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Sample records for subnormal total testosterone

  1. Prevalence of subnormal testosterone concentrations in men with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Sandeep; Reddy, Anand; Karam, Jyotheen Sukhmoy; Bilkis, Sayeeda; Chaurasia, Archana; Mehta, Aditya; Raja, Keerthi P; Batra, Manav; Dandona, Paresh

    2015-09-01

    One-third of men with type 2 diabetes have subnormal testosterone concentrations along with inappropriately normal LH and FSH concentrations. It is not known if the presence of renal insufficiency affects free testosterone concentrations in men with type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that type 2 diabetic men with chronic renal disease (CKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) free testosterone concentrations than men with normal renal function (eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). This is a retrospective chart review of patients attending diabetes and nephrology clinics. Men with type 2 diabetes who had the following information available were included in the study: testosterone (total and free) done by LC/MS-MS followed by equilibrium dialysis, sex hormone binding globulin, LH, FSH and prolactin concentrations. We present data on T and gonadotropin concentrations in 111 men with type 2 diabetes and CKD (stages 3-5) and 182 type 2 diabetic men without CKD. The prevalence of subnormal free testosterone concentrations was higher in men with type 2 diabetes and CKD as compared to those without CKD (66% vs 37%, P free T concentrations as compared to men with normal free T concentrations (119 ± 19 vs 128 ± 19 g/l, P = 0.04). Two-thirds of men with type 2 diabetes and CKD have subnormal free T concentrations. The hypogonadism associated with CKD is predominantly hypergonadotropic. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  2. Effect of testosterone on markers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and lipid metabolism in muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Stine J; Christensen, Louise L; Kristensen, Jonas M

    2014-01-01

    therapy on regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and markers of OxPhos and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone levels. METHODS: Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after treatment with either testosterone gel (n=12) or placebo (n=13...... metabolism (ACADVL, CD36, CPT1B, HADH, and PDK4). Consistently, protein abundance of OxPhos subunits encoded by both nuclear (SDHA and UQCRC1) and mitochondrial DNA (ND6) and protein abundance and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 MAPK were unaffected by testosterone therapy. CONCLUSION......: The beneficial effect of testosterone treatment on lipid oxidation is not explained by increased abundance or phosphorylation-dependent activity of enzymes known to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis or markers of OxPhos and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable...

  3. Effect of testosterone on markers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and lipid metabolism in muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Stine J; Christensen, Louise L; Kristensen, Jonas M; Kruse, Rikke; Andersen, Marianne; Højlund, Kurt

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies have indicated that serum testosterone in aging men is associated with insulin sensitivity and expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos), and that testosterone treatment increases lipid oxidation. Herein, we investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and markers of OxPhos and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone levels. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after treatment with either testosterone gel (n=12) or placebo (n=13) for 6 months. Insulin sensitivity and substrate oxidation were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and indirect calorimetry. Muscle mRNA levels and protein abundance and phosphorylation of enzymes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism were examined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. Despite an increase in lipid oxidation (Ptestosterone therapy had no effect on insulin sensitivity or mRNA levels of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PPARGC1A, PRKAA2, and PRKAG3), OxPhos (NDUFS1, ETFA, SDHA, UQCRC1, and COX5B), or lipid metabolism (ACADVL, CD36, CPT1B, HADH, and PDK4). Consistently, protein abundance of OxPhos subunits encoded by both nuclear (SDHA and UQCRC1) and mitochondrial DNA (ND6) and protein abundance and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 MAPK were unaffected by testosterone therapy. The beneficial effect of testosterone treatment on lipid oxidation is not explained by increased abundance or phosphorylation-dependent activity of enzymes known to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis or markers of OxPhos and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone levels. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Progressive Improvement of T-Scores in Men with Osteoporosis and Subnormal Serum Testosterone Levels upon Treatment with Testosterone over Six Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haider, A.; Meergans, U.; Traish, A.; Saad, F.; Doros, G.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Gooren, L.

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency leads to bone loss and testosterone treatment has a beneficial effect. This study investigated the effects of normalizing serum testosterone on bone mineral density in 45 men with osteoporosis, diagnosed with testosterone deficiency (serum testosterone levels <12.1 nmol/L,

  5. Progressive Improvement of T-Scores in Men with Osteoporosis and Subnormal Serum Testosterone Levels upon Treatment with Testosterone over Six Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Haider

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone deficiency leads to bone loss and testosterone treatment has a beneficial effect. This study investigated the effects of normalizing serum testosterone on bone mineral density in 45 men with osteoporosis, diagnosed with testosterone deficiency (serum testosterone levels <12.1 nmol/L, T-scores: (mean ± SD −3.12 ± 0.45, minimum: −4.10, and maximum: −2.60. In a cumulative, prospective, registry study of hypogonadal men (mean age: 53 ± 7 years they received parenteral testosterone undecanoate of 1000 mg/12 weeks for up to six years. After one year 44 men were included in the registry, after two years 36 men, after three years 32 men, after four years 25 men, after five years 10 men and after six years 4 men. The declining numbers do not reflect drop-out rates but are a result of the registry design. Over the 6 year period there was a significant and progressive improvement of the T-scores in these men. Normalizing of serum testosterone leads to an improvement of bone mineral density and this improvement was progressive with the time period of testosterone administration. In this study of 6-years many men with testosterone deficiency suffered from classical diagnoses (Klinefelter’s syndrome and testicular pathology hitherto undiagnosed.

  6. Maximal testosterone suppression in prostate cancer--free vs total testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rove, Kyle O; Crawford, E David; Perachino, Massimo; Morote, Juan; Klotz, Laurence; Lange, Paul H; Andriole, Gerald L; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Taneja, Samir S; Eisenberger, Mario A; Reis, Leonardo O

    2014-06-01

    Testosterone remains a key target in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. The relationship of free testosterone to prostate cancer treatment and outcomes remains largely unexplored. A consensus of prostate cancer experts was convened in 2013 to review current knowledge surrounding relationship of total and free testosterone to prostate cancer, discuss the free hormone hypothesis, and highlight future avenues for therapeutics. Free testosterone may better reflect prostate cancer tissue androgen levels than serum total testosterone concentration. Free testosterone deserves more research regarding its relation to clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance of total testosterone measurement to predict free testosterone for the biochemical evaluation of male hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawalt, Bradley D; Hotaling, James M; Walsh, Thomas J; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2012-04-01

    Guidelines recommend serum total testosterone measurement as the initial test to evaluate male hypogonadism, reserving free testosterone assessment for men with suspected sex hormone-binding globulin abnormalities or total testosterone near the lower limit of normal. We determined the performance of total testosterone measurement as a test to identify men with normal vs low free testosterone. We examined the electronic medical records of all 3,672 men evaluated for hypogonadism by a serum testosterone panel, including total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, albumin and calculated free testosterone, from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 2007 in a network that serves veterans in Washington. The sensitivity and specificity of low total testosterone (less than 280 ng/dl) to rule out and predict low calculated free testosterone was 91.0% and 73.7%, respectively. At thresholds of less than 350 and less than 400 ng/dl the sensitivity of total testosterone for low calculated free testosterone increased to 96.8% and 98.2%, and at thresholds of less than 150 and less than 200 ng/dl specificity increased to 98.9% and 92.6%, respectively. Total testosterone between 280 and 350 ng/dl is not sensitive enough to reliably exclude hypogonadism. Total testosterone must exceed 350 to 400 ng/dl to reliably predict normal free testosterone. Except when levels are less than 150 ng/dl total testosterone measurement has low specificity for the biochemical diagnosis of hypogonadism. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to evaluate signs of abnormal testosterone such as: Early or late puberty (in boys) Infertility, erectile dysfunction, low level of ... brain that control hormones Low thyroid function Delayed ... much body fat (obesity) Increased total testosterone level may be due to: ...

  9. Maximal Testosterone Suppression in Prostate Cancer—Free vs Total Testosterone

    OpenAIRE

    Rove, Kyle O.; Crawford, E. David; Perachino, Massimo; Morote, Juan; Klotz, Laurence; Lange, Paul H.; Andriole, Gerald L.; Matsumoto, Alvin M.; Taneja, Samir S.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Reis, Leonardo O.

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone remains a key target in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. The relationship of free testosterone to prostate cancer treatment and outcomes remains largely unexplored. A consensus of prostate cancer experts was convened in 2013 to review current knowledge surrounding relationship of total and free testosterone to prostate cancer, discuss the free hormone hypothesis, and highlight future avenues for therapeutics. Free testosterone may better reflect prostate cancer tissue a...

  10. Free Testosterone During Androgen Deprivation Therapy Predicts Castration-Resistant Progression Better Than Total Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Lucas; Planas, Jacques; Carles, Joan; Maldonado, Xavier; Comas, Inma; Ferrer, Roser; Morote, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The optimal degree of testosterone suppression in patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy remains in question. Furthermore, serum free testosterone, which is the active form of testosterone, seems to correlate with intraprostatic testosterone. Here we compared free and total serum testosterone as predictors of survival free of castration resistance. Total testosterone (chemiluminescent assay, lower sensitivity 10 ng/dl) and free testosterone (analogue-ligand radioimmunoassay, lower sensitivity 0.05 pg/ml) were determined at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment in a prospective cohort of 126 patients with prostate cancer. During a mean follow-up of 67 months (9-120), 75 (59.5%) events of castration-resistant progression were identified. Multivariate analysis and survival analysis according to total testosterone cutoffs of 50, 32, and 20 ng/dl, and free testosterone cutoffs of 1.7, 1.1, and 0.7 pg/ml were performed. Metastatic spread was the most powerful predictor of castration resistance, HR: 2.09 (95%CI: 1.18-3.72), P = 0.012. Gleason score, baseline PSA and PSA at 6 months were also independents predictors, but not free and total testosterone. Stratified analysis was conducted on the basis of the status of metastatic diseases and free testosterone was found to be an independent predictor of survival free of castration resistance in the subgroup of patients without metastasis, HR: 2.12 (95%CI: 1.16-3.85), P = 0.014. The lowest threshold of free testosterone which showed significant differences was 1.7 pg/ml, P = 0.003. Free testosterone at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment seems to be a better surrogate than total testosterone to predict castration resistance in no metastatic prostate cancer patients. Prostate 77:114-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Total testosterone in young men is more closely associated than free testosterone with prostate cancer disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, Louis Calistro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Early adulthood has been suggested as the most relevant time to determine the influence of testosterone on prostate carcinogenesis. For a more detailed assessment of this hypothesis, the present study examined whether serum total or free testosterone in young men was more closely associated with prostate cancer disparities.

  12. Testosterone Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Content View Sources Also Known As Total Testosterone Free Testosterone Bioavailable Testosterone Formal Name Testosterone This article ... small percent (less than 4%) circulates as free testosterone. Free testosterone plus the testosterone bound to albumin is ...

  13. Association of Free Testosterone With Hypogonadal Symptoms in Men With Near-normal Total Testosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Golan, Ron; Wilken, Nathan; Scovell, Jason M; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the association between hypogonadal symptoms and free testosterone (FT) levels in men with near-normal total testosterone (T) levels (250-350 ng/dL) and to determine whether a discriminatory threshold for FT exists below which hypogonadal symptoms become more prevalent. We reviewed the charts of 3167 men who presented to an outpatient men's health clinic. Two hundred thirty-one men had symptoms of "low testosterone" and serum testosterone levels between 250 and 350 ng/dL. We evaluated hypogonadal symptoms using the Androgen Deficiency in the Adult Male (ADAM) and quantitative ADAM (qADAM) questionnaires. Serum levels of T and sex hormone-binding globulin were collected on the same day that men completed their questionnaires. We used linear regression to determine whether a threshold of FT exists for hypogonadal symptoms. We performed univariate and multivariable analyses to evaluate factors that predicted a low FT level. The median age was 43.5 years, and the median testosterone and FT levels were 303 ng/dL and 6.3 ng/dL, respectively. Prevalence and severity of hypogonadal symptoms (ADAM and qADAM) were similar between men with low (testosterone levels. Symptom-specific FT thresholds could not be defined, as age remains an important confounder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Correlation analysis between serum free testosterone and total testosterone in Chengdu females].

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    Li, Tingting; Xu, Liangzhi; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiaofang; Kang, Deying; Qiu, Dongsheng; Han, Daiwen

    2013-04-01

    This paper is aimed to analyze the correlation between serum free testosterone (FT) and total testosterone (TT) to acquire a cutoff about using total testosterone to diagnose hyperandrogenism in Chengdu females. We investigated 1854 women by cluster sampling method, detected their serum FT levels and TT levels, scored relative items, analyzed the correlation and made the ROC curve to get a cutoff of TT levels. Serum FT had a linear correlation with serum TT (r = 0.597, r2 = 0.356, P < 0.001). The cutoff value was 0.635 ng/mL. The specificity and sensitivity were 76.3% and 77.24%, respectively. No correlation found between serum FT and Ferriman-Gallway Score (P = 0.392). Positive correlations were seen between serum FT and Plewig-Kligman Score (r = 0.137, P < 0.001), serum TT and Ferriman-Gallway Score (r = 0.069, P = 0.003) and serum TT and Plewig-Kligman Score (r = 0.092, P < 0.001). There is a linear correlation between serum FT and TT. We can diagnose hyperandrogenism according to the serum TT cutoff value (0.635 ng/mL). Its clinical symptoms are not paralleled with the biochemical test results.

  15. Direct total and free testosterone measurement by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry across two different platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Jeanne M; French, Deborah; Molinaro, Ross J

    2013-05-01

    To develop and validate liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods for the direct measurement of total and free testosterone in patient samples on two different analytical systems. An API 4000 and 5000 triple quadropoles were used and compared; the former is reported to be 3-5 times less sensitive, as was used to set the quantitation limits. Free testosterone was separated from the protein-bound fraction by equilibrium dialysis followed by derivatization. Either free or total testosterone, and a deuterated internal standard (d3-testosterone) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. The validation results were compared to two different clinical laboratories. The use of d2-testosterone was found to be unacceptable for our method. The total testosterone LC-MS/MS methods on both systems were linear over a wide concentration range of 1.5-2000ng/dL. Free testosterone was measured directly using equilibrium dialysis coupled LC-MS/MS and linear over the concentration range of 2.5-2500pg/mL. Good correlation (total testosterone, R(2)=0.96; free testosterone, R(2)=0.98) was observed between our LC-MS/MS systems and comparator laboratory. However, differences in absolute values for both free and total testosterone measurements were observed while a comparison to a second published LC-MS/MS method showed excellent correlation. Free and total testosterone measurements correlated well with clinical observations. To our knowledge, this is the first published validation of free and total testosterone methods across two analytical systems of different analytical sensitivities. A less sensitive system does not sacrifice analytical or clinical sensitivity to directly measure free and total testosterone in patient samples. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between total testosterone levels and prostate cancer: a review of the continuing controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klap, Julia; Schmid, Marianne; Loughlin, Kevin R

    2015-02-01

    For many years it was believed that higher total testosterone contributed to prostate cancer and caused rapid cancer growth. International guidelines consider that adequate data are not available to determine whether there is additional risk of prostate cancer from testosterone replacement. Numerous studies with multiple designs and contradictory conclusions have investigated the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer development. To establish current knowledge in this field we reviewed the literature on total testosterone and the subsequent risk of prostate cancer as well as the safety of exogenous testosterone administration in patients with a history of prostate cancer. We searched the literature to identify articles from 1994 to 2014 related to the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer. Emphasis was given to prospective studies, series with observational data and randomized, controlled trials. Case reports were excluded. Articles on testosterone replacement safety were selected by patient population (under active surveillance or with a prostate cancer history). We organized our results according to the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer, including 1) the possible link between low total testosterone and prostate cancer, 2) the effect of high levels and 3) the absence of any link. Finally, we summarized studies of the risk of exogenous testosterone administration in patients already diagnosed with prostate cancer, treated or on active surveillance. We selected 45 articles of the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer, of which 18 and 17 showed a relationship to low and high total testosterone, respectively, and 10 showed no relation. Total testosterone was defined according to the definition in each article. Contradictory findings have been reported, largely due to the disparate methodologies used in many studies. Most studies did not adhere to professional society guidelines

  17. Seasonal Variations and Correlations between Vitamin D and Total Testosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Moo-Yeol; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2017-09-01

    Some studies have provided evidence for a possible association between vitamin D and testosterone levels; however, the evidence from studies in Koreans is inconsistent. In addition, insufficient evidence is available to support an association between seasonal variations in vitamin D and testosterone levels in Koreans. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between vitamin D and testosterone levels, and between seasonal variations in these levels in Korean men. This cross-sectional study included 1,559 men, aged 25-86 years, who underwent a medical examination. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and total testosterone levels, and compared other laboratory test results and patient lifestyle characteristics. On the basis of sample collection time, we categorized patients into four seasons, and analyzed seasonal variability in 25(OH)D and total testosterone levels. The average participant age (±standard deviation) was 53.3±8.8 years, and the average serum 25(OH)D and total testosterone levels were 15.9±7.0 ng/mL and 5.1±1.6 ng/mL, respectively. In the analysis of variance (ANOVA) model, no significant association was found between 25(OH)D and testosterone levels (P=0.51). ANOVA of the average 25(OH)D levels in season-based groups revealed significant seasonal variations in 25(OH)D levels (P-value for trend <0.001). No significant association was found between seasonal variations in total testosterone levels (P=0.06). However, after adjustment for confounding variables, total testosterone and 25(OH)D showed significant seasonal variability (P=0.007 and P<0.001, respectively). We found no significant correlation between serum 25(OH)D and total testosterone levels in Korean men. Moreover, serum 25(OH)D and total testosterone levels showed significant seasonal variations.

  18. Low Free Testosterone Is Associated with Hypogonadal Signs and Symptoms in Men with Normal Total Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Leen; Wu, Frederick C W; O'Neill, Terence W; Pye, Stephen R; Ahern, Tomas B; Laurent, Michaël R; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Lean, Michael E J; Keevil, Brian G; Rastrelli, Giulia; Forti, Gianni; Bartfai, György; Casanueva, Felipe F; Kula, Krzysztof; Punab, Margus; Giwercman, Aleksander; Claessens, Frank; Decallonne, Brigitte; Vanderschueren, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    During aging, total testosterone (TT) declines and SHBG increases, resulting in a greater decrease in calculated free T (cFT). Currently, guidelines suggest using TT to diagnose androgen deficiency and to reserve cFT only for men with borderline TT. Our objective was to investigate if either low cFT or low TT is more strongly associated with androgen-related clinical endpoints. A total of 3334 community-dwelling men, aged 40-79 years, were included in this study. Differences in clinical variables between the referent group of men with both normal TT (≥10.5 nmol/liter) and normal cFT (≥220 pmol/liter) with those who had normal TT/low cFT, low TT/normal cFT, and low TT/low cFT were assessed by regression models adjusted for age, center, body mass index, and comorbidities. A total of 2641 men had normal TT (18.4 ± 5.5 [mean ± SD] nmol/liter)/normal cFT (326 ± 74 pmol/liter), 277 men had normal TT (14.2 ± 3.7)/low cFT (194 ± 23), 96 men had low TT (9.6 ± 0.7)/normal cFT (247 ± 20), and 320 men had low TT (7.8 ± 2.5)/low cFT (160 ± 55). Men with normal TT/low cFT were older and in poorer health. They had higher SHBG and LH and reported more sexual and physical symptoms, whereas hemoglobin and bone ultrasound parameters were lower compared to the referent group. Men with low TT/normal cFT were younger and more obese. They had lower SHBG, but LH was normal, whereas features of androgen deficiency were lacking. Low cFT, even in the presence of normal TT, is associated with androgen deficiency-related symptoms. Normal cFT, despite low TT, is not associated with cognate symptoms; therefore, cFT levels should be assessed in men with suspected hypogonadal symptoms.

  19. Does Calculated Free Testosterone Overcome Total Testosterone in Protecting From Sexual Symptom Impairment? Findings of a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeri, Luca; Capogrosso, Paolo; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Cazzaniga, Walter; Pederzoli, Filippo; Moretti, Donatella; Dehò, Federico; Montanari, Emanuele; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Although erectile dysfunction (ED) has been associated with low circulating total testosterone (TT) levels, the utility of free testosterone (FT) over TT is debatable. To assess the relative impact of low TT and low calculated FT (cFT) on androgen-related sexual symptoms in men with ED. Data from 485 men were analyzed. Comorbidities were scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Patients completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the Beck Inventory for Depression (BDI). Descriptive statistics tested differences between patients with normal TT levels (>3 ng/mL) and normal cFT levels (>65 pg/mL; group 1) and men with normal TT and low cFT (group 2), low TT and normal cFT (group 3), and low TT and low cFT (group 4). Linear regression models tested the association between clinical predictors and sexual function impairment. We assessed the impact of different hormonal categories on androgen-related symptoms and the clinical utility of measuring cFT in men with ED. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were composed of 338 (69.6%), 44 (9.1%), 34 (7.0%), and 69 (14.3%) patients, respectively. Compared with group 1, patients in group 2 were older (P testosterone deficiency, even when concomitant with low TT or low cFT irrespective of TT values, it was indicative of poorer clinical profiles and impaired sexual and depressive parameters compared with normal TT and normal cFT in a cohort of patients with ED. Boeri L, Capogrosso P, Ventimiglia E, et al. Does Calculated Free Testosterone Overcome Total Testosterone in Protecting From Sexual Symptom Impairment? Findings of a Cross-Sectional Study. J Sex Med 2017;14:1549-1557. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Total Testosterone Levels and the Effect of Sildenafil on Type 2 Diabetics with Erectile Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Najib Fadhil Hadeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypotestosteronemia has been reported in approximately half of type 2 diabetic men in general. This study aims to assess serum total testosterone levels in type 2 diabetics with erectile dysfunction and to correlate the degree of improvement between sildenafil citrate and testosterone levels. Methods: A cross sectional and prospective comparative interventional study was conducted at the Diabetic Clinic of Assalam Teaching Hospital in Mosul, during the period from January 1, 2009 through to December 31, 2011. The study enrolled 120 type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction who were analyzed with regard to age, duration of diabetes, duration and severity of erectile dysfunction, serum total testosteron levels and the degree of response to sildenafil citrate in terms of testosterone levels. The data were statistically analyzed using the independent two-sample Student t test, χ2 test and Pearson correlation test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Thirty six percent of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction were found to have low serum testosterone levels. The hypotestosteronemic and normotestosteronemic subgroups were not significantly different in terms of mean age, duration of diabetes, reduction of libido, and reduction in erectile function. The rate and the degree of improvement of erection by sildenafil in the normo-and-hypotestosteronemic respondents were not significantly different, but the degree of improvement by sildenafil was significantly correlated to testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Conclusion: Hypotestosteronemia was found in 36% of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction. The degree of improvement of erectile dysfunction by sildenafil was directly proportional to the serum testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Therapeutic supplement with testosterone preparation in the hypotestosteronemic diabetics with erectile

  1. Six weeks of conditioning exercise increases total, but not free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Herbert, Peter; Baker, Julien S; Spagna, Roberto; Grace, Fergal M

    2015-01-01

    Advancing age is associated with a gradual decline in circulating androgens, and the putative role of exercise training on systemic androgens remains to be adequately defined. The present investigation examined the impact of 6 weeks of supervised exercise training on resting levels of systemic hormones in a cohort of lifelong sedentary men [SED (n = 28), 62.5 ± 5.3 years], compared with a positive control group of age-matched lifelong exercisers [LE (n = 20), 60.4 ± 4.7 years, >30 years training history]. Blood hormones were sampled pre- and post-intervention from an antecubital forearm vein and analysed using electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. Cardiorespiratory fitness ([Formula: see text]) was determined via indirect calorimetry during an incremental cycle test to volitional exhaustion. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a lack of significant change in any parameter amongst LE, whilst SED experienced a significant exercise-induced improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness and total testosterone (all p free testosterone (p > 0.05) amongst SED. Although resting levels of systemic total testosterone increased in response to 6 weeks of exercise training, increases in SHBG negated any potential relationship between calculated-free or bioavailable testosterone. These findings indicate that increases in bioavailable testosterone fraction are not required for cardiorespiratory fitness improvements in aging men.

  2. Baseline blood trihalomethanes, semen parameters and serum total testosterone: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Li, Min; Xie, Shao-Hua; Gu, Long-Jie; Yue, Jing; Cao, Wen-Cheng; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Ai-Lin; Li, Yu-Feng; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2013-04-01

    Toxicological studies showed that trihalomethanes (THMs), the most abundant classes of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water, impaired male reproductive health, but epidemiological evidence is limited and inconsistent. This study aimed to examine the associations of baseline blood THMs with semen parameters and serum total testosterone in a Chinese population. We recruited 401 men seeking semen examination from the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China between April 2011 and May 2012. Baseline blood concentrations of THMs, including chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM) were measured using SPME-GC/ECD method. Semen quality and serum total testosterone were analyzed. Multivariable linear regressions were used to assess the associations of baseline blood THM concentrations with semen parameters and serum total testosterone levels. We found that baseline blood THM concentrations were not associated with decrements in sperm motility, sperm straight-line and curvilinear velocity. However, moderate levels of BDCM (β=-0.13 million; 95% CI: -0.22, -0.03) and DBCM (β=-4.74%; 95% CI: -8.07, -1.42) were associated with decreased sperm count and declined sperm linearity compared with low levels, respectively. Suggestive dose-response relationships were also observed between elevated blood TCM or ∑ THMs (sum of TCM, BDCM, DBCM and TBM) concentration and decreased sperm concentration (both p for trend=0.07), and between elevated blood DBCM concentration and decreased serum total testosterone (p for trend=0.07). Our results indicate that elevated THM exposure may lead to decreased sperm concentration and serum total testosterone. However, the effects of THM exposure on male reproductive health still warrant further studies in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Total testosterone levels are often more than three times elevated in patients with androgen-secreting tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Lambaa Altinok, Magda; Petersen, Kresten Rubeck

    2015-01-01

    surgery. Terminal hair growth on lip and chin gradually increases after menopause, which complicates distinction from normal physiological variation. Precise testosterone assays have just recently become available in the daily clinic. We present three women diagnosed with testosterone-producing tumours....... Gold standard techniques were used to measure testosterone levels. All tumours originated from the ovaries. Based on the present cases and the existing literature, we suggest that androgen-producing tumours should be suspected in patients with rapid progression of hyperandrogen symptoms, particularly...... when total testosterone levels are above three times the upper reference limit....

  4. Effects of buddleja officinalis total flavonoids on serum testosterone level of castrated male rats with xeroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Juan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe buddleja officinalis total flavonoids' effect on the basal tear secretion amount, tear film stability, lacrimal gland histomorphology and serum testosterone level of castrated male rat model with xeroma, to study the mechanism of rat xeroma caused by buddleja officinalis total flavones' anti-sex hormones disorders.MEATHODS: A total of 150 Wistar male rats of 1 month old, weighted about 200g, were randomly divided into 5 groups with 30 rats in each group with A representing normal group; B representing sham operation group; C representing surgery control group; D representing group treated with androgen; E representing group treated with buddleja officinalis total flavonoids. For the groups C, D, E, the bilateral testicle and epididymis were excised; For group B, scrota were incised without removal of the testicles, as the sham operation group; For group A, nothing was done. One week after modeling when the wound was to be healed, drug was given to each group. Respectively at the 1st month, 3rd, and 5th months after treatment, 10 rats were randomly selected in each group, to receive Schirmer I test, tear breakup time measurement. Blood serum testosterone levels were tested in the fifth month. RESUITS: For groups D and E, the Schirmer I test measurements were significantly higher than that of group C(PPPCONCLUSION: Decreased androgen levels can lead to xeroma, and removal of bilateral testes and epididymis can successfully establish the animal models of xeroma in rats caused by decreased androgen levels. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids have androgenic effect, which produces the similar treatment effect of xeroma with testosterone propionate. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids may become a new treatment for xeroma.

  5. Inverse association of total testosterone with central haemodynamics and left ventricular mass in hypertensive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Pietri, Panagiota; Ioakeimidis, Nikolaos; Aggelis, Athanasios; Terentes-Printzios, Dimitrios; Abdelrasoul, Mahmoud; Gourgouli, Ioanna; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Tousoulis, Dimitrios

    2016-07-01

    There is evidence for inverse association between endogenous testosterone and blood pressure. Furthermore, low plasma testosterone is associated with increased risk of major cardiovascular events in middle-aged hypertensive men. Central (aortic) blood pressures determine left ventricular hypertrophy and predict cardiovascular mortality. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship of total testosterone (TT) with central haemodynamics and left ventricular mass in hypertensive men. We investigated 134 non-diabetic, middle-aged, hypertensive men and 60 age-matched normotensive males. All participants were subject to measurement of aortic systolic (aoSBP) and pulse pressure (aoPP) by pulse wave analysis using the SphygmoCor device. Wave reflections were assessed by the measurement of heart rate corrected augmentation index (AIx75). Echocardiography was performed in all individuals and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated using the Devereux's formula. Plasma TT was measured by enzyme immunoassay. In hypertensive men, univariate analysis showed an inverse, significant correlation between TT and aoSBP (r = -20, p = 0.02), aoPP (r = -0.21, p = 0.01), AIx75 (r = -0.22, p = 0.01) and LVM (r = -0.19, p = 0.008). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated an independent inverse association of TT with aoPP (b = -0.21, p = 0.02), AIx75 (b = -0.19, p = 0.03) and LVM (b = -0.28, p = 0.005) after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, total cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, mean arterial pressure, antihypertensive treatment and statin use. Independent associations were retained even after inclusion of normotensive subjects in the analysis. In hypertensive men, TT is independently and inversely associated with central pulse pressure, wave reflections and left ventricular mass. Considering the adverse prognostic role of central blood pressures and LV hypertrophy on cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients, the present

  6. Hormonal male contraception in men with normal and subnormal semen parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, E; Vorona, E; Wenk, M; Hemker, A-K; Kamischke, A; Zitzmann, M

    2011-12-01

    Hormonal male contraception based on testosterone alone or on a combination of testosterone with a gestagen has been shown to suppress spermatogenesis effectively and to be fully reversible. However, clinical studies to date have only included volunteers with so-called 'normal' semen values by WHO standards. As a male contraceptive should be available to all interested men regardless of their semen parameters, we investigated how volunteers with subnormal semen parameters would respond to hormonal male contraception. During a 34-week treatment phase, the volunteers received injections of 1000 mg testosterone undecanoate in weeks 0, 6, 14 and 24. This was followed by a 24-week recovery and follow-up period. As it was not known whether men with subnormal semen parameters would recover to starting levels, cryopreservation of semen was offered to all subnormal volunteers. Twenty-three men with normal semen parameters and 18 with sperm counts below 20 million completed the trial. The normal volunteers showed the expected response with 17 suppressing sperm counts below 1 million/ejaculate (13 showing azoospermia) and six not-suppressing below 1 million sperm/ejaculate. By the end of the recovery period, all sperm counts had returned to the range of starting values. The subnormal group showed a similar pattern with 13 of 18 (= 72%) men suppressing below 1 million/ejaculate (8/18 = 44% showing azoospermia) and the remaining 5 of 18 (= 28%) not-suppressing sperm counts below 1 million/ejaculate. All sperm counts returned to the starting range. The study shows that in Caucasian men with normal sperm counts as well as in men with subnormal sperm counts, testosterone alone can produce azoospermia in about half and suppression below one million in about two-thirds of the volunteers. The same proportion of men in both groups appears to require an additional gestagen for full contraceptive protection. Most importantly, regarding suppressibility and reversibility, volunteers with

  7. Vitamin D is significantly associated with total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Malaysian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies in the Caucasian population have shown a significant relationship between vitamin D and testosterone levels, but data in the Asian population are limited. This study aimed to determine the association between vitamin D and testosterone levels in Malaysian men. Chinese and Malay men (n = 382) aged 20 years or above residing in the Klang Valley, Malaysia were recruited. Their fasting blood was collected for serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) assays. Relationship between 25(OH)D and testosterone levels was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Testosterone and SHBG levels among subjects with different vitamin D status were compared using univariate analysis. Confounders such as age, ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) were adjusted. 25(OH)D was significantly and positively associated with total testosterone and SHBG levels before and after adjustment for age and ethnicity (p  0.05). 25(OH)D is significantly associated with total testosterone and SHBG in Malaysian men but this association is BMI-dependent.

  8. Current Practices of Measuring and Reference Range Reporting of Free and Total Testosterone in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Margaret; Flores, David; May, Danica; Gourley, Eric; Nangia, Ajay K

    2016-05-01

    The evaluation and management of male hypogonadism should be based on symptoms and on serum testosterone levels. Diagnostically this relies on accurate testing and reference values. Our objective was to define the distribution of reference values and assays for free and total testosterone by clinical laboratories in the United States. Upper and lower reference values, assay methodology and source of published reference ranges were obtained from laboratories across the country. A standardized survey was reviewed with laboratory staff via telephone. Descriptive statistics were used to tabulate results. We surveyed a total of 120 laboratories in 47 states. Total testosterone was measured in house at 73% of laboratories. At the remaining laboratories studies were sent to larger centralized reference facilities. The mean ± SD lower reference value of total testosterone was 231 ± 46 ng/dl (range 160 to 300) and the mean upper limit was 850 ± 141 ng/dl (range 726 to 1,130). Only 9% of laboratories where in-house total testosterone testing was performed created a reference range unique to their region. Others validated the instrument recommended reference values in a small number of internal test samples. For free testosterone 82% of laboratories sent testing to larger centralized reference laboratories where equilibrium dialysis and/or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was done. The remaining laboratories used published algorithms to calculate serum free testosterone. Reference ranges for testosterone assays vary significantly among laboratories. The ranges are predominantly defined by limited population studies of men with unknown medical and reproductive histories. These poorly defined and variable reference values, especially the lower limit, affect how clinicians determine treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Tadalafil improves total testosterone, IIEF score and SEP in old and middle-aged males with late-onset hypogonadism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Kun; Luo, Li; Wang, Sen; Li, Jun; Li, Wen-Xiong

    2012-05-01

    To observe the clinical effect of tadalafil combined with testosterone undecanoate on late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in old and middle-aged males. A total of 125 old and middle-aged (40 to 60 years) males with LOH were randomly assigned to a treatment group (n = 65) and a control group (n = 60) to be treated with tadalafil + testosterone undecanoate and testosterone undecanoate alone, respectively. We compared the levels of total testosterone (T), IIEF scores and the patients' sexual encounter profile (SEP) diaries before and 4 weeks after medication. The T level, IIEF score and SEP score were significantly improved in both groups after medication as compared with the baseline (P SEP score in old and middle-aged males with LOH and increase their sexual satisfaction and self-confidence.

  10. Total Testosterone and Calculated Estimates for Free and Bioavailable Testosterone: Influence of Age and Body Mass Index and Establishment of Sex-Specific Reference Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschbein, T; Mann, K; Petersenn, S

    2015-10-01

    Measurement of sex steroids is required to evaluate gonadal function, but normative data are lacking (especially for estimates of physiologically active testosterone). Using modern immunoassays, this study established sex-specific reference ranges (2.5% and 97.5% percentiles) for total testosterone (TOT), bioactive testosterone Vermeulen (BTV), free androgen index (FAI), free testosterone Sartorius (FTS), free testosterone Vermeulen (FTV), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). In the comparative study, subjects were grouped by age (18-30; 31-50; >50 years), BMI (30 kg/m(2)), and sex. Study participants were selected in such a way that each group comprised 12 subjects (e.g., 12 males between 18 and 30 years with a BMI of <25 kg/m(2), and so on), resulting in a total of 216 controls (108 males, 108 females; age: 40.3 ± 1.0; BMI: 27.8 ± 0.4). Multiple stepwise regression analyses were performed (covariates: age, BMI, sex), and sex-specific reference ranges were applied to 50 males (age: 46.1 ± 2.3; BMI: 27.4 ± 0.7) with suspected hypogonadism. Regression analysis identified the strongest predictor of each parameter apart from sex, resulting in age-specific (males: FAI, SHBG, BTV, FTV; females: TOT, FTS, SHBG), BMI-specific (males: TOT, FTS; females: FAI, BTV, FTV) and overall cutoffs for both sexes. In male patients, overall agreement between the results derived from the estimates (i.e., BTV, FTS, FTV) was high (with discordant results in only 4%). In summary, if both the endocrine workup and the clinical presentation were taken into account, the newly established reference ranges allowed reliable identification of hypogonadal males. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Pengaruh Latihan Fisik Teratur terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah dan Hubungannya dengan Kadar Testosteron Total pada Tikus Model Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A state of chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus may cause dysfunction of the reproductive system; one of these is the decrease in total testosterone level. A regular physical exercise is one of the non-pharmacological approaches to reduce blood glucose level and improve total testosterone level in diabetes mellitus. The study was aimed to determine the effects of regular physical exercise on fasting blood glucose (FBG levels and its relationship to total testosterone levels in diabetic rats. Pre-postest experimental study with control group design, was conducted during June–October 2013 at Physiology Laboratory of Medical Faculty and Research Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh. Fifteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: (I control, (II sedentary diabetic, and (III exercise diabetic. The physical exercise was performed at low-moderate intensity for nine weeks according to Souza’s protocol. The levels of blood glucose were measured every three weeks during the regular physical exercise; the changes of blood glucose level were compared between groups, whereas the levels of total testosterone were measured after nine weeks of regular physical exercise. The mean of total testosterone level was different (p=0.032 between the group with physical exercise and without physical exercise. There was a negative correlation between changes in FBG levels and total testosterone levels (p=0.007, Pearson correlation -0.661. In conclusion, regular physical exercise with low-moderate intensity reduces blood glucose levels and improves total testosterone levels in diabetic rats.

  12. Descartes' Calculus of Subnormals: What Might Have Been

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Gregory Mark; Walls, Jess E.

    2013-01-01

    Rene Descartes' method for finding tangents (equivalently, subnormals) depends on geometric and algebraic properties of a family of circles intersecting a given curve. It can be generalized to establish a calculus of subnormals, an alternative to the calculus of Newton and Leibniz. Here we prove subnormal counterparts of the well-known…

  13. The relationship between serum total testosterone and free testosterone levels with serum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels: a study in 1221 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu Seob; You, Jae Hyung; Cha, Jai Seong; Park, Jong Kwan

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) levels in men with anemia. We reviewed the records of 1221 subjects between March 2009 and December 2014. All the subjects' blood samples were drawn for TT and FT assays. Their serum hemoglobin (Hb) and serum hematocrit (Hct) levels were measured. The primary objective of our study was to investigate the association between TT and FT levels with Hb and Hct levels. The mean age was 59.82 ± 12.71 years. The mean TT and FT levels were 4.54 ± 2.02 ng/mL and 10.63 ± 3.69 pg/mL, respectively. The mean Hb and Hct levels were 14.72 ± 1.34 g/dL and 43.11 ± 3.75%, respectively. Subjects with low TT (Testosterone replacement therapy may be effective in men with hypogonadism to reduce the incidence of anemia.

  14. CYCLICAL SUBNORMAL SEPARATION IN A-GROUPS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Section 2 deals-with general resutts that are of interest to us including an example of a non-metabelian A-. -oup in CS,. ... Departmen! of Mathematics. Ahmadu Bello ... some m E M and by co-prime action we have. [L, (m)..H] n CL(m) = 1 where (m)..H denotes the smallest subnormal ,subgroup of H containing m. Note that.

  15. Behavior of total and free serum testosterone as a predictor for the risk of prostate cancer and its aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, L; Planas, J; Celma, A; de Torres, I M; Ferrer, R; Morote, J

    2015-11-01

    Serum testosterone is mostly bound to the sex hormone-binding globulin and albumin. A small metabolically active part is present in the form of free testosterone (FT). The relationship between serum total testosterone (TT) levels and prostate carcinogenesis is debated. Our hypothesis is that the serum FT concentration is more closely associated with the risk of prostate cancer (PC) and its aggressiveness than TT. To analyze the scientific evidence that relates serum TT and/or FT levels with the diagnosis of PC and its aggressiveness. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed up to January 2015 using the following mesh terms: prostate cancer, sex hormone, androgen, testosterone and free testosterone. We found 460 publications, 124 of which were reviewed to analyze the evidence. The relationship between serum TT levels and the diagnosis of PC and its aggressiveness is highly heterogeneous. The variability in the design of the studies, the quantification methods and other variables could explain this heterogeneity. In a number of studies that evaluated the estimated or measured FT, the evidence remains equally conflicting. Based on the current evidence, we cannot recommend the measurement of serum TT and/or TL levels for the diagnosis of PC or for assessing its aggressiveness. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Premature decline of serum total testosterone in HIV-infected men in the HAART-era.

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    Vincenzo Rochira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Testosterone (T deficiency remains a poorly understood issue in men with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. We investigated the gonadal status in HIV-infected men in order to characterize T deficiency and to identify predictive factors for low serum T. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a cross-sectional, observational study on 1325 consecutive HIV male outpatients, most of them having lipodystrophy. Serum total T<300 ng/dL was used as the threshold for biochemical T deficiency. Morning serum total T, luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol, HIV parameters, and body composition parameters by CT-scan and Dual-Energy-X-ray-Absorptiometry were measured in each case. Sexual behavior was evaluated in a subset of 247 patients. T deficiency was found in 212 subjects, especially in the age range 40-59, but was frequent even in younger patients. T deficiency occurred mainly in association with low/normal serum LH. Adiposity was higher in subjects with T deficiency (p<0.0001 and both visceral adipose tissue and body mass index were the main negative predictors of serum total T. Osteoporosis and erectile dysfunction were present in a similar percentage in men with or without T deficiency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Premature decline of serum T is common (16% among young/middle-aged HIV-infected men and is associated with inappropriately low/normal LH and increased visceral fat. T deficiency occurs at a young age and may be considered an element of the process of premature or accelerated aging known to be associated with HIV infection. The role of HIV and/or HIV infection treatments, as well as the role of the general health state on the gonadal axis, remains, in fact, to be elucidated. Due to the low specificity of signs and symptoms of hypogonadism in the context of HIV, caution is needed in the diagnosis of hypogonadism in HIV-infected men with biochemical low serum T levels.

  17. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are forms of testosterone injection used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in ... are low before you begin to use testosterone injection. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are ...

  18. Low serum total testosterone level as a predictor of upstaging and upgrading in low-risk prostate cancer patients meeting the inclusion criteria for active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Bruzzese, Dario; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Perdonà, Sisto; Autorino, Riccardo; Cantiello, Francesco; La Rocca, Roberto; Busetto, Gian Maria; Cimmino, Amelia; Buonerba, Carlo; Battaglia, Michele; Damiano, Rocco; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Mirone, Vincenzo; Terracciano, Daniela

    2017-03-14

    Active surveillance (AS) is currently a widely accepted treatment option for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa). Several reports have highlighted the association of low serum testosterone levels with high-grade, high-stage PCa. However, the impact of serum testosterone as a predictor of progression in men with low-risk PCa has been little assessed.In this study, we evaluated the association of circulating testosterone concentrations with a staging/grading reclassification in a cohort of low-risk PCa patients meeting the inclusion criteria for the AS protocol but opting for radical prostatectomy.Radical prostatectomy (RP) was performed in 338 patients, eligible for AS according to the following criteria: clinical stage T2a or less, PSApT2) and upgrading (GS≥7; primary Gleason pattern 4) disease. Unfavorable disease was defined as the occurrence of pathological stage>pT2 and predominant Gleason score 4. Total testosterone was measured before surgery.Low serum testosterone levels (testosterone to a base model, including age, PSA, PSA density, clinical stage and positive cancer involvement in cores, showed a significant independent influence of this variable on upstaging, upgrading and unfavorable disease.In conclusion, our results support the idea that total testosterone should be a selection criterion for inclusion of low-risk PCa patients in AS programs and suggest that testosterone level less than 300 ng/dL should be considered a discouraging factor when a close AS program is considered as treatment option.

  19. Low total testosterone levels are associated with the metabolic syndrome in elderly men: the role of body weight, lipids, insulin resistance, and inflammation; the Ikaria study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysohoou, Christina; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Pitsavos, Christos; Siasos, Gerasimos; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Varlas, John; Patialiakas, Athanasios; Lazaros, George; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Zaromitidou, Marina; Kourkouti, Polina; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases with age. Among other changes, testosterone levels decline with age. The relationship between testosterone levels and MetS components in older subjects has not been clearly defined until today. The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between total serum testosterone levels and MetS and its components. The working sample consisted of 467 elderly individuals (mean age 75 ± 6 years old, n = 220 men) from Ikaria Island, Greece. MetS was defined according to the NCEP ATPIII criteria. MetS prevalence was 52% in men and 64% in women. Those with MetS had lower testosterone levels; a 10 ng/dl increase in testosterone was associated with a 3% reduction in odds of having MetS in men (95% CI: 0.95-0.99), but not in women. This remained the result after various adjustments had been made, including daily hours of sleep. Testosterone was inversely associated with abnormal waist circumference, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), insulin, and HDL cholesterol levels in men only. When lipid categories, hs-CRP, BMI, and insulin resistance levels were taken into account, testosterone lost its significance in predicting MetS (p relationship, suggesting a potential mediating effect. This finding may support a research hypothesis relating serum testosterone to cardiovascular disease, which requires further research.

  20. Effect of Sleep Extension on the Subsequent Testosterone, Cortisol and Prolactin Responses to Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, P J; Drogou, C; Sauvet, F; Regnauld, J; Dispersyn, G; Faraut, B; Millet, G Y; Leger, D; Gomez-Merino, D; Chennaoui, M

    2016-02-01

    Total sleep deprivation (TSD) in humans is associated with altered hormonal levels, which may have clinical relevance. Less is known about the effect of an extended sleep period before TSD on these hormonal changes. Fourteen subjects participated in two experimental counterbalanced conditions (randomised cross-over design): extended sleep (21.00-07.00 h time in bed, EXT) and habitual sleep (22.30-07.00 h time in bed, HAB). For each condition, subjects performed two consecutive phases: six nights of either EXT or HAB. These nights were followed by 3 days in the sleep laboratory with blood sampling at 07.00 and 17.00 h at baseline (B-07.00 and B-17.00), after 24 and 34 h of continuous awakening (24 h-CA, 34 h-CA) and after one night of recovery sleep (R-07.00 and R-17.00) to assess testosterone, cortisol, prolactin and catecholamines concentrations. At 24 h of awakening, testosterone, cortisol and prolactin concentrations were significantly lower compared to B-07.00 and recovered basal levels after recovery sleep at R-07.00 (P sleep extension was observed on testosterone, cortisol and catecholamines concentrations at 24 and 34 h of awakening. However, prolactin concentration was significantly lower in EXT at B-07.00 and R-07.00 compared to HAB (P sleep extension is not sufficient to limit decreased concentrations of testosterone and cortisol at 24 h of awakening but may have an impact on prolactin concentration. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  1. Use of statins is associated with lower serum total and non-sex hormone-binding globulin-bound testosterone levels in male participants of the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keyser, Catherine E; de Lima, Filipe Valerio; de Jong, Frank H; Hofman, Albert; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Uitterlinden, André G; Visser, Loes E; Stricker, Bruno H

    2015-08-01

    Statins, or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, decrease cholesterol production. Because cholesterol is a precursor of the testosterone biosynthesis pathway, there is some concern that statins might lower serum testosterone levels. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between the use of statins and serum testosterone levels in men. Cross-sectional study within the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study. We included 4166 men with available data on total testosterone, non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)-bound testosterone, and medication use. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to compare the differences in serum testosterone levels (nmol/l) between current, past, and never statin users. We considered dose and duration of use. Analyses were adjusted for age, BMI, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and estradiol levels. We identified 577 current (mean age 64.1 years), 148 past (mean age 64.6 years), and 3441 never (mean age 64.6 years) statin users. Adjusted for all covariables, current statin use of 1-≤ 6 months or >6 months was significantly associated with lower total testosterone levels as compared to non-users (β -1.24, 95% CI -2.17, -0.31, and β -1.14, 95% CI -2.07, -0.20 respectively). Current use of 1-≤ 6 months was also associated with significantly lower non-SHBG-bound testosterone levels (β -0.42, 95% CI -0.82, -0.02). There was a trend toward lower testosterone levels at higher statin doses both for total (P(trend) 2.9 × 10(-5)) and non-SHBG-bound (P(trend) 2.0 × 10(-4)) testosterone. No association between past statin use and testosterone levels was found. We showed that current use of statins was associated with significantly lower serum total and non-SHBG-bound testosterone levels. The clinical relevance of this association should be further investigated. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  2. A validated age-related normative model for male total testosterone shows increasing variance but no decline after age 40 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Kelsey

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile] at 15.4 (7.2-31.1 nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile] to 13.0 (6.6-25.3 nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism.

  3. Changes of Serum Total and Free Testosterone Concentrations in Male Chronic Hemodialysis Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Response to Cinacalcet Treatment

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    Piotr Kuczera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR is expressed, among others also in testis. Cinacalcet binds to the CaSR, increases sensitivity of CaSR to serum calcium and is used in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT in chronic hemodialysis patients (HDP. In most of male HDP, serum testosterone concentration is lower than in healthy males. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of six-month treatment with cinacalcet on the serum total and free testosterone concentration in male HDP with sHPT. Methods: 38 male, hemodialysed CKD patients with sHPT (PTH>300 pg/ml were enrolled into the study. In each patient serum PTH, total testosterone (TT and free testosterone (FT concentrations were assessed before the first dose of cinacalcet and then after 3 and 6 months of treatment. The results are presented as means with 95% confidence interval. Results: In 33 patients who completed the study cinacalcet treatment caused significant decrease of serum PTH from 1143 pg/ml (828 - 1458 pg/ml at the baseline, to 809 pg/ml (487 - 1132pg/ml after 3 month of treatment (p = 0.002, and to 607 pg/ml (281 - 934pg/ml; p Conclusion: Treatment with cinacalcet decreases serum total and free testosterone concentration in male hemodialysed patients with chronic kidney disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  4. Low Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels Associate with Prediabetes in Chinese Men Independent of Total Testosterone.

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    Hui Zhu

    Full Text Available The association ns between prediabetes and androgens have been rarely reported, especially in Chinese men. We aimed to investigate whether androgens were associated with the prevalence of prediabetes diagnosed with new American Diabetes Association criteria in Chinese men and then to assess which androgen value was the most relevant factor.A total of 2654 men (52.6±13.4 years old were selected. Serum total testosterone (TT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and free testosterone (FT were measured. Covariance analysis of different androgen values were performed in age subgroups. Multinomial logistic regression was used for the association of TT, SHBG and FT with prediabetes and diabetes, as well as prediabetes in age subgroups.According to ADA new criteria, normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes were diagnosed in 1405, 907 and 342 men, respectively. In covariance analysis, SHBG of prediabetes were found lower than that of normoglycemia but higher than that of diabetes (P <0.05. In multinomial logistic regression, serum TT and SHBG were inversely associated with prediabetes and diabetes. While, after full adjustment for age, residence area, economic status, waist circumference, metabolic factors, other two androgen values and HOMA-IR, only the associations of SHBG with prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes persisted statistically significant, especially in the elderly with prediabetes (all P for trend <0.05.Serum androgen was inversely associated with prediabetes and diabetes in Chinese men. Low serum SHBG was the most relevant factor for prediabetes and diabetes. Whether it is an independent predictor for incident prediabetes in Chinese men needs further explorations.

  5. Effects of long-term testosterone replacement therapy, with a temporary intermission, on glycemic control of nine hypogonadal men with type 1 diabetes mellitus - a series of case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Farid; Yassin, Aksam; Almehmadi, Yousef; Doros, Gheorghe; Gooren, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often associated with obesity and subnormal serum testosterone (T) levels. Until 5 years ago there was no indication that men with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) had subnormal serum T. But recent studies indicate that about 10% of men with T1DM suffer from hypogonadism, as a rule aged men and men with obesity. While hypogonadal men with T2DM benefit from normalization of their serum T, this has not been investigated in men with T1DM. Nine men with T1DM, erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism (total testosterone ≤ 12 nmol/L) received testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). In seven men TRT was intermitted: one man with prostate malignancy and six men because of problems of reimbursement. Incidentally, this provided an opportunity to monitor the effects of withdrawal and of the reinstatement of TRT. In all men, glycemic control (serum glucose and HbA1c), weight, waist circumference, lipid profiles and erectile function improved upon TRT. The seven men whose TRT was intermitted showed a deterioration which improved again upon reinstatement of TRT. The data suggest that aging and obese men with T1DM might have subnormal T levels and that their glycemic control, lipid profiles and erectile function might benefit from TRT.

  6. Changes of Serum Total and Free Testosterone Concentrations in Male Chronic Hemodialysis Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Response to Cinacalcet Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed, among others also in testis. Cinacalcet binds to the CaSR, increases sensitivity of CaSR to serum calcium and is used in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) in chronic hemodialysis patients (HDP). In most of male HDP, serum testosterone concentration is lower than in healthy males. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of six-month treatment with cinacalcet on the serum total and free testosterone concentration in male HDP with sHPT. 38 male, hemodialysed CKD patients with sHPT (PTH>300 pg/ml) were enrolled into the study. In each patient serum PTH, total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) concentrations were assessed before the first dose of cinacalcet and then after 3 and 6 months of treatment. The results are presented as means with 95% confidence interval. In 33 patients who completed the study cinacalcet treatment caused significant decrease of serum PTH from 1143 pg/ml (828 - 1458 pg/ml) at the baseline, to 809 pg/ml (487 - 1132 pg/ml) after 3 month of treatment (p = 0.002), and to 607 pg/ml (281 - 934 pg/ml; p free testosterone concentration in male hemodialysed patients with chronic kidney disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. No effects of n)3 fatty acid supplementation on serum total testosterone levels in older men: the Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Heijboer, A.C.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Kromhout, D.

    2012-01-01

    The intake of the n-3 fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been related to testosterone levels in epidemiological analyses. The aim of this study was to assess whether the n-3 fatty acids affects testosterone levels in post-myocardial infarction (MI)

  8. No effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on serum total testosterone levels in older men: the Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E. J.; Geleijnse, J. M.; Heijboer, A. C.; de Goede, J.; Oude Griep, L. M.; Blankenstein, M. A.; Kromhout, D.

    2012-01-01

    The intake of the n-3 fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been related to testosterone levels in epidemiological analyses. The aim of this study was to assess whether the n-3 fatty acids affects testosterone levels in post-myocardial infarction (MI)

  9. Seasonal and biological variation of blood concentrations of total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, hemoglobin A(1c), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of physiological response variables fluctuate over time. The present study describes within-day and seasonal fluctuations for total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in blood, and estimates within...

  10. Screening for ocular abnormalities and subnormal vision in school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: As in most African countries there is no national preschool or school eye screening service in Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to conduct school eye screening in Butajira town to identify the causes of ocular morbidity and subnormal vision in school children and suggest possible intervention strategies.

  11. Transillumination of iris and subnormal visual acuity--ocular albinism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödell, L; Sjöström, A; Abrahamsson, M

    1996-07-01

    A common clinical sign in children with subnormal visual acuity or slow visual development was iris transillumination. This was used as the inclusion criterion in a study of children shown to have a subnormal visual acuity in a general health examination at age 4 years. Refraction values, stereopsis, fundus photography, macular and nerve head appearance, and visual evoked response (VER) recordings were studied in 18 children. The clinical results were compared with 64 controls referred to the eye clinic because of subnormal vision from the general health examination or from school health care. Eight children had VERs showing asymmetry typical for albinism. Another four had only small asymmetries on the VER, indicating a lower degree of decussation abnormality. No simple correlation of visual acuity, degree of iris transillumination, stereopsis, or macular pathology and VER asymmetries were found. However, marked iris transillumination in all four quadrants, absence of a foveal reflex, and low visual acuity were weakly correlated. In a rather homogeneous group of children with iris transillumination and subnormal visual acuity eight of 18 had typical albino VERs. The findings of small atypical VER asymmetries in four children and no asymmetry in six children suggest that albinism may be considered as a description of a heterogeneous group of conditions including maximal decussation rate (100%) in the chiasma to a condition with almost normal (> or = 50%) decussation rate.

  12. Effects of altrenogest on total scrotal width, seminal characteristics, concentrations of LH and testosterone and sexual behavior of stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, E L; Badzinski, S L; Amann, R P; McCue, P M; Nett, T M

    1997-07-15

    Twenty stallions (3 to 18 yr old) were used in a study between June 1993 and March 1994. The stallions were divided into 5 groups of 4 each, and, within groups, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) untreated controls; 2) once-a-day oral altrenogest (0.088 mg/kg BW) treatment for 150 d; 3) daily altrenogest treatment at the same dose for 240 d; and 4) daily oral altrenogest treatment for 240 d plus subcutaneous GnRH (80 microg) every 4 h from Days 151 to 240. Total scrotal width (TSW) was recorded and semen was collected and evaluated for gel free volume, concentration, sperm motility and sperm morphology. Sexual behavior (libido) was measured as times to first erection and ejaculation. Serum LH and testosterone (T) were measured at various periods throughout the study. Altrenogest decreased serum concentrations of LH and T, TSW, daily spermatozoa output (DSO), the percentage of normal spermatozoa and libido. There was a significant decrease in sperm motility in the Alt-240 and Alt-240+GnRH group, but not the ALT-150 group. The suppression appeared to be partially reversible because DSO, TSW and serum concentrations of LH increased after cessation of progestin treatment. Administration of GnRH during altrenogest treatment resulted in increased (P feedback inhibition of LH secretion.

  13. Seasonal and biological variation of blood concentrations of total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, hemoglobin A(1c), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of physiological response variables fluctuate over time. The present study describes within-day and seasonal fluctuations for total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in blood, and estimates within......- (CV(i)) and between-subject (CV(g)) CVs for healthy women. In addition, the index of individuality, prediction intervals, and power calculations were derived....

  14. Effect of isoflavone-enriched soybean flour, zinc (Zn and vitamin E in the ration on testosterone level and total permatogenic cell in seminiferous tubules of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment are to evaluate the effects of isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour, zinc (Zn and vitamin E on testosterone level of male rats and total spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules of rat testes as animal model. Diet was given as isonitrogen and isocaloric with 15% of dietary protein. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups and treated with isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E in different combination. Isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour (3mg/day was given by oral administration, whereas Zn and vitamin E were mixed wih the basic diet. The treatment was done for 2 month. Results indicated that complete treatment of isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E on male rats increased testosteron level and total spermatogenic cells in comparison with single treatment and the other combination. The best results showed in the group that given isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour with diet containing both Zn and vitamin E i.e; testosteron level 3.49 ± 0.31 ng/ml; while the number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, early spermatids, late spermatids, and total spermatogenic cells were 37.56 ± 4.48, 67 ± 4.72, 287.11 ± 31.75, 227.22 ± 29.78, and 618.89 ± 47.38, respectively. It was concluded that synergic interaction between isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E increased testosteron level and total spermatogenic cells of rat testes.

  15. Testosterone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone topical works by ... clean and completely dry. Open your testosterone topical container. If you are using a packet, fold the ...

  16. Relation of total and free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin with cardiovascular risk factors in men aged 24-45 years. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firtser, Sonja; Juonala, Markus; Magnussen, Costan G; Jula, Antti; Loo, Britt-Marie; Marniemi, Jukka; Viikari, Jorma S A; Toppari, Jorma; Perheentupa, Antti; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T

    2012-05-01

    Total and free testosterone decrease gradually in men with advancing age but it is not completely known how lower levels of testosterone are related with various cardiovascular risk factors. We studied the levels of total testosterone, calculated free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and their relations with cardiovascular risk factors in young Finnish men. The study cohort consisted of 24-45-year-old men participating the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study in the follow-up surveys performed in 2001 (N=1024) and 2007 (N=991). Levels of total testosterone, SHBG, lipids, glucose, insulin, blood pressure and anthropometric factors were measured and free testosterone was calculated. In multivariable analyses adjusted for age, body mass index and life-style factors (alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity), total and calculated free testosterone were inversely correlated with triglycerides (both Ptestosterone and SHBG were associated with higher levels of triglycerides and insulin six years later (all Ptestosterone and SHBG are associated with favourable cardiovascular risk profile characterized by lower levels of triglycerides, insulin and systolic blood pressure, and higher levels of HDL-cholesterol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Validated Age-Related Normative Model for Male Total Testosterone Shows Increasing Variance but No Decline after Age 40 Years: e109346

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas W Kelsey; Lucy Q Li; Rod T Mitchell; Ashley Whelan; Richard A Anderson; W Hamish B Wallace

    2014-01-01

      The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy...

  18. A validated age-related normative model for male total testosterone shows increasing variance but no decline after age 40 years

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Li, Lucy Q; Mitchell, Rod T; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A; Wallace, W Hamish B

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy...

