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Sample records for subnormal testosterone concentrations

  1. Hypogonadism and subnormal total testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogbera, O.A.; Sonny, C.; Olufemi, F.; Wale, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Gbagada General Hospital, Gbagada Lagos, Nigeria, from December 2009 to May 2010. Methodology: A total of 203 men with type 2 DM aged 30-86 years were evaluated for TDS by a combination of positive ADAM (androgen deficiency in the ageing male) scores and subnormal total testosterone levels. Mild testosterone deficiency referred to total testosterone (TT) levels of 8-12 nmol/L with symptoms of hypogonadism and severe testosterone deficiency referred to TT levels < 8 nmol/L with or without hypogonadal symptoms. Results: Mild and severe TDS were present in 18.3% and 17% respectively of the study subjects. Commonly occurring clinical parameters of the TDS were erectile dysfunction and loss of libido, which were documented in 63% and 60% respectively in the study subjects. The majority of clinical features of the TDS were comparable in men with and without the TDS. Conclusion: About a third of men with type 2 DM had the TDS. The majority of the symptoms of hypogonadism are largely non-specific and their occurrence is comparable in men with and without low testosterone levels; thus, underscoring the need to have testosterone levels determined in men presenting with such symptoms. (author)

  2. Effect of testosterone on markers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and lipid metabolism in muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Stine J; Christensen, Louise L; Kristensen, Jonas M

    2014-01-01

    therapy on regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and markers of OxPhos and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone levels. METHODS: Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after treatment with either testosterone gel (n=12) or placebo (n=13......) for 6 months. Insulin sensitivity and substrate oxidation were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and indirect calorimetry. Muscle mRNA levels and protein abundance and phosphorylation of enzymes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism were examined by quantitative......: The beneficial effect of testosterone treatment on lipid oxidation is not explained by increased abundance or phosphorylation-dependent activity of enzymes known to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis or markers of OxPhos and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable...

  3. Progressive Improvement of T-Scores in Men with Osteoporosis and Subnormal Serum Testosterone Levels upon Treatment with Testosterone over Six Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haider, A.; Meergans, U.; Traish, A.; Saad, F.; Doros, G.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Gooren, L.

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency leads to bone loss and testosterone treatment has a beneficial effect. This study investigated the effects of normalizing serum testosterone on bone mineral density in 45 men with osteoporosis, diagnosed with testosterone deficiency (serum testosterone levels <12.1 nmol/L,

  4. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone ... chloroquine are probably mediated via the generation of free radicals. ... Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Groups.

  5. Decline of plasma 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels upon testosterone administration to elderly men with subnormal plasma testosterone and high DHT levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, L J; Saad, F; Haide, A; Yassin, A

    2008-10-01

    The study was performed to measure the impact of testosterone (T) administration on circulating levels of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Group 1 (32 men; mean age 61 years; mean T 6.9 +/- 1.9 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 15 months with long-acting T undecanoate. Group 2 (23 men, mean age 60 years, mean T 7.6 +/- 2.0 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 9 months with T gel. Plasma T and DHT were measured before and after 9 months T administration. In the men treated with T undecanoate plasma T and DHT were also measured after 12 and 15 months. Before T administration, plasma DHT ranged from 0.39 to 1.76 nmol l(-1) (0.30-1.90 nmol l(-1)). Mean DHT declined upon T administration from 0.95 +/- 0.50 to 0.55 +/- 0.30 nmol l(-1) (P DHT > 0.60 nmol l(-1) had fallen from 1.29 +/- 0.50 to 0.70 +/- 0.60 nmol l(-1) (P DHT levels declined upon T administration when they were in the higher range of normal (>0.6 nmol l(-1)), with a profound shift of DHT/T ratios presumed to be an indicator of a reduced 5alpha-reductase activity. Below plasma DHT levels of 0.6 nmol l(-1), responses of plasma DHT to T administration varied.

  6. Genetic determinants of serum testosterone concentrations in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871 and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620 to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as <300 ng/dl. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG locus (17p13-p12 were identified as independently associated with serum testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10(-41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10(-22. Subjects with ≥ 3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10(-16. The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (p<0.01. Genetic variants in the SHBG locus and on the X chromosome are associated with a substantial variation in testosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation.

  7. Serum testosterone concentrations in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C

    1987-01-01

    Median serum testosterone concentration of men with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 216) did not differ significantly from normal controls (n = 51), but serum testosterone concentrations varied by a factor 43.9 in patients compared to 3.2 in controls (P less than .001). Nineteen percent of the patients...... had serum testosterone concentrations above 30 nmol/L. Serum concentrations of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than .001) raised, and serum concentrations of calculated nonprotein-bound and non-SHBG-bound testosterone were significantly (P less than .001) decreased...... in patients compared to normal control values. A number of background variables were analyzed with reference to serum testosterone concentrations by means of multiple regression techniques after having divided the patients into groups (A, B, C) with decreasing liver function by a modification of the Child...

  8. The effect of sex and time of day on testosterone concentrations in equine saliva and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Munk; Jensen, R.B.; Palme, R.

    2016-01-01

    In terms of exercise, testosterone is important for the growth and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Sampling saliva could be a non-invasive alternative to blood sampling for the quantification of testosterone levels in horses. The objective of this study was to compare testosterone concentrat......In terms of exercise, testosterone is important for the growth and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Sampling saliva could be a non-invasive alternative to blood sampling for the quantification of testosterone levels in horses. The objective of this study was to compare testosterone......:00-08:00), at midday (11:00-13:00) and in the evening (17:00-19:00). The results demonstrated a weak correlation between saliva and serum testosterone concentrations (rs=0.25, P=0.04). Stallions had higher serum testosterone concentrations than mares and geldings (Peffect of sex...

  9. Vitamin D supplementation and testosterone concentrations in male human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Oosterwerff, Mirjam; Schroten, Nicolas F.; Eekhoff, Elisabeth M. W.; Chel, Victor G. M.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Lips, Paul

    ObjectiveA possible association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and testosterone levels has been reported; however, contradictory results have emerged. DesignTo investigate a causal link between vitamin D and testosterone status, we studied the effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum

  10. Correlation Between Personality Traits and Testosterone Concentrations in Healthy Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Bayón, Camila; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    High plasma testosterone levels have been associated with aggression, sexual behaviour and social status. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and personality variables in healthy participants. Fifty-four participants were randomly enrolled into this study. Basal plasma testosterone levels were measured between 8:30 am and 10 am. After 24 hours of blood drawing, each subject completed personality questionnaires. Positive correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and anti-social personality traits in both genders was observed (r = 0.336 and P traits (r = 0. 376, P trait (r = 0. 544, P trait (r = 0. 485, P trait (r = 0.632, P traits, substance abuse and hypomania. Women with higher basal testosterone levels showed higher scores on personality self-direction traits.

  11. Effect of testosterone administration on lead induced zincprotoporphyrin in blood concentration in castrated male rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo, A.A.E.; Zielhuis, R.L.

    1981-11-01

    The influence of testosterone propionate on the concentration of zincprotoporphyrin in blood (ZPP) of castrated lead treated rabbits was investigated. The experimental design allowed comparison of the relative ZPP increase (RZI) in testosterone treated and non testosterone treated rabbits. Testosterone was administered by subcutaneous injection of 3 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 consecutive days directly prior to the lead exposure, which was performed by subcutaneous injection of 0.50 mg lead acetate/kg body weight, three times a week for 7 weeks. No effect was found on the hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) and on the increase of body weight during the experiment. But the increase of RZI in the non testosterone treated rabbits was significantly steeper and earlier than in the testosterone treated group. The possible consequences of the findings had been further commented on.

  12. Prediabetes Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Testosterone Deficiency, Independent of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chen-Hsun; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Liao, Wan-Chung; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Liu, Shih-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective The association between type 2 diabetes and low testosterone has been well recognized. However, testosterone levels in men with prediabetes have been rarely reported. We aimed to investigate whether prediabetes was associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency. Methods This study included 1,306 men whose sex hormones was measured during a medical examination. Serum total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured; free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations were calculated by Vermeulen’s formula. Prediabetes was defined by impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired postprandial glucose (IPG), or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 5.7%-6.4%. Logistic regression was performed to obtain the odds ratios (OR) for subnormal total testosterone (prediabetic and diabetic men compared with normoglycemic individuals, while adjusting for age, BMI, waist circumference, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Results Normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes were diagnosed in 577 (44.2%), 543 (41.6%), and 186 (14.2%) men, respectively. Prediabetes was associated with an increased risk of subnormal total testosterone compared to normoglycemic individuals (age-adjusted OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.38-2.54). The risk remained significant in all multivariate analyses. After adjusting for MetS, the OR in prediabetic men equals that of diabetic patients (1.49 versus 1.50). IFG, IPG, and HbA1c 5.7%-6.4% were all associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency, with different levels of significance in multivariate analyses. However, neither prediabetes nor diabetes was associated with subnormal free testosterone in multivariate analyses. Conclusions Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency, independent of obesity and MetS. After adjusting for MetS, the risk equals that of diabetes. Our data suggest that testosterone should be measured routinely in men with prediabetes. PMID:24069277

  13. Cyclical subnormal separation in A-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarfi, M.U.

    1995-12-01

    Three main results, concerning A-groups in respect of cyclical subnormal separation as defined in, are presented. It is shown in theorem A that any A-group that is generated by elements of prime order and satisfying the cyclical subnormal separation conditions is metabelian. The two other main results give necessary and sufficient conditions for A-groups, that are split extensions of certain abelian p-groups by a metabelian p'-group, to satisfy the cyclical subnormal separation condition. There is also a result which shows that A-groups with elementary abelian Sylow subgroups are cyclically separated as defined. (author). 7 refs

  14. Changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guohong; Xu Ruiji; Zhang Zhongshu

    2011-01-01

    To determine changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men.the healthy men (n=126) were divided 20-29 yr, 30-39 yr and 40-49 yr three groups,their serum levels of total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were detected. The results were statically analyzed. The results showed that the levels of serum T and FT was found significantly decreased in 30-39 yr group than in 20-29 yr group (15.06±13 nmol/L vs 20.41±86 nmol/L, P<0.01; 9.36±95 pg/L vs 11.48±88 pg/L, P<0.05; respectively). There were young trends that age-related decline in androgen levels. (authors)

  15. Relationship between Social Rank and Cortisol and Testosterone concentrations in Male Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    OpenAIRE

    Czoty, Paul W.; Gould, Robert W.; Nader, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    In nonhuman primate social groups, biological differences related to social status have proven useful in investigating mechanisms of sensitivity to various disease states. Physiological and neurobiological differences between dominant and subordinate monkeys have been interpreted in the context of chronic social stress. The present experiments were designed to investigate the relationships between basal cortisol and testosterone concentrations and the establishment and maintenance of the soci...

  16. Descartes' Calculus of Subnormals: What Might Have Been

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Gregory Mark; Walls, Jess E.

    2013-01-01

    Rene Descartes' method for finding tangents (equivalently, subnormals) depends on geometric and algebraic properties of a family of circles intersecting a given curve. It can be generalized to establish a calculus of subnormals, an alternative to the calculus of Newton and Leibniz. Here we prove subnormal counterparts of the well-known…

  17. No Evidence for a Relationship Between Hair Testosterone Concentrations and 2D:4D Ratio or Risk Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ronay

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a recently developed alternative assay procedure to measure hormone levels from hair samples, we examined the relationships between testosterone, cortisol, 2D:4D ratio, overconfidence and risk taking. A total of 162 (53 male participants provided a 3 cm sample of hair, a scanned image of their right and left hands from which we determined 2D:4D ratios, and completed measures of overconfidence and behavioral risk taking. While our sample size for males was less than ideal, our results revealed no evidence for a relationship between hair testosterone concentrations, 2D:4D ratios and risk taking. No relationships with overconfidence emerged. Partially consistent with the Dual Hormone Hypothesis, we did find evidence for the interacting effect of testosterone and cortisol on risk taking but only in men. Hair testosterone concentrations were positively related to risk taking when levels of hair cortisol concentrations were low, in men. Our results lend support to the suggestion that endogenous testosterone and 2D:4D ratio are unrelated and might then exert diverging activating vs. organizing effects on behavior. Comparing our results to those reported in the existing literature we speculate that behavioral correlates of testosterone such as direct effects on risk taking may be more sensitive to state-based fluctuations than baseline levels of testosterone.

  18. Association of testicular echogenicity, scrotal circumference, testicular volume and testosterone concentration in buffaloes

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    Henry D.M. Ayala

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ayala H.D.M., Ribeiro H.F.L., Rolim Filho S.T., Silva E.V.C. & Vale W.G. Association of testicular echogenicity, scrotal circumference, testicular volume and testosterone concentration in buffaloes. [Associação entre a ecogenicidade, circunferência escrotal, volume testicular e concentração de testosterona em búfalos.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:334-340, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciencia Animal, Universidade Federal do Pará, Rua Augusto Corrêa 1, Campus Universitário do Guamá, Belém, PA 66075-110, Brazil. E-mail wm.vale@hotmail.com This article aimed to discuss the changes in the testicular parenchyma, analyzed by the use of ultrasonography, and correlates them with the testicular biometric parameters and testosterone concentration in crossed Murrah x Mediterranean buffaloes. Nineteen buffaloes, with initial ages between 11 and 59 months,were submitted to fortnightly collections of semen for a period of six months. At each collection the testicular biometry and testicular echogenicity were evaluated as well as blood samples were also collected to measure the plasma testosterone levels. The data were submitted to analysis of variance by the GLM procedure, considering the age group fixed effect. The average data obtained were compared by the Duncan test, at 5% significance. There was a significant growth (P<0.05 of the scrotal circumference, which varied from 12.88±0.51 cmto 31.18±0.75 cm among animals aged 12 to 60 months, as well as testicular volume, which ranged from 30.28±17.37 to 611.96±38.69 cm³ among the animals. The echogenic intensity of the testicular parenchyma varied in pixels from 78.67±6.36 to 109.24±3.13 in animals aged 12 to 60 months respectively. In the animals with ages between 12 and 19 months was observed levels of testosterone considered being low, whereas in the animals from 20 to 21 months there was a progressive increase in the testosterone levels, which

  19. Modulation of serum concentrations and hepatic metabolism of 17{beta}-estradiol and testosterone by amitraz in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chen-Ping [National Taiwan University, Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Taichung (China); Lu, Shui-Yuan [Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Taichung (China); Ueng, Tzuu-Huei [National Taiwan University, Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, Taipei (China)

    2008-10-15

    The present study has investigated the ability of amitraz, a widely used formamidine pesticide, to modulate serum concentrations and liver microsomal metabolism of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and testosterone in rats. Amitraz was administered intraperitoneally to male rats for 4 days and to intact female rats or ovariectomized (OVX) and 0.5 mg/kg E2-supplemented female rats for 7 days. E2 and metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection and testosterone and metabolites were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In OVX and E2-supplemented females, 50 mg/kg amitraz caused an 85% decrease of serum E2 concentration and a marked increase of 2-OH-E2 concentration. Amitraz at 25 and 50 mg/kg produced 9.0-fold or greater increases of serum testosterone and 2{beta}-OH-testosterone levels in males. Amitraz at 25 mg/kg resulted in no or minimal increases of liver microsomal formation of E2 or testosterone metabolites. Amitraz at 50 mg/kg produced 1.4- to 3.6-fold increases of 2-OH-E2; estrone; 2{beta}-, 6{beta}-, and 16{alpha}-OH-testosterone; and androstenedione formation in males and intact females. Amitraz at 50 mg/kg preferentially increased intact female 16{beta}-OH-testosterone production by 8.6-fold. In OVX females, E2 supplement alone or cotreatment with E2 and 50 mg/kg amitraz produced 1.3- to several-fold increases of 2- and 4-OH-E2 formation and 2{beta}- and 16{alpha}-OH-testosterone production. The cotreatment increased 6{beta}- and 16{beta}-OH-testosterone formation by 1.8- and 1.6-fold, respectively. The present findings show that amitraz induces hepatic E2 and testosterone metabolism in male and female rats, decreases serum E2 concentration in OVX and E2-supplemented females, but increases serum testosterone in males. (orig.)

  20. Endurance training of moderate intensity increases testosterone concentration in young, healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, M; Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Kulpa, J; Zoladz, J A

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term, moderate intensity and low volume endurance training on gonadal hormone profile in untrained men. Fifteen young, healthy men performed an endurance training of 5-week duration on a cycle ergometer. Before and after the exercise program all participants completed a maximal incremental test. Concentration of testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and cortisol (C) as well as blood morphology were determined in venous blood samples at rest both before and after the training. The training program resulted in 3.7% improvement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and 8.2% improvement of power output reached at VO(2max) (PO (max)). This was accompanied by significant increase in T (from 18.84+/-5.73 nmol.l(-1) to 22.03+/-6.61 nmol.l(-1), p = 0.0004) and calculated fT concentration (from 374+/-116 pmol.l(-1) to 470+/-153 pmol.l(-1), p = 0.00005). Moreover, the training caused a significant decrease in SHBG concentration (from 34.45+/-11.26 nmol.l(-1) to 31.95+/-10.40 nmol.l(-1), p = 0.01), whereas no significant changes were found in the cortisol concentration (334+/-138 nmol.l(-1) vs. 367+/-135 nmol.l(-1) for pre- and post-training measures, respectively, p = 0.50) and T/C and fT/C ratios. We have concluded that short-term, moderate intensity and low volume endurance training can significantly increase testosterone concentration in previously untrained men.

