VGNs) in male rats. However, little is known if VGNs from females react to histamine in a similar manner. Membrane depolarization and inward currents were tested in VGNs isolated from adult rats using a whole-cell patch technique. Results from males were consistent with the literature. Surprisingly, histamine-induced depolarization and inward currents were observed in both unmyelinated C-type and myelinated A- and Ah-type VGNs from female rats. In Ah-type neurons, responses to 1.0 μM histamine were stronger in intact females than in males and significantly reduced in ovariectomized (OVX) females. In C-type neurons, histamine-induced events were significantly smaller (pA/pF) in intact females compared with males and this histamine-induced activity was dramatically increased by OVX. Female A-types responded to histamine, which was further increased following ovariectomy. Histamine at 300 nM depolarized Ah-types in females, but not Ah-types in OVX females. In contrast, the sensitivity of A- and C-types to histamine was upregulated by OVX. These data demonstrate gender differences in VGN chemosensitivity to histamine for the first time. Myelinated Ah-types showed the highest sensitivity to histamine across female populations, which was changed by OVX. These novel findings improve the understanding of gender differences in the prevalence of asthma, anaphylaxis, and pain. Changes in sensitivity to histamine by OVX may explain alterations in the prevalence of certain pathophysiological conditions when women reach a postmenopausal age. PMID:24339729

  1. Citral sensing by Transient [corrected] receptor potential channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

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    Stephanie C Stotz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP ion channels mediate key aspects of taste, smell, pain, temperature sensation, and pheromone detection. To deepen our understanding of TRP channel physiology, we require more diverse pharmacological tools. Citral, a bioactive component of lemongrass, is commonly used as a taste enhancer, as an odorant in perfumes, and as an insect repellent. Here we report that citral activates TRP channels found in sensory neurons (TRPV1 and TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1, and produces long-lasting inhibition of TRPV1-3 and TRPM8, while transiently blocking TRPV4 and TRPA1. Sustained citral inhibition is independent of internal calcium concentration, but is state-dependent, developing only after TRP channel opening. Citral's actions as a partial agonist are not due to cysteine modification of the channels nor are they a consequence of citral's stereoisoforms. The isolated aldehyde and alcohol cis and trans enantiomers (neral, nerol, geranial, and geraniol each reproduce citral's actions. In juvenile rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, prolonged citral inhibition of native TRPV1 channels enabled the separation of TRPV2 and TRPV3 currents. We find that TRPV2 and TRPV3 channels are present in a high proportion of these neurons (94% respond to 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate, consistent with our immunolabeling experiments and previous in situ hybridization studies. The TRPV1 activation requires residues in transmembrane segments two through four of the voltage-sensor domain, a region previously implicated in capsaicin activation of TRPV1 and analogous menthol activation of TRPM8. Citral's broad spectrum and prolonged sensory inhibition may prove more useful than capsaicin for allodynia, itch, or other types of pain involving superficial sensory nerves and skin.

  2. Losartan Treatment Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells and Alters Scleral Remodeling in Experimental Glaucoma.

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    Harry A Quigley

    Full Text Available To determine if oral losartan treatment decreases the retinal ganglion cell (RGC death caused by experimental intraocular pressure (IOP elevation in mice.We produced IOP increase in CD1 mice and performed unilateral optic nerve crush. Mice received oral losartan, spironolactone, enalapril, or no drug to test effects of inhibiting angiotensin receptors. IOP was monitored by Tonolab, and blood pressure was monitored by tail cuff device. RGC loss was measured in masked axon counts and RGC bodies by β-tubulin labeling. Scleral changes that could modulate RGC injury were measured including axial length, scleral thickness, and retinal layer thicknesses, pressure-strain behavior in inflation testing, and study of angiotensin receptors and pathways by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry.Losartan treatment prevented significant RGC loss (median loss = 2.5%, p = 0.13, while median loss with water, spironolactone, and enalapril treatments were 26%, 28% and 43%; p < 0.0001. The lower RGC loss with losartan was significantly less than the loss with spironolactone or enalapril (regression model p = 0.001; drug treatment group term p = 0.01. Both losartan and enalapril significantly lowered blood pressure (p< 0.001, but losartan was protective, while enalapril led to worse than water-treated RGC loss. RGC loss after crush injury was unaffected by losartan treatment (difference from control p = 0.9. Survival of RGC in cell culture was not prolonged by sartan treatment. Axonal transport blockade after 3 day IOP elevations was less in losartan-treated than in control glaucoma eyes (p = 0.007. Losartan inhibited effects of glaucoma, including reduction in extracellular signal-related kinase activity and modification of glaucoma-related changes in scleral thickness and creep under controlled IOP.The neuroprotective effect of losartan in mouse glaucoma is associated with adaptive changes in the sclera expressed at

  3. Correspondence between visual and electrical input filters of ON and OFF mouse retinal ganglion cells

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    Sekhar, S.; Jalligampala, A.; Zrenner, E.; Rathbun, D. L.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Over the past two decades retinal prostheses have made major strides in restoring functional vision to patients blinded by diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa. Presently, implants use single pulses to activate the retina. Though this stimulation paradigm has proved beneficial to patients, an unresolved problem is the inability to selectively stimulate the on and off visual pathways. To this end our goal was to test, using white noise, voltage-controlled, cathodic, monophasic pulse stimulation, whether different retinal ganglion cell (RGC) types in the wild type retina have different electrical input filters. This is an important precursor to addressing pathway-selective stimulation. Approach. Using full-field visual flash and electrical and visual Gaussian noise stimulation, combined with the technique of spike-triggered averaging (STA), we calculate the electrical and visual input filters for different types of RGCs (classified as on, off or on-off based on their response to the flash stimuli). Main results. Examining the STAs, we found that the spiking activity of on cells during electrical stimulation correlates with a decrease in the voltage magnitude preceding a spike, while the spiking activity of off cells correlates with an increase in the voltage preceding a spike. No electrical preference was found for on-off cells. Comparing STAs of wild type and rd10 mice revealed narrower electrical STA deflections with shorter latencies in rd10. Significance. This study is the first comparison of visual cell types and their corresponding temporal electrical input filters in the retina. The altered input filters in degenerated rd10 retinas are consistent with photoreceptor stimulation underlying visual type-specific electrical STA shapes in wild type retina. It is therefore conceivable that existing implants could target partially degenerated photoreceptors that have only lost their outer segments, but not somas, to selectively activate the on and off

  4. Heterogeneous response dynamics in retinal ganglion cells: the interplay of predictive coding and adaptation.

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    Nirenberg, Sheila; Bomash, Illya; Pillow, Jonathan W; Victor, Jonathan D

    2010-06-01

    To make efficient use of their limited signaling capacity, sensory systems often use predictive coding. Predictive coding works by exploiting the statistical regularities of the environment--specifically, by filtering the sensory input to remove its predictable elements, thus enabling the neural signal to focus on what cannot be guessed. To do this, the neural filters must remove the environmental correlations. If predictive coding is to work well in multiple environments, sensory systems must adapt their filtering properties to fit each environment's statistics. Using the visual system as a model, we determine whether this happens. We compare retinal ganglion cell dynamics in two very different environments: white noise and natural. Because natural environments have more power than that of white noise at low temporal frequencies, predictive coding is expected to produce a suppression of low frequencies and an enhancement of high frequencies, compared with the behavior in a white-noise environment. We find that this holds, but only in part. First, predictive coding behavior is not uniform: most on cells manifest it, whereas off cells, on average, do not. Overlaid on this nonuniformity between cell classes is further nonuniformity within both cell classes. These findings indicate that functional considerations beyond predictive coding play an important role in shaping the dynamics of sensory adaptation. Moreover, the differences in behavior between on and off cell classes add to the growing evidence that these classes are not merely homogeneous mirror images of each other and suggest that their roles in visual processing are more complex than expected from the classic view.

  5. Random Wiring, Ganglion Cell Mosaics, and the Functional Architecture of the Visual Cortex.

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    Manuel Schottdorf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The architecture of iso-orientation domains in the primary visual cortex (V1 of placental carnivores and primates apparently follows species invariant quantitative laws. Dynamical optimization models assuming that neurons coordinate their stimulus preferences throughout cortical circuits linking millions of cells specifically predict these invariants. This might indicate that V1's intrinsic connectome and its functional architecture adhere to a single optimization principle with high precision and robustness. To validate this hypothesis, it is critical to closely examine the quantitative predictions of alternative candidate theories. Random feedforward wiring within the retino-cortical pathway represents a conceptually appealing alternative to dynamical circuit optimization because random dimension-expanding projections are believed to generically exhibit computationally favorable properties for stimulus representations. Here, we ask whether the quantitative invariants of V1 architecture can be explained as a generic emergent property of random wiring. We generalize and examine the stochastic wiring model proposed by Ringach and coworkers, in which iso-orientation domains in the visual cortex arise through random feedforward connections between semi-regular mosaics of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and visual cortical neurons. We derive closed-form expressions for cortical receptive fields and domain layouts predicted by the model for perfectly hexagonal RGC mosaics. Including spatial disorder in the RGC positions considerably changes the domain layout properties as a function of disorder parameters such as position scatter and its correlations across the retina. However, independent of parameter choice, we find that the model predictions substantially deviate from the layout laws of iso-orientation domains observed experimentally. Considering random wiring with the currently most realistic model of RGC mosaic layouts, a pairwise interacting point

  6. The dorsal root ganglion in chronic pain and as a target for neuromodulation: a review.

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    Krames, Elliot S

    2015-01-01

    In the not-too-distant past, the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was portrayed as a passive neural structure without involvement in the development or maintenance of chronic neuropathic pain (NP). The DRG was thought of as a structure that merely "supported" physiologic communication between the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the central nervous system (CNS). Newer scientific information regarding the anatomic and physiologic changes that occur within the DRG as a result of environmental pressures has dispelled this concept and suggests that the DRG is an active participant in the development of NP. This new information, along with new clinical data showing that stimulation of the DRG reduces intensity of pain, suggests that the DRG can be a robust target for neuromodulation therapies. A review of the anatomical and physiological literature regarding the role of the DRG in the development of NP was performed utilizing SciBase, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The information gathered was used to lay an anatomic and physiologic foundation for establishing the DRG as a relevant target for neuromodulation therapies and to formulate a hypothesis as to how electrical stimulation of the DRG might reverse the process and perception of NP. The DRG is an active participant in the development of NP. DRG stimulation has multiple effects on the abnormal changes that occur within the DRG as a result of peripheral afferent fiber injury. The sum total of these stimulation effects is to stabilize and decrease hyperexcitability of DRG neurons and thereby decrease NP. © 2014 International Neuromodulation Society.

  7. The role of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in nonimage-forming responses to light

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    Warthen DM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Daniel M Warthen,1,2 Ignacio Provencio11Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USAAbstract: Light exerts many effects on behavior and physiology. These effects can be characterized as either image-forming or nonimage-forming (NIF visual processes. Image-forming vision refers to the process of detecting objects and organisms in the environment and distinguishing their physical characteristics, such as size, shape, and direction of motion. NIF vision, in contrast, refers to effects of light that are independent of fine spatiotemporal vision. NIF effects are many and varied, ranging from modulation of basal physiology, such as heart rate and body temperature, to changes in higher functions, such as mood and cognitive performance. In mammals, many NIF effects of light are dependent upon the inner retinal photopigment melanopsin and the cells in which melanopsin is expressed, the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs. The ipRGCs project broadly throughout the brain. Many of these projections terminate in areas known to mediate NIF effects, while others terminate in regions whose link to photoreception remains to be established. Additionally, the presence of ipRGC projections to areas of the brain with no known link to photoreception suggests the existence of additional ipRGC-mediated NIF effects. This review summarizes the known NIF effects of light and the role of melanopsin and ipRGCs in driving these effects, with an eye toward stimulating further investigation of the many and varied effects of light on physiology and behavior.Keywords: amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, melanopsin, opsin, optic nerve, retina

  8. Isolated dorsal root ganglion neurones inhibit receptor-dependent adenylyl cyclase activity in associated glial cells

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    Ng, KY; Yeung, BHS; Wong, YH; Wise, H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hyper-nociceptive PGE2 EP4 receptors and prostacyclin (IP) receptors are present in adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones and glial cells in culture. The present study has investigated the cell-specific expression of two other Gs-protein coupled hyper-nociceptive receptor systems: β-adrenoceptors and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors in isolated DRG cells and has examined the influence of neurone–glial cell interactions in regulating adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity. Experimental Approach Agonist-stimulated AC activity was determined in mixed DRG cell cultures from adult rats and compared with activity in DRG neurone-enriched cell cultures and pure DRG glial cell cultures. Key Results Pharmacological analysis showed the presence of Gs-coupled β2-adrenoceptors and CGRP receptors, but not β1-adrenoceptors, in all three DRG cell preparations. Agonist-stimulated AC activity was weakest in DRG neurone-enriched cell cultures. DRG neurones inhibited IP receptor-stimulated glial cell AC activity by a process dependent on both cell–cell contact and neurone-derived soluble factors, but this is unlikely to involve purine or glutamine receptor activation. Conclusions and Implications Gs-coupled hyper-nociceptive receptors are readily expressed on DRG glial cells in isolated cell cultures and the activity of CGRP, EP4 and IP receptors, but not β2-adrenoceptors, in glial cells is inhibited by DRG neurones. Studies using isolated DRG cells should be aware that hyper-nociceptive ligands may stimulate receptors on glial cells in addition to neurones, and that variable numbers of neurones and glial cells will influence absolute measures of AC activity and affect downstream functional responses. PMID:22924655

  9. Enrichment and proteomic analysis of plasma membrane from rat dorsal root ganglions

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    Lin Yong

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons are primary sensory neurons that conduct neuronal impulses related to pain, touch and temperature senses. Plasma membrane (PM of DRG cells plays important roles in their functions. PM proteins are main performers of the functions. However, mainly due to the very low amount of DRG that leads to the difficulties in PM sample collection, few proteomic analyses on the PM have been reported and it is a subject that demands further investigation. Results By using aqueous polymer two-phase partition in combination with high salt and high pH washing, PMs were efficiently enriched, demonstrated by western blot analysis. A total of 954 non-redundant proteins were identified from the plasma membrane-enriched preparation with CapLC-MS/MS analysis subsequent to protein separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE or shotgun digestion. 205 (21.5% of the identified proteins were unambiguously assigned as PM proteins, including a large number of signal proteins, receptors, ion channel and transporters. Conclusion The aqueous polymer two-phase partition is a simple, rapid and relatively inexpensive method. It is well suitable for the purification of PMs from small amount of tissues. Therefore, it is reasonable for the DRG PM to be enriched by using aqueous two-phase partition as a preferred method. Proteomic analysis showed that DRG PM was rich in proteins involved in the fundamental biological processes including material exchange, energy transformation and information transmission, etc. These data would help to our further understanding of the fundamental DRG functions.

  10. Lentiviral gene transfer into the dorsal root ganglion of adult rats

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    Park Frank

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentivector-mediated gene delivery into the dorsal root ganglion (DRG is a promising method for exploring pain pathophysiology and for genetic treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. In this study, a series of modified lentivector particles with different cellular promoters, envelope glycoproteins, and viral accessory proteins were generated to evaluate the requirements for efficient transduction into neuronal cells in vitro and adult rat DRG in vivo. Results In vitro, lentivectors expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under control of the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α promoter and pseudotyped with the conventional vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G envelope exhibited the best performance in the transfer of EGFP into an immortalized DRG sensory neuron cell line at low multiplicities of infection (MOIs, and into primary cultured DRG neurons at higher MOIs. In vivo, injection of either first or second-generation EF1α-EGFP lentivectors directly into adult rat DRGs led to transduction rates of 19 ± 9% and 20 ± 8% EGFP-positive DRG neurons, respectively, detected at 4 weeks post injection. Transduced cells included a full range of neuronal phenotypes, including myelinated neurons as well as both non-peptidergic and peptidergic nociceptive unmyelinated neurons. Conclusion VSV-G pseudotyped lentivectors containing the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α-EGFP expression cassette demonstrated relatively efficient transduction to sensory neurons following direct injection into the DRG. These results clearly show the potential of lentivectors as a viable system for delivering target genes into DRGs to explore basic mechanisms of neuropathic pain, with the potential for future clinical use in treating chronic pain.