  19. Movement Education and Severely Subnormal Children: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishman, Joan

    1985-01-01

    Discuses three perspectives on literature about children classified as severely subnormal for educational purposes: perceptual motor theories, behavior modification interpretation, and Laban movement. Descriptions of each include investigations, administration, adult participants, observation schedules, teaching processes, and data gathering…

  20. Hormonal male contraception in men with normal and subnormal semen parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieschlag, E; Vorona, E; Wenk, M; Hemker, A.‐K; Kamischke, A; Zitzmann, M

    2011-01-01

    .... As a male contraceptive should be available to all interested men regardless of their semen parameters, we investigated how volunteers with subnormal semen parameters would respond to hormonal male contraception. During a 34...

  1. Effects of continuous long-term testosterone therapy (TTh) on anthropometric, endocrine and metabolic parameters for up to 10 years in 115 hypogonadal elderly men: real-life experience from an observational registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, A A; Nettleship, J; Almehmadi, Y; Salman, M; Saad, F

    2016-09-01

    Subnormal levels of testosterone are associated with significant negative health consequences, with higher risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The numbers of studies reporting on the benefits of normalisation of testosterone is increasing but longer-term data on (elderly) men receiving testosterone treatment are almost nonexistent. In this single-centre, cumulative, prospective, registry study, 115 hypogonadal men (mean age 59.05 years) received injections with testosterone undecanoate in 12-week intervals for up to 10 years. Waist circumference, body weight and mean BMI dropped progressively with statistical significance versus previous year for 7 years and, respectively, 8 years for weight and body mass index. Similarly, fasting glucose displayed a significant decrease after the first year continuing to decrease thereafter. A decline in HbA1c , from 6.4% to 5.6% (mean <6%), was observed from year 2 on, together with a decrease in the ratio of triglycerides:high-density lipoprotein (HDL), a surrogate marker of insulin resistance, with an increase in HDL levels. The total cholesterol:HDL ratio and non-HDL cholesterol declined significantly. A decrease was also observed in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, with a decrease in levels of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein. No major adverse cardiovascular events were observed throughout the study. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Total and free testosterone concentrations are strongly influenced by age and central obesity in men with type 1 and type 2 diabetes but correlate weakly with symptoms of androgen deficiency and diabetes-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Mousumi; Hampton, David; Newcombe, Robert G; Rees, D Aled

    2012-05-01

    Testosterone levels are commonly lowered in men with diabetes, but it is unclear how these relate to symptoms of hypogonadism and quality of life. We sought to investigate the relationship between testosterone levels, symptoms of androgen deficiency, erectile function and quality of life in men with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional study of 115 men with type 2 diabetes, 93 men with type 1 diabetes and 121 healthy controls. Total, bioavailable and free testosterone levels were measured or calculated by Vermuelen's formula. Quality of life and symptom scores were assessed by the Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL), androgen deficiency in the aging male (ADAM) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires. Forty-five and sixty-one per cent of men with type 2 diabetes had low total and calculated free testosterone (CFT) levels, respectively. Total testosterone (TT) levels were not lowered in men with type 1 diabetes, but 32% had low CFT. After adjustment for age and waist circumference, only CFT in men with type 2 diabetes (-0·037 nm, 95% CI -0·075 to -0·0003, P = 0.048) remained lowered compared with controls. CFT correlated weakly with ADAM (r = -0·26, 95% CI -0.42 to -0·08, P = 0·006), IIEF (r = 0.19, 95% CI 0.01-0.37, P = 0.042) and ADDQoL (r = 0.21, 95% CI 0·03 to 0·38, P = 0·022) scores in men with type 2, but not type 1 diabetes. Age exerted the predominant effect on erectile function in both groups, in a model incorporating age, testosterone level and complications. Testosterone levels are strongly affected by age and central obesity in men with type 1 and type 2 diabetes but correlate weakly with symptoms of androgen deficiency and erectile function. Testosterone levels do not appear to be a major determinant of quality of life in patients with diabetes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Kinetics of removal of intravenous testosterone pulses in normal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Johannes D; Keenan, Daniel M; Liu, Peter Y; Takahashi, Paul Y

    2010-04-01

    Testosterone is secreted into the bloodstream episodically, putatively distributing into total, bioavailable (bio) nonsex hormone-binding globulin (nonSHBG-bound), and free testosterone moieties. The kinetics of total, bio, and free testosterone pulses are unknown. Design Adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis was blocked pharmacologically, glucocorticoid was replaced, and testosterone was infused in pulses in four distinct doses in 14 healthy men under two different paradigms (a total of 220 testosterone pulses). Testosterone kinetics were assessed by deconvolution analysis of total, free, bioavailable, SHBG-bound, and albumin-bound testosterone concentration-time profiles. Independently of testosterone dose or paradigm, rapid-phase half-lives (min) of total, free, bioavailable, SHBG-bound, and albumin-bound testosterone were comparable at 1.4+/-0.22 min (grand mean+/-S.E.M. of geometric means). Slow-phase testosterone half-lives were highest for SHBG-bound testosterone (32 min) and total testosterone (27 min) with the former exceeding that of free testosterone (18 min), bioavailable testosterone (14 min), and albumin-bound testosterone (18 min; Pmimicry of physiological pulses, and deconvolution analysis may have utility in estimating the in vivo kinetics of other hormones, substrates, and metabolites.

  4. Reference ranges of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione, total and free testosterone determined by TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS and associations to health markers in 304 men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.S.; Johannsen, T H; Holmboe, Stine Agergaard

    2016-01-01

    We report reference ranges based on LC-MS/MS for testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT) and its precursors, i.e. 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA-sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (Adione), in relation to different health markers and lifestyle factors...... of health markers in healthy men provides age-related reference ranges, and furthermore evaluates the impact of lifestyle factors and metabolic syndrome on androgen metabolite levels....

  5. Serum variations of anti-mullerian hormone and total testosterone with aging in healthy adult Iranian men: A population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available Literature proves anti-mullerian hormone (AMH and total testosterone (TT as two important reproductive hormones in male development, however evidence regarding age variations of these hormones is lacking.To estimate the normal serum AMH values and to assess the age-specific TT levels in men aged 30-70, we conducted the present population-based study.A total of 831 healthy eligible men, aged 30-70 years, were recruited from Tehran Lipid and Glucose study cohort. Centiles for AMH were estimated according to the exponential normal 3-parameter model. The parametric method of Royston available in general software was applied for the first time to estimate the age-specific AMH and TT percentiles of 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th.Mean AMH level was 6.93, ranging from 0.1 to 40.1 ng/ml. Serum AMH concentrations followed a steady reduction with increasing age. Mean TT level was 4.8, ranging from 0.44 to 11.4 ng/ml.A measurable serum concentrations of AMH in healthy males throughout lifespan with variations, based on age, confirming a slight age-related AMH decline. Fractional polynomial (FP regression models revealed that the mean and standard deviation (SD of the TT were not associated with age, so the percentiles estimated were not age-specific.We presented a nomogram of age-specific AMH values in a healthy cohort of Iranian men. This finding might have clinical importance in dealing hormonal disorders in men.

  6. Serum variations of anti-mullerian hormone and total testosterone with aging in healthy adult Iranian men: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Solaymani-Dodaran, Masoud; Minooee, Sonia; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-01-01

    Literature proves anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and total testosterone (TT) as two important reproductive hormones in male development, however evidence regarding age variations of these hormones is lacking. To estimate the normal serum AMH values and to assess the age-specific TT levels in men aged 30-70, we conducted the present population-based study. A total of 831 healthy eligible men, aged 30-70 years, were recruited from Tehran Lipid and Glucose study cohort. Centiles for AMH were estimated according to the exponential normal 3-parameter model. The parametric method of Royston available in general software was applied for the first time to estimate the age-specific AMH and TT percentiles of 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th. Mean AMH level was 6.93, ranging from 0.1 to 40.1 ng/ml. Serum AMH concentrations followed a steady reduction with increasing age. Mean TT level was 4.8, ranging from 0.44 to 11.4 ng/ml. A measurable serum concentrations of AMH in healthy males throughout lifespan with variations, based on age, confirming a slight age-related AMH decline. Fractional polynomial (FP) regression models revealed that the mean and standard deviation (SD) of the TT were not associated with age, so the percentiles estimated were not age-specific. We presented a nomogram of age-specific AMH values in a healthy cohort of Iranian men. This finding might have clinical importance in dealing hormonal disorders in men.

  7. Testosterone in women-the clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Susan R; Jacobsen, Sarah Wåhlin

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is an essential hormone for women, with physiological actions mediated directly or via aromatisation to oestradiol throughout the body. Despite the crucial role of testosterone and the high circulating concentrations of this hormone relative to oestradiol in women, studies of its...... action and the effects of testosterone deficiency and replacement in women are scarce. The primary indication for the prescription of testosterone for women is loss of sexual desire, which causes affected women substantial concern. That no formulation has been approved for this purpose has not impeded...... the widespread use of testosterone by women-either off-label or as compounded therapy. Observational studies indicate that testosterone has favourable cardiovascular effects measured by surrogate outcomes; however, associations between endogenous testosterone and the risk of cardiovascular disease and total...

  8. Improvement of the diabetic foot upon testosterone administration to hypogonadal men with peripheral arterial disease. Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemlyanoy Alexandr

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower extremity complications (neuropathy, ulceration, infection, and peripheral arterial disease are common in diabetes mellitus. There is an inverse relation between plasma testosterone and insulin sensitivity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and HbA1c concentrations. Methods We report the beneficial effects of administration of testosterone to three men with a diabetic foot whose serum testosterone was subnormal. Results Upon normalization of serum testosterone there was an improvement of hyperglycemia, a decrease of leukocytes and of fibrinogen levels, an increase of antithrombin III activity and of tissue oxygen pressure. The wound showed granulation. Conclusion Beneficial effects of administration of testosterone to hypogonadal with a diabetic foot may be due to improved vascularization and to anti-inflammatory action.

  9. Continuous weakly cancellative triangular subnorms: I. Their web-geometric properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrík, Milan; Sarkoci, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 332, 1 February (2018), s. 93-110 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-07724Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : associativity * conditionally cancellative * continuous triangular subnorm * contour * level set * Reidemeister closure condition * weakly cancellative * web geometry Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016

  10. Cardiac adaptation to pregnancy in women with a history of preeclampsia and a subnormal plasma volume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrietti, S.; Kruse, A.J.; Bekkers, S.C.; Sep, S.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Peeters, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    In former preeclamptics, a subnormal plasma volume (LPV) predisposes to hemodynamic maladaptation to pregnancy. Here, we assessed the initial cardiovascular response to pregnancy in LPV (n = 20), in former preeclamptics with normal plasma volume (NPV) (n = 35) and in parous controls (CONTR) (n = 9)

  11. The influence of a transverse magnetic field on a subnormal glow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In subnormal glow discharge under d.c. excitation at different pressure in a varying transverse magnetic field (0 to 30 G) some measurements have been carried out for various initial average tube currents. The voltage across the discharge increases and average tube current and residual current decreases in the ...

  12. Testosterone Therapy: Review of Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Ryan C; Brooks, Nathan A

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone therapy is increasingly common in the United States, and many of these prescriptions are written by primary care physicians. There is conflicting evidence on the benefit of male testosterone therapy for age-related declines in testosterone. Physicians should not measure testosterone levels unless a patient has signs and symptoms of hypogonadism, such as loss of body hair, sexual dysfunction, hot flashes, or gynecomastia. Depressed mood, fatigue, decreased strength, and a decreased sense of vitality are less specific to male hypogonadism. Testosterone therapy should be initiated only after two morning total serum testosterone measurements show decreased levels, and all patients should be counseled on the potential risks and benefits before starting therapy. Potential benefits of therapy include increased libido, improved sexual function, improved mood and well-being, and increased muscle mass and bone density; however, there is little or mixed evidence confirming clinically significant benefits. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration warns that testosterone therapy may increase the risk of cardiovascular complications. Other possible risks include rising prostate-specific antigen levels, worsening lower urinary tract symptoms, polycythemia, and increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Patients receiving testosterone therapy should be monitored to ensure testosterone levels rise appropriately, clinical improvement occurs, and no complications develop. Testosterone therapy may also be used to treat hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women and to produce physical male sex characteristics in female-to-male transgender patients.

  13. Total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF) biosensor for environmental monitoring of testosterone with commercially available immunochemistry: antibody characterization, assay development and real sample measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschmelak, Jens; Kumpf, Michael; Käppel, Nina; Proll, Guenther; Gauglitz, Guenter

    2006-04-15

    Nowadays, little technology exists that can monitor various water sources quickly and at a reasonable cost. The ultra-sensitive, fully automated and robust biosensor River Analyser (RIANA) is capable of detecting multiple organic targets rapidly and simultaneously at a heterogeneous assay format (solid phase: bulk optical glass transducers). Commercialization of such a biosensor requires the availability of commercial high-affinity recognition elements (e.g. antibodies) and suitable commercial haptens (modified target molecules) for surface chemistry. Therfore, testosterone was chosen as model analyte, which is also a task of common analytical methods like gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), because they have to struggle with detecting sub-nanogram per liter levels in environmental samples. The reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) was used to characterize the commercially available immunochemistry resulting in a high-affinity constant of 2.6+/-0.3 x 10(9)mol(-1) for the unlabeled antibody. After the labeling procedure, necessary for the TIRF-based biosensor, a mean affinity constant of 1.2 x 10(9)mol(-1) was calculated out of RIfS (1.4+/-0.4 x 10(9)mol(-1)) and TIRF (1.0+/-0.3 x 10(9)mol(-1)) measurements. Thereafter, the TIRF-based biosensor setup was used to determine the steroidal hormone testosterone at real world samples without sample pre-treatment or sample pre-concentration. Results are shown for rapid and ultra-sensitive analyses of testosterone in aqueous samples with at a remarkable limit of detection (LOD) of 0.2 ng L(-1). All real world samples, even those containing testosterone in the sub-nanogram per liter range (e.g. 0.9 ng L(-1)), could be determined with recovery rates between 70 and 120%. Therefore, the sensor system is perfectly suited to serve as a low-cost system for surveillance and early warning in environmental analysis in addition to the common analytical methods. For the first time, commercially available

  14. Effect of very low birth weight and subnormal head size on cognitive abilities at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, M; Breslau, N; Weissman, B; Aram, D; Klein, N; Borawski, E

    1991-07-25

    We tested the hypothesis that very-low-birth-weight (less than 1.5 kg) infants with perinatal growth failure whose head size is not normal by eight months of age (corrected for prematurity) have significantly poorer growth and neurocognitive abilities at school age than very-low-birth-weight children with a normal head size at eight months. We also hypothesized that these differences would persist even after control for major neurologic impairment and perinatal and sociodemographic risk factors. We have followed a cohort of very-low-birth-weight children since their birth during the period 1977 to 1979. At eight to nine years of age 249 children were evaluated with a neurologic examination and tests of intelligence; receptive and expressive language skills; speech, reading, mathematics, and spelling aptitude; visual and fine motor abilities; and behavior. Ages were corrected for premature birth. Among these 249 very-low-birth-weight children, head size was subnormal (less than the mean -2 SD for age) at birth in 30 (12 percent), at term in 57 (23 percent), and at eight months in 33 (13 percent). As compared with the 216 children with normal head sizes, the 33 children with subnormal head sizes at the age of eight months had significantly lower mean birth weights (1.1 vs. 1.2 kg) and higher neonatal risk scores (71 vs. 53) and at the age of eight years had a higher incidence of neurologic impairment (21 percent vs. 8 percent) and lower IQ scores (mean verbal, 84 vs. 98). Even among the children without neurologic abnormalities, a subnormal head size at eight months of age was predictive of poorer verbal and performance IQ scores at eight years of age; lower scores for receptive language, speech, reading, mathematics, and spelling; and a higher incidence of hyperactivity. In multiple regression analyses to control for socioeconomic and neonatal risk factors, intrauterine growth failure, birth weight, and neurologic impairment, a subnormal head size at eight months of

  15. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6......-month testosterone therapy did not improve insulin sensitivity. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on regional body fat distribution and on the levels of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. DESIGN: A randomized......, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 6-month testosterone treatment (gel) in 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. METHODS: Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT...

  16. Comparison of testosterone fractions between Framingham Heart Study participants and Japanese participants

    OpenAIRE

    Taya, Masaki; Koh, Eitetsu; Izumi, Kouji; Iijima, Masashi; Maeda, Yuji; Matsushita, Tomohiko; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Namiki, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine testosterone fractions in Japanese men and to compare these values with those of Framingham Heart Study participants. Methods: We enrolled 498 healthy Japanese men. Total testosterone was assayed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, sex hormone-binding globulin was assayed by immunoassay and free testosterone was calculated by a laboratory at the Boston Medical Center. Analog-based free testosterone and immunoassay-based total testosterone were determine...

  17. Blood Test: Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Voice in Health Care Decisions Blood Test: Testosterone KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Testosterone Print A A A What's in this article? ... Análisis de sangre: testosterona What It Is A testosterone test measures the blood level of the male ...

  18. Reference ranges of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione, total and free testosterone determined by TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS and associations to health markers in 304 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard-Olesen, A; Johannsen, T H; Holmboe, S A; Søeborg, T; Petersen, J H; Andersson, Am; Aadahl, M; Linneberg, A; Juul, A

    2016-02-15

    We report reference ranges based on LC-MS/MS for testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT) and its precursors, i.e. 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA-sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (Adione), in relation to different health markers and lifestyle factors. The study was based on 304 healthy men aged 30-61 years participating in a population-based cross-sectional study (Health2008). Examination program consisted of a clinical examination, completion of a self-administered questionnaire and blood sampling. Steroid metabolites were measured by a validated and sensitive LC-MS/MS method. Older age-groups were significantly associated with decreased concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, Adione, and FT, while no significant associations with age were shown for 17-OHP or T. Participants with BMI≥30 kg/m(2) had lower age-related steroid metabolite z-scores compared to participants with BMI<30 kg/m(2), i.e. 17-OHP: -0.51 vs. 0.08 (p<0.001); DHEA: -0.27 vs. 0.09 (p=0.014); Adione: -0.29 vs. 0.09 (p=0.012); T: -0.99 vs. 0.14 (p<0.001); and FT -0.55 vs. 0.05 (p<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, this large study on serum steroid metabolites and concomitant assessment of health markers in healthy men provides age-related reference ranges, and furthermore evaluates the impact of lifestyle factors and metabolic syndrome on androgen metabolite levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Testosterone deficiency, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Miró, Mercè; Chillarón, Juan J; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2016-01-15

    Testosterone deficiency in adult age is associated with a decrease in libido, energy, hematocrit, muscle mass and bone mineral density, as well as with depression. More recently, testosterone deficiency has also been associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome, which in turn is associated with a five-fold increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Low testosterone levels are associated with increased insulin resistance, increase in fat mass, low HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride levels and hypertension. Testosterone replacement therapy in patients with testosterone deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome has shown reductions in insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and improvement in glycemic control and anthropometric parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Marital sex frequency and midcycle female testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, N M; Udry, J R; Khan-Dawood, F; Dawood, M Y

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to attempt to replicate a finding of Persky et al. (1978) that midcycle peak values of testosterone (T) in women predicted differences in frequency of intercourse among married couples. Luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TT), and free testosterone (FT) values from 10 to 14 daily midcycle blood samples donated by 43 volunteering wives were analyzed against sexual activity patterns reported by the couples over a longer period of time. All couples were contracepting by means other than exogenous hormones or the rhythm method. Each morning through three menstrual cycles husbands and wives recorded independently and on separate forms answers to a series of questions concerning sexual activity in the previous 24 hr. Wives also recorded basal body temperatures (BBT). We designated midcycle values of TT and FT according to several definitions of midcycle. Total testosterone levels at the day of the BBT nadir and the day before the nadir correlated significantly with average intercourse frequency. Correlations with FT were statistically significant regardless of which midcycle measure was used; the day before the BBT nadir gave the highest correlation, 0.618, p = 0.01. Mean testosterone (TT or FT) values were not significantly related. We conclude that female midcycle total testosterone or free testosterone is indexing some unobserved event that affects the frequency of intercourse of couples. We speculate that this event affects the motivation of females, which influences the set point of the compromise frequency characteristic of couples.

  1. Low Testosterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Stine Agergaard; Jensen, Tina Kold; Linneberg, Allan René

    2016-01-01

    Context: Low serum T levels have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unresolved whether low T is a risk factor or rather a risk marker for these conditions. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate serum levels of total T, SHBG, fr...

  2. Comparison of the Values of Free Testosterone with Free Androgen Index

    OpenAIRE

    1, Mehmet TOSUN; 2, Emin Savaş KILAVIZ; 3, Ahmet Rıza URAS

    2015-01-01

    Background: Testosterone is primarily responsible for the development of male primary and secondary sex characters. However, like many biochemical parameters, biologically active portion of testosterone is the free one. Free androgen index is the ratio of the total testosterone to sex hormone-binding globulin. In this study, we aimed to investigate possibility of using free androgen index instead of the free testosterone when the free testosterone can not be measured routine laboratory. Mater...

  3. Free and total testosterone levels in field males of Octodon degus (Rodentia, Octodontidae: accuracy of the hormonal regulation of behavior Niveles de testosterona libre y totales en machos silvestres de Octodon degus (Rodentia, Octodontidae: exactitud de la regulación hormonal del comportamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO SOTO- GAMBOA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Animals exhibit continuous seasonal changes in physiological, morphological and behavioral traits associated to their natural annual cycles. One of the most important changes in the organism occurs at the initiation of breeding season. In males these changes include activation of spermatogenesis, enhance of sexual secondary characters and an increase of aggressiveness. All of theses changes are basically regulated by testosterone, but the physiological basis of this testosterone regulation and the effective hormone proportion that acts in target tissues are unknown. In this work I evaluated the relationship between total testosterone, free testosterone associated to aggressive behavior in wild males of Octodon degus. I compared hormonal levels and aggressive behavior during pre, middle and post breeding periods. Results showed that behavioral aggressiveness was correlated with both total and free testosterone in June, during the beginning of breeding season, but not at other times. Results also indicated a lack of relationship between free and total testosterone in most of breeding period. I discuss the importance of this behavior-hormonal regulation (determined by free testosterone and the physiological importance of this mechanism to the organismLos animales presentan variaciones estacionales continuas que incluyen cambios fisiológicos, morfológicos y conductuales, asociados al ciclo anual. Estos cambios generalmente están activados por factores endógenos o exógenos, pero son regulados por el sistema endocrino de organismo. Uno de los cambios más importantes ocurre en el inicio del periodo reproductivo. Durante este periodo los machos presentan cambios asociados a la producción de esperatozoides, exacerbación de caracteres sexuales secundarios y un aumento de la agresividad. Todos estos cambios son regulados en parte por los niveles de testosterona, sin embargo, los mecanismos fisiológicos de esta regulación son desconocidos. En este

  4. Vitamin B-12 supplementation improves arterial function in vegetarians with subnormal vitamin B-12 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, T; Chook, P; Qiao, M; Tam, L; Poon, Y K P; Ahuja, A T; Woo, J; Celermajer, D S; Woo, K S

    2012-01-01

    Vegetarians are more vascular-healthy but those with subnormal vitamin B-12 status have impaired arterial endothelial function and increased intima-media thickness. We aimed to study the impact of vitamin B-12 supplementation on these markers, in the vegetarians. Double-blind, placebo controlled, randomised crossover study. Community dwelling vegetarians. Fifty healthy vegetarians (vegetarian diet for at least 6 years) were recruited. Vitamin B-12 (500 µg/day) or identical placebo were given for 12 weeks with 10 weeks of placebo-washout before crossover (n=43), and then open label vitamin B-12 for additional 24 weeks (n=41). Flow-mediated dilation of brachial artery (FMD) and intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery were measured by ultrasound. The mean age of the subjects was 45±9 years and 22 (44%) were male. Thirty-five subjects (70%) had serum B-12 levels vegetarians with subnormal vitamin B-12 levels, proposing a novel strategy for atherosclerosis prevention.

  5. Use of parenteral testosterone in hypospadias cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Satav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the effect of parenteral testosterone on penile length, preputial hood, vascularity of dartos pedicle in patients with hypospadias. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 patients with hypospadias were included in this study. Injection aquaviron (oily solution each ml containing testosterone propionate 25 mg was given deep intramuscularly in three doses with an interval of 3 weeks before reconstructive surgery at the dose of 2 mg/kg body weight. Preoperatively penile length, transverse preputial width and diameter at the base of the penis were measured. Basal testosterone levels were obtained before the institution of therapy and on the day of operation. Results: Following parenteral testosterone administration, the mean increase in penile length, transverse preputial width and diameter at the base of penis was 1.01 ± 0.25 cm (P < 0.001, 1.250 ± 0.52 cm and 0.61 ± 0.35 cm, respectively, (P < 0.001. Serum testosterone level after injection was well within normal range for that age. Conclusion: Parenteral testosterone increased phallus size, diameter and prepuce hypertrophy without any adverse effects. However, due to lack of a control group we cannot make any inferences. Controlled studies are required to establish the benefits of parenteral testosterone.

  6. Comparison of testosterone fractions between Framingham Heart Study participants and Japanese participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, Masaki; Koh, Eitetsu; Izumi, Kouji; Iijima, Masashi; Maeda, Yuji; Matsushita, Tomohiko; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Namiki, Mikio

    2014-07-01

    To determine testosterone fractions in Japanese men and to compare these values with those of Framingham Heart Study participants. We enrolled 498 healthy Japanese men. Total testosterone was assayed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, sex hormone-binding globulin was assayed by immunoassay and free testosterone was calculated by a laboratory at the Boston Medical Center. Analog-based free testosterone and immunoassay-based total testosterone were determined by immunoassay. We compared mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone and calculated free testosterone values in the Japanese participants with values in the American Framingham Heart Study third generation cohort. The mean serum mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and calculated free testosterone values were 439.4 ± 167 ng/dL, 65.34 ± 30.61 nmol/L, and 58.75 ± 20.0 pg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficients with age for mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and calculated free testosterone were 0.0010, 0.5041, and -0.496, respectively. There were no age-related changes in mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone values in healthy men (P = 0.981), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin and calculated free testosterone levels showed similar age-related changes (P free testosterone levels (8.24 ± 2.9 pg/mL) showed age-related changes (P testosterone levels (P = 0.828). Serum immunoassay-based total testosterone values (486.1 ± 162.5 ng/dL) correlated with serum mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone values (r = 0.740, 95% confidence interval 0.6965-0.7781, P free testosterone and calculated free testosterone values showed a highly significant correlation (r = 0.706, 95% confidence interval 0.6587-0.7473, P free testosterone values were approximately 10% of the calculated free testosterone values. In contrast to the Framingham

  7. Fatores ambientais associados à diarréia infantil em áreas de assentamento subnormal em Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais Childhood diarrhea-related to environmental factors in subnormal settlements in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Teixeira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar a prevalência de diarréia e identificar os fatores associados à essa doença em crianças residentes em áreas de assentamento subnormal. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se um delineamento transversal de base populacional. A amostra estudada totalizou 655 crianças. A coleta de dados foi feita mediante entrevistas domiciliares com a mãe ou com o responsável pela criança. Foram usados modelos de regressão logística para identificar fatores associados à diarréia. RESULTADOS: a prevalência da diarréia foi 17,5%. Os fatores associados à doença incluíram internação da criança no primeiro mês de vida; ser cuidado por terceiros, que não a mãe; maior nível de escolaridade do responsável; e maior tempo de residência, como fatores de proteção. Como fatores de risco individuais, a existência de outra doença; e baixa idade. Como fatores de risco coletivos, o consumo de água de mina; a disposição dos esgotos na rua ou no terreno; o acondicionamento inadequado do lixo; e presença de moscas. CONCLUSÕES: para o combate à diarréia sugere-se atenção especial à saúde e à alimentação de crianças com idade abaixo de cinco anos, incluindo adequadas cobertura e qualidade nos serviços de saneamento ambiental.OBJECTIVES: to determine diarrhea prevalence and to identify factors associated to the condition in children living in subnormal settlement areas. METHODS: a cross-sectional population-based study was used. The sample studied totaled 655 children. Data collection was performed through home interviews with the mother or caretaker. Logistic regression models were used to identify diarrhea associated factors. RESULTS: diarrhea prevalence was of 17.5%. Condition associated factors included child hospitalization during the first month of life; children looked after by others and not the mother; higher education level of the caretaker and longer residency period, as protection factors and as individual risk factors

  8. The preoperative serum ratio of total prostate specific antigen (PSA to free testosterone (FT, PSA/FT index ratio, and prostate cancer. Results in 220 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Porcaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate associations of preoperative total prostate specific antigen (PSA to free testosterone (FT, the PSA/FT index ratio, with features of pathology prostate cancer (PCA and to investigate its prognostic potential in clustering the PCA population. Patients and methods: After excluding criteria, the records of 220 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP were retrospectively reviewed. Serum samples of PSA, total testosterone (TT and FT were collected at 8.00 A.M., one month after biopsies and before RP. The PSA/FT ratio was computed in the population of patients who were clustered in groups according to ranking intervals of the PSA/FT ratio which identified at least 4 clusters which were coded as A, B, C, and D. The independent associations of the PSA/FT index ratio were assessed by statistical methods and a two-sided P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: TT correlated to FT which was a significant predictor of PSA in the population of patients who were subsequently clustered, according to increasing interval values of the PSA/FT index ratio, in groups that showed a stronger linear association of FT with PSA. The PSA/FT index ratio significantly associated with pathology features of prostate cancer such as pathology Gleason score (pGS, invasion of the seminal vesicles (pT3b, proportion of positive cores (P+ and proportion of cancer involving the volume of the prostate. In the population of patients, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ independently associated with pGS ≥ 7 and pT3b; moreover, the odds ratio (OR of the PSA/FT index ratio resulted 9.11 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.11 and P+ (OR = 8.84. In the PCA population, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ also independently associated with pT3b PCA; interestingly, the OR of PSA/FT index resulted 54.91 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.31 and P+ (26.43. Conclusions: Preoperative PSA/FT index ratio is an independent strong factor which

  9. The preoperative serum ratio of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), PSA/FT index ratio, and prostate cancer. Results in 220 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcaro, Antonio B; Caruso, Beatrice; Terrin, Alessandro; De Luyk, Nicolò; Cacciamani, Giovanni; Corsi, Paolo; Inverardi, Davide; De Marchi, Davide; Baldassarre, Roberto; Cerruto, Mariangela; Ghimenton, Claudio; Brunelli, Matteo; Zecchini Antoniolli, Stefano; Petrozziello, Aldo; Artibani, Walter

    2016-03-31

    To evaluate associations of preoperative total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), the PSA/FT index ratio, with features of pathology prostate cancer (PCA) and to investigate its prognostic potential in clustering the PCA population. After excluding criteria, the records of 220 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) were retrospectively reviewed. Serum samples of PSA, total testosterone (TT) and FT were collected at 8.00 A.M., one month after biopsies and before RP. The PSA/FT ratio was computed in the population of patients who were clustered in groups according to ranking intervals of the PSA/FT ratio which identified at least 4 clusters which were coded as A, B, C, and D. The independent associations of the PSA/FT index ratio were assessed by statistical methods and a two-sided P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. TT correlated to FT which was a significant predictor of PSA in the population of patients who were subsequently clustered, according to increasing interval values of the PSA/FT index ratio, in groups that showed a stronger linear association of FT with PSA. The PSA/FT index ratio significantly associated with pathology features of prostate cancer such as pathology Gleason score (pGS), invasion of the seminal vesicles (pT3b), proportion of positive cores (P+) and proportion of cancer involving the volume of the prostate. In the population of patients, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ independently associated with pGS ≥ 7 and pT3b; moreover, the odds ratio (OR) of the PSA/FT index ratio resulted 9.11 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.11) and P+ (OR = 8.84). In the PCA population, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ also independently associated with pT3b PCA; interestingly, the OR of PSA/FT index resulted 54.91 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.31) and P+ (26.43). Preoperative PSA/FT index ratio is an independent strong factor which directly associates with aggressive features of pathology PCA

  10. Diagnosis and management of testosterone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, James A; Carson, Culley C; Coward, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) use has dramatically increased over the past decade, due to the availability of newer agents, aggressive marketing, and an increasing incidence of testosterone deficiency (TD). Despite the increase in TST, a degree of ambiguity remains as to the exact diagnostic criteria of TD, and administration and monitoring of TST. One explanation for this phenomenon is the complex role testosterone plays in multiple physiologic pathways. Numerous medical co-morbidities and medications can alter testosterone levels resulting in a wide range of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms of TD. The diagnosis is also challenging due to the lack of a definitive serum total testosterone level that reliably correlates with symptoms. This observation is particularly true in the aging male and is exacerbated by inconsistencies between different laboratory assays. Several prominent medical societies have developed guideline statements to clarify the diagnosis, but they differ from each other and with expert opinion in several ways. Aside from diagnostic dilemmas, there are numerous subtle advantages and disadvantages of the various testosterone agents to appreciate. The available TST agents have changed significantly over the past decade similar to the trends in the diagnosis of TD. Therefore, as the usage of TST increases, clinicians will be challenged to maintain an up-to-date understanding of TD and TST. The purpose of this review is to provide a clear description of the current strategies for diagnosis and management of TD. PMID:25532575

  11. Effect of Testosterone on Hepcidin, Ferroportin, Ferritin and Iron Binding Capacity in Patients with Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DHINDSA, SANDEEP; GHANIM, HUSAM; BATRA, MANAV; KUHADIYA, NITESH D.; ABUAYSHEH, SANAA; GREEN, KELLY; MAKDISSI, ANTOINE; CHAUDHURI, AJAY; DANDONA, PARESH

    2016-01-01

    Context Since the syndrome of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is associated with anemia and the administration of testosterone restores hematocrit to normal, we investigated the potential underlying mechanisms. Design Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial Methods We measured basal serum concentrations of erythropoietin, iron, iron binding capacity, transferrin (saturated and unsaturated), ferritin and hepcidin and the expression of ferroportin and transferrin receptor (TR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) of 94 men with type 2 diabetes. 44 men had HH (defined as subnormal free testosterone along with low or normal LH concentrations) while 50 were eugonadal. Men with HH were randomized to testosterone or placebo treatment every 2 weeks for 15 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 3 and 15 weeks after starting treatment. 20 men in testosterone group and 14 men in placebo group completed the study. Results Hematocrit levels were lower in men with HH (41.1±3.9% vs. 43.8±3.4%, p=0.001). There were no differences in plasma concentrations of hepcidin, ferritin, erythropoietin, transferrin or iron, or in the expression of ferroportin or TR in MNC among HH and eugonadal men. Hematocrit increased to 45.3±4.5%, hepcidin decreased by 28±7% and erythropoietin increased by 21±7% after testosterone therapy (ptestosterone therapy. Conclusions The increase in hematocrit following testosterone therapy is associated with an increase in erythropoietin, the suppression of hepcidin, and an increase in the expression of ferroportin and transferrin receptor. PMID:27292585

  12. Testosterone Trajectories and Reference Ranges in a Large Longitudinal Sample of Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairullah, Ammar; Cousino Klein, Laura; Ingle, Suzanne M.; May, Margaret T.; Whetzel, Courtney A.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Paus, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pubertal dynamics plays an important role in physical and psychological development of children and adolescents. We aim to provide reference ranges of plasma testosterone in a large longitudinal sample. Furthermore, we describe a measure of testosterone trajectories during adolescence that can be used in future investigations of development. Methods We carried out longitudinal measurements of plasma testosterone in 2,216 samples obtained from 513 males (9 to 17 years of age) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We used integration of a model fitted to each participant’s testosterone trajectory to calculate a measure of average exposure to testosterone over adolescence. We pooled these data with corresponding values reported in the literature to provide a reference range of testosterone levels in males between the ages of 6 and 19 years. Results The average values of total testosterone in the ALSPAC sample range from 0.82 nmol/L (Standard Deviation [SD]: 0.09) at 9 years of age to 16.5 (SD: 2.65) nmol/L at 17 years of age; these values are congruent with other reports in the literature. The average exposure to testosterone is associated with different features of testosterone trajectories such as Peak Testosterone Change, Age at Peak Testosterone Change, and Testosterone at 17 years of age as well as the timing of the growth spurt during puberty. Conclusions The average exposure to testosterone is a useful measure for future investigations using testosterone trajectories to examine pubertal dynamics. PMID:25268961

  13. Lipophagy Contributes to Testosterone Biosynthesis in Male Rat Leydig Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Yin-Ci; Wang, Si-Qi; Ping, Ping; Chen, Xiang-Feng

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, autophagy was found to regulate lipid metabolism through a process termed lipophagy. Lipophagy modulates the degradation of cholesteryl esters to free cholesterol (FC), which is the substrate of testosterone biosynthesis. However, the role of lipophagy in testosterone production is unknown. To investigate this, primary rat Leydig cells and varicocele rat models were administered to inhibit or promote autophagy, and testosterone, lipid droplets (LDs), total cholesterol (TC), and FC were evaluated. The results demonstrated that inhibiting autophagy in primary rat Leydig cells reduced testosterone production. Further studies demonstrated that inhibiting autophagy increased the number and size of LDs and the level of TC, but decreased the level of FC. Furthermore, hypoxia promoted autophagy in Leydig cells. We found that short-term hypoxia stimulated testosterone secretion; however, the inhibition of autophagy abolished stimulated testosterone release. Hypoxia decreased the number and size of LDs in Leydig cells, but the changes could be largely rescued by blocking autophagy. In experimental varicocele rat models, the administration of autophagy inhibitors substantially reduced serum testosterone. These data demonstrate that autophagy contributes to testosterone biosynthesis at least partially through degrading intracellular LDs/TC. Our observations might reveal an autophagic regulatory mode regarding testosterone biosynthesis. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  14. Testosterone and BMD in Elite Male Lightweight Rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A.; Christiansen, E.; Ekdahl, C.

    2008-01-01

    ), free testosterone (IFT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and additional parameters related to bone metabolism were measured. Plasma concentrations of TT, FT and DHT were in the lower part of the normal range, while BMD was close to or above normal. BMD of total body......The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a relationship between BMD and testosterone levels could be identified in elite male lightweight rowers. Thirteen male lightweight national team rowers had their BMD measured in a DEXA scanner. Plasma concentrations of total testosterone (TT...... a significant correlation between L2-L4 BMD and TT (r(s): 0.61, p testosterone levels and years of training in elite male lightweight rowers. The relatively high BMD and low testosterone levels indicate that the mechanical loading induced by rowing is more important...

  15. Testosterone and BMD in elite male lightweight rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A; Kanstrup, I-L; Christiansen, E

    2008-01-01

    ), free testosterone (FT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and additional parameters related to bone metabolism were measured. Plasma concentrations of TT, FT and DHT were in the lower part of the normal range, while BMD was close to or above normal. BMD of total body......The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a relationship between BMD and testosterone levels could be identified in elite male lightweight rowers. Thirteen male lightweight national team rowers had their BMD measured in a DEXA scanner. Plasma concentrations of total testosterone (TT...... a significant correlation between L2 - L4 BMD and TT (r (s): 0.61, p testosterone levels and years of training in elite male lightweight rowers. The relatively high BMD and low testosterone levels indicate that the mechanical loading induced by rowing is more...

  16. Low free testosterone levels predict disease reclassification in men with prostate cancer undergoing active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco, Ignacio F; Rojas, Pablo A; DeWolf, William C; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether total testosterone and free testosterone levels predict disease reclassification in a cohort of men with prostate cancer (PCa) on active surveillance (AS). Total testosterone and free testosterone concentrations were determined at the time the men began the AS protocol. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test and a chi-squared test to compare groups. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using univariate logistic regression. Receiver-operator characteristic curves were generated to determine the investigated testosterone thresholds. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate time to disease reclassification. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used for multivariate analysis. A total of 154 men were included in the AS cohort, of whom 54 (35%) progressed to active treatment. Men who had disease reclassification had significantly lower free testosterone levels than those who were not reclassified (0.75 vs 1.02 ng/dL, P = 0.03). Men with free testosterone levels free testosterone levels ≥0.45 (P = 0.032). Free testosterone levels free testosterone and family history of PCa were independent predictors of disease reclassification. Free testosterone levels were lower in men with PCa who had reclassification during AS. Men with moderately severe reductions in free testosterone level are at increased risk of disease reclassification. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  17. Could you have low testosterone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000722.htm Could you have low testosterone? To use the sharing features on ... Symptoms Some men with low testosterone do not have any symptoms. Others may have: Low sex drive ...

  18. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Amos; Roshan, Mohsin H.K.; Pace, Nikolai P.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease [CVD] is a leading cause of mortality accounting for a global incidence of over 31%. Atherosclerosis is the primary pathophysiology underpinning most types of CVD. Historically, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were suggested to precipitate CVD. Recently, epidemiological studies have identified emerging risk factors including hypotestosteronaemia, which have been associated with CVD. Previously considered in the realms of reproductive biology, testosterone is now believed to play a critical role in the cardiovascular system in health and disease. The actions of testosterone as they relate to the cardiac vasculature and its implication in cardiovascular pathology is reviewed. PMID:27014372

  19. Free testosterone: clinical utility and important analytical aspects of measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Jennifer L; Wong, Pui-Yuen; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone, the most abundant androgen in men, is a steroid hormone that is synthesized predominantly by the testes. In women, minor amounts are synthesized in the ovaries. Androgen precursors are also produced and secreted from the adrenal glands in both sexes, where they undergo peripheral conversion to testosterone. Circulating concentrations are approximately 15-25 times higher in adult men compared to women. Maintenance of these levels is necessary for development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, libido, growth, prevention of osteoporosis, and most importantly in men, spermatogenesis. Most testosterone circulates tightly bound to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or weakly bound to albumin. A minor amount circulates as free testosterone, and it is believed that this is the metabolically active fraction. Measurement of free testosterone is important in the diagnosis of many diseases, most importantly disorders of androgen deficiency in men (i.e., hypogonadism) and androgen excess in women (i.e., polycystic ovary syndrome and hirsutism). Many methodologies are available for free testosterone measurement including the reference methods (equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration), analog immunoassay, and calculated free testosterone based on measurement of total testosterone, SHBG, and albumin. Moreover, measurement of bioavailable testosterone, a combination of albumin-bound and free testosterone, also has clinical utility and can be measured by selective protein precipitation or calculation. In this review, the advantages and limitations of each of these methods will be discussed in the context of clinical utility and implementation into a routine hospital laboratory. Furthermore, up and coming methodologies for free testosterone measurement, including liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, will also be discussed.

  20. Hubungan Obesitas dengan Hormon Testosteron pada Mahasiswa STIKes Indonesia Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Obesitas menjadi epidemik seluruh dunia dan dua pertiga penduduk negara berkembang menderita obesitas. Pada pria obesitas terdapat lebih banyak sel lemak melepaskan enzim aromatase yang mengkatalisis testosteron menjadi estradiol. Bertambahnya berat badan akan mempercepat penurunan hormon testosteron. Tujuan penelitian iniadalah menentukan hubungan obesitas dengan hormon testosteron. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain observasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional.  Total sampling berjumlah 32 orang. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dari  Oktober 2013 sampai Januari 2015 di STIKes Indonesia dan Laboratorium Biokimia FK Unand. Analisa data diolah secara komputerisasi dengan uji statistik korelasi dan regresi linier sederhana dengan derajat penolakan 5”%”, p=0,05. Hasil penelitian menunjukan hubungan yang lemah dan berpola negatif lemah artinya semakin meningkat berat badan maka semakin rendah hormon testosteron. Kesimpulan penelitian ini tidak ada hubungan yang bermakna antara obesitas dengan hormon testosteron. Penelitian ini memberikan informasi dan pengetahuan tentang terjadinya infertilitas akibatterganggunya hormon testosteron pada pria yang menderita obesitas.Kata kunci: obesitas, testosteron, adiponektin, enzim aromatase Abstract Obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic and two-thirds of people developing countries suffer obesity. Obese men have fat cells that release the enzyme aromatase which catalyse testosterone to estradiol. Weight gain, the faster decline in testosterone. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of obesity to testosterone. The design of this study was observational, cross-sectional approach to sampling amounted 32 people. The research was conducted from October 2013 January 2015 in STIKes Indonesia and Biochemistry Laboratory Faculty of Medicine, University of Andalas. Data analysis was processed by a computerized with statistical tests correlation and simple linear regression and the

  1. Lowered testosterone in male obesity: mechanisms, morbidity and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fui, Mark Ng Tang; Dupuis, Philippe; Grossmann, Mathis

    2014-01-01

    With increasing modernization and urbanization of Asia, much of the future focus of the obesity epidemic will be in the Asian region. Low testosterone levels are frequently encountered in obese men who do not otherwise have a recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis pathology. Moderate obesity predominantly decreases total testosterone due to insulin resistance-associated reductions in sex hormone binding globulin. More severe obesity is additionally associated with reductions in free testosterone levels due to suppression of the HPT axis. Low testosterone by itself leads to increasing adiposity, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of metabolic complications. Obesity-associated hypotestosteronemia is a functional, non-permanent state, which can be reversible, but this requires substantial weight loss. While testosterone treatment can lead to moderate reductions in fat mass, obesity by itself, in the absence of symptomatic androgen deficiency, is not an established indication for testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy may lead to a worsening of untreated sleep apnea and compromise fertility. Whether testosterone therapy augments diet- and exercise-induced weight loss requires evaluation in adequately designed randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:24407187

  2. Lowered testosterone in male obesity: Mechanisms, morbidity and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ng Tang Fui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing modernization and urbanization of Asia, much of the future focus of the obesity epidemic will be in the Asian region. Low testosterone levels are frequently encountered in obese men who do not otherwise have a recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT axis pathology. Moderate obesity predominantly decreases total testosterone due to insulin resistance-associated reductions in sex hormone binding globulin. More severe obesity is additionally associated with reductions in free testosterone levels due to suppression of the HPT axis. Low testosterone by itself leads to increasing adiposity, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of metabolic complications. Obesity-associated hypotestosteronemia is a functional, non-permanent state, which can be reversible, but this requires substantial weight loss. While testosterone treatment can lead to moderate reductions in fat mass, obesity by itself, in the absence of symptomatic androgen defi ciency, is not an established indication for testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy may lead to a worsening of untreated sleep apnea and compromise fertility. Whether testosterone therapy augments diet- and exercise-induced weight loss requires evaluation in adequately designed randomized controlled clinical trials.

  3. Lowered testosterone in male obesity: mechanisms, morbidity and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fui, Mark Ng Tang; Dupuis, Philippe; Grossmann, Mathis

    2014-01-01

    With increasing modernization and urbanization of Asia, much of the future focus of the obesity epidemic will be in the Asian region. Low testosterone levels are frequently encountered in obese men who do not otherwise have a recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis pathology. Moderate obesity predominantly decreases total testosterone due to insulin resistance-associated reductions in sex hormone binding globulin. More severe obesity is additionally associated with reductions in free testosterone levels due to suppression of the HPT axis. Low testosterone by itself leads to increasing adiposity, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of metabolic complications. Obesity-associated hypotestosteronemia is a functional, non-permanent state, which can be reversible, but this requires substantial weight loss. While testosterone treatment can lead to moderate reductions in fat mass, obesity by itself, in the absence of symptomatic androgen defi ciency, is not an established indication for testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy may lead to a worsening of untreated sleep apnea and compromise fertility. Whether testosterone therapy augments diet- and exercise-induced weight loss requires evaluation in adequately designed randomized controlled clinical trials.

  4. Testosterone: action, deficiency, substitution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieschlag, E; Nieschlag, S. (Susan); Behre, H. M. (Hermann M.)

    2004-01-01

    ... reviews applications in male contraception, the role of 5 -reductase inhibitors and the controversial use of DHEA. For this book the editors have assembled the world leaders in testosterone research and clinical andrology and endocrinology. A special feature of the book is the fact that its 24 chapters were submitted simultaneously to ens...

  5. Testosterone Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone transdermal patches work ... Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat ...

  6. Testosterone Nasal Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone works by replacing ... Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat ...

  7. Serum Testosterone Levels and Mortality in Men With CKD Stages 3–4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Kiranpreet K.; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Arrigain, Susana; Schold, Jesse D.; Nally, Joseph V.; Shoskes, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypogonadism in men (total testosterone level testosterone measured for-cause between January 1, 2005 and October 31, 2011 at a tertiary care center in Cleveland, Ohio. Predictors Total testosterone measured using an immunoassay measurement in 3 forms: a) categorized as low or testosterone replacement therapy versus normal, b) continuous log testosterone, and c) quintiles (100–226, 227–305, 306–392, 393–511, 512–3153 ng/dL). Outcomes Factors associated with low total testosterone, and association between low total testosterone and all-cause mortality were evaluated using logistic regression, Cox proportional hazard models, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Results Hypogonadism was found in 1288/2419 (53%) of men. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, African American ethnicity and higher eGFR were associated with lower odds of having hypogonadism. Diabetes and higher body mass index were associated with higher odds of having hypogonadism. 357/2419 (15%) patients died during a median follow up of 2.3 years. In the multivariate Cox model, testosterone testosterone replacement therapy were not associated with mortality. In a multivariable model also adjusted for testosterone supplementation, higher log testosterone was associated with significantly lower mortality (HR per 1 log unit, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.55–0.89). When compared to the highest quintile, the second lowest quintile of testosterone was associated with higher mortality (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.09–2.16). Limitations Single center study, timing of testosterone testing, lack of adjustment for proteinuria, and sampling bias. Conclusions Low total testosterone may be associated with higher mortality in men with CKD stages 3–4 but more studies are needed. PMID:24726629

  8. Testosterone therapy increased muscle mass and lipid oxidation in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Louise; Højlund, Kurt; Hougaard, David M

    2011-01-01

    The indication for testosterone therapy in aging hypogonadal men without hypothalamic, pituitary, or testicular disease remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of testosterone therapy on insulin sensitivity, substrate metabolism, body composition, and lipids...... in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels using a predefined cutoff level for bioavailable testosterone. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of testosterone treatment (gel) was done on 38 men, aged 60-78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. Insulin......-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) and substrate oxidation were assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps combined with indirect calorimetry. Lean body mass (LBM) and total fat mass (TFM) were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and serum total testosterone was measured by tandem mass spectrometry...

  9. First case report of testosterone assay-interference in a female taking maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikugan, L; Sankaralingam, A; McGowan, B

    2011-03-25

    A young female with prolonged intermenstrual bleeding was found to have raised total plasma testosterone of 25.8 nmol/l (NRmaca extract to improve her lethargy and low libido. Maca is traditionally used for its aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties. Maca use has not been shown to affect serum testosterone in mice and human studies. Immunoassay interference with maca was suspected. Testosterone immunoassays use monoclonal antibodies specifically directed against testosterone. They are prone to interference from androgenic compounds. Reanalysis of the original serum sample using Elecsys Testosterone II assay, a higher affinity assay, revealed a total testosterone level of 2.9 nmol/l. It is important to exclude assay interference when testosterone level is greater than 5 nmol/l without supportive clinical signs.

  10. Testosterone, social status and parental care in a cooperatively breeding bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikus, Alyxandra E; Guindre-Parker, Sarah; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2017-11-13

    The steroid hormone testosterone not only plays an important role in gamete production, but also influences social and aggressive behavior. Testosterone varies seasonally, peaking when competition for mates is high and declining during parental care. Surprisingly, little is known about how testosterone mediates social conflict and parental care behavior in highly social species like cooperative breeders, where group members compete for breeding opportunities and provide parental or alloparental care. We examined how testosterone differs across breeding roles in the tropical cooperatively breeding superb starling, Lamprotornis superbus. We determined whether testosterone was elevated in larger groups, and whether testosterone was negatively related to total levels of parental and alloparental care. We found that male breeders had higher testosterone than male helpers and female breeders and helpers during incubation. However, breeding males exhibited a significant decline in testosterone from incubation to chick rearing, and all individuals had similar levels during the chick rearing stage. Additionally, helpers-but not breeders-in large social groups had higher testosterone than those in small groups. Finally, testosterone was not correlated with nestling provisioning rates during chick rearing, suggesting that natural variation in the low levels of testosterone observed during periods of high parental care does not affect nestling provisioning. Together, these results offer insight into how testosterone is related to breeding roles, intra-group conflict, and parental care in a highly social species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum testosterone levels in non-dosed females after secondary exposure to 1.62% testosterone gel: effects of clothing barrier on testosterone absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Jodi; Britto, Margaret; Fitzpatrick, Sherahe; McWhirter, Cecilia; Testino, Samuel A; Brennan, John J; Zumbrunnen, Troy L

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate secondary exposure of testosterone transferred to females from a male partner, dosed with 1.62% testosterone gel after direct skin-to-skin contact with the application site, and to investigate the effect of wearing a t-shirt on testosterone transfer. Across three studies, a total of 72 healthy males applied 5.0 g 1.62% testosterone gel to their abdomen alone, upper arms/shoulders alone, or a combination of their upper arms/shoulders and abdomen (single dose or once daily for 7 days). Male-female contact occurred 2 or 12 hours after testosterone gel application, with males either wearing or not wearing a t-shirt. There were 15 minutes of supervised contact with the application site between the male and his female partner. Blood samples were collected over a 24 hour period in females for assessment of serum testosterone levels at baseline and after contact. Pharmacokinetic parameters included C(max) (maximum serum concentration), AUC(0-24) (area under the serum concentration-time curve from 0-24 hours), and C(av) (time-averaged concentration over the 24-hour period post-contact). Subjects were monitored for adverse events. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT NUMBERS: Study 1 was not registered (first subject enrolled 8 March 2007); Study 2: 00998933; Study 3, 01130298. Testosterone levels (C(av) and C(max)) in females increased 86-185% from baseline after direct abdominal skin contact, although C(av) levels remained within female eugonadal range. Testosterone concentrations returned to baseline within 48 hours after last skin contact. A t-shirt barrier reduced testosterone transfer by approximately 40-48% when 5.0 g of testosterone gel was applied to the abdomen alone. A t-shirt barrier prevented transfer when 5.0 g of testosterone gel was applied to the upper arms and shoulders or to a combination of the upper arms and shoulders and the abdomen (C(max) and C(av) increased by approximately 5-11%). No major safety events were observed during the studies

  12. Symptomatic reduction in free testosterone levels secondary to crizotinib use in male cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickhardt, Andrew J; Doebele, Robert C; Purcell, W Thomas; Bunn, Paul A; Oton, Ana B; Rothman, Micol S; Wierman, Margaret E; Mok, Tony; Popat, Sanjay; Bauman, Julie; Nieva, Jorge; Novello, Silvia; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius; Camidge, D Ross

    2013-07-01

    Crizotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor active against ALK, MET, and ROS1. We previously reported that crizotinib decreases testosterone in male patients. The detailed etiology of the effect, its symptomatic significance, and the effectiveness of subsequent testosterone replacement have not been previously reported. Male cancer patients treated with crizotinib had total testosterone levels measured and results compared with non-crizotinib-treated patients. Albumin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and/or luteinizing hormone (LH) were tracked longitudinally. A subset of patients had free testosterone levels measured and a hypogonadal screening questionnaire administered. Patients receiving subsequent testosterone supplementation were assessed for symptomatic improvement. Mean total testosterone levels were -25% below the lower limit of normal (LLN) in 32 crizotinib-treated patients (27 of 32 patients below LLN, 84%) compared with +29% above LLN in 19 non-crizotinib-treated patients (6 of 19 below LLN, 32%), P = .0012. Levels of albumin and SHBG (which both bind testosterone) declined rapidly with crizotinib, but so did FSH, LH, and free testosterone, suggesting a centrally mediated, true hypogonadal effect. Mean free testosterone levels were -17% below LLN (19 of 25 patients below LLN, 76%). Eighty-four percent (16 of 19) with low free levels, and 79% (19/24) with low total levels had symptoms of androgen deficiency. Five of 9 patients (55%) with low testosterone given testosterone supplementation had improvement in symptoms, coincident with increases in testosterone above LLN. Symptoms of androgen deficiency and free or total/free testosterone levels should be tracked in male patients on crizotinib with consideration of testosterone replacement as appropriate. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  13. Subnormal Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Counts Are Related to the Lowest Prevalence and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shaomei; Wu, Hongmei; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Chongjin; Guo, Yinting; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Jia, Qiyu; Wang, Xing; Song, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the relationship between a subnormal inflammatory status and metabolic syndrome (MS). We therefore designed a cross-sectional and 5-year cohort study to evaluate how a subnormal peripheral blood leukocyte count is related to MS. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 46,179) and a prospective assessment (n = 13,061) were performed. Participants without a history of MS were followed up for 5 years. Leukocyte counts and MS components were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess relationships between the categories of leukocyte counts and MS. The subnormal leukocyte counts group (1,100–3,900 cells/mm3) had the lowest prevalence and incidence of MS. The odds ratio and hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of the highest leukocyte counts were 1.98 (1.57–2.49) and 1.50 (1.22–1.84) (both P for trend leukocyte counts group after adjusting for potential confounders. This study has shown that subnormal leukocyte counts are independently related to the lowest prevalence and incidence of MS. The findings suggest that it is necessary to restudy and discuss the clinical or preventive value of subnormal leukocyte counts. PMID:24876672

  14. The many faces of testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerald Bain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jerald BainDepartment of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Testosterone is more than a “male sex hormone”. It is an important contributor to the robust metabolic functioning of multiple bodily systems. The abuse of anabolic steroids by athletes over the years has been one of the major detractors from the investigation and treatment of clinical states that could be caused by or related to male hypogonadism. The unwarranted fear that testosterone therapy would induce prostate cancer has also deterred physicians form pursuing more aggressively the possibility of hypogonadism in symptomatic male patients. In addition to these two mythologies, many physicians believe that testosterone is bad for the male heart. The classical anabolic agents, 17-alkylated steroids, are, indeed, potentially harmful to the liver, to insulin action to lipid metabolism. These substances, however, are not testosterone, which has none of these adverse effects. The current evidence, in fact, strongly suggests that testosterone may be cardioprotective. There is virtually no evidence to implicate testosterone as a cause of prostate cancer. It may exacerbate an existing prostate cancer, although the evidence is flimsy, but it does not likely cause the cancer in the first place. Testosterone has stimulatory effects on bones, muscles, erythropoietin, libido, mood and cognition centres in the brain, penile erection. It is reduced in metabolic syndrome and diabetes and therapy with testosterone in these conditions may provide amelioration by lowering LDL cholesterol, blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin and insulin resistance. The best measure is bio-available testosterone which is the fraction of testosterone not bound to sex hormone binding globulin. Several forms of testosterone administration are available making compliance

  15. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The assessment of testosterone and radioisotopic index of bone metabolism and bone mineral density in men with testosterone deficiency after one year of testosterone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryniszewski, Wieslaw; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Maziarz, Zbigniew; Nowak, Michal; Gadzicki, Mariusz; Radek, Maciej

    2018-01-10

    Testosterone deficiency in men is characterized by typical symptoms of hypogonadism and negative influence on the preservation of bone mass. In this study, we analysed the relationship between testosterone concentration and bone metabolism. Moreover, we assessed the impact of one-year compensation of testosterone deficiency in elderly men on bone metabolism and bone mineral density. Radioisotopic methods of bone metabolism assessment provide new research opportunities. Men with total testosterone concentration (TT) ≤ 3 ng/ml were included into this study. Patients with disorders or injuries of bone system, elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA), enlarged prostate, disorders of thyroid and liver, diabetes mellitus or a history of chemotherapy as well as those treated for a long time with antibiotics were excluded from this study. The results of 50 men aged 57.52 ± 6.71 years obtained before the treatment (I test) and after one year of oral testosterone supplementation (test II) were analysed in this study. The following examinations and analyses were performed: interview and physical examination, orthopaedic, neurological and urological consultations, blood biochemistry, determination of hormones levels, assessment of Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome (TDS), densitometric and radioisotope assessment of bone metabolism. Moreover, radioisotopic index of bone metabolism was calculated. Testosterone therapy with oral preparation Undestor Testo Caps (Organon) containing 40 mg of testosterone lasted for 12 months. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 12 and Excel 2010 programs. Correlations between results before and after treatment were analysed. After 12 months of treatment, testosterone concentration increased by mean 78% and the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) decreased by 62%. TDS index increased from 0.53 ± 0.21 (in test I) to 1.91 ± 0.60 (in test II). After the therapy this index was significantly higher in all men (p Metabolism). We observed

  17. "Low Testosterone Levels in Body Fluids Are Associated With Chronic Periodontitis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Malmstrom, Hans; Abduljabbar, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Kellesarian, Tammy Varela; Javed, Fawad; Romanos, Georgios E

    2017-03-01

    There is a debate over the association between low testosterone levels in body fluids and the occurrence of chronic periodontitis (CP). The aim of the present systematic review was to assess whether low testosterone levels in body fluids reflect CP. In order to identify studies relevant to the focus question: "Is there a relationship between low testosterone levels in body fluids and CP?" an electronic search without time or language restrictions was conducted up to June 2016 in indexed databases using different keywords: periodontitis, chronic periodontitis, periodontal diseases, testosterone, and gonadal steroid hormones. A total of eight studies were included in the present systematic review. The number of study participants ranged from 24 to 1,838 male individuals with ages ranging from 15 to 95 years. Seven studies measured testosterone levels in serum, two studies in saliva, and one study in gingiva. Four studies reported a negative association between serum testosterone levels and CP. Two studies reported a positive association between decreased testosterone levels in serum and CP. Increased levels of salivary testosterone among patients with CP were reported in one study; whereas one study reported no significant difference in the concentration of salivary testosterone between patients with and without CP. One study identified significant increase in the metabolism of testosterone in the gingiva of patients with CP. Within the limits of the evidence available, the relationship between low testosterone levels and CP remains debatable and further longitudinal studies and control trials are needed.