  1. Free testosterone concentration is inversely associated with markers of liver fibrosis in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Shozo; Miyake, Teruki; Miyazaki, Masumi; Eguchi, Toru; Niiya, Tetsuji; Yamamoto, Shin; Senba, Hidenori; Furukawa, Shinya; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2017-12-28

    The association between serum testosterone level and liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is unclear. To clarify this association, we investigated the relationship between serum free testosterone concentration and markers of liver fibrosis in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus but no obvious features of alcohol consumption. This retrospective observational cross-sectional study enrolled 248 men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The FIB-4 index was measured as a marker of liver fibrosis, and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine its association with serum free testosterone concentration. In addition, the 7S domain of type IV collagen (IV-7S) was examined in 140 of the 248 patients. The mean free testosterone concentration was 10.6 ± 6.8 pg/mL and the means of the FIB-4 index and IV-7S were 1.64 ± 1.19 and 4.02 ± 1.11 ng/mL, respectively. After adjusting for all relevant variables, serum free testosterone concentrations were inversely associated with both the FIB-4 index and IV-7S (β; -0.28, P diabetes mellitus may help to predict progression to advanced liver disease. Identifying patients at risk may help to prevent the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Seasonal Changes in Serum Testosterone, LDH Concentration and Semen Characteristics in Markhoz Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farshad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study variations of serum testosterone and seminal characteristics of Markhoz male goats. Blood samples were obtained via jugular vein, and semen was collected by using an artificial vagina from 14 fertile male goats (2–3 years of age, at 15-day intervals starting on 15 July and ending on 30 October 2010 (during breeding and non-breeding season. Semen volume, total sperm (volume×concentration, live sperm (%, abnormal sperm (% and semen pH were significantly superior during the late summer and early autumn (breeding season. Variation of sperm density, motility and progressive motility was not significant during the sampling period. The results presented show that the lowest and highest levels of lactate dehydrogenase in the seminal plasma were recorded in late October (2.82 U/ml and in late August (4.81 U/ml, respectively. Moreover, the study indicated that the serum testosterone concentration was higher during late summer and early autumn (p<0.05 than at any other of sampling period. There were negative correlations between volume and sperm density (−0.135, p<0.05, and positive correlations between volume and percentage live sperm (0.224 and percentage progressive motility (0.194, p<0.01. Sperm density was correlated with live sperm (0.200, p<0.05 and progressive motility (0.202, p<0.01. The correlation between live sperm and progressive motility was 0.554 (p<0.01. Furthermore, the results in this study indicated a significant positive correlation between live sperm and LDH (0.450 and a negative correlation between sperm density and LDH concentration (−0.272 (p<0.01. Significant, but positive correlations were found between sperm motility and LDH (0.542 and testosterone concentration (0.522, respectively (p<0.05. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the best obtained semen was collected in late summer (during decreasing photoperiod and early autumn (September and October. This also coincides with

  3. Effect of 'PC Game Room' use and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure on plasma testosterone concentrations in young male Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heon; Kang, Jong-Won; Ku, Seung-Yup; Kim, Seok Hyun; Cho, Soo-Hun; Koong, Sung-Soo; Kim, Yong-Dae; Lee, Chul-Ho

    2005-03-01

    'PC Game Rooms' were first popularized in Korea, although the concept is now becoming popular worldwide. PC Game Rooms provide users with high-performance PC connected to the high-speed internet, and access to computer games. However, PC Game Room users are exposed to various hazardous agents such as cigarette smoke in a confined environment, and thus it is likely that excessive PC Game Room use involves abnormal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as well as being associated with disturbed sleep or circadian rhythm. In this cross-sectional study, the exposure to PAH was evaluated by measuring urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 2-naphthol. The correlations between PC Game Room use and PAH exposure and plasma testosterone and LH levels were analysed in 208 young male Koreans. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations increased (P = 0.0001) and plasma testosterone levels decreased (P = 0.0153) significantly with increased duration of PC Game Room use. Correlation analysis showed that plasma testosterone concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with urinary 1-OHP (r = -0.22, P = 0.0012) and 2-naphthol (r = -0.15, P = 0.0308) concentrations. Moreover, these associations persisted after adjusting for other independent variables. However, the duration of PC Game Room use itself was not found to be an independent significant determinant of plasma testosterone level. Rather, PC Game Room use increased PAH exposure, which decreased plasma testosterone level. The younger age group (15-19 years) showed a more prominent decrease in plasma testosterone concentrations with increasing duration of PC Game Room use than the older age group (20-24 years) (r2 = 0.355, P = 0.0301 versus r2 = 0.213, P = 0.0001). These results imply that the excessive use of PC Game Rooms is related to an adverse impact on sex hormonal status in young male Koreans via PAH exposure. This effect was more prominent in the younger age group.

  4. Waist-to-Hip Ratio, but Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Testosterone and Estradiol Concentrations in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mondragón-Ceballos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied if testosterone and estradiol concentrations are associated with specific female waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs and body mass indices (BMIs. Participants were 187 young women from which waist, hips, weight, and height were measured. In addition, participants informed on which day of their menstrual cycle they were and provided a 6 mL saliva sample. Ninety-one of them were in the follicular phase and 96 in the luteal phase. Only in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle we found a significant interaction between testosterone and estradiol affecting WHR (b±s.e.=-0.000003±0.000001; t94=-2.12, adjusted R2=-0.008, P=0.03. Women with the highest levels of both hormones had the lowest WHRs, while women with low estradiol and high testosterone showed the highest WHRs. BMI significantly increased as testosterone increased in female in their nonfertile days.

  5. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  6. Changes in salivary testosterone concentrations and subsequent voluntary squat performance following the presentation of short video clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that visual images can produce rapid changes in testosterone concentrations. We explored the acute effects of video clips on salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations and subsequent voluntary squat performance in highly trained male athletes (n=12). Saliva samples were collected on 6 occasions immediately before and 15 min after watching a brief video clip (approximately 4 min in duration) on a computer screen. The watching of a sad, erotic, aggressive, training motivational, humorous or a neutral control clip was randomised. Subjects then performed a squat workout aimed at producing a 3 repetition maximum (3RM) lift. Significant (Psquats across all video sessions (Pfree hormone concentrations and the relative changes in testosterone closely mapped 3RM squat performance in a group of highly trained males. Thus, speculatively, using short video presentations in the pre-workout environment offers an opportunity for understanding the outcomes of hormonal change, athlete behaviour and subsequent voluntary performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma concentration of prolactin, testosterone might be associated with brain response to visual erotic stimuli in healthy heterosexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Younghee; Jeong, Bumseok; Kim, Ji-Woong; Choi, Jeewook

    2009-09-01

    Many studies have showed that excess or lack of sexual hormones, such as prolactin and testosterone, induced the sexual dysfunction in humans. Little, however, is known about the role of sexual hormones showing normal range in, especially, the basal state unexposed to any sexual stimulation. We hypothesized sexual hormones in the basal state may affect sexual behavior. We investigated the association of the sexual hormones level in the basal hormonal state before visual sexual stimulation with the sexual response-related brain activity during the stimulation. Twelve heterosexual men were recorded the functional MRI signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Both plasma prolacitn and testosterone concentrations were measured before functional MR scanning. A voxel wise regression analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of sexual hormones in basal state and brain activity elicited by ERO minus HA, not food minus nature, contrast. The plasma concentration of prolactin in basal state showed positive association with the activity of the brain involving cognitive component of sexual behavior including the left middle frontal gyrus, paracingulate/superior frontal/anterior cingulate gyri, bilateral parietal lobule, right angular, bilateral precuneus and right cerebellum. Testosterone in basal state was positively associated with the brain activity of the bilateral supplementary motor area which related with motivational component of sexual behavior. Our results suggested sexual hormones in basal state may have their specific target regions or network associated with sexual response.

  8. Testosterone concentrations in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łagowska, Karolina; Kapczuk, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Menstrual disorders are common among female athletes and ballet dancers. Endocrine changes, such as high testosterone (HT) levels and high luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratios, may suggest functional ovarian hyperandrogenism which may induce such dysfunction. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate endocrine status in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders. Their nutritional status and dietary habits were analysed in relation to the testosterone levels. In a cross-sectional approach, 31 female athletes (18.1 ± 2.6 years) and 21 ballerinas (17.1 ± 0.9) with menstrual disorders participated in the study. The levels of serum LH, FSH, progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulinwere measured to assess hormonal status. In addition, the free androgen index (FAI) was calculated. Nutritional status, total daily energy expenditure and nutritional habits were evaluated. Girls were assigned to one of the following groups: low testosterone (LT) level, normal testosterone level or HT level. There were significant differences between ballerinas and other female athletes in terms of testosterone levels, FAI, age at the beginning of training, length of training period and age at menarche. The PRL level was lowest in the LT group while the FAI index was highest in the HT group. Daily energy and carbohydrate intakes were significantly lower in the HT group. T levels in the study subjects were found to be associated with nutritional factors, energy availability, age at the beginning of training and frequency of training. This is the first report of HT levels being associated with the status of a female ballet dancer, the age of menarche and the length of the training history. Further research is necessary to confirm the results in a larger study group.

  9. Salivary testosterone concentrations in pubertal ICSI boys compared with spontaneously conceived boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belva, F.; Bonduelle, M.; Schiettecatte, J.; Tournaye, H.; Painter, R. C.; Devroey, P.; de Schepper, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date, no data exist about Leydig cell function of pubertal boys born after ICSI. To evaluate a potential risk of gonadal dysfunction in children born from fathers with compromised fertility, testicular function was assessed by the measurement of salivary testosterone. METHODS: Morning

  10. Effects of mating on plasma concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, oestrone sulphate and 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha in stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, M; Cairoli, F; Kindahl, H; Galeati, G; Faustini, M; Carluccio, A; Veronesi, M C

    2006-12-01

    Very little information is available regarding the physiological mechanisms involved in the normal sexual activity in the stallion and, in particular, the endocrine control of reproduction is still not clearly understood. This experiment was designed to determine the short-term effect of sexual stimulation on plasma concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, oestrone sulphate and 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) in stallions. Semen samples were collected from 10 lighthorse stallions of proven fertility using a Missouri model artificial vagina. At the same time, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein with heparinized tubes, 20 and 10 min before oestrous mare exposure, at exposure and 10, 20, 30 min after dismounting. Testosterone concentrations showed a sharp rise 10 min after mating (p Cortisol concentrations increased 10 min after mating (p < 0.001) and remained at high levels in the subsequent samples taken. A peak of oestrone sulphate was observed 10 min after mating (p < 0.001). 15-Ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) concentrations decreased rapidly at the moment of the exposure of the stallions to an oestrous mare (p < 0.05), returned to pre-mating concentrations and then decreased again 30 min after mating (p < 0.05).

  11. Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1 gene mutation as a frequent cause of primary amenorrhea in 46,XY female adolescents with low testosterone concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servant Nadège

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary amenorrhea due to 46,XY disorders of sex differentiation (DSD is a frequent reason for consultation in endocrine and gynecology clinics. Among the genetic causes of low-testosterone primary amenorrhea due to 46,XY DSD, SRY gene is reported to be frequently involved, but other genes, such as SF1 and WT1, have never been studied for their prevalence. Methods We directly sequenced SRY, SF1 and WT1 genes in 15 adolescent girls with primary amenorrhea, low testosterone concentration, and XY karyotype, to determine the prevalence of mutations. We also analyzed the LH receptor gene in patients with high LH and normal FSH concentrations. Results Among the 15 adolescents with primary amenorrhea and low testosterone concentration, we identified two new SRY mutations, five new SF1 mutations and one new LH receptor gene mutation. Our study confirms the 10-15% prevalence of SRY mutations and shows the high prevalence (33% of SF1 abnormalities in primary amenorrhea due to 46,XY DSD with low plasma testosterone concentration. Conclusions The genetic analysis of low-testosterone primary amenorrhea is complex as several factors may be involved. This work underlines the need to systematically analyze the SF1 sequence in girls with primary amenorrhea due to 46,XY DSD and low testosterone, as well as in newborns with 46,XY DSD.

  12. Plasma Concentration of Prolactin, Testosterone Might Be Associated with Brain Response to Visual Erotic Stimuli in Healthy Heterosexual Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Younghee; Kim, Ji-Woong; Choi, Jeewook

    2009-01-01

    Objective Many studies have showed that excess or lack of sexual hormones, such as prolactin and testosterone, induced the sexual dysfunction in humans. Little, however, is known about the role of sexual hormones showing normal range in, especially, the basal state unexposed to any sexual stimulation. We hypothesized sexual hormones in the basal state may affect sexual behavior. Methods We investigated the association of the sexual hormones level in the basal hormonal state before visual sexual stimulation with the sexual response-related brain activity during the stimulation. Twelve heterosexual men were recorded the functional MRI signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Both plasma prolacitn and testosterone concentrations were measured before functional MR scanning. A voxel wise regression analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of sexual hormones in basal state and brain activity elicited by ERO minus HA, not food minus nature, contrast. Results The plasma concentration of prolactin in basal state showed positive association with the activity of the brain involving cognitive component of sexual behavior including the left middle frontal gyrus, paracingulate/superior frontal/anterior cingulate gyri, bilateral parietal lobule, right angular, bilateral precuneus and right cerebellum. Testosterone in basal state was positively associated with the brain activity of the bilateral supplementary motor area which related with motivational component of sexual behavior. Conclusion Our results suggested sexual hormones in basal state may have their specific target regions or network associated with sexual response. PMID:20046395

  13. Scrotal circumference: A predictor of testosterone concentration and certain attributes of seminal vesicles influencing buffalo male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahmood

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of scrotal circumference (SC with plasma testosterone, seminal vesicles (SVs weight, and its secretion as measurable indicators of fertility and also to sequence and establish phylogenetic relatedness of certain SV protein genes with other species as such integrated approach is lacking. Materials and Methods: Altogether, 59 apparently healthy male buffaloes sacrificed at slaughterhouse were selected (irrespective of breed for measuring SC and collecting blood and paired SVs. The SC was measured at greater curvature using soft thread. In the present study, blood plasma testosterone, cholesterol, protein, and glucose in addition to SV fructose, citric acid and proteins in SV fluid were also estimated. The SV tissue was fixed in RNAlater for RNA extraction.Male buffaloes were categorized as per total SV weight into Group I (8.0 g and dentitions-I (≤18 months, II (18-24 months, and III (≥24 months to assess the effect of weight and dentition age on SC, SV weight, and its certain secretions. Data were analyzed using linear model procedure including Tukey HSD test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Variance inflation and condition index were also used to assess multicollinearity. Results: Gross and histomorphological evaluation of SVs did not show any abnormality. Macronutrients (plasma protein, glucose, and cholesterol showed non-significant (p>0.05 variation between groups. The SC and SV weight varied significantly (p<0.05 with a significant positive relationship with plasma testosterone, SV protein, fructose, and citric acid. In addition, testosterone concentration also showed increasing trend from Groups I to III but increased significantly (p<0.05 from Group II to III with positive and significant correlations with SV protein, fructose, and citric acid similar to SV weight and SC. Binders of sperm protein (BSP1, 3, and 5 genes (full length were sequenced and established an

  14. Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) increases serum testosterone concentration and enhances steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Yoshida, K; Kamiya, S; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Ogawa, H; Tamada, H

    2016-04-01

    Although Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's central Andes, has been traditionally used for enhancing fertility and reproductive performance in domestic animals and human beings, effects of maca on reproductive organs are still unclear. This study examined whether feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks affects weight of the reproductive organs, serum concentrations of testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH), number and cytoplasmic area of immunohistochemically stained Leydig cells, and steroidogenesis of cultured Leydig cells in 8-week-old male rats. Feeding the extract powder increased weight of seminal vesicles, serum testosterone level and cytoplasmic area of Leydig cells when compared with controls. Weight of prostate gland, serum LH concentration and number of Leydig cells were not affected by the maca treatment. The testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone and tended to increase when cultured with hCG by feeding the extract powder. The results show that feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks increases serum testosterone concentration associated with seminal vesicle stimulation in male rats, and this increase in testosterone level may be related to the enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells especially in the metabolic process following cholesterol. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Testosterone and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Kartalcı

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Androgens have various effects on human body and mood. Testosterone, a hormone mainly secreted from testes and adrenals, is one of the most potent androgens. Multiple studies have found that testosterone plays a role in regulating sexual activity, libido, social behaviors, aggression, cognitive functions, sleep control and well-being in men and women. Testosterone deficiency in hypogonadic or elderly men leads to neuropsychiatric problems, such as fatigue, loss of libido, irritability, insomnia and depressive mood. Testosterone replacement therapy consistently reverses these sequel in men. On the other hand, hyperandrogenic states in women are related to aggression and antisocial behavior, which might lead to depressive mood. Low testosterone levels may also result in depression among oophorectomized women. Because of such effects, a relationship between testosterone and depression has long been an issue of speculation, but yet very few studies have addressed this relation. Along with clinical studies, experimental and epidemiological studies show that testosterone is related to depression in men and women. But studies of testosterone concentrations in depression have yielded inconsistent results reporting low as well as high testosterone levels associated with depression. In this article, the physiological and psychological effects of testosterone and evidence regarding its relationship to depressive disorders and possible gender differences have been reviewed.

  16. Changes of Serum Total and Free Testosterone Concentrations in Male Chronic Hemodialysis Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Response to Cinacalcet Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kuczera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR is expressed, among others also in testis. Cinacalcet binds to the CaSR, increases sensitivity of CaSR to serum calcium and is used in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT in chronic hemodialysis patients (HDP. In most of male HDP, serum testosterone concentration is lower than in healthy males. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of six-month treatment with cinacalcet on the serum total and free testosterone concentration in male HDP with sHPT. Methods: 38 male, hemodialysed CKD patients with sHPT (PTH>300 pg/ml were enrolled into the study. In each patient serum PTH, total testosterone (TT and free testosterone (FT concentrations were assessed before the first dose of cinacalcet and then after 3 and 6 months of treatment. The results are presented as means with 95% confidence interval. Results: In 33 patients who completed the study cinacalcet treatment caused significant decrease of serum PTH from 1143 pg/ml (828 - 1458 pg/ml at the baseline, to 809 pg/ml (487 - 1132pg/ml after 3 month of treatment (p = 0.002, and to 607 pg/ml (281 - 934pg/ml; p Conclusion: Treatment with cinacalcet decreases serum total and free testosterone concentration in male hemodialysed patients with chronic kidney disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  17. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment......, patients (n = 25) had median serum concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, non-protein bound oestradiol, non-sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) bound oestradiol and oestrone sulphate which did not differ significantly from those of healthy controls (n = 16), but the patients had significantly (P less...... than 0.01) higher median serum concentrations of oestrone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin. The patients were randomized to treatment with either oral micronized testosterone (200 mg t.d.s.) or placebo for a median duration of 1 year. In the placebo group (n...