  11. Cannabinoids inhibit acid-sensing ion channel currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

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    Yu-Qiang Liu

    Full Text Available Local acidosis has been found in various pain-generating conditions such as inflammation and tissue injury. Cannabinoids exert a powerful inhibitory control over pain initiation via peripheral cognate receptors. However, the peripheral molecular targets responsible for the antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids are still poorly understood. Here, we have found that WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, inhibits the activity of native acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons. WIN55,212-2 dose-dependently inhibited proton-gated currents mediated by ASICs. WIN55,212-2 shifted the proton concentration-response curve downwards, with an decrease of 48.6±3.7% in the maximum current response but with no significant change in the EC(50 value. The inhibition of proton-gated current induced by WIN55,212-2 was almost completely blocked by the selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM 281, but not by the CB2 receptor antagonist AM630. Pretreatment of forskolin, an AC activator, and the addition of cAMP also reversed the inhibition of WIN55,212-2. Moreover, WIN55,212-2 altered acid-evoked excitability of rat DRG neurons and decreased the number of action potentials induced by acid stimuli. Finally, WIN55,212-2 attenuated nociceptive responses to injection of acetic acid in rats. These results suggest that WIN55,212-2 inhibits the activity of ASICs via CB1 receptor and cAMP dependent pathway in rat primary sensory neurons. Thus, cannabinoids can exert their analgesic action by interaction with ASICs in the primary afferent neurons, which was novel analgesic mechanism of cannabinoids.

  12. Spatially divergent cardiac responses to nicotinic stimulation of ganglionated plexus neurons in the canine heart.

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    Cardinal, René; Pagé, Pierre; Vermeulen, Michel; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Armour, J Andrew

    2009-01-28

    Ganglionated plexuses (GPs) are major constituents of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system, the final common integrator of regional cardiac control. We hypothesized that nicotinic stimulation of individual GPs exerts divergent regional influences, affecting atrial as well as ventricular functions. In 22 anesthetized canines, unipolar electrograms were recorded from 127 atrial and 127 ventricular epicardial loci during nicotine injection (100 mcg in 0.1 ml) into either the 1) right atrial (RA), 2) dorsal atrial, 3) left atrial, 4) inferior vena cava-inferior left atrial, 5) right ventricular, 6) ventral septal ventricular or 7) cranial medial ventricular (CMV) GP. In addition to sinus and AV nodal function, neural effects on atrial and ventricular repolarization were identified as changes in the area subtended by unipolar recordings under basal conditions and at maximum neurally-induced effects. Animals were studied with intact AV node or following ablation to achieve ventricular rate control. Atrial rate was affected in response to stimulation of all 7 GPs with an incidence of 50-95% of the animals among the different GPs. AV conduction was affected following stimulation of 6/7 GP with an incidence of 22-75% among GPs. Atrial and ventricular repolarization properties were affected by atrial as well as ventricular GP stimulation. Distinct regional patterns of repolarization changes were identified in response to stimulation of individual GPs. RAGP predominantly affected the RA and posterior right ventricular walls whereas CMVGP elicited biatrial and biventricular repolarization changes. Spatially divergent and overlapping cardiac regions are affected in response to nicotinic stimulation of neurons in individual GPs.

  13. Reactive nucleolar and Cajal body responses to proteasome inhibition in sensory ganglion neurons.

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    Palanca, Ana; Casafont, Iñigo; Berciano, María T; Lafarga, Miguel

    2014-06-01

    The dysfunction of the ubiquitin proteasome system has been related to a broad array of neurodegenerative disorders in which the accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates causes proteotoxicity. The ability of proteasome inhibitors to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis has emerged as a powerful strategy for cancer therapy. Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor used as an antineoplastic drug, although its neurotoxicity frequently causes a severe sensory peripheral neuropathy. In this study we used a rat model of bortezomib treatment to study the nucleolar and Cajal body responses to the proteasome inhibition in sensory ganglion neurons that are major targets of bortezomib-induced neurotoxicity. Treatment with bortezomib induced dose-dependent dissociation of protein synthesis machinery (chromatolysis) and nuclear retention of poly(A) RNA granules resulting in neuronal dysfunction. However, as a compensatory response to the proteotoxic stress, both nucleoli and Cajal bodies exhibited reactive changes. These include an increase in the number and size of nucleoli, strong nucleolar incorporation of the RNA precursor 5'-fluorouridine, and increased expression of both 45S rRNA and genes encoding nucleolar proteins UBF, fibrillarin and B23. Taken together, these findings appear to reflect the activation of the nucleolar transcription in response to proteotoxic stress Furthermore, the number of Cajal bodies, a parameter related to transcriptional activity, increases upon proteasome inhibition. We propose that nucleoli and Cajal bodies are important targets in the signaling pathways that are activated by the proteotoxic stress response to proteasome inhibition. The coordinating activity of these two organelles in the production of snRNA, snoRNA and rRNA may contribute to neuronal survival after proteasome inhibition. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Retinal Ganglion Cell Morphology after Optic Nerve Crush and Experimental Glaucoma

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    Kalesnykas, Giedrius; Oglesby, Ericka N.; Zack, Donald J.; Cone, Frances E.; Steinhart, Matthew R.; Tian, Jing; Pease, Mary E.; Quigley, Harry A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To study sequential changes in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) morphology in mice after optic nerve crush and after induction of experimental glaucoma. Methods. Nerve crush or experimental glaucoma was induced in mice that selectively express yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in RGCs. Mice were euthanized 1, 4, and 9 days after crush and 1, 3, and 6 weeks after induction of glaucoma by bead injection. All YFP-RGCs were identified in retinal whole mounts. Then confocal images of randomly selected RGCs were quantified for somal fluorescence brightness, soma size, neurite outgrowth, and dendritic complexity (Sholl analysis). Results. By 9 days after crush, 98% of RGC axons died and YFP-RGCs decreased by 64%. After 6 weeks of glaucoma, 31% of axons died, but there was no loss of YFP-RGC bodies. All crush retinas combined had significant decreases in neurite outgrowth parameters (P ≤ 0.036, generalized estimating equation [GEE] model) and dendritic complexity was lower than controls (P = 0.017, GEE model). There was no change in RGC soma area after crush. In combined glaucoma data, the RGC soma area was larger than control (P = 0.04, GEE model). At 3 weeks, glaucoma RGCs had significantly larger values for dendritic structure and complexity than controls (P = 0.044, GEE model), but no statistical difference was found at 6 weeks. Conclusions. After nerve crush, RGCs and axons died rapidly, and dendritic structure decreased moderately in remaining RGCs. Glaucoma caused an increase in RGC dendrite structure and soma size at 3 weeks. PMID:22589442

  15. NKCC1-deficiency results in abnormal proliferation of neural progenitor cells of the lateral ganglionic eminence

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    Ana Cathia Magalhães

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The proliferative pool of neural progenitor cells is maintained by exquisitely controlled mechanisms for cell cycle regulation. The Na-K-Cl cotransporter NKCC1 is important for regulating cell volume and the proliferation of different cell types in vitro. NKCC1 is expressed in ventral telencephalon of embryonic brains suggesting a potential role in neural development of this region. The ventral telencephalon is a major source for both interneuron and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Whether NKCC1 is involved in the proliferation of these cell populations remains unknown. In order to assess this question, we monitored several markers for neural, neuronal, and proliferating cells in wild-type and NKCC1 knockout mouse brains. We found that NKCC1 was expressed in neural progenitor cells from the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE at E12.5. Mice lacking NKCC1 expression displayed reduced PH3-labeled mitotic cells in the ventricular zone and reduced cell cycle reentry. Accordingly, we found a significant reduction of Sp8-labeled immature interneurons migrating from the dorsal LGE in NKCC1-deficient mice at a later developmental stage. Interestingly, at E14.5, NKCC1 regulated also the formation of Olig2-labeled oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Collectively, these findings show that NKCC1 serves in vivo as a modulator of the cell cycle decision in the developing ventral telencephalon at the early stage of neurogenesis. These results present a novel mechanistic avenue to be considered in the recent proposed involvement of chloride transporters in a number of developmentally related diseases such as epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia.

  16. Differential responses to high-frequency electrical stimulation in ON and OFF retinal ganglion cells

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    Twyford, Perry; Cai, Changsi; Fried, Shelley

    2014-04-01

    Objective. The field of retinal prosthetics for artificial vision has advanced considerably in recent years, however clinical outcomes remain inconsistent. The performance of retinal prostheses is likely limited by the inability of electrical stimuli to preferentially activate different types of retinal ganglion cell (RGC). Approach. Here we examine the response of rabbit RGCs to high-frequency stimulation, using biphasic pulses applied at 2000 pulses per second. Responses were recorded using cell-attached patch clamp methods, and stimulation was applied epiretinally via a small cone electrode. Main results. When prolonged stimulus trains were applied to OFF-brisk transient (BT) RGCs, the cells exhibited a non-monotonic relationship between response strength and stimulus amplitude; this response pattern was different from those elicited previously by other electrical stimuli. When the amplitude of the stimulus was modulated transiently from a non-zero baseline amplitude, ON-BT and OFF-BT cells exhibited different activity patterns: ON cells showed an increase in activity while OFF cells exhibited a decrease in activity. Using a different envelope to modulate the amplitude of the stimulus, we observed the opposite effect: ON cells exhibited a decrease in activity while OFF cells show an increase in activity. Significance. As ON and OFF RGCs often exhibit opposing activity patterns in response to light stimulation, this work suggests that high-frequency electrical stimulation of RGCs may be able to elicit responses that are more physiological than traditional pulsatile stimuli. Additionally, the prospect of an electrical stimulus capable of cell-type specific selective activation has broad applications throughout the fields of neural stimulation and neuroprostheses.

  17. Microtransplantation of cellular membranes from squid stellate ganglion reveals ionotropic GABA receptors.

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    Conti, Luca; Limon, Agenor; Palma, Eleonora; Miledi, Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    The squid has been the most studied cephalopod, and it has served as a very useful model for investigating the events associated with nerve impulse generation and synaptic transmission. While the physiology of squid giant axons has been extensively studied, very little is known about the distribution and function of the neurotransmitters and receptors that mediate inhibitory transmission at the synapses. In this study we investigated whether γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activates neurotransmitter receptors in stellate ganglia membranes. To overcome the low abundance of GABA-like mRNAs in invertebrates and the low expression of GABA in cephalopods, we used a two-electrode voltage clamp technique to determine if Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with cell membranes from squid stellate ganglia responded to GABA. Using this method, membrane patches containing proteins and ion channels from the squid's stellate ganglion were incorporated into the surface of oocytes. We demonstrated that GABA activates membrane receptors in cellular membranes isolated from squid stellate ganglia. Using the same approach, we were able to record native glutamate-evoked currents. The squid's GABA receptors showed an EC(50) of 98 μmol l(-1) to GABA and were inhibited by zinc (IC(50) = 356 μmol l(-1)). Interestingly, GABA receptors from the squid were only partially blocked by bicuculline. These results indicate that the microtransplantation of native cell membranes is useful to identify and characterize scarce membrane proteins. Moreover, our data also support the role of GABA as an ionotropic neurotransmitter in cephalopods, acting through chloride-permeable membrane receptors.

  18. Chronic nerve injury-induced Mas receptor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons alleviates neuropathic pain.

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    Zhao, Yuanting; Qin, Yue; Liu, Tuanjiang; Hao, Dingjun

    2015-12-01

    Neuropathic pain, which is characterized by hyperalgesia, allodynia and spontaneous pain, is one of the most painful symptoms that can be experienced in the clinic. It often occurs as a result of injury to the peripheral nerves, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), spinal cord or brain. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in nociception. As an essential component of the RAS, the angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas axis may be involved in antinociception. The aim of the present study was to explore the expression pattern of Mas in DRG neurons following chronic nerve injury and examine the effects of Mas inhibition and activation on neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model. The results showed, that compared with the sham group, CCI caused a time-dependent induction of Mas expression at both the mRNA and the protein levels in DRG neurons. Consistent with the results, isolated DRG neurons showed a time-dependent increase in Ang-(1-7) binding on the cell membrane following the CCI surgery, but not the sham surgery. Compared with the sham control groups, CCI significantly decreased the paw withdrawal latency and threshold, and this was markedly improved and aggravated by intrathecal injection of the selective Mas agonist Ang-(1-7) and the selective Mas inhibitor D-Pro7-Ang-(1-7), respectively. In conclusion, this study has provided the first evidence, to the best of our knowledge, that the Mas expression in DRG neurons is time-dependently induced by chronic nerve injury and that the intrathecal activation and inhibition of Mas can improve and aggravate CCI-induced neuropathic pain, respectively. This study has provided novel insights into the pathophysiological process of neuropathic pain and suggests that the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis could be an effective therapeutic target for neuropathic pain, warranting further study.

  19. Blocking LINGO-1 function promotes retinal ganglion cell survival following ocular hypertension and optic nerve transection.

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    Fu, Qing-Ling; Hu, Bing; Wu, Wutian; Pepinsky, R Blake; Mi, Sha; So, Kwok-Fai

    2008-03-01

    LINGO-1 is a functional member of the Nogo66 receptor (NgR1)/p75 and NgR1/TROY signaling complexes that prevent axonal regeneration through RhoA in the central nervous system. LINGO-1 also promotes cell death after neuronal injury and spinal cord injury. The authors sought to examine whether blocking LINGO-1 function with LINGO-1 antagonists promotes retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival after ocular hypertension and optic nerve transection. An experimental ocular hypertension model was induced in adult rats using an argon laser to photocoagulate the episcleral and limbal veins. LINGO-1 expression in the retinas was investigated using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Soluble LINGO-1 protein (LINGO-1-Fc) and anti-LINGO-1 mAb 1A7 were injected into the vitreous body to examine their effects on RGC survival after ocular hypertension and optic nerve transection. Signal transduction pathways mediating neuroprotective LINGO-1-Fc effects were characterized using Western blotting and specific kinase inhibitors. LINGO-1 was expressed in RGCs and up-regulated after intraocular pressure elevation. Blocking LINGO-1 function with LINGO-1 antagonists, LINGO-1-Fc and 1A7 significantly reduced RGC loss 2 and 4 weeks after ocular hypertension and also promoted RGC survival after optic nerve transection. LINGO-1-Fc treatment blocked the RhoA, JNK pathway and promoted Akt activation. LINGO-1-Fc induced Akt phosphorylation, and the survival effect of LINGO-1 antagonists was abolished by Akt phosphorylation inhibitor. The authors demonstrated that blocking LINGO-1 function with LINGO-1 antagonists rescues RGCs from cell death after ocular hypertension and optic nerve transection. They also delineated the RhoA and PI-3K/Akt pathways as the predominant mediator of LINGO-1-Fc neuroprotection in this paradigm of RGC death.

  20. Genetic interactions between Brn3 transcription factors in retinal ganglion cell type specification.

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    Melody Shi

    Full Text Available Visual information is conveyed from the retina to the brain via 15-20 Retinal Ganglion Cell (RGC types. The developmental mechanisms by which RGC types acquire their distinct molecular, morphological, physiological and circuit properties are essentially unknown, but may involve combinatorial transcriptional regulation. Brn3 transcription factors are expressed in RGCs from early developmental stages, and are restricted in adults to distinct, partially overlapping populations of RGC types. Previously, we described cell autonomous effects of Brn3b (Pou4f2 and Brn3a (Pou4f1 on RGC axon and dendrites development.We now have investigated genetic interactions between Brn3 transcription factors with respect to RGC development, by crossing conventional knock-out alleles of each Brn3 gene with conditional knock-in reporter alleles of a second Brn3 gene, and analyzing the effects of single or double Brn3 knockouts on RGC survival and morphology. We find that Brn3b loss results in axon defects and dendritic arbor area and lamination defects in Brn3a positive RGCs, and selectively affects survival and morphology of specific Brn3c (Pou4f3 positive RGC types. Brn3a and Brn3b interact synergistically to control RGC numbers. Melanopsin positive ipRGCs are resistant to combined Brn3 loss but are under the transcriptional control of Isl1, expanding the combinatorial code of RGC specification.Taken together these results complete our knowledge on the mechanisms of transcriptional control of RGC type specification. They demonstrate that Brn3b is required for the correct development of more RGC cell types than suggested by its expression pattern in the adult, but that several cell types, including some Brn3a, Brn3c or Melanopsin positive RGCs are Brn3b independent.

  1. Mechanisms and distribution of ion channels in retinal ganglion cells: using temperature as an independent variable.

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    Fohlmeister, Jürgen F; Cohen, Ethan D; Newman, Eric A

    2010-03-01

    Trains of action potentials of rat and cat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were recorded intracellularly across a temperature range of 7-37 degrees C. Phase plots of the experimental impulse trains were precision fit using multicompartment simulations of anatomically reconstructed rat and cat RGCs. Action potential excitation was simulated with a "Five-channel model" [Na, K(delayed rectifier), Ca, K(A), and K(Ca-activated) channels] and the nonspace-clamped condition of the whole cell recording was exploited to determine the channels' distribution on the dendrites, soma, and proximal axon. At each temperature, optimal phase-plot fits for RGCs occurred with the same unique channel distribution. The "waveform" of the electrotonic current was found to be temperature dependent, which reflected the shape changes in the experimental action potentials and confirmed the channel distributions. The distributions are cell-type specific and adequate for soma and dendritic excitation with a safety margin. The highest Na-channel density was found on an axonal segment some 50-130 microm distal to the soma, as determined from the temperature-dependent "initial segment-somadendritic (IS-SD) break." The voltage dependence of the gating rate constants remains invariant between 7 and 23 degrees C and between 30 and 37 degrees C, but undergoes a transition between 23 and 30 degrees C. Both gating-kinetic and ion-permeability Q10s remain virtually constant between 23 and 37 degrees C (kinetic Q10s = 1.9-1.95; permeability Q10s = 1.49-1.64). The Q10s systematically increase for T channels were consistently "sleepy" (non-Arrhenius) for T <8 degrees C, with a loss of spiking for T <7 degrees C.