  18. Genetic influence on the association between bone mineral density and testosterone in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J; Sung, J; Lee, K; Song, Y-M

    2016-02-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) leads to an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. Total testosterone and free testosterone were positively associated with BMD, which was significantly influenced by the additive genetic effects. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate an association between testosterone and BMD and the influence of genetic factors on the association. Study subjects were 1070 Korean men including 144 pairs of monozygotic twins and their family members. Levels of serum total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Calculated free testosterone (cFT) was then determined using Vermeulen's method. BMDs of the whole body and specific regions were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Linear mixed regression analyses showed that total testosterone and cFT were positively associated with BMD at most regions, after considering intra-familial relationship and covariates including fat mass, lean mass, and SHBG. SHBG had an inverse association with BMD at the pelvis but not with the BMD at other regions after adjusting for all covariates and cFT. Co-twin control analysis in monozygotic twins found no association between pairwise difference of testosterone and pairwise difference of BMD. Bivariate variance component analysis showed that both total testosterone and cFT had a significant positive additive genetic correlation with BMD at rib, spine, and arm, whereas SHBG had no significant genetic correlation with BMD. Inverse environmental correlations were seen between total testosterone and BMDs at the lumbar spine and arm. This Korean twin and family study showed that both total testosterone and free testosterone were positively associated with BMD and that genetic effects were significant on the association between testosterone and BMD.

  19. Exogenous Testosterone Stimulates Gluconeogenesis In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... source of energy for the mammalian brain. The mechanism of action of steroid hormones on target organ cells, and the role of testosterone as a performance enhancing drug are discussed. Keywords: Exogenous testosterone, Protein, Glucose, Gluconeogenesis, Hypoproteinemic rat. Animal Research International Vol.

  20. Testosterone treatment in the aging male: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Nicole; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2012-03-19

    The definition of late onset hypogonadism in the aging male is controversially debated, and according to the latest literature consists of at least three especially sexual symptoms such as loss of morning erection, low sexual desire and erectile dysfunction as well as a total testosterone <8-11 nmol/l. Testosterone replacement therapy in the aging male has been shown to have a beneficial effect on muscle and fat mass as well as on bone mineral density, with more conflicting effects observed on muscle strength, sexual function, mood and quality of life. The prescriptions for testosterone products for the aging male increased by over 170% in the previous five years. Furthermore, there is a lot of epidemiological data showing an inverse relationship between testosterone levels and obesity, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, only few small randomised placebo-controlled studies have investigated the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on insulin resistance and HbA1c levels, with controversial results. Importantly, so far the long-term safety and efficacy of testosterone replacement therapy has not been established. Although until now no clear evidence has been found that testosterone replacement therapy has a causative role in prostate cancer or indeed in changes of the biology of the prostate, in a recent meta-analysis a 4-fold increased risk of prostate-associated event rates in testosterone treated elderly men sounds a note of caution. Also the risk for cardiovascular events is still not clear and caution is warranted especially in elderly men with cardiovascular disease and limited mobility. In summary, the actual available evidence of long-term risks and outcome of testosterone replacement therapy is still very limited and carefully designed placebo-controlled trials of testosterone administration to assess the risks and benefits of such a therapy are required. Until then, testosterone treatment in elderly men

  1. Fatores ambientais associados às helmintoses intestinais em áreas de assentamento subnormal, Juiz de Fora, MG Environmental factors related to intestinal helminth infections in subnormal settled areas, Juiz de Fora, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Teixeira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho são o de caracterizar a morbidade por infecções intestinais por helmintos e o de identificar os fatores associados a estas doenças, com ênfase para os fatores ambientais, em crianças com idade entre um ano completo e cinco anos incompletos residentes em áreas de assentamento subnormal - áreas de invasão. Utilizou-se um delineamento epidemiológico transversal de base populacional em 29 das 78 áreas de assentamento subnormal do município de Juiz de Fora - MG. A amostra foi composta por todas as crianças na faixa etária de interesse residentes nos 29 assentamentos, escolhidos de forma não aleatória. A amostra estudada totalizou 753 crianças. A coleta de dados foi feita mediante entrevistas domiciliares com a mãe ou o responsável pela criança. Utilizou-se o método de Hoffmann-Pons-Janer no exame parasitológico de fezes. Foram usados modelos de regressão logística binária para identificar fatores associados às enfermidades. Da amostra, 161 (21,38% crianças apresentaram infecções intestinais por helmintos. Os fatores associados a estas parasitoses incluíram idade da criança, renda familiar, queixas quanto à qualidade da água do sistema público e deficiências no esgotamento sanitário.The objectives of this study are the characterization of the morbidity by intestinal helminth infections and the identification of the factors associated with these diseases, with emphasis on environmental factors, in children ranging from one to five incomplete years old residing in subnormal settlement areas - invasion areas. A population-based cross-sectional epidemiological design was used in 29 out of the 78 subnormal settlement areas in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, MG. The sample consisted of all children at the age of interest residing in the 29 settlement areas, not chosen at random. The assessed sample amounted to 753 children. Data were collected by means of domiciliary interviews with their

  2. Hyperandrogenemia in polycystic ovary syndrome: exploration of the role of free testosterone and androstenedione in metabolic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Schwetz, Verena; Rabe, Thomas; Giuliani, Albrecht; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the association between androstenedione, testosterone, and free testosterone and metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome. We analyzed the association between androstenedione, testosterone, and free testosterone and metabolic parameters in a cross-sectional study including 706 polycystic ovary syndrome and 140 BMI-matched healthy women. Polycystic ovary syndrome women were categorized into 4 groups: normal androstenedione and normal free testosterone (NA/NFT), elevated androstenedione and normal free testosterone (HA/NFT), normal androstenedione and elevated free testosterone (NA/HFT), elevated androstenedione and free testosterone (HA/HFT). Polycystic ovary syndrome women with elevated free testosterone levels (HA/HFT and NA/HFT) have an adverse metabolic profile including 2 h glucose, HbA1c, fasting and 2 h insulin, area under the insulin response curve, insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda), triglycerides, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to NA/NFT (pfree testosterone-ratio and area under the insulin response curve, insulin resistance, and total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol-ratio and a positive association with Matsuda-index, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (pfree testosterone levels but not with isolated androstenedione elevation have an adverse metabolic phenotype. Further, a higher androstenedione/free testosterone-ratio was independently associated with a beneficial metabolic profile.

  3. Testosterone and the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, Travis; Sadhu, Archana; Petak, Steven; Robbins, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Testosterone (T) has a number of important effects on the cardiovascular system. In men, T levels begin to decrease after age 40, and this decrease has been associated with an increase in all-cause mortality and cardiovascular (CV) risk. Low T levels in men may increase their risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD), metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Reduced T levels in men with congestive heart failure (CHF) portends a poor prognosis and is associated with increased mortality. Studies have reported a reduced CV risk with higher endogenous T concentration, improvement of known CV risk factors with T therapy, and reduced mortality in T-deficient men who underwent T replacement therapy versus untreated men. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has been shown to improve myocardial ischemia in men with CAD, improve exercise capacity in patients with CHF, and improve serum glucose levels, HbA1c, and insulin resistance in men with diabetes and prediabetes. There are no large long-term, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials to provide definitive conclusions about TRT and CV risk. However, there currently is no credible evidence that T therapy increases CV risk and substantial evidence that it does not. In fact, existing data suggests that T therapy may offer CV benefits to men.

  4. Testosterone restoration using enclomiphene citrate in men with secondary hypogonadism: a pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study

    OpenAIRE

    Wiehle, Ronald; Cunningham, Glenn R; Pitteloud, Nelly; Wike, Jenny; Hsu, Kuang; Fontenot, Gregory K; Rosner, Michele; Dwyer, Andrew; Podolski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the pharmacodynamic profile of serum total testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in men with secondary hypogonadism after initial and chronic daily oral doses of enclomiphene citrate vs transdermal testosterone. To determine the effects of daily oral doses of enclomiphene citrate in comparison with transdermal testosterone on other hormones and markers in men with secondary hypogonadism. Patients and Methods This was a randomized, single-blind, two-centre, p...

  5. Cognitive effects of testosterone and finasteride administration in older hypogonadal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Stephen E; Yarrow, Joshua F; Fernandez, Carmen; Conover, Christine F; Ye, Fan; Meuleman, John R; Morrow, Matthew; Zou, Baiming; Shuster, Jonathan J

    2014-01-01

    Serum concentrations of neuroactive androgens decline in older men and, in some studies, low testosterone is associated with decreased cognitive function and incidence of depression. Existing studies evaluating the effect of testosterone administration on cognition in older men have been largely inconclusive, with some studies reporting minor to moderate cognitive benefit, while others indicate no cognitive effect. Our objective was to assess the cognitive effects of treating older hypogonadal men for 1 year with a supraphysiological dose of testosterone, either alone or in combination with finasteride (a type II 5α-reductase inhibitor), in order to determine whether testosterone produces cognitive benefit and whether suppressed dihydrotestosterone influences cognition. Sixty men aged ≥ 60 years with a serum testosterone concentration of ≤ 300 ng/dL or bioavailable testosterone ≤ 70 ng/dL and no evidence of cognitive impairment received testosterone-enanthate (125 mg/week) versus vehicle, paired with finasteride (5 mg/day) versus placebo using a 2×2 factorial design. Testosterone caused a small decrease in depressive symptoms as assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale and a moderate increase in visuospatial memory as assessed by performance on a recall trial of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Finasteride caused a small increase in performance on the Benton Judgment of Line Orientation test. In total, major improvements in cognition were not observed either with testosterone or finasteride. Further studies are warranted to determine if testosterone replacement may improve cognition in other domains.

  6. Testosterone Plasma Concentration is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Male Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schianca, Gian Piero Carnevale; Fra, Gian Paolo; Brustia, Fabio; Bellan, Mattia; Pirovano, Alice; Gualerzi, Alessandro; Gentile, Michela; Gibbin, Antonello; Menegatti, Mirta; Bartoli, Ettore; Pirisi, Mario

    2017-03-01

    Background: Low testosterone levels are a common finding among men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and are inversely related to insulin resistance. Whether this relationship holds true in patients with hypertension, but normal glucose tolerance or prediabetes, is unclear. Methods: We recruited 87 male outpatients with essential arterial hypertension, aged 35-70 years. Anthropometric data were collected, an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) performed, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score calculated. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, testosterone, Sex Hormone-Binding-Globulin and free-testosterone were measured. The concentrations of sex hormones were compared between normoglucotolerant, prediabetic and diabetic patients. Non-parametric tests were applied as appropriate to verify differences among groups, while multiple linear regression was used to predict the variability of testosterone and free-testosterone. Results: Total serum testosterone concentration was significantly lower in T2DM in comparison to normoglucotolerant subjects (pfree testosterone; HOMA-IR was related to testosterone and free-testosterone even in patients with normal glucose tolerance (r=- 0.47, ptestosterone (pfree-testosterone (p<0.05) plasma concentration. Conclusions: In males with hypertension, the link between insulin sensitivity and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is maintained along the entire spectrum of glucose tolerance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Selective Subnormal IgG1 in 54 Adult Index Patients with Frequent or Severe Bacterial Respiratory Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James C; Bertoli, Luigi F; Barton, J Clayborn; Acton, Ronald T

    2016-01-01

    We characterized 54 adult index patients with reports of frequent or severe bacterial respiratory tract infections at diagnosis of selective subnormal IgG1. Mean age was 50 ± 13 (SD) y; 87.0% were women. Associated disorders included the following: autoimmune conditions 50.0%; hypothyroidism 24.1%; atopy 38.9%; and other allergy 31.5%. In 35.5%, proportions of protective S. pneumoniae serotype-specific IgG levels did not increase after polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPPV). Blood lymphocyte subset levels were within reference limits in most patients. Regressions on IgG1 and IgG3 revealed no significant association with age, sex, autoimmune conditions, hypothyroidism, atopy, other allergy, corticosteroid therapy, or lymphocyte subsets. Regression on IgG2 revealed significant associations with PPPV response (negative) and CD19+ lymphocytes (positive). Regression on IgG4 revealed significant positive associations with episodic corticosteroid use and IgA. Regression on IgA revealed positive associations with IgG2 and IgG4. Regression on IgM revealed negative associations with CD56+/CD16+ lymphocytes. Regressions on categories of infection revealed a negative association of urinary tract infections and IgG1. HLA-A(⁎)03, HLA-B(⁎)55 and HLA-A(⁎)24, HLA-B(⁎)35 haplotype frequencies were greater in 38 patients than 751 controls. We conclude that nonprotective S. pneumoniae IgG levels and atopy contribute to increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infections in patients with selective subnormal IgG1.

  8. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments above...

  9. The adverse effects of exercise and supraphysiological dose of testosterone-enanthate (TE) on exploratory activity in elevated plus maze (EPM) test - indications for using total exploratory activity (TEA) as a new parameter for ex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selakovic, Dragica; Joksimovic, Jovana; Obradovic, Dragan; Milovanovic, Dragan; Djuric, Milos; Rosic, Gvozden

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was the estimation of effects induced by chronic administration of supraphysiological dose of TE and prolonged exercise in male rats on anxiety levels (alterations in exploratory activity patterns in EPM). Two sedentary (control - C and testosterone-enanthate - T) and two exercise (exercise - E and testosterone-enanthate plus exercise - T+E) groups (n=32) underwent adequate protocols - the swimming protocol (1 h/day) and TE (20 mg/kg/w, s.c.) for six weeks. Testing was performed in EPM. Anxiolytic effects of exercise were manifested as increased exploratory activity in EPM - increase in cumulative duration in open arms, the number of rearings and head-dippings, and TEA. Supraphysiological dose of TE decreased the number of rearings and head-dippings, cumulative duration in open arms and TEA compared to the control group, while this effect of TE was more pronounced compared to the exercise group. The applied dose of TE attenuated beneficial effects of exercise by means of all estimated parameters. Our results confirmed the beneficial effect of exercise on anxiety levels observed in EPM by means of parameters considering the alterations in exploratory activity. Supraphysiological dose of TE resulted in anxiogenic-like behavior in EPM. The effect of TE was so pronounced that the beneficial effect of exercise was reversed to the control values (or even below them). Based on the results of this trial, we propose that use of the TEA (a new parameter for overall exploratory activity) can improve the evaluation of EPM test results.

  10. Exposure to urban stressors and free testosterone plasma values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Palermo, Paola; Gioffrè, Pier Agostino; Tasciotti, Zaira; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Caciari, Tiziana

    2011-08-01

    The chemical agents present in the environment, such as traffic pollutants, may affect male fertility. Traffic policemen are daily exposed to traffic pollutants. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether occupational exposure to urban stressors could cause alterations in free testosterone plasma values in male traffic policemen versus administrative staff of Municipal Police of a big Italian city. Both groups were divided into two subgroups based on age (first group: 30-40 years; second group: 41-50 years) to assess whether age could affect laboratory results of free testosterone plasma levels in traffic policemen versus controls. The characterization of exposure to urban pollutants for traffic policemen was assessed using the concentrations of pollutants monitored in fixed stations. A total of 220 subjects were studied: 110 traffic policemen and 110 controls, after excluding subjects with main confounding factors. Mean free testosterone values were significantly lower in traffic policemen than in controls (P testosterone values for classes of age (30-40 and 41-50 year) of workers (respectively P testosterone values in traffic policemen and in controls was significant (P free testosterone plasma levels could be used as an early biological marker, to be employed in occupational sets, valuable for the group, even before the onset of values out of range and of fertility disorders.

  11. Influence of maternal testosterone on the strategies in the open field behaviour of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krsková, Lucia; Talaroviová, Alzbeta

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the influence of testosterone administered to pregnant females on offsprings postnatal behavioral strategies in the open field. The influence of maternal testosterone on behaviour of 23 day old male and female offsprings was studied in a 20-minute open field test. A total of 9 behavioural events were compared between a control (male n=12, female n=8) and a testosterone group (male n=9, female n=9). Dynamics and patterns of association of these behavioural events were analyzed. The testosterone group was prenatally exposed to testosterone (a single intramuscular injection of 2.5 mg testosteroni isobutyras on gestation day 14). Male offsprings exposed prenatally to testosterone displayed significantly high levels of ambulation (Pair (Pair (Pair (Pdefecation (Popen field strategies.

  12. Testosterone signaling and the regulation of spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, William H

    2011-01-01

    Spermatogenesis and male fertility are dependent upon the presence of testosterone in the testis. In the absence of testosterone or the androgen receptor, spermatogenesis does not proceed beyond the meiosis stage. The major cellular target and translator of testosterone signals to developing germ cells is the Sertoli cell. In the Sertoli cell, testosterone signals can be translated directly to changes in gene expression (the classical pathway) or testosterone can activate kinases that may reg...

  13. Prediction of Long-term Post-operative Testosterone Replacement Requirement Based on the Pre-operative Tumor Volume and Testosterone Level in Pituitary Macroadenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Chung-Ming; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Pai, Ping-Ching; Toh, Cheng-Hong; Chuang, Chi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFPAs) are the most prevalent pituitary macroadenomas. One common symptom of NFPA is hypogonadism, which may require long-term hormone replacement. This study was designed to clarify the association between the pre-operative tumor volume, pre-operative testosterone level, intraoperative resection status and the need of long-term post-operative testosterone replacement. Between 2004 and 2012, 45 male patients with NFPAs were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Hypogonadism was defined as total serum testosterone levels of operative magnetic resonance images. We prescribed testosterone to patients with defined hypogonadism or clinical symptoms of hypogonadism. Hormone replacement for longer than 1 year was considered as long-term therapy. The need for long-term post-operative testosterone replacement was significantly associated with larger pre-operative tumor volume (p = 0.0067), and lower pre-operative testosterone level (p = 0.0101). There was no significant difference between the gross total tumor resection and subtotal resection groups (p = 0.1059). The pre-operative tumor volume and testosterone level impact post-operative hypogonadism. By measuring the tumor volume and the testosterone level and by performing adequate tumor resection, surgeons will be able to predict post-operative hypogonadism and the need for long-term hormone replacement. PMID:26537232

  14. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... on reproductive outcome. The rationale for asking this question lies in the existing scientific evidence derived from basic research and animal studies regarding the action of androgens during folliculogenesis, showing that their main effect in follicular development is defined during the earlier developmental...

  15. A brief history of testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, E R; Bloom, D A; McGuire, E J

    2001-02-01

    We explore the history of testosterone in the context of medical and scientific developments. A review of the scientific and historical literature was conducted. The origins and effects of testosterone have been recognized throughout the history of humankind. Hunter performed testicular transplantation experiments in 1767 while studying tissue transplantation techniques, and almost a century later Berthold linked the physiological and behavioral changes of castration to a substance secreted by the testes. Brown-Séquard gave birth to the field of organotherapy in 1889 when he announced that his auto-injection of testicular extracts resulted in rejuvenated physical and mental abilities. Steinach and Niehans expanded upon Brown-Séquard's work with rejuvenation treatments involving vasoligation, tissue grafts and cellular injections. In 1935 David et al isolated the critical ingredient in organotherapeutic treatments, testosterone. The effects of the powerful hormone testosterone continue to inspire research and controversy 65 years later.

  16. Low Testosterone and Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics, such as facial, pubic, and body hair as well as muscle. This hormone also helps ... low testosterone may cause a man to lose body hair, muscle bulk, and strength and to gain body ...

  17. Hyperandrogenemia in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Exploration of the Role of Free Testosterone and Androstenedione in Metabolic Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Schwetz, Verena; Rabe, Thomas; Giuliani, Albrecht; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between androstenedione, testosterone, and free testosterone and metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods We analyzed the association between androstenedione, testosterone, and free testosterone and metabolic parameters in a cross-sectional study including 706 polycystic ovary syndrome and 140 BMI-matched healthy women. Polycystic ovary syndrome women were categorized into 4 groups: normal androstenedione and normal free testosterone (NA/NFT), elevated androstenedione and normal free testosterone (HA/NFT), normal androstenedione and elevated free testosterone (NA/HFT), elevated androstenedione and free testosterone (HA/HFT). Results Polycystic ovary syndrome women with elevated free testosterone levels (HA/HFT and NA/HFT) have an adverse metabolic profile including 2 h glucose, HbA1c, fasting and 2 h insulin, area under the insulin response curve, insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda), triglycerides, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to NA/NFT (pmetabolic disorders in polycystic ovary syndrome women with HA/NFT. In multiple linear regression analyses (age- and BMI-adjusted), we found a significant negative association between androstenedione/free testosterone-ratio and area under the insulin response curve, insulin resistance, and total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol-ratio and a positive association with Matsuda-index, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (ptestosterone levels but not with isolated androstenedione elevation have an adverse metabolic phenotype. Further, a higher androstenedione/free testosterone-ratio was independently associated with a beneficial metabolic profile. PMID:25310562

  18. Controversies in testosterone supplementation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Khera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has now become one of the most widely used medications throughout the world. The rapid growth of the testosterone market in the past 10 years is due to many factors. We currently have a worldwide aging population. In the US, the number of men 65 years old or older is increasing 2-3 times faster than the number of men younger than 65 years. In addition, poor general health and certain medical conditions such as diabetes/metabolic syndrome (MetS, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and osteoporosis have been associated with low serum testosterone levels. [1],[2],[3] There are now fewer concerns regarding the development of prostate cancer (PCa after testosterone therapy, making it a more attractive treatment option. Finally, the introduction of different forms of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST with increased promotion, marketing, and direct-to-consumer advertising is also driving market growth. As the demand for TST continues to grow, it is becoming more important for clinicians to understand how to diagnose and treat patients with low testosterone.

  19. Osteoprotegerin Levels Decrease During Testosterone Therapy in Aging Men and are Associated with Changed Distribution of Regional Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L; Glintborg, D; Højlund, K

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of testosterone treatment are debated. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is an independent marker of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on OPG levels in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. A randomized, double......-blinded, placebo-controlled study of 6 months testosterone therapy (gel) in 38 men aged 60-78 years with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm was performed. Clinical evaluation, OPG, and C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements were carried out. Lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass, and bone mineral density (BMD) were...... established by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Power calculation was based on an increase in LBM during testosterone therapy and responders were defined as testosterone treated patients with increased...

  20. The Effects of Testosterone on Oxidative Stress Markers in Mice with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Choobineh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI causes infertility in male patients through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, semen and hormone abnormalities. Oxidative stress (OS is involved in poor semen quality and subsequent infertility in males with SCI. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of SCI on the level of testosterone hormone. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous testosterone on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonylation (PCO, as markers of OS, in 10 groups of SCI mice. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC was determined using the 2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical cation assay. Results: Exogenous testosterone administration in mice with SCI significantly reduced SOD and GPx enzyme activities and MDA level. There was no significant decrease in PCO content. In addition, TAC remarkably increased in the sham and SCI groups not treated with testosterone but remained unchanged in all other experimental groups. Exogenous testosterone also reduced serum testosterone levels in all groups except the positive control group. Conclusion: Our cumulative data indicated that SCI could cause sterility by disturbing the plasmatic testosterone balance. The normal level of endogenous testosterone was not completely restored by exogenous testosterone administration.

  1. Testosterone, plumage colouration and extra-pair paternity in male North-American barn swallows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cas Eikenaar

    Full Text Available In most monogamous bird species, circulating testosterone concentration in males is elevated around the social female's fertile period. Variation in elevated testosterone concentrations among males may have a considerable impact on fitness. For example, testosterone implants enhance behaviours important for social and extra-pair mate choice. However, little is known about the relationship between natural male testosterone concentration and sexual selection. To investigate this relationship we measured testosterone concentration and sexual signals (ventral plumage colour and tail length, and determined within and extra-pair fertilization success in male North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster. Dark rusty coloured males had higher testosterone concentrations than drab males. Extra-pair paternity was common (42% and 31% of young in 2009 and 2010, respectively, but neither within- nor extra-pair fertilization success was related to male testosterone concentration. Dark rusty males were less often cuckolded, but did not have higher extra-pair or total fertilization success than drab males. Tail length did not affect within- or extra-pair fertilization success. Our findings suggest that, in North American barn swallows, male testosterone concentration does not play a significant direct role in female mate choice and sexual selection. Possibly plumage colour co-varies with a male behavioural trait, such as aggressiveness, that reduces the chance of cuckoldry. This could also explain why dark males have higher testosterone concentrations than drab males.

  2. TESTOSTERONE CHANGES IN PATIENTS WITH LIVER CIRRHOSIS BEFORE AND AFTER ORTHOTOPIC LIVER TRANSPLANTATION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH MELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo NITSCHE

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Hypogonadism is a common clinical situation in male patients with liver cirrhosis. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of orthotopic liver transplantation on testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in male with advanced liver disease and also to determine the relationship of these changes with Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD score. Methods In a prospective study, serum levels of testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin of 30 male adult patients with end-stage liver disease were measured 2 to 4 hours before and 6 months after orthotopic liver transplantation. Results Total testosterone levels increased after orthotopic liver transplantation and the number of patients with normal testosterone levels increased from 18 to 24. Free testosterone mean level in the pre-transplant group was 7.8 pg/mL and increased to 11.5 pg/mL (P = 0.10 and sex hormone-binding globulin level decreased after orthotopic liver transplantation returning to normal levels in MELD ≤18 - group (A (P<0.05. Conclusions Serum level changes of testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin are more pronounced in cirrhotic males with MELD ≤18. Serum levels of testosterone and free testosterone increase and serum levels of sex hormone-binding globulin decrease after orthotopic liver transplantation.

  3. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Nieschlag

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889, which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by

  4. Testosterone and weight loss: the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traish, Abdulmaged M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to examine the contemporary data linking testosterone therapy in overweight and obese men with testosterone deficiency to increased lean body mass, decreased fat mass, improvement in overall body composition and sustained weight loss. This is of paramount importance because testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency represents a novel and a timely therapeutic strategy for managing obesity in men with testosterone deficiency. Recent findings Long-term testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency produces significant and sustained weight loss, marked reduction in waist circumference and BMI and improvement in body composition. Further, testosterone therapy ameliorates components of the metabolic syndrome. The aforementioned improvements are attributed to improved mitochondrial function, increased energy utilization, increased motivation and vigor resulting in improved cardio-metabolic function and enhanced physical activity. Summary The implication of testosterone therapy in management of obesity in men with testosterone deficiency is of paramount clinical significance, as it produces sustained weight loss without recidivism. On the contrary, alternative therapeutic approaches other than bariatric surgery failed to produce significant and sustained outcome and exhibit a high rate of recidivism. These findings represent strong foundations for testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency and should spur clinical research for better understanding of usefulness of testosterone therapy in treatment of underlying pathophysiological conditions of obesity. PMID:25105998

  5. Advanced Technique and the Results of a Research of a Heat-Mass-Exchange Processes in Clothes Packages in the Subnormal Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodicheva, M. V.; Abramov, A. V.; Kanatnikov, N. V.; Kanatnikova, P. A.

    2017-05-01

    Quality of clothes in the conditions of subnormal temperatures can be provided by using a scientifically based approach for completing of a set of materials. In the article, the method of a research of heat-mass-exchange in the conditions of a non-stationary heat-mass-exchange is stated; the results of a research of influence of materials on the efficiency of heat-protective clothes are considered.

  6. Subnormal albumin gene expression is associated with weight loss in immunodeficient/DNA-repair-deficient wasted mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States). Stritch School of Medicine; Weaver, P.; Woloschak, G.E. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States). Stritch School of Medicine]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mobarhan, S. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States). Stritch School of Medicine

    1993-09-01

    Mice bearing the autosomal recessive mutation wst express a disease syndrome of immunodeficiency, neurologic dysfunction, and increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation. The mice were originally characterized as ``wasted`` because of their dramatic weight loss that begins at 21 days of age and progresses until death at 28-32 days of age. Because of the reported association between abnormal liver status and weight loss, we examined expression of a variety of liver-specific genes in wst/wst 10 mice relative to littermate (wst/{center_dot}) and parental strain (BCF{sub 1}) controls. Interestingly, the results revealed a greater than 67% reduction in albumin mRNA expression in livers derived from wst/wst mice relative to both controls. Expression of alpha-fetoprotein as well as a variety of other liver-specific genes (secretory component, metallothionein, cytochrome P{sub 1}450, transferrin receptor, tumor necrosis factor, and Ia antigen) was unaffected. These results suggest a relationship between low albumin expression and wasting syndromes in mice. In addition, we believe that our data suggest the wasted mouse as a unique model for subnormal albumin expression in humans.

  7. Testosterone administration decreases generosity in the ultimatum game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Zak

    Full Text Available How do human beings decide when to be selfish or selfless? In this study, we gave testosterone to 25 men to establish its impact on prosocial behaviors in a double-blind within-subjects design. We also confirmed participants' testosterone levels before and after treatment through blood draws. Using the Ultimatum Game from behavioral economics, we find that men with artificially raised T, compared to themselves on placebo, were 27% less generous towards strangers with money they controlled (95% CI placebo: (1.70, 2.72; 95% CI T: (.98, 2.30. This effect scales with a man's level of total-, free-, and dihydro-testosterone (DHT. Men in the lowest decile of DHT were 560% more generous than men in the highest decile of DHT. We also found that men with elevated testosterone were more likely to use their own money punish those who were ungenerous toward them. Our results continue to hold after controlling for altruism. We conclude that elevated testosterone causes men to behave antisocially.

  8. Testosterone reduces amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex coupling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingen, G.A. van; Mattern, C.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone influences various aspects of affective behavior, which is mediated by different brain regions within the emotion circuitry. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that testosterone increases neural activity in the amygdala. To investigate whether this could be due to altered

  9. Testosterone reduces amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingen, Guido; Mattern, Claudia; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Buitelaar, Jan; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone influences various aspects of affective behavior, which is mediated by different brain regions within the emotion circuitry. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that testosterone increases neural activity in the amygdala. To investigate whether this could be due to altered

  10. Effect of Testosterone Administration on Liver Fat in Older Men With Mobility Limitation: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background. Androgen receptor (AR) knockout male mice display hepatic steatosis, suggesting that AR signaling may regulate hepatic fat. However, the effects of testosterone replacement on hepatic fat in men are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of testosterone administration on hepatic fat in older men with mobility limitation and low testosterone levels who were participating in a randomized trial (the Testosterone in Older Men trial). Methods. Two hundred and nine men with mobility limitation and low total or free testosterone were randomized in the parent trial to either placebo or 10-g testosterone gel daily for 6 months. Hepatic fat was determined by magnetic resonance imaging in 73 men (36 in placebo and 37 in testosterone group) using the volumetric method. Insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance) was derived from fasting glucose and insulin. Results. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, including liver volumes (1583±363 in the testosterone group vs 1522±271mL in the placebo group, p = .42). Testosterone concentrations increased from 250±72 to 632±363ng/dL in testosterone group but did not change in placebo group. Changes in liver volume during intervention did not differ significantly between groups (p = .5) and were not related to on-treatment testosterone concentrations. The change in homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance also did not differ significantly between groups and was not related to either baseline or change in liver fat. Conclusion. Testosterone administration in older men with mobility limitation and low testosterone levels was not associated with a reduction in hepatic fat. Larger trials are needed to determine whether testosterone replacement improves liver fat in men with nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis. PMID:23292288

  11. Testosterone Deficiency - Establishing A Biochemical Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Krakowsky, Yonah; Grober, Ethan D.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency is a common and often unrecognized disorder impacting the lives of many men. Symptoms related to low testosterone are relatively non-specific and clinicians must therefore ensure that a patients? symptomatology is supported by a biochemical profile suggestive of testosterone deficiency. There are many options available to determine a patient?s testosterone level and laboratories will vary in the type of biochemical assessment they provide. In assessing patients with su...

  12. Peculiar observations in measuring testosterone in women treated with oral contraceptives supplemented with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijboer, Annemieke C; Zimmerman, Yvette; de Boer, Theo; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan; Blankenstein, Marinus A

    2014-03-20

    Total testosterone is considered to be decreased during the use of combined oral contraceptives. There is, however, considerable concern about the quality of testosterone assays, especially at low levels. We aimed to confirm testosterone levels measured by direct radioimmunoassay in a recent clinical trial with a state-of-the-art LC-MSMS method. Surplus specimens with known testosterone levels collected during the study (Clinical Trial Registration number ISRCTN06414473) were reanalyzed with an LC-MSMS method. This method was compared to another LC-MSMS method that had shown to concur excellently to a reference method. Follow-up experiments were designed to explain the results. In contrast to our expectation, LC-MSMS measurements did not corroborate the data obtained by radioimmunoassay. Subsequent experiments showed that this could be attributed to a strong dependency of the radioimmunoassay on SHBG. Testosterone results (n = 198) obtained by direct radioimmunoassay showed a negative correlation to SHBG levels (r = -0.676; p<0.001). By contrast, testosterone results obtained by LC-MSMS were not related to SHBG (r = 0.100; NS). In conclusion, our results indicate that total testosterone measurements during oral contraceptive use are unreliable when performed with assays sensitive to the SHBG concentration. The discrepancy with the literature can most likely be explained by the sensitivity of the immunoassay used to SHBG. Given the sharp increase in SHBG during the use of many oral contraceptives, total testosterone may not decrease, whereas its bioavailability, estimated by free testosterone levels, will be diminished. Studies aiming at restoration of testosterone homeostasis during oral contraception need to take this into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Testosterone replacement therapy for treatment refractory cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Mark J

    2006-06-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of cluster headache patients whose headaches responded to testosterone replacement therapy. Current evidence points to hypothalamic dysfunction, with increased metabolic hyperactivity in the region of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, as being important in the genesis of cluster headaches. This is clinically borne out in the circadian and diurnal behavior of these headaches. For years it has been recognized that male cluster headache patients appear overmasculinized. Recent neuroendocrine and sleep studies now point to an association between gonadotropin and corticotropin levels and hypothalamically entrained pineal secretion of melatonin. Seven male and 2 female patients, seen between July 2004 and February 2005, and between the ages of 32 and 56, are reported with histories of treatment resistant cluster headaches accompanied by borderline low or low serum testosterone levels. The patients failed to respond to individually tailored medical regimens, including melatonin doses of 12 mg a day or higher, high flow oxygen, maximally tolerated verapamil, antiepileptic agents, and parenteral serotonin agonists. Seven of the 9 patients met 2004 International Classification for the Diagnosis of Headache criteria for chronic cluster headaches; the other 2 patients had episodic cluster headaches of several months duration. After neurological and physical examination all patients had laboratory investigations including fasting lipid panel, PSA (where indicated), LH, FSH, and testosterone levels (both free and total). All 9 patients demonstrated either abnormally low or low, normal testosterone levels. After supplementation with either pure testosterone in 5 of 7 male patients or combination testosterone/estrogen therapy in both female patients, the patients achieved cluster headache freedom for the first 24 hours. Four male chronic cluster patients, all with abnormally low testosterone levels, achieved remission

  14. Examining factors that may influence accurate measurement of testosterone in sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Katherine M; Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Burns, Charlene M; Bettinger, Tammie L; Wheaton, Catharine J

    2016-01-01

    Differences in reported testosterone concentrations in male sea turtle blood samples are common in the veterinary literature, but may be accounted for by differences in sample handling and processing prior to assay. Therefore, our study was performed to determine best practices for testosterone analysis in male sea turtles (Caretta caretta and Chelonia mydas). Blood samples were collected into 5 collection tube types, and assay validation and measured testosterone concentrations were compared across different sample storage (fresh, refrigerated 1 week, or frozen), extraction (unextracted or ether-extracted), and processing treatment (untreated, homogenized, or dissociation reagent) conditions. Ether-extracted and dissociation reagent-treated samples validated in all conditions tested and are recommended for use, as unextracted samples validated only if assayed fresh. Dissociation reagent treatment was simpler to perform than ether extraction and resulted in total testosterone concentrations ~2.7-3.5 times greater than free testosterone measured in ether-extracted samples. Sample homogenization did not affect measured testosterone concentrations, and could be used to increase volume in gelled samples. An annual seasonal testosterone increase was observed in both species when ether extraction or dissociation reagent treatment was used. Annual deslorelin implant treatments in a Chelonia mydas male resulted in suppression of seasonal testosterone following the fourth treatment. Seasonal testosterone patterns resumed following discontinuation of deslorelin. Comparison of in-house and commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits revealed similar patterns of seasonal testosterone increases and deslorelin-induced suppression. Our study highlights the importance of methodological validation and provides laboratorians with best practices for testosterone enzyme immunoassay in sea turtles. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Sex-specific associations of testosterone with prefrontal-hippocampal development and executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Lew, Jimin; Albaugh, Matthew D; Botteron, Kelly N; Hudziak, James J; Fonov, Vladimir S; Collins, D Louis; Ducharme, Simon; McCracken, James T

    2017-02-01

    Testosterone is thought to play a crucial role in mediating sexual differentiation of brain structures. Examinations of the cognitive effects of testosterone have also shown beneficial and potentially sex-specific effects on executive function and mnemonic processes. Yet these findings remain limited by an incomplete understanding of the critical timing and brain regions most affected by testosterone, the lack of documented links between testosterone-related structural brain changes and cognition, and the difficulty in distinguishing the effects of testosterone from those of related sex steroids such as of estradiol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Here we examined associations between testosterone, cortico-hippocampal structural covariance, executive function (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function) and verbal memory (California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version), in a longitudinal sample of typically developing children and adolescents 6-22 yo, controlling for the effects of estradiol, DHEA, pubertal stage, collection time, age, handedness, and total brain volume. We found prefrontal-hippocampal covariance to vary as a function of testosterone levels, but only in boys. Boys also showed a specific association between positive prefrontal-hippocampal covariance (as seen at higher testosterone levels) and lower performance on specific components of executive function (monitoring the action process and flexibly shifting between actions). We also found the association between testosterone and a specific aspect of executive function (monitoring) to be significantly mediated by prefrontal-hippocampal structural covariance. There were no significant associations between testosterone-related cortico-hippocampal covariance and verbal memory. Taken together, these findings highlight the developmental importance of testosterone in supporting sexual differentiation of the brain and sex-specific executive function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. Gender-Typed Play and Amniotic Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca Christine; Wheelwright, Sally; Taylor, Kevin; Raggatt, Peter; Hackett, Gerald; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Sex differences in play are apparent in a number of mammalian species, including humans. Prenatal testosterone may contribute to these differences. The authors report the first attempt to correlate gender-typed play in a normative sample of humans with measurements of amniotic testosterone (aT). Testosterone was measured in the amniotic fluid of…

  17. Prospective longitudinal study of testosterone and incident depression in older men: The Health In Men Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Andrew H; Yeap, Bu B; Flicker, Leon; Hankey, Graeme J; Chubb, S A Paul; Handelsman, David J; Golledge, Jonathan; Almeida, Osvaldo P

    2016-02-01

    Depression in older men has been associated with low circulating testosterone concentration but data from prospective studies are limited. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study in a community representative cohort of 3179 older men free of clinically significant depressive symptoms at baseline. The main objective of this study was to determine if low serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol concentrations are associated with the development of depressive symptoms. Incident depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire and via an electronic health record database (The West Australian Data Linkage System). The main exposures of interest were serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and calculated free testosterone in baseline blood samples (collected between 2001 and 2004). One hundred and thirty five men (4.2%) developed depression over a median follow up time of 9.4 years (range 8.4-10.9). Men with incident depression were older (median age 77.7 vs 76.1 years, z=-3.82, p=0testosterone (free testosterone were not associated with risk of depression. Low serum total testosterone, but not calculated free testosterone, was associated with incident depression in this sample of older men. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Testosterone in biosociology: A memoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Allan

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. The author looks back at his four decades of research on testosterone in the context of biosociology - its accomplishments, pitfalls, outstanding questions, and future directions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between 25(OH)-vitamin D and testosterone levels: Evidence from men with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbonetti, Arcangelo; Vassallo, Maria Rosaria C; Felzani, Giorgio; Francavilla, Sandro; Francavilla, Felice

    2016-05-01

    As an independent linear association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and testosterone levels is controversial, this study aimed to explore this topic in men with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), who exhibit a high prevalence of both androgen and vitamin D deficiency. Forty-nine men with chronic SCI consecutively admitted to a rehabilitation program underwent clinical/biochemical evaluations. Deficiency of 25(OH)D (testosterone and free testosterone levels, higher parathyroid hormone (PTH) and HOMA-IR, a poorer functional independence degree, and were engaged in poorer weekly leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Significant correlates of 25(OH)D levels were: total testosterone, free testosterone, PTH, functional independence degree and weekly LTPA. At the linear regression models, lower 25(OH)D levels were associated with both lower total and free testosterone after adjustment for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, comorbidities and HOMA-IR. However, after full adjustment, also including functional independence degree, BMI and LTPA, only the association of lower 25(OH)D with lower free testosterone was still significant. In men with SCI, 25(OH)D correlates with total and free testosterone and exhibits an independent linear association with free testosterone. Regardless of this independent link, hypovitaminosis D and androgen deficiency are markers of poor health, sharing common risk factors to take into account in the rehabilitative approach to patients with SCI.

  20. Right-left digit ratio (2D:4D) predicts free testosterone levels associated with a physical challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, Liam; Cook, Christian J; Bennett, Mark; Crewther, Blair; Bracken, Richard Michael; Manning, John

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that the digit ratio (2D:4D) is a negative correlate of prenatal levels of testosterone, but there is no association between 2D:4D and the circulating levels of both total and free testosterone. Sports provide a physical challenge and participants often show increased levels of free testosterone immediately preceding and during competition. We tested this hypothesis of a link between 2D:4D and testosterone under challenge in 79 professional rugby players using the following procedures; (i) 25 players were physically challenged using a repeated sprint agility test, and saliva samples were assayed for testosterone immediately preceding the repeated sprint agility test (time 1) and 5 minutes (time 2) and 20 minutes after completion of the repeated sprint ability (time 3); (ii) 54 players were also tested for salivary testosterone in an unchallenged condition. We found that right-left 2D:4D was significantly and negatively related to testosterone concentrations at times 1, 2 and 3 following the repeated sprint agility test (P testosterone levels in the unchallenged group. We suggest that low right-left 2D:4D is a predictive marker of free testosterone responsiveness when trained men are physically challenged, and that this association is programmed by the action of prenatal testosterone.

  1. A clinical update on female androgen insufficiency--testosterone testing and treatment in women presenting with low sexual desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Henry G; Papalia, Mary-Anne

    2006-05-01

    The diagnosis of female androgen deficiency syndrome is suggested by complaints of a diminished sense of well being, persistent unexplained fatigue and decreased sexual desire, sexual receptivity and pleasure in a woman who is oestrogen-replete and in whom no other significant contributing factors can be identified. The diagnosis is supported by the finding of low circulating concentrations of free testosterone. Barriers to its recognition include the non-specificity of the symptoms and methodological problems due to insensitive testosterone assays. Barriers to its treatment include the unavailability of satisfactory forms of testosterone for administration to women and lack of data regarding long-term safety. Although several conditions lead to clear-cut androgen deficiency, such as hypopituitarism, adrenal and ovarian insufficiency, glucocorticoid therapy and use of oral contraceptives and oral oestrogens, it is important for clinicians to recognise that in normal women, androgen levels decline by 50% from the early 20s to the mid 40s, and hence age-related androgen insufficiency may occur in women in their late 30s and 40s, as well as postmenopausally. Satisfactory measurements of free testosterone requires a sensitive and reliable assay for total testosterone, and quantitation of sex hormone binding globulin, from which free testosterone is readily calculated. Adverse effects of testosterone treatment are few if replacement is monitored to achieve physiological circulating testosterone concentrations. Currently, available methods include testosterone implants and testosterone creams, and transdermal patches and sprays are in development.

  2. Low free testosterone predicts frailty in older men: the health in men study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Zoë; Flicker, Leon; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Hankey, Graeme J; McCaul, Kieran A; Chubb, S A Paul; Yeap, Bu B

    2010-07-01

    The prevalence of frailty increases, whereas testosterone decreases, as men age. Low testosterone may be a risk factor for development of this syndrome. Our objective was to determine whether testosterone levels are associated with frailty. We conducted a prospective cohort study. Between 2001 and 2004, frailty was assessed in 3616 community-dwelling men aged 70-88 yr. Frailty was reassessed in 1586 men aged 76-93 yr in 2008-2009. Frailty was assessed with the FRAIL scale, comprising five domains: fatigue, difficulty climbing a flight of stairs, difficulty walking more than 100 m, more than five illnesses present, or weight loss greater than 5%. Testosterone, SHBG, and LH were assayed at baseline. Free testosterone was calculated using mass action equations. At baseline, 15.2% of men (n = 548) were frail (at least three deficits), increasing to 23.0% (n = 364) at follow-up. At baseline, each 1 sd decrease in total or free testosterone level was associated with increased odds of frailty [odds ratio (OR) = 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-1.38, and OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.15-1.44 for total and free testosterone, respectively]. Lower LH was associated with reduced odds of frailty (OR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.81-0.95). Adjustments were made for age, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, social support, and other covariates. At follow-up, only lower free testosterone levels (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.05-1.42) predicted frailty. Lower free testosterone was independently associated with frailty at baseline and follow-up. Randomized trials should explore whether testosterone therapy can prevent the development of frailty.

  3. Encapsulation of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-05-01

    The loading of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles was investigated, using multiple spectroscopic methods, thermodynamic analysis, TEM images and modeling. Thermodynamic parameters showed testosterone-chitosan bindings occur mainly via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts. As polymer size increased more stable steroid-chitosan conjugates formed and hydrophobic contact was also observed. The loading efficacy of testosterone-nanocarrier was 40-55% and increased as chitosan size increased. Testosterone encapsulation markedly alters chitosan morphology. Chitosan nanoparticles are capable of transporting testosterone in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Greater percent-free testosterone is associated with high-grade prostate cancer in men undergoing prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albisinni, Simone; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea; Barry, William T; Banez, Lionel L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2012-07-01

    To analyze the serum androgen concentrations in men who underwent an initial prostate biopsy, focusing on the percent-free testosterone (%FT) as a predictor of low- and high-grade prostate cancer (PCa). Most studies have suggested that the absolute serum testosterone and free testosterone levels are not related to PCa risk. However, to date, the concurrent effect of free and total testosterone levels has not been evaluated. In particular, the association of the %FT (free testosterone/total testosterone) with PCa risk has not been explored. From 2006 to 2010, we collected data on 812 white Italian men with no history of PCa who underwent 12-core biopsy. The testosterone, free testosterone, and %FT (free testosterone/total testosterone) were examined as predictors of low-grade (Gleason score of ≤ 6) and high-grade (Gleason score ≥ 7) PCa using crude and adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis. On multivariate analysis, testosterone (P ≥ .11) and free testosterone (P ≥ .45) were not significantly associated with low- or high-grade PCa. A greater %FT level significantly predicted high-grade PCa on both crude (P = .01) and multivariate (P = .02) analysis but not low-grade PCa (P ≥ .38). When examined in tertiles, men in the greatest %FT tertile had a significant twofold increased risk of high-grade PCa (odds ratio 2.04, 95% confidence interval 1.23-3.37, P = .005). In white Italian men, a greater %FT level was associated with an increased risk of high-grade PCa on initial prostate biopsy. These findings suggest that a high %FT level, rather than the absolute androgen levels, might be associated with high-grade PCa. Additional studies are needed to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Muscles of the trunk and pelvis are responsive to testosterone administration: data from testosterone dose-response study in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, J; Arver, S; Pencina, K M; Martling, A; Blomqvist, L; Buchli, C; Li, Z; Gagliano-Jucá, T; Travison, T G; Huang, G; Storer, T W; Bhasin, S; Basaria, S

    2018-01-01

    Testosterone dose-dependently increases appendicular muscle mass. However, the effects of testosterone administration on the core muscles of the trunk and the pelvis have not been evaluated. The present study evaluated the effects of testosterone administration on truncal and pelvic muscles in a dose-response trial. Participants were young healthy men aged 18-50 years participating in the 5α-Reductase (5aR) Trial. All participants received monthly injections of 7.5 mg leuprolide acetate to suppress endogenous testosterone production and weekly injections of 50, 125, 300, or 600 mg of testosterone enanthate and were randomized to receive either 2.5 mg dutasteride (5aR inhibitor) or placebo daily for 20 weeks. Muscles of the trunk and the pelvis were measured at baseline and the end of treatment using 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. The dose effect of testosterone on changes in the psoas major muscle area was the primary outcome; secondary outcomes included changes in paraspinal, abdominal, pelvic floor, ischiocavernosus, and obturator internus muscles. The association between changes in testosterone levels and muscle area was also assessed. Testosterone dose-dependently increased areas of all truncal and pelvic muscles. The estimated change (95% confidence interval) of muscle area increase per 100 mg of testosterone enanthate dosage increase was 0.622 cm2 (0.394, 0.850) for psoas; 1.789 cm2 (1.317, 2.261) for paraspinal muscles, 2.530 cm2 (1.627, 3.434) for total abdominal muscles, 0.455 cm2 (0.233, 0.678) for obturator internus, and 0.082 cm2 (0.003, 0.045) for ischiocavernosus; the increase in these volumes was significantly associated with the changes in on-treatment total and free serum testosterone concentrations. In conclusion, core muscles of the trunk and pelvis are responsive to testosterone administration. Future trials should evaluate the potential role of testosterone administration in frail men who are predisposed to falls and men with

  6. Korelasi antara Kadar Testosteron dan Proses Remodeling Ventrikel Kiri pada Penderita Infark Miokardium Akut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rizki Akbar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Infark miokardium akut merupakan penyebab utama kematian di dunia. Perbedaan jenis kelamin berperan terhadap mortalitas jangka panjang pascainfark miokardium yang menunjukkan gambaran pola fisiologi regenerasi miokardium yang spesifik. Kematian setelah infark miokardium lebih tinggi pada perempuan. Remodeling ventrikel kiri merupakan proses penyembuhan luka pascainfark miokardium yang menjadi petunjuk keadaan gagal jantung maupun kematian. Proses ini berpengaruh penting pada fungsi ventrikel dan prognosis survival yang dapat didiagnosis dengan pemeriksaan ekokardiografi. Terdapat kontroversi berkaitan dengan peranan androgen pada proses remodeling jantung. Walaupun masih terdapat perdebatan, androgen memiliki peran terhadap remodeling ventrikel kiri dan bersifat protektif terhadap proses fibrosis yang maladaptif. Dilakukan penelitian observasional analitik yang bersifat prospektif untuk mengkaji peranan testosteron terhadap remodeling ventrikel kiri pada pasien infark miokardium akut di RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung selama Maret–Oktober 2015. Penelitian dilakukan pada 60 orang laki-laki usia 40–77 tahun penderita infark miokardium akut. Pemeriksaan ekokardiografi, pengukuran kadar testosteron total, testosteron bebas, dan testosteron bioavailabel dilakukan sebanyak dua kali. Pemeriksaan pertama dilakukan saat pasien didiagnosis infark miokardium akut dan pengulangan 4–6 minggu kemudian. Usia rata-rata penderita 56,16±8,48 tahun. Bila dibanding dengan pemeriksaan pertama dan kedua, tampak peningkatan kadar testosteron total yang signifikan (785,00±661,76 ng/dL vs 822,33±365,64 ng/dL; p=0,004, penurunan kadar testosteron bebas (24,66±17,91 ng/dL vs 19,00±15,24 ng/dL; p=0,067, dan penurunan kadar testosteron bioavailabel (475,21±353,10 ng/dL vs 394,98±314,85 ng/dL; p=0,166. Analisis korelasi Rank Spearman memperlihatkan korelasi bermakna antara testosteron bebas dan relative wall thickness (p=0,019, serta testosteron

  7. Effects of transdermal testosterone gel or an aromatase inhibitor on serum concentration and pulsatility of growth hormone in older men with age-related low testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jenny Pena; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Carlson, Olga; Shardell, Michelle; Chia, Chee W; Melvin, Denise; Egan, Josephine M; Basaria, Shehzad

    2017-04-01

    Growth hormone is the major regulator of growth and body composition. Pulsatile GH secretion declines exponentially with age. Testosterone replacement is being increasingly offered to older men with age-related low testosterone. Testosterone administration has been shown to stimulate GH secretion. However, little is known about the effect of testosterone aromatization to estradiol on GH pulsatility and its impact on IGF-1 in older men. This randomized controlled proof-of-concept trial investigated the relative effects of testosterone and estradiol on GH pulsatility and IGF-1 in older men with low testosterone. Thirty-seven men, ≥65years with total testosterone testosterone gel (TT), 1mg oral aromatase inhibitor (AI) or placebo daily for 12months. Primary outcome was deconvolution and approximate entropy analyses of pulsatile including basal and entropic modes of secretion performed at baseline and 3months. Secondary outcomes included IGF-1 evaluated at baseline, 3 and 6months. At 3months, mean GH and in IGF-1 were similar between the three groups. At 6months, IGF-1 significantly increased by Δ 15.3±10.3ng/ml in the TT-group compared to placebo (P=0.03). Both intervention groups significantly increased GH pulse frequency (TT-group, P=0.04; AI-group, P=0.05) compared to placebo. The GH secretory-burst mode (duration) significantly decreased in the TT-group (P=0.0018) compared to placebo while it remained unchanged in the AI-group (P=0.059). In older men, testosterone increases GH pulse frequency while the aromatization to estradiol is involved in the rise of IGF-1 levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Is Free Testosterone Concentration a Prognostic Factor of Survival in Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczyk, Stanislaw; Niemczyk, Longin; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Romejko-Ciepielewska, Katarzyna; Gomółka, Malgorzata; Saracyn, Marek; Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska, Joanna

    2015-11-07

    Lowered testosterone level in CRF patients is associated with elevated risk of death due to cardiovascular reasons, and is influenced by many factors, including acid-base balance disorders. evaluation of testoste-rone concentration (TT) and free testosterone concentration (fT) in pre-dialysis and dialysis patients; assessment of TT and fT relationships with biochemical parameters; evaluation of prognostic importance of TT and fT in predicting patient survival. 4 groups of men: 14 - on hemodialysis (HD), 13 - on peritoneal dialysis (PD), 9 - with chronic renal failure (CRF) and 8 - healthy (CG), aged 56±17, 53±15, 68±12, 43±10 years, respectively. TT and biochemical para-meters were measured; fT was calculated. The lowest TT and fT were observed in HD and CRF, the highest - in CG (p=0.035 for TT; p=0.007 for fT). fT in CRF and CG were different (p=0.031). TT and age was associated in HD (p=0.026). Age and fT was strongly associated in PD (pfree testosterone in decompensated acidosis was observed (ptrend=0.027). Such a trend was not seen for testosterone concentrations (ptrend=0.107). Total and free testosterone levels were lower in HD and pre-dialysis than in healthy patients. Free testost-erone level may predict long-term survival better than age. Total and free testosterone levels are lower in metabolic acidosis and total and free testosterone levels were positively associated with HCO3 level.

  9. Varicocelectomy is associated with increases in serum testosterone independent of clinical grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Wayland; Rosoff, James S; Pale, Joseph R; Powell, Jonathan L; Goldstein, Marc

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether the varicocele grade is related to the degree of improvement in serum testosterone levels after varicocelectomy. We performed a retrospective review of men with a total serum testosterone level levels available. For patients with bilateral varicoceles, the greatest grade on either side was used to stratify the patients. The men with an isolated, left-side, grade I varicocele were not offered varicocelectomy. The changes in the testosterone levels were evaluated, with the results expressed as the mean ± standard error. P ≤.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 59 patients had undergone bilateral varicocelectomy and 19 unilateral varicocelectomy. Overall, an increase in testosterone was seen in 65 of the 78 men (83%) in the present study. The mean follow-up was 7 months. The mean serum testosterone level increased from 308.4 to 417.5 ng/dL, with a mean increase of 109.1 ± 12.8 ng/dL (n = 78). The improvements in the serum testosterone levels were seen regardless of the clinical grade. Microsurgical varicocelectomy resulted in significant increases in the serum testosterone level, independent of the varicocele grade. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Accuracy-based proficiency testing for testosterone measurements with immunoassays and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhimin Tim; Botelho, Julianne Cook; Rej, Robert; Vesper, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    Accurate testosterone measurements are needed to correctly diagnose and treat patients. Proficiency Testing (PT) programs using modified specimens for testing can be limited because of matrix effects and usage of non-reference measurement procedure (RMP)-defined targets for evaluation. Accuracy-based PT can overcome such limitations; however, there is a lack of information on accuracy-based PT and feasibility of its implementation in evaluation for testosterone measurements. Unaltered, single-donor human serum from 2 male and 2 female adult donors were analyzed for testosterone by 142 NYSDH-certified clinical laboratories using 16 immunoassays and LC-MS/MS methods. Testosterone target values were determined using an RMP. The testosterone target concentrations for the 4 specimens were 15.5, 30.0, 402 and 498ng/dl. The biases ranged from -17.8% to 73.1%, 3.1% to 21.3%, -24.8% to 8.6%, and -22.1% to 6.8% for the 4 specimens, respectively. Using a total error target of ±25.1%, which was calculated using the minimum allowable bias and imprecision, 73% of participating laboratories had ≥3 of the 4 results within these limits. The variability in total testosterone measurements can affect clinical decisions. Accuracy-based PT can significantly contribute to improving testosterone testing by providing reliable data on accuracy in patient care to laboratories, assay manufacturers, and standardization programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Testosterone in human studies: Modest associations between plasma and salivary measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, A E; Bosker, F J; Giltay, E J; de Kloet, C S; Roelofs, K; van Pelt, J; Penninx, B W J H; Schoevers, R A

    2018-02-01

    Testosterone is involved in many processes like aggression and mood disorders. As it may easily diffuse from blood into saliva, salivary testosterone is thought to reflect plasma free testosterone level. If so, it would provide a welcome noninvasive and less stressful alternative to blood sampling. Past research did not reveal consensus regarding the strength of the association, but sample sizes were small. This study aimed to analyse the association in a large cohort. In total, 2,048 participants (age range 18-65 years; 696 males and 1,352 females) were included and saliva (using cotton Salivettes) and plasma were collected for testosterone measurements. Levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay respectively. Free testosterone was calculated by the Vermeulen algorithm. Associations were determined using linear regression analyses. Plasma total and free testosterone showed a significant association with salivary testosterone in men (adjusted β = .09, p = .01; and β = .15, p < .001, respectively) and in women (adjusted β = .08, p = .004; and crude β = .09, p = .002 respectively). The modest associations indicate that there are many influencing factors of both technical and biological origin. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Re: Could Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Hypogonadal Men Ameliorate Anemia, a Cardiovascular Risk Factor? An Observational, 54-week Cumulative Registry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Bakırcıoğlu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone deficiency syndrome may associate with erectile dysfunction, increased abdominal fat and reduced muscle mass. Low serum testosterone is also related with anemia, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. In this study, the authors investigated if testosterone undecanoate (TU reduces anemia and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with hypogonadism A total of 58 participants with a total testosterone level of less than 2.35 ng/ml received an injection of 1.000 mg TU 6 times; at initial visit, 6, 18, 30, 42 and 54 weeks. They observed that total testosterone and free testosterone levels were restored by TU. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels significantly increased while anemia and total cholesterol levels significantly reduced. Although there are some limitations of this study e.g. it is not a randomized controlled and a long-term study, TU treatment in hypogonadal men decreased the prevalence of anemia, improved lipid profiles and lowered the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  13. A cross-sectional pilot study to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome in working population of Indian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apul Goel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS in healthy Indian men employed in a hospital aged above 40 years. Materials and Methods: A general medical health check-up camp was organized for all male employees above 40 years age working in surgical departments. After clinical history and systemic inquiry, subjects were requested to fill the St. Louis University′s ADAM Questionnaire based on which the total and free-serum testosterone estimation was then done. Results: One hundred fifty seven healthy volunteers enrolled for the study (mean age 53.1 years; range 40-60. The androgen decline in the aging male (ADAM Questionnaire detected 106 men (67.5% to be symptomatic for TDS. Serum testosterone estimation in these subjects revealed 41/106 to have low free-serum testosterone levels and 32/106 to have low total-serum testosterone. In 11 and 6 cases, respectively, the serum free- and total-testosterone levels were found to be low although the subjects were asymptomatic for TDS. Conclusions: The prevalence of symptomatic biochemical hypogonadism was 26.1%. The higher prevalence of symptoms alone of TDS was unusual. It could be because of the nature of the questionnaire. Free-serum testosterone may be a better single test to diagnose symptomatic hypogonadism than total-serum testosterone.