  18. Effects of L-Arginine supplementation on semen quality, testosterone concentration and testes histological parameters of Ross 308 breeder roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahangar M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of dietary L-Arginine (L-Arg supplementation on testes histological parameters and semen quality of male broiler breeder. Methods: Twenty male broiler breeders at 37 wk of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replicates each. The treatments consisted of 4 dietary levels of L-Arg (0.00, 1.35, 2.33 and 3.22 g/kg of the diet and fed to birds for 8 wk. At the end of the experiment semen samples were collected by abdominal massage to determination of semen quality. The blood samples were used to determination of serum testosterone concentration at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, testes from each rooster were used to evaluation of their weights and histological parameters. Results: The results of the experiment showed that dietary L-Arg at 2.33 g/kg improved testes weight, semen volume and sperm forward motility in roosters (P<0.05. Besides, serum concentration of testosterone was increased in roosters fed 2.33 g/kg L-Arg (P<0.05. The results of testes histology indicated that seminiferous tubules lumen diameter, leydig cells, spermatides and sperm cells counts were greater in birds received 3.22 g/kg dietary L-Arg (P<0.05. However, the birds fed diet supplemented with 2.33 g/kg L-Arg had greater seminiferous tubules diameter, sertoli and spermatogonia cell counts than other groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of this experiment, it is concluded that dietary L-Arg had positive effects on reproductive traits in roosters.

  19. Fetal gender prediction based on maternal plasma testosterone and insulin-like peptide 3 concentrations at midgestation and late gestation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibushi, M; Kawate, N; Kaminogo, Y; Hannan, M A; Weerakoon, W W P N; Sakase, M; Fukushima, M; Seyama, T; Inaba, T; Tamada, H

    2016-10-15

    We compared maternal plasma testosterone and insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) concentrations between dams carrying a male versus female fetus from early to late gestation and examined the application of maternal hormonal concentrations to fetal gender prediction in dairy and beef cattle. Blood samples were collected from Holstein cows or heifers (N = 31) and Japanese Black beef cows (N = 33) at 1-month intervals at 2 to 8 months of gestation. Fetal gender was confirmed by visual observation of external genitalia of calves just after birth. Plasma testosterone and INSL3 concentrations were determined by enzyme-immunoassay. Fetal genders were judged based on cutoff values of maternal testosterone and INSL3 concentrations (male, if it was ≥ cutoff value; female, if dairy cattle (P cows (P dairy cattle (P cows (P dairy cattle at 5 and 7 months and for beef cows at 5 and 6 months, whereas those values by maternal INSL3 concentrations were 71.0% to 72.4% for the dairy cattle at 6 months and beef cows at 4 and 8 months. When multiple time points of testosterone and INSL3 concentrations at several midgestation and late gestation months were considered for fetal gender prediction, predictive values were 89.3% (5-7 months) and 85.7% to 88.0% (4-6, 8 months) for the dairy and beef breeds, respectively. Maternal testosterone and INSL3 concentrations in dams carrying a male fetus were higher than those carrying a female at midgestation and/or late gestation in Holstein and Japanese Black beef cattle. Nearly, 80% accuracy was obtained for fetal gender prediction by a single time point of maternal plasma testosterone concentrations at midgestation. Nearly 90% accuracy for the prediction was obtained when multiple time points of testosterone and INSL3 concentrations from midgestation to late gestation were considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment...

  1. [Relation between physical activity, muscle function and IGF-1, testosterone and DHEAS concentrations in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy, M; Patricot, M C; Lacour, J R; Rahmani, A; Berthouze, S; Kostka, T

    2002-10-01

    Lower amounts of circulating anabolic hormones are thought to accelerate the age related decline in muscle mass and function. Replacement therapies are promising interventions but there are problems with these therapies. Thus alternative strategies should be developed. The age related changes in hormonal status may be probably influenced by exercise. The purpose of this study was: a) to confirm with other methods, more adapted for elderly people, the results of a previous study that has shown relationship between physical activity (PA) and quadriceps muscle function with dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Quadriceps muscle power (Pmax) is measured in this new work with a recently developed leg extensor machine and, b) to complete the results of the first study examining simultaneously the relationship between PA, Pmax and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) with DHEAS, IGF-1 and testosterone in a group of healthy elderly people. Fifty independent, community dwelling elderly subjects (25 mens and 25 womens) aged from 66 to 84 volunteered to participate in the study. PA was evaluated by the questionnaire and expressed using two activity indices: mean habitual daily energy expenditure (MHDEE) and the daily energy expenditure corresponding to leisure time sports activities (Sports Activity). Pmax and optimal shortening velocity (vopt) were measured on a Ergopower dynamometer. The Pmax was expressed relative to body mass, Pmax/kg (W kg-1), and relative to the mass of the two quadriceps muscles, Pmax/Quadr (W.kgQuadr-1). VO2max has been measured during a maximal treadmill exercise. In women, IGF-1 correlated significantly with MHDEE (r = 0.54, P = 0.004), Pmax/kg (r = 0.54, P = 0.004) and Pmax/Quadr (r = 0.46, P = 0.02), whereas DHEAS with MHDEE (r = 0.54, P = 0.004), Sports Activity (r = 0.65, P < 0.001), VO2max (r = 0.46, P = 0.02), Pmax/kg (r = 0.46, P = 0.02) and Pmax/Quadr (r = 0.55, P = 0.004). No such correlation was

  2. Oxytocin, vasopressin, prostaglandin F(2alpha), luteinizing hormone, testosterone, estrone sulfate, and cortisol plasma concentrations after sexual stimulation in stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Tosi, U; Villani, M; Govoni, N; Faustini, M; Kindahl, H; Madej, A; Carluccio, A

    2010-03-01

    This experiment was designed to determine the effects of sexual stimulation on plasma concentrations of oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (VP), 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) (PG-metabolite), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), estrone sulfate (ES), and cortisol (C) in stallions. Semen samples were collected from 14 light horse stallions (Equus caballus) of proven fertility using a Missouri model artificial vagina. Blood samples were collected at 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3 min before estrous mare exposure, at erection, at ejaculation, and at 3, 6, and 9 min after ejaculation. Afterwards, blood sampling was performed every 10 min for the following 60 min. Sexual activity determined an increase in plasma concentrations of OT, VP, C, PG-metabolite, and ES and caused no changes in LH and T concentrations. The finding of a negative correlation between C and VP at erection, and between C and T before erection and at the time of erection, could be explained by a possible inhibitory role exerted by C in the mechanism of sexual arousal described for men. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Testicular Cell Indices and Peripheral Blood Testosterone Concentrations in Relation to Age and Semen Quality in Crossbred (Holstein Friesian×Tharparkar Bulls

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    S. K. Rajak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study analyzed the changes in peripheral blood testosterone concentrations and testicular cytogram in relation to age and semen quality in crossbred males. Three different age groups of crossbred males viz. bull calves (6 months, n = 5, young bulls (15 months, n = 5 and adult bulls (4 to 6 years, n = 8 were utilized for the study. Testicular fine needle aspiration cytology technique was used to quantify testicular cytology and their indices. Peripheral blood testosterone concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Semen samples collected from adult bulls were microscopically evaluated for quality parameters. Mean peripheral blood testosterone concentrations in bull calves, young bulls and adult bulls were 2.28±0.09 ng/mL, 1.42±0.22 ng/mL and 5.66±1.08 ng/mL respectively, and that in adult bulls were significantly different (p<0.01 from young bulls and bull calves. There was no significant difference between the proportion of different testicular cells in bull calves and young bulls. Between young and adult bulls, significant differences (p<0.01 were observed in the proportion of spermatocytes, spermatozoa, and sperm: Sertoli cell ratio. The proportions of Sertoli cells showed a significant difference (p<0.01 between the three age groups. The number of primary spermatocytes had a positive correlation with peripheral blood testosterone concentrations in bull calves (r = 0.719, p<0.01. Number of Sertoli cells per 100 germ cells was negatively correlated with blood testosterone concentration in young bulls (r = −0.713, p<0.01. Among different semen parameters in adult bulls, ejaculate volume (r = 0.790, p<0.05 had positive relationship, and sperm motility had significant negative correlation (r = −0.711, p<0.05 with testosterone concentrations. The number of Sertoli cells and Sertoli cell index had a positive correlation with various semen quality parameters (p<0.001. Results of the present study

  4. Serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol concentrations in older men self-reporting very good health: the healthy man study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Gideon; Spasevska, Sasa; Idan, Amanda; Turner, Leo; Forbes, Elise; Zamojska, Anna; Allan, Carolyn A; Ly, Lam P; Conway, Ann J; McLachlan, Robert I; Handelsman, David J

    2012-11-01

    To determine serum concentrations, intra-individual variability and impact of age-related co-morbidities on serum testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol (E(2)) and estrone (E(1)) in older men. Observational, repeated measures study. Men (n = 325) with 40 years and older self-reporting very good or excellent health. Standardized history, physical examination and collection of nine blood samples at fixed time intervals were measured over 3 months (three at 20 min intervals on days 1 (fasting) and 2 (non-fasting), one at days 7, 30 and 90). Serum T, DHT, E(2) and E(1) (n = 2900, > 99% of scheduled samples) measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were analysed by linear mixed model analysis with fasting, age and obesity as covariables. Mean serum T did not vary with age (P = 0·76) but obesity (-0·35 nM per body mass index (BMI) unit, P 0·28). Serum T, DHT and E(2) displayed no decrease associated with age among men over 40 years of age who self-report very good or excellent health although obesity and ex-smoking status were associated with decreased serum androgens (T and DHT) but not E(2). These findings support the interpretation that the age-related decline in blood T accompanying non-specific symptoms in older men may be due to accumulating age-related co-morbidities rather than a symptomatic androgen deficiency state. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Seasonal and biological variation of blood concentrations of total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, hemoglobin A(1c), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of physiological response variables fluctuate over time. The present study describes within-day and seasonal fluctuations for total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in blood, and estimates within......- (CV(i)) and between-subject (CV(g)) CVs for healthy women. In addition, the index of individuality, prediction intervals, and power calculations were derived....

  6. Recovery of normal testicular temperature after scrotal heat stress in rams assessed by infrared thermography and its effects on seminal characteristics and testosterone blood serum concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Maíra Bianchi Rodrigues; Andrade, André Furugen Cesar de; Arruda, Rubens Paes de; Batissaco, Leonardo; Florez-Rodriguez, Shirley Andrea; Oliveira, Bruna Marcele Martins de; Torres, Mariana Andrade; Lançoni, Renata; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Prado Filho, Roberto Romano do; Vellone, Vinícius Silva; Losano, João Diego de Agostini; Franci, Celso Rodrigues; Nichi, Marcílio; Celeghini, Eneiva Carla Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Reestablishment of testicular normal temperature after testicular heat stress is unknown and its effect varies widely. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of scrotal insulation (IN) on testicular temperature and its relation to semen quality and testosterone blood serum concentration. For this, 33 rams were used; 17 submitted to IN for 72 hours (using bags involving the testes) and 16 not submitted to IN (control group). The experiment was performed between August and December 2013 in Pirassununga, Brazil (21°56″13″ South/47°28'24″ West). Seminal characteristics, testosterone blood serum concentration, rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency, scrotal superficies mean temperature (SSMT), and eye area mean temperature (EAMT) were analyzed 7 days before IN and 21, 35, 49, 63, and 90 days afterward. Scrotal superficies mean temperature and EAMT were measured by thermography camera FLIR T620. Testosterone was evaluated by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of variance was used to determine the main effects of treatment, time, and treatment-by-time interaction using PROC MIXED of SAS software adding command REPEAT. Pearson correlation test was used to verify correlation between SSMT, EAMT, RT, and respiratory frequency. Significant difference was considered when P ≤ 0.05. At the end of IN, SSMT was higher (P blood serum concentration was lesser in insulated rams (P = 0.03). Thus, the difference of 1.12 °C between RT and testicular temperature impacts semen quality and testosterone blood serum concentration. Moreover, this study shows that rams can recover testes temperature efficiently toward IN and that infrared thermography is an efficient tool to identify differences on SSMT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of acute exercise and psychosocial stress on fine motor skills and testosterone concentration in the saliva of high school students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Wegner

    Full Text Available Little is known about the influence of different stressors on fine motor skills, the concentration of testosterone (T, and their interaction in adolescents. Therefore, 62 high school students aged 14-15 years were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (exercise, psychosocial stress and a control group. Exercise stress was induced at 65-75% of the maximum heart rate by running for 15 minutes (n = 24. Psychosocial stress was generated by an intelligence test (HAWIK-IV, which was uncontrollable and characterized by social-evaluative-threat to the students (n = 21. The control group followed was part of a regular school lesson with the same duration (n = 28. Saliva was collected after a normal school lesson (pre-test as well as after the intervention/control period (post-test and was analyzed for testosterone. Fine motor skills were assessed pre- and post-intervention using a manual dexterity test (Flower Trail from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2. A repeated measure ANCOVA including gender as a covariate revealed a significant group by test interaction, indicating an increase in manual dexterity only for the psychosocial stress group. Correlation analysis of all students shows that the change of testosterone from pre- to post-test was directly linked (r = -.31, p = .01 to the changes in manual dexterity performance. Participants showing high increases in testosterone from pre- to post-test made fewer mistakes in the fine motor skills task. Findings suggest that manual dexterity increases when psychosocial stress is induced and that improvement of manual dexterity performance corresponds with the increase of testosterone.

  8. A longitudinal analysis of salivary testosterone concentrations and competitiveness in elite and non-elite women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J

    2018-05-01

    There is evidence linking women's testosterone (T) to competitive behaviours in sport and exercise. To advance this work, we examined the longitudinal relationships between salivary T (sal-T) and competitiveness in athletic women who differ in training status. Elite (n = 9) and non-elite (n = 21) women athletes were monitored on days 6-8 (follicular phase), 13-15 (ovulatory phase) and 20-22 (Luteal phase) of a menstrual cycle with two repeats. Salivary T levels were assessed before breakfast, followed by two questions (each rated on a 1-7 scale) on competitive desire and training motivation. Using a linear mixed model, we evaluated the menstrual phase and training status effects on each variable, before assessing the within-subject effects of sal-T on competitiveness. Salivary T concentrations were higher at ovulation (effect size [ES] difference = 0.2-1.4), relative to the follicular and luteal phases, with a more marked response among elite women (p competitiveness ratings showed similar menstrual-phase variation (ES difference = 0.6-1.0 at ovulation). A positive effect of sal-T on competitiveness emerged in both groups (p competitive desire and training motivation all peaked around ovulation in women athletes. Notably, sal-T availability and its relationship with competitiveness was stronger among high-performing athletes. Our findings confirm menstrual fluctuations in T and competitiveness among naturally-cycling women, with population context as a moderating factor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 2D DC Subnormal Glow Discharge in Argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchikhi, A.; Hamid, A.

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional time-dependent fluid model was developed and used to describe a DC subnormal glow discharge in argon with Cartesian geometry. This configuration allows us to take into account the transverse expansion of the discharge. A hydrodynamic fluid model used in this paper is based on the moments of the Boltzmann transport equation. The resultant set of governing equations consists of continuity equations (fluxes and densities) for electrons and ions, an energy equation for electrons, and Poisson's equation. Simulation results are presented for the densities of charged particles, the electric voltage, the electric field, and the electron temperature of the discharge. The results were compared with those obtained in the literature.

  10. Expression of androgen-producing enzyme genes and testosterone concentration in Angus and Nellore heifers with high and low ovarian follicle count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Bárbara; Ereno, Ronaldo L; Favoreto, Mauricio G; Barros, Ciro M

    2016-07-15

    Follicle population is important when animals are used in assisted reproductive programs. Bos indicus animals have more follicles per follicular wave than Bos taurus animals. On the other hand, B taurus animals present better fertility when compared with B indicus animals. Androgens are positively related with the number of antral follicles; moreover, they increase growth factor expression in granulose cells and oocytes. Experimentation was designed to compare testosterone concentration in plasma, and follicular fluid and androgen enzymes mRNA expression (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD) in follicles from Angus and Nellore heifers. Heifers were assigned into two groups according to the number of follicles: low and high follicle count groups. Increased testosterone concentration was measured in both plasma and follicular fluid of Angus heifers. However, there was no difference within groups. Expression of CYP11A1 gene was higher in follicles from Angus heifers; however, there was no difference within groups. Expression of CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD genes was higher in follicles from Nellore heifers, and expression of CYP17A1 and 3BHSD genes was also higher in HFC groups from both breeds. It was found that Nellore heifers have more antral follicles than Angus heifers. Testosterone concentration was higher in Angus heifers; this increase could be associated with the increased mRNA expression of CYP11A1. Increased expression of androgen-producing enzyme genes (CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD) was detected in Nellore heifers. It can be suggested that testosterone is acting through different mechanisms to increase follicle development in Nellore and improve fertility in Angus heifers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription on the concentration of the serum testosterone and cortisol in male rats under stress of maximum intensive training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ling; Si Xulan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription on the concentration of the serum testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) in male rats under the stress of maximum intensive training. Methods: Wistar male rat models of stress under maximum intensity training were established (n=40) and half of them were treated with Chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription twenty undisturbed rats served as controls. Testosterone and cortisol serum levels were determined with RIA at the end of the seven weeks' experiment. Results: Maximum intensive training would cause the level of the serum testosterone lowered, the concentration of the cortisol elevated and the ratio of T/C reduced. The serum T levels and T/C ratio were significantly lower and cortisol levels significantly higher in the untreated models than those in the treated models and controls (P<0.01). The levels of the two hormones were markedly corrected in the treated models with no significantly differences from those in the controls. However, the T/C ratio was still significantly lower than that in the controls (P <0.05) due to a relatively slightly greater degree of reduction of T levels. Conclusion: Anti-fatigue prescription can not only promote the recovery of fatigue after the maximum intensive training but also strengthen the anabolism of the rats. (authors)

  12. Comparison of serum testosterone and estradiol measurements in 3174 European men using platform immunoassay and mass spectrometry; relevance for the diagnostics in aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Lee, David M; O'Neill, Terence W; Finn, Joseph D; Bartfai, György; Boonen, Steven; Casanueva, Felipe F; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Kula, Krzysztof; Labrie, Fernand; Lean, Michael E J; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Forti, Gianni; Wu, Frederick C W

    2012-06-01

    The limitations of serum testosterone and estradiol (E(2)) measurements using non-extraction platform immunoassays (IAs) are widely recognized. Switching to more specific mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods has been advocated, but directly comparative data on the two methods are scarce. We compared serum testosterone and E(2) measurements in a large sample of middle-aged/elderly men using a common platform IA and a gas chromatography (GC)-MS method, in order to assess their limitations and advantages, and to diagnose male hypogonadism. Of subjects from the European Male Aging Study (n=3174; age 40-79 years), peripheral serum testosterone and E(2) were analyzed using established commercial platform IAs (Roche Diagnostics E170) and in-house GC-MS methods. Over a broad concentration range, serum testosterone concentration measured by IA and MS showed high correlation (R=0.93, PIA/MS correlation was weaker in E(2) measurements (R=0.32, P40.8 pmol/l, and R=0.74, P40.8 pmol/l). Using MS as the comparator method, IA ascertained low testosterone compatible with hypogonadism (IA for the detection of low E(2) (40.7 pmol/l) were 13.3 and 99.3%, and for high E(2) (>120 pmol/l) 88.4 and 88.6%. A validated platform IA is sufficient to detect subnormal testosterone concentrations in the diagnosis of male hypogonadism. The IA used for E(2) measurements showed poor correlation with MS and may only be suitable for the detection of high E(2) in men.