  2. Melanopsin expressing human retinal ganglion cells: Subtypes, distribution, and intraretinal connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Jens; Christiansen, Anders Tolstrup; Heegaard, Steffen; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2017-06-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin belong to a heterogenic population of RGCs which regulate the circadian clock, masking behavior, melatonin suppression, the pupillary light reflex, and sleep/wake cycles. The different functions seem to be associated to different subtypes of melanopsin cells. In rodents, subtype classification has associated subtypes to function. In primate and human retina such classification has so far, not been applied. In the present study using antibodies against N- and C-terminal parts of human melanopsin, confocal microscopy and 3D reconstruction of melanopsin immunoreactive (-ir) RGCs, we applied the criteria used in mouse on human melanopsin-ir RGCs. We identified M1, displaced M1, M2, and M4 cells. We found two other subtypes of melanopsin-ir RGCs, which were named "gigantic M1 (GM1)" and "gigantic displaced M1 (GDM1)." Few M3 cells and no M5 subtypes were labeled. Total cell counts from one male and one female retina revealed that the human retina contains 7283 ± 237 melanopsin-ir (0.63-0.75% of the total number of RGCs). The melanopsin subtypes were unevenly distributed. Most significant was the highest density of M4 cells in the nasal retina. We identified input to the melanopsin-ir RGCs from AII amacrine cells and directly from rod bipolar cells via ribbon synapses in the innermost ON layer of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and from dopaminergic amacrine cells and GABAergic processes in the outermost OFF layer of the IPL. The study characterizes a heterogenic population of human melanopsin-ir RGCs, which most likely are involved in different functions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Rac1 selective activation improves retina ganglion cell survival and regeneration.

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    Erika Lorenzetto

    Full Text Available In adult mammals, after optic nerve injury, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs do not regenerate their axons and most of them die by apoptosis within a few days. Recently, several strategies that activate neuronal intracellular pathways were proposed to prevent such degenerative processes. The rho-related small GTPase Rac1 is part of a complex, still not fully understood, intracellular signaling network, mediating in neurons many effects, including axon growth and cell survival. However, its role in neuronal survival and regeneration in vivo has not yet been properly investigated. To address this point we intravitreally injected selective cell-penetrating Rac1 mutants after optic nerve crush and studied the effect on RGC survival and axonal regeneration. We injected two well-characterized L61 constitutively active Tat-Rac1 fusion protein mutants, in which a second F37A or Y40C mutation confers selectivity in downstream signaling pathways. Results showed that, 15 days after crush, both mutants were able to improve survival and to prevent dendrite degeneration, while the one harboring the F37A mutation also improved axonal regeneration. The treatment with F37A mutant for one month did not improve the axonal elongation respect to 15 days. Furthermore, we found an increase of Pak1 T212 phosphorylation and ERK1/2 expression in RGCs after F37A treatment, whereas ERK1/2 was more activated in glial cells after Y40C administration. Our data suggest that the selective activation of distinct Rac1-dependent pathways could represent a therapeutic strategy to counteract neuronal degenerative processes in the retina.

  4. Ganglion Cell-Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness in Different Glaucoma Stages Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Maja; Dayanir, Volkan; Zlatanovic, Marko; Zlatanovic, Gordana; Jaksic, Vesna; Jovanovic, Predrag; Radenkovic, Marija; Djordjevic-Jocic, Jasmina; Stankovic-Babic, Gordana; Jovanovic, Svetlana

    2017-09-07

    To compare ganglion cell (GCL) and inner plexiform layer (IPL) thickness in patients at different stages of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), determine their sensitivity and specificity values, and correlate thickness values with mean deviations (MD). This prospective, cross- sectional study was conducted in a group of patients with confirmed POAG who were compared to an age- and gender-matched control group. Glaucomatous damage was classified according to the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson scale: glaucoma stage 1 (early), glaucoma stage 2 (moderate), and glaucoma stage 3 (severe). The average, minimum, and all 6 sectoral (superotemporal, superior, superonasal, inferonasal, inferior, and inferotemporal) GCL + IPL thicknesses were measured and compared between groups. The average GCL + IPL thickness of 154 eyes of 93 patients in glaucoma stages 1, 2, 3, and 94 eyes of 47 persons in the control group were 76.79 ± 8.05, 65.90 ± 7.92, 57.38 ± 10.00, and 86.01 ± 3.68 μm, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the average, minimum, and all 6 sectoral GCL + IPL values among the groups. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for average and minimum GCL + IPL thickness values were 0.93 and 0.94, respectively, sensitivity 91.5 and 88.3%, and specificity 98.9 and 100%, respectively. Both thickness values showed significant correlations with MD. Each micrometer decrease in the average GCL + IPL thickness was associated with a 0.54-dB loss in MD. GCL + IPL layer thickness is a highly specific and sensitive parameter in differentiating glaucomatous from healthy eyes showing progressive damage as glaucoma worsens. Loss of this layer is highly correlated with overall loss of visual field sensitivity. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Differential contribution of extracellular and intracellular calcium sources to basal transmission and long-term potentiation in the sympathetic ganglion of the rat.

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    Vargas, R; Cifuentes, F; Morales, M A

    2007-04-01

    Calcium involved in basal ganglionic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) can arise either by influx from the extracellular medium or release from intracellular stores. No attempts have yet been made to concurrently explore the contributions of extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ to basal ganglionic transmission or LTP. Here, we investigate this subject using the superior cervical ganglion of the rat. To explore the extracellular Ca2+ contribution, we evaluated basal transmission and LTP at different extracellular Ca2+ concentrations. To assess intracellular Ca2+ release, we explored the contribution of the calcium-induced calcium release process by overactivation or blockade of ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ receptor channel with caffeine, and also by blocking either IP3R with Xestospongin C or the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase pump with thapsigargin. Extracellular Ca2+ affected ganglionic basal transmission and LTP to different extents. While 25% of the physiological Ca2+ concentration supported 80% of basal transmission, 50% of normal Ca2+ was required to achieve 80% of LTP. Notably, disruption of intracellular Ca2+ release by all the drugs tested apparently did not affect basal ganglionic transmission but impaired LTP. We conclude that basal transmission requires only a small level of Ca2+ entry, while LTP expression not only requires more Ca2+ entry but is also dependent on Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. CT-guided stellate ganglion blockade vs. radiofrequency neurolysis in the management of refractory type I complex regional pain syndrome of the upper limb

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    Kastler, Adrian [University Hospital CHU Gabriel Montpied, Radiology Department, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory-EA 4268-IFR 133, Besancon (France); CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Hopital Gabriel Montpied, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Aubry, Sebastien; Kastler, Bruno [University Hospital CHU Jean Minjoz, Radiology and Interventional Pain Unit, Besancon (France); Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory-EA 4268-IFR 133, Besancon (France); Sailley, Nicolas; Michalakis, Demosthene [University Hospital CHU Jean Minjoz, Radiology and Interventional Pain Unit, Besancon (France); Siliman, Gaye [University Hospital CHU St Jacques, Clinical Investigation Center, Besancon (France); Gory, Guillaume [Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory-EA 4268-IFR 133, Besancon (France); Lajoie, Jean-Louis [University Hospital CHU Jean Minjoz, Pain evaluation and Management Unit, Besancon (France)

    2013-05-15

    To describe and evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of CT-guided radiofrequency neurolysis (RFN) vs. local blockade of the stellate ganglion in the management of chronic refractory type I complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) of the upper limb. Sixty-seven patients were included in this retrospective study between 2000 and 2011. All suffered from chronic upper limb type I CRPS refractory to conventional pain therapies. Thirty-three patients underwent stellate ganglion blockade and 34 benefited from radiofrequency neurolysis of the stellate ganglion. CT guidance was used in both groups. The procedure was considered effective when pain relief was {>=}50 %, lasting for at least 2 years. Thirty-nine women (58.2 %) and 28 men (41.8 %) with a mean age of 49.5 years were included in the study. Univariate analysis performed on the blockade and RFN groups showed a significantly (P < 0.0001) higher success rate in the RFN group (67.6 %, 23/34) compared with the blockade group (21.2 %, 7/33) with an odds ratio of 7.76. CT-guided radiofrequency neurolysis of the stellate ganglion is a safe and successful treatment of chronic refractory type I CRPS of the upper limb. It appears to be more effective than stellate ganglion blockade. (orig.)

  7. GANGLIO CENTINELA EN MELANOMA DE CARA: ABORDAJE INICIAL Sentinel ganglion in melanoma of the face: an initial approach

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    Enrique Cadena-Piñeros

    2012-09-01

    exposure to the sun, being reflected in a greater number of such tumour cases. The presence of ganglion metastasis is the greatest negative prognostic factor for patients suffering from this disease; the treating group must thus clarify whether this is present as prophylactic neck dissections were made several decades ago, but the ganglions so removed were negative in most cases. Extracting the first ganglions draining the primary tumour site (sentinel ganglion represents a possible solution for avoiding this. Several of them are usually present at the same time in the head and neck area, thereby hampering taking a decision as to which should be removed. Our group has begun to standardise such technique; an initial approach has involved the first case of a patient with melanoma of the face who underwent wide local resection of the tumour and extraction of the sentinel ganglions. These were dyed and lymphogammagraphy was used, at the same time as dissection of positive ganglion relief for drainage, as demonstrated by this nuclear medicine study.

  8. A Mammalian Retinal Ganglion Cell Implements a Neuronal Computation That Maximizes the SNR of Its Postsynaptic Currents.

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    Homann, Jan; Freed, Michael A

    2017-02-08

    Neurons perform computations by integrating excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Yet, it is rarely understood what computation is being performed, or how much excitation or inhibition this computation requires. Here we present evidence for a neuronal computation that maximizes the signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR). We recorded from OFF delta retinal ganglion cells in the guinea pig retina and monitored synaptic currents that were evoked by visual stimulation (flashing dark spots). These synaptic currents were mediated by a decrease in an outward current from inhibitory synapses (disinhibition) combined with an increase in an inward current from excitatory synapses. We found that the SNR of combined excitatory and disinhibitory currents was voltage sensitive, peaking at membrane potentials near resting potential. At the membrane potential for maximal SNR, the amplitude of each current, either excitatory or disinhibitory, was proportional to its SNR. Such proportionate scaling is the theoretically best strategy for combining excitatory and disinhibitory currents to maximize the SNR of their combined current. Moreover, as spot size or contrast changed, the amplitudes of excitatory and disinhibitory currents also changed but remained in proportion to their SNRs, indicating a dynamic rebalancing of excitatory and inhibitory currents to maximize SNR.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We present evidence that the balance of excitatory and disinhibitory inputs to a type of retinal ganglion cell maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio power ratio (SNR) of its postsynaptic currents. This is significant because chemical synapses on a retinal ganglion cell require the probabilistic release of transmitter. Consequently, when the same visual stimulus is presented repeatedly, postsynaptic currents vary in amplitude. Thus, maximizing SNR may be a strategy for producing the most reliable signal possible given the inherent unreliability of synaptic transmission. Copyright © 2017 the authors

  9. Effects of Icariside II on Corpus Cavernosum and Major Pelvic Ganglion Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Guang-Yi Bai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic erectile dysfunction is associated with penile dorsal nerve bundle neuropathy in the corpus cavernosum and the mechanism is not well understood. We investigated the neuropathy changes in the corpus cavernosum of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the effects of Icariside II (ICA II on improving neuropathy. Thirty-six 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into normal control group, diabetic group and ICA-II treated group. Diabetes was induced by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg. Three days later, the diabetic rats were randomly divided into 2 groups including a saline treated placebo group and an ICA II-treated group (5 mg/kg/day, by intragastric administration daily. Twelve weeks later, erectile function was measured by cavernous nerve electrostimulation with real time intracorporal pressure assessment. The penis was harvested for the histological examination (immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining and transmission electron microscopy detecting. Diabetic animals exhibited a decreased density of dorsal nerve bundle in penis. The neurofilament of the dorsal nerve bundle was fragmented in the diabetic rats. There was a decreased expression of nNOS and NGF in the diabetic group. The ICA II group had higher density of dorsal nerve bundle, higher expression of NGF and nNOS in the penis. The pathological change of major pelvic nerve ganglion (including the microstructure by transmission electron microscope and the neurite outgrowth length of major pelvic nerve ganglion tissue cultured in vitro was greatly attenuated in the ICA II-treated group (p < 0.01. ICA II treatment attenuates the diabetes-related impairment of corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion neuropathy in rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

  10. Expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecules on adult stem cells after neuronal differentiation of inner ear spiral ganglion neurons

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    Park, Kyoung Ho [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Sang Won, E-mail: swyeo@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Troy, Frederic A., E-mail: fatroy@ucdavis.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Xiamen University, School of Medicine, Xiamen City (China)

    2014-10-17

    Highlights: • PolySia expressed on neurons primarily during early stages of neuronal development. • PolySia–NCAM is expressed on neural stem cells from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion. • PolySia is a biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. - Abstract: During brain development, polysialylated (polySia) neural cell adhesion molecules (polySia–NCAMs) modulate cell–cell adhesive interactions involved in synaptogenesis, neural plasticity, myelination, and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation. Our findings show that polySia–NCAM is expressed on NSC isolated from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion (GPSG), and in neurons and Schwann cells after differentiation of the NSC with epidermal, glia, fibroblast growth factors (GFs) and neurotrophins. These differentiated cells were immunoreactive with mAb’s to polySia, NCAM, β-III tubulin, nestin, S-100 and stained with BrdU. NSC could regenerate and be differentiated into neurons and Schwann cells. We conclude: (1) polySia is expressed on NSC isolated from adult GPSG and on neurons and Schwann cells differentiated from these NSC; (2) polySia is expressed on neurons primarily during the early stage of neuronal development and is expressed on Schwann cells at points of cell–cell contact; (3) polySia is a functional biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. These new findings suggest that replacement of defective cells in the inner ear of hearing impaired patients using adult spiral ganglion neurons may offer potential hope to improve the quality of life for patients with auditory dysfunction and impaired hearing disorders.

  11. Mouse ganglion-cell photoreceptors are driven by the most sensitive rod pathway and by both types of cones.

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    Shijun Weng

    Full Text Available Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (iprgcs are depolarized by light by two mechanisms: directly, through activation of their photopigment melanopsin; and indirectly through synaptic circuits driven by rods and cones. To learn more about the rod and cone circuits driving ipRGCs, we made multielectrode array (MEA and patch-clamp recordings in wildtype and genetically modified mice. Rod-driven ON inputs to ipRGCs proved to be as sensitive as any reaching the conventional ganglion cells. These signals presumably pass in part through the primary rod pathway, involving rod bipolar cells and AII amacrine cells coupled to ON cone bipolar cells through gap junctions. Consistent with this interpretation, the sensitive rod ON input to ipRGCs was eliminated by pharmacological or genetic disruption of gap junctions, as previously reported for conventional ganglion cells. A presumptive cone input was also detectable as a brisk, synaptically mediated ON response that persisted after disruption of rod ON pathways. This was roughly three log units less sensitive than the rod input. Spectral analysis revealed that both types of cones, the M- and S-cones, contribute to this response and that both cone types drive ON responses. This contrasts with the blue-OFF, yellow-ON chromatic opponency reported in primate ipRGCs. The cone-mediated response was surprisingly persistent during steady illumination, echoing the tonic nature of both the rod input to ipRGCs and their intrinsic, melanopsin-based phototransduction. These synaptic inputs greatly expand the dynamic range and spectral bandpass of the non-image-forming visual functions for which ipRGCs provide the principal retinal input.