  14. The many faces of testosterone

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, Jerald

    2007-01-01

    Jerald BainDepartment of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Testosterone is more than a “male sex hormone”. It is an important contributor to the robust metabolic functioning of multiple bodily systems. The abuse of anabolic steroids by athletes over the years has been one of the major detractors from the investigation an...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testosterone test system. 862.1680 Section 862....1680 Testosterone test system. (a) Identification. A testosterone test system is a device intended to measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are...

  16. High free testosterone index increases lung function in adult males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Increasing age and decreased testosterone concentrations in males influence muscle strength and muscle mass, particularly in skeletal muscle. There have been few studies on decreased lung function resulting from reduced mass and strength of respiratory muscles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of an association between free testosterone index (FTI and lung function in males aged between 40 and 80 years. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 167 males aged between 40 and 80 years in Cilandak subdistrict, South Jakarta. Total serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG concentrations were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA using Roche Elecsys Reagent Kit Cat 11776061 and Elecsys 2010 reagent (Cobas e601, respectively FTI was calculated using the formula free testosterone/SHBG x 100%. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (VEP1 was assessed by means of an AS 500 spirometer. Results Mean age of the subjects was 53.32 ± 8.26 years, mean total serum testosterone concentration was 532.59 ± 206.92 ng/dL, mean SHBG concentration 41.26 ± 21.14 nmol/L, mean FTI 48.22 ± 14.34 %, and mean VEP1 was 1.63 ± 0.54 L. There was a significant association between both SHBG and FTI on the one hand and VEP1 on the other, with Pearson correlation coefficients of -0.199 (p=0.010 and 0.271 (p=0.000, respectively. Linear multiple regression analysis indicated that FTI was the most influential variable on lung function (VEP1, higher FTI values indicating higher VEP1 (â=0.008: p=0.004. Conclusion In males aged 40-80 years, higher FTI values indicate better lung function as determined by means of VEP1.

  17. Effect of acute DHEA administration on free testosterone in middle-aged and young men following high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te-Chih; Lin, Che-Hung; Huang, Chih-Yang; Ivy, John L; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-07-01

    With advancing age, plasma testosterone levels decline, with free testosterone levels declining more significantly than total testosterone. This fall is thought to underlie the development of physical and mental weakness that occurs with advancing age. In addition, vigorous exercise can also lower total and free testosterone levels with the decline greatest in physically untrained men. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of oral DHEA supplementation, a testosterone precursor, on free testosterone in sedentary middle-aged men during recovery from a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) bout of exercise. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted for 8 middle-aged participants (aged 49.3 ± 2.4 years) and an additional 8 young control participants (aged 21.4 ± 0.3 years). Each participant received DHEA (50 mg) and placebo on separate occasions one night (12 h) before a 5-session, 2-min cycling exercise (100% VO₂max). While no significant age difference in total testosterone was found, middle-aged participants exhibited significantly lower free testosterone and greater luteinizing hormone (LH) levels than the young control group. Oral DHEA supplementation increased circulating DHEA-S and free testosterone levels well above baseline in the middle-aged group, with no significant effect on total testosterone levels. Total testosterone and DHEA-S dropped significantly until 24 h after HIIT for both age groups, while free testosterone of DHEA-supplemented middle-aged men remained unaffected. These results demonstrate acute oral DHEA supplementation can elevate free testosterone levels in middle-aged men and prevent it from declining during HIIT. Therefore, DHEA supplementation may have significant benefits related to HIIT adaptation.

  18. Circulating free testosterone in obese men after bariatric surgery increases in parallel with insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella-Carretero, J I; Balsa, J A; Gómez-Martin, J M; Peromingo, R; Huerta, L; Carrasco, M; Arrieta, F; Zamarron, I; Martin-Hidalgo, A; Vazquez, C

    2013-04-01

    Male hypogonadism has been linked to obesity and diabetes. We aimed to study the association of changes in insulin sensitivity and testosterone levels in severe obese patients submitted to bariatric surgery. Prospective intervention study with twenty consecutive patients who underwent bariatric surgery studied before and after significant weight loss. Serum testosterone, SHBG, fasting glucose, and insulin were measured among others. Free testosterone was calculated with the Vermeulen formula and insulin sensitivity with the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). At baseline, thirteen patients had low total testosterone levels, whereas eight of these patients also had free testosterone levels below the reference range obtained from the control group. After bariatric surgery total testosterone, SHBG, and free testosterone significantly increased and achieved normal values in all evaluated patients. Insulin sensitivity improved in all of them. Multivariate linear regression showed that changes in fasting glucose (β=-1.868, p=0.001), insulin (β=-3.782, p=0.001), weight (β=-0.622, p=0.002), and SHBG (β=-0.635, p=0.022) were associated with changes in free testosterone (adjusted R2=0.936, F=26.613, p=0.001). When insulin resistance calculated by HOMA was in the model instead of insulin and glucose, it also was associated (β=-3.488, p=0.008) with free testosterone (adjusted R2=0.821, F=11.111, p=0.005). Circulating tes tos terone in obese men increases after bariatric surgery in parallel with an improvement in insulin sensitivity.

  19. Testosterone Deficiency, Cardiac Health, and Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hackett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of testosterone are manifested by erectile dysfunction, reduced sexual desire, and loss of morning erections with increasing numbers of men are being diagnosed and require treatment. The prevalence rates of testosterone deficiency vary according to different studies but may be as high as 40% in populations of patients with type 2 diabetes. There is increasing evidence that testosterone deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Screening for low testosterone is recommended in a number of high risk groups including those with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There are recent data to suggest that testosterone replacement therapy may reduce cardiovascular mortality as well as improving multiple surrogate markers for cardiovascular events. Specific clinical trials of testosterone replacement therapy are needed in selected populations but in the meantime we must treat patients based on the best current evidence.

  20. Effect of exogenous testosterone, finasteride, and castration on serum level of thyroxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Fatemeh; Yousofvand, Namdar; Khazaei, Mozafar; Ghanbari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The secretion of thyroxin (T4) as the main hormone of thyroid gland is regulated by androgens. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of testosterone and finasteride administration and castration on serum levels of T4 and to show the effect of this regulation on total body weight, weight of testis, and the weight of prostate. Male adult rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8): Group 1 (control), Group 2 (castration), Group 3 (finasteride: 20 mg/kg/day) and Group 4 (testosterone: 5 mg/kg/day). At the end of the study (35 days), serum level of thyroxin, body weight, weight of testis, and prostate were determined. The data showed that the body weight increased in castrated (P = 0.04) and decreased in testosterone (P = 0.00) groups but did not differ in finasteride (P>0.05) group. There were not any differences in the weight of testis among control, finasteride, and testosterone groups but the weight of prostate increased in testosterone group (P = 0.00) and decreased in castrated (P = 0.03) and finasteride groups (P = 0.04). In addition, the serum level of T4 (nmo/ml) decreased in the three groups: finasteride (P = 0.03), testosterone (P = 0.04), and castrated (P = 0.00). Testosterone in both high and low levels decreased the amount of T4 with a time-dependent manner.

  1. Testosterone as a marker of coronary artery disease severity in middle aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururani, Kunal; Jose, John; George, Paul V

    2016-12-01

    Historically, higher levels of serum testosterone were presumed deleterious to the cardiovascular system. In the last two decades, studies have suggested that low testosterone levels are associated with increased prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), including dyslipidemia and diabetes. This is a cross sectional study. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between serum testosterone levels and angiographic severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Serum testosterone levels were also correlated with flow mediated dilation of brachial artery (BAFMD) - an indicator of endothelial function. Consecutive male patients, aged 40-60 years, admitted for coronary angiography (CAG) with symptoms suggestive of CAD, were included in the study. Out of the 92 patients included in the study, 32 patients had normal coronaries and 60 had CAD on coronary angiography. Severity of CAD was determined by Gensini coronary score. The group with CAD had significantly lower levels of total serum testosterone (363±147.1 vs 532.09±150.5ng/dl, pfree testosterone (7.1215±3.012 vs 10.4419±2.75ng/dl, ptestosterone (166.17±64.810 vs 247.94±62.504ng/dl, ptestosterone was an independent predictor of severity of CAD (β=-0.007, pfree and bioavailable testosterone correlated positively with BAFMD %. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Tissue culture media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum contains a castrate level of testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Isaacs, John T

    2009-12-01

    Human prostate cancer cells are routinely maintained in media supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) to provide androgen. In the present study, total and free testosterone levels in 10%FCS supplemented tissue culture media were determined and compared to levels in intact and castrated human males. Dextran-coated charcoal stripped FCS (i.e., DC-FCS) is often used instead of FCS to minimize the level of androgen provided in 10% serum supplemented media. Therefore, total and free testosterone levels in 10%DC-FCS containing media were likewise determined. Total testosterone, free testosterone, and total dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were determined on RPMI-1640 media supplemented with either 10%FCS or 10%DC-FCS by ELISA assays before and after exposure to LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in culture. The growth and PSA secretion by these cells was also determined. Ten percentage FCS supplemented media contains a castrate level of testosterone. However, even with this castrate starting level of testosterone, LNCaP cells concentrate and metabolize the testosterone to produce a physiologic (i.e., 10 nM) level of intracellular DHT which optimally stimulates the growth of these cells in vitro. The present studies document that prostate cancer cells auto-regulate their androgen metabolism so that an optimal level of DHT for growth is maintained during both up and down fluctuations in the supply of testosterone. These results have significant implications for whether exogenous androgen should be added to the 10%FCS supplemented media to grow prostate cancer cells from intact versus castrated patients. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Testosterone a female hormone : Testing the function and evolution of testosterone in female birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Berber

    2013-01-01

    Hoewel testosteron vaak het mannelijk geslachtshormoon wordt genoemd produceren vrouwen van heel veel diersoorten ook testosteron, zij het veelal in mindere mate. Wat de functie van dit hormoon is in vrouwtjes is, in tegenstelling tot bij mannetjes, slecht onderzocht. Hebben vrouwtjes testosteron,

  4. Provider and Site-Level Determinants of Testosterone Prescribing in the Veterans Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuja, Guneet K; Bhasin, Shalender; Rose, Adam J; Reisman, Joel I; Hanlon, Joseph T; Miller, Donald R; Morreale, Anthony P; Pogach, Leonard M; Cunningham, Francesca E; Park, Angela; Wiener, Renda S; Gifford, Allen L; Berlowitz, Dan R

    2017-09-01

    Testosterone prescribing rates have increased substantially in the past decade. However, little is known about the context within which such prescriptions occur. We evaluated provider- and site-level determinants of receipt of testosterone and of guideline-concordant testosterone prescribing. This study was cross-sectional in design. This study was conducted at the Veterans Health Administration (VA). Study participants were a national cohort of male patients who had received at least one outpatient prescription within the VA during fiscal year (FY) 2008 to FY 2012. A total of 38,648 providers and 130 stations were associated with these patients. This study measured receipt of testosterone and guideline-concordant testosterone prescribing. Providers ranging in age from 31 to 60 years, with less experience in the VA [all adjusted odds ratio (AOR), testosterone compared with older providers, providers of longer VA tenure, and primary care providers, respectively. Sites located in the West compared with the Northeast [AOR, 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.45-2.11] and care received at a community-based outpatient clinic compared with a medical center (AOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.20-1.24) also predicted testosterone use. Although they were more likely to prescribe testosterone, endocrinologists were also more likely to obtain an appropriate workup before prescribing compared with primary care providers (AOR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.54-2.97). Our results highlight the opportunity to intervene at both the provider and the site levels to improve testosterone prescribing. This study also provides a useful example of how to examine contributions to prescribing variation at different levels of the health care system.

  5. Reduction in 24-Hour Plasma Testosterone Levels in Subjects Who Showered 15 or 30 Minutes After Application of Testosterone Gel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, W.; Vogel, S.; Bui, H.N.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective. To investigate whether showering, to prevent the involuntary transfer of testosterone to others through skin contact, either 15 or 30 minutes after application of testosterone gel would significantly affect plasma testosterone levels. Design. Prospective 3-way crossover trial.

  6. Effects of In Vivo Testosterone Manipulation on Ovarian Morphology, Follicular Development, and Follicle Yolk Testosterone in the Homing Pigeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerlich, Vivian C.; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2010-01-01

    To date, our understanding of the function of testosterone in female reproductive physiology is only marginal although there are indications that testosterone is involved in modulating follicular recruitment, growth, atresia, and ovulation. Studies elevating testosterone in breeding female birds

  7. Rosuvastatin decreases testosterone levels but not sexual function in men with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ching Jung; Huang, Bin

    2016-10-01

    Statins may decrease serum testosterone levels via decreasing cholesterol, a precursor to testosterone. This case series studied the effects of rosuvastatin on free testosterone levels and sexual function in men with type 2 diabetes. We enrolled 151 men with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Biochemical assessments included serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, total testosterone and serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). All parameters were measured before statin treatment, after 6months of statin treatment, and 6months after discontinuing statin treatment. The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) was also administered at these times. Serum TC and LDL levels were high before statin therapy, decreased after six months of statin therapy, and increased significantly six months after discontinuing statin therapy (198.1±28.1mg/dl vs. 147.1±22.8mg/dl vs. 205.2±25.6mg/dl, p-valuefree testosterone levels calculated from total testosterone and SHBG calculated by formula were higher before statin therapy, obviously decreased after six months of statin therapy, and subsequently increased six months after discontinuing statin therapy (22.4±3.1ng/ml vs. 20.9±2.8ng/ml vs. 22.6±2.6ng/ml p value=0.006). SHIM scores did not obviously differ among the three stages (16.3±4.8 vs. 16.0±4.9 vs. 16.3±5.0 p=0.944). After adjustment for age, serum free testosterone levels correlated with SHIM scores and LDL (r=0.39, p=free testosterone levels but does not influence sexual function in men with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma Testosterone and the Course of Major Depressive Disorder in Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltay, Erik J; van der Mast, Roos C; Lauwen, Esther; Heijboer, Annemieke C; de Waal, Margot W M; Comijs, Hannie C

    2017-04-01

    To investigate associations between testosterone levels and major depressive disorder (MDD) in older men and women. In a cross-sectional, 2-year prospective analyses within the Netherlands Study on Depression in Older persons cohort study, 469 participants comprised 350 patients with MDD and 119 nondepressed participants in the comparison group (mean age 70.5 ± 7.3 years; 166 [35.4%] men). MDD was assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Baseline plasma total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were assessed to calculate free testosterone. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology was assessed every 6 months. Whereas SHBG levels did not differ between the depressed/nondepressed groups (F(1,149) = 0.075, p = 0.78), men with MDD had lower mean total and free testosterone levels than the comparison group in the multivariate adjusted analyses (F(1,150) = 7.249, p = 0.008, Cohen's d = 0.51; and F(1,149) = 8.548, p = 0.004 Cohen's d = 0.55, respectively). This could be ascribed to lower testosterone in men with "pure" MDD and not in men with MDD and comorbid anxiety. Nine men (5.4%) had a total testosterone level women, hormone levels showed no significant difference between the groups. In men (using all five measurement points during follow-up) baseline free testosterone was inversely associated with depression severity in the adjusted analyses (β = -0.15, t(151) = -2.15, p = 0.03). Testosterone levels were lower in men with MDD compared with healthy men after adjustment for confounders, such as body mass index. No significant associations were found in women. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Testosterone therapy preserves muscle strength and power in aging men with type 2 diabete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, L V; Hvid, L G; Hermann, A P

    2017-01-01

    function was assessed by Nottingham Leg Rig (leg extension power) and isokinetic dynamometry (knee extensor maximal isometric contraction, rate of force development (RFD100), maximal dynamic contraction (Dyn180)). Physical function was assessed by gait speed. Body composition was assessed by whole body...... dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (total lean body mass, lean leg mass, total fat mass, leg fat mass). Levels of total testosterone (TotalT), BioT, free testosterone (FreeT), and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured from fasting blood samples. Coefficients (b) represent the placebo-controlled mean...... effect of intervention. Maximal isometric contraction (b = 18.4 Nm, p = 0.039), RFD100 (b = 195.0 Nm/s, p = 0.017) and Dyn180 (b = 10.2 Nm, p = 0.019) increased during testosterone replacement therapy compared with placebo. No changes were observed in leg power or gait speed. Total lean body mass (b = 1...

  10. Review Article: Practical Aspects of Testosterone Deficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review we describe the clinical manifestations associated with testosterone deficiency in aging men, termed the testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS). Since aging men suffer from multiple urological and andrological symptoms, TDS is an important medical condition to be suspected, recognized, clinically ...

  11. [Salivary testosterone and cognitive ability in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostatnikova, D; Dohnanyiova, M; Mataseje, A; Putz, Z; Laznibatova, J; Hajek, J

    2000-01-01

    There are suggestive data with indicate the link of testosterone levels with specific cognitive abilities in humans. As soon as during intrauterine development, testosterone is supposed to influence to organization of fetal specific brain structures. This influence is permanent and it is reflected in cognitive abilities during prepubetal period. In puberty, the testosterone level rapidly increases mainly in boys and it appears to influence the definitive development of cognitive functions. In this paper, results of the first four years of our logitudinal study are presented. Salivary testosterone levels in children were determined, and their effect on spatial ability was studied. Radioimmunoanalytical method of testosterone determination in saliva was developed, since saliva reflects free fraction of testosterone directly available for uptake by receptors in the central nervous system. The sampling of saliva is non-invasive and unstressful, which is important for relevant evaluation of cognitive performance. One hundred and forty-seven children (78 boys and 69 girls) at the ae of 8 to 12 were examined. The data received from intellectually gifted children attending the School for gifted children in Bratislava (100 measurements) were compared with the data received from age-matched children attending randomly chosen elementary schools (151 measurements). Lower salivary testosterone levels were found in intellectually gifted children of both sexes, and negative relationship between testosterone levels and cognitive abilities in preadolescent children was observed.

  12. Basic study on measurement of serum free testosterone concentration using DPC free testosterone RIA kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togashi, Kazuyoshi; Umeda, Seiji; Ochiai, Takeshi; Toriumi, Kazuhiro; Sudo, Yoshimasa; Kihira, Kouji

    1987-07-01

    A commercial 'analogue' radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit, a DPC kit, is capable of directly measuring plasma free testosterone (FT) in the evaluation of gonadal activity and androgenicity. Basic study for this kit yielded the following findings. 1) An incubation of four hours was enough to measure FT. 2) Reproducibility of the assay encouraged the use of this kit for the clinical purpose. 3) Binding to albumin, commonly observed in the ''analogue tracer'' assay, was not encountered. 4) Plasma FT concentrations were significantly increased in all three samples treated with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, compared with the other serum and heparin-treated samples. 5) There was a significantly positive correlation between FT concentrations and total testosterone (TT)/sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). 6) Plasma FT concentrations lay within the normal range in patients with Graves' disease who had normal gonadal activity and high levels of TT and SHBG. This seemed to reflext gonadal activity without any effect of SHBG. 7) For pregnant women, plasma FT concentrations were slightly higher in the third trimester, although the levels in the second trimester were similar to those in the nonpregnant state. (Namekawa, K.).

  13. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Sahar

    2016-04-01

    As testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has emerged as a commonly prescribed therapy for symptomatic low testosterone, conflicting data have been reported in terms of both its efficacy and potential adverse outcomes. One of the most controversial associations has been that of TRT and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review briefly provides background on the history of TRT, the indications for TRT, and the data behind TRT for symptomatic low testosterone. It then specifically delves into the rather limited data for cardiovascular outcomes of those with low endogenous testosterone and those who receive TRT. The available body of literature strongly suggests that more work, by way of clinical trials, needs to be done to better understand the impact of testosterone and TRT on the cardiovascular system.

  14. [Contribution of bioavailable testosterone assay for the diagnosis of androgen deficiency in elderly men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, H; Déchaud, H; Pugeat, M

    2003-04-01

    With age, some men develop symptoms resembling hypogonadism. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown a decrease in testosterone levels with ageing in men. This finding has equally been observed in elderly men in good health. Testosterone levels decline progressively as of the thirties, at a rate which remains constant throughout life. While total testosterone levels decrease, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels on the contrary increase with age, with the result that the levels of free and non-SHBG-bound testosterone (corresponding to the fraction which is bioavailable to target cells) decrease more abruptly than that of total testosterone. Higher LH levels, decreased testosterone response to hCG and less Leydig cells all indicate that ageing induces partial testicular failure. However, the gonadotropic function is also affected in ageing. The hypothalamus-pituitary becomes more sensitive to gonad steroid feedback, LH pulse amplitude decreases, and the LH response to GnRH is blunted compared to the situation in young men. Thus LH level is not a valid index of androgen deficiency in elderly males. None of the androgen-dependent functions (libido, erection, sense of well-being, muscle mass and strength, fat mass, bone mass, erythropoiesis, etc.) are under exclusively androgen control, and there is no elderly male symptom which is completely specific to androgen deficiency. Thus, in elderly men, when clinical symptoms might indicate androgen deficiency, biological confirmation is needed. An assay which is independent of SHBG fluctuations is mandatory. Bioavailable testosterone assay by ammonium sulfate precipitation seems to us to be the optimum method for diagnosing androgen deficiency: it gives a reliable measurement for the testosterone fraction available to target cells, is adapted to clinical practice, and provides results that can be directly compared with current reference values for healthy young men.

  15. Testosterone ethosomes for enhanced transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainbinder, Denize; Touitou, Elka

    2005-01-01

    Physiological decrease in testosterone levels in men with age causes various changes with clinical significance. Recent testosterone replacement therapy is based mainly on transdermal nonpatch delivery systems. These products have the drawback of application on extremely large areas to achieve required hormone blood levels. The objective of the present study was to design and test a testosterone nonpatch formulation using ethosomes for enhanced transdermal absorption. The ethosomal formulation was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering for structure and size distribution and by ultracentrifugation for entrapment capacity. To evaluate the feasibility of this delivery system to enhance testosterone permeation through the skin, first the systemic absorption in rats was compared with a currently used gel (AndroGel). Further, theoretical estimation of testosterone blood concentration following ethosomal application in men was made. For this purpose, in vitro permeation experiments through human skin were performed to establish testosterone skin permeation values. In the design of these experiments, testosterone solubility in various solutions was measured and the effect of the receiver medium on the skin barrier function was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Theoretical estimation shows that testosterone human plasma concentration value in the upper part of the physiological range could be achieved by application of the ethosomal formulation on an area of 40 cm(2). This area is about 10 times smaller than required with current nonpatch formulations. Our work shows that the ethosomal formulation could enhance testosterone systemic absorption and also be used for designing new products that could solve the weaknesses of the current testosterone replacement therapies.

  16. Salivary Testosterone Levels Under Psychological Stress and Its Relationship with Rumination and Five Personality Traits in Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrisham, Reza; Sadegh-Nejadi, Sahar; SoliemaniFar, Omid; Kooti, Wesam; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Alamiri, Fatima; Najjar-Asl, Sedigheh; Khaneh-Keshi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the salivary testosterone levels under psychological stress and its relationship with rumination and five personality traits in medical students. Methods A total of 58 medical students, who wanted to participate in the final exam, were selected by simple random sampling. Two months before the exam, in the basal conditions, the NEO Inventory short form, and the Emotional Control Questionnaire (ECQ) were completed. Saliva samples were taken from students in both the basal conditions and under exam stress. Salivary testosterone was measured by ELISA. Data was analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures, paired samples t-test, Pearson correlation and stepwise regression analysis. Results Salivary testosterone level of men showed a significant increase under exam stress (pstress. Conclusion Salivary testosterone reactivity to stress can be determined by sexual differences, personality traits, and emotional control variables which may decrease or increase stress effects on biological responses, especially the salivary testosterone. PMID:27909455

  17. Salivary Testosterone Levels Under Psychological Stress and Its Relationship with Rumination and Five Personality Traits in Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrisham, Reza; Sadegh-Nejadi, Sahar; SoliemaniFar, Omid; Kooti, Wesam; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Alamiri, Fatima; Aberomand, Mohammad; Najjar-Asl, Sedigheh; Khaneh-Keshi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the salivary testosterone levels under psychological stress and its relationship with rumination and five personality traits in medical students. A total of 58 medical students, who wanted to participate in the final exam, were selected by simple random sampling. Two months before the exam, in the basal conditions, the NEO Inventory short form, and the Emotional Control Questionnaire (ECQ) were completed. Saliva samples were taken from students in both the basal conditions and under exam stress. Salivary testosterone was measured by ELISA. Data was analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures, paired samples t-test, Pearson correlation and stepwise regression analysis. Salivary testosterone level of men showed a significant increase under exam stress (pstress. Salivary testosterone reactivity to stress can be determined by sexual differences, personality traits, and emotional control variables which may decrease or increase stress effects on biological responses, especially the salivary testosterone.

  18. Association of metabolic syndrome with testosterone and inflammation in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramatilake, Chandima Madhu; Mohideen, Mohamed R; Pathirana, Chitra

    2015-07-01

    There is limited data on the assessment of relationship between sex hormones, metabolic syndrome (MS) and inflammation. Therefore, our objective was to examine the relationship between metabolic syndrome, testosterone and inflammation. It was a cross-sectional study which included 309 subjects in the age range of 30-70years. Blood was analyzed for plasma glucose, serum lipids, total testosterone (TT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). There were 153 patients with metabolic syndrome and 156 without MS according to modified NCEP guidelines. Age, BMI, obesity, dyslipidaemia, smoking (OR=2.35, CI=1.35-4.09), LDL-Ch, low TT (OR=0.76, CI=0.38-1.52) and elevated hs-CRP (OR=1.56, CI=0.87-2.80) were significant independent predictors of MS (all Psyndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of testosterone fatty acid esters in the digestive gland of mussels by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercia, Cesare; Cianciullo, Piergiorgio; Porte, Cinta

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have indicated that up to 70% of the total steroids detected in molluscs are in the esterified form and that pollutants, by modifying the esterification of steroids with fatty acids, might act as endocrine disrupters. However, despite the strong physiological significance of this process, there is almost no information on which fatty acids form the steroid esters and how this process is modulated. This study (a) investigates the formation of fatty acid esters of testosterone in digestive gland microsomal fractions of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis incubated with either palmitoly-CoA or CoA and ATP, and (b) assesses whether the endocrine disruptor tributyltin (TBT) interferes with the esterification of testosterone. Analysis of testosterone esters was performed by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS). When microsomal fractions were incubated with testosterone and palmitoly-CoA, the formation of testosterone palmitate was detected. However, when microsomes were incubated with CoA and ATP, and no exogenous activated fatty acid was added, the synthesis of 16:0, 16:1, 20:5 and 22:6 testosterone esters was observed. The presence of 100µM TBT in the incubation mixture did not significantly alter the esterification of testosterone. These results evidence the conjugation of testosterone with the most abundant fatty acids in the digestive gland microsomal fraction of mussels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhaowei; Xi, Haitao; Pan, Yongming; Jiang, Xiaoling; Chen, Liang; Cai, Yueqin; Zhu, Keyan; Chen, Cheng; Xu, Xiaoping; Chen, Minli

    2015-03-07

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with increased serum cholesterol levels. However, how testosterone deficiency precisely affects cholesterol metabolism remains unclear. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism and liver gene expression in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet. Sexually mature male miniature pigs (6-7 months old) were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: intact male pigs fed an HFC diet (IM+HFC), castrated male pigs fed an HFC diet (CM+HFC), and castrated pigs with testosterone replacement fed an HFC diet (CM+HFC+T). Serum testosterone levels and lipid profiles were measured, and gene expression levels associated with hepatic cholesterol metabolism were determined. Furthermore, total hepatic cholesterol contents and the activities of enzymes mediating hepatic cholesterol metabolism were measured. Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in CM+HFC pigs, and testosterone replacement attenuated castration-induced testosterone deficiency. Castration significantly increased the serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as hepatic lipid contents in pigs fed an HFC diet. Compared with IM+HFC and CM+HFC+T pigs, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mRNA expression and protein levels were significantly decreased in the livers of CM+HFC pigs. In contrast, we found that compared with IM+HFC pigs, hepatic proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) mRNA and serum PCSK9 protein levels were significantly increased in CM+HFC pigs. Moreover, testosterone treatment reversed the increase in PCSK9 expression in CM+HFC pigs. However, neither castration nor testosterone replacement affected the expression of the other hepatic genes that were tested. This study demonstrated that castration-induced testosterone deficiency caused severe hypercholesterolemia in pigs fed an HFC diet; furthermore, these

  1. O aluno portador de visão subnormal na escola regular: desafio para o professor? Low vision student in the regular school: a challenge to the teacher?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabete R. Freire Gasparetto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: 1 Verificar a auto-avaliação do preparo e a necessidade de orientações entre professores do sistema regular de ensino, para atuarem junto a alunos portadores de visão subnormal; 2 Obter informações para subsidiar treinamento de professores do sistema regular de ensino na área da deficiência visual. Métodos: Realizou-se levantamento entre professores do ensino fundamental de escolas públicas municipais e estaduais da cidade de Campinas/SP, que atuavam com alunos portadores de visão subnormal em 1999. Foram incluídas neste estudo 11 escolas municipais e 9 escolas estaduais, respectivamente 79,0% e 90,0% das unidades existentes. Foi utilizado questionário auto-aplicável como instrumento de coleta de dados. Resultados: A amostra foi composta por 50 professores. O tempo médio de magistério foi de 20 anos. A maioria (94,0% não relatou formação específica na área da deficiência visual. Somente 18 (36,0% professores declararam ter recebido informações/orientações para atuar com seus alunos portadores de visão subnormal, embora todos tivessem manifestado o desejo de receber informações. Entre as informações solicitadas, destacaram-se: ampliação de materiais (66,0%, desempenho visual (50,0%, doença ocular (50,0%, acuidade visual/campo visual (46,0%. Conclusão: Os professores do ensino regular referiram pouco ou nenhum preparo para atuar com alunos deficientes visuais; a maioria dos professores não recebeu informações para lidar com o aluno portador de visão subnormal, mas manifestou desejo de recebê-las.Purpose:1 To check self-knowledge and needs for orientation among regular class teachers working with low vision students; 2 To gather information to assist the training on visual deficiency of regular class teachers. Methods: A survey was conducted for the academic year of 1999 among those teachers working in public schools, Campinas/SP/Brazil, of which 11 were municipal and 9 state schools, respectively

  2. Testosterone and cardiovascular disease in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul D; Channer, Kevin S

    2012-01-01

    Despite regional variations in the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), men are consistently more at risk of developing and dying from CAD than women, and the gender-specific effects of sex hormones are implicated in this inequality. This ‘Perspectives' article reviews the current evidence regarding the cardiovascular effects of testosterone in men including an examination of the age-related decline in testosterone, the relationship between testosterone levels and coronary disease, coronary risk factors and mortality. We also review the vaso-active effects of testosterone, and discuss how these have been used in men with heart failure and angina. We discuss the ‘cause' versus ‘effect' controversy, regarding low testosterone levels in men with coronary heart disease, as well as concerns over the use of testosterone replacement therapy in middle aged and elderly men. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the future direction for work in this interesting area, including the relative merits of screening for, and treating hypogonadism with testosterone replacement therapy in men with heart disease. PMID:22522504

  3. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  4. Does exposure to testosterone significantly alter endogenous metabolism in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Denise; Navarro, Juan Carlos; Riva, Consuelo; Bordonali, Silvia; Porte, Cinta

    2010-11-15

    Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed to different concentrations of testosterone (T: 20, 200 and 2000ng/L) in a semi-static water regime (1-day dosing intervals) for up to 5 days in an attempt to see whether endogenous steroid levels and steroid metabolism were altered by exogenous exposure to testosterone. Whole tissue levels of total testosterone (free+esterified) sharply increased in a concentration-dependent manner, from 2ng/g in controls to 290ng/g in organisms exposed to the highest concentration. In contrast, levels of free testosterone were only significantly elevated at the high-exposure group (5-fold increase with respect to controls). Increased activity of palmitoyl-CoA:testosterone acyltransferase (ATAT) was detected in organisms exposed to the highest concentration of testosterone, while those exposed to low and medium concentrations showed significant alterations in their polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles. The obtained results suggest that esterification of the excess of T with fatty acids might act as a homeostatic mechanism to maintain endogenous levels of free T stable. Interestingly, a decrease in CYP3A-like activity was detected in T-exposed mussels together with a significant decrease in the metabolism of the androgen precursor androstenedione to dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT). Overall, the work contributes to the better knowledge of androgen metabolism in mussels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. "PRELIMINARY SCREENING FOR THE LEVELS OF TESTOSTERONE HORMONE IN THE MARKET MEAT IN TEHRAN "

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    M. R. Oveisi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Many xenobiotic and natural compounds such as testosterone have been used and sometime misused to improve the growth of cattle and other livestock animals. In order to control the testosterone hormone residues in meat and to ensure the safety of Iranian consumers, a monitoring system must be put in place to address the concerns. The present study was undertaken to detect and quantify the levels of testosterone residue in the market meat. Cattle meat samples were collected randomly from the market in Tehran. A total of 120 samples of cattle meat were analyzed for the level of testosterone by Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA method. The average experimental value of testosterone in cattle meat was 810.9 ng/kg. The average value of cattle meat testosterone was significantly upper than FDA (Food and Drug Administration allowable level but was in agreement with the values proposed by JESFA (Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. So it seems that the present status of this anabolic hormone in market meat is not at risk but there is need to routinely monitor this chemical as a food quality control measure.

  6. Exploring the role of testosterone in the cerebellum link to neuroticism: From adolescence to early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutter, Dennis J L G; Meuwese, Rosa; Bos, Marieke G N; Crone, Eveline A; Peper, Jiska S

    2017-04-01

    Previous research has found an association between a smaller cerebellar volume and higher levels of neuroticism. The steroid hormone testosterone reduces stress responses and the susceptibility to negative mood. Together with in vitro studies showing a positive effect of testosterone on cerebellar gray matter volumes, we set out to explore the role of testosterone in the relation between cerebellar gray matter and neuroticism. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired, and indices of neurotic personality traits were assessed by administering the depression and anxiety scale of the revised NEO personality inventory and Gray's behavioural avoidance in one hundred and forty-nine healthy volunteers between 12 and 27 years of age. Results demonstrated an inverse relation between total brain corrected cerebellar volumes and neurotic personality traits in adolescents and young adults. In males, higher endogenous testosterone levels were associated with lower scores on neurotic personality traits and larger cerebellar gray matter volumes. No such relations were observed in the female participants. Analyses showed that testosterone significantly mediated the relation between male cerebellar gray matter and measures of neuroticism. Our findings on the interrelations between endogenous testosterone, neuroticism and cerebellar morphology provide a cerebellum-oriented framework for the susceptibility to experience negative emotions and mood in adolescence and early adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Testosterone and cortisol release among Spanish soccer fans watching the 2010 World Cup final.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Ijzerman, Hans; van Lange, Paul A M; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This field study investigated the release of testosterone and cortisol of a vicarious winning experience in Spanish fans watching the finals between Spain and the Netherlands in the 2010 FIFA World Cup Soccer. Spanish fans (n = 50) watched the match with friends or family in a public place or at home and also participated in a control condition. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed that testosterone and cortisol levels were higher when watching the match than on a control day. However, neither testosterone nor cortisol levels increased after the victory of the Spanish team. Moreover, the increase in testosterone secretion was not related to participants' sex, age or soccer fandom, but the increase in total cortisol secretion during the match was higher among men than among women and among fans that were younger. Also, increases in cortisol secretion were greater to the degree that people were a stronger fan of soccer. Level of fandom further appeared to account for the sex effect, but not for the age effect. Generally, the testosterone data from this study are in line with the challenge hypothesis, as testosterone levels of watchers increased to prepare their organism to defend or enhance their social status. The cortisol data from this study are in line with social self-preservation theory, as higher cortisol secretion among young and greater soccer fans suggests that especially they perceived that a negative outcome of the match would threaten their own social esteem.

  8. Testosterone and Cortisol Release among Spanish Soccer Fans Watching the 2010 World Cup Final

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; IJzerman, Hans; van Lange, Paul A. M.; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This field study investigated the release of testosterone and cortisol of a vicarious winning experience in Spanish fans watching the finals between Spain and the Netherlands in the 2010 FIFA World Cup Soccer. Spanish fans (n = 50) watched the match with friends or family in a public place or at home and also participated in a control condition. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed that testosterone and cortisol levels were higher when watching the match than on a control day. However, neither testosterone nor cortisol levels increased after the victory of the Spanish team. Moreover, the increase in testosterone secretion was not related to participants' sex, age or soccer fandom, but the increase in total cortisol secretion during the match was higher among men than among women and among fans that were younger. Also, increases in cortisol secretion were greater to the degree that people were a stronger fan of soccer. Level of fandom further appeared to account for the sex effect, but not for the age effect. Generally, the testosterone data from this study are in line with the challenge hypothesis, as testosterone levels of watchers increased to prepare their organism to defend or enhance their social status. The cortisol data from this study are in line with social self-preservation theory, as higher cortisol secretion among young and greater soccer fans suggests that especially they perceived that a negative outcome of the match would threaten their own social esteem. PMID:22529940

  9. Testosterone and cortisol release among Spanish soccer fans watching the 2010 World Cup final.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leander van der Meij

    Full Text Available This field study investigated the release of testosterone and cortisol of a vicarious winning experience in Spanish fans watching the finals between Spain and the Netherlands in the 2010 FIFA World Cup Soccer. Spanish fans (n = 50 watched the match with friends or family in a public place or at home and also participated in a control condition. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed that testosterone and cortisol levels were higher when watching the match than on a control day. However, neither testosterone nor cortisol levels increased after the victory of the Spanish team. Moreover, the increase in testosterone secretion was not related to participants' sex, age or soccer fandom, but the increase in total cortisol secretion during the match was higher among men than among women and among fans that were younger. Also, increases in cortisol secretion were greater to the degree that people were a stronger fan of soccer. Level of fandom further appeared to account for the sex effect, but not for the age effect. Generally, the testosterone data from this study are in line with the challenge hypothesis, as testosterone levels of watchers increased to prepare their organism to defend or enhance their social status. The cortisol data from this study are in line with social self-preservation theory, as higher cortisol secretion among young and greater soccer fans suggests that especially they perceived that a negative outcome of the match would threaten their own social esteem.

  10. Effects of Testosterone Supplementation for 3 Years on Muscle Performance and Physical Function in Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaria, Shehzad; Traustadottir, Tinna; Harman, S. Mitchell; Pencina, Karol; Li, Zhuoying; Travison, Thomas G.; Miciek, Renee; Tsitouras, Panayiotis; Hally, Kathleen; Huang, Grace; Bhasin, Shalender

    2017-01-01

    Context: Findings of studies of testosterone’s effects on muscle strength and physical function in older men have been inconsistent; its effects on muscle power and fatigability have not been studied. Objective: To determine the effects of testosterone administration for 3 years in older men on muscle strength, power, fatigability, and physical function. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of healthy men ≥60 years old with total testosterone levels of 100 to 400 ng/dL or free testosterone levels testosterone or placebo gel daily for 3 years. Outcome Measures: Loaded and unloaded stair-climbing power, muscle strength, power, and fatigability in leg press and chest press exercises, and lean mass at baseline, 6, 18, and 36 months. Results: The groups were similar at baseline. Testosterone administration for 3 years was associated with significantly greater performance in unloaded and loaded stair-climbing power than placebo (mean estimated between-group difference, 10.7 W [95% confidence interval (CI), −4.0 to 25.5], P = 0.026; and 22.4 W [95% CI, 4.6 to 40.3], P = 0.027), respectively. Changes in chest-press strength (estimated mean difference, 16.3 N; 95% CI, 5.5 to 27.1; P testosterone than in those randomized to placebo. Lean body mass significantly increased more in the testosterone group. Conclusion: Compared with placebo, testosterone replacement in older men for 3 years was associated with modest but significantly greater improvements in stair-climbing power, muscle mass, and power. Clinical meaningfulness of these treatment effects and their impact on disability in older adults with functional limitations remains to be studied. PMID:27754805

  11. Cognitive effects of testosterone and finasteride administration in older hypogonadal men

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    Borst SE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephen E Borst,1 Joshua F Yarrow,2 Carmen Fernandez,1 Christine F Conover,2 Fan Ye,2 John R Meuleman,1 Matthew Morrow,3 Baiming Zou,4 Jonathan J Shuster5 1Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, 2Research Service, 3Pharmacy Service, Malcom Randall VA Medical Center, Gainesville Florida; 4Department of Biostatistics, 5Department of Health Outcomes and Policy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: Serum concentrations of neuroactive androgens decline in older men and, in some ­studies, low testosterone is associated with decreased cognitive function and incidence of depression. Existing studies evaluating the effect of testosterone administration on cognition in older men have been largely inconclusive, with some studies reporting minor to moderate cognitive benefit, while others indicate no cognitive effect. Our objective was to assess the cognitive effects of treating older hypogonadal men for 1 year with a supraphysiological dose of testosterone, either alone or in combination with finasteride (a type II 5α-reductase inhibitor, in order to determine whether testosterone produces cognitive benefit and whether suppressed dihydrotestosterone influences cognition. Sixty men aged ≥60 years with a serum testosterone concentration of ≤300 ng/dL or bioavailable testosterone ≤70 ng/dL and no evidence of cognitive impairment received testosterone-enanthate (125 mg/week versus vehicle, paired with finasteride (5 mg/day versus placebo using a 2×2 factorial design. Testosterone caused a small decrease in depressive symptoms as assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale and a moderate increase in visuospatial memory as assessed by performance on a recall trial of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Finasteride caused a small increase in performance on the Benton Judgment of Line Orientation test. In total, major improvements in cognition were not observed either with testosterone or finasteride. Further studies

  12. Low testosterone level increases fasting blood glucose level in adult males

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    Suweino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Total testosterone (TT levels in males decrease with age. There has been a vigorous debate on the extent to which low testosterone causally contributes to diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between sex hormones and blood glucose levels in adult males. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 259 males aged 41 - 70 years was conducted at Cilandak Subdistrict, South Jakarta. Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG and testosterone levels were measured by means of electro–chemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA, while blood glucose levels were measured enzymatically using a spectrophotometer. Free testosterone index (FTI and body massa index (BMI were calculated. Inter-variable relationships were tested by Pearson correlation analysis, followed by multiple linear regression analysis to determine the most influential factor on fasting blood glucose levels. Results BMI was positively correlated with fasting blood glucose, but the correlation was statistically not significant (r=0.105; p=0.106. In contrast, total testosterone (TT (r=-0.258; p=0.000 and SHBG (r=-0.193; p=0.02 had a significant negative correlation with fasting blood glucose level. Multiple linear regression showed that TT was the most influential factor on fasting blood glucose level (â=-0.044; p=0.008. Conclusions Low total testosterone level may increase fasting blood glucose level in adult males. SHBG levels did not predict fasting blood glucose levels.Assessment of testosterone in middle-aged men may allow early intervention for diabetes mellitus.

  13. Low testosterone level increases fasting blood glucose level in adult males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suweino Suweino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Total testosterone (TT levels in males decrease with age. There has been a vigorous debate on the extent to which low testosterone causally contributes to diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between sex hormones and blood glucose levels in adult males. METHODS A cross-sectional study involving 259 males aged 41 - 70 years was conducted at Cilandak Subdistrict, South Jakarta. Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG and testosterone levels were measured by means of electro–chemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA, while blood glucose levels were measured enzymatically using a spectrophotometer. Free testosterone index (FTI and body massa index (BMI were calculated. Inter-variable relationships were tested by Pearson correlation analysis, followed by multiple linear regression analysis to determine the most influential factor on fasting blood glucose levels. RESULTS BMI was positively correlated with fasting blood glucose, but the correlation was statistically not significant (r=0.105; p=0.106. In contrast, total testosterone (TT (r=-0.258; p=0.000 and SHBG (r=-0.193; p=0.02 had a significant negative correlation with fasting blood glucose level. Multiple linear regression showed that TT was the most influential factor on fasting blood glucose level (â=-0.044; p=0.008. CONCLUSIONS Low total testosterone level may increase fasting blood glucose level in adult males. SHBG levels did not predict fasting blood glucose levels.Assessment of testosterone in middle-aged men may allow early intervention for diabetes mellitus.

  14. A Pilot Study on BMI, Serum Testosterone and Estradiol Levels in Allergic Male Patients

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    Violeta Lokaj-Berisha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dramatic increase in the prevalence of high body mass index (BMI increases the prevalence of allergic diseases, both in adults and children and obesity is associated with hypogonadism in adult males. AIM: We aimed to evaluate the effect of high body mass index on plasma concentrations of testosterone and estradiol in young pubertal and adult males with allergic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Morning fasting blood samples were obtained form 51 allergic patients and 6 healthy volunteer males between the ages 11-57 years (Mean 26.9, DS ± 11.9 years. Total testosterone, estradiol, FSH and LH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. All participants were subjected to skin prick tests with test kit G aeroallergens, and BMI was calculated according to the body weight divided by the square of height (kg/m2. RESULTS: Low levels of testosterone and high levels of estradiol were associated with high BMI only in patients with asthma/rhinitis, but not in asthma patients. Allergic dermatitis/urticaria group along with healthy controls were overweight but within normal ranges for total testosterone and estradiol concentrations. Patients with allergic rhinitis were within normal ranges for BMI, total testosterone and estradiol concentrations. CONCLUSION: High BMI is not always associated with low levels of testosterone and high levels of estradiol in our patients with allergic diseases, but low levels of testosterone are present in patients with asthma and asthma/rhinitis although not among patients with rhinitis only. Our results should be confirmed in a larger group of participants.

  15. The Association of Serum Testosterone Levels and Urinary Incontinence in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Michelle M; Kreydin, Evgeniy I

    2017-08-26

    Pelvic floor integrity is an important predictor of stress urinary incontinence. Androgen receptors have been found in the pelvic floor musculature and fascia, and testosterone administration has been shown to increase levator ani hypertrophy and improve stress incontinence in a rodent model. We examined the relationship between serum total testosterone levels and self-reported urinary incontinence in women. We included women older than 20 years in the 2012 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) cycle who underwent serum total testosterone measurement and answered self-reported urinary incontinence questions. A weighted, multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the association between incontinence and serum testosterone levels after adjusting for age, body mass index, diabetes, race, parity, menopause and time of venipuncture. A total of 2,321 women were included in analysis, of whom 37.5% had stress incontinence, 29.8% had urge incontinence and 16.4% had mixed incontinence. Women in the lowest quartile of serum testosterone were more likely to complain of stress and mixed incontinence (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.03-2.12 and OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.23-2.22, respectively). No association was noted between serum testosterone levels and urge incontinence. Low serum testosterone is associated with an increased likelihood of stress and mixed incontinence in women. Given the role of pelvic musculature in maintaining urethral support and the anabolic effect of androgens on skeletal muscle, a physiological mechanism for this relationship can be proposed and further evaluated in prospective and translational studies. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Testosterone and modifiable risk factors associated with diabetes in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantis, Evan; Lange, Kylie; Martin, Sean; Haren, Matthew T; Taylor, Anne; O'Loughlin, Peter D; Marshall, Villis; Wittert, Gary A

    2011-03-01

    The role of endogenous testosterone in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus remains vague. We investigated whether associations between endogenous testosterone and diabetes prevalence in men could be partially explained by modifiable risk factors. A random population-based cross-sectional study of 1195 men aged 35-80 years living in the north-west regions of Adelaide, Australia. Data collections occurred between 2002 and 2005, and response rate was 45.1%. Diabetes (non-specific) was classified by either: (1) self-report for doctor diagnosis of diabetes; (2) prescription medication for diabetes; (3) fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7 mmol/L; or (4) glycosylated haemoglobin ≥ 6.2%. Logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (OR [with 95% confidence intervals]) for diabetes, with stepwise adjustments for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors. Diabetes prevalence was positively associated with age groups 45-54 years (2.8 [1.4, 5.8]), 55-64 years (3.9 [1.9, 8.3]) and ≥ 65 years (4.0 [1.8, 8.9]), lowest income group (1.8 [1.0, 3.4]), ex-smoker (1.8 [1.2, 2.9]), lowest (3.2 [1.9, 5.5]) and middle (1.9 [1.1, 3.4]) alcohol tertiles, cardiovascular disease (1.9 [1.2, 2.8]), metabolic syndrome (4.0 [2.6, 6.1]), and lowest plasma total testosterone tertile (1.8 [1.1, 3.0]), but negatively associated with middle (0.5 [0.3, 0.8]) and highest (0.4 [0.3, 0.7]) sugar intake tertiles, arthritis (0.6 [0.3, 1.0]), and elevated LDL cholesterol (0.5 [0.3, 0.8]); ORs showed an inverted 'U' shape for middle and highest voiding lower urinary tract symptoms tertiles. Body composition, muscle strength, and cardio-metabolic factors partially explained the association between low plasma total testosterone and diabetes. Plasma total testosterone was inversely and independently associated with diabetes prevalence, that might have been partially explained by several modifiable risk factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-classical actions of testosterone and spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone is essential to maintain spermatogenesis and male fertility. In the absence of testosterone stimulation, spermatogenesis does not proceed beyond the meiosis stage. After withdrawal of testosterone, germ cells that have progressed beyond meiosis detach from supporting Sertoli cells and die, whereas mature sperm cannot be released from Sertoli cells resulting in infertility. The classical mechanism of testosterone action in which testosterone activates gene transcription by causing...

  18. The effect of mad honey on testosterone levels of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatli, O; Karaca, Y; Turkmen, S; Gulgen, G S; Sahin, A; Eryigit, U; Fazli, O; Karaguzel, E; Mentese, A; Orem, A; Cansu, A; Turedi, S; Gunduz, A

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of mad honey on sexual performance. In traditional medicine in Turkey, mad honey is used to improve appetite, to heighten mental alertness, to reduce joint pain, to eliminate gastrointestinal system pains and to increase sexual performance. In this experimental animal study eighteen Sprague Dawley male rats were randomized into three groups, a control group, a normal honey group and a mad honey group. Rats in the treatment groups were given a daily dose of 80 mg/kg normal honey or mad honey throughout the 30-day study period. Total testosterone, free testosterone, FSH, LH, estradiol, and progesterone levels were subsequently investigated from blood sera on day 30. Comparison of blood total testosterone levels among the groups revealed significantly higher levels in the mad honey group compared to the normal honey and control groups (p = 0.006, p = 0.00). Free testosterone levels were also significantly higher in the mad honey group than in the normal honey and control groups (p = 0.023, p = 0.01). No statistically significant differences were determined for other hormonal measurements. This study revealed a significant increase in both total and free testosterone levels in mad-honey group (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 16).

  19. Analytical Evaluation of Free Testosterone and Cortisol Immunoassays in Saliva as a Reliable Alternative to Serum in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Dipalo, Mariella; Buonocore, Ruggero; Gnocchi, Cecilia; Aloe, Rosalia; Delsignore, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to investigate whether measurement of free testosterone and cortisol in saliva is a reliable alternative to their assessment in serum for monitoring physical fitness in professional athletes. We studied 25 members of the soccer team Parma F.C., playing in Italian major football league. Blood and saliva samples were collected at fasting, before a regular training session. Cortisol, total and free testosterone, as well as the ratio between free testosterone and cortisol, were assessed in paired serum and saliva samples, and their results were compared. An excellent correlation was found between serum and saliva cortisol (r = 0.751; P free testosterone in serum and saliva (r = 0.590; P = 0.002), whereas no significant correlation was found between total testosterone in serum and saliva (r = 0.181; P = 0.387). A significant correlation was found for the free testosterone to cortisol ratio in serum and saliva (r = 0.43; P = 0.031). All athletes (25/25; 100%) declared that they would feel more comfortable to have saliva rather than blood serially collected. The results of this study suggest that measurement of free testosterone and cortisol in saliva may be seen as a reliable alternative to their assessment in serum. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Relationship between Testosterone, Oxidative Stress Biomarkers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypogonadism attributable to males with metabolic syndrome was also observed in automechanics occupationally exposed to mixed chemicals accompanied by oxidative stress (OS). We evaluated associations among testosterone, OS biomarkers, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in normal weight ...

  1. Testosterone and disinhibited personality in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Anton; García, Luis F; García, Óscar; Blanco, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    The relationship among testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), bioavailable testosterone (BT) and personality were studied in a sample of 105 healthy males (26.71±9.68years old). The possible effects of age and other hormones, such as luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and albumin (ALB) were controlled. Personality was assessed by the novelty seeking scale of Cloninger's Temperament-Character Inventory (TCI), and a reduced version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ). Main results show that there is a weak association among three measures of testosterone with novelty seeking, sociability and, to a lesser extent, with impulsive sensation seeking. Our data, as expected, confirmed previous results and also suggest that these relationships are strongly affected by the age variable. LH, FSH and SHBG hormones play no role in the reported relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Testosterone Deficiency and Nocturia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Shigehara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nocturia causes lack of sleep and excessive daytime somnolence, reducing overall well-being, vitality, productivity, and mental health. Nocturia is significantly associated with testosterone deficiency, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, and sleep disorders. The development of LUTS is commonly associated with testosterone deficiency in elderly men, and recent studies have suggested that testosterone has an ameliorative effect on nocturia. In hypogonadal men with nocturia, a negative feedback cycle can arise, in which testosterone deficiency leads to the development of nocturia, and nocturia contributes to the decline in testosterone levels. Therefore, patients with nocturia should receive appropriate treatment in order to improve their quality of life. Nocturia is generally treated by restricting nighttime water intake, as well as by the administration of medications, such as alpha-1 blockers, anticholinergic drugs, and desmopressin. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT is used worldwide as a treatment for many hypogonadal conditions. TRT represents an alternative treatment option for nocturia in hypogonadal men. However, limited information is currently available regarding the effects of TRT on nocturia in hypogonadal men, and further studies are required to reach more definitive conclusions.

  3. Testosterone Deficiency and Nocturia: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Izumi, Koji; Mizokami, Atsushi; Namiki, Mikio

    2017-04-01

    Nocturia causes lack of sleep and excessive daytime somnolence, reducing overall well-being, vitality, productivity, and mental health. Nocturia is significantly associated with testosterone deficiency, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and sleep disorders. The development of LUTS is commonly associated with testosterone deficiency in elderly men, and recent studies have suggested that testosterone has an ameliorative effect on nocturia. In hypogonadal men with nocturia, a negative feedback cycle can arise, in which testosterone deficiency leads to the development of nocturia, and nocturia contributes to the decline in testosterone levels. Therefore, patients with nocturia should receive appropriate treatment in order to improve their quality of life. Nocturia is generally treated by restricting nighttime water intake, as well as by the administration of medications, such as alpha-1 blockers, anticholinergic drugs, and desmopressin. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is used worldwide as a treatment for many hypogonadal conditions. TRT represents an alternative treatment option for nocturia in hypogonadal men. However, limited information is currently available regarding the effects of TRT on nocturia in hypogonadal men, and further studies are required to reach more definitive conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Korean Society for Sexual Medicine and Andrology.

  4. Symptomatic response to testosterone treatment in dieting obese men with low testosterone levels in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng Tang Fui, M; Hoermann, R; Prendergast, L A; Zajac, J D; Grossmann, M

    2017-03-01

    Obese men commonly have reductions in circulating testosterone and report symptoms consistent with androgen deficiency. We hypothesized that testosterone treatment improves constitutional and sexual symptoms over and above the effects of weight loss alone. We conducted a pre-specified analysis of a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at a tertiary referral center. About 100 obese men (body mass index (BMI)⩾30 kg m-2) with a repeated total testosterone level ⩽12 nmol l-1 and a median age of 53 years (interquartile range 47-60) receiving 10 weeks of a very-low-energy diet (VLED) followed by 46 weeks of weight maintenance were randomly assigned at baseline to 56 weeks of intramuscular testosterone undecanoate (n=49, cases) or matching placebo (n=51, controls). Pre-specified outcomes were the between-group differences in Aging Male Symptoms scale (AMS) and international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) questionnaires. Eighty-two men completed the study. At study end, cases showed significant symptomatic improvement in AMS score, compared with controls, and improvement was more marked in men with more severe baseline symptoms (mean adjusted difference (MAD) per unit of change in AMS score -0.34 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.65, -0.02), P=0.04). This corresponds to improvements of 11% and 20% from baseline scores of 40 and 60, respectively, with higher scores denoting more severe symptoms. Men with erectile dysfunction (IIEF-5⩽20) had improved erectile function with testosterone treatment. Cases and controls lost the same weight after VLED (testosterone -12.0 kg; placebo -13.5 kg, P=0.40) and maintained this at study end (testosterone -11.4 kg; placebo -10.9 kg, P=0.80). The improvement in AMS following VLED was not different between the groups (-0.05 (95% CI -0.28, 0.17), P=0.65). In otherwise healthy obese men with mild to moderate symptoms and modest reductions in testosterone levels, testosterone treatment improved androgen

  5. Effects of long-term testosterone administration on cognition in older men with low or low-to-normal testosterone concentrations: a prespecified secondary analysis of data from the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled TEAAM trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace; Wharton, Whitney; Bhasin, Shalender; Harman, S Mitchell; Pencina, Karol M; Tsitouras, Panayiotis; Li, Zhuoying; Hally, Kathleen A; Asthana, Sanjay; Storer, Thomas W; Basaria, Shehzad

    2016-08-01

    The effects of testosterone on cognitive function in older men are incompletely understood. We aimed to establish the effects of long-term testosterone administration on multiple domains of cognitive function in older men with low or low-to-normal testosterone concentrations. We did the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group TEAAM trial at three medical centres in Boston, Phoenix, and Los Angeles, USA. Men aged 60 years and older with low or low-to-normal testosterone concentrations (3·47-13·9 nmol/L, or free testosterone testosterone gel or placebo gel daily for 3 years. Randomisation was stratified by age (60-75 years vs >75 years) and study site. The testosterone dose was adjusted to achieve concentrations of 17·3-31·2 nmol/L. Participants and all study personnel were masked to treatment allocation. Multiple domains of cognitive function were assessed as prespecified secondary outcomes by use of standardised tests at baseline and months 6, 18, and 36. We did analyses by intention to treat (in men who had baseline assessments of cognitive function) and per protocol (restricted to participants who completed the study drug and had both baseline and 36 month assessments of cognitive function). The TEAAM trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00287586. Between Sept 1, 2004, and Feb 12, 2009, we randomly assigned 308 participants to receive either testosterone (n=156) or placebo (n=152). 280 men had baseline cognitive assessments (n=140 per group). Mean follow-up time was 29·0 months (SD 11·5) in the testosterone group and 31·1 months (9·5) in the placebo group. The last participant completed the study on May 11, 2012. In the testosterone group, mean concentrations of serum total testosterone increased from 10·6 nmol/L (SD 2·2) to 19·7 nmol/L (9·2) and free testosterone concentrations increased from 222 pmol/L (62) to 364 pmol/L (222). In the placebo group, mean concentrations of serum total testosterone were 10·7

  6. The comparison of free androgen index and serum free testosterone levels in women with hirsutism or polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Metin Yıldırımkaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In many laboratories free testosterone can not be measured, so that free androgen index is suggested instead. The aim of this study was to compare free androgen index and serum free testosterone levels measured by radioimmunoassay in women with hirsutism or polycystic ovary syndrome.Materials and methods: Totally 94 women referred to the polyclinics of Ankara Numune Hospital were retrospectively included. Three patient groups were composed; 55 of hirsutism, 20 of polycystic ovary syndrome and 19 of both hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome. Total testosterone and sex hormone binding globuline levels were measured by chemiluminescence method and free testosterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Free androgen index was calculated from total testosterone and sex hormone binding globuline.Results: There was a significant positive correlation between free testosterone and free androgen index in patients with hirsutism, in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, in patients with hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome, and in total patient group [r(hirsutism=0,597, r(PCOS=0,617, r(hirsutism and PCOS=0,779, r(total patient group=0,649, P<0,01].Receiver operating characteristics curves were drawn to assess the diagnostic power of parameters for all patient groups [For hirsutism (n=55 auROC (FT=0,431 auROC (FAI=0,485] [For PCOS (n=20 auROC (FT=0,431 auROC (FAI=0,359] [For hirsutism and PCOS (n=19 auROC (FT=0,676 auROC (FAI=0,669]. In our study, free testosterone and free androgen index were found useful to diagnose ‘hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome’ but not others.Conclusion: Free androgen index can be used instead of free testosterone in hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome for diagnosis. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:152-6

  7. Testosterone and bioavailable testosterone help to distinguish between mild Cushing's syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, M E; Lao, M C; Patel, S S; Lee, M L; Ghods, D E; Chandler, D W; Friedman, T C

    2008-11-01

    Women with Cushing's syndrome (CS) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may present with similar symptoms. Subjects with mild CS lack clinical stigmata of classical CS and often have normal laboratory tests measuring hypercortisolism. Thus, distinguishing mild CS from PCOS may be difficult. We hypothesized that either total testosterone (TT) or bioavailable testosterone (BT) levels or the calculation of the free androgen index (FAI) would be low in patients with mild CS and elevated in patients with PCOS, and could help differentiate the two conditions. TT, BT, and FAI were measured in a group of 20 patients of reproductive age with mild CS and 20 PCOS patients matched for age and BMI. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these measurements for the diagnosis of CS. TT (pBT (p=0.02), and FAI (p=0.003) were significantly elevated in PCOS patients compared to mild CS patients. Sex hormone-binding globulin was similar in both groups. The optimal cut-point for TT was 1.39 nmol/L, yielding a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 70%. The cut-point for BT was 0.24 nmol/L, resulting in a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 80%. The cut-point for FAI was 5.7, with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 60%. We conclude that TT levels may be useful to discriminate between mild CS and PCOS. In patients with signs and symptoms consistent with CS and PCOS, a TT level of <1.39 nmol/L warrants a workup for CS.