  13. Testosterone depot injection in male hypogonadism: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksam A Yassin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aksam A Yassin1, Mohamed Haffejee21Clinic of Urology/Andrology, Segeberger Kliniken, Norderstedt-Hamburg, Germany and Department of Urology, Gulf Medical College School of Medicine, Ajman-UAE 2Urology Division at the University of Witwaterstrand & Johannesburg Hospital, Johannesburg, South AfricaAbstract: Testosterone compounds have been available for almost 70 years, but the pharmaceutical formulations have been less than ideal. Traditionally, injectable testosterone esters have been used for treatment, but they generate supranormal testosterone levels shortly after the 2- to 3-weekly injection interval and then testosterone levels decline very rapidly, becoming subnormal in the days before the next injection. The rapid fluctuations in plasma testosterone are subjectively experienced as disagreeable. Testosterone undecanoate is a new injectable testosterone preparation with a considerably better pharmacokinetic profile. After 2 initial injections with a 6-week interval, the following intervals between two injections are almost always 12-weeks, amounting eventually to a total of 4 injections per year. Plasma testosterone levels with this preparation are nearly always in the range of normal men, so are its metabolic products estradiol and dihydrotestosterone. The “roller coaster” effects of traditional parenteral testosterone injections are not apparent. It reverses the effects of hypogonadism on bone and muscle and metabolic parameters and on sexual functions. Its safety profile is excellent due to the continuous normalcy of plasma testosterone levels. No polycythemia has been observed, and no adverse effects on lipid profiles. Prostate safety parameters are well within reference limits. There was no impairment of uroflow. Testosterone undecanoate is a valuable contribution to the treatment options of androgen deficiency.Keywords: testosterone treatment, testosterone undecanoate, pharmacokinetic profile, clinical efficacy, side effects

  14. Testosterone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not apply any testosterone topical products to your penis or scrotum or to skin that has sores, ... are severe or do not go away: breast enlargement and/or pain decreased sexual desire acne depression ...

  15. The bone mass density in men aged over 50 and its relation to the concentration of free and total testosterone in the blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purzycka-Jazdon, A.; Lasek, W.; Serafin, Z.; Manysiak, S.

    2003-01-01

    As the mean length of life increases, osteoporosis affects a growing number of men and women, thus becoming an important medical and socioeconomic problem in many countries. Pathogenesis and the prevalence of the osteoporosis in women are well established, however, in men, they are still controversial. In this study, the bone mass density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was determined in 100 healthy men age 50-83, using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Also, the total serum and free testosterone was measured. The mean BMD was 123.1I39.3 mg/cm 3 , and the values below a fracture threshold were noted in 39% of subjects. The mean concentration of total and free serum testosterone was 4.3I1.7 ng/ml and 6.2I3.7 pg/ml, respectively. There was a significant (p 3 , respectively). There was no correlation found between total testosterone and BMD. Results indicate that reduced bone mass density in males over 50 is as frequent as recently reported in females. Moreover, sex hormones seem to be related to osteoporosis development in men as well. (author)

  16. The influence of chronic exposure to low frequency pulsating magnetic fields on concentrations of FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone and estradiol in men with back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldanska-Okonska, Marta; Karasek, Michal; Czernicki, Jan

    2004-06-01

    There is widespread public concern that electromagnetic fields might be hazardous. However, studies on the biological effects of magnetic fields (MFs) have not always been consistent. Influence of extremely-low frequency MFs used in physiotherapy on endocrine system was rarely examined. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the concentrations of some pituitary (FSH, LH, prolactin) and sex (testosterone, estradiol) hormones in men with back pain exposed to magnetic fields applied during magnetotherapy or magnetostimulation over the period of three weeks. The study was performed on 20 men aged 28-62 years (mean+/-SEM: 46.4+/-2.0 years) suffering from chronic low back pain who underwent magnetotherapy (10 patients, mean age+/-SEM: 48.4 years, range: 28-62 years) or subjected to magnetostimulation (10 patients, mean age+/-SEM: 44.3 years, range: 34-52 years) for 15 days (daily at 10:00 h, with weekend breaks). Blood samples were collected at 08:00 before magnetic field application, one day and one month following the application. Concentrations of hormones were measured by micromethod of chemiluminescence. Both magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation lowered levels of prolactin. The levels of LH decreased significantly one month after magnetotherapy in comparison with the baseline whereas following magnetostimulation slight but insignificant increase was observed. Estradiol concentrations were significantly lower one day and one month following magnetosimulation in comparison to the baseline and did not change after magnetotherapy. No statistically significant changes were observed in levels of FSH and testosterone after either magnetotherapy or magnetosimulation at any time examined. Magnetic fields applied in physiotherapy exert no or very subtle effect on concentrations of FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone, and estradiol in men.

  17. Plasma Concentration of Prolactin, Testosterone Might Be Associated with Brain Response to Visual Erotic Stimuli in Healthy Heterosexual Males

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Younghee; Jeong, Bumseok; Kim, Ji-Woong; Choi, Jeewook

    2009-01-01

    Objective Many studies have showed that excess or lack of sexual hormones, such as prolactin and testosterone, induced the sexual dysfunction in humans. Little, however, is known about the role of sexual hormones showing normal range in, especially, the basal state unexposed to any sexual stimulation. We hypothesized sexual hormones in the basal state may affect sexual behavior. Methods We investigated the association of the sexual hormones level in the basal hormonal state before visual sexu...

  18. The Effect of Apium graveolens hydroalcoholic Seed Extract on Sperm Parameters and Serum Testosterone Concentration in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kerishchi Khiabani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: apium graveolens contains antioxidant activity and high level of polyphenolics. The purpose of this study was to determaine the effect of Apium graveolens seeds extract on semen parameters and serum testosterone level in mice. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty male mice were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of Apium graveolenas L. was administered intraperitoneally at the doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg for 14 days. A week after the final injection, blood samples were collected for hormonal assay. Then, the testes weight, sperm count and cauda epididymal sperm motility was assessed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: The results were compared with the control group indicating a significant increase in the total number of sperm at dose 400 mg.kg and increase sperm motility was seen in groups receiving 200 and 400 mg.kg respectively (P<0.001. Increased testosterone levels in the group receiving 400 mg.kg compared with the control group was observed (P<0.01. A significant increase was seen in testes weight compared with the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Apium graveolens seed extract appeared to be effective in improving semen parameters and serum total testosterones were dose dependent.

  19. Testosterone in women-the clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Susan R; Jacobsen, Sarah Wåhlin

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is an essential hormone for women, with physiological actions mediated directly or via aromatisation to oestradiol throughout the body. Despite the crucial role of testosterone and the high circulating concentrations of this hormone relative to oestradiol in women, studies of its...... action and the effects of testosterone deficiency and replacement in women are scarce. The primary indication for the prescription of testosterone for women is loss of sexual desire, which causes affected women substantial concern. That no formulation has been approved for this purpose has not impeded...... the widespread use of testosterone by women-either off-label or as compounded therapy. Observational studies indicate that testosterone has favourable cardiovascular effects measured by surrogate outcomes; however, associations between endogenous testosterone and the risk of cardiovascular disease and total...

  20. Testicular histology and blood testosterone levels of male rabbit after given concentrated diets containing calliandra leaf meal and pineapple peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, I.; Ermayanti, N. G. A. M.; Suarni, N. M. R.; Narayani, I.; Suaskara, I. B. M.

    2018-03-01

    Calliandra calothyrsus Meissn is one of a highly protein source of forage, however, it is not widely used for non ruminant feed because it contains antinutritional substances in the form of condensed tannin. Tannin can bind proteins, this tannin-protein complexes are difficult to be digested in the gastrointestinal tract, then will be defecated outside the body. To optimize the utilization of calliandra in the diet, pineapple peels were added as a source of protease (bromelain). Beside of waste utilization, it is expected that bromelain can degrade the tannin-protein complexes thereby reducing the negative effects of tannins. This research is a feeding experiment on male rabbit (Lepus sp), five weeks old. The diet formulation is prepared according to the standardized diet of the local rabbit. This experiment used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments i.e. control group which were only given commercial feed (R0), commercial feed contained 15% of Calliandra leaf meal and 30% of pineapple peel (R1), commercial feed contained 30% of Calliandra leaf meal and 30% of pineapple peel (R2), and commercial feed contained 45% of Calliandra and 30% of pineapple peel (R3). The treatment was done for three months. The results of this study on the reproduction of male rabbits showed that the increase of calliandra leaf meal level in a diet containing 30% of pineapple peels affected the testicular histology, and also decreased the diameter of seminiferous tubule and blood testosterone levels of male rabbits.

  1. Plasma IGF-I, INSL3, testosterone, inhibin concentrations and scrotal circumferences surrounding puberty in Japanese Black beef bulls with normal and abnormal semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerakoon, W W P N; Sakase, M; Kawate, N; Hannan, M A; Kohama, N; Tamada, H

    2018-07-01

    The relationships between semen abnormalities and peripheral concentrations of testicular and metabolic hormones in beef bulls are unclear. Here we compared plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3), testosterone, inhibin concentrations, and scrotal circumferences surrounding puberty in Japanese Black beef bulls (n = 66) with normal or abnormal semen. We collected blood samples and measured scrotal circumferences monthly from 4 to 24 months of age. Semen was collected weekly from 12 months until at least 18 months of age. Fresh semen was evaluated for semen volume, sperm motility, concentrations, and morphological defects. The normal fresh semen was frozen by a standard method and examined for post-thaw sperm motility and fertility. Bulls were classified as having either normal post-thaw semen (n = 45) or abnormal semen (n = 21, when at least one of the above test items was abnormal for 6 months). Abnormal semen was classified into abnormal fresh or low-fertility post-thaw which evaluated for rates of transferable embryos. The abnormal fresh was categorized as having sperm morphological defects, low motility, and morphological defects plus low motility. Scrotal circumferences were smaller for the abnormal-semen group vs. the normal-semen group at 20 and 24 months (p IGF-I, INSL3, and inhibin concentrations in the abnormal-semen group were lower than those of the normal-semen group (p IGF-I; 6, 9, 11-14, 17, and 20-21 months for INSL3; 5, 8-13, 16, 17, 19, and 20 months for inhibin). The plasma testosterone concentrations were lower in the abnormal-semen bulls vs. normal-semen bulls only at 22 months (p IGF-I and inhibin concentrations for low-fertility post-thaw semen (p IGF-I, INSL3, and inhibin surrounding puberty may be associated with semen aberration in beef bulls. Notably, the combined sperm abnormality of morphological defects and low motility in fresh semen could involve lowered INSL3, whereas the low

  2. Reliability of salivary testosterone measurements in diagnosis of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omnia Youssef

    2010-07-01

    Conclusion: Determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active testosterone in the serum. Salivary testosterone provides a sensitive, simple, reliable, non-invasive and uncomplicated diagnostic approach for PCOS.

  3. Cardiac adaptation to pregnancy in women with a history of preeclampsia and a subnormal plasma volume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrietti, S.; Kruse, A.J.; Bekkers, S.C.; Sep, S.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Peeters, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    In former preeclamptics, a subnormal plasma volume (LPV) predisposes to hemodynamic maladaptation to pregnancy. Here, we assessed the initial cardiovascular response to pregnancy in LPV (n = 20), in former preeclamptics with normal plasma volume (NPV) (n = 35) and in parous controls (CONTR) (n = 9)

  4. Continuous weakly cancellative triangular subnorms: I. Their web-geometric properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrík, Milan; Sarkoci, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 332, 1 February (2018), s. 93-110 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-07724Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : associativity * conditionally cancellative * continuous triangular subnorm * contour * level set * Reidemeister closure condition * weakly cancellative * web geometry Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016

  5. Plasma concentrations of estradiol and testosterone, gonadal aromatase activity and ultrastructure of the testis in Xenopus laevis exposed to estradiol or atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, Markus; Kim, Wan Jong; Park, June-Woo; Murphy, Margaret B.; Villeneuve, Daniel; Coady, Katherine K.; Jones, Paul D.; Solomon, Keith R.; Kraak, Glen van der; Carr, James A.; Smith, Ernest E.; Preez, Louis du; Kendall, Ronald J.; Giesy, John P.

    2005-01-01

    The ultrastructure of testicular cells of adult male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) exposed to either estradiol (0.1 μg/L) or 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropyl-amino-s-triazine (atrazine; 10 or 100 μg/L) was examined by electron microscopy and compared to plasma concentrations of the steroid hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), testicular aromatase activity and gonad growth expressed as the gonado-somatic index (GSI). Exposure to E2 caused significant changes both at the sub-cellular and biochemical levels. Exposure to E2 resulted in significantly fewer sperm cells, inhibition of meiotic division of germ cells, more lipid droplets that are storage compartments for the sex steroid hormone precursor cholesterol, and lesser plasma T concentrations. Although not statistically significant, frogs exposed to E2 had slightly smaller GSI values. These results may be indicative of an inhibition of gonad growth and disrupted germ cell development by E2. Concentrations of E2 in plasma were greater in frogs exposed to E2 in water. Exposure to neither concentration of atrazine caused effects on germ cell development, testicular aromatase activity or plasma hormone concentrations. These results suggest that atrazine does not affect testicular function. In contrast, exposure of male X. laevis to E2 led to sub-cellular events that are indicative of disruption of testicular development, and demasculinization processes (decrease of androgen hormone titers). These results indicate that atrazine does not cause responses that are similar to those caused by exposure to E2

  6. Dynamics of testosterone concentration in male steppe lemmings (Lagurus lagurus) in the reproductive cycle reflects the species-specific mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapova, O F; Potapov, M A; Kondratyuk, E Yu; Evsikov, V I

    2016-05-01

    In the blood of male steppe lemmings, relatively low background levels of testosterone were detected, this is characteristic of a monogamous species. A significant increase in testosterone level, more expressed in sexually active males, was observed at the initial stage of formation of reproductive couples. Apparently, in the future, the couple will exist in a stable relationship, and, hence, the maintenance of a high testosterone level becomes excessive. The decrease in, and the relative "normalization" of, the hormone level during the existence of the pair, including raising of the young, promotes higher expression of the male paternal care of the offspring at the species level.

  7. Short-term parenteral and peroral testosterone administration in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Dietrichson, O

    1981-01-01

    other day, rather constant serum concentrations with median values of about 30 ng/ml were reached after 4 days. Peroral testosterone administration (800 mg micronized free testosterone) each day also resulted in fairly constant serum concentrations after 4 days, and the median values were about 50 ng......Serum concentrations of testosterone were measured in 24 male patients with alcoholic cirrhosis during testosterone administration. The purpose was to compare serum concentrations of testosterone during peroral with those during parenteral testosterone administration in these patients. Patients who...... were injected intramuscularly with a combination of short- and long-acting testosterone (Triolandren, 348 mg testosterone) had median peak values of serum testosterone of about 40 ng/ml, which fell to basal levels after a fortnight. During testosterone propionate injections (84 mg testosterone) every...

  8. Serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione and testosterone in children determined by TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Fruekilde, Palle

    2013-01-01

    for quantification of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione and testosterone in serum from pre-pubertal children. Run time was 10.75min. Limits of quantification were as follows: DHEA, 0.88nM; DHEAS, 48nM; 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, 0.19nM; Δ4-androstenedione, 0.18nM and testosterone, 0.10nM. Intra-day...