  12. The cubital tunnel syndrome caused by the intraneural or extraneural ganglion cysts: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen Kai; Li, Yong Ping; Zhang, Deng Feng; Liang, Bing Sheng

    2017-10-01

    Cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most common nerve compression syndrome in peripheral nerve compression disease. Although potential ulnar nerve entrapment can occur at multiple points along its course, such as the arcade of struthers, the medial intermuscular septum, the medial epicondyle, the cubital tunnel, and the deep flexor pronator aponeurosis, the most common site of entrapment is the cubital tunnel. However, cubital tunnel syndrome could also be caused by the occupying masses along the course of ulnar nerve, such as intraneural or extraneural ganglia. The cubital tunnel syndrome caused by intraneural or extraneural ganglion cysts has been rarely reported. In our hospital, there were 184 patients with cubital tunnel syndrome who underwent surgical treatment from January 2010 to January 2014. Of these patients, 16 had extraneural cysts and 3 had intraneural ganglion cysts. The incidence rate of cysts in the cubital tunnel was 10.33%. Electromyography was used as routine examination. Ultrasound was used only in some patients in whom elbow mass was suspected. In the surgery of the cubital tunnel syndrome combined with cyst, if any other cysts were found, we should be remove completely the cyts and decompress the ulnar nerve thoroughly with the ulnar nerve being anterior transposition. These cysts were confirmed by histopathological examination. Finally, we compared the clinical features of patients who had a medial elbow ganglion with those of patients who had only cubital tunnel syndrome. B ultrasound can significantly improve the diagnosis. All patients were followed up for 4 months to 2 years, and the curative effect was good. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Malignant supratentorial ganglioglioma (ganglion cell-giant cell glioblastoma): a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, R C; Provenzale, J M; McComb, R D; Perry, D A; Longee, D C; McLendon, R E

    1999-04-01

    From both epidemiologic and pathologic viewpoints, gangliogliomas exhibiting components of giant cell glioblastomas are extraordinary neoplasms. We report herein the case of a 6-year-old girl who presented initially with a World Health Organization grade IV anaplastic ganglioglioma (a mixed ganglion cell tumor-giant cell glioblastoma). Despite aggressive management, the patient died of disease in a relatively short period. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were sectioned at 5 microm for histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses. Hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections and immunohistochemically stained sections from the primary and secondary resections were reviewed. Reactivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein, neurofilament protein, synaptophysin, and Ki67 nuclear antigen was evaluated. Histologically, 2 distinct cell populations were noted on both the primary and secondary resections. The primary resection revealed a neoplasm having a predominant glial component consistent with a glioblastoma. Interspersed were dysmorphic ganglion cells supporting a diagnosis of ganglioglioma. The second resection (following therapy) demonstrated a much more prominent dysmorphic ganglion cell component and a subdued glial component. Although immunohistochemical analysis clearly distinguished the 2 tumor cell populations, the identification of Nissl substance in neurons proved to be equally helpful. Although other cases of grade III gangliogliomas and rare cases of grade IV gangliogliomas have been reported, the present case is exceptional in that, to our knowledge, it is the only report of a patient who presented initially with a composite grade IV ganglioglioma and who was clinically followed up to the time of death. This case allows direct comparison between the histologic findings in a giant cell glioblastoma and a ganglioglioma and documents the aggressive biologic behavior of this complex neoplasm.

  14. Enteric Neuron Imbalance and Proximal Dysmotility in Ganglionated Intestine of the Sox10Dom/+ Hirschsprung Mouse ModelSummary

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    Melissa A. Musser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: In Hirschsprung disease (HSCR, neural crest-derived progenitors (NCPs fail to completely colonize the intestine so that the enteric nervous system is absent from distal bowel. Despite removal of the aganglionic region, many HSCR patients suffer from residual intestinal dysmotility. To test the hypothesis that inappropriate lineage segregation of NCPs in proximal ganglionated regions of the bowel could contribute to such postoperative disease, we investigated neural crest (NC-derived lineages and motility in ganglionated, postnatal intestine of the Sox10Dom/+ HSCR mouse model. Methods: Cre-mediated fate-mapping was applied to evaluate relative proportions of NC-derived cell types. Motility assays were performed to assess gastric emptying and small intestine motility while colonic inflammation was assessed by histopathology for Sox10Dom/+ mutants relative to wild-type controls. Results: Sox10Dom/+ mice showed regional alterations in neuron and glia proportions as well as calretinin+ and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS+ neuronal subtypes. In the colon, imbalance of enteric NC derivatives correlated with the extent of aganglionosis. All Sox10Dom/+ mice exhibited reduced small intestinal transit at 4 weeks of age; at 6 weeks of age, Sox10Dom/+ males had increased gastric emptying rates. Sox10Dom/+ mice surviving to 6 weeks of age had little or no colonic inflammation when compared with wild-type littermates, suggesting that these changes in gastrointestinal motility are neurally mediated. Conclusions: The Sox10Dom mutation disrupts the balance of NC-derived lineages and affects gastrointestinal motility in the proximal, ganglionated intestine of adult animals. This is the first report identifying alterations in enteric neuronal classes in Sox10Dom/+ mutants, which suggests a previously unrecognized role for Sox10 in neuronal subtype specification. Keywords: Aganglionosis, Enteric Nervous System, Neural Crest

  15. Effects of Icariside II on corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Guang-Yi; Zhou, Feng; Hui, Yu; Xu, Yong-De; Lei, Hong-En; Pu, Jin-Xian; Xin, Zhong-Cheng

    2014-12-15

    Diabetic erectile dysfunction is associated with penile dorsal nerve bundle neuropathy in the corpus cavernosum and the mechanism is not well understood. We investigated the neuropathy changes in the corpus cavernosum of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the effects of Icariside II (ICA II) on improving neuropathy. Thirty-six 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into normal control group, diabetic group and ICA-II treated group. Diabetes was induced by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Three days later, the diabetic rats were randomly divided into 2 groups including a saline treated placebo group and an ICA II-treated group (5 mg/kg/day, by intragastric administration daily). Twelve weeks later, erectile function was measured by cavernous nerve electrostimulation with real time intracorporal pressure assessment. The penis was harvested for the histological examination (immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining) and transmission electron microscopy detecting. Diabetic animals exhibited a decreased density of dorsal nerve bundle in penis. The neurofilament of the dorsal nerve bundle was fragmented in the diabetic rats. There was a decreased expression of nNOS and NGF in the diabetic group. The ICA II group had higher density of dorsal nerve bundle, higher expression of NGF and nNOS in the penis. The pathological change of major pelvic nerve ganglion (including the microstructure by transmission electron microscope and the neurite outgrowth length of major pelvic nerve ganglion tissue cultured in vitro) was greatly attenuated in the ICA II-treated group (p < 0.01). ICA II treatment attenuates the diabetes-related impairment of corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion neuropathy in rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

  16. Coatings of Different Carbon Nanotubes on Platinum Electrodes for Neuronal Devices: Preparation, Cytocompatibility and Interaction with Spiral Ganglion Cells.

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    Niklas Burblies

    Full Text Available Cochlear and deep brain implants are prominent examples for neuronal prostheses with clinical relevance. Current research focuses on the improvement of the long-term functionality and the size reduction of neural interface electrodes. A promising approach is the application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs, either as pure electrodes but especially as coating material for electrodes. The interaction of CNTs with neuronal cells has shown promising results in various studies, but these appear to depend on the specific type of neurons as well as on the kind of nanotubes. To evaluate a potential application of carbon nanotube coatings for cochlear electrodes, it is necessary to investigate the cytocompatibility of carbon nanotube coatings on platinum for the specific type of neuron in the inner ear, namely spiral ganglion neurons. In this study we have combined the chemical processing of as-delivered CNTs, the fabrication of coatings on platinum, and the characterization of the electrical properties of the coatings as well as a general cytocompatibility testing and the first cell culture investigations of CNTs with spiral ganglion neurons. By applying a modification process to three different as-received CNTs via a reflux treatment with nitric acid, long-term stable aqueous CNT dispersions free of dispersing agents were obtained. These were used to coat platinum substrates by an automated spray-coating process. These coatings enhance the electrical properties of platinum electrodes, decreasing the impedance values and raising the capacitances. Cell culture investigations of the different CNT coatings on platinum with NIH3T3 fibroblasts attest an overall good cytocompatibility of these coatings. For spiral ganglion neurons, this can also be observed but a desired positive effect of the CNTs on the neurons is absent. Furthermore, we found that the well-established DAPI staining assay does not function on the coatings prepared from single-wall nanotubes.

  17. Light-induced fos expression in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in melanopsin knockout (opn4 mice.

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    Gary E Pickard

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cells that express the photopigment melanopsin are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs and exhibit robust synaptically driven ON-responses to light, yet they will continue to depolarize in response to light when all synaptic input from rod and cone photoreceptors is removed. The light-evoked increase in firing of classical ganglion cells is determined by synaptic input from ON-bipolar cells in the proximal sublamina of the inner plexiform layer. OFF-bipolar cells synapse with ganglion cell dendrites in the distal sublamina of the inner plexiform layer. Of the several types of ipRGC that have been described, M1 ipRGCs send dendrites exclusively into the OFF region of the inner plexiform layer where they stratify near the border of the inner nuclear layer. We tested whether M1 ipRGCs with dendrites restricted to the OFF sublamina of the inner plexiform layer receive synaptic ON-bipolar input by examining light-induced gene expression in vivo using melanopsin knockout mice. Mice in which both copies of the melanopsin gene (opn4 have been replaced with the tau-lacZ gene (homozygous tau-lacZ(+/+ knockin mice are melanopsin knockouts (opn4(-/- but M1 ipRGCs are specifically identified by their expression of beta-galactosidase. Approximately 60% of M1 ipRGCs in Opn4(-/- mice exposed to 3 hrs of light expressed c-Fos; no beta-galactosidase-positive RGCs expressed c-Fos in the dark. Intraocular application of L-AP4, a compound which blocks transmission of visual signals between photoreceptors and ON-bipolar cells significantly reduced light-evoked c-Fos expression in M1 ipRGCs compared to saline injected eyes (66% saline vs 27% L-AP4. The results are the first description of a light-evoked response in an ipRGC lacking melanopsin and provide in vivo confirmation of previous in vitro observations illustrating an unusual circuit in the retina in which ganglion cells sending dendrites to the OFF sublamina of the inner plexiform layer

  18. Photoacoustic microscopy of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-1) after stellate ganglion blocks in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Yi, Xiaobin; Xing, Wenxin; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We used photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to assist diagnoses and monitor the progress and treatment outcome of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1). Blood vasculature and oxygen saturation (sO2) were imaged by PAM in eight adult patients with CRPS-1. Patients' hands and cuticles were imaged both before and after stellate ganglion block (SGB) for comparison. For all patients, both the vascular structure and sO2 could be assessed by PAM. In addition, more vessels and stronger signals were observed after SGB.

  19. Immunohistochemical colocalization of TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK with TRP channels in the trigeminal ganglion cells

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO Yoshio"; Hatakeyama, Taku; TANIGUCHI, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-01

    TREK belongs to a subfamily of tandem pore domain K+ channels, and consists of three subunits, TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK. We examined the distribution of TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK immunoreactive neurons in rat trigeminal sensory neurons. In the trigeminal ganglia, 31%, 43% and 60% of neurons were immunoreactive for TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK, respectively. Mean sizes of TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK immunoreactive trigeminal ganglion neurons were 447 ± 185, 445 ± 23 and 492 ± 12 mm2, respectively. Fur...

  20. An AD-related neuroprotector rescues transformed rat retinal ganglion cells from CoCl₂-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Jie; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Gao, Dianwen

    2012-05-01

    Some ocular diseases characterized by apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are chronic neurodegenerative disorders and have similarities in neuropathology. Humanin (HN) is known for its ability to suppress neuronal death induced by AD-related insults. In present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of HN on hypoxia-induced toxicity in RGC-5 cells. Hypoxia mimetic compound cobalt chloride (CoCl₂) could increase the cell viability loss and apoptosis, whereas HN can significantly attenuate these effects. This finding may provide new therapeutics for the retinal neurodegenerative diseases targeting neuroprotection.

  1. Cyan fluorescent protein expression in ganglion and amacrine cells in a thy1-CFP transgenic mouse retina

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, Iona D.; Vila, Alejandro; Huynh, Uyen-Chi N.; Nicholas C Brecha

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To characterize cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) expression in the retina of the thy1-CFP (B6.Cg-Tg(Thy1-CFP)23Jrs/J) transgenic mouse line. Methods CFP expression was characterized using morphometric methods and immunohistochemistry with antibodies to neurofilament light (NF-L), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), POU-domain protein (Brn3a) and calretinin, which immunolabel ganglion cells, and syntaxin 1 (HPC-1), glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), GABA plasma membrane transporter-1 (GAT-1), and c...

  2. Phosphodiesterases 3 and 5 express activity in the trigeminal ganglion and co-localize with calcitonin gene-related peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie C; Kruse, Lars S; Møller, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of the neuropathology leading to migraine pain has centered on either a vascular or neuronal origin. Sildenafil, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), induces migraine-like headache in a human headache model without concomitant artery dilation. The presence and activity...... of PDE3 and PDE5 is known in cerebral arteries. However, the presence in the neuronal part of the trigeminovascular pathway, i.e. the trigeminal ganglion and the possible co-localization with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), is not known....

  3. Axons of retinal ganglion cells are insulted in the optic nerve early in DBA/2J glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Gareth R.; Libby, Richard T.; Jakobs, Tatjana C.; Smith, Richard S.; Phalan, F. Campbell; Barter, Joseph W; Barbay, Jessica M.; Marchant, Jeffrey K.; Mahesh, Nagaraju; Porciatti, Vittorio; Whitmore, Alan V.; Masland, Richard H.; John, Simon W. M.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we use a mouse model (DBA/2J) to readdress the location of insult(s) to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucoma. We localize an early sign of axon damage to an astrocyte-rich region of the optic nerve just posterior to the retina, analogous to the lamina cribrosa. In this region, a network of astrocytes associates intimately with RGC axons. Using BAX-deficient DBA/2J mice, which retain all of their RGCs, we provide experimental evidence for an insult within or very close to the lamina...

  4. Cometin is a novel neurotrophic factor that promotes neurite outgrowth and neuroblast migration in vitro and supports survival of spiral ganglion neurons in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jesper Roland; Fransson, Anette; Fjord-Larsen, Lone

    2012-01-01

    properties in vitro, combined with the restricted inner ear expression during development, we further investigated Cometin in relation to deafness. In neomycin deafened guinea pigs, two weeks intracochlear infusion of recombinant Cometin supports spiral ganglion neuron survival and function. In contrast......Neurotrophic factors are secreted proteins responsible for migration, growth and survival of neurons during development, and for maintenance and plasticity of adult neurons. Here we present a novel secreted protein named Cometin which together with Meteorin defines a new evolutionary conserved...... protein family. During early mouse development, Cometin is found exclusively in the floor plate and from E13.5 also in dorsal root ganglions and inner ear but apparently not in the adult nervous system. In vitro, Cometin promotes neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglion cells which can be blocked...

  5. Endocardial botulinum toxin injection into ganglionated plexi in order to reduce atrial fibrillation inducibility

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    А. Г. Стрельников

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Prior animal studies suggest that botulinum toxin injection into the epicardial fat pads can suppress atrial fibrillation (AF inducibility. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of endocardial botulinum toxin injection into epicardial fat pads and intramyocardial left atrial ganglionated plexi (GP for preventing AF.Methods. Twenty-four dogs were separated into 3 groups: endocardial approach for botulinum toxin (Xeomin, Germany injection into epicardial fat pads and intramyocardial GPs; endocardial approach for placebo injection (0.9% normal saline; control 1; n = 8 and epicardial approach for botulinum toxin injection (control 2; n = 8.Results. A mean of 6.9±1.7 intramyocardial injections (10 U/0.2 mL at each and 3 injections (50 U/1 mL at each were administered into each site exhibiting a positive vagal response and into each epicardial fat pad in all groups (p>0.05 between groups.The injections of botulinum toxin demonstrated dramatic prolongation of ERP in all PV-atrial junctions. This effect correlated with less pronounced ERP shortening in response to vagal nerve stimulation. Suppression of AF inducibility was observed at 7 days after endocardial botulinum toxin injections. The level of AF inducibility was: at 7 days – 57% (p<0.001 vs placebo; p<0.001 vs baseline; at 14 days – 61% (p<0.001 vs placebo; p<0.001 vs baseline; at 1 month – 38% (p<0.001 vs placebo; p<0.001 vs baseline; at 3 months – 23% (p = 0.003; p = 0.06 vs baseline. There were no differences between botulinum groups (p>0.05 for all. The effect of AF suppression disappeared at 3 months. No procedure-related complications occurred.Conclusion. Botulinum toxin injection into intramyocardial GPs and epicardial fat pads by an endocardial approach is feasible and safe. It provides complete removal of cardiac vagal responses and reliably reduces vulnerability to atrial fibrillation.