  8. Association between age-related reductions in testosterone and risk of prostate cancer-An analysis of patients' data with prostatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Xinguang; Bird, Victoria Y; Gerke, Travis A; Manini, Todd M; Prosperi, Mattia

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between serum total testosterone and prostate cancer (PCa) risk is controversial. The hypothesis that faster age-related reduction in testosterone is linked with increased PCa risk remains untested. We conducted our study at a tertiary-level hospital in southeast of the USA, and derived data from the Medical Registry Database of individuals that were diagnosed of any prostate-related disease from 2001 to 2015. Cases were those diagnosed of PCa and had one or more measurements of testosterone prior to PCa diagnosis. Controls were those without PCa and had one or more testosterone measurements. Multivariable logistic regression models for PCa risk of absolute levels (one-time measure and 5-year average) and annual change in testosterone were respectively constructed. Among a total of 1,559 patients, 217 were PCa cases, and neither one-time measure nor 5-year average of testosterone was found to be significantly associated with PCa risk. Among the 379 patients with two or more testosterone measurements, 27 were PCa cases. For every 10 ng/dL increment in annual reduction of testosterone, the risk of PCa would increase by 14% [adjusted odds ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.25]. Compared to patients with a relatively stable testosterone, patients with an annual testosterone reduction of more than 30 ng/dL had 5.03 [95% CI: 1.53, 16.55] fold increase in PCa risk. This implies a faster age-related reduction in, but not absolute level of serum total testosterone as a risk factor for PCa. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this finding. © 2017 UICC.

  9. Effects of transdermal testosterone or oral dydrogesterone on hypoactive sexual desire disorder in transsexual women: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronawitter, Desiree; Gooren, Louis J; Zollver, Hendryk; Oppelt, Patricia G; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dittrich, Ralf; Mueller, Andreas

    2009-08-01

    It has been reported that hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) affects one-third of transsexual women (defined as postoperative male-to-female transsexuals) receiving estrogen replacement whose bioavailable androgen levels are lower than in ovulating women and comparable with those in surgically postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transdermal testosterone treatment and of oral dydrogesterone in transsexual women with HSDD receiving estrogens. Seven transsexual women with HSDD were treated with a testosterone patch and nine transsexual women with HSDD were treated with oral dydrogesterone over 24 weeks. The primary end point was the change in the brief profile of female sexual function (B-PFSF) score. Secondary end points were changes in hormonal parameters and side effect assessments. A significant increase in total testosterone and free testosterone levels was observed in the group receiving transdermal testosterone. At 24 weeks, there was a significant improvement in the B-PFSF score showing an improvement in sexual desire among transsexual women treated with the testosterone patch, whereas no change in the B-PFSF score was observed in transsexual women treated with oral dydrogesterone. No side effects were reported. In this pilot study, sexual desire in transsexual women improved significantly after treatment with the testosterone patch, without noticeable side effects.

  10. Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism and Their Reduction After Testosterone Replacement in Men With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Sandeep; Ghanim, Husam; Batra, Manav; Kuhadiya, Nitesh D.; Abuaysheh, Sanaa; Sandhu, Sartaj; Green, Kelly; Makdissi, Antoine; Hejna, Jeanne; Chaudhuri, Ajay; Punyanitya, Mark

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE One-third of men with type 2 diabetes have hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of testosterone replacement on insulin resistance in men with type 2 diabetes and HH. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 94 men with type 2 diabetes were recruited into the study; 50 men were eugonadal, while 44 men had HH. Insulin sensitivity was calculated from the glucose infusion rate (GIR) during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Lean body mass and fat mass were measured by DEXA and MRI. Subcutaneous fat samples were taken to assess insulin signaling genes. Men with HH were randomized to receive intramuscular testosterone (250 mg) or placebo (1 mL saline) every 2 weeks for 24 weeks. RESULTS Men with HH had higher subcutaneous and visceral fat mass than eugonadal men. GIR was 36% lower in men with HH. GIR increased by 32% after 24 weeks of testosterone therapy but did not change after placebo (P = 0.03 for comparison). There was a decrease in subcutaneous fat mass (−3.3 kg) and increase in lean mass (3.4 kg) after testosterone treatment (P testosterone treatment. Testosterone treatment also caused a significant fall in circulating concentrations of free fatty acids, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin (P Testosterone treatment in men with type 2 diabetes and HH increases insulin sensitivity, increases lean mass, and decreases subcutaneous fat. PMID:26622051

  11. Adult testosterone and calculated free testosterone reference ranges by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, S M; Hocking, R; Biswas, M; Turkes, A; Rees, D; Rees, D A; Evans, C

    2013-03-01

    Testosterone is measured for the investigation of female hyperandrogenism and male hypogonadism. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (tandem MS) is becoming the method of choice but comprehensive reference ranges are lacking. Testosterone was measured by tandem MS on 90 healthy women, 67 young healthy men and pregnant women (59 first trimester and 60 second trimester). The male, male calculated free, first trimester and second trimester testosterone reference ranges (derived using the antilog of mean ± 1.96 SD of log transformed data) were 10.6-31.9, 0.23-0.63, 0.6-4.9 and 0.9-4.9 nmol/L, respectively. The female testosterone upper reference range limit, derived non-parametrically from the 97.5th centile, was testosterone reference ranges to support clinical services.

  12. Mumps Virus Decreases Testosterone Production and Gamma Interferon-Induced Protein 10 Secretion by Human Leydig Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Le Goffic, Ronan; Mouchel, Thomas; Ruffault, Annick; Patard, Jean-Jacques; Jégou, Bernard; Samson, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Mumps virus is responsible for sterility. Here, we show that the mumps virus infects Leydig cells in vitro and totally inhibits testosterone secretion and that ribavirin in mumps virus-infected Leydig cell cultures completely restores testosterone production. Moreover, we show that gamma interferon-induced protein 10 (IP-10) is highly expressed by mumps virus-infected Leydig cells and that ribavirin does not block IP-10 production.

  13. DDT increases hepatic testosterone metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Albores, Arnulfo; Cebrian, Mariano E. [Cinvestav-IPN, Seccion de Toxicologia, Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Manuel [Cinvestav-IPN, Departamento de Biologia Celular (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites are considered as endocrine disruptors able to promote hormone-dependent pathologies. We studied the effects of technical-grade DDT on hepatic testosterone metabolism and testosterone hydroxylase activity ratios in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with a single dose of technical-grade DDT (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24 h later. Hepatic microsomes were incubated with [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone and the metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by radio scanning. DDT increased testosterone biotransformation and modified the profile of metabolites produced in a sex-dependent manner. Males treated with a representative dose (10 mg/kg) produced relatively less androstenedione (AD), 2{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), and 16{alpha}-OHT but higher 6{beta}-OHT whereas treated females produced less 7{alpha}-OHT and AD but higher 6{beta}-OHT and 6{alpha}-OHT than their respective controls. In both sexes DDT decreased the relative proportion of AD and increased that of 6{beta}-OHT suggesting that the androgen-saving pathway was affected. The testosterone 6{alpha}-/15{alpha}-OHT ratio, a proposed indicator of demasculinization, was increased in treated males. This effect was in agreement with the demasculinizing ability proposed for DDT. The effects on 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT and 6-dehydrotestosterone/16{alpha}-OHT ratios followed a similar tendency, with the ratio 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT being the most sensitive marker. Interestingly, these ratios were reduced in treated females suggesting that technical-grade DDT shifted testosterone hydroxylations toward a more masculine pattern. Thus, technical-grade DDT altered the hepatic sexual dimorphism in testosterone metabolism and decreased the metabolic differences between male and female rats. (orig.)

  14. A novel testosterone catabolic pathway in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Yann-Lii; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Ismail, Wael; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2011-09-01

    Forty years ago, Coulter and Talalay (A. W. Coulter and P. Talalay, J. Biol. Chem. 243:3238-3247, 1968) established the oxygenase-dependent pathway for the degradation of testosterone by aerobes. The oxic testosterone catabolic pathway involves several oxygen-dependent reactions and is not available for anaerobes. Since then, a variety of anaerobic bacteria have been described for the ability to degrade testosterone in the absence of oxygen. Here, a novel, oxygenase-independent testosterone catabolic pathway in such organisms is described. Steroidobacter denitrificans DSMZ18526 was shown to be capable of degrading testosterone in the absence of oxygen and was selected as the model organism in this study. In a previous investigation, we identified the initial intermediates involved in an anoxic testosterone catabolic pathway, most of which are identical to those of the oxic pathway demonstrated in Comamonas testosteroni. In this study, five additional intermediates of the anoxic pathway were identified. We demonstrated that subsequent steps of the anoxic pathway greatly differ from those of the established oxic pathway, which suggests that a novel pathway for testosterone catabolism is present. In the proposed anoxic pathway, a reduction reaction occurs at C-4 and C-5 of androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, the last common intermediate of both the oxic and anoxic pathways. After that, a novel hydration reaction occurs and a hydroxyl group is thus introduced to the C-1α position of C(19)steroid substrates. To our knowledge, an enzymatic hydration reaction occurring at the A ring of steroid compounds has not been reported before.

  15. Testosterone levels and clinical features of schizophrenia with emphasis on negative symptoms and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisek-Šprem, Mirna; Križaj, Aida; Jukić, Vlado; Milošević, Milan; Petrović, Zrinka; Herceg, Miroslav

    2015-02-01

    Aggressive behavior and negative symptoms are two features of schizophrenia that may have a hormonal basis. The aim of this study was to compare testosterone level with clinical features of schizophrenia, focusing on negative symptoms and aggressive behavior. The study population consisted of 120 male schizophrenic patients (ages 18-40) classified into non-aggressive (n = 60) and aggressive (n = 60) groups. Depending on the type of aggression that was manifested prior to admission, the aggressive group was divided into violent (n = 32) and suicidal (n = 28) subgroups. Psychopathological severity, violence and suicidality were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Overt Aggression Scale and Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale, respectively. Total serum testosterone level was determined on the same morning that symptoms were assessed. In the non-aggressive group, testosterone level was negatively correlated with the score on the negative subscale of PANSS (P = 0.04) and depression (P = 0.013), and positively correlated with excitement (P = 0.027), hostility (P = 0.02) and impulsive behavior (P = 0.008). In the aggressive group, testosterone level had non-significant correlation with these parameters, and with violent or suicidal behavior. The results confirmed that non-aggressive male schizophrenic patients with lower levels of testosterone had a greater severity of negative symptoms. In aggressive patients, there was no correlation between testosterone and clinical features of the disorder or the degree or type of aggression. These findings indicate that therapeutic strategies targeting testosterone could be useful in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  16. Low serum testosterone predicts upgrading and upstaging of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Often, pathological Gleason Score (GS and stage of prostate cancer (PCa were inconsistent with biopsy GS and clinical stage. However, there were no widely accepted methods predicting upgrading and upstaging PCa. In our study, we investigated the association between serum testosterone and upgrading or upstaging of PCa after radical prostatectomy (RP. We enrolled 167 patients with PCa with biopsy GS ≤6, clinical stage ≤T2c, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA <10 ng ml−1 from April 2009 to April 2015. Data including age, body mass index, preoperative PSA level, comorbidity, clinical presentation, and preoperative serum total testosterone level were collected. Upgrading occurred in 62 (37.1% patients, and upstaging occurred in 73 (43.7% patients. Preoperative testosterone was lower in the upgrading than nonupgrading group (3.72 vs 4.56, P< 0.01. Patients in the upstaging group had lower preoperative testosterone than those in the nonupstaging group (3.84 vs 4.57, P= 0.01. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, as both continuous and categorical variables, low serum testosterone was confirmed to be an independent predictor of pathological upgrading (P = 0.01 and P= 0.01 and upstaging (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02 after RP. We suggest that low serum testosterone (<3 ng ml−1 is associated with a high rate of upgrading and upstaging after RP. It is better for surgeons to ensure close monitoring of PSA levels and imaging examination when selecting non-RP treatment, to be cautious in proceeding with nerve-sparing surgery, and to be enthusiastic in performing extended lymph node dissection when selecting RP treatment for patients with low serum testosterone.

  17. Dificuldade visual em escolares: conhecimentos e ações de professores do ensino fundamental que atuam com alunos que apresentam visão subnormal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparetto Maria Elisabete R. Freire

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: 1 Verificar os conhecimentos e ações desenvolvidas por professores do ensino fundamental, que atuam com alunos que apresentam visão subnormal, em relação aos sinais e sintomas indicativos de dificuldades visuais dos alunos; 2 Obter informações indispensáveis ao planejamento de ações preventivas direcionadas à saúde ocular na escola. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se levantamento entre professores do ensino fundamental de escolas públicas do município de Campinas/SP, que atuavam com alunos que apresentavam visão subnormal, no ano letivo de 1999. Foram incluídas 23 escolas onde se localizava essa população. Foi utilizado questionário auto-aplicável como instrumento de coleta de dados. RESULTADOS: De 84 professores, 68 (81% responderam ao questionário. A média de tempo de experiência profissional de magistério era de 20,8 anos. A maioria (92,6% não relatou formação na área da deficiência visual. Em relação ao conhecimento sobre os sinais e sintomas indicativos de dificuldade visual, a maioria indicou a dificuldade para ler na lousa (94,1%, seguida da cefal��ia (89,7% e a aproximação exagerada dos objetos aos olhos (88,2%. Desses professores, 55,9% identificaram alunos que apresentavam dificuldades visuais. Entre os que declararam ter identificado esses alunos, 84,2% proveram orientações ao escolar e 63,2% aos familiares para encaminhamento do problema. Somente 26,3% orientaram o aluno a procurar o oftalmologista. CONCLUSÃO: Os professores apresentaram conhecimento insuficiente quanto à saúde ocular e, portanto, as ações desenvolvidas não foram completas e abrangentes. Sugere-se a implantação de um programa de saúde ocular em todo o sistema público de ensino, visando desenvolver ações de prevenção da incapacidade visual, promoção e recuperação da saúde ocular.

  18. Melatonin and its correlation with testosterone in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is considered to be the most common endocrine disorder affecting women. Melatonin, a small lipophilic indoleamine, and reproductive hormones may be interrelated. Melatonin influences sex steroid production at different stages of ovarian follicular maturation as melatonin receptors have been demonstrated at multiple sites in ovary and in intrafollicular fluid. It plays role as an antioxidant and free radical scavanger which protects follicles from oxidative stress, rescuing them from atresia, leading to complete follicular maturation and ovulation. Aims: To study the role of melatonin in PCOS and to investigate its correlation with testosterone in patients suffering from PCOS. Settings and Design: A total of 50 women with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria, 2003 and 50 age and weight matched healthy controls were selected and serum melatonin estimation was done in both the groups and correlated with serum total testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, detailed history, clinical examination and hormonal evaluation [basal levels of leutinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, insulin, total testosterone, progesterone and melatonin] were carried out in all the participants including both cases and controls. For melatonin estimation, blood samples were collected between 12:00 am and 04:00 am on day 2 nd of menstrual cycle and analyzed by using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test was used to compare the significant difference in mean values between cases and control groups. Chi-square test was used to test the significant association between the qualitative variables. Linear correlation coefficient and regression analysis were done to see the amount and direction of relationship between quantitative variables. Results: The mean melatonin level was observed to be significantly

  19. Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, Al V. [Western Radiation Oncology, Mountain View, CA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an association between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase {>=}25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease {>=}25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA response

  20. Genetic Determinants of Serum Testosterone Concentrations in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Marcello; Coviello, Andrea D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Heier, Margit; Hofman, Albert; Holliday, Kate L.; Jansson, John-Olov; Kähönen, Mika; Karasik, David; Karlsson, Magnus K.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Liu, Yongmei; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Meitinger, Thomas; Mellström, Dan; Melzer, David; Miljkovic, Iva; Nauck, Matthias; Nilsson, Maria; Penninx, Brenda; Pye, Stephen R.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Reincke, Martin; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Teumer, Alexander; Uitterlinden, André G.; Ulloor, Jagadish; Viikari, Jorma; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. Erich; Wu, Tsung-Sheng; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Ziv, Elad; Wu, Frederick C. W.; Raitakari, Olli; Eriksson, Anna; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Harris, Tamara B.; Murray, Anna; de Jong, Frank H.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Bhasin, Shalender; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Haring, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871) and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620) to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10−41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10−22). Subjects with ≥3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10−16). The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (ptestosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation. PMID:21998597

  1. Testosterone treatment of hypogonadal men participating in competitive sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, L J; Behre, H M

    2008-06-01

    Testosterone has a steeply dose-dependent effect on muscle mass and strength irrespective of gonadal status. So, for reasons of fairness, people who engage in competitive sports should not administer exogenous testosterone raising their blood testosterone levels beyond the range of normal. There is a ban on exogenous androgens for men and women in sports, but an exception has been made for men with androgen deficiency due to pituitary or testicular disease. Men who receive testosterone administration for the indication hypogonadism have an interest in the use of testosterone preparations generating blood testosterone levels within the normal range of healthy, eugonadal men. On the grounds of a positive correlation between blood testosterone concentrations muscle and volume/strength, they are best served with a parenteral testosterone preparation, rather than transdermal testosterone, but they should not run the risk of being excluded from competition because of supraphysiological testosterone levels. The latter is a realistic risk with the traditional parenteral testosterone esters. The new parenteral testosterone undecanoate preparation offers much better perspectives. Its pharmacokinetics have been investigated in detail and there is a fair degree of predictability of resulting blood testosterone levels with use of this preparation.

  2. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  3. Hypoactive sexual desire in transsexual women: prevalence and association with testosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaut, Els; De Cuypere, Griet; De Sutter, Petra; Gijs, Luk; Van Trotsenburg, Michael; Heylens, Gunter; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Rubens, Robert; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2008-03-01

    An unknown proportion of transsexual women (defined as post-operative male-to-female transsexuals on oestrogen replacement) experience hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). It has been suggested that the absence of ovarian androgen production together with oestrogen treatment-related increase in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels could be leading to HSDD, due to low levels of biologically available testosterone. This study wishes to document the HSDD prevalence among transsexual women and the possible association to androgen levels. Cross-sectional study. Transsexual women (n=62) and a control group of ovulating women (n=30) participated in this study. Questionnaires measuring sexual desire (sexual desire inventory) and relationship and sexual satisfaction (Maudsley Marital Questionnaire) were completed. Serum levels of total testosterone, LH and SHBG were measured in blood samples obtained at random in transsexual women and in the early follicular phase in ovulating women. The transsexual group had lower levels of total and calculated free testosterone (both Ptranssexual and 23% of the ovulating women (P=0.30). Both groups reported similar levels of sexual desire (P=0.97). For transsexual women, no significant correlation was found between sexual desire and total (P=0.64) or free testosterone (P=0.82). In ovulating women, these correlations were significant (P=0.006, resp. P=0.003). HSDD is reported in one-third of transsexual women. This prevalence is not substantially different from controls, despite markedly lower (free) testosterone levels, which argues against a major role of testosterone in this specific group.

  4. Effect of testosterone treatment on glucose metabolism in men with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianatti, Emily J; Dupuis, Philippe; Hoermann, Rudolf; Strauss, Boyd J; Wentworth, John M; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Grossmann, Mathis

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether testosterone therapy improves glucose metabolism in men with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and lowered testosterone. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial in 88 men with T2D, aged 35-70 years with an HbA1c ≤8.5% (69 mmol/mol), and a total testosterone level, measured by immunoassay, of ≤12.0 nmol/L (346 ng/dL). Participants were randomly assigned to 40 weeks of intramuscular testosterone undecanoate (n = 45) or matching placebo (n = 43). All study subjects were included in the primary analysis. Seven men assigned to testosterone and six men receiving placebo did not complete the study. Main outcome measures were insulin resistance by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR, primary outcome) and glycemic control by HbA1c (secondary outcome). Testosterone therapy did not improve insulin resistance (mean adjusted difference [MAD] for HOMA-IR compared with placebo -0.08 [95% CI -0.31 to 0.47; P = 0.23]) or glycemic control (MAD HbA1c 0.36% [0.0-0.7]; P = 0.05), despite a decrease in fat mass (MAD -2.38 kg [-3.10 to -1.66]; P Testosterone therapy reduced subcutaneous (MAD -320 cm(3) [-477 to -163]; P Testosterone therapy does not improve glucose metabolism or visceral adiposity in obese men with moderately controlled T2D and modest reductions in circulating testosterone levels typical for men with T2D. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  5. Assessing biological maturity: chronological age and the pubertal development scale predict free testosterone in adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Hackney, Anthony C; Lane, Amy R; Myers, Joseph B

    2015-03-01

    Pubertal development status has implications for development of physical characteristics, performance, and injury risk in school-aged athletes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of non-invasive measures of biological maturity to predict salivary free testosterone. A total of 61 physically active males (ages 6-16) participated in this study. Participants had their anthropometrics measured, completed the Pubertal Development Scale (PDS), and reported their birthdays and the heights of their biological parents. Exact chronological age and percent of predicted height were calculated. Resting salivary samples were collected and assessed for free testosterone levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedures. Variables were entered into a stepwise linear regression to predict free testosterone. The regression model was statistically significant (R²=0.716, F₂,₆₁=74.2, pfree testosterone. Chronological age and PDS adequately predict salivary free testosterone levels in school-aged males and may be an appropriate tool to evaluate physical maturity in school-aged males quickly, cheaply, and accurately.

  6. Serum testosterone as a biomarker for second prostatic biopsy in men with negative first biopsy for prostatic cancer and PSA>4ng/mL, or with PIN biopsy result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiamegos, Alexandros; Varkarakis, John; Kontraros, Michael; Karagiannis, Andreas; Chrisofos, Michael; Barbalias, Dimitrios; Deliveliotis, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    Data from animal, clinical and prevention studies support the role of androgens in prostate cancer growth, proliferation and progression. Results of serum based epidemiologic studies in humans, however, have been inconclusive. The present study aims to define whether serum testosterone can be used as a predictor of a posi¬tive second biopsy in males considered for re-biopsy. The study included 320 men who underwent a prostatic biopsy in our department from October 2011 until June 2012. Total testosterone, free testos¬terone, bioavailable testosterone and prostate pathology were evaluated in all cases. Patients undergoing a second biopsy were identified and biopsy results were statistically analyzed. Forty men (12.5%) were assessed with a second biopsy. The diagnosis of the second biopsy was High Grade Intraepithelial Neoplasia in 14 patients (35%) and Prostate Cancer in 12 patients (30%). The comparison of prostatic volume, total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and albumin showed that patients with cancer of the prostate had significantly greater levels of free testosterone (p=0.043) and bioavailable T (p=0.049). In our study, higher free testosterone and bioavailable testosterone levels were associated with a cancer diagnosis at re-biopsy. Our results indicate a possible role for free and bioavailable testosterone in predicting the presence of prostate cancer in patients considered for re-biopsy. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  7. Evaluation of testosterone metabolites/dehydroepiandrosterone as the indicators of testosterone administration in horse doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Kim, S.J. [Korea Racing Association, Kyonggi (Korea); Kyong, J.B. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Choi, M.H.; Chung, B.C. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    The metabolism of testosterone (17{beta}-hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one) was confirmed in horse after a single intramuscular administration of testosterone cypionate (750 mg). Solvent extracts of urine obtained with enzymatic hydrolysis and methanolysis were analyzed by GC/MS after oxime t-butyldimethylsilyl (oxime-TBDMS) derivatization. the structures of four urinary metabolite after testosterone administration in horse were determined based on EI mass spectra and 5{alpha}-androstane-3{beta}, 17{alpha}-diol and 5a-androstane-3{beta}-ol--17one as major was confirmed with authentic standard. Also the concentrations of 5{alpha}--androstane-3{beta}, 17{alpha}-diol, 5{alpha}-androstane-3{beta}, 17{beta}-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 5{alpha}-androstane-3{beta}-ol-17-one and testosterone were determined in the urine of normal subjects and the urine after administration. The recovery and detection limit in the most drugs were 86.3{approx}94.7% and 1{approx}3 ppb, respectively. Correlation coefficients for calibration were in the range of 0.984{approx}0.999. Excretion profile of testosterone presents the rapid and large increasement up to maximum values as days 5 after administration and the slow regression. The relative ratios of testosterone, its metabolites over DHEA were determined for indication of testosterone administration in horse doping. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Effects of dutasteride on serum free-testosterone and clinical significance of testosterone changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enatsu, N; Miyake, H; Haraguchi, T; Chiba, K; Fujisawa, M

    2016-12-01

    Sixty-two patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) who were being treated with dutasteride participated in this study. Prostate volume, uroflowmetry, blood tests, the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) were determined before and 1, 3 and 12 months after the treatment with dutasteride. Patients were divided into two groups based on changes in serum testosterone after 1 month: Group A (>20% increase; n = 33) or Group B (free-testosterone levels were 20.4% higher after 1 month and remained constant thereafter. When Groups A and B were compared, baseline free-testosterone levels were significantly lower in Group A, IPSS QOL was significantly better in Group A at 3 and 12 months, and no significant differences were observed in uroflowmetry, prostate volume, IPSS or IIEF-5. A univariate analysis identified serum free-testosterone levels and the IPSS storage symptom subscore as significant factors influencing IPSS QOL at 12 months, and only the IPSS storage symptom subscore appeared to be independently related to IPSS QOL. These results indicate that dutasteride increases serum free-testosterone levels in BPH patients, particularly with low baseline free-testosterone levels, and the increase in free-testosterone may have further add-on impacts on their urinary tract symptoms. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Fathers' decline in testosterone and synchrony with partner testosterone during pregnancy predicts greater postpartum relationship investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxbe, Darby E; Edelstein, Robin S; Lyden, Hannah M; Wardecker, Britney M; Chopik, William J; Moors, Amy C

    2017-04-01

    The transition to parenthood has been associated with declines in testosterone among partnered fathers, which may reflect males' motivation to invest in the family. Moreover, preliminary evidence has found that couples show correlations in hormone levels across pregnancy that may also be linked to fathers' preparation for parenthood. The current study used repeated-measures sampling of testosterone across pregnancy to explore whether fathers' change in T, and correlations with mothers' T, were associated with fathers' and mothers' postpartum investment. In a sample of 27 couples (54 individuals) expecting their first child, both parents' salivary testosterone was measured multiple times across pregnancy. At approximately 3.5months postpartum, participants rated their investment, commitment, and satisfaction with their partner. A multilevel model was used to measure change in testosterone over time and associations between mother and father testosterone. Fathers who showed stronger declines in T across pregnancy, and stronger correlations with mothers' testosterone, reported higher postpartum investment, commitment, and satisfaction. Mothers reported more postpartum investment and satisfaction if fathers showed greater prenatal declines in T. These results held even after controlling for paternal investment, commitment, and satisfaction measured prenatally at study entry. Our results suggest that changes in paternal testosterone across pregnancy, and hormonal linkage with the pregnant partner, may underlie fathers' dedication to the partner relationship across the transition to parenthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Wirkung von Testosteron auf Haut und Haare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopera D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosteron – das wichtigste Androgen – wird ab der Adrenarche bei beiden Geschlechtern in mehr oder weniger großen Mengen gebildet. Die Bildung erfolgt bei Männern in den Hoden, bei Frauen in den Ovarien und bei beiden Geschlechtern in geringen Mengen in den Nebennieren. Im Blut zirkuliert es einerseits SHBG-gebunden, andererseits als wirksames und freies Testosteron, das auf die verschiedenen Organe eine unterschiedlich starke Wirkung ausübt. Es beeinflusst die Ausbildung des männlichen Phänotyps, den Aufbau der Muskelmasse, die Knochendichte sowie den Fett- und Zuckerstoffwechsel. Auf Haut und Hautanhangsgebilde hat Testosteron eine besondere Wirkung: Es stimuliert die Talgdrüsen (führt zu Seborrhö und reguliert das Haarwachstum.

  11. Wirkung von Testosteron auf Haut und Haare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopera D

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosteron – das wichtigste Androgen – wird ab der Adrenarche bei beiden Geschlechtern in mehr oder weniger großen Mengen gebildet. Die Bildung erfolgt bei Männern in den Hoden, bei Frauen in den Ovarien und bei beiden Geschlechtern in geringen Mengen in den Nebennieren. Im Blut zirkuliert es einerseits SHBG-gebunden, andererseits als wirksames und freies Testosteron, das auf die verschiedenen Organe eine unterschiedlich starke Wirkung ausübt. Es beeinflusst die Ausbildung des männlichen Phänotyps, den Aufbau der Muskelmasse, die Knochendichte sowie den Fett- und Zuckerstoffwechsel. Auf Haut und Hautanhangsgebilde hat Testosteron eine besondere Wirkung: Es stimuliert die Talgdrüsen (führt zu Seborrhö und reguliert das Haarwachstum.

  12. Vitamin D and Testosterone in Healthy Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Pilz, Stefan; Trummer, Christian; Schwetz, Verena; Pachernegg, Oliver; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Available evidence shows an association of vitamin D with androgen levels in men. However, results from preliminary randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conflicting. To evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation increases total testosterone (TT) levels in healthy men. The Graz Vitamin D&TT-RCT is

  13. Tissue culture media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum contains a castrate level of testosterone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Isaacs, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human prostate cancer cells are routinely maintained in media supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) to provide androgen. In the present study, total and free testosterone levels in 10%FCS supplemented tissue culture media were determined and compared to levels in intact and

  14. The heritability of testosterone: A study of Dutch adolescent twins and their parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, J.A.; Boomsma, D.I.; Vernon, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    The heritability of total plasma testosterone' levels, determined from blood samples, was examined in 160 adolescent twin pairs and their parents. Subjects were tested as part of a larger study of cardiovascular risk factors, conducted in Amsterdam. Each subject provided a sample of blood which was

  15. Characterization of Mediators of Cardiac And Renal Development in Response to Increased Prenatal Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    levels with the use of metformin in lean PCOS women, Nestler demonstrated a reduction in ovarian P450c17α activity, total testosterone, free...Disease’. (Ed. Barker DJP) (Marcel Dekker, Inc.: 91 Holly JM, Smith CP, Dunger DB, Howell RJ, Chard T, Perry LA , Savage MO, Cianfarani S, Rees LH

  16. Liver haemodynamics and function in alcoholic cirrhosis. Relation to testosterone treatment and ethanol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Henriksen, J H

    1987-01-01

    Liver haemodynamics and liver function were measured in 34 alcoholic cirrhotic men before entry and after 12 months (median) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effect of oral testosterone treatment (200 mg t.i.d.). Comparing data at entry with those at follow-up in the total patient......, testosterone-treated patients did not differ significantly from placebo-treated patients regarding any of the measured variables. No significant relationships could be demonstrated between ethanol consumption and liver haemodynamics and liver function, but the number of patients consuming more than 100 g...... ethanol per day decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) from 22 (65%) before entry to one (3%) during follow-up. In conclusion, oral testosterone treatment of men with alcoholic cirrhosis does not explain the significant improvement of liver haemodynamics and function observed in this study. However...

  17. The growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor axis during testosterone replacement therapy in GH-treated hypopituitary males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Sidse; Nørrelund, Helene; Juul, A

    2001-01-01

    in relation to two testosterone injections. Mean baseline IGF-I levels were 352 +/- 135 microg/L, and they remained unaltered during the study period (analysis of variance (ANOVA), P = 0.88). Free IGF-I levels did not change either (ANOVA, P = 0.35). Serum IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and acid...... (ANOVA, P = 0.08). Prostate-specific antigen tended slightly to increase after each testosterone injection (ANOVA, P = 0.08, post hoc, NS). We conclude that major changes in total IGF-I are not induced during conventional intramuscular testosterone replacement in GH-treated hypopituitary males......, suggesting that testosterone effects on IGF-I are likely to be secondary to a stimulation of endogenous GH release....

  18. A Novel Testosterone Catabolic Pathway in Bacteria ▿ ‡

    OpenAIRE

    Leu, Yann-Lii; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Ismail, Wael; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2011-01-01

    Forty years ago, Coulter and Talalay (A. W. Coulter and P. Talalay, J. Biol. Chem. 243:3238–3247, 1968) established the oxygenase-dependent pathway for the degradation of testosterone by aerobes. The oxic testosterone catabolic pathway involves several oxygen-dependent reactions and is not available for anaerobes. Since then, a variety of anaerobic bacteria have been described for the ability to degrade testosterone in the absence of oxygen. Here, a novel, oxygenase-independent testosterone c...

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of hepatic responses to testosterone deficiency in miniature pigs fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhaowei; Jiang, Xiaoling; Pan, Yongming; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Lifan; Zhu, Keyan; Cai, Yueqin; Ling, Yun; Chen, Fangming; Xu, Xiaoping; Chen, Minli

    2015-02-06

    Recent studies have indicated that low serum testosterone levels are associated with increased risk of developing hepatic steatosis; however, the mechanisms mediating this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. To gain insight into the role of testosterone in modulating hepatic steatosis, we investigated the effects of testosterone on the development of hepatic steatosis in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet and profiled hepatic gene expression by RNA-Seq in HFC-fed intact male pigs (IM), castrated male pigs (CM), and castrated male pigs with testosterone replacement (CMT). Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in CM pigs, and testosterone replacement attenuated castration-induced testosterone deficiency. CM pigs showed increased liver injury accompanied by increased hepatocellular steatosis, inflammation, and elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels compared with IM pigs. Moreover, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were markedly increased in CM pigs. Testosterone replacement decreased serum and hepatic lipid levels and improved liver injury in CM pigs. Compared to IM and CMT pigs, CM pigs had lower serum levels of superoxide dismutase but higher levels of malondialdehyde. Gene expression analysis revealed that upregulated genes in the livers of CM pigs were mainly enriched for genes mediating immune and inflammatory responses, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Surprisingly, the downregulated genes mainly included those that regulate metabolism-related processes, including fatty acid oxidation, steroid biosynthesis, cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. KEGG analysis showed that metabolic pathways, fatty acid degradation, pyruvate metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway were the major pathways altered in CM pigs. This study demonstrated that testosterone deficiency aggravated

  20. KAJIAN TINGKAT KECENDERUNGAN PRIA DENGAN TESTOSTERON DEFICIENSI SYNDROM TERHADAP RISIKO MENDERITA METABOLIC SYNDROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wasito

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Man above 50 years old, as women who experience menopause, will show certain and specific problems. Middle age man often has a group of complaints, symptoms and syndromes that almost the same as women. The total populationof old citizen in the whole world keeps on increasing from year to year; so in Indonesia. There was prediction that the increment of total of old population in Indonesia will increase into 41% in 2020 (WHO report. With the addition of age, there is a decrease of testosterone production and it will be followed with the decrease of production of other hormones, enzymes, bio active that needed by body to be able to survive in performing active and healthy life. Massachusetts Male Aging Study (MMAS, 1991 and Vermeulen (1992 report that start from 40 years old, a man will experience the decrease of active blood testosterone level around 1.2% per year and it happens until the age 70 years old, in which the man will experience blood testosterone level decrease into 35% from previous normal level. Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome (TDS or Hypogonadism can be diagnosed well by measuring active testosterone level in laboratory Metabolic syndrome is a group of metabolic disorder, in which lipid or non lipid can be the factor of coronary disease, that consists of centralobesity, displipedimia alerogenic (high trigliserid level and low level of HDL cholesterol, hypertension, and abnormal glucoseplasma, and it often experienced by man above 40 years old. A man with erection dysfunction is initial manifestation of vascular disease. Risk factor for cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, dislipidemia, central obesity and insulin resistance is also the same risk factor for erection dysfunction that caused by vascular. Risk factor of erection dysfunction will increase for metabolic syndrome. Key words: Aging man, metabolic syndrome, Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome

  1. Testosterone replacement therapy among elderly males: the Testim Registry in the US (TRiUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya RK

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rajib K Bhattacharya,1 Mohit Khera,2 Gary Blick,3 Harvey Kushner,4 Martin M Miner51Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA; 2Scott Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 3Circle Medical LLC, Norwalk, CT, USA; 4Biometrics, Auxilium Pharmaceuticals, Malvern, PA, USA; 5Men's Health Center, Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI, USABackground: Testosterone levels naturally decline with age in men, often resulting in testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism. However, few studies have examined hypogonadal characteristics and treatment in older (≥65 years men.Objective: To compare data at baseline and after 12 months of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT in hypogonadal men ≥65 vs <65 years old. Data for participants 65–74 vs ≥75 years old were also compared.Methods: Data were from TRiUS (Testim Registry in the United States, which enrolled 849 hypogonadal men treated with Testim® 1% (50–100 mg testosterone gel/day for the first time. Anthropometric, laboratory, and clinical measures were taken at baseline and 12 months, including primary outcomes of total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels. Comparisons of parameters were made using Fisher's exact test or analysis of variance. Nonparametric Spearman's ρ and first-order partial correlation coefficients adjusted for the effect of age were used to examine bivariate correlations among parameters.Results: Of the registry participants at baseline with available age information, 16% (133/845 were ≥65 years old. They were similar to men <65 years old in the duration of hypogonadism prior to enrollment (~1 year, TT and FT levels at baseline, TT and FT levels at 12-month follow-up, and in reported compliance with treatment. Older patients were more likely to receive lower doses of TRT. PSA levels did not statistically differ between groups after 12 months of TRT (2.18 ± 2.18 ng

  2. Association between low serum free testosterone and adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The association of serum free testosterone (FT) with prostate cancer is not fully understood. Studies on the results of the relationship between serum testosterone level and prostate cancer are conflicting. However, there is a reported association between lower serum testosterone levels and high-grade prostate ...

  3. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.842 Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in... testosterone propionate (one implant consisting of 8 pellets, each pellet containing 2.5 mg estradiol benzoate...

  4. Pharmacokinetics of testosterone cream applied to scrotal skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R; Mok, S F; Savkovic, S; Turner, L; Fraser, G; Desai, R; Jayadev, V; Conway, A J; Handelsman, D J

    2017-07-01

    Scrotal skin is thin and has high steroid permeability, but the pharmacokinetics of testosterone via the scrotal skin route has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to define the pharmacokinetics of testosterone delivered via the scrotal skin route. The study was a single-center, three-phase cross-over pharmacokinetic study of three single doses (12.5, 25, 50 mg) of testosterone cream administered in random sequence on different days with at least 2 days between doses to healthy eugonadal volunteers with endogenous testosterone suppressed by administration of nandrolone decanoate. Serum testosterone, DHT and estradiol concentrations were measured by liquid chromatograpy, mass spectrometry in extracts of serum taken before and for 16 h after administration of each of the three doses of testosterone cream to the scrotal skin. Testosterone administration onto the scrotal skin produced a swift (peak 1.9-2.8 h), dose-dependent (p testosterone with the 25 mg dose maintaining physiological levels for 16 h. Serum DHT displayed a time- (p testosterone. There were no significant changes in serum estradiol over time after testosterone administration. We conclude that testosterone administration to scrotal skin is well tolerated and produces dose-dependent peak serum testosterone concentration with a much lower dose relative to the non-scrotal transdermal route. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  5. Low free and bioavailable testosterone levels may predict pathologically-proven high-risk prostate cancer: a prospective, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Göksel; Şirin, Hakan; Aydın, Mustafa; Özağarı, Ayşim; Tanrıverdi, Orhan; Kadıhasanoğlu, Mustafa; Kendirci, Muammer

    2017-09-01

    To determine the predictive value of free and bioavailable testosterone levels on the detection of high-grade prostate cancer proven by histopathological examination of transrectal prostate biopsy specimens. A total of 405 patients who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy due to high prostatic specific antigen (PSA) (>2.5 ng/mL) and/or abnormal findings at digital rectal examination were included in this study. Blood free and bioavailable testosterone levels were calculated by the formula recommended by International Society for the Study of the Aging Male (ISSAM). The patients were stratified according to the D'Amico classification based on PSA levels and histological outcomes of prostate biopsies as benign, low, intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer. Patients were also divided into five groups according to the percentage of cancerous cores. Prostate cancer was detected in 160 of 405 (39.5%) patients. Total, free and bioavailable testosterone levels did not differ significantly between the patients with benign or malign histology. However, mean free (6.2 vs. 5.2 ng/dL, p=0.02) and bioavailable (151 vs. 125 ng/dL, p=0.001) testosterone levels were found to be significantly different in men with low-intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer. Moreover, a significant correlation was found between free, and bioavailable testosterone levels and percentage of cores with cancer (p=0.002 for free and p=0.016 for bioavailable testosterone, respectively). This prospective clinical study demonstrates that reduced levels of calculated blood free and bioavailable testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer. Based on these findings blood free and bioavailable testosterone levels may be be thought to be an adjunctive factor in the prediction of high-risk prostate cancer.

  6. Possible role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Hamd, M; Farah, A

    2018-02-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE. In a prospective a case-controlled study, it was conducted on 90 male patients with PE and 90 male healthy participants as controls. Patients were evaluated by Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Patients with mean IELT values ≤60 s and PEDT total scores ≥11 were considered to have PE. Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin (PL) were investigated in patients with PE and controls. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with PE and controls regarding the serum levels of TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL (p value ˃.05). There was no significant correlation between the sex hormones levels (TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL) and (age, body mass index (BMI), IELTS and total PEDT scores of the patients; p value ˃.05). This study concluded that there was no disturbance in serum levels of testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE and controls. These hormones could not relate to pathogenesis of PE. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Testosterone treatment is immunosuppressive in superb fairy-wrens, yet free-living males with high testosterone are more immunocompetent.

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, A

    2000-01-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis proposes that the immunosuppressive effect of testosterone enforces honesty of sexual signalling via a physiological trade-off between signal intensity and immunocompetence. However, evidence that testosterone is immunosuppressive is scant, particularly in birds. I studied the correlation between immunocompetence and testosterone in superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus), a species with intense intersexual selection. Males are seasonally dichromatic and ...

  8. Comparison of methods for determination of testosterone and non-protein bound testosterone in men with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    The serum concentrations of testosterone and of non-protein bound testosterone were determined in 28 men with alcoholic liver disease having normal to decreased serum albumin concentrations and normal to raised SHBG concentrations. Serum testosterone concentrations determined with two radioimmuno...

  9. Análise crítica do desempenho evolutivo da visão subnormal no Instituto Benjamin Constant Critical analysis of the progressive performance of low vision in Benjamin Constant Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Alves da Costa Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a efetividade do setor de Visão Subnormal no Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC e comprovar a real necessidade de um Instituto nos moldes do Instituto Benjamin Constant na atual política de inclusão. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico, realizado de 1º de outubro de 1990 a 20 de dezembro de 2002, analisando três períodos de atendimento no setor de Visão Subnormal no Instituto Benjamin Constant: a 1991 - início do atendimento; b 1995 - integração médico-pedagógica; c 2002 - estágio atual. Nesta análise foram estudados os seguintes indicadores: I - número de atendimentos no setor de Visão Subnormal; II - condições do setor de Visão Subnormal no Instituto Benjamin Constant e III - associados. RESULTADOS: Observou-se aumento do atendimento, que passou a ser mais abrangente após a integração médico-pedagógica. Outros indicadores, como a capacitação de profissionais médicos, a participação em cursos de capacitação no Instituto Benjamin Constant, o aumento do número de convênios e encaminhamentos para o Instituto Benjamin Constant, além da Reabilitação, também confirmam a efetividade do setor de Visão Subnormal no Instituto Benjamin Constant. CONCLUSÕES: O setor de Visão Subnormal mostrou ser a interface entre o serviço médico e o serviço pedagógico, passando a interagir posteriormente com a Reabilitação e a Coordenação de Educação Física. Isto acarretou mudança de postura de diferentes setores do Instituto Benjamin Constant com relação ao paciente portador de visão subnormal, desde o educando até o paciente da comunidade. Desse modo, o Instituto Benjamin Constant mostrou a sua utilidade no tocante à política de inclusão.PURPOSE: To evaluate effectiveness of the Low Vision the Benjamin Constant Institute (BCI and confirm the real necessity of an Institute like BCI in the present inclusion policy. METHODS: Ecological study, analyzing 3 periods of Low Vision Assistance at the Benjamin

  10. Testosterone Inhibits Trust but Promotes Reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; Bergh, B. van den; Son, V. van; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smidts, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone has been associated with behavior intended to obtain or maintain high social status. Although such behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior

  11. Testosterone inhibits trust, but promotes reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; van den Bergh, B.; van Son, V.; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smids, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone has been associated with behavior intended to obtain or maintain high social status. Although such behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior

  12. Postnatal Testosterone Concentrations and Male Social Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerianne M Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Converging evidence from over 40 years of behavioral research indicates that higher testicular androgens in prenatal life and at puberty contribute to the masculinization of human behavior. However, the behavioral significance of the transient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis in early postnatal life remains largely unknown. Although early research on nonhuman primates indicated suppression of the postnatal surge in testicular androgens had no measurable effects on the later expression of the male behavioral phenotype, recent research from our laboratory suggests that postnatal testosterone concentrations influence male infant preferences for larger social groups and temperament characteristics associated with the later development of aggression. In later assessment of gender-linked behavior in the second year of life, concentrations of testosterone at 3-4 months of age were unrelated to toy choices and activity levels during toy play. However, higher concentrations of testosterone predicted less vocalization in toddlers and higher parental ratings on an established screening measure for autism spectrum disorder. These findings suggest a role of the transient activation of the HPG axis in the development of typical and atypical male social relations and suggest that it may be useful in future research on the exaggerated rise in testosterone secretion in preterm infants or exposure to hormone disruptors in early postnatal life to include assessment of gender-relevant behavioral outcomes, including childhood disorders with sex-biased prevalence rates.

  13. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2.

  14. Body weight, scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare testosterone concentration, body weight, scrotal circumference and age to penis detachment from days 30 to 240 in young Boer goat males (n = 22) born during the dry (n = 11) and the rainy (n = 11) seasons. In the dry season the parameters varied as follows: body weight from 3.7 ± 1.1 ...

  15. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquinetreated rats: effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2 ml/kg of normal ...

  16. Testosterone increases the muscle protein synthesis rate but does not affect very-low-density lipoprotein metabolism in obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewen; Smith, Gordon I; Patterson, Bruce W; Reeds, Dominic N; Kampelman, Janine; Magkos, Faidon; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2012-03-15

    Men and women with hyperandrogenemia have a more proatherogenic plasma lipid profile [e.g., greater triglyceride (TG) and total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations] than healthy premenopausal women. Furthermore, castration of male rats markedly reduces testosterone availability below normal and decreases plasma TG concentration, and testosterone replacement reverses this effect. Testosterone is, therefore, thought to be an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis. However, little is known about the effect of testosterone on plasma TG concentration and kinetics. Furthermore, testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent in men, but its effect on muscle protein turnover in women is unknown. We measured plasma lipid concentrations, hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates, and the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate in 10 obese women before and after trandermal testosterone (1.25 g of 1% AndroGel daily) treatment for 3 wk. Serum total and free testosterone concentrations increased (P testosterone treatment, reaching concentrations that are comparable to those in women with hyperandrogenemia, but lower than the normal range for eugonadal men. Except for a small (∼10%) decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein particle and cholesterol concentrations (P testosterone therapy had no effect on plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle sizes, and hepatic VLDL-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates (all P > 0.05); the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate, however, increased by ∼45% (P testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent, but not an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis in obese women.

  17. Exogenous testosterone, finasteride and castration effects on testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofvand, Namdar; Zarei, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although effects of trace elements on secretion of sex steroids and insulin have been studied, the effects of these hormones on serum level of trace elements have been rarely investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of testosterone and finasteride administration and castration on serum levels of testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium. Male adult rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8). Group 1, control; Group 2, castration, castration was done at the first day of the study; Group 3, finasteride (20 mg/kg/day, dissolved in drinking water) and Group 4, testosterone (5 mg/kg/day, i.p.). At the end of the period of the study (35 days), serum testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium levels were determined in the blood samples collected directly from the right atrium of the heart of the animals. The data indicated that the serum levels of testosterone, insulin and zinc were significantly increased (Pfinasteride groups, but the level of chromium was decreased in both groups (Pfinasteride increases insulin and zinc levels and decreases chromium levels in the serum of male adult rats. According to these data, it seems that testosterone may affect glucose cycle through effect on serum insulin levels and trace elements such as zinc and chromium.

  18. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Mortality in Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, G I

    2016-02-01

    While US testosterone prescriptions have tripled in the last decade with lower trends in Europe, debate continues over the risks, benefits and appropriate use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). Several authors blame advertising and the availability of more convenient formulations, whilst others have pointed out that the routine testing of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) (a significant marker of cardiovascular risk) and those with diabetes would inevitably increase the diagnosis of hypogonadism and lead to an increase in totally appropriate prescribing. They commented that this was merely an appropriate correction of previous under-diagnosis and under-treatment in line with evidence based guidelines. It is unlikely that persuasive advertising or convenient formulations could grow a market over such a sustained period if the treatment was not effective. Urologists and primary care physicians are the most frequent initiators of TRT usually for ED. Benefits are clearly established for sexual function, increase in lean muscle mass and strength, mood and cognitive function, with a possible reduction in frailty and osteoporosis. There remains no evidence that TRT is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer or symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, yet the decision to initiate and continue therapy is often decided by urologists. The cardiovascular issues associated with TRT have been clarified by recent studies showing that therapy associated with clear increases in serum testosterone levels to the normal range is associated with reduced all-cause mortality. Studies reporting to show increased risk have been subject to flawed designs with inadequate baseline diagnosis and follow-up testing. Effectively, they have compared non-treated patients with under-treated or non-compliant subjects involving a range of different therapy regimes. Recent evidence suggests long-acting injections may be associated with decreased cardiovascular risk, but the

  19. Umbilical cord blood testosterone and childhood internalizing and externalizing behavior: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Robinson

    Full Text Available Antenatal testosterone exposure influences fetal neurodevelopment and gender-role behavior in postnatal life and may contribute to differences in developmental psychopathology during childhood. We prospectively measured the associations between umbilical cord blood testosterone levels at birth and childhood behavioral development in both males and females from a large population based sample. The study comprised 430 females and 429 males from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study where umbilical cord blood had been collected. Total testosterone concentrations were determined by mass spectrometry and bioavailable testosterone (BioT levels were calculated. At two, five, eight and ten years of age, the participants completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. Linear regression models were used to analyse the relationship between BioT concentrations (in quartiles and CBCL scores (total, internalizing, externalizing and selected syndrome. Boys had higher mean CBCL T-scores than girls across all ages of follow-up. There was no significant relationship between cord blood BioT quartiles and CBCL total, internalizing and externalizing T-scores at age two or five to ten combined. In the syndrome score analyses, higher BioT quartiles were associated with significantly lower scores for attention problems for boys at age five, eight and ten, and greater withdrawal symptoms in pre-school girls (age five. We did not identify a consistent relationship between antenatal testosterone exposure and total, internalizing or externalizing behavioral difficulties in childhood. Higher umbilical cord BioT levels were associated with lower scores for attention problems in boys up to 10 years and more withdrawn behavior in 5-year-old girls; however, these findings were not consistent across ages and require further investigation in a larger sample.

  20. Testosterone concentrations in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łagowska, Karolina; Kapczuk, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Menstrual disorders are common among female athletes and ballet dancers. Endocrine changes, such as high testosterone (HT) levels and high luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratios, may suggest functional ovarian hyperandrogenism which may induce such dysfunction. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate endocrine status in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders. Their nutritional status and dietary habits were analysed in relation to the testosterone levels. In a cross-sectional approach, 31 female athletes (18.1 ± 2.6 years) and 21 ballerinas (17.1 ± 0.9) with menstrual disorders participated in the study. The levels of serum LH, FSH, progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulinwere measured to assess hormonal status. In addition, the free androgen index (FAI) was calculated. Nutritional status, total daily energy expenditure and nutritional habits were evaluated. Girls were assigned to one of the following groups: low testosterone (LT) level, normal testosterone level or HT level. There were significant differences between ballerinas and other female athletes in terms of testosterone levels, FAI, age at the beginning of training, length of training period and age at menarche. The PRL level was lowest in the LT group while the FAI index was highest in the HT group. Daily energy and carbohydrate intakes were significantly lower in the HT group. T levels in the study subjects were found to be associated with nutritional factors, energy availability, age at the beginning of training and frequency of training. This is the first report of HT levels being associated with the status of a female ballet dancer, the age of menarche and the length of the training history. Further research is necessary to confirm the results in a larger study group.

  1. Serum testosterone levels of HbSS (sickle cell disease male subjects in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adediran Adewumi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is a major problem in sickle cell disease patients, especially in males. In addition to low serum testosterone, other abnormalities involving the accessory sex organs, such as the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland, as well as marked decrease in ejaculate volume may be observed in male HbSS patients. Hence, the need to study the role of sex hormones as a cause of infertility in male HbSS patients. Methods An unmatched case-control study was performed using seventy-five consenting subjects from Lagos University Teaching Hospital. These included 47 patients with haemoglobin phenotype SS from the Sickle cell clinic and 28 volunteered medical students and members of staff with haemoglobin phenotype AA. Demographic data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 5 mls of blood was collected from each subject between 9.00 am & 11.am, and assayed for serum testosterone concentration. Results The concentrations of serum testosterone in HbSS patients ranged from 0.2 to 4.3 ng/ml with a mean of 1.28 ± 0.72 ng/ml whilst the values in HbAA controls ranged from 1.2 to 6.9 ng/ml with a mean of 2.63 ± 1.04 ng/ml. Seven (25.0% of the 28 controls had serum testosterone concentration lower than the quoted reference (normal range whereas 44 (93.6% of the 47 HbSS subjects had serum testosterone concentration lower than the reference range. Conclusion Overall, subjects with HbSS have significantly lower mean serum testosterone than HbAA controls.

  2. Resistance Training and Testosterone Levels in Male Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Molsted

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 levels’ associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients. Methods. Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice weekly. Blood samples were obtained to analyse testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH, IGF-1, and IGF-binding protein 3. Muscle fibres’ size was analysed in biopsies from m. vastus lateralis. Results. The patients’ testosterone levels were within the normal range at baseline (n=20 (19.5 (8.2–52.1 nmol/L versus 17.6 (16.1–18.0, resp. whereas LH levels were higher (13.0 (5.5–82.8 U/L versus 4.3 (3.3–4.6, P<0.001, resp.. IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein 3 levels were higher in the patients compared with reference values (203 (59–590 ng/mL versus 151 (128–276, P=0.014, and 5045 (3370–9370 ng/mL versus 3244 (3020–3983, P<0.001, resp.. All hormone levels and muscle fibre size (n=12 remained stable throughout the study. Age-adjusted IGF-1 was associated with type 1 and 2 fibre sizes (P<0.05. Conclusion. Patients’ total testosterone values were normal due to markedly increased LH values, which suggest a compensated primary insufficiency of the testosterone producing Leydig cell. Even though testosterone values were normal, resistance training was not associated with muscle hypertrophy. This trial is registered with ISRCTN72099857.

  3. Diurnal and seasonal cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA rhythms in boys and girls during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchock, Robert L; Dorn, Lorah D; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2007-01-01

    Diurnal and seasonal rhythms of cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA were examined, as little is known about the relationship between these rhythmicities and pubertal development. Salivary samples were obtained from 60 boys and 60 girls at approximately 07:45, 08:00, 08:30, 12:00, 16:50, and 21:00 h. The participants' ages ranged from 8-14 yrs, and each participant was tested three times at six-month intervals. The study was conducted at a General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) and at the homes of the participants. All hormones showed diurnal fluctuations. The acrophase (peak time) of cortisol occurred earlier than for testosterone or DHEA and showed a seasonal effect, with the acrophase occurring earlier in spring than in summer. The cortisol acrophase also occurred later in the day for boys than for girls during later puberty. Seasonal effects were found only for cortisol with higher concentrations in the spring and summer. Cortisol concentrations were relatively stable across pubertal maturation, but significantly lower concentrations were observed at pubertal stage 3 compared to the other stages. Morning cortisol levels were also higher in boys at pubertal stage 2. Testosterone concentrations were higher in boys at pubertal stages 3 and 4, and DHEA was lower at pubertal stage 1 than 3 and 4 for both boys and girls. For the total sample, there was a positive correlation between DHEA and testosterone during early puberty (stages 1-3) but not later puberty (stages 4-5). Awakening secretory activity correlated with daytime secretory activity for testosterone and DHEA, but not for cortisol. These data provide novel chronobiological information on cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA as it relates to sexual maturation and encourage further study on both normal and abnormal endocrine rhythms.

  4. Nocturnal Hypoxemia is Associated With Low Testosterone Levels in Overweight Males and Older Men With Normal Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Alonço; Daflon, Ana Carolina; Couto, Arnaldo; Neves, Denise; de Araujo-Melo, Maria Helena; Capasso, Robson

    2017-12-15

    The relationship among obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), body mass index (BMI), and testosterone levels has long been suggested. Obese men have shown a negative correlation between testosterone level and sleep apnea severity. Yet, little is known about the association between testosterone levels and sleep apnea in men who are not obese. This study evaluated the association between the total testosterone (TT) level and OSA in patients who are not obese. A retrospective review of 523 records of patients in whom OSA was diagnosed from 2013-2016 was performed. The study included men with a BMI sleep study. In all, 153 nonobese men met inclusion criteria, of whom 47 (30.7%) had testosterone levels below the reference values; 44 of these individuals (93.6%) were overweight (P = .029). Reduced testosterone levels showed significant correlations with the oxygen desaturation index, the lowest oxygen saturation sleep duration, after adjusting for BMI. Among patients with normal weight, only 3 who had O2 nadir weight individuals older than 50 years.

  5. Effect of serum testosterone and percent tumor volume on extra-prostatic extension and biochemical recurrence after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eu Chang Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have revealed that the preoperative serum testosterone and percent tumor volume (PTV predict extra-prostatic extension (EPE and biochemical recurrence (BCR after radical prostatectomy. This study investigated the prognostic significance of serum testosterone and PTV in relation to EPE and BCR after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP. We reviewed 520 patients who underwent LRP between 2004 and 2012. PTV was determined as the sum of all visually estimated tumor foci in every section. BCR was defined as two consecutive increases in the postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA >0.2 ng ml−1 . The threshold for serum total testosterone was 3.0 ng ml−1 . Multivariate logistic regression was used to define the effect of variables on the risk of EPE and BCR. A low serum testosterone (<3.0 ng ml−1 was associated with a high serum PSA, Gleason score, positive core percentage of the prostate biopsy, PTV, and all pathological variables. On multivariate analysis, similar to previous studies, the serum PSA, biopsy positive core percentage, Gleason score, and pathological variables predicted EPE and BCR. In addition, low serum testosterone (<3.0 ng ml−1 , adjusted OR, 8.52; 95% CI, 5.04-14.4, P= 0.001 predicted EPE and PTV (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05, P= 0.046 predicted BCR. In addition to previous predictors of EPE and BCR, low serum testosterone and PTV are valuable predictors of EPE and BCR after LRP.