  9. Up-regulation of the alligator CYP3A77 gene by toxaphene and dexamethasone and its short term effect on plasma testosterone concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, M.P.; Kohno, S.; Blumberg, B.; Iguchi, T.; Guillette, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we describe an alligator hepatic CYP3A gene, CYP3A77, which is inducible by dexamethasone and toxaphene. CYP3A plays a broad role in biotransforming both exogenous compounds and endogenous hormones such as testosterone and estradiol. Alligators collected from sites in Florida that are contaminated with organochlorine compounds exhibit differences in sex steroid concentrations. Many organochlorine compounds induce CYP3A expression in other vertebrates; hence, CYP3A induction by organochlorine contaminants could increase biotransformation and clearance of sex steroids by CYP3A and provide a plausible mechanism for the lowering of endogenous sex steroid concentrations in alligator plasma. We used real time PCR to examine whether known and suspected CYP3A inducers (dexamethasone, metyrapone, rifampicin, and toxaphene) up-regulate steady state levels of hepatic CYP3A77 transcript to determine if induction patterns in female juvenile alligators are similar to those reported in other vertebrates and whether toxaphene, an organochlorine compound found in high concentrations in Lake Apopka alligators, induces this gene. Estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), progesterone receptor (PR), and steroid-xenobiotic receptor (SXR) transcripts were also measured to determine whether any of these nuclear receptors are also regulated by these compounds in alligators. Dexamethasone (4.2-fold) and toxaphene (3.5-fold) significantly induced CYP3A77 gene transcript, whereas rifampicin (2.8-fold) and metyrapone (2.1-fold) up-regulated ERβ after 24 h. None of the compounds significantly up-regulated AR, ERα, GR, PR, or SXR over this time period. Plasma testosterone (T) did not change significantly after 24 h in alligators from any of the treatment groups. Dexamethasone treated animals exhibited a strong relationship between the 24 h plasma T concentrations and CYP3A77 (R 2 = 0.9, positive) and SXR (R 2

  10. A mixture of an environmentally realistic concentration of a phthalate and herbicide reduces testosterone in male fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) through a novel mechanism of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crago, Jordan, E-mail: jcrago@uwm.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53204 (United States); Klaper, Rebecca, E-mail: rklaper@uwm.edu [School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53204 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Several chemicals that are used by humans, such as pesticides and plastics, are released into the aquatic environment through wastewater and runoff and have been shown to be potent disruptors of androgen synthesis at high concentrations. Although many of these chemicals have been studied in isolation, a large amount of uncertainty remains over how fish respond to low concentrations of anti-androgenic mixtures, which more accurately reflects how such chemicals are present in the aquatic environment. In this study male fathead minnows (FHM) (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of two anti-androgens, the herbicide linuron, and the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) individually and as part of a mixture of the two for a 28-day period. At the end of this period there was a reduction in plasma testosterone (T) concentrations in male FHM exposed to the mixture, but not in FHM exposed individually to linuron or DEHP or the control FHM. There was also a significant reduction in 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) in the DEHP-only and mixture exposed groups as compared to the control. Contrary to what has been previously published for these two chemicals in mammals, the lower plasma T concentrations in male FHM exposed to the mixture was not a result of the inhibition of genes involved in steroidogenesis; nor due to an increase in the expression of genes associated with peroxisome proliferation. Rather, an increase in relative transcript abundance for CYP3A4 in the liver and androgen- and estrogen-specific SULT2A1 and SULT1st2 in the testes provides evidence that the decrease in plasma T and E2 may be linked to increased steroid catabolism. Feedback from the pituitary is not repressed as the relative expression of follicle stimulating hormone {beta}-subunit mRNA transcript levels in the brain was significantly higher in both DEHP and mixture exposed FHM. In addition, luteinizing hormone {beta}-subunit mRNA transcript levels increased

  11. A mixture of an environmentally realistic concentration of a phthalate and herbicide reduces testosterone in male fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) through a novel mechanism of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crago, Jordan; Klaper, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Several chemicals that are used by humans, such as pesticides and plastics, are released into the aquatic environment through wastewater and runoff and have been shown to be potent disruptors of androgen synthesis at high concentrations. Although many of these chemicals have been studied in isolation, a large amount of uncertainty remains over how fish respond to low concentrations of anti-androgenic mixtures, which more accurately reflects how such chemicals are present in the aquatic environment. In this study male fathead minnows (FHM) (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of two anti-androgens, the herbicide linuron, and the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) individually and as part of a mixture of the two for a 28-day period. At the end of this period there was a reduction in plasma testosterone (T) concentrations in male FHM exposed to the mixture, but not in FHM exposed individually to linuron or DEHP or the control FHM. There was also a significant reduction in 17β-estradiol (E2) in the DEHP-only and mixture exposed groups as compared to the control. Contrary to what has been previously published for these two chemicals in mammals, the lower plasma T concentrations in male FHM exposed to the mixture was not a result of the inhibition of genes involved in steroidogenesis; nor due to an increase in the expression of genes associated with peroxisome proliferation. Rather, an increase in relative transcript abundance for CYP3A4 in the liver and androgen- and estrogen-specific SULT2A1 and SULT1st2 in the testes provides evidence that the decrease in plasma T and E2 may be linked to increased steroid catabolism. Feedback from the pituitary is not repressed as the relative expression of follicle stimulating hormone β-subunit mRNA transcript levels in the brain was significantly higher in both DEHP and mixture exposed FHM. In addition, luteinizing hormone β-subunit mRNA transcript levels increased but were not

  12. Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittek, J.; L'Hommedieu, D.G.; Gordon, G.G.; Rappaport, S.C.; Southren, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  13. Sex, age, pubertal development and use of oral contraceptives in relation to serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone and their ratios in children, adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Mouritsen, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sex, age, pubertal development and oral contraceptives on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), Δ4-androstenedione (Adione), testosterone (T), calculated free testosterone (fT), free androgen index (FAI) and selected ratios in 1798...... serum samples from healthy children, adolescents and young adults was evaluated. Samples were analyzed by Turboflow-LC-MS/MS. Sex hormone-binding globulin was analyzed by immunoassay. All steroid metabolite concentrations were positively associated with age and pubertal development in both sexes....... Use of oral contraceptives significantly lowered serum concentrations of all steroid metabolites, fT, FAI, the 17-OHP/Adione, the Adione/T and the DHEA/Adione ratios, but not the DHEA/DHEAS ratio. We provide reference ranges for DHEA, DHEAS, 17-OHP, Adione, T, fT, FAI and selected ratios in relation...

  14. Acute effect of a fight of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA on the serum concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, creatine kinase, lactate, and glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Poderoso de Souza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the serum concentrations of testosterone (T, cortisol (C, lactate (LAC, creatine kinase (CK and glucose (GLU on mixed martial arts (MMA athletes, before and after a fight. We divided 20 MMA athletes into two groups of 10 fighters each, according to the result of a fight, and were then evaluated four times: 24 hours before (-24h, one hour before (-1h, immediately after (0h and 24 hours after the fight (+24h. It was observed: a significant decrease in T and T/C between moment -24h and 0h and a subsequent increase between the moment 0h and +24h and a reverse behaviour in variables C, LAC and GLU (p<0.0001; a decrease in CK between moment -24h and -1h and an increase between moment -1h and +24h (p<0.0001; and differences between winners and losers T levels, in moments -24h, -1h, 0h and +24h (p = 0.009 e p < 0.001, p = 0.005 e p = 0,001, T and C, respectively, in T/C in the moments -24h and 0h (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively and in GLU levels (p<0.0001 in the moment 0h. Therefore, it seems that an MMA fight leads to metabolic stress and muscle damage, regardless of the result of the fight. The coaches have now more biochemical and hormonal references and indicators in response to an MMA fight.

  15. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Nieschlag

    2014-02-01

    Kallmann, DelCastillo and Pasqualini. In the 1950s longer-acting injectable testosterone enanthate became the preferred therapeutic modality. In the 1950s and 1960s, research concentrated on the chemical modification of androgens in order to emphasize their anabolic effects. Although anabolic steroids have largely disappeared from clinical medicine, they continue to live an illegal life for doping in athletics. In the 1970s the orally effective testosterone undecanoate was added to the spectrum of preparations. Recent transdermal gels and long-acting injectable preparations provide options for physiological testosterone substitution therapy.

  16. Dynamics of serum testosterone during the menstrual cycle evaluated by daily measurements with an ID-LC-MS/MS method and a 2nd generation automated immunoassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, Hong N.; Sluss, Patrick M.; Blincko, Stuart; Knol, Dirk L.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone concentrations in normally cycling women are assumed to be elevated around the time of ovulation. The clinical relevance of changing testosterone concentrations during the menstrual cycle, however, is unclear. Poor performance of current direct immunoassays for testosterone at low

  17. GnRHR-II knockdown swine have constitutively lower serum testosterone concentrations, impaired senstitivity to GnRH analogues and reduced semen quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The second mammalian GnRH isoform (GnRH-II) and its specific receptor (GnRHR-II) are abundantly produced within swine testes. GnRHR-II localizes to porcine Leydig cells and exogenous GnRH-II treatment robustly stimulates testosterone production in vivo, despite minimal secretion of luteinizing hormo...

  18. Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McCullough

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supporting the concept of restoration of endogenous testosterone in the treatment of LOH.

  19. Gender differences in financial risk aversion and career choices are affected by testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Paola; Zingales, Luigi; Maestripieri, Dario

    2009-09-08

    Women are generally more risk averse than men. We investigated whether between- and within-gender variation in financial risk aversion was accounted for by variation in salivary concentrations of testosterone and in markers of prenatal testosterone exposure in a sample of >500 MBA students. Higher levels of circulating testosterone were associated with lower risk aversion among women, but not among men. At comparably low concentrations of salivary testosterone, however, the gender difference in risk aversion disappeared, suggesting that testosterone has nonlinear effects on risk aversion regardless of gender. A similar relationship between risk aversion and testosterone was also found using markers of prenatal testosterone exposure. Finally, both testosterone levels and risk aversion predicted career choices after graduation: Individuals high in testosterone and low in risk aversion were more likely to choose risky careers in finance. These results suggest that testosterone has both organizational and activational effects on risk-sensitive financial decisions and long-term career choices.

  20. [Testosterone and psyche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiber, C; Wetterauer, U; Berner, M

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone, like other steroid hormones, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and the androgen receptor is present in most parts of the human brain. Therefore, testosterone has many effects on the psyche, mainly in men but also in women. Most often discussed is its influence on sexuality, especially on desire and sexual fantasies, spontaneous nighttime erections, sexual activity, and the number of orgasms and ejaculations. Mood and energy are also testosterone related. Testosterone deficiency in male patients can lead to depressive disorders. In the past, elevated testosterone levels were seen as responsible for strongly aggressive behaviour. Some cognitive functions (spatial and mathematical sense, verbal skills) are, at least to a certain point, testosterone related. Due to the extremely complex functioning of the human brain, a scientifically exact statement regarding the true relationship between testosterone and human behaviour is not possible. On the one hand, the cause is definitively multifactorial, but on the other, testosterone is metabolised in the brain, and the metabolites act by themselves. Furthermore, a bidirectional relationship exists between hormones and human behaviour: Human behaviour is influenced by hormones, and human behaviour also has a direct influence on the levels of many hormones in the human body. Finally, much data in this field are derived from animal studies; studies on humans cannot be conducted because of ethical reasons or scientific and technical problems.

  1. Comparison of methods for determination of testosterone and non-protein bound testosterone in men with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    The serum concentrations of testosterone and of non-protein bound testosterone were determined in 28 men with alcoholic liver disease having normal to decreased serum albumin concentrations and normal to raised SHBG concentrations. Serum testosterone concentrations determined with two...... radioimmunoassays using different purification procedures and antibody batches did not differ significantly and correlated significantly (r=0.91; p less than 0.001). The median serum concentration of non-protein bound testosterone was 0.265 nmol/l (range 0.068-0.495 nmol/l) when determined by equilibrium dialysis...... and 0.232 nmol/l (range 0.042-0.610 nmol/l) when calculated according to the law of mass action. This difference is insignificant. The concentrations of non-protein bound testosterone determined by the two methods correlated significantly (r=0.83; p less than 0.001). In the calculation of non...

  2. Sex, age, pubertal development and use of oral contraceptives in relation to serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone and their ratios in children, adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Mouritsen, Annette; Johannsen, Trine Holm; Main, Katharina Maria; Jørgensen, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Juul, Anders

    2014-11-01

    The influence of sex, age, pubertal development and oral contraceptives on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), Δ4-androstenedione (Adione), testosterone (T), calculated free testosterone (fT), free androgen index (FAI) and selected ratios in 1798 serum samples from healthy children, adolescents and young adults was evaluated. Samples were analyzed by Turboflow-LC-MS/MS. Sex hormone-binding globulin was analyzed by immunoassay. All steroid metabolite concentrations were positively associated with age and pubertal development in both sexes and generally higher in males than in females except for Adione. The pubertal rise in T in males was more pronounced compared to females, reflecting contribution from the testes. Ratios between steroid metabolites varied and depended on sex and age. All ratios were lower during infancy compared to later in life. Use of oral contraceptives significantly lowered serum concentrations of all steroid metabolites, fT, FAI, the 17-OHP/Adione, the Adione/T and the DHEA/Adione ratios, but not the DHEA/DHEAS ratio. We provide reference ranges for DHEA, DHEAS, 17-OHP, Adione, T, fT, FAI and selected ratios in relation to sex, age and pubertal development. Use of oral contraceptives strongly influences adrenal steroidogenesis and should be considered when diagnosing and monitoring treatment of patients with disorders of sex development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Serum testosterone as a prognostic factor in patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Christensen, I J

    1994-01-01

    In 245 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate, serum concentrations of testosterone have been measured before androgen deprivation therapy, and patients were divided in quartiles according to their serum concentration. Pretreatment level of serum testosterone...... parameters suggest that low serum testosterone merely is a consequence of the advanced malignancy rather than a causative factor in the pathogenesis of prostatic cancer....

  4. Could you have low testosterone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the testicles. It is important for a man's sex drive and physical appearance. Certain health conditions, medicines, or injury can lead to low testosterone (low-T). Testosterone level also naturally drops with age. Low testosterone can ... Testosterone makes a man look and feel like a man. In a ...

  5. Sexual Health: Testosterone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low testosterone may contribute to a decrease in motivation or self-confidence. You may feel sad or ... vein (deep vein thrombosis), which could break loose, travel through your bloodstream and lodge in your lungs, ...

  6. Testosterone and BMD in elite male lightweight rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A; Kanstrup, I-L; Christiansen, E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a relationship between BMD and testosterone levels could be identified in elite male lightweight rowers. Thirteen male lightweight national team rowers had their BMD measured in a DEXA scanner. Plasma concentrations of total testosterone (TT)...

  7. KAJIAN TERAPI AKUPUNKTUR TERHADAP KADAR HORMON TESTOSTERON PRIA USIA LANJUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wasito Tjipto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testosterone was the most important androgen secreted into the blood in males. It was responsible for development of secondary male sex characteristics and its measurements are helpful in evaluating the hypogonadal states. Decreasing of testosterone in males started in middle age, about 45–59 years old. It is responsible of decreasing muscle mass and strength, increasing of body fat especially abdominal fat and gynecomastia, less of libido and sexual intercourse frequency, increase of erectile dysfunction. Objective: The objective of this study was conducted stimulation on acupuncture reproduction point to increase testosterone hormone level in elder’s men. Methods: The study used non randomized experiment pre- post test without control group design, the samples was 40 older men, about 50 – more than 70 years old. The stimulation on acupuncture point CV-4, Sp-6, LV-3, and ST-36, on older men were given five times per week, for ten treatments, before treatment each patient was determined the concentration of testosterone hormone and after ten times acupuncture treatment. Results: 15 old men, have increased testosterone level, 20 old men have decreased testosterone level, and 16 old men have no changes in libido after ten times acupuncture treatment. Not all responder after therapy acupuncture ten times at reproduction point have increased of hormone testosterone. Most of 50–69 year men have increased testosterone level. Men above 70 year have no changes testosterone level. There were 24 old men have changes in libido without increased testosterone level. Conclusion: acupuncture may used as alternative therapy to increased testosterone level and libido for elderly men. Key words: Acupuncture, testosterone hormone, old men

  8. AB19. Testosterone replacement therapy: how safe is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone has a ubiquitous role in the male body and the importance of a decline in testosterone levels has wide ranging impact on: regulation of gonadal function, prostate development and growth, libido, cerebral function, behavior, mood, muscle mass, liver function, lipid regulation, bone formation, atherogenesis, erythropoiesis, hair growth and immune function. What the minimum required level of serum testosterone for the optimal health of each of these areas, nor whether each organ system’s biological response to increasing or decreasing testosterone levels follows a ‘dose-response’, ‘threshold’ or other behaviour is unclear. Late-onset hypogonadism (also known as age-associated testosterone deficiency syndrome) is a syndrome associated with advancing age and characterized by a spectrum of symptoms and a biochemical deficiency in serum testosterone levels below the young healthy adult male reference range (280-300 ng/dL; 9.8-10.4 nmol/L- Note: this level may vary in different laboratories). The decrease in serum testosterone levels seems to be a gradual, age-related process resulting in an approximate 1-2% annual decline after age 30 years, with a steep decline in bioavailable and free testosterone levels. The findings Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging demonstrated that 30% of men in their eighth have total testosterone values in the hypogonadal range (that is between 200 and 400 ng/dL), and 50% have low free testosterone values (5-9 ng/dL; 0.17-0.31 nmol/L). An estimated 500,000 new cases of late-onset hypogonadism occur annually in the USA, with similar levels reported worldwide. Testosterone deficiency has marked physiological and clinical effects on men in middle age and beyond. With subnormal testosterone levels, the potential positive benefits of TRT on factors such as muscle mass, libido or erectile function are likely a dose-response phenomena, and should be considered differently than the threshold impact on the prostate. The

  9. Changes of plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, thyroid hormones, and testosterone concentrations in embryos and broiler chickens incubated under monochromatic green light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated whether the regulation of broiler embryonic or posthatch growth by green light stimulus during incubation is associated with the changes of some important hormones at different ages of embryos and broiler chickens. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880 were pre-weighed and randomly assigned 1 of 2 incubation treatment groups: i dark condition (control group, and ii monochromatic green light group (560 nm. The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps were equalised at the intensity of 15 lux (lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day one until hatching. After hatch, 120 day-old male chicks from each group were housed under white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. Compared with the dark condition, chicks incubated under the green light showed significantly higher growth hormone (GH levels from 19 d of embryogenesis (E19 to 5 d of posthatch (H5, and higher plasma insulinlike growth factor (IGF-I levels from both E17 to E19 and H3 to H35. No significant differences were found in plasma thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and testosterone in embryos or hatched birds between the 2 groups. These results indicate that somatotropic axis hormones (GH and IGF-I may be the most important contributor to chicken growth promoted by green light stimuli during embryogenesis.