  6. Intercellular signal communication among odontoblasts and trigeminal ganglion neurons via glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, A; Sato, M; Kimura, M; Katakura, A; Tazaki, M; Shibukawa, Y

    2016-11-01

    Various stimuli to the exposed surface of dentin induce changes in the hydrodynamic force inside the dentinal tubules resulting in dentinal pain. Recent evidences indicate that mechano-sensor channels, such as the transient receptor potential channels, in odontoblasts receive these hydrodynamic forces and trigger the release of ATP to the pulpal neurons, to generate dentinal pain. A recent study, however, has shown that odontoblasts also express glutamate receptors (GluRs). This implies that cells in the dental pulp tissue have the ability to release glutamate, which acts as a functional intercellular mediator to establish inter-odontoblast and odontoblast-trigeminal ganglion (TG) neuron signal communication. To investigate the intercellular signal communication, we applied mechanical stimulation to odontoblasts and measured the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). During mechanical stimulation in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+), we observed a transient [Ca(2+)]i increase not only in single stimulated odontoblasts, but also in adjacent odontoblasts. We could not observe these responses in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). [Ca(2+)]i increases in the neighboring odontoblasts during mechanical stimulation of single odontoblasts were inhibited by antagonists of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) as well as glutamate-permeable anion channels. In the odontoblast-TG neuron coculture, we observed an increase in [Ca(2+)]i in the stimulated odontoblasts and TG neurons, in response to direct mechanical stimulation of single odontoblasts. These [Ca(2+)]i increases in the neighboring TG neurons were inhibited by antagonists for mGluRs. The [Ca(2+)]i increases in the stimulated odontoblasts were also inhibited by mGluRs antagonists. We further confirmed that the odontoblasts express group I, II, and III mGluRs. However, we could not record any currents evoked from odontoblasts near the mechanically stimulated odontoblast, with or without

  7. Ganglionated plexi stimulation induces pulmonary vein triggers and promotes atrial arrhythmogenecity: In silico modeling study.

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    Minki Hwang

    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS on atrial fibrillation (AF is difficult to demonstrate in the intact human left atrium (LA due to technical limitations of the current electrophysiological mapping technique. We examined the effects of the ANS on the initiation and maintenance of AF by employing a realistic in silico human left atrium (LA model integrated with a model of ganglionated plexi (GPs.We incorporated the morphology of the GP and parasympathetic nerves in a three-dimensional (3D realistic LA model. For the model of ionic currents, we used a human atrial model. GPs were stimulated by increasing the IK[ACh], and sympathetic nerve stimulation was conducted through a homogeneous increase in the ICa-L. ANS-induced wave-dynamics changes were evaluated in a model that integrated a patient's LA geometry, and we repeated simulation studies using LA geometries from 10 different patients.The two-dimensional model of pulmonary vein (PV cells exhibited late phase 3 early afterdepolarization-like activity under 0.05μM acetylcholine (ACh stimulation. In the 3D simulation model, PV tachycardia was induced, which degenerated to AF via GP (0.05μM ACh and sympathetic (7.0×ICa-L stimulations. Under sustained AF, local reentries were observed at the LA-PV junction. We also observed that GP stimulation reduced the complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE-cycle length (CL, p<0.01 and the life span of phase singularities (p<0.01. GP stimulation also increased the overlap area of the GP and CFAE areas (CFAE-CL≤120ms, p<0.01. When 3 patterns of virtual ablations were applied to the 3D AF models, circumferential PV isolation including the GP was the most effective in terminating AF.Cardiac ANS stimulations demonstrated triggered activity, automaticity, and local reentries at the LA-PV junction, as well as co-localized GP and CFAE areas in the 3D in silico GP model of the LA.

  8. High pressure-induced mtDNA alterations in retinal ganglion cells and subsequent apoptosis

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    Sheng-Hai Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our previous study indicated that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA damage and mutations are crucial to the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in a glaucomatous rat model. In this study, we examined whether high pressure could directly cause mtDNA alterations and whether the latter could lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and RGC death.Methods: Primary cultured rat RGCs were exposed to 30 mm Hg of hydrostatic pressure (HP for 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. mtDNA alterations and mtDNA repair/replication enzymes OGG1, MYH and POLG expressions were also analyzed. The RGCs were then infected with a lentiviral small hairpin RNA (shRNA expression vector targeting POLG (POLG-shRNA, and mtDNA alterations as well as mitochondrial function, including complex I/III activities and ATP production were subsequently studied at appropriate times. Finally, RGC apoptosis and the mitochondrial-apoptosis pathway-related protein cleaved caspase-3 were detected using a Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL assay and western blotting, respectively. Results: mtDNA damage was observed as early as 48 hours after the exposure of RGCs to HP. At 120 h after HP, mtDNA damage and mutations significantly increased, reaching >40% and 4.8±0.3-fold, respectively, compared with the control values. Twelve hours after HP, the expressions of OGG1, MYH and POLG mRNA in the RGCs were obviously increased 5.02±0.6-fold (p<0.01, 4.3±0.2-fold (p<0.05, and 0.8±0.09-fold p<0.05. Western blot analysis showed that the protein levels of the three enzymes decreased at 72 and 120 hours after HP (p<0.05. After interference with POLG-shRNA, the mtDNA damage and mutations were significantly increased (p<0.01, while complex I/III activities gradually decreased (p<0.05. Corresponding decreases in membrane potential and ATP production appeared at 5 and 6 days after POLG-shRNA transfection respectively (p<0.05. Increases in the apoptosis of RGCs and

  9. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell activity is associated with decreased sleep quality in patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracitelli, Carolina P B; Duque-Chica, Gloria Liliana; Roizenblatt, Marina; Moura, Ana Laura de Araújo; Nagy, Balazs V; Ragot de Melo, Geraldine; Borba, Paula Delegrego; Teixeira, Sérgio H; Tufik, Sergio; Ventura, Dora Fix; Paranhos, Augusto

    2015-06-01

    To use the pupillary light reflex and polysomnography to evaluate the function of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) and to correlate this function with structural damage in glaucoma. Cross-sectional study. A study was conducted on both eyes of 45 participants (32 patients with glaucoma and 13 healthy subjects). For the pupillary reflex evaluation, patients were tested in the dark using a Ganzfeld system (RETIport; Roland Consult, Brandenburg, Germany); pupil diameter was measured with an eye tracker system. To preferentially stimulate ipRGCs, we used a 1-second 470-nm flash with a luminance of 250 cd/m(2). To stimulate different retinal photoreceptors, we used a 1-second 640-nm flash with a luminance of 250 cd/m(2). All of the subjects underwent polysomnography. Subjects underwent standard automated perimetry and optical coherence tomography (Cirrus HD-OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin, CA). Correlations between ipRGC activity, as measured by the pupillary light reflex, and polysomnography parameters, and correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and the pupillary light reflex and polysomnography parameters. The mean patient ages in the healthy and glaucoma groups were 56.8±7.8 years and 61.5±11.6 years, respectively (P = 0.174). Patients with glaucoma had significantly lower average total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation compared with the healthy subjects (P  = 0.008, P = 0.002, and P = 0.028, respectively). Patients with glaucoma had significantly higher arousal durations after falling asleep and more periodic limb movements (P = 0.002 and P = 0.045, respectively). There was an inverse correlation between the rapid eye movement latency and the peak of the pupillary response to the blue flash (P = 0.004). The total arousals were inversely correlated with the sustained blue flash response (P = 0.029). The RNFL thickness was associated with the peak and sustained responses to

  10. Hydrostatic pressure does not cause detectable changes in survival of human retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osborne

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a major risk factor for glaucoma. One consequence of raised IOP is that ocular tissues are subjected to increased hydrostatic pressure (HP. The effect of raised HP on stress pathway signaling and retinal ganglion cell (RGC survival in the human retina was investigated. METHODS: A chamber was designed to expose cells to increased HP (constant and fluctuating. Accurate pressure control (10-100 mmHg was achieved using mass flow controllers. Human organotypic retinal cultures (HORCs from donor eyes (<24 h post mortem were cultured in serum-free DMEM/HamF12. Increased HP was compared to simulated ischemia (oxygen glucose deprivation, OGD. Cell death and apoptosis were measured by LDH and TUNEL assays, RGC marker expression by qRT-PCR (THY-1 and RGC number by immunohistochemistry (NeuN. Activated p38 and JNK were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: Exposure of HORCs to constant (60 mmHg or fluctuating (10-100 mmHg; 1 cycle/min pressure for 24 or 48 h caused no loss of structural integrity, LDH release, decrease in RGC marker expression (THY-1 or loss of RGCs compared with controls. In addition, there was no increase in TUNEL-positive NeuN-labelled cells at either time-point indicating no increase in apoptosis of RGCs. OGD increased apoptosis, reduced RGC marker expression and RGC number and caused elevated LDH release at 24 h. p38 and JNK phosphorylation remained unchanged in HORCs exposed to fluctuating pressure (10-100 mmHg; 1 cycle/min for 15, 30, 60 and 90 min durations, whereas OGD (3 h increased activation of p38 and JNK, remaining elevated for 90 min post-OGD. CONCLUSIONS: Directly applied HP had no detectable impact on RGC survival and stress-signalling in HORCs. Simulated ischemia, however, activated stress pathways and caused RGC death. These results show that direct HP does not cause degeneration of RGCs in the ex vivo human retina.

  11. Sigma-1 receptor expression in the dorsal root ganglion: Reexamination using a highly specific antibody.

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    Mavlyutov, Timur A; Duellman, Tyler; Kim, Hung Tae; Epstein, Miles L; Leese, Charlotte; Davletov, Bazbek A; Yang, Jay

    2016-09-07

    Sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a unique pluripotent modulator of living systems and has been reported to be associated with a number of neurological diseases including pathological pain. Intrathecal administration of S1R antagonists attenuates the pain behavior of rodents in both inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. However, the S1R localization in the spinal cord shows a selective ventral horn motor neuron distribution, suggesting the high likelihood of S1R in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) mediating the pain relief by intrathecally administered drugs. Since primary afferents are the major component in the pain pathway, we examined the mouse and rat DRGs for the presence of the S1R. At both mRNA and protein levels, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western confirmed that the DRG contains greater S1R expression in comparison to spinal cord, cortex, or lung but less than liver. Using a custom-made highly specific antibody, we demonstrated the presence of a strong S1R immuno-fluorescence in all rat and mouse DRG neurons co-localizing with the Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE) marker, but not in neural processes or GFAP-positive glial satellite cells. In addition, S1R was absent in afferent terminals in the skin and in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Using immuno-electron microscopy, we showed that S1R is detected in the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of DRG cells. In contrast to other cells, S1R is also located directly at the plasma membrane of the DRG neurons. The presence of S1R in the nuclear envelope of all DRG neurons suggests an exciting potential role of S1R as a regulator of neuronal nuclear activities and/or gene expression, which may provide insight toward new molecular targets for modulating nociception at the level of primary afferent neurons. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrostatic Pressure Does Not Cause Detectable Changes in Survival of Human Retinal Ganglion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Andrew; Aldarwesh, Amal; Rhodes, Jeremy D.; Broadway, David C.; Everitt, Claire; Sanderson, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor for glaucoma. One consequence of raised IOP is that ocular tissues are subjected to increased hydrostatic pressure (HP). The effect of raised HP on stress pathway signaling and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival in the human retina was investigated. Methods A chamber was designed to expose cells to increased HP (constant and fluctuating). Accurate pressure control (10-100mmHg) was achieved using mass flow controllers. Human organotypic retinal cultures (HORCs) from donor eyes (<24h post mortem) were cultured in serum-free DMEM/HamF12. Increased HP was compared to simulated ischemia (oxygen glucose deprivation, OGD). Cell death and apoptosis were measured by LDH and TUNEL assays, RGC marker expression by qRT-PCR (THY-1) and RGC number by immunohistochemistry (NeuN). Activated p38 and JNK were detected by Western blot. Results Exposure of HORCs to constant (60mmHg) or fluctuating (10-100mmHg; 1 cycle/min) pressure for 24 or 48h caused no loss of structural integrity, LDH release, decrease in RGC marker expression (THY-1) or loss of RGCs compared with controls. In addition, there was no increase in TUNEL-positive NeuN-labelled cells at either time-point indicating no increase in apoptosis of RGCs. OGD increased apoptosis, reduced RGC marker expression and RGC number and caused elevated LDH release at 24h. p38 and JNK phosphorylation remained unchanged in HORCs exposed to fluctuating pressure (10-100mmHg; 1 cycle/min) for 15, 30, 60 and 90min durations, whereas OGD (3h) increased activation of p38 and JNK, remaining elevated for 90min post-OGD. Conclusions Directly applied HP had no detectable impact on RGC survival and stress-signalling in HORCs. Simulated ischemia, however, activated stress pathways and caused RGC death. These results show that direct HP does not cause degeneration of RGCs in the ex vivo human retina. PMID:25635827

  13. [Feasibility study of transplantation of penile corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion in renal subserous region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y D; Guan, R L; Wu, Y Y; Lei, H E; Yang, B C; Li, H X; Wang, L; Guo, Y L; Xin, Z C

    2016-08-18

    To study the feasibility of transplantation of normal rat penile corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion (MPG) into the renal subserous region of a Nu/Nu mouse based on allograft technology. Penile corpus cavernosum and MPG, harvested from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats under sterile condition, were transplanted underneath the kidney capsule of Nu/Nu mice through the microsurgery instruments and surgery microscope. The histopathologic changes and cellular proliferation in the transplanted penile corpus cavernosum and MPG were then analyzed at the end of 1week and 4 weeks after transplantation. Histological staining and immunohistochemical staining were used to evaluate the main outcome measures. After 1 week, the tissue morphology of the transplanted corpus cavernosum underneath the kidney capsule of Nu/Nu mice was consistent with normal penile corpus cavernosum, and blood could be observed in the penis cavernous sinus of the graft; after 4 weeks, the mophorlogy of the tranplanted corpus cavernosum near the kidney was consistent with normal penile corpus cavernosum, while fibrosis was noteworthy in the graft away from the kidney, but blood could still be seen in the penis cavernous sinus. After 1 week, the tissue morphology of the transplanted MPG was consistent with normal MPG, multiple islet-like cell clusters could be seen in the transplanted MPG in the renal subserous region, and angiogenesis could be observed near the kidney; after 4 weeks, a network of blood vessels was clearly visible away from the kidney, and islet-like cell clusters were still clearly observed in the transplanted MPG. In addition, ki67 positive cells were observed in the transplanted penile corpus cavernosum and MPG after 4 weeks of transplantation, which indicated that there was still cell proliferation activity in the grafts. The transplanted corpus cavernosum and MPG underneath the kidney capsule of Nu/Nu mice could survive at least 4 weeks. Moreover, the inner structure of the

  14. A lateral paracarotid approach for ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion block with a linear probe.

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    Kim, Hyuckgoo; Song, Sun Ok; Jung, Gul

    2017-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion block (SGB) is safer and more accurate than classic SGB by the using the surface anatomical landmark. However, previous reports concern the classic paratracheal approach using a small specialized curved probe, which may not be appropriate in some patients. The authors have attempted several approaches, including paratracheal, trans-thyroidal, lateral paracarotid, and lateral approaches, to find a safe and suitable method for real-time ultrasound-guided SGB using a standard high-frequency linear probe. A total of 27 injections were performed on 27 patients with sensorineural hearing loss. The lateral paracarotid out-of-plane and lateral in-plane approaches were identified as the easiest and safest methods among the four tested. In this report, we describe a new lateral paracarotid approach for ultrasound-guided SGB. An ipsilateral paratracheal short-axis transverse scan was acquired at the C6 level with a linear probe (6-13 MHz). The probe was moved laterally, scanning the thyroid, carotid artery, internal jugular vein, longus colli muscle, and the transverse process of the C6, placing the carotid artery in the middle of the view. Light pressure was applied to the probe postero-medially to displace the carotid artery medially and completely compress the internal jugular vein. The needle was inserted out-of-plane between the lateral margin of the carotid artery and Chassaignac's tubercle, traversing the collapsed internal jugular vein, and targeted between the longus colli muscle and the prevertebral fascia. A total of 4 ml of 0.2% ropivacaine was injected for each procedure after a negative aspiration test. Successful blockade was confirmed with the onset of Horner's sign. All 27 injections resulted in successful blockade with Horner's sign presenting within 5 min after injection. Side effects were minor and caused minimal discomfort; they included hoarseness and a foreign body sensation. No hematomas

  15. Protective effects of triptolide on retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of chronic glaucoma

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    Yang F

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fan Yang, Dongmei Wang, Lingling Wu, Ying Li Ophthalmology Department, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To study the effects of triptolide, a Chinese herb extract, on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in a rat model of chronic glaucoma.Methods: Eighty Wistar rats were randomly divided into triptolide group (n=40 and normal saline (NS group (n=40. Angle photocoagulation was used to establish the model of glaucoma, with right eye as laser treated eye and left eye as control eye. Triptolide group received triptolide intraperitoneally daily, while NS group received NS. Intraocular pressure (IOP, anti-CD11b immunofluorescent stain in retina and optic nerve, RGCs count with Nissel stain and microglia count with anti-CD11b immunofluorescence stain in retina flat mounts, retinal tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α mRNA detection by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, and double immunofluorescent labeling with anti-TNF-α and anti-CD11b in retinal frozen section were performed.Results: Mean IOP of the laser treated eyes significantly increased 3 weeks after photocoagulation (P<0.05, with no statistical difference between the two groups (P>0.05. RGCs survival in the laser treated eyes was significantly improved in the triptolide group than the NS group (P<0.05. Microglia count in superficial retina of the laser treated eyes was significantly less in the triptolide group (30.40±4.90 than the NS group (35.06±7.59 (P<0.05. TNF-α mRNA expression in the retina of the laser treated eyes in the triptolide group decreased by 60% compared with that in the NS group (P<0.01. The double immunofluorescent labeling showed that TNF-α was mainly distributed around the microglia.Conclusion: Triptolide improved RGCs survival in this rat model of chronic glaucoma, which did not depend on IOP decrease but might be exerted by inhibiting microglia activities and reducing TNF-α secretion. Keywords: glaucoma, triptolide

  16. Dissection of the sentry ganglion by laparoscopic boarding in patients with cervix uterine cancer clinical stages IA2 at IIB; Diseccion de ganglio centinela por abordaje laparoscopico en pacientes con cancer cervicouterino etapas clinicas IA2 a IIB

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    Valdez U, J.J.; Pichardo M, P.A.; Cortes M, G.; Escudero de los Rios, P. [Hospital de Oncologia. Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI. IMSS, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The obtained results in presently study demonstrate that the feasibility of the detection of the sentry ganglion in cervix uterine cancer using a boarding by laparoscopic via, being necessary the use of twice labelled as much with patent blue and radioisotope (colloid of labelled rhenium with {sup 99m}Tc, total dose of 3 MCi) to achieve the identification of the ganglion. (Author)

  17. Proximal Row Carpectomy for Coexisting Kienböck’s Disease and Giant Intraosseous Ganglion of the Scaphoid: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Miguel Morón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiologies of Keinböck’s disease and intraosseous ganglion remain unknown. Both entities are rare and the coexistence of these two pathologies in the same patient and hand is even less frequent. We report the case of a 40-year-old man with a longstanding history of martial arts practice (karate who developed an avascular necrosis of the lunate concomitant with a giant intraosseous ganglion of the scaphoid bone successfully managed by proximal row carpectomy. We review the literature of these two diseases.