  6. Low free testosterone predicts mortality from cardiovascular disease but not other causes: the Health in Men Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Zoë; Norman, Paul E; Flicker, Leon; Hankey, Graeme J; Almeida, Osvaldo P; McCaul, Kieran A; Chubb, S A Paul; Yeap, Bu B

    2012-01-01

    Low testosterone is associated with all-cause mortality, but the relationship with cause-specific mortality is uncertain. Our objective was to explore associations between testosterone and its related hormones and cause-specific mortality. This was a population-based cohort study. Demographic and clinical predictors of mortality, and testosterone, SHBG, and LH were measured from 2001-2004 in 3637 community-dwelling men aged 70-88 yr (mean, 77 yr). Cause of death was obtained via electronic record linkage until December 31, 2008. During a mean follow-up period of 5.1 yr, there were 605 deaths. Of these, 207 [34.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 30.4-38.1%] were due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), 231 to cancer (38.2%; 95% CI = 34.3-42.1%), 130 to respiratory diseases (21.5%; 95% CI = 18.2-24.8%), and 76 to other causes (12.6%; 95% CI = 9.9-15.2%). There were 39 deaths attributable to both cancer and respiratory diseases. Lower free testosterone (hazard ratio = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.20-2.19, for 100 vs. 280 pmol/liter), and higher SHBG and LH levels were associated with all-cause mortality. In cause-specific analyses, lower free testosterone (sub-hazard ratio = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.12-2.62, for 100 vs. 280 pmol/liter) and higher LH predicted CVD mortality, while higher SHBG predicted non-CVD mortality. Higher total testosterone and free testosterone levels (sub-hazard ratio = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.14-3.36, for 400 vs. 280 pmol/liter) were associated with mortality from lung cancer. Low testosterone predicts mortality from CVD but is not associated with death from other causes. Prevention of androgen deficiency might improve cardiovascular outcomes but is unlikely to affect longevity otherwise.

  7. Prevalence of undiagnosed testosterone deficiency in aging athletes: does exercise training influence the symptoms of male hypogonadism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luigi, Luigi; Sgrò, Paolo; Fierro, Valentina; Bianchini, Serena; Battistini, Giancarlo; Magini, Valter; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Lenzi, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    Worldwide many aging males practice sports. A high prevalence of late-onset male hypogonadism has been observed in general population. Sport-participation influences the neuroendocrine system and may decrease serum testosterone. This preliminary study was designed to estimate the prevalence and the symptoms of undiagnosed testosterone deficiency in aging athletes. This observational survey was performed in 183 caucasian male athletes >50 years, in the setting of pre-participation screening. Pituitary-gonadal hormones and symptoms of hypogonadism were investigated. Serum total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), free-T4, and thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH) were assayed, and free T, bioactive T, and the LH/TT ratio were calculated. The International Index of Erectile Dysfunction (IIEF-15) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were administered. Hypogonadal athletes were compared with eugonadal athletes as controls. Prevalence and clinical symptoms of severe (TT 70 years (27.5% and 25.0%, respectively). TT did not correlate with age, training duration, or questionnaire scores. No differences were observed for nonspecific symptoms of hypogonadism, IIEF-15 and CES-D scores between eugonadal and severe hypogonadal athletes. Independently of its etiology, a significant percentage of aging athletes had undiagnosed testosterone deficiency. In a relevant number of these cases, testosterone deficiency was not overtly symptomatic. Our results suggest that sport-participation per se can influence the symptoms of hypogonadism. The history of clinical symptoms may be inaccurate to diagnose testosterone deficiency in aging athletes. Future research should address the clinical relevance and the specific risks of testosterone deficiency in aging athletes, and the need of a systematic pre-participation serum testosterone evaluation.

  8. Exercise training improves free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence D Hayes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, free testosterone (free-T and cortisol (all in serum were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six-week training; baseline (phase A, following conditioning exercise (phase B and post-HIIT (phase C. Each measurement phase used identical methods. TT was significantly increased following HIIT (~17%; P < 0.001 with most increase occurring during preconditioning (~10%; P = 0.007. Free-T was unaffected by conditioning exercise (P = 0.102 but was significantly higher following HIIT compared to baseline (~4.5%; P = 0.023. Cortisol remained unchanged from A to C (P = 0.138. The present data indicate a combination of preconditioning, and HIIT increases TT and SHBG in sedentary older males, with the HIIT stimulus accounting for a small but statistically significant increase in free-T. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of small improvements in free-T in aging men.

  9. Exercise training improves free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F; Grace, Fergal M

    2017-07-01

    As the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone (free-T) and cortisol (all in serum) were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years) older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six-week training; baseline (phase A), following conditioning exercise (phase B) and post-HIIT (phase C). Each measurement phase used identical methods. TT was significantly increased following HIIT (~17%; P  HIIT compared to baseline (~4.5%; P  = 0.023). Cortisol remained unchanged from A to C ( P  = 0.138). The present data indicate a combination of preconditioning, and HIIT increases TT and SHBG in sedentary older males, with the HIIT stimulus accounting for a small but statistically significant increase in free-T. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of small improvements in free-T in aging men. © 2017 The authors.

  10. Genetic determinants of serum testosterone concentrations in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871 and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620 to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as <300 ng/dl. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG locus (17p13-p12 were identified as independently associated with serum testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10(-41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10(-22. Subjects with ≥ 3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10(-16. The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (p<0.01. Genetic variants in the SHBG locus and on the X chromosome are associated with a substantial variation in testosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation.

  11. CORRELATION BETWEEN SERUM TESTOSTERONE, BIOCHEMICAL AND CLINICAL MARKERS IN PROSTATE CANCER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Roussev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Androgens seems to play an important role in prostate cancer (PCa pathogenesis. Some studies reveal that possible testosterone deficiency could be involved in PCa development and progress. Others indicate that men with high testosterone levels have increased risk in developing more aggressive PCa and poor response to therapy. The objective of the present study is to establish a possible correlation between serum total testosterone levels (TT, prostate specific antigen (PSA and clinical markers evaluating the aggressiveness of the tumor process in PCa patients. Material/Methods: A total of eighty males, aged from 52 to 84 years (mean age 66.28 ± 6.015 years, with histologically confirmed PCa, entered the study. Diagnosis of PCa was established by systemic transrectal ultrasound-guided tru-cut prostate biopsies (10 cores at least. Detected tumors were graded using the Gleason grading system. Serum TT and PSA were analyzed immunochemically. Pearson correlation statistics with a level of significance set at p 7. Conclusions: Our results confirm the hypothesis that low testosterone levels are related to poor prognosis and increased severity of PCa.

  12. Free testosterone by direct and calculated measurement versus equilibrium dialysis in a clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacker, Ravi; Hornstein, Abby; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2013-12-01

    The value of clinically available free testosterone (FT) assays remains controversial. Here, we evaluate the agreement between the radioimmunoassay (RIA) and calculated FT (cFT) versus equilibrium dialysis (EqD), considered the gold standard. Fifty-six consecutive men (aged 26-77) had blood samples assessed for FT, including men with treated and untreated testosterone deficiency (TD) and men without TD. Samples were split and tested by the two methodologies at a Quest Diagnostics national reference laboratory. cFT was calculated by the Vermeulen method. A robust correlation was noted for RIA and EqD (r = 0.966) and for cFT and EqD (r = 0.986). Strong correlations were observed for men receiving testosterone therapy and for men in the lowest and highest quartiles for total and FT. The correlation of total testosterone with FT was similar for cFT (r = 0.843), RIA (r = 0.806), and EqD (r = 0.809). Sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) was not correlated with any measure of FT. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated similar bias for both cFT and RIA, although cFT consistently overestimated FT. Numerical values for RIA were approximately one seventh of EqD values. These results support the clinical use of both RIA and cFT as measures of FT. Due to numerical differences, each test requires its own set of reference values.

  13. Effects of different doses of testosterone on gonadotropins, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and blood lipids in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gårevik N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nina Gårevik, Anders Rane, Linda Björkhem-Bergman, Lena Ekström Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Aims: To study the effect and time profile of different doses of testosterone enanthate on the blood lipid profile and gonadotropins. Experimental design: Twenty-five healthy male volunteers aged 27–43 years were given 500 mg, 250 mg, and 125 mg of testosterone enanthate as single intramuscular doses of Testoviron® Depot. Luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, blood lipid profile (total cholesterol, plasma [p-] low-density lipoprotein, p-high-density lipoprotein [HDL], p-apolipoprotein A1 [ApoA1], p-apolipoprotein B, p-triglycerides, p-lipoprotein(a, serum [s-] testosterone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were analyzed prior to, and 4 and 14 days after dosing. Testosterone and epitestosterone in urine (testosterone/epitestosterone ratio were analyzed prior to each dose after a washout period of 6–8 weeks. Results and discussion: All doses investigated suppressed the LH and FSH concentrations in serum. LH remained suppressed 6 weeks after the 500 mg dose. These results indicate that testosterone has a more profound endocrine effect on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis than was previously thought. There was no alteration in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels after testosterone administration compared to baseline levels. The 250 and 500 mg doses induced decreased concentrations of ApoA1 and HDL, whereas the lowest dose (125 mg did not have any effect on the lipid profile. Conclusion: The single doses of testosterone produced a dose-dependent increase in serum testosterone concentrations together with suppression of s-LH and s-FSH. Alterations in ApoA1 and HDL were observed after the two highest single doses. It is possible that long-time abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids will lead to alteration in vitamin D status

  14. The testosterone metabolism of the estuarine invertebrate Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea): Identification of testosterone metabolites and endogenous vertebrate-type steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Verslycke, T.; De Wasch, K.; De Brabander, H.F.; Janssen, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    Testosterone metabolism by Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea) was assessed to obtain initial data on its metabolic capacity. N. integer were exposed to both testosterone and [14]testosterone. Identification of testosterone metabolites and endogenous steroids was performed using thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography with multiple mass spectrometry. Endogenous production of testosterone in mysids was detected for the first time. N. integer were exposed to testosterone and met...

  15. Delayed Ejaculation and Associated Complaints: Relationship to Ejaculation Times and Serum Testosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgentaler, Abraham; Polzer, Paula; Althof, Stanley; Bolyakov, Alexander; Donatucci, Craig; Ni, Xiao; Patel, Ankur B; Basaria, Shehzad

    2017-09-01

    Although delayed ejaculation (DE) is typically characterized as a persistently longer than anticipated or desired time to ejaculation (or orgasm) during sexual activity, a timing-based definition of DE and its association with serum testosterone has not been established in a large cohort. To examine in an observational study estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and masturbatory ejaculation latency time (MELT) in men self-reporting DE, assess the association of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone levels, and determine whether correlation with demographic and sexual parameters exist. Men who resided in the United States, Canada, and Mexico were enrolled from 2011 to 2013. Self-estimated IELT and MELT were captured using an Ejaculatory Function Screening Questionnaire in a sample of 988 men screened for possible inclusion in a randomized clinical trial assessing testosterone replacement therapy for ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and who self-reported the presence or absence of DE and symptoms of hypogonadism. Additional comorbid EjDs (ie, anejaculation, perceived decrease in ejaculate volume, and decreased force of ejaculation) were recorded. Men with premature ejaculation were excluded from this analysis. IELT and MELT were compared between men self-reporting DE and men without DE. The associations of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone were measured. IELT, MELT, and total testosterone levels. Sixty-two percent of screened men self-reported DE with or without comorbid EjDs; 38% did not report DE but did report at least one of the other EjDs. Estimated median IELTs were 20.0 minutes for DE vs 15 minutes for no DE (P IELTs and MELTs. Estimated ejaculation times during vaginal intercourse and/or masturbation were not associated with serum testosterone levels in this study; thus, routine androgen evaluation is not indicated in these men. This large systematic analysis attempted to objectively assess the ejaculation latency in men with self

  16. Thyroid hormones and thyroxine-binding globulin in relation to liver function and serum testosterone in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    In 73 euthyroid male patients with histologically verified alcoholic cirrhosis, thyroid hormones, thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and testosterone concentrations (total, non-protein- and non-SHBG-bound) were studied in relation to each other and to the degree of liver dysfunction. Serum concentr......In 73 euthyroid male patients with histologically verified alcoholic cirrhosis, thyroid hormones, thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and testosterone concentrations (total, non-protein- and non-SHBG-bound) were studied in relation to each other and to the degree of liver dysfunction. Serum...... concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) increased with progressing liver dysfunction. Serum concentrations of tetraiodothyronine (T4), TBG and T4/TBG ratio did not correlate significantly with liver function. Serum T3 concentrations...... correlated significantly (Kendall Tau-beta = -0.33, p = 0.001) with total serum testosterone concentrations, while there was a negative correlation (Kendall Tau-beta = -0.20, p = 0.025) between testosterone and TSH values. No correlation was found between testosterone concentrations and serum levels of TBG...

  17. The TRPM8 Protein Is a Testosterone Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Demirkhanyan, Lusine; Sun, Xiaohui; Elustondo, Pia A.; Krishnan, Vivek; Baskaran, Padmamalini; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Pavlov, Evgeny V.; Zakharian, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is a key steroid hormone in the development of male reproductive tissues and the regulation of the central nervous system. The rapid signaling mechanism induced by testosterone affects numerous behavioral traits, including sexual drive, aggressiveness, and fear conditioning. However, the currently identified testosterone receptor(s) is not believed to underlie the fast signaling, suggesting an orphan pathway. Here we report that an ion channel from the transient receptor potential family, TRPM8, commonly known as the cold and menthol receptor is the major component of testosterone-induced rapid actions. Using cultured and primary cell lines along with the purified TRPM8 protein, we demonstrate that testosterone directly activates TRPM8 channel at low picomolar range. Specifically, testosterone induced TRPM8 responses in primary human prostate cells, PC3 prostate cancer cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and hippocampal neurons. Picomolar concentrations of testosterone resulted in full openings of the purified TRPM8 channel in planar lipid bilayers. Furthermore, acute applications of testosterone on human skin elicited a cooling sensation. Our data conclusively demonstrate that testosterone is an endogenous and highly potent agonist of TRPM8, suggesting a role of TRPM8 channels well beyond their well established function in somatosensory neurons. This discovery may further imply TRPM8 channel function in testosterone-dependent behavioral traits. PMID:25480785

  18. Testosterone-Related Cortical Maturation Across Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; McCracken, James; Ducharme, Simon; Botteron, Kelly N.; Mahabir, Megan; Johnson, Wendy; Israel, Mimi; Evans, Alan C.; Karama, Sherif

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine theories of brain development hold testosterone as the predominant factor mediating sex-specific cortical growth and the ensuing lateralization of hemispheric function. However, studies to date have focussed on prenatal testosterone rather than pubertal changes in testosterone. Yet, animal studies have shown a high density of androgen-sensitive receptors in multiple key cortical areas, and puberty is known to coincide with both a significant rise in testosterone and the emergence of behavioral sex differences, suggesting peripubertal influences of testosterone on brain development. Here, we used linear mixed models to examine sex-specific cortical maturation associated with changes in testosterone levels in a longitudinal sample of developmentally healthy children and adolescents. A significant “sex by age by testosterone” interaction on cortical thickness (CTh) involving widespread areas of the developing brain was found. Testosterone levels were associated with CTh changes in regions of the left hemisphere in males and of the right hemisphere in females. In both sexes, the relationship between testosterone and CTh varied across the age span. These findings show the association between testosterone and CTh to be complex, highly dynamic, and to vary, depending on sex and age; they also suggest sex-related hemispheric lateralization effects of testosterone in humans. PMID:22617851

  19. Physiological levels of testosterone kill salmonid leukocytes in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, C.H.; Schreck, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) elaborate high plasma concentrations of testosterone during sexual maturation, and these levels of testosterone have been shown to reduce the salmonid immune response in vitro. Our search for the mechanism of testosterone's immunosuppressive action has led to the characterization of an androgen receptor in salmonid leukocytes. In the present study we examined the specific effects that testosterone had on salmonid leukocytes. Direct counts of viable leukocytes after incubation with and without physiological levels of testosterone demonstrate a significant loss of leukocytes in cultures exposed to testosterone. At least 5 days of contact with testosterone was required to produce significant immunosuppression and addition of a 'conditioned media' (supernatant from proliferating lymphocytes not exposed to testosterone) did not reverse the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. These data lead us to conclude that testosterone may exert its immunosuppressive effects by direct action on salmonid leukocytes, through the androgen receptor described, and that this action leads to the death of a significant number of these leukocytes.

  20. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L

    2015-11-10

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to "sex differences" in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology.

  1. The effect of boron supplementation on lean body mass, plasma testosterone levels, and strength in male bodybuilders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Green, N. R.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of boron supplementation was investigated in 19 male bodybuilders ages 20-27 years. Ten were given a 2.5-mg boron supplement while 9 were given a placebo every day for 7 weeks. Plasma total and free testosterone, plasma boron, lean body mass, and strength measurements were determined on Days 1 and 49 of the study. Plasma boron values were significantly (p bodybuilding can increase total testosterone, lean body mass, and strength in lesser trained bodybuilders, and that boron supplementation had no effect on these measures.

  2. Differential effects of strength training and testosterone treatment on soluble CD36 in aging men: Possible relation to changes in body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Christensen, Louise L; Kvorning, Thue

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We measured soluble CD36 (sCD36) and body composition to determine the effects of testosterone treatment (TT) and/or strength training (ST) on cardiovascular risk in men with low normal testosterone levels. Methods. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 54 men aged 60-78 years....... units] vs. TT and vs. placebo (p change bioavailable testosterone and lean body mass. Fat mass measures significantly improved during ST + placebo, ST + TT, and TT vs. placebo. During ST + placebo, delta sCD36 was associated with delta total fat mass (r = 0.81) and delta...

  3. Effect of a single injection of testosterone enanthate on 17β estradiol and bone turnover markers in hypogonadal male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camozzi, V; Bonanni, G; Frigo, A; Piccolo, M; Ferasin, S; Zaninotto, M; Boscaro, M; Luisetto, G

    2015-04-01

    Several clinical studies testify the critical role played by estrogens in male bone metabolism. The aim of our study is to assess the effect of a single injection of testosterone enanthate in a group of hypogonadal men on 17β estradiol serum levels and some bone metabolic parameters. Twenty-one hypogonadal males were given one testosterone enanthate injection (250 mg). Blood samples were drawn before the injection and after 1, 2 and 3 weeks. The following variables were measured: Total testosterone (TT), 17β estradiol (17β E2), Sex hormone binding globulin, total alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx). After testosterone injection, both TT and 17β E2 increased, peaking 1 week after the injection. Individual observation of the response of 17β E2 to testosterone showed that a subgroup (n = 9) failed to respond with any increase in 17β E2 at any of the weekly tests (group E2-), while the remainder (n = 12) showed a significant increase in 17β E2, which reached a mean value three times higher than at baseline (group E2+). The E2- patients reached a TT peak lower than that observed in the E+ group. CTx serum levels declined progressively in the E2+ group, reaching the significance (p = 0.03) at the end of the study, while it did not change in E- group. This study suggests that a single injection of testosterone might have different effects on the production of endogenous estrogens, and a significant reduction of bone resorption parameters takes place only in the patients who show a significant increase of 17ß estradiol in response to testosterone administration.

  4. Light induced degradation of testosterone in waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulliet, Emmanuelle, E-mail: e.vulliet@sca.cnrs.fr [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France); Falletta, Marine; Marote, Pedro [Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques - UMR 5180, Universite Claude Bernard, 43 bd du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lomberget, Thierry [Laboratoire de Chimie Therapeutique, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Faculte de Pharmacie-ISPB, EA 4443 Biomolecules, Cancer et Chimioresistances, INSERM U863 Hormones steroides et proteines de liaison, IFR 62, 8 avenue Rockefeller, F-69373, Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Paisse, Jean-Olivier; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France)

    2010-08-01

    The degradation of testosterone under simulated irradiations was studied in phosphate buffers and in natural waters at various excitation wavelengths. The quantum yield of photolysis was significantly lower at 313 nm (2.4 x 10{sup -3}) than at 254 nm (0.225). The formation of several photoproducts was observed, some of them being rapidly transformed in turn while others show higher stability towards subsequent irradiations. The nature of the main products was tentatively identified, both deduced from their spectral and spectrometric data and by comparison with synthesised standard compounds. Among the obtained photoproducts, the main one is possibly a spiro-compound, hydroxylated derivative of testosterone originating from the photohydratation of the enone group. The photodegradation pathway includes also photorearrangements. One of them leads to (1,5,10)-cyclopropyl-17{beta}-hydroxyandrostane-2-one. The pH of the water does not seem to affect the rate of phototransformation and the nature of the by-products.

  5. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome: The link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranabir Salam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS or "Syndrome X" which is a constellation of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and increased very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglyceride (TG levels. It is one of the main threats for public health in the 21st century with its associated risk of cardiovascular disease. This condition affects a major chunk of mankind. International Diabetes Federation (IDF estimated that around 20-25% of the adult population of the world has MetS. Several definitions have been put forward by different expert bodies leading to confusion. To overcome this, joint new statement of many expert group have been issued. Serum testosterone (T has been shown to be associated with MetS. Several studies have shown a higher prevalence of MetS in subjects with low testosterone. There are also several studies showing a significant difference in serum T between those with MetS and those without. Serum T has also been shown to be associated with components of MetS and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT improves various metabolic and anthropometric parameters in MetS. Patients with androgen deprivation for treatment of various cancers have also been reported to have higher prevalence of MetS. But the evidence of association is not sufficient evidence for the causation of MetS by low testosterone and long-term studies are needed to confirm whether T deficiency is the cause or is a feature of MetS.

  6. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Bethan A.; Martel, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposu...

  7. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M Iftekhar; Riche, Daniel M; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule. PMID:24470750

  8. The TRPM8 protein is a testosterone receptor: II. Functional evidence for an ionotropic effect of testosterone on TRPM8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Demirkhanyan, Lusine; Sun, Xiaohui; Elustondo, Pia A; Krishnan, Vivek; Baskaran, Padmamalini; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Pavlov, Evgeny V; Zakharian, Eleonora

    2015-01-30

    Testosterone is a key steroid hormone in the development of male reproductive tissues and the regulation of the central nervous system. The rapid signaling mechanism induced by testosterone affects numerous behavioral traits, including sexual drive, aggressiveness, and fear conditioning. However, the currently identified testosterone receptor(s) is not believed to underlie the fast signaling, suggesting an orphan pathway. Here we report that an ion channel from the transient receptor potential family, TRPM8, commonly known as the cold and menthol receptor is the major component of testosterone-induced rapid actions. Using cultured and primary cell lines along with the purified TRPM8 protein, we demonstrate that testosterone directly activates TRPM8 channel at low picomolar range. Specifically, testosterone induced TRPM8 responses in primary human prostate cells, PC3 prostate cancer cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and hippocampal neurons. Picomolar concentrations of testosterone resulted in full openings of the purified TRPM8 channel in planar lipid bilayers. Furthermore, acute applications of testosterone on human skin elicited a cooling sensation. Our data conclusively demonstrate that testosterone is an endogenous and highly potent agonist of TRPM8, suggesting a role of TRPM8 channels well beyond their well established function in somatosensory neurons. This discovery may further imply TRPM8 channel function in testosterone-dependent behavioral traits. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Relation of urinary stone disease with androgenetic alopecia and serum testosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Emre Can; Ozcan, Levent; Otunctemur, Alper; Ozbek, Emin

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship among urinary stone disease, androgenetic alopecia (AGA), and serum testosterone (T) levels. Between January 2008 and November 2015, we retrospectively investigated the biochemical parameters and anthropometric characteristics (height and weight) of 200 patients who had urinary tract stones. For the control group, we selected at random 168 participants who had no history of urolithiasis. Demographic data, such as participants' age, body mass index (BMI), hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), baldness pattern, and serum T level were recorded. All participants were male, over 18 and under 60 years of age. We determined that risk of urolithiasis increased 1.3-fold in patients with vertex pattern alopecia and 2.1-fold in patients with total alopecia compared with those with no hair loss. In the severe balding Groups (Group III and Group IV), presence of testosterone deficiency was more frequent in patients with urinary stone disease (P = 0.041, OR = 2.38). Although in the non- balding and mild balding Groups (Group I and Group II), presence of testosterone deficiency was also more frequent in patients with urinary stone disease, a statistically significant difference was not seen. Significantly, we found that the presence of testosterone deficiency was more frequent in patients with urinary stone disease and who had severe AGA.

  10. Effects of dietary phytoestrogens on plasma testosterone and triiodothyronine (T3 levels in male goat kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekstedt Elisabeth

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to xenoestrogens in humans and animals has gained increasing attention due to the effects of these compounds on reproduction. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of low-dose dietary phytoestrogen exposure, i.e. a mixture of genistein, daidzein, biochanin A and formononetin, on the establishment of testosterone production during puberty in male goat kids. Methods Goat kids at the age of 3 months received either a standard diet or a diet supplemented with phytoestrogens (3 - 4 mg/kg/day for ~3 months. Plasma testosterone and total and free triiodothyronine (T3 concentrations were determined weekly. Testicular levels of testosterone and cAMP were measured at the end of the experiment. Repeated measurement analysis of variance using the MIXED procedure on the generated averages, according to the Statistical Analysis System program package (Release 6.12, 1996, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA was carried out. Results No significant difference in plasma testosterone concentration between the groups was detected during the first 7 weeks. However, at the age of 5 months (i.e. October 1, week 8 phytoestrogen-treated animals showed significantly higher testosterone concentrations than control animals (37.5 nmol/l vs 19.1 nmol/l. This elevation was preceded by a rise in plasma total T3 that occurred on September 17 (week 6. A slightly higher concentration of free T3 was detected in the phytoestrogen group at the same time point, but it was not until October 8 and 15 (week 9 and 10 that a significant difference was found between the groups. At the termination of the experiment, testicular cAMP levels were significantly lower in goats fed a phytoestrogen-supplemented diet. Phytoestrogen-fed animals also had lower plasma and testicular testosterone concentrations, but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion Our findings suggest that phytoestrogens can stimulate testosterone

  11. Effects of dietary phytoestrogens on plasma testosterone and triiodothyronine (T3) levels in male goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, David; Selstam, Gunnar; Ridderstråle, Yvonne; Holm, Lena; Ekstedt, Elisabeth; Madej, Andrzej

    2009-12-10

    Exposure to xenoestrogens in humans and animals has gained increasing attention due to the effects of these compounds on reproduction. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of low-dose dietary phytoestrogen exposure, i.e. a mixture of genistein, daidzein, biochanin A and formononetin, on the establishment of testosterone production during puberty in male goat kids. Goat kids at the age of 3 months received either a standard diet or a diet supplemented with phytoestrogens (3-4 mg/kg/day) for approximately 3 months. Plasma testosterone and total and free triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were determined weekly. Testicular levels of testosterone and cAMP were measured at the end of the experiment. Repeated measurement analysis of variance using the MIXED procedure on the generated averages, according to the Statistical Analysis System program package (Release 6.12, 1996, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA) was carried out. No significant difference in plasma testosterone concentration between the groups was detected during the first 7 weeks. However, at the age of 5 months (i.e. October 1, week 8) phytoestrogen-treated animals showed significantly higher testosterone concentrations than control animals (37.5 nmol/l vs 19.1 nmol/l). This elevation was preceded by a rise in plasma total T3 that occurred on September 17 (week 6). A slightly higher concentration of free T3 was detected in the phytoestrogen group at the same time point, but it was not until October 8 and 15 (week 9 and 10) that a significant difference was found between the groups. At the termination of the experiment, testicular cAMP levels were significantly lower in goats fed a phytoestrogen-supplemented diet. Phytoestrogen-fed animals also had lower plasma and testicular testosterone concentrations, but these differences were not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that phytoestrogens can stimulate testosterone synthesis during puberty in male goats by increasing

  12. Testosterone therapy preserves muscle strength and power in aging men with type 2 diabetes - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Line Velling; Hvid, Lars Næsby; Hermann, Anne Pernille

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether testosterone replacement therapy improves muscle mechanical and physical function in addition to increasing lean leg mass and total lean body mass in aging men with type 2 diabetes and lowered bio-available testosterone (BioT) levels. Thirty-nine men...... aged 50-70 years with type 2 diabetes and BioT levels therapy, n = 20) or placebo (n = 19) for 24 weeks, applying a double-blinded design. Muscle mechanical...... effect of intervention. Maximal isometric contraction (b = 18.4 Nm, p = 0.039), RFD100 (b = 195.0 Nm/s, p = 0.017) and Dyn180 (b = 10.2 Nm, p = 0.019) increased during testosterone replacement therapy compared with placebo. No changes were observed in leg power or gait speed. Total lean body mass (b = 1...

  13. Androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone) for women undergoing assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Helen E; Rishworth, Josephine R; Siristatidis, Charalampos S; Kroon, Ben

    2015-11-26

    odds ratios (ORs) for each dichotomous outcome. Analyses were stratified by type of treatment. There were no data for the intended groupings by dose, mode of delivery or after one/more than one cycle.We assessed the overall quality of the evidence for the main findings using the GRADE working group methods. We included 17 RCTs with a total of 1496 participants. Apart from two trials, the trial participants were women identified as 'poor responders' to standard IVF protocols. The included trials compared either testosterone or DHEA treatment with placebo or no treatment.When DHEA was compared with placebo or no treatment, pre-treatment with DHEA was associated with higher rates of live birth or ongoing pregnancy (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.71; eight RCTs, N = 878, I² statistic = 27%, moderate quality evidence). This suggests that in women with a 12% chance of live birth/ongoing pregnancy with placebo or no treatment, the live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate in women using DHEA will be between 15% and 26%. However, in a sensitivity analysis removing trials at high risk of performance bias, the effect size was reduced and no longer reached significance (OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.88 to 2.56; five RCTs, N = 306, I² statistic = 43%). There was no evidence of a difference in miscarriage rates (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.17; eight RCTs, N = 950, I² statistic = 0%, moderate quality evidence). Multiple pregnancy data were available for five trials, with one multiple pregnancy in the DHEA group of one trial (OR 3.23, 95% CI 0.13 to 81.01; five RCTs, N = 267, very low quality evidence).When testosterone was compared with placebo or no treatment we found that pre-treatment with testosterone was associated with higher live birth rates (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.30 to 5.20; four RCTs, N = 345, I² statistic = 0%, moderate evidence). This suggests that in women with an 8% chance of live birth with placebo or no treatment, the live birth rate in women using testosterone will be between 10% and 32%. On

  14. Oxytocin, testosterone, and human social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-05-01

    I describe an integrative social-evolutionary model for the adaptive significance of the human oxytocinergic system. The model is based on a role for this hormone in the generation and maintenance of social familiarity and affiliation across five homologous, functionally similar, and sequentially co-opted contexts: mothers with offspring, female and male mates, kin groups, individuals with reciprocity partners, and individuals within cooperating and competing social groups defined by culture. In each situation, oxytocin motivates, mediates and rewards the cognitive and behavioural processes that underlie the formation and dynamics of a more or less stable social group, and promotes a relationship between two or more individuals. Such relationships may be positive (eliciting neurological reward, reducing anxiety and thus indicating fitness-enhancing effects), or negative (increasing anxiety and distress, and thus motivating attempts to alleviate a problematic, fitness-reducing social situation). I also present evidence that testosterone exhibits opposite effects from oxytocin on diverse aspects of cognition and behaviour, most generally by favouring self-oriented, asocial and antisocial behaviours. I apply this model for effects of oxytocin and testosterone to understanding human psychological disorders centrally involving social behaviour. Reduced oxytocin and higher testosterone levels have been associated with under-developed social cognition, especially in autism. By contrast, some combination of oxytocin increased above normal levels, and lower testosterone, has been reported in a notable number of studies of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and, in some cases, higher oxytocin involves maladaptively 'hyper-developed' social cognition in these conditions. This pattern of findings suggests that human social cognition and behaviour are structured, in part, by joint and opposing effects of oxytocin and testosterone, and that extremes of such joint

  15. Testosterone Regulates Tight Junction Proteins and Influences Prostatic Autoimmune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Jing; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Montgomery, Bruce; True, Larry; Nelson, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone and inflammation have been linked to the development of common age-associated diseases affecting the prostate gland including prostate cancer, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates components of prostate tight junctions which serve as a barrier to inflammation, thus providing a connection between age- and treatment-associated testosterone declines and prostatic pathology. We examined the expression and distribution of tight jun...

  16. The relationship between sleep disorders and testosterone in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittert, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3 h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture.

  17. The relationship between sleep disorders and testosterone in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Wittert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3 h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture.

  18. KAJIAN TERAPI AKUPUNKTUR TERHADAP KADAR HORMON TESTOSTERON PRIA USIA LANJUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wasito Tjipto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testosterone was the most important androgen secreted into the blood in males. It was responsible for development of secondary male sex characteristics and its measurements are helpful in evaluating the hypogonadal states. Decreasing of testosterone in males started in middle age, about 45–59 years old. It is responsible of decreasing muscle mass and strength, increasing of body fat especially abdominal fat and gynecomastia, less of libido and sexual intercourse frequency, increase of erectile dysfunction. Objective: The objective of this study was conducted stimulation on acupuncture reproduction point to increase testosterone hormone level in elder’s men. Methods: The study used non randomized experiment pre- post test without control group design, the samples was 40 older men, about 50 – more than 70 years old. The stimulation on acupuncture point CV-4, Sp-6, LV-3, and ST-36, on older men were given five times per week, for ten treatments, before treatment each patient was determined the concentration of testosterone hormone and after ten times acupuncture treatment. Results: 15 old men, have increased testosterone level, 20 old men have decreased testosterone level, and 16 old men have no changes in libido after ten times acupuncture treatment. Not all responder after therapy acupuncture ten times at reproduction point have increased of hormone testosterone. Most of 50–69 year men have increased testosterone level. Men above 70 year have no changes testosterone level. There were 24 old men have changes in libido without increased testosterone level. Conclusion: acupuncture may used as alternative therapy to increased testosterone level and libido for elderly men. Key words: Acupuncture, testosterone hormone, old men

  19. The relationship of salivary testosterone and male sexual dysfunction in opioid-associated androgen deficiency (OPIAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajo, Raquel; Segura, Ana; Mira, Laura; Inda, María-Del-Mar; Alfayate, Rocío; Sánchez-Barbie, Angel; Margarit, César; Peiró, Ana M

    2017-03-01

    Opioids are an effective treatment for chronic non-malignant pain (CNP). Long-term use risks and side effects such as opioid-induced androgen deficiency (OPIAD) exist. This could be measured by saliva testosterone (Sal-T). To evaluate OPIAD in long-term opioid use in CNP patients. A cross-sectional study included CNP male outpatients under opioid treatment. Total-Testosterone (Total-T), Free-Testosterone (Free-T), Bio-Testosterone (Bio-T) and Sal-T were measured. Correlations were calculated by Spearman's rho (SPSS 20). From 2012 to 2014, 134 from 249 (54%) consecutive male outpatients reported erectile dysfunction (ED), 37% of them related to opioids and 19% evidenced OPIAD. A total of 120 subjects (94 cases and 26 matched-controls) were included. A significantly lower luteinizing hormone, Total-T and Free-T were found, as well as, a significant correlation between Sal-T and Total-T (r = 0.234, p = 0.039), Bio-T (r = 0.241, p = 0.039), IIEF (r = 0.363, p = 0.003) and HAD-anxiety (r = -0.414, p = 0.012) in OPIAD patients. Sal-T levels were significantly lower in patients with severe-moderate ED versus mild ED (p = 0.045) and in patients with severe ED versus moderate-mild ED (p = 0.036). These data demonstrate the high prevalence of ED in long-term use of opioids, part of this is associated to OPIAD, which can be tested by Sal-T as a non-invasive approach.

  20. Treatment of Men for "Low Testosterone": A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Huo

    Full Text Available Testosterone products are recommended by some prescribers in response to a diagnosis or presumption of "low testosterone" (low-T for cardiovascular health, sexual function, muscle weakness or wasting, mood and behavior, and cognition. We performed a systematic review of 156 eligible randomized controlled trials in which testosterone was compared to placebo for one or more of these conditions. We included studies in bibliographic databases between January 1, 1950 and April 9, 2016, and excluded studies involving bodybuilding, contraceptive effectiveness, or treatment of any condition in women or children. Studies with multiple relevant endpoints were included in all relevant tables. Testosterone supplementation did not show consistent benefit for cardiovascular risk, sexual function, mood and behavior, or cognition. Studies that examined clinical cardiovascular endpoints have not favored testosterone therapy over placebo. Testosterone is ineffective in treating erectile dysfunction and controlled trials did not show a consistent effect on libido. Testosterone supplementation consistently increased muscle strength but did not have beneficial effects on physical function. Most studies on mood-related endpoints found no beneficial effect of testosterone treatment on personality, psychological well-being, or mood. The prescription of testosterone supplementation for low-T for cardiovascular health, sexual function, physical function, mood, or cognitive function is without support from randomized clinical trials.

  1. Testosterone, Plumage Colouration and Extra-Pair Paternity in Male North-American Barn Swallows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Whitham, Megan; Komdeur, Jan; van der Velde, Marco; Moore, Ignacio T.; McGraw, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    In most monogamous bird species, circulating testosterone concentration in males is elevated around the social female's fertile period. Variation in elevated testosterone concentrations among males may have a considerable impact on fitness. For example, testosterone implants enhance behaviours

  2. NIH-Supported Trials Test Hormonal Therapy in Older Men with Low Testosterone Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test hormonal therapy in older men with low testosterone levels Testosterone treatment improved sexual function, had smaller effect on walking, vitality. A preliminary study of testosterone therapy in older men with low levels of ...

  3. Who Gets Testosterone? Patient Characteristics Associated with Testosterone Prescribing in the Veteran Affairs System: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuja, Guneet K; Bhasin, Shalender; Reisman, Joel I; Hanlon, Joseph T; Miller, Donald R; Morreale, Anthony P; Pogach, Leonard M; Cunningham, Francesca E; Park, Angela; Berlowitz, Dan R; Rose, Adam J

    2017-03-01

    There has been concern about the growing off-label use of testosterone. Understanding the context within which testosterone is prescribed may contribute to interventions to improve prescribing. To evaluate patient characteristics associated with receipt of testosterone. Cross-sectional. A national cohort of male patients, who had received at least one outpatient prescription within the Veterans Affairs (VA) system during Fiscal Year 2008- Fiscal Year 2012. The study sample consisted of 682,915 non-HIV male patients, of whom 132,764 had received testosterone and a random 10% sample, 550,151, had not. Conditions and medications associated with testosterone prescription. Only 6.3% of men who received testosterone from the VA during the study period had a disorder of the testis, pituitary or hypothalamus associated with male hypogonadism. Among patients without a diagnosed disorder of hypogonadism, the use of opioids and obesity were the strongest predictors of testosterone prescription. Patients receiving >100 mg/equivalents of oral morphine daily (adjusted odds ratio = 5.75, p 40 kg/m2 (adjusted odds ratio = 3.01, p testosterone than non-opioid users and men with BMI testosterone receipt, all with an adjusted odds ratio less than 2 (p testosterone did not have a diagnosed condition of the testes, pituitary, or hypothalamus. The strongest predictors of testosterone receipt (e.g., obesity, receipt of opioids), which though are associated with unapproved, off-label use, may be valid reasons for therapy. Interventions should aim to increase the proportion of testosterone recipients who have a valid indication.

  4. Cardiovascular Risks of Exogenous Testosterone Use Among Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, G Caleb; Iyer, Geetha; Lucas, Eleanor; Lin, Dora; Singh, Sonal

    2017-03-01

    We sought to evaluate whether exogenous testosterone therapy is associated with increased risk of serious cardiovascular events as compared with other treatments or placebo. Study selection included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies that enrolled men aged 18 years or older receiving exogenous testosterone for 3 or more days. The primary outcomes were death due to all causes, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Secondary outcomes were other hard clinical outcomes such as heart failure, arrhythmia, and cardiac procedures. Peto odds ratio was used to pool data from RCTs. Risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane Collaboration tool and Newcastle and Ottawa scale, respectively. The strength of evidence was evaluated using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Working Group approach. A total of 39 RCTs and 10 observational studies were included. Meta-analysis was done using data from 30 RCTs. Compared with placebo, exogenous testosterone treatment did not show any significant increase in risk of myocardial infarction (odds ratio [OR] 0.87; 95% CI, 0.39-1.93; 16 RCTs), stroke (OR 2.17; 95% CI, 0.63-7.54; 9 RCTs), or mortality (OR 0.88; 95% CI, 0.55-1.41; 20 RCTs). Observational studies showed marked clinical and methodological heterogeneity. The evidence was rated as very low quality due to the high risk of bias, imprecision, and inconsistency. We did not find any significant association between exogenous testosterone treatment and myocardial infarction, stroke, or mortality in randomized controlled trials. The very low quality of the evidence precludes definitive conclusion on the cardiovascular effects of testosterone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. Objective: We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Methods: Total testosterone (TT and free testosterone (FT were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66 and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44 groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Results: Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008. Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001. In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02 predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009 and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02 predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001. Conclusion: These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT.

  6. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin is positively associated with free testosterone in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, I; Tanaka, K; Ogawa, N; Yamauchi, M; Yamaguchi, T; Sugimoto, T

    2013-03-01

    Although a recent study showed that undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is important for male fertility and testosterone production by testes, little is known about the relationship between ucOC and testosterone in humans. We found for the first time that ucOC is positively associated with free testosterone in men with type 2 diabetes. The ucOC has been shown to play a key role in energy metabolism as an endocrine hormone. Although a recent animal study demonstrated that ucOC is also important for male fertility and testosterone production by the testes, association between serum osteocalcin and testosterone levels has not been understood in humans. Sixty-nine male patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and chemical bone markers [total osteocalcin (TOC), ucOC, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and urinary N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (uNTX)], gonadotropic hormones [luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)], and free testosterone (FT) were measured. Multiple regression analysis showed that ucOC and ucOC/TOC ratio were associated positively with FT and negatively with LH (for ucOC, β = 0.30, p = 0.042 and β = -0.52, p = 0.048; for ucOC/TOC ratio, β = 0.31, p = 0.031 and β = -0.54, p = 0.036, respectively) independently of age, duration of diabetes, body mass index, and hemoglobin A1c. ucOC and ucOC/TOC ratio were significantly associated with FT even after adjusting for LH and FSH (β = 0.24, p = 0.042 and β = 0.25, p = 0.031, respectively). However, neither TOC, BAP, nor uNTX was associated with the gonadotropic hormones or FT levels. The present study indicates for the first time that ucOC is associated positively with FT and negatively with LH in type 2 diabetes. These findings support the recent evidence that ucOC is involved in testosterone production in male subjects.

  7. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues dos; Sayegh, Ana Luiza Carrari; Groehs, Raphaela Vilar Ramalho; Fonseca, Guilherme [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Trombetta, Ivani Credidio [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Barretto, Antônio Carlos Pereira [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Arap, Marco Antônio [Faculdade de medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - Urologia (Brazil); Negrão, Carlos Eduardo [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Escola de Educação Física e Esporte da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Middlekauff, Holly R. [Division of Cardiology - David Geffen School of Medicine - University of California (United States); Alves, Maria-Janieire de Nazaré Nunes, E-mail: janieire.alves@incor.usp.br [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66) and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44) groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008). Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001). In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02) predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009) and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02) predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001). These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT.

  8. Low free testosterone is associated with loss of appendicular muscle mass in Japanese community-dwelling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Atsumu; Ando, Fujiko; Otsuka, Rei; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Sarcopenia accelerates frailty syndrome, and adversely affects activities of daily living and quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess longitudinal relationships between baseline androgen and muscle mass changes in Japanese women. Data were collected from 539 community-dwelling, Japanese women aged 40-79 years at baseline who participated in both baseline and follow-up examinations of a longitudinal study of aging (mean duration 8.3 years). Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up examinations. The cut-off point for sarcopenia was a skeletal muscle index (appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height(2) ) testosterone, free testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate were measured by radioimmunoassay at baseline. The androgens were categorized into three groups by serum levels. Multiple logistic regression models were fit to determine the associations between androgens and sarcopenia while controlling for baseline age, body mass index, leisure-time physical activity, nutritional intakes (total energy, total protein, vitamin D), serum C-reactive protein levels, medical histories (heart disease, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis), menopause and smoking habit. The fully adjusted odds ratio of sarcopenia for the low-free testosterone group (free testosterone group (≥1.2 pg/mL) was 3.59 (95% confidence interval 1.25-10.34). Sarcopenia was not significantly related to total testosterone or dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate. A low-free testosterone level appears to be a significant predictor of the risk for loss of appendicular muscle in Japanese women. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Environmental and genetic contributors to salivary testosterone levels in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eXia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in early infancy plays an important role in male genital development and sexual differentiation of the brain, but factors contributing to individual variation in testosterone levels during this period are poorly understood. We measured salivary testosterone levels in 222 infants (119 males, 103 females, 108 singletons, 114 twins between 2.70 and 4.80 months of age. We tested 16 major demographic and medical history variables for effects on inter-individual variation in salivary testosterone. Using the subset of twins, we estimated genetic and environmental contributions to salivary testosterone levels. Finally, we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within ± 5kb of genes involved in testosterone synthesis, transport, signaling, and metabolism for associations with salivary testosterone using univariate tests and random forest (RF analysis. We report an association between 5 minute APGAR scores and salivary testosterone levels in males. Twin modelling indicated that individual variability in testosterone levels was primarily explained by environmental factors. Regarding genetic variation, univariate tests did not reveal any variants significantly associated with salivary testosterone after adjusting for false discovery rate. The top hit in males was rs10923844, a SNP of unknown function located downstream of HSD3B1 and HSD3B2. The top hits in females were two SNPs located upstream of ESR1 (rs3407085 and rs2295190. RF analysis, which reflects joint and conditional effects of multiple variants, indicated that genes involved in regulation of reproductive function, particularly LHCGR, are related to salivary testosterone levels in male infants, as are genes involved in cholesterol production, transport, and removal, while genes involved in estrogen signaling are related to salivary testosterone levels in female infants.

  10. Long-term Safety of Testosterone and Growth Hormone Supplementation: A Retrospective Study of Metabolic, Cardiovascular, and Oncologic Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Enrique; Klimas, Nancy; Parvus, Chad; Life, Jeff; Willix, Robert; Barber, Michale J; Lin, Alvin; Comite, Florence

    2010-08-18

    Clinical research into the effects of hormonal supplementation has tended to focus on beneficial changes in anthropometric measures. There are fewer data on long-term safety with extended hormonal supplementation. As part of a retrospective database survey, clinical outcomes were tabulated among patients who received at least 1 year of testosterone and/or growth hormone (GH) supplementation. In patients who were treated for at least 2 years, changes in markers of glucose and lipid metabolism were analyzed with and without concomitant use of oral hypoglycemics and statins. In 263 patients (mean age 56) treated for at least 2 years, the only statistically significant effect on markers of glucose metabolism was an increase in glycated hemoglobin (still within normal limits) in patients receiving GH alone or in combination with testosterone but without oral hypoglycemics; with or without hypoglycemics, insulin levels showed no significant change. The only significant effects on markers of lipid metabolism were decreases in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in patients receiving combined testosterone and GH without statins. Decreases in LDL were significant in both the statin and non-statin groups; decreases in triglycerides were significant only in the statin group. In 531 patients treated for at least 1 year (mean age 54), the overall incidence of adverse clinical outcomes (prostate disease, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer) was 1.3%. In this retrospective survey, extended testosterone and/or GH supplementation did not adversely affect metabolic markers or clinical outcomes. Safety; Testosterone; Growth hormone; Supplementation.

  11. Efficacy and safety of testosterone replacement gel for treating hypogonadism in men: Phase III open-label studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkoff, L; Brock, G; Carrara, D; Neijber, A; Ando, M; Mitchel, J

    2018-02-01

    Efficacy and safety of testosterone gel 2% (TG) were evaluated in two phase 3, open-labelled, single-arm, multicentre studies (000023 and extension study 000077). Hypogonadal men having serum testosterone levels testosterone concentration 300-1050 ng/dl on Day 90). Study 000077 evaluated the safety of TG in patients rolling over from study 000023 over a period of 6 months. Of 180 subjects in 000023, 172 completed and 145 rolled over to 000077, with 127 completers. The responder rate was 85.5%. Fewer subjects in 000077 (12.7%) versus 000023 (31.8%) had maximum testosterone concentration (Cmax ) >1500 ng/dl, with no significant safety concerns. Significant improvements in sexual function and quality of life were noted in both studies. Subjects experienced few skin reactions without notable increases in prostate-specific antigen and haematocrit levels. TG was efficacious with an acceptable safety profile. Cmax >1500 ng/dl did not exhibit distinct impact on safety parameters. However, further optimisation of titration schema to reduce Cmax is warranted while maintaining the average steady state total testosterone concentration. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease Reverses Hypogonadism Without Promoting Priapism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda F. Morrison

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Delayed puberty secondary to hypogonadism is commonly seen in sickle cell disease (SCD, affecting normal growth and development. The condition is rarely treated in SCD for fear of inducing priapism episodes. We present a case report of an Afro-Jamaican adolescent male at 16 years of age who presented with symptoms of delayed puberty as well as frequent stuttering priapism episodes. Endocrinological assessment revealed low serum total testosterone levels. Treatment was commenced monthly with testosterone enanthate which resulted in improved symptoms of delayed puberty, improvement in anthropometric parameters while apparently ameliorating priapism episodes.

  13. Association between low serum free testosterone and adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aging in normal men on bioavailable testosterone and luteinizing hormone secretion: response to clomiphene citrate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987;65:1118-1226. 22. Mitchell R, Hollis S, Rothwell C, et al. Age-related changes in the pituitary-testicular axis in normal men: lower serum testosterone results from ...

  14. Relationship between Serum Testosterone Levels and Features of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There are increasing reports on the association between the testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) and increased risk of development of the metabolic syndrome – a well recognized cardiovascular risk factor in men with diabetes mellitus. Objective: To determine the relationship between serum testosterone ...

  15. Testosterone Regulates Tight Junction Proteins and Influences Prostatic Autoimmune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Montgomery, Bruce; True, Larry; Nelson, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone and inflammation have been linked to the development of common age-associated diseases affecting the prostate gland including prostate cancer, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates components of prostate tight junctions which serve as a barrier to inflammation, thus providing a connection between age- and treatment-associated testosterone declines and prostatic pathology. We examined the expression and distribution of tight junction proteins in prostate biospecimens from mouse models and a clinical study of chemical castration, using transcript profiling, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. We determined that low serum testosterone is associated with reduced transcript and protein levels of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8, resulting in defective tight junction ultrastructure in benign prostate glands. Expression of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8 was negatively correlated with the mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate caused by testosterone deprivation. Testosterone suppression also induced an auto-immune humoral response directed toward prostatic proteins. Testosterone supplementation in castrate mice resulted in re-expression of tight junction components in prostate epithelium and significantly reduced prostate inflammatory cell numbers. These data demonstrate that tight junction architecture in the prostate is related to changes in serum testosterone levels, and identify an androgen-regulated mechanism that potentially contributes to the development of prostate inflammation and consequent pathology. PMID:21761342

  16. Preliminary study on the effect of castration and testosterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of castration and testosterone replacement on the testosterone level of the New Zealand rabbit, 16 apparently healthy adult male rabbits were used. The animals were divided into four groups with each group having four rabbits. The first group served as the control group. The rabbits in the second group ...

  17. Testosterone and glucose metabolism in men: current concepts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Mathis

    2014-03-01

    A wealth of observational studies show that low testosterone is associated with insulin resistance and with an increased risk of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Experimental studies have identified potential mechanisms by which low testosterone may lead to insulin resistance. Visceral adipose tissue is an important intermediate in this relationship. Actions of testosterone or its metabolite oestradiol on other tissues such as muscle, liver, bone or the brain, and body composition-independent effects may also play a role. However, definitive evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to clarify whether the association of low testosterone with disordered glucose metabolism is causative is currently lacking. It therefore remains possible that this association is due to reverse causation, or simply originates by association with common health and lifestyle factors. RCTs of testosterone therapy in men with or without diabetes consistently show modest metabolically favourable changes in body composition. Despite this, testosterone effects on glucose metabolism have been inconsistent. Recent evidence suggests that the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis suppression in the majority of obese men with metabolic disorders is functional, and may be, at least in part, reversible with weight loss. Until further evidence is available, lifestyle measures with emphasis on weight reduction, treatment of comorbidities and optimisation of diabetic control should remain the first-line treatment in these men. Such measures, if successful, may be sufficient to normalise testosterone levels in men with metabolic disorders, who typically have only modest reductions in circulating testosterone levels.

  18. Association of testosterone levels with socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... a sample of Ugandan men with socio-demographic characteristics, and compare the testosterone levels of Ugandan men ... Conclusion: Testosterone levels were lower in association with several socio-demographic characteristics including ..... Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism; 2000, 88.

  19. Seasonal changes in plasma testosterone levels in the male South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-18

    Feb 18, 1991 ... Saboureau & Boissin (1983b) showed that the peripheral metabolism of testosterone and its metabolic clearance rate may also change seasonally. For this reason the additional factors involved in the seasonal patterns of testosterone recorded await further investigation. Acknowledgements. The antiserum ...

  20. The Effect of Castration and Testosterone Administration on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOS

    2012-04-18

    Apr 18, 2012 ... To study the effect of castration and testosterone replacement on the testosterone level of the New. Zealand rabbit, 16 apparently ... After two weeks, the rabbits were castrated and the effect of castration and ... infiltration of the local anesthetic around the neck of scrotum (Hall,. 1979). Each testicle was then ...

  1. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone Levels as Immuno-Enhancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This thus showed that the observed increase in the serum free testosterone level in women with anti TPO antibody was significant and may vary with different physiological conditions in women. Keywords: Testosterone, Pregnancy, Secondary Infertility and Anti-microsomal antibodies. Nigerian Journal of Health and ...

  2. Combined usage of testosterone and nandrolone may cause heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of combined application of testosterone and nandrolone on male rabbits during adolescence period for biochemical values which are indicators of damage to heart, liver and kidney. Seven male New Zealand white rabbits, 60-days old, were used in this study. Testosterone (10 ...

  3. Aluminum-induced testosterone decrease results in physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-10

    Jan 10, 2011 ... Recently, there has been much controversy on the role of testosterone on social and aggression behaviors. This work aimed to determine the effect of testosterone decrease, induced by aluminum exposure on the level of aggression. Male Swiss-Webster strain mice were classified into three groups.

  4. Causal relationship between obesity and serum testosterone status in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Joel; Haring, Robin; Grarup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Obesity in men is associated with low serum testosterone and both are associated with several diseases and increased mortality. OBJECTIVES: Examine the direction and causality of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone. DESIGN: Bi-directional Mendelian...

  5. Association of testosterone levels with socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Testosterone, a male reproductive hormone, affects several physiological processes, such as sperm production, energy, strength, sexual behavior, sleep and the general well being of men. Normal levels of testosterone are necessary to effect these physiological processes. The objective of this study was to ...

  6. Hypogonadism and testosterone replacement theraphy: the controversy and the evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... with energy loss; impaired cognition; decreased bone density, muscle mass, and strength; and sexual dysfunction. (2) In addition, low serum testosterone levels have been linked with an adverse metabolic profile and increased mortality of all causes (3,4) Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is available in several formulations that are approved by ...

  7. A cohort effect on serum testosterone levels in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perheentupa, A; Mäkinen, J; Laatikainen, T

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a population-level decline in serum testosterone exists in Finnish men. In comparison with other European populations, Finnish men have compared well in the studies of reproductive health (i.e. semen quality, incidence of cryptorchidism and testicular cancer); thus, we...... expected no significant cohort-dependent decrease in serum testosterone....

  8. A Study of Serum Testosterone and Luteinizing Hormone Levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low libido is considered to be the most prominent symptomatic reflection of low serum testosterone and it is unclear how frequent an individual who reported to the clinic with low libido indicates low serum testosterone levels. Objective: This study seeks to know how many of the self reported patients with low ...

  9. Fetal Testosterone, Socio-Emotional Engagement and Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Brad M.; Mattes, Eugen; Keelan, Jeff A.; Hickey, Martha; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations among fetal testosterone, child socio-emotional engagement and language development in a sample of 467 children (235 boys) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Bioavailable testosterone concentration measured in umbilical cord blood taken at birth was found to be significantly…

  10. Testosterone Replacement and Bone Mineral Density in Male Pituitary Tumor Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHypopituitarism is associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia especially when hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is present. Despite hypopituitarism being an important cause of secondary osteoporosis, osteoporosis in patients receiving surgery for pituitary tumors in Korea has not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT on bone mineral density (BMD in postoperative hypogonadal patients with pituitary tumors.MethodsTo examine the effect of TRT on BMD, we performed a retrospective observational study in 21 postoperative male patients who underwent pituitary tumor surgery between 2003 and 2012 at the Ajou University Hospital. Testosterone was replaced in postoperative hypogonadal patients by regular intramuscular injection, daily oral medication, or application of transdermal gel. BMD (g/cm2 measurements of central skeletal sites (lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur were obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE Lunar. For lumbar spine BMD, L1 to L4 values were chosen for analysis. Femur neck and total femur were also analyzed.ResultsDuring the follow-up period (mean, 56 months; range, 12 to 99 months serum testosterone levels increased with the administration of TRT (P=0.007. There was significant improvement (4.56%±9.81% in the lumbar spine BMD compared to baseline BMD. There were no significant changes in the femur neck BMD or total femur BMD. We did not find any statistically significant relationships between changes in testosterone levels and BMD using Spearman correlation analysis.ConclusionOur results indicated that TRT used in the postoperative period for hypogonadal pituitary tumor surgery patients may have beneficial effects on the BMD of the spine.

  11. Testosterone and Bioavailable Testosterone Help to Distinguish between Mild Cushing’s Syndrome and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, M. E.; Lao, M. C.; Patel, S. S.; Lee, M. L.; Ghods, D. E.; Chandler, D. W.; Friedman, T. C.

    2010-01-01

    Women with Cushing’s syndrome (CS) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may present with similar symptoms. Subjects with mild CS lack clinical stigmata of classical CS and often have normal laboratory tests measuring hypercortisolism. Thus, distinguishing mild CS from PCOS may be difficult. We hypothesized that either total testosterone (TT) or bioavailable testosterone (BT) levels or the calculation of the free androgen index (FAI) would be low in patients with mild CS and elevated in patients with PCOS, and could help differentiate the two conditions. TT, BT, and FAI were measured in a group of 20 patients of reproductive age with mild CS and 20 PCOS patients matched for age and BMI. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these measurements for the diagnosis of CS. TT (pBT (p=0.02), and FAI (p=0.003) were significantly elevated in PCOS patients compared to mild CS patients. Sex hormone-binding globulin was similar in both groups. The optimal cut-point for TT was 1.39 nmol/L, yielding a sensitivity of 95 % and a specificity of 70%. The cut-point for BT was 0.24 nmol/L, resulting in a sensitivity of 75 % and a specificity of 80%. The cut-point for FAI was 5.7, with a sensitivity of 88 % and a specificity of 60 %. We conclude that TT levels may be useful to discriminate between mild CS and PCOS. In patients with signs and symptoms consistent with CS and PCOS, a TT level of <1.39nmol/L warrants a workup for CS. PMID:18819057

  12. Serum testosterone concentrations in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C

    1987-01-01

    Median serum testosterone concentration of men with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 216) did not differ significantly from normal controls (n = 51), but serum testosterone concentrations varied by a factor 43.9 in patients compared to 3.2 in controls (P less than .001). Nineteen percent of the patients...... had serum testosterone concentrations above 30 nmol/L. Serum concentrations of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than .001) raised, and serum concentrations of calculated nonprotein-bound and non-SHBG-bound testosterone were significantly (P less than .001) decreased...... in patients compared to normal control values. A number of background variables were analyzed with reference to serum testosterone concentrations by means of multiple regression techniques after having divided the patients into groups (A, B, C) with decreasing liver function by a modification of the Child...

  13. Causal relationship between obesity and serum testosterone status in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Joel; Haring, Robin; Grarup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Obesity in men is associated with low serum testosterone and both are associated with several diseases and increased mortality. OBJECTIVES: Examine the direction and causality of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone. DESIGN: Bi-directional Mendelian...... randomization (MR) analysis on prospective cohorts. SETTING: Five cohorts from Denmark, Germany and Sweden (Inter99, SHIP, SHIP Trend, GOOD and MrOS Sweden). PARTICIPANTS: 7446 Caucasian men, genotyped for 97 BMI-associated SNPs and three testosterone-associated SNPs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BMI and serum...... testosterone adjusted for age, smoking, time of blood sampling and site. RESULTS: 1 SD genetically instrumented increase in BMI was associated with a 0.25 SD decrease in serum testosterone (IV ratio: -0.25, 95% CI: -0.42--0.09, p = 2.8*10-3). For a body weight reduction altering the BMI from 30 to 25 kg/m2...