  10. Male and female condoms: What do women of a subnormal agglomerate know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smalyanna Sgren da Costa Andrade

    Full Text Available Objective.Evaluate the knowledge about male and female condoms among women living in subnormal agglomerate and identify sources of information and appropriate care to use. Methods. Household survey, descriptive, transversal and quantitative study with 300 women over 18 of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil, who began their sexual life. The systematic sampling plan for data collection was used. The interview form included sociodemographic questions and gazed relevant aspects of the use of condoms as a preventive measure of sexually transmitted infections and AIDS. Results. TV and healthcare professionals were the main sources of information. The participants knew more often the male condom features compared to women. The care most often mentioned by women as the use of male and female condoms were related to the validity, form of openness and conditions of packaging and storage of condoms. The largest number of care focused on measures taken in the pre-sexual moment. Moreover, care was nonspecific on the female condom. Conclusion: The participating women have inadequate knowledge on female and male condoms. It is necessary that the nursing seek health education strategies for improving knowledge about relevant information about male and female condoms.

  11. Male and female condoms: What do women of a subnormal agglomerate know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgren da Costa Andrade, Smalyanna; Lacet Zaccara, Ana Aline; Souza Leite, Kamila Nethielly; de Almeida Nunes, Maria Luísa; Campos Coêlho, Hemílio Fernandes; Dos Santos Oliveira, Simone Helena

    2016-06-01

    Evaluate the knowledge about male and female condoms among women living in subnormal agglomerate and identify sources of information and appropriate care to use. Household survey, descriptive, transversal and quantitative study with 300 women over 18 of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil, who began their sexual life. The systematic sampling plan for data collection was used. The interview form included sociodemographic questions and gazed relevant aspects of the use of condoms as a preventive measure of sexually transmitted infections and AIDS. TV and healthcare professionals were the main sources of information. The participants knew more often the male condom features compared to women. The care most often mentioned by women as the use of male and female condoms were related to the validity, form of openness and conditions of packaging and storage of condoms. The largest number of care focused on measures taken in the pre-sexual moment. Moreover, care was nonspecific on the female condom. The participating women have inadequate knowledge on female and male condoms. It is necessary that the nursing seek health education strategies for improving knowledge about relevant information about male and female condoms.

  12. Subnormal energy expenditure: a putative causal factor in the weight gain induced by treatment of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, R; Lundsgaard, C; Lorenzen, J; Toubro, S; Perrild, H; Krog-Mikkelsen, I; Astrup, A

    2006-03-01

    To examine the causes of weight gain occurring as an adverse effect of treatment of hyperthyroidism. We measured 24-h energy expenditure (EE), body composition and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) in eight patients before and 1 year after treatment of hyperthyroidism was initiated, and eight controls. One year after initiation of treatment thyrotropin was normalized, thyroid hormones had fallen to the lower end of the reference range and fat mass had increased by 3.5 kg (p hyperthyroid patients before treatment than in controls (p = 0.003), and treatment decreased 24-h EE by 1.9 MJ/day (p = 0.001). After treatment, 24-h EE, adjusted for FFM, was similar to the controls. Multiple regression analyses showed that the suppressed EE could partly be attributed to an iatrogenic suppression of thyroid hormones, resulting in lower sleeping EE. Twenty-four hour SPA was normal in the hyperthyroid state, but decreased after treatment by 21% (p = 0.045), to a level not significantly different, but still below that of the controls. The study suggests that weight gain during treatment of hyperthyroidism might be due to subnormal levels of EE and SPA caused by a suppression of the thyroid hormone to a level in the lower end of the normal range.

  13. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullah MI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available M Iftekhar Ullah,1 Daniel M Riche,1,2 Christian A Koch1,31Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, The University of Mississippi, 3GV (Sonny Montgomery VA Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USAAbstract: Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule.Keywords: hypogonadism, transdermal, testosterone, sexual function, testosterone replacement therapy, estradiol

  14. An improved ultrafiltration method for determining free testosterone in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, I.; MacMahon, W.; Sgoutas, D.; Bowers, W.; Thompson, J.; Trawick, W.

    1982-01-01

    In this method, we use the Amicon MPS-1 centrifugal ultrafiltration device and the YMB membrane in measuring free testosterone in serum. Two independent assays are combined: total testosterone and the ultrafiltrable fraction of added [ 3 H]testosterone. The unbound fraction is determined in 0.15-0.5 mL ultrafiltrates of 0.6 to 1 mL of variably diluted serum that has been equilibrated with [ 3 H]testosterone at 37 degrees C. The assay is rapid (less than 1 h), practicable (requires 0.6 mL of serum), and reproducible (CV 3.2% within assay, 3.9% between assays). Accuracy was evaluated as the fraction of free testosterone in the ultrafiltrate of dialyzed serum vs that in a prior dialysate; they were the same confirming the validity of the free testosterone measurement. Samples from ostensibly healthy men and women and from hirsute and pregnant women gave results that agreed with those obtained by equilibrium dialysis. Total testosterone concentrations for normal and hirsute women showed considerable overlap, but data on free testosterone concentrations in these populations were better resolved

  15. Testosterone: action, deficiency, substitution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieschlag, E; Nieschlag, S. (Susan); Behre, H. M. (Hermann M.)

    2004-01-01

    ... reviews applications in male contraception, the role of 5 -reductase inhibitors and the controversial use of DHEA. For this book the editors have assembled the world leaders in testosterone research and clinical andrology and endocrinology. A special feature of the book is the fact that its 24 chapters were submitted simultaneously to ens...

  16. Serum testosterone in Arabian stallions during breeding and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... serum testosterone concentration during the non-breeding season is lower than that of the breeding season. .... confirm no impact of the stressful environmental conditions on the reproductive function of Arabian stallions.

  17. Testosterone for the aging male; current evidence and recommended practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Stanworth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Roger D Stanworth, T Hugh JonesCentre of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Barnsley, South Yorkshire, United Kingdom; Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, United KingdomAbstract: An international consensus document was recently published and provides guidance on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH in men. The diagnosis of LOH requires biochemical and clinical components. Controversy in defining the clinical syndrome continues due to the high prevalence of hypogonadal symptoms in the aging male population and the non-specific nature of these symptoms. Further controversy surrounds setting a lower limit of normal testosterone, the limitations of the commonly available total testosterone result in assessing some patients and the unavailability of reliable measures of bioavailable or free testosterone for general clinical use. As with any clinical intervention testosterone treatment should be judged on a balance of risk versus benefit. The traditional benefits of testosterone on sexual function, mood, strength and quality of life remain the primary goals of treatment but possible beneficial effects on other parameters such as bone density, obesity, insulin resistance and angina are emerging and will be reviewed. Potential concerns regarding the effects of testosterone on prostate disease, aggression and polycythaemia will also be addressed. The options available for treatment have increased in recent years with the availability of a number of testosterone preparations which can reliably produce physiological serum concentrations.Keywords: review, testosterone, male, aging

  18. The "trouble" with salivary testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Douglas A; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Booth, Alan; Kivlighan, Katie T; Schwartz, Eve B

    2004-11-01

    In a series of studies, we identify several specific issues that can limit the value of integrating salivary testosterone in biosocial research. Salivary testosterone measurements can be substantially influenced during the process of sample collection, are susceptible to interference effects caused by the leakage of blood (plasma) into saliva, and are sensitive to storage conditions when samples have been archived. There are gender differences in salivary testosterone levels and variance, the serum-saliva association, the relationship of salivary testosterone to age and pubertal development, and the stability of individual differences in salivary testosterone levels over time. The findings have important implications at several levels of analysis for research that aims to test biosocial models of testosterone--behavior relationships. Recommendations are provided to steer investigators around these "troubles" with salivary testosterone.

  19. A mixture of an environmentally realistic concentration of a phthalate and herbicide reduces testosterone in male fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) through a novel mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Crago, Jordan; Klaper, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Several chemicals that are used by humans, such as pesticides and plastics, are released into the aquatic environment through wastewater and runoff and have been shown to be potent disruptors of androgen synthesis at high concentrations. Although many of these chemicals have been studied in isolation, a large amount of uncertainty remains over how fish respond to low concentrations of anti-androgenic mixtures, which more accurately reflects how such chemicals are present in the aquatic enviro...

  20. Concentrations of testosterone, luteal hormone and prolactin in the serum as well as comparisons of sensitivity between radioimmunoassays and enzyme assays for the detection of acid prostate phosphatase in the presence of carcinomas of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vopelius-Feldt, F. von.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between carcinomas of the prostate and the plasma levels of testosterone, luteal hormone and prolactin as well as the possible influence of these neoplasms on the testosterone binding capacity and free testosterone index are investigated for various tumour stages and degrees of histological differentiation, in connection with several forms of local therapy as well as a variety of contrasexual methods. The sensitivity of enzyme assays and radioimmunoassays for the detection of acid prostate phosphatase is evaluated within the framework of this study. (MBL) [de

  1. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The many faces of testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerald Bain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jerald BainDepartment of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Testosterone is more than a “male sex hormone”. It is an important contributor to the robust metabolic functioning of multiple bodily systems. The abuse of anabolic steroids by athletes over the years has been one of the major detractors from the investigation and treatment of clinical states that could be caused by or related to male hypogonadism. The unwarranted fear that testosterone therapy would induce prostate cancer has also deterred physicians form pursuing more aggressively the possibility of hypogonadism in symptomatic male patients. In addition to these two mythologies, many physicians believe that testosterone is bad for the male heart. The classical anabolic agents, 17-alkylated steroids, are, indeed, potentially harmful to the liver, to insulin action to lipid metabolism. These substances, however, are not testosterone, which has none of these adverse effects. The current evidence, in fact, strongly suggests that testosterone may be cardioprotective. There is virtually no evidence to implicate testosterone as a cause of prostate cancer. It may exacerbate an existing prostate cancer, although the evidence is flimsy, but it does not likely cause the cancer in the first place. Testosterone has stimulatory effects on bones, muscles, erythropoietin, libido, mood and cognition centres in the brain, penile erection. It is reduced in metabolic syndrome and diabetes and therapy with testosterone in these conditions may provide amelioration by lowering LDL cholesterol, blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin and insulin resistance. The best measure is bio-available testosterone which is the fraction of testosterone not bound to sex hormone binding globulin. Several forms of testosterone administration are available making compliance

  3. Testosterone, plumage colouration and extra-pair paternity in male North-American barn swallows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cas Eikenaar

    Full Text Available In most monogamous bird species, circulating testosterone concentration in males is elevated around the social female's fertile period. Variation in elevated testosterone concentrations among males may have a considerable impact on fitness. For example, testosterone implants enhance behaviours important for social and extra-pair mate choice. However, little is known about the relationship between natural male testosterone concentration and sexual selection. To investigate this relationship we measured testosterone concentration and sexual signals (ventral plumage colour and tail length, and determined within and extra-pair fertilization success in male North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster. Dark rusty coloured males had higher testosterone concentrations than drab males. Extra-pair paternity was common (42% and 31% of young in 2009 and 2010, respectively, but neither within- nor extra-pair fertilization success was related to male testosterone concentration. Dark rusty males were less often cuckolded, but did not have higher extra-pair or total fertilization success than drab males. Tail length did not affect within- or extra-pair fertilization success. Our findings suggest that, in North American barn swallows, male testosterone concentration does not play a significant direct role in female mate choice and sexual selection. Possibly plumage colour co-varies with a male behavioural trait, such as aggressiveness, that reduces the chance of cuckoldry. This could also explain why dark males have higher testosterone concentrations than drab males.

  4. Factors influencing annual fecal testosterone metabolite profiles in captive male polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, E; Roth, T L; MacKinnon, K M; Stoops, M A

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of season, breeding activity, age and latitude on fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in captive, adult male polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Fourteen polar bears from 13 North American zoos were monitored for 12-36 months, producing 25-year-long testosterone profiles. Results indicated that testosterone was significantly higher during the breeding season (early January through the end of May) compared with the non-breeding season with the highest concentrations excreted from early January through late March. Variations in excretion patterns were observed among individuals and also between years within an individual, with testosterone peaks closely associated with breeding activity. Results indicate that fecal testosterone concentrations are influenced by season, breeding activity and age, but not by latitude. This is the first report describing longitudinal fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in individual adult male polar bears. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Effect of testosterone supplementation on sexual functioning in aging men: a 6-month randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmelot-Vonk, M H; Verhaar, H J J; Nakhai-Pour, H R; Grobbee, D E; van der Schouw, Y T

    2009-01-01

    Serum testosterone levels decline significantly with aging and this has been associated with reduced sexual function. We have conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of testosterone supplementation on sexual function in 237 elderly men with a testosterone level sexual function between the groups. Subanalysis showed that although a baseline testosterone level in the lowest tertile was associated with significantly lower scores for sexual fantasies, desire of sexual contact and frequency of sexual contact, supplementation of testosterone did not result in improvement on any of these items in this group. In conclusion, the findings do not support the view that testosterone undecanoate supplementation for 6 months to elderly men with low-normal testosterone concentrations favorably affects sexual function.

  6. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R Cunningham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS. Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels.

  7. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in

  8. Testosterone replacement in male hypogonadism

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Agrawal, Navneet; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Sanjay Kalra1, Navneet Agrawal2, Satish Kumar3, Amit Sharma11Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India; 2Dept of Medicine, GR Medical College, Gwalior, India; 3Clinical Research, EXCEL Life Sciences, NOIDA, IndiaAbstract: This article contains a review of the clinical aspects of testosterone replacement in androgen deficiency of the aging male.Keywords: testosterone, supplementation, hypogonadism, ADAM

  9. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... stages. In addition, extreme testosterone excess is not only likely to induce adverse events but has also the potential to be ineffective and even detrimental. Thus, evidence from clinical studies is not enough to either "reopen" or "close" the "androgen chapter" in poor responders, mainly because...

  10. Fluconazole and testosterone: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanger, D P; Jevons, S; Shaw, J T

    1988-05-01

    Fluconazole (UK-49,858), a novel bis-triazole antifungal agent, was given orally to groups of 10 male volunteers at doses of 25 and 50 mg/day for 28 days. Blood samples for testosterone estimation were taken from these and from a placebo group at several time points on days 1, 14, and 28 of the study, and the assay results demonstrated that the compound had no significant effect on circulating testosterone levels. Similarly, in studies with rat Leydig cells in vitro, fluconazole at concentrations up to 10 micrograms/ml was found to be only a weak inhibitor of testosterone production, whereas ketoconazole caused more than 50% inhibition at 0.1 microgram/ml. It is concluded that fluconazole, in contrast to ketoconazole, has little effect on the biosynthesis of testosterone by mammalian cells.

  11. Basal testosterone concentrations after the application of a slow-release GnRH agonist implant are associated with a loss of response to buserelin, a short-term GnRH agonist, in the tom cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Georgiev, Plamen; Fasulkov, Ivan; Vodenicharov, Angel; Wehrend, Axel

    2013-07-01

    Slow-release GnRH agonist implants are considered an effective, reversible alternative to surgical castration in male tom cats. Individual differences exist regarding the onset of efficacy and might be delayed in some animals. Single measurements of testosterone (T) might result in basal concentrations also in intact male cats. Consequently, GnRH stimulation tests are performed to measure T increase in intact animals and to differentiate castrated from intact male cats. In this study, five tom cats were treated with a 4.7-mg deslorelin implant and GnRH stimulation tests using buserelin were performed before treatment and at 4-week intervals afterward until Week 20. After the last test in Week 20 all animals were castrated. Four of five animals had basal T after 4 weeks and-in contrast to pretreatment-application of buserelin did not result in any further T increase. In one animal, T was low after implant insertion, but not basal; however, a GnRH stimulation test induced a slight increase of T in Week 8 and 16 only and no response in Weeks 4, 12, and 20. Testicular volume was significantly decreased and penile spines disappeared in all cats. Testicular histology showed mixed atrophy, but also fully elongated spermatids in three of five male cats making infertility questionable. Because of the loss of the stimulatory effect of short-term GnRH application (buserelin), it can be assumed that long-term GnRH agonists also act by some mechanisms of downregulation of pituitary GnRH receptors in the tom cat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sexual behaviour, testosterone concentration control and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  13. Testosterone secretion during gubernacular development and testicular descent in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumans, V; Dieleman, S J; Wouterse, H S; van Tol, L; Dijkstra, G; Wensing, C J

    1985-01-01

    Serum testosterone concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 1.45 nmol/l between Day 53 post coitum (p.c.) until Day 40 post partum (p.p.) and did not show variations that could be correlated with the process of testicular descent. The intratesticular androgen appeared to be mainly testosterone, its concentration being about 5000-fold higher than that in serum whereas 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone could not be demonstrated. The intratesticular testosterone concentration at the initiation of gubernacular regression (Day 0) was apparently, but not significantly, higher than at Day 49 p.c. and at Day 40 p.p. The ability of the neonatal canine testis to synthesize testosterone was indicated by increased serum testosterone concentrations after hCG stimulation.

  14. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M Iftekhar; Riche, Daniel M; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule. PMID:24470750

  15. Oral testosterone load related to liver function in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, P

    1983-01-01

    in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. This decrease seems to be due to decreased liver function, decreasing hepatic blood flow, and increased portosystemic shunting. Oral testosterone loading may therefore be of prognostic significance in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.......The relation between liver function and an oral testosterone load was examined in 42 consecutive patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Administration of an oral load of 400 mg micronized free testosterone increased the serum concentration of testosterone (range, 31.9-694.4 nmol/l; median, 140.......8 nmol/l) in male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis to significantly (P less than 0.01) higher levels than in male subjects without liver disease (range, 25.4-106.6 nmol/l; median, 61.5 nmol/l). The increase of testosterone after the load (log delta testosterone) in patients correlated inversely...

  16. Controversies in testosterone supplementation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Khera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has now become one of the most widely used medications throughout the world. The rapid growth of the testosterone market in the past 10 years is due to many factors. We currently have a worldwide aging population. In the US, the number of men 65 years old or older is increasing 2-3 times faster than the number of men younger than 65 years. In addition, poor general health and certain medical conditions such as diabetes/metabolic syndrome (MetS, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and osteoporosis have been associated with low serum testosterone levels. [1],[2],[3] There are now fewer concerns regarding the development of prostate cancer (PCa after testosterone therapy, making it a more attractive treatment option. Finally, the introduction of different forms of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST with increased promotion, marketing, and direct-to-consumer advertising is also driving market growth. As the demand for TST continues to grow, it is becoming more important for clinicians to understand how to diagnose and treat patients with low testosterone.