  18. Femoral nerve compression secondary to a ganglion cyst arising from a hip joint: a case report and review of the literature

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    Kalacı Aydıner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Femoral nerve compression due to a cystic lesion around the hip joint is rare and only a few cases have been described in the literature. Among these, true ganglion cysts are even more rare. Case presentation We report the case of a 57-year-old woman with femoral nerve compression caused by a true ganglion cyst of the hip joint. Conclusion A high index of suspicion is required to predict a non-palpable cystic lesion around the hip joint as it may mimic different disorders and should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of unusual groin pain, radicular pain and peripheral vascular disorders.

  19. NLRP3 Is Expressed in the Spiral Ganglion Neurons and Associated with Both Syndromic and Nonsyndromic Sensorineural Deafness

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    Penghui Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsyndromic deafness is genetically heterogeneous but phenotypically similar among many cases. Though a variety of targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS panels has been recently developed to facilitate genetic screening of nonsyndromic deafness, some syndromic deafness genes outside the panels may lead to clinical phenotypes similar to nonsyndromic deafness. In this study, we performed comprehensive genetic screening in a dominant family in which the proband was initially diagnosed with nonsyndromic deafness. No pathogenic mutation was identified by targeted NGS in 72 nonsyndromic and another 72 syndromic deafness genes. Whole exome sequencing, however, identified a p.E313K mutation in NLRP3, a gene reported to cause syndromic deafness Muckle-Wells Syndrome (MWS but not included in any targeted NGS panels for deafness in previous reports. Follow-up clinical evaluation revealed only minor inflammatory symptoms in addition to deafness in six of the nine affected members, while the rest, three affected members, including the proband had no obvious MWS-related inflammatory symptoms. Immunostaining of the mouse cochlea showed a strong expression of NLRP3 in the spiral ganglion neurons. Our results suggested that NLRP3 may have specific function in the spiral ganglion neurons and can be associated with both syndromic and nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness.

  20. Sensitization of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG by periodontal inflammation: A possible etiology of sinusitis and headache in children

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    Haryono Utomo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sinusitis is a frequent complication of allergic rhinitis. Theoretically, sinusitis could be found in human since infancy. The prevalence of diagnosed sinusitis is 20% of ambulatory patients in daily practice. Unfortunately, a lot of sinusitis cases must be treated by surgical operation. Other cases are treated conservatively with decongestants, corticosteroids, antibiotics and diathermy. However, dental treatment approach for sinusitis management is rarely discussed. Headache, especially migraine is also a common problem in children. Sinusitis and migraine, are closely related; sinusitis sufferers often accompanied by migraine and vice versa. This phenomenon resulting in misdiagnosis of the main etiology of sinusitis and migraine; if this case happens in young children, the diagnosis should be more complicated. Dental procedures which may directly reduce the periodontal inflammation were done to children diagnosed as sinusitis by otolaryngologist and pediatrician. In a short period of time, the sinusitis and headache symptoms subsided. The objective of this case reports is to propose the possible explanation of the neurogenic switching mechanism cut off, that resulting in the instant relief of sinusitis and headache symptoms. Regarding the immediate relief of the symptoms, the role of autonomic nervous system should also be considered. Since parasympathetic innervations of nasal, sinus mucosa and maxillary periodontal tissues originated from the sphenopalatine ganglion; the conclusion is that the periodontal inflammation may sensitize the sphenopalatine ganglion which may trigger sinusitis and headache in children.

  1. Co-expression of two subtypes of melatonin receptor on rat M1-type intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

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    Wen-Long Sheng

    Full Text Available Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs are involved in circadian and other non-image forming visual responses. An open question is whether the activity of these neurons may also be under the regulation mediated by the neurohormone melatonin. In the present work, by double-staining immunohistochemical technique, we studied the expression of MT1 and MT2, two known subtypes of mammalian melatonin receptors, in rat ipRGCs. A single subset of retinal ganglion cells labeled by the specific antibody against melanopsin exhibited the morphology typical of M1-type ipRGCs. Immunoreactivity for both MT1 and MT2 receptors was clearly seen in the cytoplasm of all labeled ipRGCs, indicating that these two receptors were co-expressed in each of these neurons. Furthermore, labeling for both the receptors were found in neonatal M1 cells as early as the day of birth. It is therefore highly plausible that retinal melatonin may directly modulate the activity of ipRGCs, thus regulating non-image forming visual functions.

  2. Modeling the electric potential across neuronal membranes: the effect of fixed charges on spinal ganglion neurons and neuroblastoma cells.

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    Thiago M Pinto

    Full Text Available We present a model for the electric potential profile across the membranes of neuronal cells. We considered the resting and action potential states, and analyzed the influence of fixed charges of the membrane on its electric potential, based on experimental values of membrane properties of the spinal ganglion neuron and the neuroblastoma cell. The spinal ganglion neuron represents a healthy neuron, and the neuroblastoma cell, which is tumorous, represents a pathological neuron. We numerically solved the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation for the regions of the membrane model we have adopted, by considering the densities of charges dissolved in an electrolytic solution and fixed on both glycocalyx and cytoplasmic proteins. Our model predicts that there is a difference in the behavior of the electric potential profiles of the two types of cells, in response to changes in charge concentrations in the membrane. Our results also describe an insensitivity of the neuroblastoma cell membrane, as observed in some biological experiments. This electrical property may be responsible for the low pharmacological response of the neuroblastoma to certain chemotherapeutic treatments.

  3. Pharmacological and physiological properties of a putative ganglionic nicotinic receptor, alpha 3 beta 4, expressed in transfected eucaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E T; Holstad, S G; Mennerick, S J; Hong, S E; Zorumski, C F; Isenberg, K E

    1995-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits alpha 3 (PCA48E) and beta 4S (ZPC13) were expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells by calcium phosphate transfection. In the presence of atropine, acetylcholine (ACh) induced fast activating currents which exhibited desensitization and inward rectification. The EC50 for ACh was 202 +/- 32 microM with a Hill coefficient of 1.9 +/- 0.4. The rank order of nicotinic agonist potency was 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperozinium (DMPP) > cytisine = nicotine approximately equal to ACh. The maximal response elicited by DMPP was substantially less than that elicited by other agonists, suggesting that DMPP is a partial agonist. ACh (500 microM) responses were very effectively blocked by equimolar concentrations (100 microM) of the ganglionic antagonists d-tubocurarine, mecamylamine and hexamethonium. Equal concentrations of the potent muscle receptor antagonist decamethonium and the competitive antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine were much less effective. alpha bungaro-toxin (1 microM) had little effect on ACh-induced responses. This physiological and pharmacological profile is consistent with a ganglionic nicotinic response.

  4. Ultrasound Guided Stellate Ganglion Block in Postmastectomy Pain Syndrome: A Comparison of Ketamine versus Morphine as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine

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    Ola T. Abdel Dayem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS is chronic pain after breast cancer surgery and is reported to influence quality of life. The aim of this study was to provide long term reduction of PMPS, improve range of motion of the shoulder, and decrease the need for postoperative analgesia using ultrasound guided stellate ganglion block. Method. Sixty patients with PMPS were randomly allocated into 1 of 3 groups: bupivacaine group (group 1, bupivacaine plus ketamine group (group 2, and bupivacaine plus morphine group (group 3. Each patient received 3 blocks with an interval of one week in between. Patients were assessed for: pain visual analogue score (VAS, movement of the shoulder, skin temperature, and the need for analgesic drugs. Results. The pain VAS was significantly decreased in group 2 as compared to the other two groups. Shoulder movement improved significantly in the three studied groups with the best results observed after the third block. The need for the analgesic drugs in the form of gabapentin was more in the bupivacaine and bupivacaine plus morphine groups than in bupivacaine plus ketamine group. Conclusion. Treatment of PMPS with ultrasound guided stellate ganglion block using ketamine (0.5 mg/kg as adjuvant to bupivacaine (0.25% successfully decreased pain VAS and the need for analgesic drugs.

  5. Immunohistochemical colocalization of TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK with TRP channels in the trigeminal ganglion cells.

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    Yamamoto, Yoshio; Hatakeyama, Taku; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2009-04-24

    TREK belongs to a subfamily of tandem pore domain K+ channels, and consists of three subunits, TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK. We examined the distribution of TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK immunoreactive neurons in rat trigeminal sensory neurons. In the trigeminal ganglia, 31%, 43% and 60% of neurons were immunoreactive for TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK, respectively. Mean sizes of TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK immunoreactive trigeminal ganglion neurons were 447+/-185, 445+/-23 and 492+/-12 mm2, respectively. Furthermore, TREK channels were colocalized with cationic TRP channels, TRPV1, TRPV2 and TRPM8. TREK-1 immunoreactive neurons were colocalized with TRPV1 (57%), TRPV2 (11%) and TRPM8 (33%). TREK-2-immunoreactive neurons were colocalized with TRPV1 (33%), TRPV2 (9%) and TRPM8 (19%). TRAAK immunoreactive neurons were colocalized with TRPV1 (47%), TRPV2 (10%) and TRPM8 (22%). The present results revealed that TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK channels colocalized with thermosensitive TRP channels in some small trigeminal ganglion neurons.

  6. Thyroid hormone is required for the pruning of afferent type II spiral ganglion neurons in the mouse cochlea

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    Sundaresan, Srividya; Balasubbu, Suganthalakshmi; Mustapha, Mirna

    2015-01-01

    Afferent connections to the sensory inner and outer hair cells in the cochlea refine and functionally mature during the thyroid hormone (TH)- critical period of inner ear development that occurs perinatally in rodents. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on afferent type II innervation to outer hair cells (OHCs) using the Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1dw). Using a transgenic approach to specifically label type II spiral ganglion neurons, we found that a lack of TH causes persistence of excess type II SGN connections to the OHCs, as well as continued expression of the hair cell functional marker, otoferlin, in the OHCs beyond the maturation period. We also observed a concurrent delay in efferent attachment to the OHCs. Supplementing with TH during the early postnatal period from postnatal day (P) 3 to P4 reversed the defect in type II SGN pruning but did not alter otoferlin expression. Our results show that hypothyroidism causes a defect in the large-scale pruning of afferent type II spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea, and a delay in efferent attachment and the maturation of otoferlin expression. Our data suggest that the state of maturation of hair cells, as determined by otoferlin expression, may not regulate the pruning of their afferent innervation. PMID:26592716

  7. The influence of venous blood flow on the retinal ganglion cell complex in patients with primary open angle glaucoma

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    N. I. Kurysheva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the influence of venous blood flow on the ganglion cell complex (GCC in patients with preperimetric and perimetric open angle glaucoma.Methods: 74 patients were included in the research. 59 eyes and 62 eyes were diagnosed with preperimetric and perimetric open angle glaucoma respectively. The mean age was 56.5±10.5 years. 22 (12 female and 10 male healthy individuals constituted the control group. The ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fibre layer were evaluated with the help of optical coherence tomography (RTVue-100 OCT, Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA. Ocular blood flow was measured by Color Doppler Imaging (multifunctional VOLUSON 730 ProSystem. The statistical analysis included correlation between GCC and RNFL thickness in both glaucoma groups.Results: The results showed a statistically significant reduction of venous blood flow velocity in both glaucoma groups compared to the control group. No difference in venous blood flow parameters between two glaucoma groups was found, except resistance index, which was higher in perimetric group in comparison to preperimetric group. A correlation was also obtained between venous blood flow parameters and GCC and RNFL thickness in both glaucoma groups.Conclusion: Early GCC damage in glaucoma might occur due to venous blood flow reduction. This fact may be of great value in understanding glaucoma pathogenesis and search for novel treatment options.

  8. Effect of stellate ganglion block on hemodynamics and stress responses during CO2-pneumoperitoneum in elderly patients.

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    Chen, Yong-Quan; Xie, Yu-Yizi; Wang, Bin; Jin, Xiao-Ju

    2017-02-01

    Elderly patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) were given right stellate ganglion block (RSGB) to observe its effects on the hemodynamics and stress response during carbon dioxide (CO2)-pneumoperitoneum. A randomized, single-blinded, and placebo-controlled study. University-affiliated teaching hospital. Sixty patients (aged 65-78years; weight, 45-75kg; American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, class I or II) undergoing elective LC. Right stellate ganglion block was performed via C7 access using 10mL of 1% lidocaine in all patients. The patients' heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded before the block (T0), 5min following pneumoperitoneum (T1), 30min following pneumoperitoneum (T2), 5min following the deflation of pneumoperitoneum (T3), and upon completion of the surgery (T4). Additionally, the concentrations of epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol (COR) were detected in arterial blood at each time point by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For control group, the MAP and RPP (RPP=SBP×HR) were significantly elevated at T1~3 (Pblock can reduce blood catecholamines during CO2-pneumoperitoneum to maintain perioperative hemodynamic stability and prevent adverse cardiovascular events in elderly patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of SIRT1 regulating cholesterol synthesis in repairing retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury in rats

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    Yan Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the repair mechanism associated with cholesterol synthesis regulated by silent information regulator 1(SIRT1in rat model of optic nerve damage. METHODS: Preparation of optic nerve damage in 70 rats was randomly divided into normal group(10 rats, resveratrol treatment group(experimental group 30 ratsand PBS buffer control group(30 rats. The experimental group and control group was further divided into 3 subgroups(each group 10 rats, respectively. After 7, 14, 21d injected resveratrol or PBS, optic nerve injury were observed, then the rats were sacrificed. Retina was segregated; the surviving retinal ganglion cell(RGCswas counted. Dissection of optic nerve, cholesterol content of them were tested; RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expression of SIRT1, SREBP2 and HMGCR; Western blot assay was used to test the protein expression levels of SIRT1, cholesterol regulatory element binding protein 2(SREBP2and HMGCR. RESULTS: The numbers of RGCs and cholesterol levels of rat model with optic nerve injury decreased significantly(PPPPCONCLUSION: Up-regulating the expression of SIRT1, SREBP2 and down-regulating HMGCR by resveratrol could repair the injury of optic nerve through promoting the synthesis of cholesterol in neurons and retinal ganglion cells in the repair process. SIRT1 may be as a promising new target for treatment on optic nerve damage.

  10. Primary culture of glial cells from mouse sympathetic cervical ganglion: a valuable tool for studying glial cell biology.