  14. Bioavailable Testosterone Linearly Declines Over A Wide Age Spectrum in Men and Women From The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Elisa; An, Yang; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Zoli, Marco; Maggio, Marcello; Studenski, Stephanie A; Egan, Josephine M; Chia, Chee W; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Age-related changes in testosterone levels in older persons and especially in women have not been fully explored. The objective of this study was to describe age-related trajectories of total testosterone (TT), ammonium sulfate precipitation-measured bioavailable testosterone (mBT), and sex hormone-binding glycoprotein (SHBG) in men and women from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, with special focus on the oldest adults. Participants included 788 White men and women aged 30-96 years with excellent representation of old and oldest old, who reported not taking medications known to interfere with testosterone. Longitudinal data were included when available. TT, mBT, and SHBG were assayed. Age-related trajectories of mBT were compared with those obtained using calculated bioavailable testosterone (cBT). Generalized least square models were performed to describe age-related trajectories of TT, mBT, and SHBG in men and women. mBT linearly declines over the life span and even at older ages in both sexes. In men, TT remains quite stable until the age of 70 years and then declines at older ages, whereas in women TT progressively declines in premenopausal years and slightly increases at older ages. Differences in age-related trajectories between total and bioavailable testosterone are only partially explained by age changes in SHBG, whose levels increases at accelerated rates in old persons. Noteworthy, although mBT and cBT highly correlated with one another, mBT is a much stronger correlate of chronological age than cBT. In both men and women, mBT linearly declines over the life span and even at old ages. Its relationship with age-related phenotypes should be further investigated. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2016.

  15. Short-term parenteral and peroral testosterone administration in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Dietrichson, O

    1981-01-01

    Serum concentrations of testosterone were measured in 24 male patients with alcoholic cirrhosis during testosterone administration. The purpose was to compare serum concentrations of testosterone during peroral with those during parenteral testosterone administration in these patients. Patients who...... were injected intramuscularly with a combination of short- and long-acting testosterone (Triolandren, 348 mg testosterone) had median peak values of serum testosterone of about 40 ng/ml, which fell to basal levels after a fortnight. During testosterone propionate injections (84 mg testosterone) every...... other day, rather constant serum concentrations with median values of about 30 ng/ml were reached after 4 days. Peroral testosterone administration (800 mg micronized free testosterone) each day also resulted in fairly constant serum concentrations after 4 days, and the median values were about 50 ng...

  16. Testosterone therapy in women: myths and misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Rebecca; Dimitrakakis, Constantine

    2013-03-01

    Although testosterone therapy is being increasingly prescribed for men, there remain many questions and concerns about testosterone (T) and in particular, T therapy in women. A literature search was performed to elucidate the origin of, and scientific basis behind many of the concerns and assumptions about T and T therapy in women. This paper refutes 10 common myths and misconceptions, and provides evidence to support what is physiologically plausible and scientifically evident: T is the most abundant biologically active female hormone, T is essential for physical and mental health in women, T is not masculinizing, T does not cause hoarseness, T increases scalp hair growth, T is cardiac protective, parenteral T does not adversely affect the liver or increase clotting factors, T is mood stabilizing and does not increase aggression, T is breast protective, and the safety of T therapy in women is under research and being established. Abandoning myths, misconceptions and unfounded concerns about T and T therapy in women will enable physicians to provide evidenced based recommendations and appropriate therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Protection against dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy is related to modulation by testosterone of FOXO1 and PGC-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Weiping, E-mail: weiping.qin@mssm.edu [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Bauman, William A. [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Cardozo, Christopher, E-mail: Chris.Cardozo@mssm.edu [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States)

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} In rat gastrocnemius muscle, dexamethasone reduced PGC-1{alpha} cellular and nuclear levels without altering mRNA levels for this factor. {yields} Dexamethasone reduced phosphorylating of p38 MAPK, which stabilizes PGC-1{alpha} and promotes its nuclear entry. {yields} Co-administration of testosterone with dexamethasone increased cellular and nuclear levels of PGC-1{alpha} protein without changing its mRNA levels. {yields} Co-administration of testosterone restored p38 MAPK levels to those of controls. -- Abstract: Glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy results from muscle protein catabolism and reduced protein synthesis, associated with increased expression of two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases (MAFbx and MuRF1), and of two inhibitors of protein synthesis, REDD1 and 4EBP1. MAFbx, MuRF1, REDD1 and 4EBP1 are up-regulated by the transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3A. The transcriptional co-activator PGC-1{alpha} has been shown to attenuate many forms of muscle atrophy and to repress FOXO3A-mediated transcription of atrophy-specific genes. Dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy can be prevented by testosterone, which blocks up-regulation by dexamethasone of FOXO1. Here, an animal model of dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy was used to further characterize effects of testosterone to abrogate adverse actions of dexamethasone on FOXO1 levels and nuclear localization, and to determine how these agents affect PGC-1{alpha}, and its upstream activators, p38 MAPK and AMPK. In rat gastrocnemius muscle, testosterone blunted the dexamethasone-mediated increase in levels of FOXO1 mRNA, and FOXO1 total and nuclear protein. Dexamethasone reduced total and nuclear PGC-1{alpha} protein levels in the gastrocnemius; co-administration of testosterone with dexamethasone increased total and nuclear PGC-1{alpha} levels above those present in untreated controls. Testosterone blocked dexamethasone-induced decreases in activity of p38 MAPK in the gastrocnemius

  18. Testosterone deficiency in dialysis patients: Difference between dialysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarrán, Secundino; Coronel, Francisco; Florit, Enrique; Calviño, Jesús; Villa, Juan; Gonzalez Tabares, Lourdes; Herrero, José Antonio; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    Testosterone deficiency is a prevalent condition in male patients with chronic kidney disease. However, it is not known whether the type of renal replacement therapy has an impact on testosterone deficiency that accompanies loss of renal function. The cross-sectional study enrolled 79 prevalent male patients on dialysis; 43 on haemodialysis (HD) and 36 on peritoneal dialysis (PD). The median age was 69 years and 31.6% were diabetics. Endogenous testosterone levels were measured by immunoluminescence assay (normal range 3-10.5ng/ml), while nutritional/inflammatory markers, bone and mineral metabolism markers, anaemia, type of dialysis technique and time on dialysis were also assessed. Body composition was evaluated by bioimpedance vector analysis and bioimpedance spectroscopy. Testosterone deficiency was defined as levels below 3ng/ml. Mean testosterone levels were 8.81±6.61ng/ml. Testosterone deficiency affected 39.5% of HD patients and only 5.6% of PD patients. In the univariate analysis, testosterone levels were directly correlated with type of dialysis technique (HD) (Rho Spearman 0.366; P<.001) and time on dialysis (Rho -0.412; P=.036) and only with the HD technique in the multivariate analysis. No other significant correlations were found. Circulating testosterone levels in men on dialysis were independently associated with HD technique. It can be concluded that a new factor -namely the dialysis technique- may be associated with falling testosterone levels and the associated loss of muscle mass and inflammation. Further studies are needed to establish whether the dialysis technique itself triggers testosterone elimination. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Testosterone, free testosterone, and free androgen index in women: Reference intervals, biological variation, and diagnostic value in polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H.N.; Sluss, P.M.; Hayes, F.J.; Blincko, S.; Knol, D.L.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of our study was to determine reference intervals and biologic variation for testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and free androgen index (FAI) in women with accurate methods and to test the discriminative value of these parameters in a polycystic ovary syndrome

  20. Testosterone, free testosterone, and free androgen index in women: Reference intervals, biological variation, and diagnostic value in polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H. N.; Sluss, P. M.; Hayes, F. J.; Blincko, S.; Knol, D. L.; Blankenstein, M. A.; Heijboer, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine reference intervals and biologic variation for testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and free androgen index (FAI) in women with accurate methods and to test the discriminative value of these parameters in a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-population.

  1. The novel p.Cys65Tyr mutation in NR5A1 gene in three 46,XY siblings with normal testosterone levels and their mother with primary ovarian insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Helena Campos; de Andrade, Juliana Gabriel Ribeiro; Soardi, Fernanda Caroline; de Calais, Flávia Leme; Petroli, Reginaldo José; Maciel-Guerra, Andréa Trevas; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; de Mello, Maricilda Palandi

    2014-01-10

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) is the term used for congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or phenotypic sex is atypical. Nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 1 gene (NR5A1) encodes steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), a transcription factor that is involved in gonadal development and regulates adrenal steroidogenesis. Mutations in the NR5A1 gene may lead to different 46,XX or 46,XY DSD phenotypes with or without adrenal failure. We report a Brazilian family with a novel NR5A1 mutation causing ambiguous genitalia in 46,XY affected individuals without Müllerian derivatives and apparently normal Leydig function after birth and at puberty, respectively. Their mother, who is also heterozygous for the mutation, presents evidence of primary ovarian insufficiency. Three siblings with 46,XY DSD, ambiguous genitalia and normal testosterone production were included in the study. Molecular analyses for AR, SRD5A2 genes did not reveal any mutation. However, NR5A2 sequence analysis indicated that all three siblings were heterozygous for the p.Cys65Tyr mutation which was inherited from their mother. In silico analysis was carried out to elucidate the role of the amino acid change on the protein function. After the mutation was identified, all sibs and the mother had been reevaluated. Basal hormone concentrations were normal except that ACTH levels were slightly elevated. After 1 mcg ACTH stimulation test, only the older sib showed subnormal cortisol response. The p.Cys65Tyr mutation located within the second zinc finger of DNA binding domain was considered deleterious upon analysis with predictive algorithms. The identification of heterozygous individuals with this novel mutation may bring additional knowledge on structural modifications that may influence NR5A1 DNA-binding ability, and may also contribute to genotype-phenotype correlations in DSD. The slightly elevated ACTH basal levels in all three patients with 46,XY DSD and the subnormal

  2. Pharmacokinetics, Clinical Efficacy, Safety Profile, and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Patients Receiving Subcutaneous Testosterone Pellets 900 mg for Treatment of Symptoms Associated With Androgen Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G; Shusterman, Neil; Cohen, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Implantation of testosterone doses of at least 150 to 450 mg (ie, two to six pellets) is common clinical practice despite a lack of prospective data. To evaluate pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety, and patient-reported outcomes in men with androgen deficiency who received implantation of testosterone pellets (900 mg) in an open-label study. Men with androgen deficiency (serum testosterone testosterone pellets (900 mg). Serum hormone measurements (total and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol) were obtained on days 1, 5, 8, 15, 29, 57, 85, and 113. All hormones were assayed using validated liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetics of selected hormones was determined. The patient-reported International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), and Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (qADAM) questionnaires also were performed. Patients rated their satisfaction on a scale from 1 (very satisfied) to 5 (very dissatisfied). Adverse events were monitored throughout. Fifteen patients were included (mean age = 54.5 years, SD = 8.6 years). Mean baseline total testosterone concentration was 241.6 ng/dL (SD = 88.8 ng/dL; mean = 8.4 nmol/L, SD = 3.1 nmol/L). Mean testosterone serum concentrations fluctuated during the first 2 weeks (range = 300-1,000 ng/dL, 10.4-34.7 nmol/L) but remained higher than or equal to 300 ng/dL (10.4 nmol/L) through day 113. Concentrations of free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol mirrored that of total testosterone. Male functioning (IIEF score), depression (CES-D total score), and androgen-deficiency symptoms (qADAM total score) improved from baseline. Most patients were "very satisfied" (40.0%) or "quite satisfied" (26.7%) with treatment. Testosterone pellets were well tolerated. Pellet extrusion and polycythemia occurred in one patient each. Implantation of high doses (900 mg) of testosterone pellets are generally well

  3. Seasonal variation in serum testosterone, testicular volume and semen characteristics in coatis (Nasua nasua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Paz, Regina Celia Rodrigues; Dos Santos Avila, Heide Belle; Morgado, Thais Oliveira; Nichi, Marcilio

    2012-04-15

    The objective was to characterize seasonal changes in serum testosterone concentration, testicular volume and sperm quantity and quality in captive coatis (Nasua nasua) from Pantanal, MT, Brazil. Sampling was done once monthly for 1 y. Mean (± SEM) serum testosterone concentrations (767.37 ± 216.2 ng/ml) and total and progressive sperm motility (79.6 ± 3.9%; 3.8 ± 0.3, on a scale of 0 to 5) peaked in July. The highest combined testis volume (10.3 ± 0.4 cm(3)) and sperm concentration (403 million ± 102 sperm/ml) occurred in August, at the peak of the winter breeding season. No seasonal effects on percentages of morphologically normal sperm, acrosome integrity, or live sperm were detected; however, the percentage of secondary sperm defects was higher in the winter. In conclusion, intricate relationships between testosterone concentration, testis volume, semen concentration and total and progressive sperm motility with high levels of breeding activity were observed during the dry season in the winter (June, July, August), followed by a subsequent decline in these activities during the wet season (i.e., summer: December, January, February). There was no seasonal pattern for production of functionally intact and morphologically normal sperm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Liver haemodynamics and function in alcoholic cirrhosis. Relation to testosterone treatment and ethanol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1987-01-01

    Liver haemodynamics and liver function were measured in 34 alcoholic cirrhotic men before entry and after 12 months (median) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effect of oral testosterone treatment (200 mg t.i.d.). Comparing data at entry with those at follow-up in the total patient...... group, a significant change in median values of portal pressure (-23%, n = 34, P less than 0.005), hepatic blood flow (-22%, n = 28, P less than 0.001), indocyanine green clearance (+16%, n = 29, P less than 0.01), and galactose elimination capacity (+8%, n = 31, P less than 0.05) was observed. However......, testosterone-treated patients did not differ significantly from placebo-treated patients regarding any of the measured variables. No significant relationships could be demonstrated between ethanol consumption and liver haemodynamics and liver function, but the number of patients consuming more than 100 g...

  5. Comparison of methods for determination of testosterone and non-protein bound testosterone in men with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    The serum concentrations of testosterone and of non-protein bound testosterone were determined in 28 men with alcoholic liver disease having normal to decreased serum albumin concentrations and normal to raised SHBG concentrations. Serum testosterone concentrations determined with two...... radioimmunoassays using different purification procedures and antibody batches did not differ significantly and correlated significantly (r=0.91; p less than 0.001). The median serum concentration of non-protein bound testosterone was 0.265 nmol/l (range 0.068-0.495 nmol/l) when determined by equilibrium dialysis...... and 0.232 nmol/l (range 0.042-0.610 nmol/l) when calculated according to the law of mass action. This difference is insignificant. The concentrations of non-protein bound testosterone determined by the two methods correlated significantly (r=0.83; p less than 0.001). In the calculation of non...

  6. Serum testosterone and depressive symptoms in severe OSA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercea, R M; Patacchioli, F R; Ghiciuc, C M; Cojocaru, E; Mihaescu, T

    2013-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), also characterised by hypoxia-related sleep- fragmentation, has been studied in relation to depression and serum testosterone deficit. In middle-aged men, it has been reported the association between depressive mood and low serum testosterone level; however, no data are available about this association in OSA patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate in adult obese males, affected by severe OSA, the relationship between serum testosterone concentration and depressive symptoms, in order to identify among all measured parameters (serum testosterone morning concentration, polysomnography parameters, body mass index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale) those predictors for OSA-related depression. Forty patients diagnosed with severe OSA and forty subjects for the control-matched group were enroled in the study. The results indicated that the serum testosterone in OSA group was significantly lower than in controls. In addition, the OSA group presented a level of depression although moderate, yet significantly higher than controls. Furthermore, a statistically significant inverse correlation has been found between serum testosterone level and depressive symptoms. Among all variables, serum testosterone level was shown to be the only independent variable significantly predictor for depression in OSA patients. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Reactive oxygen species: players in the cardiovascular effects of testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Fernando S.; Carvalho, Maria Helena C.; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

    2015-01-01

    Androgens are essential for the development and maintenance of male reproductive tissues and sexual function and for overall health and well being. Testosterone, the predominant and most important androgen, not only affects the male reproductive system, but also influences the activity of many other organs. In the cardiovascular system, the actions of testosterone are still controversial, its effects ranging from protective to deleterious. While early studies showed that testosterone replacement therapy exerted beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, some recent safety studies point to a positive association between endogenous and supraphysiological levels of androgens/testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk. Among the possible mechanisms involved in the actions of testosterone on the cardiovascular system, indirect actions (changes in the lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and hemostatic mechanisms, modulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), as well as direct actions (modulatory effects on proinflammatory enzymes, on the generation of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide bioavailability, and on vasoconstrictor signaling pathways) have been reported. This mini-review focuses on evidence indicating that testosterone has prooxidative actions that may contribute to its deleterious actions in the cardiovascular system. The controversial effects of testosterone on ROS generation and oxidant status, both prooxidant and antioxidant, in the cardiovascular system and in cells and tissues of other systems are reviewed. PMID:26538238

  8. Testosterone/estradiol ratio, is it useful in the diagnosis of erectile dysfunction and low sexual desire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló-Porcar, A M; Martínez-Jabaloyas, J M

    2016-12-01

    Erectile dysfunction and low sexual desire are multifactorial diseases. The decrease in testosterone levels is one of the causes, but the effect of estradiol is not well known. Moreover, study has shown that the testosterone/estradiol ratio has more influence over sexuality than does estradiol alone. The aim of the study was to determine whether the balance between testosterone and estradiol has any relation to some aspects of sexual function. It was an ambispective study of 230 patients with urological problems unrelated to sexuality. They underwent a detailed history and hormone study including total, free, bioavailable testosterone and estradiol. They completed the Sexual Health Inventory for Men and questions 11 and 12 of the IIEF15 were used to assess impairment in sexual desire. The T/E ratio was calculated, and the relationship between the different parameters and erectile function and sexual desire were studied by univariate and multivariate analysis. The mean age was 66.32 ± 8.17 years. The percentage of patients with erectile dysfunction was 60.9% (7% severe, 14.3% moderate, 12.6% mild to moderate and 27% mild) and decreased sexual desire was 46.5%. Age, free and biodisponible testosteron were the only variables with a positive linear association with erectile dysfunction and decreased sexual desire. Age was the only independent variable for both, erectile dysfunction and sexual desire, in the multiple linear regression. There was no association between a testosterone/estradiol imbalance and an alteration in erectile function and sexual desire. Consequently, in the clinical study of these patients, it is not necessary to request estradiol in the laboratory analyses.

  9. The Testicular Hormones AMH, InhB, INSL3, and Testosterone Can Be Independently Deficient in Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yih Harng; Pankhurst, Michael W; McLennan, Ian S

    2017-04-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism is symptomatically diverse and not fully explained by circulating testosterone level. The adult testes secrete four distinct hormones (testosterone, AMH, INSL3, and InhB) into the circulation. Testosterone and InhB have proven dynamic regulation, with limited information available for AMH and INSL3. During aging, there is cellular senescence, which may underlie the diversity of hypogonadism. This leads to the postulate that the relative levels (profile) of the four testicular hormones in older men are variable and cannot be evaluated by the measurement of one hormone. 111 men aged 19-50 years and 98 men aged 70-90 years were examined. The circulating levels of the testicular hormones were measured using ELISAs, and the variation in the levels of hormones was analyzed by various correlative analyses. All four hormones were largely or totally independent. Some men were deficient in multiple hormones, but no man had multiple elevated hormones. The average hormonal levels were lower in older men, with diverse profiles of the four testicular hormones. Hence, some men had one or more hormones below the reference range, with testosterone the most conserved. Consequently, testosterone levels were not indicative of the complete state of the endocrine testes. The four hormones vary independently of each other, in younger and older men. This indicates that they are regulated dynamically rather than influenced by endocrine cell number. Older men exhibited diverse profiles of low levels of testicular hormones, suggesting that the testes age differently between men. Testosterone alone inadequately describes gonadal states.

  10. Mouse Spermatogenesis Requires Classical and Nonclassical Testosterone Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toocheck, Corey; Clister, Terri; Shupe, John; Crum, Chelsea; Ravindranathan, Preethi; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Raj, Ganesh V; Sukhwani, Meena; Orwig, Kyle E; Walker, William H

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone acts though the androgen receptor in Sertoli cells to support germ cell development (spermatogenesis) and male fertility, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which testosterone acts are not well understood. Previously, we found that in addition to acting through androgen receptor to directly regulate gene expression (classical testosterone signaling pathway), testosterone acts through a nonclassical pathway via the androgen receptor to rapidly activate kinases that are known to regulate spermatogenesis. In this study, we provide the first evidence that nonclassical testosterone signaling occurs in vivo as the MAP kinase cascade is rapidly activated in Sertoli cells within the testis by increasing testosterone levels in the rat. We find that either classical or nonclassical signaling regulates testosterone-mediated Rhox5 gene expression in Sertoli cells within testis explants. The selective activation of classical or nonclassical signaling pathways in Sertoli cells within testis explants also resulted in the differential activation of the Zbtb16 and c-Kit genes in adjacent spermatogonia germ cells. Delivery of an inhibitor of either pathway to Sertoli cells of mouse testes disrupted the blood-testis barrier that is essential for spermatogenesis. Furthermore, an inhibitor of nonclassical testosterone signaling blocked meiosis in pubertal mice and caused the loss of meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells in adult mouse testes. An inhibitor of the classical pathway caused the premature release of immature germ cells. Collectively, these observations indicate that classical and nonclassical testosterone signaling regulate overlapping and distinct functions that are required for the maintenance of spermatogenesis and male fertility. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  11. Effect of Testosterone on Neuronal Morphology and Neuritic Growth of Fetal Lamb Hypothalamus-Preoptic Area and Cerebral Cortex in Primary Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika C Reddy

    Full Text Available Testosterone plays an essential role in sexual differentiation of the male sheep brain. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN, is 2 to 3 times larger in males than in females, and this sex difference is under the control of testosterone. The effect of testosterone on oSDN volume may result from enhanced expansion of soma areas and/or dendritic fields. To test this hypothesis, cells derived from the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA and cerebral cortex (CTX of lamb fetuses were grown in primary culture to examine the direct morphological effects of testosterone on these cellular components. We found that within two days of plating, neurons derived from both the HPOA and CTX extend neuritic processes and express androgen receptors and aromatase immunoreactivity. Both treated and control neurites continue to grow and branch with increasing time in culture. Treatment with testosterone (10 nM for 3 days significantly (P < 0.05 increased both total neurite outgrowth (35% and soma size (8% in the HPOA and outgrowth (21% and number of branch points (33% in the CTX. These findings indicate that testosterone-induced somal enlargement and neurite outgrowth in fetal lamb neurons may contribute to the development of a fully masculine sheep brain.

  12. Role of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in cardiovascular changes following chronic treatment with cocaine and testosterone: a role beyond drug seeking in addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, F C; Alves, F H F; Leão, R M; Planeta, C S; Crestani, C C

    2013-12-03

    Neural plasticity has been observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) following exposure to both cocaine and androgenic-anabolic steroids. Here we investigated the involvement of the BNST on changes in cardiovascular function and baroreflex activity following either single or combined administration of cocaine and testosterone for 10 consecutive days in rats. Single administration of testosterone increased values of arterial pressure, evoked rest bradycardia and reduced baroreflex-mediated bradycardia. These effects of testosterone were not affected by BNST inactivation caused by local bilateral microinjections of the nonselective synaptic blocker CoCl2. The single administration of cocaine as well as the combined treatment with testosterone and cocaine increased both bradycardiac and tachycardiac responses of the baroreflex. Cocaine-evoked baroreflex changes were totally reversed after BNST inactivation. However, BNST inhibition in animals subjected to combined treatment with cocaine and testosterone reversed only the increase in reflex tachycardia, whereas facilitation of reflex bradycardia was not affected by local BNST treatment with CoCl2. In conclusion, the present study provides the first direct evidence that the BNST play a role in cardiovascular changes associated with drug abuse. Our findings suggest that alterations in cardiovascular function following subchronic exposure to cocaine are mediated by neural plasticity in the BNST. The single treatment with cocaine and the combined administration of testosterone and cocaine had similar effects on baroreflex activity, however the association with testosterone inhibited cocaine-induced changes in the BNST control of reflex bradycardia. Testosterone-induced cardiovascular changes seem to be independent of the BNST. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Polycythemia in HIV-infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkas, Charles Kyriakos; Vaamonde, Carlos M.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to assess testosterone use as a primary risk factor for polycythemia in 21 HIV-infected men. Any testosterone use within two months of first elevated hemoglobin was associated with polycythemia (matched odds ratio 6.55; 95% CI 1.83-23.4; P=0.004) and intramuscular administration demonstrated a stronger association than topical use. No adverse cardiovascular or thrombotic events were observed. HIV-infected patients taking testosterone should undergo routine hematologic monitoring with adjustment of therapy when appropriate. PMID:22008652

  14. Association of sex hormone-binding globulin and free testosterone with mortality in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tint, Aye N; Hoermann, Rudolf; Wong, Henry; Ekinci, Elif I; MacIsaac, Richard J; Jerums, George; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Grossmann, Mathis

    2016-01-01

    Low circulating testosterone levels have been associated with increased mortality in men. We hypothesized that the prognostic role of testosterone in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is influenced by its carrier protein sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). We conducted a prospective cohort study at a tertiary referral centre. In total, 531 men with T2DM presenting to a diabetes clinic in 2004-2005 were followed prospectively until death, or July 31, 2014, and a survival analysis was performed. The main outcome measure was all cause mortality. Over a mean (S.D.) follow up of 7.6 years (2.6) 175 men (33%) died. In Cox proportional hazard models both higher SHBG (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.012 (95% CI 1.002-1.022), P=0.02) and lower calculated free testosterone (cFT) (HR 0.995 (95% CI 0.993-0.998), P=0.001) were risk factors for all cause mortality independently of age, BMI, presence of macro- and microvascular disease, duration of T2DM, hemoglobin, renal function, insulin use, C-reactive protein and homeostatic model of insulin resistance. By contrast, the inverse association of total testosterone (TT) with mortality weakened after these adjustments (P=0.11). SHBG remained associated with mortality (Ptestosterone, has intrinsic biological roles, or is a marker of poor health requires further study. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. Testosterone Treatment and Cognitive Function in Older Men With Low Testosterone and Age-Associated Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Susan M; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Ellenberg, Susan S; Gill, Thomas M; Shumaker, Sally A; Pleasants, Debbie D; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bhasin, Shalender; Cauley, Jane A; Cella, David; Crandall, Jill P; Cunningham, Glenn R; Ensrud, Kristine E; Farrar, John T; Lewis, Cora E; Molitch, Mark E; Pahor, Marco; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Cifelli, Denise; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan J; Wang, Christina; Hou, Xiaoling; Snyder, Peter J

    2017-02-21

    Most cognitive functions decline with age. Prior studies suggest that testosterone treatment may improve these functions. To determine if testosterone treatment compared with placebo is associated with improved verbal memory and other cognitive functions in older men with low testosterone and age-associated memory impairment (AAMI). The Testosterone Trials (TTrials) were 7 trials to assess the efficacy of testosterone treatment in older men with low testosterone levels. The Cognitive Function Trial evaluated cognitive function in all TTrials participants. In 12 US academic medical centers, 788 men who were 65 years or older with a serum testosterone level less than 275 ng/mL and impaired sexual function, physical function, or vitality were allocated to testosterone treatment (n = 394) or placebo (n = 394). A subgroup of 493 men met criteria for AAMI based on baseline subjective memory complaints and objective memory performance. Enrollment in the TTrials began June 24, 2010; the final participant completed treatment and assessment in June 2014. Testosterone gel (adjusted to maintain the testosterone level within the normal range for young men) or placebo gel for 1 year. The primary outcome was the mean change from baseline to 6 months and 12 months for delayed paragraph recall (score range, 0 to 50) among men with AAMI. Secondary outcomes were mean changes in visual memory (Benton Visual Retention Test; score range, 0 to -26), executive function (Trail-Making Test B minus A; range, -290 to 290), and spatial ability (Card Rotation Test; score range, -80 to 80) among men with AAMI. Tests were administered at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Among the 493 men with AAMI (mean age, 72.3 years [SD, 5.8]; mean baseline testosterone, 234 ng/dL [SD, 65.1]), 247 were assigned to receive testosterone and 246 to receive placebo. Of these groups, 247 men in the testosterone group and 245 men in the placebo completed the memory study. There was no significant mean

  16. Testosterone Treatment and Cognitive Function in Older Men With Low Testosterone and Age-Associated Memory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Susan M.; Matsumoto, Alvin M.; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J.; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Gill, Thomas M.; Shumaker, Sally A.; Pleasants, Debbie D.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bhasin, Shalender; Cauley, Jane A.; Cella, David; Crandall, Jill P.; Cunningham, Glenn R.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Farrar, John T.; Lewis, Cora E.; Molitch, Mark E.; Pahor, Marco; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Cifelli, Denise; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan J.; Wang, Christina; Hou, Xiaoling; Snyder, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Most cognitive functions decline with age. Prior studies suggest that testosterone treatment may improve these functions. Objective To determine if testosterone treatment compared with placebo is associated with improved verbal memory and other cognitive functions in older men with low testosterone and age-associated memory impairment (AAMI). Design, Setting, and Participants The Testosterone Trials (TTrials) were 7 trials to assess the efficacy of testosterone treatment in older men with low testosterone levels. The Cognitive Function Trial evaluated cognitive function in all TTrials participants. In 12 US academic medical centers, 788 men who were 65 years or older with a serum testosterone level less than 275 ng/mL and impaired sexual function, physical function, or vitality were allocated to testosterone treatment (n = 394) or placebo (n = 394). A subgroup of 493 men met criteria for AAMI based on baseline subjective memory complaints and objective memory performance. Enrollment in the TTrials began June 24, 2010; the final participant completed treatment and assessment in June 2014. Interventions Testosterone gel (adjusted to maintain the testosterone level within the normal range for young men) or placebo gel for 1 year. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was the mean change from baseline to 6 months and 12 months for delayed paragraph recall (score range, 0 to 50) among men with AAMI. Secondary outcomes were mean changes in visual memory (Benton Visual Retention Test; score range, 0 to −26), executive function (Trail-Making Test B minus A; range, −290 to 290), and spatial ability (Card Rotation Test; score range, −80 to 80) among men with AAMI. Tests were administered at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Results Among the 493 men with AAMI (mean age, 72.3 years [SD, 5.8]; mean baseline testosterone, 234 ng/dL [SD, 65.1]), 247 were assigned to receive testosterone and 246 to receive placebo. Of these groups, 247 men in the

  17. Testosterone therapy increased muscle mass and lipid oxidation in aging men

    OpenAIRE

    Frederiksen, Louise; Højlund, Kurt; Hougaard, David M.; Brixen, Kim; Andersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The indication for testosterone therapy in aging hypogonadal men without hypothalamic, pituitary, or testicular disease remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of testosterone therapy on insulin sensitivity, substrate metabolism, body composition, and lipids in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels using a predefined cutoff level for bioavailable testosterone. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of testosterone trea...

  18. Serum testosterone levels in males are not associated with entrepreneurial behavior in two independent observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Haring, Robin; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Groenen, Patrick J F; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Frank H; Koellinger, Philipp D; Kohlmann, Thomas; Nauck, Matthias A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; van Rooij, Frank J A; Wallaschofski, Henri; Thurik, A Roy

    2013-07-02

    Previous research has suggested a positive association between testosterone (T) and entrepreneurial behavior in males. However, this evidence was found in a study with a small sample size and has not been replicated. In the present study, we aimed to verify this association using two large, independent, population-based samples of males. We tested the association of T with entrepreneurial behavior, operationalized as self-employment, using data from the Rotterdam Study (N=587) and the Study of Health in Pomerania (N=1697). Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in the serum. Free testosterone (FT), non-SHBG-bound T (non-SHBG-T), and the TT/SHBG ratio were calculated and used as measures of bioactive serum T, in addition to TT adjusted for SHBG. Using logistic regression models, we found no significant associations between any of the serum T measures and self-employment in either of the samples. To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study on the relationship between serum T and entrepreneurial behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fornieles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS. A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94 and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57 in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

  20. Bioavailable testosterone is independently associated with Fatty Liver Index in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klisic, Aleksandra; Kavaric, Nebojsa; Jovanovic, Milovan; Soldatovic, Ivan; Gligorovic-Barhanovic, Najdana; Kotur-Stevuljevic, Jelena

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have examined the correlation between hyperandrogenemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in women and showed contradictory results. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between testosterone level and Fatty Liver Index (FLI), as a surrogate marker for NAFLD, in a cohort of postmenopausal women. A total of 150 postmenopausal women were included in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, as well as blood pressure, were obtained. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is assessed by FLI, an algorithm based on body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides and γ-glutamyl transferase, as a simple and accurate predictor of hepatic steatosis. Women were divided into three groups (FLI < 30, n = 80; 30 ≤ FLI < 60, n = 44; FLI ≥ 60, n = 26). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance was calculated. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the best model consisted of 4 parameters (e.g., bioavailable testosterone (β = 0.288, p = 0.001), log HOMA-IR (β = 0.227, p = 0.005), log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β = 0.322, p < 0.001), and retinol-binding protein 4 (β = 0.226, p < 0.001)). Adjusted R(2) for the best model was 0.550, which means that as much as 55.0% of variation in FLI could be explained with this model. Bioavailable testosterone is independently associated with FLI in postmenopausal women.

  1. Analysis of seminal plasma from brown bear (Ursus arctos) during the breeding season: Its relationship with testosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anel-López, L; Ortega-Ferrusola, C; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Álvarez, M; Borragán, S; Chamorro, C; Peña, F J; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2017-01-01

    Seminal plasma (SP) plays an important role in the motility, viability and maintenance of the fertilizing capacity of mammalian spermatozoa. This study is the first on brown bear (Ursus arctos) SP components, and has two main objectives: 1) to define the SP composition in bear ejaculate and 2) to identify variations in SP composition in relation to high and low levels of testosterone in serum during the breeding season. Forty-eight sperm samples from 30 sexually mature male brown bears (Ursus arctos) were obtained by electroejaculation, and their serum testosterone levels were assessed to sort the animals into 2 groups (high and low testosterone levels, threshold 5 ng/dl). The biochemical and protein compositions of the SP samples were assessed, and sperm motility was analyzed. We found that lactate dehydrogenase was significantly higher in the low-serum-testosterone samples, while concentrations of lipase and Mg+ values were significantly higher in the high-serum-testosterone samples. In contrast, sperm motility did not significantly differ (P>0.05) between the testosterone level groups (total motility: 74.42.8% in the high-level group vs. 77.1±4.7% in the low-level group). A reference digital model was constructed since there is no information for this wild species. To do this, all gel images were added in a binary multidimensional image and thirty-three spots were identified as the most-repeated spots. An analysis of these proteins was done by qualitative equivalency (isoelectric point and molecular weight) with published data for a bull. SP protein composition was compared between bears with high and low serum testosterone, and three proteins (binder of sperm and two enzymes not identified in the reference bull) showed significant (Pbears with high or low serum testosterone levels differs only in some properties of their SP, differences in enzyme LDIP2, energy source LACT2, one protein (similar to BSP1) and Mg ion were identified between these two groups

  2. Analysis of seminal plasma from brown bear (Ursus arctos during the breeding season: Its relationship with testosterone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Anel-López

    Full Text Available Seminal plasma (SP plays an important role in the motility, viability and maintenance of the fertilizing capacity of mammalian spermatozoa. This study is the first on brown bear (Ursus arctos SP components, and has two main objectives: 1 to define the SP composition in bear ejaculate and 2 to identify variations in SP composition in relation to high and low levels of testosterone in serum during the breeding season. Forty-eight sperm samples from 30 sexually mature male brown bears (Ursus arctos were obtained by electroejaculation, and their serum testosterone levels were assessed to sort the animals into 2 groups (high and low testosterone levels, threshold 5 ng/dl. The biochemical and protein compositions of the SP samples were assessed, and sperm motility was analyzed. We found that lactate dehydrogenase was significantly higher in the low-serum-testosterone samples, while concentrations of lipase and Mg+ values were significantly higher in the high-serum-testosterone samples. In contrast, sperm motility did not significantly differ (P>0.05 between the testosterone level groups (total motility: 74.42.8% in the high-level group vs. 77.1±4.7% in the low-level group. A reference digital model was constructed since there is no information for this wild species. To do this, all gel images were added in a binary multidimensional image and thirty-three spots were identified as the most-repeated spots. An analysis of these proteins was done by qualitative equivalency (isoelectric point and molecular weight with published data for a bull. SP protein composition was compared between bears with high and low serum testosterone, and three proteins (binder of sperm and two enzymes not identified in the reference bull showed significant (P<0.05 quantitative differences. We conclude that male bears with high or low serum testosterone levels differs only in some properties of their SP, differences in enzyme LDIP2, energy source LACT2, one protein (similar to

  3. Analysis of seminal plasma from brown bear (Ursus arctos) during the breeding season: Its relationship with testosterone levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Ferrusola, C.; Martínez-Rodríguez, C.; Álvarez, M.; Borragán, S.; Chamorro, C.; Peña, F. J.; Anel, L.; de Paz, P.

    2017-01-01

    Seminal plasma (SP) plays an important role in the motility, viability and maintenance of the fertilizing capacity of mammalian spermatozoa. This study is the first on brown bear (Ursus arctos) SP components, and has two main objectives: 1) to define the SP composition in bear ejaculate and 2) to identify variations in SP composition in relation to high and low levels of testosterone in serum during the breeding season. Forty-eight sperm samples from 30 sexually mature male brown bears (Ursus arctos) were obtained by electroejaculation, and their serum testosterone levels were assessed to sort the animals into 2 groups (high and low testosterone levels, threshold 5 ng/dl). The biochemical and protein compositions of the SP samples were assessed, and sperm motility was analyzed. We found that lactate dehydrogenase was significantly higher in the low-serum-testosterone samples, while concentrations of lipase and Mg+ values were significantly higher in the high-serum-testosterone samples. In contrast, sperm motility did not significantly differ (P>0.05) between the testosterone level groups (total motility: 74.42.8% in the high-level group vs. 77.1±4.7% in the low-level group). A reference digital model was constructed since there is no information for this wild species. To do this, all gel images were added in a binary multidimensional image and thirty-three spots were identified as the most-repeated spots. An analysis of these proteins was done by qualitative equivalency (isoelectric point and molecular weight) with published data for a bull. SP protein composition was compared between bears with high and low serum testosterone, and three proteins (binder of sperm and two enzymes not identified in the reference bull) showed significant (P<0.05) quantitative differences. We conclude that male bears with high or low serum testosterone levels differs only in some properties of their SP, differences in enzyme LDIP2, energy source LACT2, one protein (similar to BSP1

  4. Effect of chronic cabergoline treatment and testosterone replacement on metabolism in male patients with prolactinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriemma, Renata S; Galdiero, Mariano; Vitale, Pasquale; Granieri, Luciana; Lo Calzo, Fabio; Salzano, Ciro; Ferreri, Lucia; Pivonello, Claudia; Cariati, Federica; Coppola, Giorgio; de Angelis, Cristina; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia and hypogonadism are reportedly associated with an impaired metabolic profile. The current study aimed at investigating the effects of testosterone replacement and cabergoline (CAB) treatment on the metabolic profile in male hyperprolactinemic patients. Thirty-two men with prolactinomas, including 22 with total testosterone (TT) 8 nmol/l (non-HG, 31%), were entered in the study. In all patients, metabolic parameters were assessed at diagnosis and after 12- and 24-month treatment. Compared to non-HG patients, at baseline the HG patients had higher waist circumference (WC). TT significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI). Twelve-month CAB induced PRL normalization in 84%. HG prevalence significantly decreased (28%) and non-HG prevalence significantly increased (72%). Anthropometric and lipid parameters, fasting insulin (FI), insulin sensitivity index (ISI0), homeostatic model assessment of insulin secretion (HOMA-β) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) significantly improved compared to baseline. TT was the best predictor for FI. Percent change (Δ) of TT significantly correlated with ΔCholesterol, ΔWeight and ΔBMI. Compared to non-HG patients, the HG patients had a higher weight, BMI, WC and HOMA-β. In HG, testosterone replacement was started. After 24 months, PRL normalized in 97%. HG prevalence significantly decreased (6%) and non-HG prevalence significantly increased (94%). Anthropometric and lipid parameters, FI, ISI0, HOMA-β and HOMA-IR significantly improved compared to baseline, with FI, ISI0, HOMA-β and HOMA-IR further ameliorating compared to the 12-month evaluation. Compared to non-HG patients, the HG patients still had a higher weight, BMI and WC. In hyperprolactinemic hypogonal men, proper testosterone replacement induces a significant improvement in the metabolic profile, even though the amelioration in the lipid profile might reflect the direct action of CAB. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The Effect of Testosterone Hormone and Age on Muscle Development of Kacang Doe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Rudiono

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 40 Kacang does with average initial body weight (BW of 10.2 kg were used in factorial experiment (4x2 based on completely randomized design (CRD to determine muscle development. The first factor was the doses of testosterone consisted of four levels, i.e.: control (t0; 0.77 (t1; 1.54 (t2; and 2.31 (t3 mg/kg BW. The second factor was the age of does, i.e.: 7-8 month (u1 and 9-12 month (u2. So that there were eight combinations of treatments, each was replicated five times. Animals in treatment group were injected with testosterone propionate (TP weekly for 90 days. They were fed on ration to gain 50 g/day. Variables observed were the number of fibril in longissimus dorsi and rectus femoris (pc/100m, the weight of longissimus dorsi and rectus femoris muscles, and Loin Eye Area (cm2. There was significant interaction between doses and age on the fibril number of longissimus dorsi and rectus femoris muscle, and also Loin Eye Area. The best result was showed by the combination treatment of t1 and u1. Testosterone propionate injection did not significantly affect the weight of longissimus dorsi and rectus femoris muscles. Meanwhile, age significantly influenced weight of longissimus dorsi muscle only. In conclusion, injection of 0.77 mg/kg BW/day TP to does with 7-8 month of age showed the best result on muscle mass. (Animal Production 9(2: 59-66 (2007 Key Words : Kacang doe, testosterone hormone, chronological age, muscle development

  6. The Effect of Testosterone Hormone and Age on Muscle Development of Kacang Doe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Rudiono

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 40 Kacang does with average initial body weight (BW of 10.2 kg were used in factorial experiment (4x2 based on completely randomized design (CRD to determine muscle development. The first factor was the doses of testosterone consisted of four levels, i.e.: control (t0;  0.77 (t1;  1.54 (t2; and 2.31 (t3 mg/kg BW.  The second factor was the age of does, i.e.: 7-8 month (u1 and  9-12 month (u2.  So that there were eight combinations of treatments, each was replicated five times.  Animals in treatment group were injected with testosterone propionate (TP weekly for 90 days. They were fed on ration to gain 50 g/day. Variables observed were the number of fibril in longissimus dorsi and rectus femoris (pc/100m, the weight of longissimus dorsi and rectus femoris muscles, and Loin Eye Area (cm2. There was significant interaction between doses and age on the fibril number of longissimus dorsi and rectus femoris muscle, and also Loin Eye Area.  The best result was showed by the combination treatment of t1 andu1. Testosterone propionate injection did not significantly affect the weight of longissimus dorsi and rectus femoris muscles. Meanwhile, age significantly influenced weight of longissimus dorsi muscle only. In conclusion, injection of 0.77 mg/kg BW/day TP to does with 7-8 month of age showed the best result on muscle mass. (Animal Production 9(2: 59-66 (2007Key Words : Kacang doe, testosterone hormone, chronological age, muscle development

  7. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in

  8. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterski James

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological responses to aerosolized VEEV in non-human primates. Serial samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone and cytokines prior to and during infection in 8 captive male macaques. Infected animals exhibited a febrile response with few significant changes in cytokine levels. Baseline testosterone levels were positively associated with viremia following exposure and were significantly higher than levels obtained during infection. Such findings suggest that disease-induced androgen suppression is a reasonable area for future study. Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions.

  9. Effects of Testosterone Administration on Strategic Gambling in Poker Play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honk, Jack|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/188602801; Will, Geert-Jan; Terburg, David|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32304087X; Raub, Werner|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07031764X; Eisenegger, Christoph; Buskens, Vincent|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181299313

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone has been associated with economically egoistic and materialistic behaviors, but -defensibly driven by reputable status seeking- also with economically fair, generous and cooperative behaviors. Problematically, social status and economic resources are inextricably intertwined in humans,

  10. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eCelec

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences.

  11. Effect of pineal gland on testosterone release in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrige, J F; Thieblot, P; Boucher, D

    1986-01-01

    We studied the effect of hCG, aminoglutethimide and pineal effluent on the basal testosterone secretion by superfused adult rat interstitial cells. The period used to determine the mean rates of release was 120-240 min. after the start of superfusion i.e. when basal secretory rate was stable. A 2 h administration of hCG (10 mUI/ml) induced a rapid increase in testosterone output while aminoglutethimide (100 microM) decreased it. Basal testosterone release was not modified when interstitial cells were superfused with effluent of a chamber containing 1, 2 or 4 pineal glands. These results suggest that pineal secretory products exert no direct acute action on testosterone biosynthesis by rat interstitial cells.

  12. Factitious increases in serum testosterone concentrations related to phenylbutazone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzan, Bernard; Dumont-Fischer, Dominique; Lahlou, Najiba; Bihan, Hélène; Boissier, Marie-Christophe; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Perret, Gérard-Yves; Cohen, Régis

    2008-04-01

    We report 6 additional observations of a drug/hormone assay interaction between serum testosterone and phenylbutazone intake. This interaction had been described previously only once. We discuss its potential mechanisms, based upon our experimental findings, and its clinical implications.

  13. Genetic polymorphisms related to testosterone metabolism in intellectually gifted boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celec, Peter; Tretinárová, Denisa; Minárik, Gabriel; Ficek, Andrej; Szemes, Tomáš; Lakatošová, Silvia; Schmidtová, Eva; Turňa, Ján; Kádaši, Ľudevít; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Prepubertal testosterone levels are lower in intellectually gifted boys. The aim of this pilot study was to analyze potential genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in control and gifted boys. Intellectually gifted (IQ>130; n = 95) and control (n = 67) boys were genotyped. Polymorphisms of interests were chosen in genes including androgen and estrogen receptors, 5-alpha reductase, aromatase and sex hormone binding globulin. Significant differences between control and gifted boys in genotype distributions were found for ESR2 (rs928554) and SHBG (rs1799941). A significantly lower number of CAG repeats in the AR gene were found in gifted boys. Our results support the role of genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in intellectual giftedness. Increased androgen signaling might explain previous results of lower testosterone levels in intellectually gifted boys and add to the understanding of variability in cognitive abilities.

  14. Bepaling van testosteron, testosteronacetaat, testosteronpropionaat en testosteronbenzoaat in toedieningsplaatsen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijerink, H.; Ruig, de W.G.

    1984-01-01

    Doel van het onderzoek was het ontwikkelen van een analysemethode voor de bepaling van testosteron, testosteronacetaat, testosteronpropionaat en testosteronbenzoaat in toedieningsplaatsen door middel van HPLC-UV en driedimensionale HPLC-HPTLC.

  15. Effect of testosterone on antler growth in yearling male reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ryg

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available 1. The effect of exogenous testosterone on ander growth in yearling male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus was tested. 2. Testosterone (33 mg/kg inhibited antler growth, and in one animal induced cleaning and subsequent casting of the antlers. This animal grew a new set of antlers, which were cleaned at the normal time. 3. During treatment, there was an inverse relationship between peak testosterone levels and antler growth rate. 4. There was no effect of treatment on body weight or food intake. 5. It is concluded that the effects of testosterone on antler growth are qualitatively the same in reindeer as in other deer. However, because high testosterone doses were necessary to produce effects, it is questionable whether this hormone normally is responsible for the cessation of antler growth in reindeer.Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ettårige reinbukker.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: 1. Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ett-årige reinbukker (Rangifer tarandus tarandus ble undersøkt. 2. Testosteron (33 mg/kg hemmet gevirveksten, og hos ett dyr førte behandlingen til at geviret ble feiet og deretter felt. Deretter vokste det ut ett nytt gevir, som ble feiet til vanlig tid. 3. Det var en negativ korrelasjon mellom maksimale testosteronnivåer og gevirvekst under behandlingen. 4. Det var ingen effekt på forinntak eller vektutvikling. 5. Det blir konkludert med at virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst er kvalitativt den samme hos rein som hos andre hjortedyr. Det er likevel tvilsomt om testosteron normalt er ansvarlig for avslutningen av gevirvekst hos rein, fordi store testosterondoser måtte til for å få noen virkning.Testosteronin vaikutus vuodenikåisten urosporojen sarvien kasvuun.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: 1. Tutkimuksessa seurattiin ruiskeena annetun testosteronin vaikutusta vuodenikåisten urosporojen (Rangifer tarandus tarandus sarvien kasvuun. 2. Testosteron! (33 mg/kg hidasti sarvien

  16. Mechanism of testosterone deficiency in the transgenic sickle cell mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, Biljana; Zhang, Yuxi; Chen, Haolin; Brown, Terry R; Zirkin, Barry R; Burnett, Arthur L

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with sickle cell disease (SCD), but its underlying mechanism is not known. We investigated the possible occurrence and mechanism of testosterone deficiency in a mouse model of human SCD. Transgenic sickle male mice (Sickle) exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone and increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels compared with wild type (WT) mice, indicating primary hypogonadism in Sickle mice. LH-, dbcAMP-, and pregnenolone- (but not 22-hydroxycholesterol)- stimulated testosterone production by Leydig cells isolated from the Sickle mouse testis was decreased compared to that of WT mice, implying defective Leydig cell steroidogenesis. There also was reduced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), but not cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in the Sickle mouse testis. These data suggest that the capacity of P450scc to support testosterone production may be limited by the supply of cholesterol to the mitochondria in Sickle mice. The sickle mouse testis exhibited upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox and increased oxidative stress, measured as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and unchanged protein expression of an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1. Mice heterozygous for the human sickle globin (Hemi) exhibited intermediate hypogonadal changes between those of WT and Sickle mice. These results demonstrate that testosterone deficiency occurs in Sickle mice, mimicking the human condition. The defects in the Leydig cell steroidogenic pathway in Sickle mice, mainly due to reduced availability of cholesterol for testosterone production, may be related to NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that targeting testicular oxidative stress or steroidogenesis mechanisms in SCD offers a potential treatment for improving phenotypic changes associated with testosterone deficiency in this disease.

  17. Mechanism of testosterone deficiency in the transgenic sickle cell mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Musicki

    Full Text Available Testosterone deficiency is associated with sickle cell disease (SCD, but its underlying mechanism is not known. We investigated the possible occurrence and mechanism of testosterone deficiency in a mouse model of human SCD. Transgenic sickle male mice (Sickle exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone and increased luteinizing hormone (LH levels compared with wild type (WT mice, indicating primary hypogonadism in Sickle mice. LH-, dbcAMP-, and pregnenolone- (but not 22-hydroxycholesterol- stimulated testosterone production by Leydig cells isolated from the Sickle mouse testis was decreased compared to that of WT mice, implying defective Leydig cell steroidogenesis. There also was reduced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR, but not cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, in the Sickle mouse testis. These data suggest that the capacity of P450scc to support testosterone production may be limited by the supply of cholesterol to the mitochondria in Sickle mice. The sickle mouse testis exhibited upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox and increased oxidative stress, measured as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and unchanged protein expression of an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1. Mice heterozygous for the human sickle globin (Hemi exhibited intermediate hypogonadal changes between those of WT and Sickle mice. These results demonstrate that testosterone deficiency occurs in Sickle mice, mimicking the human condition. The defects in the Leydig cell steroidogenic pathway in Sickle mice, mainly due to reduced availability of cholesterol for testosterone production, may be related to NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that targeting testicular oxidative stress or steroidogenesis mechanisms in SCD offers a potential treatment for improving phenotypic changes associated with testosterone deficiency in this disease.

  18. Supra-physiological dose of testosterone induces pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirompol, Prapawadee; Teekabut, Vassana; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee

    2016-04-01

    Testosterone and androgenic anabolic steroids have been misused for enhancement of physical performance despite many reports on cardiac sudden death. Although physiological level of testosterone provided many regulatory benefits to human health, including the cardiovascular function, supra-physiological levels of the hormone induce hypertrophy of the heart with unclear contractile activation. In this study, dose- and time-dependent effects of high-testosterone treatment on cardiac structure and function were evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into four groups of testosterone treatment for 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg BW for 4, 8, or 12 weeks. Increases in both percentage heart:body weight ratio and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area in representing hypertrophy of the heart were significantly shown in all testosterone-treated groups to the same degree. In 4-week-treated rats, physiological cardiac hypertrophy was apparent with an upregulation of α-MHC without any change in myofilament contractile activation. In contrast, pathological cardiac hypertrophy was observed in 8- and 12-week testosterone-treated groups, as indicated by suppression of myofilament activation and myocardial collagen deposition without transition of MHC isoforms. Only in 12-week testosterone-treated group, eccentric cardiac hypertrophy was demonstrated with unaltered myocardial stiffness, but significant reductions in the phosphorylation signals of ERK1/2 and mTOR. Results of our study suggest that the outcome of testosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is not dose dependent but is rather relied on the factor of exposure to duration in inducing maladaptive responses of the heart. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. Mechanical muscle function and lean body mass during supervised strength training and testosterone therapy in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Thue; Christensen, Louise L; Madsen, Klavs

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study.......To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study....

  20. Testosterone levels in benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearini, Luigi; Costantini, Elisabetta; Zucchi, Alessandro; Mearini, Ettore; Bini, Vittorio; Cottini, Emanuele; Porena, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Although hormones play fundamental roles in prostate growth, their clinical significance is not completely clear. In the present study we assessed whether serum hormone levels are markers of prostate disease. In 128 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy or prostate cancer, testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels were correlated with disease. In patients with prostate cancer, the hormone levels were also correlated with prognostic factors. Predictive values were assessed for prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels only, using multiple logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves. The testosterone concentrations were significantly lower in patients with prostate cancer than in those with benign prostatic hypertrophy and were also significantly lower in patients with advanced-stage disease than in patients with organ-confined disease. Testosterone appears to be an independent predictor of disease and enhances the predictive accuracy for benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer. This study supports experimental findings that prostate cancer is frequently associated with low testosterone concentrations. In the diagnostic workup for prostate cancer, associating prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels may improve the predictive accuracy of prostate disease tests.

  1. Acute Testosterone Deficiency Alters Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Sylvia; Bush, Nikki C; Jensen, Michael D

    2017-08-01

    Although the long-term effects of testosterone on adipose tissue lipid metabolism in men have been defined, the short-term regulation of these effects is not well understood. We examined the effects of acute testosterone withdrawal on subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and cellular mechanisms. This was a prospective, randomized trial. Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Unit. Thirty-two male volunteers ages 18 to 50 participated in these studies. Volunteers were randomized to receive (1) no treatment (control), (2) injections (7.5 mg) of Lupron®, or (3) Lupron and testosterone (L+T) replacement for 49 days, resulting in 4 weeks of sex steroid suppression in the Lupron group. We measured body composition, fat cell size, adipose tissue meal FA and direct free FA storage, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACS), diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities, and CD36 content. Compared with control and L+T groups, acute testosterone deficiency resulted in greater femoral adipose tissue meal FA storage rates, fasting and fed LPL activity, and ACS activity. These results suggest that in men, testosterone plays a tonic role in restraining FA storage in femoral adipose tissue via suppression of LPL and ACS activities. FA storage mechanisms in men appear sensitive to short-term changes in testosterone concentrations.

  2. Inhibitors of testosterone biosynthetic and metabolic activation enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Leping; Su, Zhi-Jian; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2011-12-02

    The Leydig cells of the testis have the capacity to biosynthesize testosterone from cholesterol. Testosterone and its metabolically activated product dihydrotestosterone are critical for the development of male reproductive system and spermatogenesis. At least four steroidogenic enzymes are involved in testosterone biosynthesis: Cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) for the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone within the mitochondria, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B), for the conversion of pregnenolone into progesterone, 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) for the conversion of progesterone into androstenedione and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B3) for the formation of testosterone from androstenedione. Testosterone is also metabolically activated into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone by two isoforms 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1) and 2 (SRD5A2) in Leydig cells and peripheral tissues. Many endocrine disruptors act as antiandrogens via directly inhibiting one or more enzymes for testosterone biosynthesis and metabolic activation. These chemicals include industrial materials (perfluoroalkyl compounds, phthalates, bisphenol A and benzophenone) and pesticides/biocides (methoxychlor, organotins, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and prochloraz) and plant constituents (genistein and gossypol). This paper reviews these endocrine disruptors targeting steroidogenic enzymes.

  3. Correlation between serum testosterone levels and peripartal mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlagschwandtner, M; Husslein, P; Klier, C; Ulm, B

    2001-04-01

    We conducted a prospective study at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Vienna to investigate associations between serum testosterone levels and maternal peripartal mood states. Two hundred and fifty-two pregnant women at term (38 to 40 weeks' gestation) took part in the study. Blood samples for plasma testosterone levels and other biochemicals were obtained prepartum, and on the 1st and 3rd day postpartum. Mood was assessed with the McNair Profile of Mood States (POMS) at term pregnancy and daily from the first day after delivery until discharge from the hospital. The final study population consisted of 193 women. Serum testosterone levels correlated significantly with maternal depression scores, both pre- and post partum (at term r=0.148, p=0.04; 1st day postpartum r=0.156, p=0.03; and 2nd day postpartum r=0.186, p=0.02, respectively). Testosterone concentrations also correlated with anger prepartum (r=0.164, p=0.02) and on the third day after delivery (r=0.188, p=0.02). No significant correlation between testosterone concentration and fatigue and vigor both pre- and post partum, respectively were found. Serum testosterone levels correlate with depression and anger in the first postpartum days.

  4. Inhibitors of Testosterone Biosynthetic and Metabolic Activation Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leping Ye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Leydig cells of the testis have the capacity to biosynthesize testosterone from cholesterol. Testosterone and its metabolically activated product dihydrotestosterone are critical for the development of male reproductive system and spermatogenesis. At least four steroidogenic enzymes are involved in testosterone biosynthesis: Cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1 for the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone within the mitochondria, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B, for the conversion of pregnenolone into progesterone, 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1 for the conversion of progesterone into androstenedione and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B3 for the formation of testosterone from androstenedione. Testosterone is also metabolically activated into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone by two isoforms 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1 and 2 (SRD5A2 in Leydig cells and peripheral tissues. Many endocrine disruptors act as antiandrogens via directly inhibiting one or more enzymes for testosterone biosynthesis and metabolic activation. These chemicals include industrial materials (perfluoroalkyl compounds, phthalates, bisphenol A and benzophenone and pesticides/biocides (methoxychlor, organotins, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and prochloraz and plant constituents (genistein and gossypol. This paper reviews these endocrine disruptors targeting steroidogenic enzymes.

  5. Testosterone replacement therapy in the climacteric: benefits beyond sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Hugo; Casoy, Julio; Valente, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone therapy during menopause has a wide range of benefits that reach beyond the realm of human sexuality. This is a consequence not only of the widespread distribution of androgen receptors in various extragonadal tissues but also of the conversion of androgens to estrogens in the tissues in which aromatase expression is present. For this reason, testosterone therapy during the climacteric years will not only supply androgens but will also stimulate estrogen production in tissues that express aromatase. Furthermore, the bioavailability of androgens to the tissues depends not only on the rate of their production by the postmenopausal ovaries and adrenals but also on the circulating levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Tibolone inhibits SHBG production in the liver, thus increasing free testosterone levels. The association of tibolone with testosterone as a form of androgen replacement therapy during the climacteric is discussed, as is the use of low-dose testosterone, tibolone or the association of both in perimenopausal patients with signs of androgen deficiency. Testosterone treatment has a boosting effect not only on human sexuality but also on the sensation of well-being, a stimulatory effect conferred by the increase in beta-endorphins.

  6. Sexual thoughts: links to testosterone and cortisol in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2012-12-01

    Sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) or cortisol (C) in males of a variety of species, including humans, and just thinking about sex increases T in women. We investigated whether sexual thoughts change T or C in men and whether hormone measures (baseline, post-activity, and changes) correlate with psychological sexual arousal. We used the Imagined Social Situation Exercise to assess how hormones respond to and correlate with sexual thoughts and arousal relative to three control conditions: neutral, stressful, and positive. A total of 99 men provided a baseline saliva sample, imagined and wrote about a sexual or control situation, and provided a second saliva sample 15 min later. Results indicated that, for participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline and post-activity C corresponded to larger increases in self- reported sexual and autonomic arousal. Although sexual thoughts increased sexual arousal, they did not change T or C compared to control conditions. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts are not sufficient to change T or C in men, but C may facilitate sexual arousal by directing energy towards a sexual situation.