  17. Effect of anticonvulsants on plasma testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragry, J M; Makin, H L; Trafford, D J; Scott, D F

    1978-01-01

    Plasma sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone levels were measured in 29 patients with epilepsy (16 men and 13 women), most of them on chronic therapy with anticonvulsant drugs. Sex hormone binding globulin concentrations were increased in both sexes and testosterone levels in male patients. It is postulated that anticonvulsants may induce hepatic synthesis of SHBG. PMID:569688

  18. Oral enclomiphene citrate stimulates the endogenous production of testosterone and sperm counts in men with low testosterone: comparison with testosterone gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminetsky, Jed; Werner, Michael; Fontenot, Greg; Wiehle, Ronald D

    2013-06-01

    Clomiphene citrate is employed off-label in men who have low testosterone and for the restoration of sperm counts in men who have used exogenous testosterone. Clomiphene is a mixture of two diastereoisomers: zuclomiphene and enclomiphene. We evaluated enclomiphene citrate in men with secondary hypogonadism. Our aim was to compare oral enclomiphene citrate as an alternative to topical testosterone. Blood levels of total testosterone (TT), estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone binding globulin, thyroid stimulation hormone, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 IGF-1 were measured at certain times after treatment with each agent. Sperm parameters were determined at the same visits. Free testosterone (FT) was calculated. This was a proof-of-principle, randomized, open-label, fixed dose, active-control, two-center phase IIB study in 12 men with secondary hypogonadism treated previously with topical testosterone. After discontinuation of topical testosterone, morning TT values averaged 165 ± 66 pg/dL. After 3 months, there was a significant rise in men receiving enclomiphene citrate and gel that was sustained for 3 months. At 6 months, TT levels were 545 ± 268 and 525 ± 256 pg/dL for groups receiving the gel and enclomiphene citrate, respectively. Only men in the enclomiphene citrate group demonstrated increased LH and FSH. TT decreased one month posttreatment to pretreatment values. Enclomiphene citrate elevated sperm counts in seven out of seven men at 3 months and six out of six men at 6 months with sperm concentrations in the 75-334 × 10(6) /mL range. The gel was ineffective in raising sperm counts above 20 × 10(6) /mL for all five men at 3 months and raised counts in only two or five men at 6 months. At follow-up, only enclomiphene citrate treatment was associated with elevated sperm counts. Enclomiphene citrate increased testosterone and sperm counts. Concomitant changes in LH and FSH suggest normalization

  19. Plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol in chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekchay, S.; Apichartsrungkoon, T.; Pongpiachan, P.

    1996-01-01

    Identification of sex in some kind of fowls can not be done by using their external appearances. Sex steroid hormone levels may be used as an indicator of sexual dimorphism in birds. The objective of this investigation was to measure plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol concentrations in 8 male and 15 female chickens by using radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. The relationship between plasma and faecal testosterone, and plasma and faecal estradiol are positively correlated. The correlation coefficients (r 2 ) between plasma and faecal steroids concentration were 0.621 (p<0.05) for testosterone and 0.692 (p<0.05) for estradiol. The average plasma and faecal sex steroid concentrations in male and female chickens were 10.05 ± 1.97 ng/ml and 511.50 ± 95.89 ng/g (for male testosterone), 24.85 ± 1.60 pg/ml and 49.65 ± 6.01 ng/g (for male estradiol), 0.79 ± 0.05 ng/ml and 134.20 ± 14.70 ng/ml (for female testosterone), 129.91 ± 19.30 pg/ml and 334.80 ± 15.62 ng/g (for female estradiol), respectively. Plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol levels in male and female chickens are significant difference (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.001 and p<0.001 respectively). The results of this investigation suggested that plasma or faecal sex steroid concentrations can be used to discriminate sex of chicken which is show the possibility to use the plasma or faecal sex steroids for identification of sex in other bird species

  20. Short Communication: Testosterone Measured with an Automatic Immunoassay Compares Reasonbly Well to Results Obtained by LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Cindy Søndersø; Højskov, Carsten Schriver; Møller, Holger Jon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported problems measuring testosterone with immunological assays. Here we explore an automatic second generation immunoassay compared to a LC-MS/MS method. Methods: We collected blood samples from 76 women and measured testosterone, progesterone, gender...... hormonebinding globulin (SHBG), and albumin employing Cobas e601/c501. Testosterone, androstenedione (andro), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) concentrations were measured employing LC-MS/MS. We evaluated the difference between testosterone measured by the two methods...... and examined the potential interference from the selected steroids and bindings proteins. Results: Testosterone concentrations measured by the two methods yielded: Cobas e601 = 1.240 x (LC-MS/MS) - 0.197, r = 0.84, for testosterone concentrations between 0.22 - 4.9 nmol/L. A positive correlation was observed...

  1. Testosterone and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Jarvis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of testosterone to treat the symptoms of late-onset hypogonadal men has increased recently due to patient and physician awareness. However, concerns regarding the effect of testosterone on the prostate, in particular any possible effect on the risk of prostate cancer have prompted further research in this regard. Surprisingly, numerous retrospective or small, randomized trials have pointed to a possible improvement in male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in patients treated with testosterone. The exact mechanism of this improvement is still debated but may have a close relationship to metabolic syndrome. For the clinician, the results of these studies are promising but do not constitute high levels of evidence. A thorough clinical examination (including history, examination and laboratory testing of testosterone should be undertaken before considering the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism or instigating treatment for it. Warnings still remain on the testosterone supplement product labels regarding the risk of urinary retention and worsening LUTS, and these should be explained to patients.

  2. Individual and seasonal variation in fecal testosterone and cortisol levels of wild male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella nigritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jessica W; Ziegler, Toni E; Strier, Karen B

    2002-05-01

    This study tested the "challenge hypothesis" and rank-based predictions for temporal steroid production in male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Fecal samples (n = 209) collected from six wild males were analyzed for testosterone and cortisol concentration by enzyme immunoassay. The temporal pattern in male steroid production was compared to female sexual activity and rates of male aggression. The top-ranking adult male did not differ from other adult males in testosterone or cortisol concentration. Mean adult testosterone was significantly higher than mean subadult testosterone throughout the year. There was a clear elevation of testosterone and cortisol in both adult and subadult males during the peak of adult female sexual activity after the birth season. In fact, the magnitude of increase in testosterone was higher than predicted for a species with low male-male aggression. However, there was no difference between nonbreeding baseline testosterone levels during the birth season, and the "breeding" baseline of testosterone in males found during asynchronous female sexual activity. Of all behavioral indices examined, the distribution of female-maintained consortships was the best predictor of mean adult male testosterone concentrations. Although in many species, elevated testosterone coincides with increased male-male aggression, in the present study, the sustained high-magnitude increase in steroids during the peak of adult female sexual activity was associated with a relatively low rate of male-male intragroup aggression. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  3. No effect of oral testosterone treatment on sexual dysfunction in alcoholic cirrhotic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Wantzin, P; Eriksen, J

    1988-01-01

    -binding globulin-bound testosterone concentrations disappeared, however, when age, ethanol consumption, and severity of liver disease were included as covariates in the analysis. During follow-up (median 30 mo, range 1-48 mo) sexual dysfunction improved significantly (p less than 0.05) at 6, 12, and 24 mo......The prevalence and course of sexual dysfunction was evaluated in 221 alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effect of oral testosterone treatment on liver disease. At entry, 67% (95% confidence limits, 61%-74%) complained of sexual dysfunction....... Sexual dysfunction was significantly (p less than 0.05) associated with lower serum concentrations of testosterone, non-protein-bound testosterone, and non-sex hormone-binding globulin-bound testosterone. The significant associations between sexual dysfunction and non-protein-bound and non-sex hormone...

  4. Effect of Testosterone Administration on Liver Fat in Older Men With Mobility Limitation: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background. Androgen receptor (AR) knockout male mice display hepatic steatosis, suggesting that AR signaling may regulate hepatic fat. However, the effects of testosterone replacement on hepatic fat in men are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of testosterone administration on hepatic fat in older men with mobility limitation and low testosterone levels who were participating in a randomized trial (the Testosterone in Older Men trial). Methods. Two hundred and nine men with mobility limitation and low total or free testosterone were randomized in the parent trial to either placebo or 10-g testosterone gel daily for 6 months. Hepatic fat was determined by magnetic resonance imaging in 73 men (36 in placebo and 37 in testosterone group) using the volumetric method. Insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance) was derived from fasting glucose and insulin. Results. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, including liver volumes (1583±363 in the testosterone group vs 1522±271mL in the placebo group, p = .42). Testosterone concentrations increased from 250±72 to 632±363ng/dL in testosterone group but did not change in placebo group. Changes in liver volume during intervention did not differ significantly between groups (p = .5) and were not related to on-treatment testosterone concentrations. The change in homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance also did not differ significantly between groups and was not related to either baseline or change in liver fat. Conclusion. Testosterone administration in older men with mobility limitation and low testosterone levels was not associated with a reduction in hepatic fat. Larger trials are needed to determine whether testosterone replacement improves liver fat in men with nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis. PMID:23292288

  5. Testosterone and BMD in Elite Male Lightweight Rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A.; Christiansen, E.; Ekdahl, C.

    2008-01-01

    ), free testosterone (IFT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and additional parameters related to bone metabolism were measured. Plasma concentrations of TT, FT and DHT were in the lower part of the normal range, while BMD was close to or above normal. BMD of total body...

  6. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Urinary Testosterone Excretion in Men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking and concentration of testosterone in the urine. Forty young men age between 23 to 31 years were used for this study. The subjects were ...

  7. Testosterone reduces amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingen, Guido; Mattern, Claudia; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Buitelaar, Jan; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone influences various aspects of affective behavior, which is mediated by different brain regions within the emotion circuitry. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that testosterone increases neural activity in the amygdala. To investigate whether this could be due to altered

  8. Electron-microscopic autoradiography of tritiated testosterone in rat testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederik, P.M.; Molen, H.J. van der; Galjaard, H.; Klepper, D.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of a technique for autoradiography of diffusible substances has been further tested by analysing the localization of steroids in rats testes with the light- and electron-microscope. Testes of rats were perfused with tritiated testosterone (3 min) followed by 15-min perfusion with buffer containing a 100-fold excess of unlabelled testosterone. Tissue samples were frozen, freeze dried, fixed in osmium vapour and embedded in Epon. To exclude extraction of steroids, contact with water and other solvents was prevented during cutting of thin sections on an ultracryotome and further treatment for autoradiography. Light- and electron-microscopic observations indicated that the highest concentration of labelled testosterone was present within the basal parts of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm and in lipid inclusions of Sertoli cells within the seminiferous tubules. This is the first account of autoradiography of steroids at the electron-microscope level. (author)

  9. Fatores ambientais associados à diarréia infantil em áreas de assentamento subnormal em Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais Childhood diarrhea-related to environmental factors in subnormal settlements in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Teixeira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar a prevalência de diarréia e identificar os fatores associados à essa doença em crianças residentes em áreas de assentamento subnormal. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se um delineamento transversal de base populacional. A amostra estudada totalizou 655 crianças. A coleta de dados foi feita mediante entrevistas domiciliares com a mãe ou com o responsável pela criança. Foram usados modelos de regressão logística para identificar fatores associados à diarréia. RESULTADOS: a prevalência da diarréia foi 17,5%. Os fatores associados à doença incluíram internação da criança no primeiro mês de vida; ser cuidado por terceiros, que não a mãe; maior nível de escolaridade do responsável; e maior tempo de residência, como fatores de proteção. Como fatores de risco individuais, a existência de outra doença; e baixa idade. Como fatores de risco coletivos, o consumo de água de mina; a disposição dos esgotos na rua ou no terreno; o acondicionamento inadequado do lixo; e presença de moscas. CONCLUSÕES: para o combate à diarréia sugere-se atenção especial à saúde e à alimentação de crianças com idade abaixo de cinco anos, incluindo adequadas cobertura e qualidade nos serviços de saneamento ambiental.OBJECTIVES: to determine diarrhea prevalence and to identify factors associated to the condition in children living in subnormal settlement areas. METHODS: a cross-sectional population-based study was used. The sample studied totaled 655 children. Data collection was performed through home interviews with the mother or caretaker. Logistic regression models were used to identify diarrhea associated factors. RESULTS: diarrhea prevalence was of 17.5%. Condition associated factors included child hospitalization during the first month of life; children looked after by others and not the mother; higher education level of the caretaker and longer residency period, as protection factors and as individual risk factors

  10. Autoantibodies, histocompatibility antigens and testosterone in males with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Tage-Jensen, Ulrik Viggo; Bahnsen, M

    1981-01-01

    Titres and immunoglobulin classes of autoantibodies were examined in 69 male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and the findings were related to particular human leucocyte antigens and serum concentration of testosterone. Both anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and smooth muscle antibodies (SMA...... had higher titres of ANA (n.s.) and SMA (P less than 0.05) than patients without these HLA antigens. Serum concentrations of testosterone were significantly lower in ANA-positive patients than in those negative (P less than 0.05), and a similar tendency was found in SMA-positive patients....... With increasing titres of ANA the concentration of testosterone fell. Serum concentration of testosterone correlated inversely (P less than 0.05) with plasma immunoglobulin G and A. It is concluded that both genetic and hormonal factors may influence the humoral immune response in these patients....

  11. Pola Diurnal Metabolit Testosteron dan Kortisol di dalam Feses Owa Jawa (Hylobates moloch di Penangkaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUDJI ASTUTI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine diurnal patterns of testosterone and cortisol metabolites to predict the testis functional status. In this study, fecal testosterone and cortisol were quantified in 77 samples from three male Hylobates moloch during a course of three months period. These data showed that the highest concentration of fecal testosterone occured at 18.00-06.00 (23.61 ng/g dried feces, then declined gradually. The lowest concentration was in the evening (5.54 ng/g dried feces. Our tests showed that there was a decrease in the mean testosterone concentration from 06.00-10.00 to 10.00-14.00 to 14.00-18.00. For cortisol, the highest concentration occured at 06.00-10.00 (597.84 ng/g dried feces, then decline gradually in the evening (225.73 ng/g dried feces.

  12. The hormone level of both the testosterone and the gonadotropin. Chapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Concentration of testosterone and gonadotropin hormones in blood serum was studied at 120 examined sick persons. It is shown that the statistically reliable (P<0.5) decrease of testosterone level is exhibiting under influence of radiation doses over 0.25 Gy. During radiation doses action increasing the legible tendency to of testosterone level reduction is noted. Results of pituitary gland-gonad system study in dependence of sexual dysfunctions are presented. Data evident that sexual dysfunction does not depend from suppression of hormone activity of gonads. It is revealed, that common testosterone level in sicks suffered from low radiation action was reduced. Differences in testosterone content at sicks with sexual dysfunction and without its have not been revealed

  13. Encapsulation of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-05-01

    The loading of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles was investigated, using multiple spectroscopic methods, thermodynamic analysis, TEM images and modeling. Thermodynamic parameters showed testosterone-chitosan bindings occur mainly via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts. As polymer size increased more stable steroid-chitosan conjugates formed and hydrophobic contact was also observed. The loading efficacy of testosterone-nanocarrier was 40-55% and increased as chitosan size increased. Testosterone encapsulation markedly alters chitosan morphology. Chitosan nanoparticles are capable of transporting testosterone in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Increasing Yolk Testosterone Levels on Early Behaviour in Japanese Quail Hatchlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Okuliarová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate effects of increased testosterone content in egg yolk on early behaviour of 1- and 2-day-old Japanese quail. Three different doses of testosterone (0.25; 2.5 and 25 ng, not exceeding a physiological range, were examined in three separate experiments. Testosterone propionate dissolved in 20 μl olive oil was injected into the yolk before the onset of incubation. Behaviour of newly hatched chicks was recorded in response to both a novel environment in the open-field test and manual restraining in the test of tonic immobility (TI. Behavioural consequences of embryonic exposure to elevated testosterone were observed in the open-field test in all three experiments which indicated inhibition of behavioural responses in hatchlings. Birds treated with testosterone in ovo displayed longer latency to leave the start square, decreased locomotor activity, enhanced defecation and lower number of distress calls as compared to control birds. In TI test, the influence of treatment was manifested at the highest concentration only. Hatchlings from testosterone treated eggs expressed longer duration of TI and required less attempts to induce TI in comparison with the control group. Our results demonstrated increased fearfulness of Japanese quail chicks hatched from eggs with experimentally elevated testosterone content. The effect is specific for a short period after hatching since previous studies reported stimulatory effect of yolk testosterone on behaviour of Japanese quail later in ontogeny.