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    de Almeida-Leite, Camila Megale; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves

    2010-12-15

    Central nervous system glial cells as astrocytes and microglia have been investigated in vitro and many intracellular pathways have been clarified upon various stimuli. Peripheral glial cells, however, are not as deeply investigated in vitro despite its importance role in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Based on our previous experience of culturing neuronal cells, our objective was to standardize and morphologically characterize a primary culture of mouse superior cervical ganglion glial cells in order to obtain a useful tool to study peripheral glial cell biology. Superior cervical ganglia from neonatal C57BL6 mice were enzymatically and mechanically dissociated and cells were plated on diluted Matrigel coated wells in a final concentration of 10,000cells/well. Five to 8 days post plating, glial cell cultures were fixed for morphological and immunocytochemical characterization. Glial cells showed a flat and irregular shape, two or three long cytoplasm processes, and round, oval or long shaped nuclei, with regular outline. Cell proliferation and mitosis were detected both qualitative and quantitatively. Glial cells were able to maintain their phenotype in our culture model including immunoreactivity against glial cell marker GFAP. This is the first description of immunocytochemical characterization of mouse sympathetic cervical ganglion glial cells in primary culture. This work discusses the uses and limitations of our model as a tool to study many aspects of peripheral glial cell biology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Astaxanthin Attenuates the Apoptosis of Retinal Ganglion Cells in db/db Mice by Inhibition of Oxidative Stress

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    Xiao-Li Kang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a common diabetic eye disease caused by changes in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. It is an ocular manifestation of systemic disease, which affects up to 80% of all patients who have had diabetes for 10 years or more. The genetically diabetic db/db mouse, as a model of type-2 diabetes, shows diabetic retinopathy induced by apoptosis of RGCs. Astaxanthin is a carotenoid with powerful antioxidant properties that exists naturally in various plants, algae and seafood. Here, astaxanthin was shown to reduce the apoptosis of RGCs and improve the levels of oxidative stress markers, including superoxide anion, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, indicator of oxidative DNA damage and MnSOD (manganese superoxide dismutase activity in the retinal tissue of db/db mouse. In addition, astaxanthin attenuated hydrogen peroxide(H2O2-induced apoptosis in the transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5. Therefore, astaxanthin may be developed as an antioxidant drug to treat diabetic retinopathy.

  12. Mechanism of memantine block of NMDA-activated channels in rat retinal ganglion cells: uncompetitive antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H S; Lipton, S A

    1997-01-01

    1. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-activated currents were recorded from dissociated rat retinal ganglion cells using whole-cell recording. The NMDA open-channel blocking drug memantine was evaluated for non-competitive and/or uncompetitive components of antagonism. A rapid superfusion system was used to apply various drugs for kinetic analysis. 2. Dose-response data revealed that memantine blocked 200 microM NMDA-evoked responses with a 50% inhibition constant (IC50) of approximately 1 microM at -60 mV and an empirical Hill coefficient of approximately 1. The antagonism followed a bimolecular reaction process. This 1:1 stoichiometry is supported by the fact that the macroscopic blocking rate of memantine (kon) increased linearly with memantine concentration and the macroscopic unblocking rate (koff) was independent of it. The estimated pseudo-first order rate constant for macroscopic blockade was 4 x 10(5) M-1 S-1 and the rate constant for unblocking was 0.44 s-1. Both the blocking and unblocking actions of memantine were well fitted by a single exponential process. 3. The kon for 2 microM memantine decreased with decreasing concentrations of NMDA. By analysing kon behaviour, we estimate that memantine has minimal interaction with the closed-unliganded state of the channel. As channel open probability (Po) approached zero, a small residual action of memantine may be explained by the presence of endogenous glutamate and glycine. 4. Memantine could be trapped within the NMDA-gated channel if it was suddenly closed by fast washout of agonist. The measured gating process of channel activation and deactivation appeared at least 10-20-fold faster than the kinetics of memantine action. By combining the agonist and voltage dependence of antagonism, a trapping scheme was established for further kinetic analysis. 5. With low agonist concentrations, NMDA-gated channels recovered slowly from memantine blockade. By analysing the probability of a channel remaining blocked, we

  13. Neuroprotection and neuroregeneration of retinal ganglion cells after intravitreal carbon monoxide release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Stifter

    Full Text Available Retinal ischemia induces apoptosis leading to neurodegeneration and vision impairment. Carbon monoxide (CO in gaseous form showed cell-protective and anti-inflammatory effects after retinal ischemia-reperfusion-injury (IRI. These effects were also demonstrated for the intravenously administered CO-releasing molecule (CORM ALF-186. This article summarizes the results of intravitreally released CO to assess its suitability as a neuroprotective and neuroregenerative agent.Water-soluble CORM ALF-186 (25 μg, PBS, or inactivated ALF (iALF (all 5 μl were intravitreally applied into the left eyes of rats directly after retinal IRI for 1 h. Their right eyes remained unaffected and were used for comparison. Retinal tissue was harvested 24 h after intervention to analyze mRNA or protein expression of Caspase-3, pERK1/2, p38, HSP70/90, NF-kappaB, AIF-1 (allograft inflammatory factor, TNF-α, and GAP-43. Densities of fluorogold-prelabeled retinal ganglion cells (RGC were examined in flat-mounted retinae seven days after IRI and were expressed as mean/mm2. The ability of RGC to regenerate their axon was evaluated two and seven days after IRI using retinal explants in laminin-1-coated cultures. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the different cell types growing out of the retinal explants.Compared to the RGC-density in the contralateral right eyes (2804±214 RGC/mm2; data are mean±SD, IRI+PBS injection resulted in a remarkable loss of RGC (1554±159 RGC/mm2, p<0.001. Intravitreally injected ALF-186 immediately after IRI provided RGC protection and reduced the extent of RGC-damage (IRI+PBS 1554±159 vs. IRI+ALF 2179±286, p<0.001. ALF-186 increased the IRI-mediated phosphorylation of MAP-kinase p38. Anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects were detectable as Caspase-3, NF-kappaB, TNF-α, and AIF-1 expression were significantly reduced after IRI+ALF in comparison to IRI+PBS or IRI+iALF. Gap-43 expression was significantly increased after IRI+ALF. i

  14. Photobiomodulation of the dorsal root ganglion for the treatment of low back pain: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, Vanessa Milanesi; Chavantes, Maria Cristina; Silva, Daniela Fatima Teixeira; de Holanda, Carlos Vanderlei M; de Oliveira, José Oswaldo; Wu, Xingjia; Anders, Juanita J

    2016-09-01

    Chronic low back pain is a worldwide public health issue with high socioeconomic impact. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of laser irradiation of the dorsal root ganglion of the second lumbar spinal nerve for chronic axial low back pain compared to lidocaine injection and radiofrequency treatment. Twenty-eight patients were randomly divided into three treatment groups: lidocaine injection, radiofrequency, or laser. The second intervertebral foramen between the second and third lumbar vertebrae was accessed by percutaneous needle puncture bilaterally, guided by fluoroscopy. In the local anesthetic group, injection of 1 ml lidocaine without epinephrine was applied through a 20-gauge (G20) Quincke tip spinal needle inserted in the second lumbar intervertebral foramen. In the radiofrequency group, the probe (150 mm long with a 5 mm active tip) was directed through a G20 needle placed in the second lumbar intervertebral foramen and neuromodulation was done with a radiofrequency of Cosman G4® in pulses of 20 ms with wash-out period of 480 ms, for 300 seconds at 42°C. A single treatment was used. In the laser treatment group, a continuous wave, 808 nm wavelength diode laser (Photon Lase III® DCM, Brazil), with an output power of 100 mW was used for a single treatment. An 18 gauge needle was placed in the second lumbar intervertebral foramen guided by fluoroscopy. Light was delivered through a 600 µm optical fiber placed in the G18 needle. The tip of the fiber extended 5 mm beyond the tip of the needle in the second lumbar intervertebral foramen. The beam spot size was 0.003 cm(2) , irradiance = 35W/cm(2) , exposure time = 84 seconds, energy density = 2800J/cm(2) , total energy was 8.4 J. The low back pain score was assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS) and Pain Relief Scale (PRS) pre, post procedure and in 1 month follow up. Temperature was measured using a digital thermometer. All patients in the local

  15. Increase in oxytocin and vasopressin concentration in the blood outflowing from sella turcica region after superior cervical ganglion stimulation in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinska, S.; Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the stimulation of the superior cervical ganglion influences the oxytocin and vasopressin release into the blood in condition of the of the sella turcica integrity. The experiments were performed on male rats under urethane-chloralose anaesthesia. Four 0.7 ml samples of the blood from the sella turcica region flowing through a tube inserted in the maxillary interna vein were collected in the 30, 35, 60 and 90 min of the experiments. The animals were divided into three groups: 1) control, 2) after the exposition of superior cervical ganglion. 3) after the collection of the 1-st sample of the blood the superior cervical ganglion was electrically stimulated for 30 min with trains of pulses. Vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXY) were determined in the blood plasma by radioimmunoassay. Stimulation of the superior cervical ganglion evoked an significant increase of AVP and OXY release into the blood. The increase of AVP release occurred after 30 min longer latency than the increase of OXY release. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs.

  16. Negative impact of rAAV2 mediated expression of SOCS3 on the regeneration of adult retinal ganglion cell axons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellstrom, M.; Muhling, J.; Ehlert, E.M.; Verhaagen, J.; Pollett, M.A.; Hu, Y.; Harvey, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Intravitreal injections of recombinant ciliary neurotrophic factor (rCNTF) protect adult rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after injury and stimulate regeneration, an effect enhanced by co-injection with a cAMP analogue (CPT-cAMP). This effect is partly mediated by PKA and associated signaling

  17. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CNTF to schwann cells within reconstructed peripheral nerve grafts enhances adult retinal ganglion cell survival and axonal regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Ying; Leaver, Simone G; Plant, Giles W; Hendriks, William T J; Niclou, Simone P; Verhaagen, J.; Harvey, Alan R; Cui, Qi

    We recently described a method for reconstituting peripheral nerve (PN) sheaths using adult Schwann cells (SCs). Reconstructed PN tissue grafted onto the cut optic nerve supports the regeneration of injured adult rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. To determine whether genetic manipulation of

  18. Inhibition of mTOR by Rapamycin Results in Auditory Hair Cell Damage and Decreased Spiral Ganglion Neuron Outgrowth and Neurite Formation In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Leitmeyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapamycin is an antifungal agent with immunosuppressive properties. Rapamycin inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR by blocking the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1. mTOR is an atypical serine/threonine protein kinase, which controls cell growth, cell proliferation, and cell metabolism. However, less is known about the mTOR pathway in the inner ear. First, we evaluated whether or not the two mTOR complexes (mTORC1 and mTORC2, resp. are present in the mammalian cochlea. Next, tissue explants of 5-day-old rats were treated with increasing concentrations of rapamycin to explore the effects of rapamycin on auditory hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons. Auditory hair cell survival, spiral ganglion neuron number, length of neurites, and neuronal survival were analyzed in vitro. Our data indicates that both mTOR complexes are expressed in the mammalian cochlea. We observed that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin results in a dose dependent damage of auditory hair cells. Moreover, spiral ganglion neurite number and length of neurites were significantly decreased in all concentrations used compared to control in a dose dependent manner. Our data indicate that the mTOR may play a role in the survival of hair cells and modulates spiral ganglion neuronal outgrowth and neurite formation.

  19. KYNA analogue SZR72 modifies CFA-induced dural inflammation- regarding expression of pERK1/2 and IL-1β in the rat trigeminal ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, M; Warfvinge, K; Kruse, L S; Tajti, J; Fülöp, F; Toldi, J; Vécsei, L; Edvinsson, L

    2016-12-01

    Neurogenic inflammation has for decades been considered an important part of migraine pathophysiology. In the present study, we asked the question if administration of a novel kynurenic acid analogue (SZR72), precursor of an excitotoxin antagonist and anti-inflammatory substance, can modify the neurogenic inflammatory response in the trigeminal ganglion. Inflammation in the trigeminal ganglion was induced by local dural application of Complete Freunds Adjuvant (CFA). Levels of phosphorylated MAP kinase pERK1/2 and IL-1β expression in V1 region of the trigeminal ganglion were investigated using immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Pretreatment with one dose of SZR72 abolished the CFA-induced pERK1/2 and IL-1β activation in the trigeminal ganglion. No significant change was noted in case of repeated treatment with SZR72 as compared to a single dose. This is the first study that demonstrates that one dose of KYNA analog before application of CFA can give anti-inflammatory response in a model of trigeminal activation, opening a new line for further investigations regarding possible effects of KYNA derivates.

  20. Expression of Fos protein in the rat central nervous system in response to noxious stimulation: effects of chronic inflammation of the superior cervical ganglion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laudanna A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possible interactions between the nociceptive system, the sympathetic system and the inflammatory process. Thus, the superior cervical ganglion of rats was submitted to chronic inflammation and Fos expression was used as a marker for neuronal activity throughout central neurons following painful peripheral stimulation. The painful stimulus consisted of subcutaneously injected formalin applied to the supra-ocular region. Fos-positive neurons were identified by conventional immunohistochemical techniques, and analyzed from the obex through the cervical levels of the spinal cord. In the caudal sub-nucleus of the spinal trigeminal nuclear complex, the number of Fos-positive neurons was much higher in rats with inflammation of the superior cervical ganglion than in control rats, either sham-operated or with saline applied to the ganglion. There was a highly significant difference in the density of Fos-positive neurons between the inflamed and control groups. No significant difference was found between control groups. These results suggest that the inflammation of the superior cervical ganglion generated an increased responsiveness to painful stimuli, which may have been due to a diminished sympathetic influence upon the sensory peripheral innervation.

  1. Computerized tomography-guided sphenopalatine ganglion pulsed radiofrequency treatment in 16 patients with refractory cluster headaches: Twelve- to 30-month follow-up evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Luo; Jingjing, Lu; Ying, Shen; Lan, Meng; Tao, Wang; Nan, Ji

    2016-02-01

    Sphenopalatine ganglion percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation treatment can improve the symptoms of cluster headaches to some extent. However, as an ablation treatment, radiofrequency thermocoagulation treatment also has side effects. To preliminarily evaluate the efficacy and safety of a non-ablative computerized tomography-guided pulsed radiofrequency treatment of sphenopalatine ganglion in patients with refractory cluster headaches. We included and analysed 16 consecutive cluster headache patients who failed to respond to conservative therapy from the Pain Management Center at the Beijing Tiantan Hospital between April 2012 and September 2013 treated with pulsed radiofrequency treatment of sphenopalatine ganglion. Eleven of 13 episodic cluster headaches patients and one of three chronic cluster headaches patient were completely relieved of the headache within an average of 6.3 ± 6.0 days following the treatment. Two episodic cluster headache patients and two chronic cluster headache patients showed no pain relief following the treatment. The mean follow-up time was 17.0 ± 5.5 months. All patients enrolled in this study showed no treatment-related side effects or complications. Our data show that patients with refractory episodic cluster headaches were quickly, effectively and safely relieved from the cluster period after computerized tomography-guided pulsed radiofrequency treatment of sphenopalatine ganglion, suggesting that it may be a therapeutic option if conservative treatments fail. © International Headache Society 2015.

  2. The Gastric Ganglion of Octopus vulgaris: Preliminary Characterization of Gene- and Putative Neurochemical-Complexity, and the Effect of Aggregata octopiana Digestive Tract Infection on Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldascino, Elena; Di Cristina, Giulia; Tedesco, Perla; Hobbs, Carl; Shaw, Tanya J.; Ponte, Giovanna; Andrews, Paul L. R.