  7. Early pregnancy testosterone after ovarian stimulation and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, Stephanie L F; Mukherjee, Gourab; Baker, Valerie L; Westphal, Lynn M; Milki, Amin A; Lathi, Ruth B

    2012-01-01

    To examine early pregnancy (EP) testosterone (T) after ovarian stimulation and its effect on singleton pregnancy outcomes. Prospective cohort study. University-based tertiary care center. Subfertile women who conceived with or without fertility treatment. Ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction, collection of serum total T levels in early pregnancy, and pregnancy follow-up. Rate of preterm delivery, low birth weight (LBW) (stimulation compared with nonstimulated control subjects. In patients undergoing IVF, T levels in EP were linearly correlated with the number of oocytes retrieved. When pregnancy outcomes in women with normal T were compared with women with elevated T (>90th percentile), we did not see an increased risk for preterm delivery, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, LBW infants, or cesarean delivery (odds ratio ratios 1.43, 0.38, 1.39, and 0.85, respectively). Elevations in EP T are associated with ovarian stimulation but do not appear to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Further investigation to determine the etiology of increased maternal and neonatal morbidity among subfertile women is warranted. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Selective estrogen receptor alpha agonist GTx-758 decreases testosterone with reduced side effects of androgen deprivation therapy in men with advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Evan Y; Getzenberg, Robert H; Coss, Christopher C; Gittelman, Marc M; Keane, Thomas; Tutrone, Ronald; Belkoff, Laurence; Given, Robert; Bass, Joel; Chu, Franklin; Gambla, Michael; Gaylis, Franklin; Bailen, James; Hancock, Michael L; Smith, Jordan; Dalton, James T; Steiner, Mitchell S

    2015-02-01

    A need remains for new therapeutic approaches for men with advanced prostate cancer, particularly earlier in the disease course. To assess the ability of an oral selective estrogen receptor α agonist (GTx-758) to lower testosterone concentrations compared with leuprolide while minimizing estrogen deficiency-related side effects of androgen-deprivation therapy. Hormone-naive advanced prostate cancer patients were randomized to oral GTx-758 1000 mg/d, 2000 mg/d, or leuprolide depot. GTx-758 and leuprolide. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving total testosterone ≤ 50 ng/dl by day 60. Secondary end points included serum free testosterone, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), sex hormone-binding globulin, hot flashes, bone turnover markers, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels. Of 159 randomized patients, leuprolide reduced total testosterone to ≤ 50 ng/dl in a greater proportion of patients than GTx-758 by day 60 (43.4%, 63.6%, and 88.2% of subjects receiving GTx-758 1000 mg [pfree testosterone and PSA earlier and to a greater degree than leuprolide. GTx-758 led to fewer hot flashes, decreases in bone turnover markers, and alterations in IGF-1 compared with leuprolide. A higher incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) was seen with GTx-758 (4.1%) compared with leuprolide (0.0%). Although leuprolide reduced total testosterone to ≤ 50 ng/dl in a greater proportion of patients compared with GTx-758, GTx-758 was superior in lowering free testosterone and PSA. GTx-758 reduced estrogen deficiency side effects of hot flashes, bone loss, and insulin resistance but with a higher incidence of VTEs. This paper reports findings that leuprolide lowered total testosterone more than GTx-758 but that GTx-758 lowered free testosterone and prostate-specific antigen more than leuprolide. GTx-758 also reduced estrogen deficiency side effects, albeit at a higher rate of vascular events. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01615120. Copyright

  9. [Patient with testosterone deficit syndrome and dyslipemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola Galarza, Ignacio; López López, Borja; Llorente Abarca, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    erectile dysfunction due to endothelial dysfunction, but also it generally appears years before the cardiovascular event. On the other hand, and in relation to the hypogonadotropic hypogonadism of patients with MS, we urologists may contributein greatly to the detection of patients with MS whose only symptom is erectile dysfunction or diminished libido, but specially we may play a key role in the improvement of these patients, since it is known that testosterone replacement therapy has a major potential to diminish or stop the progression of MS or its cardiovascular effects. Testosterone treatment not only improves the lipid profile, hypertension, insulin resistance, or reduces the abdominal circumference, but also it may help to get a better adherence to diet and exercise, so contributing to change unhealthy lifestyle habits whch are the origin of the problem.

  10. Chronic Testosterone Replacement Exerts Cardioprotection against Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Attenuating Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Testosterone-Deprived Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongkan, Wanpitak; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C.; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2015-01-01

    Background Although testosterone deficiency is associated with increased risks of heart disease, the benefits of testosterone therapy are controversial. Moreover, current understanding on the cardiac effect of testosterone during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) periods is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that testosterone replacement attenuates the impairment of left ventricular (LV) function and heart rate variability (HRV), and reduces the infarct size and arrhythmias caused by I/R injury in orchiectomized (ORX) rats. Methodology ORX or sham-operated male Wistar rats (n = 24) were randomly divided and received either testosterone (2 mg/kg, subcutaneously administered) or the vehicle for 8 weeks. The ejection fraction (EF) and HRV were determined at baseline and the 4th and 8th week. I/R was performed by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 30 minutes, followed by a 120-minute reperfusion. LV pressure, arrhythmia scores, infarct size and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined. Results Prior to I/R, EF and HRV were impaired in the ORX group, but were restored in the testosterone-treated group. During I/R, arrhythmia scores and the infarct size were greater, and cardiac mitochondrial function was impaired, whereas the time to 1st VT/VF onset and the LV end-systolic pressure were decreased in the ORX group when compared to the sham group. Testosterone replacement attenuated the impairment of these parameters in ORX rats during I/R injury, but did not show any benefit or adverse effect in non-ORX rats. Conclusions Testosterone replacement restores cardiac function and autonomic regulation, and exerts cardioprotective effects during the I/R period via mitochondrial protection in ORX rats. PMID:25822979

  11. Adolescent testosterone, muscle mass and glucose metabolism: evidence from the 'Children of 1997' birth cohort in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W W; Tse, M A; Lam, T H; Leung, G M; Schooling, C M

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes rates are high in Asia despite relatively low rates of obesity, which might be related to lower muscle mass. Muscle mass plays an important role in glucose metabolism. Peak muscle mass is obtained in late adolescence. We tested the hypothesis that pubertal testosterone is negatively associated with glucose metabolism mediated by muscle mass. Participants aged 15 years (278 boys and 223 girls) were recruited from the Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' birth cohort in 2012. Multivariable linear regression with multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting was used to examine the adjusted associations of pubertal testosterone with skeletal muscle index, body fat percentage, fasting glucose, insulin and homeostasis model of assessment - insulin resistance. Total testosterone was negatively associated with fasting glucose (-0.008, 95% confidence interval -0.015 to -0.002), insulin (-0.43, 95% confidence interval -0.56 to -0.30) and insulin and homeostasis model of assessment - insulin resistance (-0.09, 95% confidence interval -0.12 to -0.06) adjusted for sex, birth weight, highest parental education, mother's place of birth and physical activity. These associations were attenuated by additional adjustment for skeletal mass index or body fat percentage. Adolescent glucose metabolism may be influenced by testosterone, perhaps partially via skeletal muscle mass. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  12. Effects of testosterone administration on liver structure and function in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Ricardo Aparecido Baptista; Teodoro, Ana Caroline de Souza; Krause Neto, Walter; Silva, Wellington de Assis; de Souza, Romeu Rodrigues; Anaruma, Carlos Alberto; Gama, Eliane Florencio

    2017-06-01

    Aging males have a decrease in testosterone levels, by which the testosterone treatment may influence in a negatively fashion the liver. This study aimed to analyze the effects of aging with or without testosterone administration on the liver components of animals. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: 20 months' group (G20), 24 months' group (G24), group treated with testosterone for 16 weeks (GT). All groups were sacrificed at 24 months except for G20 that was sacrificed at 20 months. Aging and testosterone treatment alters the body weight (BW), liver weight (LW) and relative liver weight. Besides, testosterone increased the mitogen capacity of hepatocytes. Nonetheless, we reinforce the negative effects of testosterone on old animals' liver as chronic hepatic congestion and/or cholestasis. In addition, we observed that testosterone plays an important role on hepatic glycogen stores. Our study showed many implications for the knowledge about the effects of aging with or without testosterone administration on old animals' liver.

  13. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  14. Low-dose testosterone alleviates vascular damage caused by castration in male rats in puberty via modulation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Ge-Li; Wei, Ying; Jiang, Li-Hong; Bao, Peng-Li; Yang, Qing-Yan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of testosterone on glucolipid metabolism and vascular injury in male rats, and examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n=10), high-fat-diet + castration group (n=10), high‑fat‑diet + castration + low dose testosterone group (n=10), and high-fat-diet + castration + high dose testosterone group (n=10). Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to evaluate the morphology of the thoracic aortic tissues. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect biomarkers of the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PI3K, AKT, insulin receptor substrate‑1 (IRS‑1), glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT‑4), nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α in the aortas were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses, respectively. Apoptosis in the aortic tissues was detected using a TUNEL assay. Castration induced apoptosis in the animals fed a high‑fat‑diet, whereas low dose testosterone replacement ameliorated the apoptosis in the aorta. However, the levels of apoptosis was more severe following high‑dose testosterone treatment. Low‑dose testosterone induced upregulation in the levels of IRS‑1, AKT, GLUT‑4 protein, NF‑κB, TNF‑α and PI3K, compared with those in the animals fed a high‑fat diet following castration. A high dose of testosterone resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of IRS‑1, AKT, GLUT‑4, NF‑κB, TNF‑α and PI3K. Compared with the rats in the high‑fat diet + castration group, a low dose of testosterone induced upregulation in the mRNA levels of IRS‑1, AKT and GLUT‑4, and downregulation of the mRNA levels of NF‑κB, TNF‑α and PI3K. A high dose of testosterone resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of IRS‑1, AKT and GLUT‑4, and marked

  15. Effects of strongman training on salivary testosterone levels in a sample of trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigiarelli, Jamie J; Sell, Katie M; Raddock, Jessica M; Taveras, Kurt

    2013-03-01

    Strongman exercises consist of multi-joint movements that incorporate large muscle mass groups and impose a substantial amount of neuromuscular stress. The purpose of this study was to examine salivary testosterone responses from 2 novel strongman training (ST) protocols in comparison with an established hypertrophic (H) protocol reported to acutely elevate testosterone levels. Sixteen men (24 ± 4.4 years, 181.2 ± 6.8 cm, and 95.3 ± 20.3 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects completed 3 protocols designed to ensure equal total volume (sets and repetitions), rest period, and intensity between the groups. Exercise sets were performed to failure. Exercise selection and intensity (3 sets × 10 repetitions at 75% 1 repetition maximum) were chosen as they reflected commonly prescribed resistance exercise protocols recognized to elicit a large acute hormonal response. In each of the protocols, subjects were required to perform 3 sets to muscle failure of 5 different exercises (tire flip, chain drag, farmers walk, keg carry, and atlas stone lift) with a 2-minute rest interval between sets and a 3-minute rest interval between exercises. Saliva samples were collected pre-exercise (PRE), immediate postexercise (PST), and 30 minutes postexercise (30PST). Delta scores indicated a significant difference between PRE and PST testosterone level within each group (p ≤ 0.05), with no significant difference between the groups. Testosterone levels spiked 136% (225.23 ± 148.01 pg·ml(-1)) for the H group, 74% (132.04 ± 98.09 pg·ml(-1)) for the ST group, and 54% (122.10 ± 140.67 pg·ml) for the mixed strongman/hypertrophy (XST) group. A significant difference for testosterone level occurred over time (PST to 30PST) for the H group p ≤ 0.05. In conclusion, ST elicits an acute endocrine response similar to a recognized H protocol when equated for duration and exercise intensity.

  16. Yolk testosterone, postnatal growth and song in male canaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Wendt; Vergauwen, Jonas; Eens, Marcel

    2008-06-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial amounts of maternal yolk androgens, which have been shown to modulate offspring phenotype. The first studies on the functional consequences of maternal yolk androgens have focused on early life stages and their role in sibling competition. However, recent longitudinal studies reported long-lasting effects of maternal yolk androgens on offspring phenotype, mostly concerning traits that are sensitive to androgens. This suggests that maternal yolk androgens could play an important role in sexual selection, since the expression of many male sexual characters is testosterone-dependent. Using male canaries as a model, we examined the consequences of an experimental elevation of yolk testosterone concentrations on early development as well as long-lasting effects particularly on song, which is one of the most important sexual characters in male songbirds. Elevated yolk testosterone concentrations inhibited male growth, possibly in interaction with an existent ectoparasite exposure. Males hatched from testosterone-treated eggs (T-males) did not have enhanced competitive skills, in contrast to previous studies. The elevation of yolk testosterone concentrations delayed song development but did not affect adult song phenotype. This is intriguing, as yolk testosterone possibly induced developmental stress, which is known to reduce song quality. We hypothesize that yolk testosterone has either no direct effect on adult song phenotype, or that positive effects are merged by the negative effects of developmental stress. Finally, females mated with T-males invested more in their clutch indicating that females either assess T-males as more attractive (differential allocation hypothesis) or compensated for lower offspring viability (compensation hypothesis).

  17. Testosterone Antagonizes Doxorubicin-Induced Senescence of Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Paola; Barisione, Chiara; Lazzarini, Edoardo; Garuti, Anna; Bezante, Gian Paolo; Canepa, Marco; Spallarossa, Paolo; Tocchetti, Carlo Gabriele; Bollini, Sveva; Brunelli, Claudio; Ameri, Pietro

    2016-01-08

    Chronic cardiotoxicity is less common in male than in female patients receiving doxorubicin and other anthracyclines at puberty and adolescence. We hypothesized that this sex difference might be secondary to distinct activities of sex hormones on cardiomyocyte senescence, which is thought to be central to the development of long-term anthracycline cardiomyopathy. H9c2 cells and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes were exposed to doxorubicin with or without prior incubation with testosterone or 17β-estradiol, the main androgen and estrogen, respectively. Testosterone, but not 17β-estradiol, counteracted doxorubicin-elicited senescence. Downregulation of telomere binding factor 2, which has been pinpointed previously as being pivotal to doxorubicin-induced senescence, was also prevented by testosterone, as were p53 phosphorylation and accumulation. Pretreatment with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester abrogated the reduction in senescence and the normalization of telomere binding factor 2 levels attained by testosterone. Consistently, testosterone enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT and nitric oxide synthase 3. In H9c2 cells, doxorubicin-stimulated senescence was still observed up to 21 days after treatment and increased further when cells were rechallenged with doxorubicin 14 days after the first exposure to mimic the schedule of anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Remarkably, these effects were also inhibited by testosterone. Testosterone protects cardiomyocytes against senescence caused by doxorubicin at least in part by modulating telomere binding factor 2 via a pathway involving the androgen receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, AKT, and nitric oxide synthase 3. This is a potential mechanism by which pubescent and adolescent boys are less prone to chronic anthracycline cardiotoxicity than girls. © 2016 The Authors. Published on

  18. The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazem Bassil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nazem Bassil1, Saad Alkaade2, John E Morley1,31Division of Geriatric Medicine; 2Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University Health Sciences Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 3GRECC, VA Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USAAbstract: Increased longevity and population aging will increase the number of men with late onset hypogonadism. It is a common condition, but often underdiagnosed and undertreated. The indication of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT treatment requires the presence of low testosterone level, and symptoms and signs of hypogonadism. Although controversy remains regarding indications for testosterone supplementation in aging men due to lack of large-scale, long-term studies assessing the benefits and risks of testosterone-replacement therapy in men, reports indicate that TRT may produce a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism that include improvement in libido and sexual function, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, mood, erythropoiesis, cognition, quality of life and cardiovascular disease. Perhaps the most controversial area is the issue of risk, especially possible stimulation of prostate cancer by testosterone, even though no evidence to support this risk exists. Other possible risks include worsening symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, liver toxicity, hyperviscosity, erythrocytosis, worsening untreated sleep apnea or severe heart failure. Despite this controversy, testosterone supplementation in the United States has increased substantially over the past several years. The physician should discuss with the patient the potential benefits and risks of TRT. The purpose of this review is to discuss what is known and not known regarding the benefits and risks of TRT.Keywords: hypogonadism, testosterone replacement therapy, erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease

  19. Association of Serum Testosterone with Acne Vulgaris in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moksedur Rahman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgens enhance the sebum production and follicular keratosis that plays the key role in the aetiology of acne. Objective: To find out the association between serum testosterone and acne vulgaris. Methods: A case control study was carried out for a period of two years in the outpatient department of Dermatology and Venereology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Female patients having acne vulgaris were selected as case. Healthy control (age and sex matched were enrolled from the community. Results: The study showed that the mean age of the cases was 22.43 with standard deviation 5.2 years and the mean age of the control was 23.23 with standard deviation 5.9 years. The mean duration of disease was 62.6 months ranging from 12 months to 300 months. All the patients had presented with comedones (blackheads and whiteheads followed by 94.3% had papules and 58.6% had pustules. Considering the site of lesion, all the patients had acne in the face. Data analysis revealed that the percentage of serum testosterone above normal was found to be high among the cases with acne (10% whereas below normal level of serum testosterone was found among the control and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001. Conclusion:The study found a significant association between serum testosterone and acne vulgaris. As serum testosterone is associated with acne vulgaris, testosterone levels should be measured in patients presenting with acne vulgaris especially in treatment resistant cases and anti-androgen treatment may be indicated in cases with elevated testosterone level.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bsmmuj.v5i1.10980 BSMMU J 2012; 5(1:1-5 

  20. Intelligence and salivary testosterone levels in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostatníková, Daniela; Celec, Peter; Putz, Zdenĕk; Hodosy, Július; Schmidt, Filip; Laznibatová, Jolana; Kúdela, Matús

    2007-04-08

    Hormones are one of the regulatory systems influencing brain-cognition interactions and subsequent emotions and behavior in humans and animals. Sex hormones have been found to influence brain structures prenatally, so as to prepare targeted neuronal circuits for activation during and after puberty. Testosterone is believed to affect cognition and thinking in humans as well as between-sex differences in cognitive abilities. The aim of this paper was to investigate associations between testosterone and different levels of intelligence in young prepubertal children of both sexes. Two hundred and eighty four prepubertal children of both sexes between 6 and 9 years of age provided saliva samples. Of these, 107 were intellectually gifted (IQ above 130), 100 children of average intelligence--randomly chosen from general population (IQ between 70 and 130), and 77 children mentally challenged (IQ less than 70). Our results have revealed the differences in salivary testosterone levels in boys grouped according to IQ, intellectually gifted and mentally challenged boys having lower salivary testosterone levels than their peers characterized by average intelligence proposing the common biological characteristic of minority IQ groups on both ends of the Gauss curve. In girls, no differences in salivary testosterone levels were found among IQ groups. Our findings are the first that present the relationship between testosterone and the broad range of general IQ in childhood. The boys of average intelligence had significantly higher testosterone levels than both mentally challenged and intellectually gifted boys, with the latter two groups showing no significant difference between each other. The functional implications of the brain-cognition interactions remain to be fully explored with regard to the internal milieu influencing neural substrate.

  1. Clinical Outcomes and Testosterone Levels Following Continuous Androgen Deprivation in Patients with Relapsing or Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: A Post Hoc Analysis of the ICELAND Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombal, Bertrand; Cornel, Erik B; Persad, Raj; Stari, Anny; Gómez Veiga, Francisco; Schulman, Claude

    2017-11-01

    Lower serum testosterone levels correlate with improved cause specific survival and longer time to progression in year 1 of continuous androgen deprivation in men with prostate cancer. ICELAND was a large European study demonstrating the efficacy of leuprorelin (Eligard®) during continuous androgen deprivation. In this post hoc analysis we investigated serum testosterone levels within year 1 of continuous androgen deprivation to determine survival and time to progression. In ICELAND (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00378690) patients with locally advanced or relapsing nonmetastatic prostate cancer and with prostate specific antigen 1 ng/ml or less following 6-month induction with leuprorelin 3-month depot 22.5 mg (plus bicalutamide 50 mg per day for 1 month) were randomized 1:1 to continuous androgen deprivation (361) or intermittent androgen deprivation (340) with leuprorelin for 36 months. Patients receiving continuous androgen deprivation were stratified by minimum, median and maximum testosterone levels during year 1 of therapy into 20 or less, greater than 20 to 50 and greater than 50 ng/dl subgroups. Cause specific survival and time to prostate specific antigen (castrate resistant prostate cancer) progression were analyzed. A total of 90.1%, 83.5% and 74.5% of patients receiving continuous androgen deprivation achieved minimum, median and maximum serum testosterone levels of 20 ng/dl or less, respectively. Cause specific survival rates and time to prostate specific antigen progression did not differ among the testosterone subgroups. In patients receiving continuous androgen deprivation cause specific survival and time to prostate specific antigen progression did not differ according to testosterone levels in year 1 of therapy. This finding may in part be due to the induction period and the effectiveness of leuprorelin in lowering testosterone. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations of cortisol/testosterone and cortisol/sex hormone-binding globulin ratios with atherosclerosis in middle-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Mi; Colangelo, Laura A; Schwartz, Joseph E; Yano, Yuichiro; Siscovick, David S; Seeman, Teresa; Schreiner, Pamela J; Liu, Kiang J; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Greenland, Philip

    2016-05-01

    The cortisol/testosterone (C/T) ratio has been hypothesized to be a better predictor of atherosclerosis than cortisol alone. No study has assessed whether the C/T and C/sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) ratios are associated with atherosclerosis in a U.S. population sample. This substudy included 367 women who had both cortisol from year 15 and testosterone and SHBG at year 16 of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, an ongoing observational cohort in the United States. Of these, intima-media thickness (IMT) was available at follow-up year 20 in 339 (n = 332 with measurement at carotid bulb), and 303 were free of prevalent coronary artery calcium (CAC) at year 15. Area under the curve (AUC) of salivary cortisol was available in 302 individuals. Ratios of AUCs of cortisol to total testosterone, free testosterone, and SHBG were categorized into tertiles. Associations with CAC and IMT were assessed by regression models adjusted for age, race, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, menopause, oral contraceptive use, diabetes, alcohol, and smoking. Only the highest tertile of the AUC/free testosterone ratio was positively associated with carotid bulb IMT (β = 0.088, P = 0.006). This tertile was also positively associated with new onset CAC between year 15 and 25 (OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.18-10.06). Tertiles of cortisol or testosterone alone were not associated with new onset CAC. AUC/Free testosterone ratio may be more associated with atherosclerosis in women than either indicator alone. The ratio may serve as a suitable biomarker of cortisol-linked stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes of plasma concentrations of insulin-like peptide 3 and testosterone, and their association with scrotal circumference during pubertal development in male goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M A; Kawate, N; Fukami, Y; Weerakoon, W W P N; Büllesbach, E E; Inaba, T; Tamada, H

    2017-04-01

    Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) has been used as a testis-specific biomarker for puberty in several species, but the secretory profile of INSL3 during pubertal development in small ruminants is unknown. Here we sought to determine the age-related changes in the plasma concentrations of INSL3 and testosterone and their association with scrotal circumference during pubertal development in five male Shiba goats. Blood samples and scrotal circumference measurement were taken every 2 weeks from week 10 to week 52 of each goat's lifespan. Based on the changes in scrotal circumference, data were grouped into early pubertal (10-22 weeks), late pubertal (22-34 weeks) and post-pubertal (34-52 weeks) categories. The plasma concentrations of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured by enzyme-immunoassays (EIAs), and we used a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) to measure plasma INSL3. The biweekly sampling showed that the plasma INSL3 secretions maintained a moderate increase during and after puberty, whereas the plasma testosterone secretions fluctuated over the same period. The comparison of the three age categories revealed a significant increase (p testosterone concentrations between the early and late pubertal periods, but a significant increase (p testosterone (0.162; p testosterone secretions were fluctuated. The scrotal circumference was more highly correlated with the INSL3 concentrations than with testosterone, implying that INSL3 is superior as a biomarker of testicular total Leydig cell volume. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exogenous testosterone in women enhances and inhibits competitive decision-making depending on victory-defeat experience and trait dominanc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, P.H.; Son, V. van; Welker, K.M.; Prasad, S.; Sanfey, A.G.; Smidts, A.; Roelofs, K.

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment tested the causal impact of testosterone on human competitive decision-making. According to prevailing theories about testosterone's role in social behavior, testosterone should directly boost competitive decisions. But recent correlational evidence suggests that

  5. Metabolic syndrome, circulating RBP4, testosterone, and SHBG predict weight regain at 6 months after weight loss in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Menheere, Paul P C A; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Weight loss helps reduce the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the obese, but weight regain after active weight loss is common. We investigated the changes and predictive role of circulating adipokines and sex hormones for weight regain in men during dietary intervention......, adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), luteinizing hormone, prolactin, progesterone, total and free testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured at baseline, after 8-week low-calorie diet-induced active weight loss, and after a subsequent 26-week ad libitum weight maintenance...... diet, and analyzed together with anthropometrical and physiological parameters. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obese men with MetS at baseline had higher risk to regain weight (odds ratio=2.8, P=0.015). High baseline RBP4, and low total testosterone and low SHBG are predictors of weight loss...

  6. PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonate) in serum is negatively associated with testosterone levels, but not with semen quality, in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Veyrand, Bruno; Antignac, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    . The potential associations with reproductive hormones remain largely unresolved. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A cross-sectional study of 247 men was conducted during 2008-2009. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Healthy men from the general population, median age of 19 years, gave serum and semen...... samples. Serum samples were analysed for total testosterone (T), estradiol (E), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and inhibin-B and 14 PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). Semen samples were analysed according to the WHO criteria......Is exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) associated with testicular function (reproductive hormone levels and semen quality) in healthy men? SUMMARY ANSWER: PFOS levels were significantly negatively associated with serum testosterone (total and calculated free), but not with any other...

  7. Twenty-five milligrams of clomiphene citrate presents positive effect on treatment of male testosterone deficiency - a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Teodósio Da Ros

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Male testosterone deficiency is associated with bad sexual function and quality of life (QoL. The aim of this study was to determine whether a daily dose of 25 mg clomiphene citrate (CC is effective in stimulating the endogenous testosterone production pathway and to address the applicability of this medication as a therapeutic option for symptomatic hypogonadism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study. Men with low sexual desire and testosterone levels (T below 400 ng/dL were selected to receive CC. Blood samples were obtained to determine baseline measurements of serum T, estradiol, LH, lipid profile and fasting plasma glucose. Each patient was treated with a daily dose of 25 mg CC for at least 3 months. Patients were asked if they experienced any side effects related to the use of CC and if they experienced any improvement in their sexual profile. Paired samples T-test was utilized to analyze responses to therapy. RESULTS: Our cohort consisted of 125 men with hypogonadism and low libido. Mean age was 62 years (± 11.1 years. Serum T levels ranged from 309 ng/dL (baseline, mean value to 642 ng/dL (3 months after CC initiation, mean value (p < 0.001. Serum cholesterol levels ranged from 197 to 186 mg/dL (p = 0.003. There were no statistically significant differences when comparing pre and post-treatment HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose and prolactin. All men reported improvements in the post-treatment QoL scores. No serious adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: The CC was effective in stimulating the endogenous production of testosterone. A lower level of total cholesterol was verified after three months of treatment. This medication should be considered as a therapeutic option for some patients with symptomatic male testosterone deficiency.

  8. Testosterone replacement therapy improves the health-related quality of life of men diagnosed with late-onset hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almehmadi, Yousef; Yassin, Aksam A; Nettleship, Joanne E; Saad, Farid

    2016-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) improves the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of men with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH), as studies have shown that sub-physiological testosterone levels have a negative impact on psychological (e.g. mood, vitality, libido and sexual interest) and physical features (e.g. erectile function and physical strength), all of which contribute to a sense of well-being. In all, 261 patients (mean age 58 years) diagnosed with LOH were treated with long-acting intramuscular testosterone undecanoate (TU) for up to 5 years. Health quality indicators including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5), the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale, and the percentage of patients reporting joint and muscle pain were measured at baseline and at each visit. The means were then plotted over time in parallel with mean total testosterone (TT) levels. Both the mean IPSS and AMS scores fell significantly within the first 3 months and the mean IIEF-5 score and TT levels increased within the first 3 months. All four parameters continued to improve over the course of the trial. The percentage of patients reporting both joint and muscle pain decreased during TRT. This prospective, observational and longitudinal analysis shows a clear improvement in both psychological and physical characteristics as physiological testosterone levels are reached and maintained contributing to an improvement in the HRQoL in men with diagnosed LOH.

  9. Testosterone prevents synaptic loss in the perineal motoneuron pool in the spinal cord in male rats exposed to chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akira

    2005-06-01

    Chronic stress is known to induce disorders of reproductive neuroendocrine functions. Motoneurons of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) in male rats play an important role in copulatory behavior. In the present study, it was examined whether chronic stress would alter synaptic organization of the SNB motoneurons and whether androgen would modify the changes under chronic stress. Five male rats were under restraint stress for 5 days per week for 3 weeks, and five males implanted subcutaneously with Silastic capsules containing testosterone were also exposed to stress. Five males served as unstressed controls. After 3 weeks of restraint stress, cholera toxin-horseradish peroxidase (CT-HRP) was injected into the bulbocavernosus muscles and animals were killed 2 days later. The spinal cords containing the SNB were dissected, processed with a modified tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) method for visualization of retrogradely transported CT-HRP, and examined ultrastructurally. Neuronal structures apposing the membranes of 150 SNB motoneurons (total for three groups) were analyzed by measuring the percentage of somatic membranes covered by synaptic contacts. The mean percentage of somatic membranes covered by synapses in males exposed to chronic stress was significantly less than that in controls or stressed males treated with testosterone. Size and number of synaptic contacts per unit length of somatic membranes in males exposed to stress were also significantly less than those in controls or stressed males treated with testosterone. There was no significant difference in any of the parameters between controls and stressed males treated with testosterone. Changes in plasma levels of testosterone showed the same profile as changes in the synaptic contacts. These results suggest that the SNB motoneurons of male rats exposed to chronic stress retain a considerable synaptic plasticity in response to androgen, and that androgen treatment can rescue the SNB system in

  10. Assessment of testicular testosterone production and Leydig cell structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, L L; Zirkin, B R; Chubb, C

    1981-01-01

    Advances in two techniques have made the problem of assessing the acute and/or chronic effects of toxic agents on Leydig cell structure and testosterone synthesis and secretion amenable to study. First, in vitro testicular perfusion has been perfected to a point where it closely resembles in situ testosterone secretion. Second, now it is possible to quantify the proportion of Leydig cell cytoplasm occupied by the cellular organelles which contain steroidogenic enzymes. Herein, we report that inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenic enzymes is reflected by reduced testosterone secretion by in vitro perfused rat and rabbit testes. Moreover, the activity of specific steroidogenic reactions can be monitored by measuring the secretion of reaction substrate(s) and product(s) from in vitro perfused testes. Testosterone secretion by in vitro perfused testes from five species is highly and positively correlated with the volume density of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in Leydig cell cytoplasm. Exploitation of these findings will allow toxicologists to quantitatively assess the effect of toxicants on Leydig cell testosterone biosynthesis and secretion, to identify the specific steroidogenic enzymes affected, to assess whether the membranous environment of the steroidogenic enzymes is compromised, and perhaps even to predict the deleterious effect of a toxic agent on Leydig cell steroidogenic function from a stereological assessment of Leydig cell ultrastructure. PMID:7238445

  11. Sphaeranthus indicus attenuates testosterone induced prostatic hypertrophy in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Alok; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2011-12-01

    The present study reports the attenuating effect of Sphaeranthus indicus extracts (SI) on prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone in albino rats. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of the petroleum ether, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of SI. A biochemical marker, β-sitosterol, was isolated and extracts were characterized utilizing HPTLC. Testosterone (3 mg/kg s.c.) was administered to the rats along with the test extracts and isolated β-sitosterol for a period of 28 days. The weight of the rats, the urine output, serum testosterone concentrations and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were recorded. The prostate/body weight ratio (P/BW) was calculated and histological studies were performed to observe the changes in the histoarchitecture of the prostate. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg/kg p.o.). Sphaeranthus indicus extracts attenuated the increase in the P/BW ratio induced by testosterone in the treated groups. The petroleum ether extract exhibited the best activity, although the ethanol and aqueous extracts also exhibited significant activity. Urine output was also improved significantly, demonstrating the clinical implications of the study. Histological studies, testosterone levels which were measured weekly and PSA levels measured at the end of the study also support claims for the potential use of Sphaeranthus indicus in the treatment of prostatic hyperplasia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Neuroprotective effects of testosterone treatment in men with multiple sclerosis

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    Florian Kurth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. While current medication reduces relapses and inflammatory activity, it has only a modest effect on long-term disability and gray matter atrophy. Here, we have characterized the potential neuroprotective effects of testosterone on cerebral gray matter in a pilot clinical trial. Ten men with relapsing–remitting MS were included in this open-label phase II trial. Subjects were observed without treatment for 6 months, followed by testosterone treatment for another 12 months. Focal gray matter loss as a marker for neurodegeneration was assessed using voxel-based morphometry. During the non-treatment phase, significant voxel-wise gray matter decreases were widespread (p≤ 0.05 corrected. However, during testosterone treatment, gray matter loss was no longer evident. In fact, a significant gray matter increase in the right frontal cortex was observed (p≤ 0.05 corrected. These observations support the potential of testosterone treatment to stall (and perhaps even reverse neurodegeneration associated with MS. Furthermore, they warrant the investigation of testosterone's neuroprotective effects in larger, placebo controlled MS trials as well as in other neurodegenerative diseases. This is the first report of gray matter increase as the result of treatment in MS.

  13. Women's estradiol predicts preference for facial cues of men's testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, James R; Simmons, Zachary L

    2008-01-01

    A growing body of research has shown that women express stronger attraction to more masculine traits when they are tested near ovulation than when tested during other times in the menstrual cycle. Although these effects have been interpreted as increased preferences for markers of elevated testosterone during times in the cycle when conception is most likely, no previous studies have directly demonstrated that women express stronger attraction to higher testosterone men at different times in the cycle. In addition, little research has addressed which hormonal or other physiological mechanisms may regulate temporal shifts in women's attractiveness judgments. In this research, we demonstrate that women with higher estradiol concentrations exhibit stronger preferences for the faces of men with higher testosterone concentrations, and that women's testosterone preference and estradiol curves track one another across days of the cycle. The findings are the first direct demonstration in humans that hormone concentrations in one sex are associated with attraction to cues of hormonal status in the opposite sex. The results support a functional role for estradiol in calibrating women's mating psychology to indices of their current fertility, analogous to similar processes that have been documented in nonhuman species. A strong correlation between estradiol and testosterone preference specifically during the luteal phase further suggests that women's mate preferences may track their fertility between different cycles in addition to being calibrated to the timing of ovulation within individual cycles.

  14. The roles of testosterone and cortisol in friendship formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketay, Sarah; Welker, Keith M; Slatcher, Richard B

    2017-02-01

    Although research has investigated the neuroendocrine correlates of romantic relationships, the neuroendocrine correlates of friendship formation are largely unexplored. In two conditions, participants' salivary testosterone and cortisol were measured before and after a high versus low closeness activity with another same-sex participant. In the high closeness task, participants took turns answering questions that fostered increases in self-disclosure. The low closeness task fostered low levels of self-disclosure. Dyadic multilevel models indicated that lower basal testosterone and decreases in testosterone were associated with increased closeness between recently acquainted strangers. Our results suggest that people high in testosterone felt less close to others and desired less closeness. Further, lower basal cortisol and dynamic cortisol decreases were associated with greater closeness and desired closeness in the high closeness condition. Finally, we found that the partners of those who had lower cortisol desired more closeness. These findings suggest that lower testosterone and cortisol are linked to the facilitation of initial social bonds and that these social bonds may, in turn, be associated with changes in these hormones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypothalamic control of the male neonatal testosterone surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Jenny; Herbison, Allan E.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in brain neuroanatomy and neurophysiology underpin considerable physiological and behavioural differences between females and males. Sexual differentiation of the brain is regulated by testosterone secreted by the testes predominantly during embryogenesis in humans and the neonatal period in rodents. Despite huge advances in understanding how testosterone, and its metabolite oestradiol, sexually differentiate the brain, little is known about the mechanism that actually generates the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge. This review examines the evidence for the role of the hypothalamus, and particularly the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, in generating the neonatal testosterone surge in rodents and primates. Kisspeptin–GPR54 signalling is well established as a potent and critical regulator of GnRH neuron activity during puberty and adulthood, and we argue here for an equally important role at birth in driving the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge in rodents. The presence of a male-specific population of preoptic area kisspeptin neurons that appear transiently in the perinatal period provide one possible source of kisspeptin drive to neonatal GnRH neurons in the mouse. PMID:26833836

  16. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-11-13

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-..beta..-(/sup 75/Se) selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor.

  17. Anaerobic testosterone degradation in Steroidobacter denitrificans - Identification of transformation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrbach, Michael, E-mail: michael.fahrbach@web.d [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Krauss, Martin, E-mail: martin.krauss@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Preiss, Alfred, E-mail: alfred.preiss@item.fraunhofer.d [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM), Nikolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Kohler, Hans-Peter E., E-mail: hkohler@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hollender, Juliane, E-mail: juliane.hollender@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    The transformation of the androgenic steroid testosterone by gammaproteobacterium Steroidobacter denitrificans was studied under denitrifying conditions. For the first time, growth experiments showed that testosterone was mineralized under consumption of nitrate and concurrent biomass production. Experiments with cell suspensions using [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone revealed the intermediate production of several transformation products (TPs). Characterisation of ten TPs was carried out by means of HPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization as well as {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. 3{beta}-hydroxy-5{alpha}-androstan-17-one (trans-androsterone) was formed in the highest amount followed by 5{alpha}-androstan-3,17-dione. The data suggests that several dehydrogenation and hydrogenation processes take place concurrently in ring A and D because no consistent time-resolved pattern of TP peaks was observed and assays using 2 TPs as substrates resulted in essentially the same TPs. The further transformation of testosterone in S. denitrificans seems to be very efficient and fast without formation of detectable intermediates. - Testosterone is completely mineralized by Steroidobacter denitrificans under denitrifying conditions with initial formation of several reduced and oxidized transformation products.

  18. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch; Pedersen, Karen Boje; Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Faber, Jens; Juul, Anders; Kistorp, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers. This study had a cross-sectional case-control design and involved 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers (mean (95%CI) elapsed duration since AAS cessation: 2.5 (1.7; 3.7) years) and 30 healthy control participants. All participants were aged 18-50 years and were involved in recreational strength training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower median (25th -75th percentiles) total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9-17.7) nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6-22.0) nmol/l) (P abusers exhibited plasma total testosterone levels below the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l) whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P abusers compared with former AAS abusers and control participants (P abusers had higher proportions of participants with depressive symptoms ((24.2%) (11.1; 42.2)), erectile dysfunction ((27.3%) (13.3; 45.6)) and decreased libido ((40.1%) (23.2; 57.0)) than the other two groups (trend analyses: P abusers exhibited significantly lower plasma testosterone levels and higher frequencies of symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism than healthy control participants years after AAS cessation. Current AAS abusers exhibited severely decreased AMH and inhibin B indicative of impaired spermatogenesis.

  19. Outcomes of Prostate Biopsy in Men with Hypogonadism Prior or During Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Shoskes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The relationship between Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT and prostate cancer remains controversial. Most TRT studies show no change in prostate specific antigen (PSA but some men do have PSA rise or develop an abnormal digital rectal exam (aDRE. Our objective was to examine the biopsy results of men with symptomatic hypogonadism before or during therapy. Materials and Methods: Data was extracted from our medical record on men with hypogonadism who had a prostate biopsy within the past 4 years done by 3 Urologists with guideline driven practice patterns. Results: 96 men were identified. Mean age at biopsy was 63 (range 40–85 and median PSA was 3.78ng/dL (0.5–662. Of the 61 men not on TRT, median PSA was 4.34 (0.5 to 662 and mean total testosterone 254 (191–341. There were 29 (47.5% prostate cancers found (6 Gleason score 6, 13 Gleason score 7, 10 Gleason score 8 or 9. Of the 35 men on TRT, median PSA was 3.27 (0.5 to 13.7. The %PSA increase ranged from 2 to 251% (mean 93.5%. Mean total testosterone was 383 (146–792. Of the 14 men treated < 2 years, none had cancer. Of the 21 men treated 2 or more years 5 had cancer (2 Gleason score 6, 3 Gleason score 7. Conclusions: Men with hypogonadism and a clinical indication for biopsy often have prostate cancer, many high grade. No men with an initial PSA rise on TRT had cancer. Men on long term TRT should be monitored with PSA and DRE per guidelines.

  20. Serum total PSA and free PSA in breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Prakruti; Pati, Sanghamitra; Mangaraj, Manaswini; Sahu, Pratima Kumari; Mohapatra, Prakash Chandra

    2011-04-01

    Now a days measurement of molecular forms of PSA has gained importance in clinical practice. Several studies have demonstrated the production of PSA in female tissues, such as breast. The present piece of work has been undertaken with an objective to estimate the relative proportion of the molecular forms of PSA in serum along with serum testosterone in benign and malignant breast tumor cases and to analyze their association with the severity of the disease process 34 malignant and 26 benign breast disease cases along with 33 healthy controls of same age group were enrolled in this study for evaluation. Serum testosterone was measured by ELISA, whereas serum total PSA (TPSA) and free PSA (FPSA) were estimated by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. A significant rise of fasting plasma glucose along with prominent dyslipidemia was observed in breast tumor cases. Marked rise in serum testosterone as well as TPSA and FPSA was documented in both benign and malignant breast tumor cases. Serum testosterone revealed a significant positive association with both TPSA and FPSA pointing towards an etiological association between them. However, surgical removal of tumor mass resulted in a marked decline of presurgical value of both TPSA and FPSA with a non-significant fall in serum testosterone revealing tumor tissue as the source of FPSA and TPSA. Thus, estimation of PSA provides prognostic information that may assist in future treatment.

  1. Long-Term Effects of a Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing High Protein or High Carbohydrate Weight Loss Diets on Testosterone, SHBG, Erectile and Urinary Function in Overweight and Obese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa J; Brinkworth, Grant D; Martin, Sean; Wycherley, Thomas P; Stuckey, Bronwyn; Lutze, Janna; Clifton, Peter M; Wittert, Gary A; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with reduced testosterone and worsened erectile and sexual function in men. Weight loss improves these outcomes. High protein diets potentially offer anthropometric and metabolic benefits, but their effects on reproductive and sexual outcomes is not known. To examine the long-term effects of weight loss with a higher protein or carbohydrate diet on testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, erectile dysfunction, lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire in overweight and obese men. One-hundred and eighteen overweight or obese men (body mass index 27-40 kg/m2, age 20-65 years) were randomly assigned to an energy restricted higher protein low fat (35% protein, 40% carbohydrate, 25% fat; n = 57) or higher carbohydrate low fat diet (17% protein, 58% carbohydrate, 25% fat, n = 61) diet for 52 weeks (12 weeks weight loss, 40 weeks weight maintenance). Primary outcomes were serum total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and calculated free testosterone. Secondary outcomes were erectile function as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) (total score and erectile function domain), lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire. Total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and free testosterone increased (Ptestosterone (P = 0.037) and sex hormone binding globulin (Ptestosterone from week 12-52 (P = 0.002). Increases in free testosterone occurred from week 12-52 (p = 0.002). The IIEF erectile functon domain, lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire did not change in either group (P≥0.126). In overweight and obese men, weight loss with both high protein and carbohydrate diets improve testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and overall sexual function. Anzctr.org.au ACTRN12606000002583.

  2. BLOOD SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVEL AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE AND SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALO BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SAJJAD, S. ALI, N. ULLAH1, M. ANWAR1, S. AKHTER AND S. M. H. ANDRABI1

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the blood serum testosterone level and its relationship with scrotal circumference and physical characteristics of semen in Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Semen samples were collected weekly from three buffalo bulls of 14 years age for 12 weeks and were evaluated for physical characteristics i.e. ejaculatory volume, sperm motility, sperm concentration, pH and sperm abnormalities. Jugular blood samples were collected from each bull at weekly intervals and analyzed for serum testosterorse concentrations. Mean (+ SE blood serum testosterone level (ng/ml, scrotal circumference (cm, semen volume (ml, progressive sperm motility (%, sperm concentration (106/µl, semen pH and total sperm abnormalities (% observed were 0.69 ± 0.12, 34.6 ± 0.9, 3.59 ± 0.41, 51.53 ± 2.23, 0.99 ± 0.07, 7.01 ± 0.08 and 11.67 ± 0.90, respectively. Positive correlations between testosterone level and scrotal circumference (r=0.414 and ejaculatory volume (r=0.348 were observed. However, no correlation of testosterone level with sperm motility (r=0.145, sperm concentration (r=0.264, semen pH (r=-0.208 and total sperm abnormalities (r=-0.242 was found. Similary, ejaculatory volume did not show any correlation with sperm motility percentage (r=0.115, sperm concentration (r=0.045, semen pH (r=-0.015 and total sperm abnormalities (r=-0.135. Sperm motility percentage had positive correlation with sperm concentration (r=0.347 and negative correlation with semen pH (r=-0.670. Sperm concentration was negatively correlated with semen pH (r=-0.501. It was concluded that in 14 years old buffalo bulls the level of serum testosterone and scrotal circumference and ejaculatory volume were positively correlated. The other semen quality parameters including sperm motility, sperm concentration, semen pH and sperm abnormalities were not related with serum testosterone level.

  3. Effect of 12 months of testosterone replacement therapy on metabolic syndrome components in hypogonadal men: data from the Testim Registry in the US (TRiUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushner Harvey

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that there may be a bidirectional, physiological link between hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome (MetS, and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT has been shown to improve some symptoms of MetS in small patient populations. We examined the effect of 12 months of TRT on MetS components in a large cohort of hypogonadal men. Methods Data were obtained from TRiUS (Testim® Registry in the United States, a 12-month, multicenter, prospective observational registry (N = 849 of hypogonadal men prescribed Testim 1% testosterone gel (5-10 g/day. Data analyzed included age, total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, and MetS components: waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, plasma triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. Results Of evaluable patients (581/849 at baseline, 37% were MetS+ (n = 213 and 63% were MetS- (n = 368. MetS+ patients had significantly lower TT (p Conclusion Hypogonadal MetS+ patients were more likely than their MetS- counterparts to have lower baseline TT levels and present with more comorbid conditions. MetS+ patients and those in the lowest TT quartile showed improvement in some metabolic syndrome components after 12 months of TRT. While it is currently unclear if further cardiometabolic benefit can be seen with longer TRT use in this population, testing for low testosterone may be warranted in MetS+ men with hypogonadal symptoms.

  4. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  5. Gender differences of oligomers and total adiponectin during puberty: a cross-sectional study of 859 Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian Kjaer; Frystyk, Jan; Wolthers, Ole D

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Pubertal stages have been shown to influence total adiponectin (ADPN) levels. Furthermore, testosterone has been shown to alter the isomer distribution of ADPN. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate whether pubertal stages and testosterone levels influenced total serum ADPN...... in the ratio of high-molecular-weight (HMW) isomers to total ADPN (HMW ratio) when comparing prepubertal and postpubertal males. Also, postpubertal males had lower HMW ratios than corresponding females (P = 0.038). Finally, a negative correlation was seen between HMW ratio and testosterone (r = -0.430, P = 0.......007). CONCLUSION: Serum total ADPN levels decrease through puberty in males. Also, a reduced HMW ratio is seen in males at the onset of puberty. We speculate that the suppression of HMW ADPN may be caused by testosterone. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May...

  6. Shaped and Balanced by Hormones : cortisol, testosterone and the psychoneuroendocrinology of human socio-emotional behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormones testosterone and cortisol can be considered hormones for environmental challenges; they are involved in adaptive neural and behavioral responses towards emotional stimuli. A key challenge of human psychoneuroendocrinology is to unravel the neural mechanisms by which testosterone

  7. Strength training and testosterone treatment have opposing effects on migration inhibitor factor levels in ageing men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Christensen, L. L.; Kvorning, T.

    2013-01-01

    Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men......Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men...

  8. Testosterone Stimulates Duox1 Activity through GPRC6A in Skin Keratinocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunbi; Choi, Hyun; Kim, Borim; Kim, Minsun; Park, Kkot-Nara; Bae, Il-Hong; Sung, Young Kwan; Lee, Tae Ryong; Shin, Dong Wook; Bae, Yun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone is an endocrine hormone with functions in reproductive organs, anabolic events, and skin homeostasis. We report here that GPRC6A serves as a sensor and mediator of the rapid action of testosterone in epidermal keratinocytes. The silencing of GPRC6A inhibited testosterone-induced intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) mobilization and H2O2 generation. These results indicated that a testosterone-GPRC6A complex is required for activation of Gq protein, IP3 generation, and [Ca2+]i mobilization, leading to Duox1 activation. H2O2 generation by testosterone stimulated the apoptosis of keratinocytes through the activation of caspase-3. The application of testosterone into three-dimensional skin equivalents increased the apoptosis of keratinocytes between the granular and stratified corneum layers. These results support an understanding of the molecular mechanism of testosterone-dependent apoptosis in which testosterone stimulates H2O2 generation through the activation of Duox1. PMID:25164816

  9. Phthalate-Induced Pathology in the Foetal Testis Involves More Than Decreased Testosterone Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foetal exposure to phthalates is known to adversely impact male reproductive development and function. Developmental anomalies of reproductive tract have been attributed to impaired testosterone synthesis. However, species differences in the ability to produce testosterone have...

  10. Testosterone shifts the balance between sensitivity for punishment and reward in healthy young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honk, E.J. van; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Hermans, E.J.; Putman, P.L.J.; Tuiten, A.; Koppeschaar, H.P.F.

    2004-01-01

    Animal research has demonstrated reductions in punishment sensitivity and enhanced reward dependency after testosterone administration. In humans, elevated levels of testosterone have been associated with violent and antisocial behavior. Interestingly, extreme forms of violent and antisocial

  11. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. (Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  12. Relationship between body mass index and serum testosterone concentration in patients receiving luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy for prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Tim M.; van Moorselaar, R. Jeroen A.; Meuleman, Eric J. H.; ter Haar, Ronald W.; Bui, Hong N.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Vis, André N.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone concentrations in men receiving luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist therapy for prostate cancer. A total of 66 white men were included in the present study. All subjects had received LHRH agonist

  13. Testosterone Induces Molecular Changes in Dopamine Signaling Pathway Molecules in the Adolescent Male Rat Nigrostriatal Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Purves-Tyson, Tertia D.; Owens, Samantha J.; Double, Kay L.; Desai, Reena; Handelsman, David J.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indi...

  14. Testosterone and nonverbal intelligence in right-handed men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, U

    1990-10-01

    The relationship between serum testosterone level and nonverbal intelligence was studied in right-handed young adults. Hand preference was assessed by the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Serum testosterone level was determined using tritium-marked-radioimmunoassay. Only in men, nonverbal intelligence (Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test) was found to be significantly and directly related to serum testosterone levels. It was concluded that the serum testosterone in young adults is associated with nonverbal intelligence exhibiting fundamental differences between men and women.

  15. Interaction between testosterone and growth hormone on whole-body protein anabolism occurs in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birzniece, Vita; Meinhardt, Udo J; Umpleby, Margot A; Handelsman, David J; Ho, Ken K Y

    2011-04-01

    GH and testosterone both exert protein-anabolic effects and may act synergistically. Liver and muscle are major sites of protein metabolism. Our objective was to determine whether the site of GH and testosterone interaction on protein metabolism is primarily hepatic or extrahepatic. In this open-label randomized crossover study, the impact on whole-body protein metabolism of oral (solely hepatic testosterone exposure) and transdermal (systemic testosterone exposure) testosterone replacement in the presence or absence of GH was compared. Eleven hypopituitary men with GH and testosterone deficiency were randomized to 2-wk treatments with transdermal testosterone (10 mg) or oral testosterone (40 mg), with or without GH replacement (0.6 mg/d). The dose of testosterone administered orally achieves physiological portal testosterone concentrations without spillover into the systemic circulation. Whole-body leucine turnover was measured, from which leucine rate of appearance (LRa), an index of protein breakdown, and leucine oxidation (Lox), a measure of irreversible protein loss, were estimated at the end of each treatment. In the absence of GH, neither transdermal nor oral testosterone affected LRa or Lox. GH therapy significantly increased LRa, an effect equally reduced by transdermal and oral testosterone administration. GH replacement alone did not significantly change Lox, whereas addition of testosterone treatment reduced Lox, with the effect not significantly different between transdermal and oral testosterone. In the doses used, testosterone stimulates protein anabolism by reducing protein breakdown and oxidation only in the presence of GH. Because the net effect on protein metabolism during GH therapy is not different between systemic and solely hepatic testosterone administration, we conclude that the liver is the primary site of this hormonal interaction.

  16. Association between plasma testosterone and work-related neck and shoulder disorders among female workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaergaard, A; Hansen, Åse Marie; Rasmussen, K

    2000-01-01

    The aims were to study the association between anabolic hormone testosterone in plasma and the presence of musculoskeletal disorders among female workers and to study the association between changes in testosterone and changes in musculoskeletal complaints.......The aims were to study the association between anabolic hormone testosterone in plasma and the presence of musculoskeletal disorders among female workers and to study the association between changes in testosterone and changes in musculoskeletal complaints....

  17. The effect of baseline testosterone on the efficacy of degarelix and leuprolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damber, Jan-Erik; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Iversen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of baseline testosterone on testosterone control and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) suppression using data from a phase III trial (CS21) comparing degarelix and leuprolide in prostate cancer.......To investigate the effects of baseline testosterone on testosterone control and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) suppression using data from a phase III trial (CS21) comparing degarelix and leuprolide in prostate cancer....

  18. Radioimmunoassay of ''free thyroxin'' in dried blood spots on filter paper - preliminary observations on the effective differentiation of subjects with congenital hypothyroidism from those with subnormal thyroxin-binding globulin and normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuta, H.; Miyai, K.; Ichihara, K.; Amino, N.; Harada, T.; Nose, O.; Tanizawa, O.

    1982-03-01

    In this sensitive, simple method for measuring ''free thyroxin'' (FT/sub 4/) in eluates of dried blood spots on filter paper by use of a radioimmunoassay kit (Amerlex Free T/sub 4/ RIA), the measurable range of FT/sub 4/ is 1.8 to 57 ng/L (equivalent to the concentration in serum), or 7 to 237 fg/tube. The mean coefficients of variation for within assay-within spots, within assay-between spots, and between assays were 5.3%, 5.0%, and 6.2%, respectively. FT/sub 4/ in blood spotted on filter paper is stable for at least a month when dried and kept at either -20/sup 0/C, 4/sup 0/C, room temperature (about 25/sup 0/C), or 37/sup 0/C. The results for FT/sub 4/ in dried blood spots correlated closely with the free-T/sub 4/ concentration in serum (r = 0.99). The method can be used to differentiate cases of primary and secondary hypothyroidism from normal subjects and those with subnormal thyroxin-binding globulin. This method may be useful in screening for congenital hypothyroidism, because sample-retesting is not necessary.

  19. Effect of exercise training program in post-CRET post-CABG patients with normal and subnormal ejection fraction (EF > 50% or < 50%) after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Basit; Qureshi, Masood A; Zohra, Raheela Rahmat

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of exercise training program in post-Cardiac Rehabilitation Exercise Training (CRET), post-CABG patients with normal & subnormal ejection fraction (EF >50% or age: 57-65 years) who after CABG surgery, were referred to the department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation between 2008 and 2010 at Liaquat National Hospital & Medical College, Karachi. The patients undertook exercise training program (using treadmill, Recumbent Bike), keeping in view the Borg's scale of perceived exertion, for 6 weeks. Heart Rate (HR) and Blood Pressure (BP) were measured & compared in post CABG Patients with EF (>50% or exercise training program. Statistical formulae were applied to analyze the improvement in cardiac functional indicators. Exercise significantly restores the values of HR and BP (systolic) in post CABGT Patients with EF (>50% or exercise training program. After CABG all patients showed similar improvement in cardiac function with exercise training program. The exercise training program is beneficial for improving exercise capacity linked with recovery cardiac function in Pakistani CABG patients.

  20. Growth hormone and testosterone: anabolic effects on muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Randall J

    2011-01-01

    The loss of skeletal muscle mass that occurs with aging, chronic disease or acute injury is clinically important in the health of humans. The mechanisms relating to the synthesis and breakdown of skeletal muscle are now being intensely investigated. Current studies and possible mechanisms for skeletal muscle protein synthesis and degradation will be reviewed with a specific focus on growth hormone and testosterone. Investigation of the mechanisms of action of growth hormone and testosterone in skeletal muscle will likely lead to new therapies to prevent skeletal muscle loss and new awareness of the importance of skeletal muscle in health and disease. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Association of serum testosterone with lipid abnormalities in patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandima Madhu Wickramatilake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Low testosterone levels are associated with an atherogenic lipid profile and may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Aims: Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum total testosterone (TT levels and lipid profile in angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease (CAD in men. Settings and Design: This is a case-control hospital-based study at Teaching Hospital, Karapitiya, Galle, Sri Lanka. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and six men, 103 with angiographically proven CAD and 103 healthy men as a control group were studied. The serum levels of TT and lipids were assessed. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using Minitab software (version 15 for Windows. Results: The mean concentrations of lipid parameters of patients and controls were as follows: Serum total cholesterol (TCh, 5.9 ± 2.8 vs. 5.2 ± 1.6 mmol/l (P = 0.022, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch, 3.9 ± 1.2 vs. 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/l (P = 0.001, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, 1.1 ± 0.5 vs. 1.4 ± 0.6 mmol/l (P = 0.001, and TGs, 2.0 ± 1.0 vs. 1.5 ± 0.8 mmol/l (P = 0.001; lipid levels were significantly different between the two groups. The mean levels of TT in the patients and controls were 11.4 ± 2.7 vs. 18.1 ± 7.2 nmol/l (P = 0.001, significantly different. Among CAD patients, a significant positive association was found between testosterone and HDL-Ch (r = 0.623, P = 0.001, whereas a negative association was found with LDL-Ch (r = -0.579, P = 0.001. Conclusions: Low levels of TT in men with CAD that appear together with an atherogenic lipid milieu may be involved in the pathogenesis of CAD. The observed association between testosterone and HDL-Ch suggests a protective effect of the hormone.

  2. The effect of sex and time of day on testosterone concentrations in equine saliva and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Munk; Jensen, R.B.; Palme, R.

    2016-01-01

    In terms of exercise, testosterone is important for the growth and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Sampling saliva could be a non-invasive alternative to blood sampling for the quantification of testosterone levels in horses. The objective of this study was to compare testosterone concentrat...

  3. Testosterone deficiency in dialysis patients: Differences according to the dialysis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secundino Cigarrán

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Circulating testosterone levels in men on dialysis were independently associated with HD technique. It can be concluded that a new factor—namely the dialysis technique—may be associated with falling testosterone levels and the associated loss of muscle mass and inflammation. Further studies are needed to establish whether the dialysis technique itself triggers testosterone elimination.

  4. Marriage and motherhood are associated with lower testosterone concentrations in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S; Tran, Van; Thurston, Sally; Jasienska, Grazyna; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Ellison, Peter T; Thune, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone has been hypothesized to modulate the trade-off between mating and parenting effort in males. Indeed, evidence from humans and other pair-bonded species suggests that fathers and men in committed relationships have lower testosterone levels than single men and men with no children. To date, only one published study has examined testosterone in relation to motherhood, finding that mothers of young children have lower testosterone than non-mothers. Here, we examine this question in 195 reproductive-age Norwegian women. Testosterone was measured in morning serum samples taken during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and marital and maternal status were assessed by questionnaire. Mothers of young children (age ≤3) had 14% lower testosterone than childless women and 19% lower testosterone than women who only had children over age 3. Among mothers, age of the youngest child strongly predicted testosterone levels. There was a trend towards lower testosterone among married women compared to unmarried women. All analyses controlled for body mass index (BMI), age, type of testosterone assay, and time of serum sample collection. This is the first study to look at testosterone concentrations in relation to marriage and motherhood in Western women, and it suggests that testosterone may differ with marital and maternal status in women, providing further corroboration of previous findings in both sexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Testosterone in human studies: Modest associations between plasma and salivary measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, A.E.; Bosker, F.J.; Giltay, E.J.; Kloet, C.S. de; Roelofs, K.; Pelt, J. van; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Schoevers, R.A.

    2018-01-01

    Testosterone is involved in many processes like aggression and mood disorders. As it may easily diffuse from blood into saliva, salivary testosterone is thought to reflect plasma free testosterone level. If so, it would provide a welcome noninvasive and less stressful alternative to blood sampling.

  6. Testosterone replacement does not normalize carcass composition in chronically decerebrate male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth B S; Kelso,