    2017-01-01

    The gastric ganglion is the largest visceral ganglion in cephalopods. It is connected to the brain and is implicated in regulation of digestive tract functions. Here we have investigated the neurochemical complexity (through in silico gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry) of the gastric ganglion in Octopus vulgaris and tested whether the expression of a selected number of genes was influenced by the magnitude of digestive tract parasitic infection by Aggregata octopiana. Novel evidence was obtained for putative peptide and non-peptide neurotransmitters in the gastric ganglion: cephalotocin, corticotrophin releasing factor, FMRFamide, gamma amino butyric acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine, molluscan insulin-related peptide 3, peptide PRQFV-amide, and tachykinin–related peptide. Receptors for cholecystokininA and cholecystokininB, and orexin2 were also identified in this context for the first time. We report evidence for acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, octopamine, small cardioactive peptide related peptide, and receptors for cephalotocin and octopressin, confirming previous publications. The effects of Aggregata observed here extend those previously described by showing effects on the gastric ganglion; in animals with a higher level of infection, genes implicated in inflammation (NFκB, fascin, serpinB10 and the toll-like 3 receptor) increased their relative expression, but TNF-α gene expression was lower as was expression of other genes implicated in oxidative stress (i.e., superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 6, and glutathione peroxidase). Elevated Aggregata levels in the octopuses corresponded to an increase in the expression of the cholecystokininA receptor and the small cardioactive peptide-related peptide. In contrast, we observed decreased relative expression of cephalotocin, dopamine β-hydroxylase, peptide PRQFV-amide, and tachykinin-related peptide genes. A discussion is provided on (i) potential roles of the various molecules in food intake

  3. The Gastric Ganglion of Octopus vulgaris: Preliminary Characterization of Gene- and Putative Neurochemical-Complexity, and the Effect of Aggregata octopiana Digestive Tract Infection on Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Baldascino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The gastric ganglion is the largest visceral ganglion in cephalopods. It is connected to the brain and is implicated in regulation of digestive tract functions. Here we have investigated the neurochemical complexity (through in silico gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry of the gastric ganglion in Octopus vulgaris and tested whether the expression of a selected number of genes was influenced by the magnitude of digestive tract parasitic infection by Aggregata octopiana. Novel evidence was obtained for putative peptide and non-peptide neurotransmitters in the gastric ganglion: cephalotocin, corticotrophin releasing factor, FMRFamide, gamma amino butyric acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine, molluscan insulin-related peptide 3, peptide PRQFV-amide, and tachykinin–related peptide. Receptors for cholecystokininA and cholecystokininB, and orexin2 were also identified in this context for the first time. We report evidence for acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, octopamine, small cardioactive peptide related peptide, and receptors for cephalotocin and octopressin, confirming previous publications. The effects of Aggregata observed here extend those previously described by showing effects on the gastric ganglion; in animals with a higher level of infection, genes implicated in inflammation (NFκB, fascin, serpinB10 and the toll-like 3 receptor increased their relative expression, but TNF-α gene expression was lower as was expression of other genes implicated in oxidative stress (i.e., superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 6, and glutathione peroxidase. Elevated Aggregata levels in the octopuses corresponded to an increase in the expression of the cholecystokininA receptor and the small cardioactive peptide-related peptide. In contrast, we observed decreased relative expression of cephalotocin, dopamine β-hydroxylase, peptide PRQFV-amide, and tachykinin-related peptide genes. A discussion is provided on (i potential roles of the various molecules

  4. Involvement of trigeminal ganglionic Nav 1.7 in hyperalgesia of inflamed temporomandibular joint is dependent on ERK1/2 phosphorylation of glial cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, R-Y; Kou, X-X; Meng, Z; Wang, X-D; Ding, Y; Gan, Y-H

    2013-08-01

    Inflammation is a major cause of temporomandibular disorder-related pain. The Nav 1.7 sodium channel has a critical function in pain perceptions. However, whether and how Nav 1.7 in the trigeminal ganglion is involved in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammatory pain remains to be examined. TMJ inflammation was induced by complete Freund's adjuvant in female rats. The expression of trigeminal ganglionic Nav 1.7 and other sodium channels was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction or Western blotting. Immunohistofluorescence with fluorescent retrograde neuronal tracer DiI was used to confirm Nav 1.7 in the trigeminal neurons innervating TMJ. The functions of trigeminal ganglionic Nav 1.7 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation were blocked with the microinjection of the Nav 1.7 antibody or U0126 into the trigeminal ganglion. Head withdrawal threshold and food intake was measured to evaluate TMJ nociceptive responses. TMJ inflammation significantly up-regulated Nav 1.7 mRNA and protein; however, the mRNA of Nav 1.3 was not affected and those of Nav 1.8 and Nav 1.9 were only slightly up-regulated. TMJ inflammation specifically induced Nav 1.7 in the neurons innervating TMJ. In addition, blocking the Nav 1.7 function significantly attenuated the hyperalgesia of the inflamed TMJ. Moreover, TMJ inflammation up-regulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation only in the glials; blocking ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the glials blocked Nav 1.7 up-regulation in the neurons and correspondingly attenuated the hyperalgesia of the inflamed TMJ. Trigeminal ganglionic Nav 1.7 has an important function in the hyperalgesia of the inflamed TMJ, which is dependent on the communication with the satellite glials. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  5. The effects of ropivacaine hydrochloride on the expression of CaMK II mRNA in the dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xianjie; Lai, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Tao; Liang, Hua

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we identified the subtype of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) mRNA in dorsal root ganglion neurons and observed the effects of ropivacaine hydrochloride in different concentration and different exposure time on the mRNA expression. Dorsal root ganglion neurons were isolated from the SD rats and cultured in vitro. The mRNA of the CaMK II subtype in dorsal root ganglion neurons were detected by real-time PCR. As well as, the dorsal root ganglion neurons were treated with ropivacaine hydrochloride in different concentration (1mM,2mM, 3mM and 4mM) for the same exposure time of 4h, or different exposure time (0h,2h,3h,4h and 6h) at the same concentration(3mM). The changes of the mRNA expression of the CaMK II subtype were observed with real-time PCR. All subtype mRNA of the CaMK II, CaMK IIα, CaMK IIβ, CaMK II δ, CaMK IIγ, can be detected in dorsal root ganglion neurons. With the increased of the concentration and exposure time of the ropivacaine hydrochloride, all the subtype mRNA expression increased. Ropivacaine hydrochloride up-regulate the CaMK IIβ, CaMK IIδ, CaMK IIg mRNA expression with the concentration and exposure time increasing. The nerve blocking or the neurotoxicity of the ropivacaine hydrochloride maybe involved with CaMK II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular characters and expression analysis of a new isoform of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the SWISS-MODEL Prediction Server, the 3- D structure of BMEF2B was modeled. There are two β-turns and three ∝-helixes predicted in BMEF2B,with the pattern of ∝-β-β-∝-∝. The BMEF2B mRNA was detected not only in the central nervous system (CNS), including brain, suboesophageal ganglion (SG), thoracic ...

  7. OTX2 Transcription Factor Controls Regional Patterning within the Medial Ganglionic Eminence and Regional Identity of the Septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée V. Hoch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Otx2 homeodomain transcription factor is essential for gastrulation and early neural development. We generated Otx2 conditional knockout (cKO mice to investigate its roles in telencephalon development after neurulation (approximately embryonic day 9.0. We conducted transcriptional profiling and in situ hybridization to identify genes de-regulated in Otx2 cKO ventral forebrain. In parallel, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing to identify enhancer elements, the OTX2 binding motif, and de-regulated genes that are likely direct targets of OTX2 transcriptional regulation. We found that Otx2 was essential in septum specification, regulation of Fgf signaling in the rostral telencephalon, and medial ganglionic eminence (MGE patterning, neurogenesis, and oligodendrogenesis. Within the MGE, Otx2 was required for ventral, but not dorsal, identity, thus controlling the production of specific MGE derivatives.

  8. Protective Effect of ALA in Crushed Optic Nerve Cat Retinal Ganglion Cells Using a New Marker RBPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling; Wang, Wenyao; Liu, Jessica; Huang, Xin; Liu, Ruixing; Xia, Huika; Brecha, Nicholas C; Pu, Mingliang; Gao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    In this study we first sought to determine whether RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) can serve as a specific marker for cat retina ganglion cells (RGCs) using retrograde labeling and immunohistochemistry staining. RBPM was then used as an RGC marker to study RGC survival after optic nerve crush (ONC) and alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) treatment in cats. ALA treatment yielded a peak density of RBPMS-alpha cells within the peak isodensity zone (>60/mm2) which did not differ from ONC retinas. The area within the zone was significantly enlarged (control: 2.3%, ONC: 0.06%, ONC+ALA: 0.1%). As for the 10-21/mm2 zone, ALA treatment resulted in a significant increase in area (control: 34.5%, ONC: 12.1%, ONC+ALA: 35.9%). ALA can alleviate crush-induced RGC injury.

  9. Stellate Ganglion Block in the Treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of Historical and Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Mary R; Nevin, Remington L

    2017-04-01

    Concerns over the rising prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), particularly among military service members returning from combat, and over barriers that hinder individuals from seeking out or adhering to standard therapies have contributed to interest in alternative therapies for the disorder. A novel alternative therapy for PTSD-stellate ganglion block (SGB)-may be considered lacking in formal evidence of efficacy despite having shown considerable promise. This review of the recent and historical literature related to SGB finds evidence of substantial beneficial psychiatric effects and substantiates that this fast-acting, somatic treatment may provide positive results for patients with PTSD and may reduce barriers to therapy, particularly among military populations. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  10. Calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptor components in the human sphenopalatine ganglion -- interaction with the sensory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csati, Anett; Tajti, Janos; Tuka, Bernadett

    2012-01-01

    , but not in neurons. RAMP1 immunoreactivity was localized in many neurons and SGCs. Thus, the two CGRP receptor components together were found in the SGCs. In addition, Western blot revealed the presence of RAMP1 and CLR in rat SPG. Our results suggest a possible sensory influence in the parasympathetic cranial......Clinical studies have suggested a link between the sensory trigeminal system and the parasympathetic ganglia. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a sensory neuropeptide which plays an important role in vasodilatation and pain transmission in craniocervical structures. The present study...... was designed to examine if CGRP and CGRP receptor components are present in the human sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) in order to reveal an interaction between the sensory and parasympathetic systems. Indirect immunofluorescence technique was used for immunohistochemical demonstration of CGRP, the calcitonin...

  11. Growth of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons on a novel self-assembling scaffold containing IKVAV sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Zhenwei; Zheng Qixin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical college of Huazhong University of science and technology, Wuhan, 430022 (China); Wu Yongchao, E-mail: wuyongchao@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical college of Huazhong University of science and technology, Wuhan, 430022 (China); Song Yulin; Wu Bin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical college of Huazhong University of science and technology, Wuhan, 430022 (China)

    2009-08-31

    The potential benefits of self-assembly in synthesizing materials for the treatment of both peripheral and central nervous system disorders are tremendous. In this study, we synthesized peptide-amphiphile (PA) molecules containing IKVAV sequence and induced self-assembly of the PA solutions in vitro to form nanofiber gels. Then, we tested the characterization of gels by transmission electron microscopy and demonstrated the biocompatibility of this gel towards rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. The nanofiber gel was formed by self-assembly of IKVAV PA molecules, which was triggered by metal ions. The fibers were 7-8 nm in diameter and with lengths of hundreds of nanometers. Gels were shown to be non-toxic to neurons and able to promote neurons adhesion and neurite sprouting. The results indicated that the self-assembling scaffold containing IKVAV sequence had excellent biocompatibility with adult sensory neurons and could be useful in nerve tissue engineering.

  12. Falling up the stairs: the equivalent of 'bashing it with a bible' for an ACL ganglion cyst of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacombe, Peter Jonathan; Robinson, James

    2012-03-27

    Intra-articular anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) cysts are rare, the pathogenesis remains unknown, with trauma often implicated. Often asymptomatic, incidental MRI findings, 11% produce symptoms such as pain, locking or instability. Treatment of intra-articular ganglia differs from the traditional 'bash it with a bible' mantra for ganglia elsewhere with surgical debridement generally indicated for symptomatic cases. This case report describes a 43-year-old male car mechanic who presented with a symptomatic ACL cyst diagnosed on MRI. While waiting for surgery the patient fell up his stairs at home, causing forced hyperflexion of his knee. After an initial sharp pain, within 24 h the patient experienced complete resolution of symptoms. Postfall MRI showed no evidence of the initial lesion, leading to our conclusion that for this patient, a fall up the stairs was the equivalent of 'bashing it with a bible' for an ACL ganglion cyst of the knee.

  13. In vivo evaluation of an episcleral multielectrode array for stimulation of the retina with reduced retinal ganglion cell mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Timothy L; Morley, John W

    2008-05-01

    A visual prosthesis is an experimental device designed to activate residual functional neurons in the visual pathway to generate artificial vision for blind patients. Specifically, for photoreceptor disease, a microelectrode array applied to the surface of the sclera could potentially serve to stimulate the remaining interneurons in the retina to produce topographically mapped visual percepts. However, of those neurons spared in the disease process, the retinal ganglion cells (RGC), which represent the final output neurons of the retina, can be markedly reduced in number. Using an albino rabbit model with RGC deficits, acute recording of cortical electrical evoked potential was performed to ascertain whether such a stimulation strategy is feasible. By analyzing the strength-duration curve (current threshold vs. pulse duration) and cortical activation profiles, our results prove that bioelectrically safe and spatially differentiated stimulation of the retina is feasible notwithstanding the condition of markedly reduced RGC counts.

  14. Dural administration of inflammatory soup or Complete Freund's Adjuvant induces activation and inflammatory response in the rat trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukács, M; Haanes, K A; Majláth, Zs

    2015-01-01

    induces inflammatory activation in the trigeminal ganglion. METHODS: We performed topical administration of inflammatory soup (IS) or Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) onto an exposed area of the rat dura mater in vivo for 20 min. The window was closed and the rats were sacrificed after 4 h and up to 7...... days. Myography was performed on middle meningeal arteries. The trigeminal ganglia were removed and processed for immunohistochemistry or Western blot. RESULTS: Both CFA and IS induced enhanced expression of pERK1/2, IL-1β and CGRP in the trigeminal ganglia. The pERK1/2 immunoreactivity was mainly seen...... vasoconstrictor response to IS, but not to CFA. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the application of IS or CFA onto the dura mater causes long-term activation of the TG and demonstrate the importance of the neuro-glial interaction in the activation of the trigeminovascular system....

  15. KISS1 and KISS1R expression in the human and rat carotid body and superior cervical ganglion

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    A. Porzionato

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available KISS1 and its receptor, KISS1R, have both been found to be expressed in central nervous system, but few data are present in the literature about their distribution in peripheral nervous structures. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate, through immunohistochemistry, the expression and distribution of KISS1 and KISS1R in the rat and human carotid bodies and superior cervical ganglia, also with particular reference to the different cellular populations. Materials consisted of carotid bodies and superior cervical ganglia were obtained at autopsy from 10 adult subjects and sampled from 10 adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed diffuse expression of KISS1 and KISS1R in type I cells of both human and rat carotid bodies, whereas type II cells were negative. In both human and rat superior cervical ganglia positive anti-KISS1 and -KISS1R immunostainings were also selectively found in ganglion cells, satellite cells being negative. Endothelial cells also showed moderate immunostaining for both KISS1 and KISS1R. The expression of both kisspeptins and kisspeptin receptors in glomic type I cells and sympathetic ganglion cells supports a modulatory role of KISS1 on peripheral chemoreception and sympathetic function. Moreover, local changes in blood flow have been considered to be involved in carotid body chemoreceptor discharge and kisspeptins and kisspeptin receptors have also been found in the endothelial cells. As a consequence, a possible role of kisspeptins in the regulation of carotid body blood flow and, indirectly, in chemoreceptor discharge may also be hypothesized.

  16. Transient Expression of Fez Family Zinc Finger 2 Protein Regulates the Brn3b Gene in Developing Retinal Ganglion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chunsheng; Bian, Dandan; Li, Xue; Xiao, Jian; Wu, Chunping; Li, Yue; Jiang, Tian; Zhou, Xiangtian; Qu, Jia; Chen, Jie-Guang

    2016-04-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are projection neurons in the neural retina that relay visual information from the environment to the central nervous system. The early expression of MATH5 endows the post-mitotic precursors with RGC competence and leads to the activation ofBrn3bthat marks committed RGCs. Nevertheless, this fate commitment process and, specifically, regulation ofBrn3bremain elusive. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying RGC generation in the mouse retina, we analyzed the expression and function of Fez family zinc finger 2 (FEZF2), a transcription factor critical for the development of projection neurons in the cerebral cortex.Fezf2mRNA and protein were transiently expressed at embryonic day 16.5 in the inner neuroblast layer and the prospective ganglion cell layer of the retina, respectively. Knockout ofFezf2in the developing retina reduced BRN3B+ cells and increased apoptotic cell markers.Fezf2knockdown by retinalin uteroelectroporation diminished BRN3B but not the coexpressed ISLET1 and BRN3A, indicating that the BRN3B decrease was the cause, not the result, of the overall reduction of BRN3B+ RGCs in theFezf2knockout retina. Moreover, the mRNA and promoter activity ofBrn3bwere increasedin vitroby FEZF2, which bound to a 5' regulatory fragment in theBrn3bgenomic locus. These results indicate that transient expression ofFezf2in the retina modulates the transcription ofBrn3band the survival of RGCs. This study improves our understanding of the transcriptional cascade required for the specification of RGCs and provides novel insights into the molecular basis of retinal development. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Differential expression of neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel mRNAs during the development of the rat trigeminal ganglion.

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    Thun, Jonas; Persson, Anna-Karin; Fried, Kaj

    2009-05-07

    The developmental pattern of sodium channel expression in neurons of primary sensory ganglia is likely reflected in the electrical behavior of these cells. Little information is available on how voltage-gated sodium channels in sensory neurons are expressed during development in the trigeminal-innervated craniofacial region, where sensitivity is fundamental during early stages of life. Using in situ hybridization, we here demonstrate a differential both regional and transcript-dependent distribution of sodium channel alpha- and beta-subunits between Embryonic day (E)15 and Postnatal day (P)5/6 in the rat trigeminal ganglion. Na(v)1.3 mRNA was strongly expressed at E15, but declined to low levels at P5/P6. Na(v)1.8 was expressed at E15, increased to reach maximum levels at P1 and then decreased. Na(v)1.9 mRNA was detected at E19, reached a maximum at P1, and was then reduced. beta1 mRNA showed a steady rise in expression from E17, while beta2 mRNA was widely expressed from P1. beta 3 mRNA was detected at E15, reached a maximum at E19 followed by a decrease in expression. In the ophthalmic TG portion, there was a higher expression level of Na(v)1.8 and Na(v)1.9 between E19 and P5/P6 as compared to the maxillary/mandibular part, indicating an unexpected positional difference in channel distribution. mRNA levels of p11, which facilitates the expression of Na(v)1.8, were high at all stages. These findings show that trigeminal ganglion sodium channel transcripts mature in steps that are specific for each transcript. They also raise the possibility that different facial regions could differ in the ability to transmit sensory signals during early life.