  15. A systematic review of methods for quantifying serum testosterone in patients with prostate cancer who underwent castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, I; Ferrer, R; Planas, J; Celma, A; Regis, L; Morote, J

    2018-03-01

    The clinical practice guidelines recommend measuring serum testosterone in patients with prostate cancer (PC) who undergo castration. The serum testosterone concentration should be IA) has become widespread, although their metrological characteristics do not seem appropriate for quantifying low testosterone concentrations. The objective of this review is to analyse the methods for quantifying testosterone and to establish whether there is scientific evidence that justifies measuring it in patients with PC who undergo castration, through liquid chromatography attached to a mass spectrometry in tandem (LC-MSMS). We performed a search in PubMed with the following MeSH terms: measurement, testosterone, androgen suppression and prostate cancer. We selected 12 studies that compared the metrological characteristics of various methods for quantifying serum testosterone compared with MS detection methods. IAs are standard tools for measuring testosterone levels; however, there is evidence that IAs lack accuracy and precision for quantifying low concentrations. Most chemiluminescent IAs overestimate their concentration, especially below 100ng/dL. The procedures that use LC-MSMS have an adequate lower quantification limit and proper accuracy and precision. We found no specific evidence in patients with PC who underwent castration. LC-MSMS is the appropriate method for quantifying low serum testosterone concentrations. We need to define the level of castration with this method and the optimal level related to better progression of the disease. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. CSF and plasma testosterone in attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Jon; Chatzittofis, Andreas; Nordström, Peter; Arver, Stefan; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2016-12-01

    Very few studies have assessed testosterone levels in the cerebrospinal fluid in suicide attempters. Aggressiveness and impulsivity are common behavioural traits in suicide attempters. Dual-hormone serotonergic theory on human impulsive aggression implies high testosterone/cortisol ratio acting on the amygdala and low serotonin in the prefrontal cortex. Our aim was to examine the CSF and plasma testosterone levels in suicide attempters and in healthy volunteers. We also assessed the relationship between the testosterone/cortisol ratio, aggressiveness and impulsivity in suicide attempters. 28 medication-free suicide attempters and 19 healthy volunteers participated in the study. CSF and plasma testosterone sulfate and cortisol levels were assessed with specific radio-immunoassays. The Karolinska Scales of Personality was used to assess impulsivity and aggressiveness. All patients were followed up for cause of death. The mean follow-up period was 21 years. Male suicide attempters had higher CSF and plasma testosterone levels than age- matched male healthy volunteers. There were no significant differences in CSF testosterone levels in female suicide attempters and healthy female volunteers. Testosterone levels did not differ significantly in suicide victims compared to survivors. In male suicide attempters, the CSF testosterone/cortisol ratio showed a significant positive correlation with both impulsivity and aggressiveness. Higher CSF testosterone levels may be associated with attempted suicide in young men through association with both aggressiveness and impulsivity, a key endophenotype in young male suicide attempters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Developmental programming: impact of excess prenatal testosterone on intrauterine fetal endocrine milieu and growth in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L; Abbott, David H; Welch, Kathleen B; MohanKumar, Puliyur S; Phillips, David J; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and consequent changes in maternal and fetal endocrine environments. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were administered either cottonseed oil (control) or testosterone propionate in cottonseed oil (100 mg, i.m. twice weekly), from Day 30 to Day 90 of gestation (term is ~147 d). Maternal (uterine) and fetal (umbilical) arterial samples were collected at Days 64-66, 87-90, and 139-140 (range; referred to as D65, D90, and D140, respectively) of gestation. Concentrations of gonadal and metabolic hormones, as well as differentiation factors, were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer, radioimmunoassay, or ELISA. Findings indicate that testosterone treatment produced maternal and fetal testosterone levels comparable to adult males and D65 control male fetuses, respectively. Testosterone treatment increased fetal estradiol and estrone levels during the treatment period in both sexes, supportive of placental aromatization of testosterone. These steroidal changes were followed by a reduction in maternal estradiol levels at term, a reduction in activin A availability, and induction of intrauterine growth restriction in D140 female fetuses. Overall, our findings provide the first direct evidence in support of the potential for both androgenic as well as estrogenic contribution in the development of adult reproductive and metabolic pathology in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep.

  18. The circadian variations of serum melatonin and testosterone levels in starved rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowska, Z.; Zwirska-Korczala, K.; Marek, B.; Buntner, B.

    1995-01-01

    Circadian variations of serum melatonin and testosterone in sexually mature male Wistar rats after a one-week starvation were examined using, the radioimmunoassay RIA method at 2-h intervals under 12:12 h light-dark cycle. The population mean cosinor analysis justified the existence of a significant circadian rhythm of melatonin and testosterone in starved rats, whereas their mean 24-h concentration was lower. Both melatonin and testosterone circadian rhythms were disturbed with phase shifts from 1.58 to 16.59 h and from 18.00 to 3.49 h, respectively. A significant correlation between the melatonin and testosterone concentrations during day/night cycle was observed. (author). 38 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  19. Testosterone supplementation, glucocorticoid milieu and bone homeostasis in the ageing male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdžanović, Vladimir Z; Filipović, Branko R; Šošić Jurjević, Branka T; Milošević, Verica Lj

    2017-08-01

    Male ageing is entwined with a continuous fall in free testosterone levels, which contributes to the pathogenesis of bone loss. Glucocorticoid excess, either dependent on the ageing process or iatrogenically induced, was found to additionally impair the bone structure and metabolism. Cautious testosterone supplementation in this respect may positively affect the glucocorticoid milieu and bone homeostasis, while testosterone-induced changes in the glucocorticoid output could serve as a determinant of bone-related therapeutic outcome. Namely, bone mineral content/density, the parameters of trabecular bone structure as well as bone strength are enhanced, serum calcitonin levels tend to increase, while serum osteocalcin, serum parathyroid hormone and urinary calcium decrease, all upon testosterone administration to the ageing male. In parallel, testosterone application decreases glucocorticoid secretion in the animal models of male ageing, while clinical data in this field are still inconsistent. Importantly, a physiological link exists between testosterone-induced changes in glucocorticoid levels and the tendency of bone status improvement in the ageing male. We believe that the assessment of circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations together with glucocorticoid levels, reflecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis feedback loop operativeness during testosterone supplementation, represents a well-balanced bone-related therapeutic update. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  20. Oral testosterone load related to liver function in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, P

    1983-01-01

    The relation between liver function and an oral testosterone load was examined in 42 consecutive patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Administration of an oral load of 400 mg micronized free testosterone increased the serum concentration of testosterone (range, 31.9-694.4 nmol/l; median, 140.......8 nmol/l) in male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis to significantly (P less than 0.01) higher levels than in male subjects without liver disease (range, 25.4-106.6 nmol/l; median, 61.5 nmol/l). The increase of testosterone after the load (log delta testosterone) in patients correlated inversely...... with wedged-to-free hepatic vein pressure (r = +0.54; P less than 0.01). The increase of testosterone after the load did not correlate significantly with sex hormone-binding globulin (r = +0.35; P greater than 0.05). It is concluded that the hepatic extraction of testosterone is significantly decreased...

  1. Long-Duration Space Flight and Bed Rest Effects on Testosterone and Other Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Wang, Zuwei; Huntoon, Carolyn L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Limited data suggest that testosterone is decreased during space flight, which could contribute to bone and muscle loss. Objective: The main objective was to assess testosterone and hormone status in long- and short-duration space flight and bed rest environments and to determine relationships with other physiological systems, including bone and muscle. Design: Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after long-duration space flight. Samples were also collected before and after 12- to 14-d missions and from participants in 30- to 90-d bed rest studies. Setting: Space flight studies were conducted on the International Space Station and before and after Space Shuttle missions. Bed rest studies were conducted in a clinical research center setting. Data from Skylab missions are also presented. Participants: All of the participants were male, and they included 15 long-duration and nine short-duration mission crew members and 30 bed rest subjects. Main Outcome Measures: Serum total, free, and bioavailable testosterone were measured along with serum and urinary cortisol, serum dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and SHBG. Results: Total, free, and bioavailable testosterone was not changed during long-duration space flight but were decreased (P space flight. There were no changes in other hormones measured. Testosterone concentrations dropped before and soon after bed rest, but bed rest itself had no effect on testosterone. Conclusions: There was no evidence for decrements in testosterone during long-duration space flight or bed rest. PMID:22049169

  2. Salivary testosterone as a potential indicator for risky behaviour associated with smoking-related peer pressure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Adi; Ghazali, Nur B; Said, Nadzirah M; Steele, Michael; Koh, David; Tuah, Nik A

    2016-04-09

    Early smoking is considered an indicator for risky behaviour in adolescents. Although social indicators predicting adolescent smoking are known, biological indicators have not been defined. This study aimed to establish whether salivary testosterone could be used as a "predictive biomarker" for smoking-associated peer pressure. Saliva samples were collected from Bruneian adolescents (aged 13-17 years) by the passive drool method. Salivary testosterone concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Salivary testosterone concentration and smoking-associated peer pressure indicators were compared between adolescent males and females and statistical significance was determined by an independent samples t-test. A significant positive relationship between smoking-associated peer pressure and salivary testosterone levels in adolescents was found. However, this relationship was not significant when males and females were considered separately. Our data suggest that students who have tried cigarette smoking and have friends who are cigarette smokers have higher salivary testosterone levels.

  3. Treatment of pain in fibromyalgia patients with testosterone gel: Pharmacokinetics and clinical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Hillary D; Brown, Lin A J; Gyurik, Robert J; Manganiello, Paul D; Robinson, Thomas D; Hallock, Linda S; Lewis, Lionel D; Yeo, Kiang-Teck J

    2015-08-01

    To test our hypothesis that testosterone deficiency plays an important role in chronic pain, a Phase I/II pilot study was initiated with 12 fibromyalgia patients to verify that a daily dose for 28days with transdermal testosterone gel would 1) significantly and safely increase mean serum testosterone concentrations from low baseline levels to mid/high-normal levels, and 2) effectively treat the pain and fatigue symptoms of fibromyalgia. Pharmacokinetic data confirmed that serum free testosterone concentrations were raised significantly above baseline levels, by assessment of maximum hormone concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) parameters: free testosterone Cmax was significantly raised from a mean of 2.64pg/mL to 3.91pg/mL (pfibromyalgia by patient questionnaire and tender point exam demonstrated significant change in: decreased muscle pain, stiffness, and fatigue, and increased libido during study treatment. These results are consistent with the hypothesized ability of testosterone to relieve the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Symptoms not tightly related to fibromyalgia were not improved. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Testosterone metabolism in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea) following tributyltin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verslycke, Tim; Poelmans, Sofie; De Wasch, Katia; Vercauteren, Jordy; Devos, Christophe; Moens, Luc; Sandra, Patrick; De Brabander, Hubert F; Janssen, Colin R

    2003-09-01

    Current evidence suggests that the biocide tributyltin (TBT) causes the development of imposex, a state of pseudohermaphrodism in which females exhibit functional secondary male characteristics, by altering the biotransformation or elimination of testosterone. Imposex in gastropods following TBT exposure is the most complete example of the effects of an endocrine disrupter on marine invertebrates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer converts testosterone into multiple polar and nonpolar metabolites resulting from both phase I and phase II biotransformations. In this study, the effects of TBT chloride (TBTCl) on the phase I and II testosterone metabolism of N. integer were evaluated. The TBTCl was highly toxic to N. integer (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50] of 164 ng/L). To assess the effects on testosterone metabolism, mysids were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of TBTCl (control, 10, 100, and 1,000 ng/L), and testosterone elimination as polar hydroxylated, nonpolar oxido-reduced, and glucose- and sulfate-conjugated metabolites was examined. The TBTCl differentially affected testosterone metabolism. The effect of TBTCl on phase I metabolism was unclear and has been shown to vary among species, likely depending on the inducibility or presence of certain P450 isozyme families. Reductase activity and metabolic androgenization were induced in the 10-ng/L treatment, whereas higher concentrations resulted in a reduction of sulfate conjugation. The exact mechanisms underlying TBT-induced imposex and alterations in the steroid metabolism need to be further elucidated.

  5. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF A NEW TOPICAL TESTOSTERONE REPLACEMENT GEL THERAPY FOR THE TREATMENT OF MALE HYPOGONADISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Glenn; Belkoff, Laurence; Brock, Gerald; Efros, Mitchell; Gittelman, Marc; Carrara, Dario; Neijber, Anders; Ando, Masakazu; Mitchel, Jules

    2017-05-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy is indicated for male hypogonadism. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of testosterone gel 2% (Tgel) over 90 days. This phase 3, open-label, noncomparator study was conducted in adult hypogonadal men (2 consecutive fasting serum testosterone values 86% subjects with symptoms consistent with testosterone deficiency). Subjects applied Tgel 23 mg/day (single pump-actuation using a hands-free cap applicator). The dose was uptitrated to 46 mg/day after 2 weeks if the 4-hour serum total testosterone level was <500 ng/dL. The dose could be further up- or downtitrated to 23, 46, and 69 mg on Days 21, 42, and 63. The primary endpoint included the percentage of subjects with average testosterone concentration (C ave (0-24) ) between 300 and 1,050 ng/dL on Day 90. Safety endpoints were adverse events (AEs), laboratory parameters, and vital signs. Of the 159 who enrolled, 139 men completed the study. Approximately three-quarters (76.1%) of subjects met C ave criteria on Day 90. Most AEs were mild to moderate. There were 5 serious AEs, and 1 (myocardial infarction) was judged as possibly related to Tgel. Confirmed excessive increases in prostate-specific antigen or hematocrit levels were rare. Tgel had a favorable local skin tolerability profile. Overall, 76% of subjects achieved C ave between 300 and 1,050 ng/dL with Tgel. Symptoms of testosterone deficiency improved with few safety concerns. AE = adverse event C ave(0-24) = average testosterone concentration CI = confidence interval C max = maximum concentration IIEF = International Index of Erectile Function MAF = Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue PK = pharmacokinetic PSA = prostate-specific antigen SAE = serious adverse event SF-12 = Short Form 12 Health Survey Tgel = testosterone gel 2% T max = time to achieve maximum concentration TRT = testosterone replacement therapy.

  6. Testosterone improves erectile function through inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation in castrated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone is overwhelmingly important in regulating erectile physiology. However, the associated molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of testosterone in erectile dysfunction (ED in castrated rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four groups (control, sham-operated, castration and castration-with-testosterone-replacement. Reactive oxygen species (ROS production was measured by dihydroethidium (DHE staining. Erectile function was assessed by the recording of intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP. Protein expression levels were examined by western blotting. We found that castration reduced erectile function and that testosterone restored it. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity was decrease in the castrated rats, and testosterone administration attenuated this decrease (each p < 0.05. The testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP concentrations were lower in the castrated rats, and testosterone restored these levels (each p < 0.05. Furthermore, the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS expression levels and phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS, Ser1177/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS ratio were reduced in the castrated rats compared with the controls (each p < 0.05. In addition, the p40phox and p67phox expression levels were increased in the castrated rats, and testosterone reversed these changes (each p < 0.05. Overall, our results demonstrate that testosterone ameliorates ED after castration by reducing ROS production and increasing the activity of the eNOS/cGMP and COX-2/PTGIS/cAMP signaling pathways.

  7. Effects of In Vivo Testosterone Manipulation on Ovarian Morphology, Follicular Development, and Follicle Yolk Testosterone in the Homing Pigeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerlich, Vivian C.; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2010-01-01

    To date, our understanding of the function of testosterone in female reproductive physiology is only marginal although there are indications that testosterone is involved in modulating follicular recruitment, growth, atresia, and ovulation. Studies elevating testosterone in breeding female birds

  8. Reduction in 24-Hour Plasma Testosterone Levels in Subjects Who Showered 15 or 30 Minutes After Application of Testosterone Gel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, W.; Vogel, S.; Bui, H.N.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective. To investigate whether showering, to prevent the involuntary transfer of testosterone to others through skin contact, either 15 or 30 minutes after application of testosterone gel would significantly affect plasma testosterone levels. Design. Prospective 3-way crossover trial.

  9. Testosterone, Marital Quality, and Role Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    In a sample of established working- and middle-class families with school-aged children (N= 307 wives and 307 husbands), neither husbands nor wives testosterone showed a direct connection with marital quality. In contrast, the association between husbands' testosterone and positive and negative marital quality (as evaluated by both spouses) was…

  10. Free Testosterone During Androgen Deprivation Therapy Predicts Castration-Resistant Progression Better Than Total Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Lucas; Planas, Jacques; Carles, Joan; Maldonado, Xavier; Comas, Inma; Ferrer, Roser; Morote, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The optimal degree of testosterone suppression in patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy remains in question. Furthermore, serum free testosterone, which is the active form of testosterone, seems to correlate with intraprostatic testosterone. Here we compared free and total serum testosterone as predictors of survival free of castration resistance. Total testosterone (chemiluminescent assay, lower sensitivity 10 ng/dl) and free testosterone (analogue-ligand radioimmunoassay, lower sensitivity 0.05 pg/ml) were determined at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment in a prospective cohort of 126 patients with prostate cancer. During a mean follow-up of 67 months (9-120), 75 (59.5%) events of castration-resistant progression were identified. Multivariate analysis and survival analysis according to total testosterone cutoffs of 50, 32, and 20 ng/dl, and free testosterone cutoffs of 1.7, 1.1, and 0.7 pg/ml were performed. Metastatic spread was the most powerful predictor of castration resistance, HR: 2.09 (95%CI: 1.18-3.72), P = 0.012. Gleason score, baseline PSA and PSA at 6 months were also independents predictors, but not free and total testosterone. Stratified analysis was conducted on the basis of the status of metastatic diseases and free testosterone was found to be an independent predictor of survival free of castration resistance in the subgroup of patients without metastasis, HR: 2.12 (95%CI: 1.16-3.85), P = 0.014. The lowest threshold of free testosterone which showed significant differences was 1.7 pg/ml, P = 0.003. Free testosterone at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment seems to be a better surrogate than total testosterone to predict castration resistance in no metastatic prostate cancer patients. Prostate 77:114-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Concentrações plasmáticas de testosterona, triiodotironina (T3 e tiroxina (T4 em bodes submetidos ao estresse calórico Plasma concentrations of testosterone, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 in bucks submitted to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Coelho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar o efeito do estresse calórico (EC nas concentrações plasmáticas de testosterona, triiodotironina (T3 e tiroxina (T4, oito bodes, das raças Saanen (n=4 e Alpina (n=4, foram mantidos em câmara bioclimática, sob condições de termoneutralidade (13,0ºC a 26,7ºC durante 30 dias e, após um período (60 dias de descanso, submetidos ao EC (23,7ºC a 34,0ºC por 30 dias. Para minimizar as variações sazonais nos perfis hormonais devido ao fotoperíodo, durante toda fase experimental, incluindo a de adaptação em condições de termoneutralidade (30 dias, o fotoperíodo foi controlado utilizando-se alternância de dias longos (16h de luz e 8h de escuro e de dias curtos (8h de luz e 16h de escuro a cada 30 dias. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas duas vezes por semana durante cinco semanas. No conjunto das raças, o EC não influenciou (P>0,05 as concentrações de testosterona (1,8±0,2 vs 1,3±0,2ng/ml e nem a de T4 (52,7±2,8 vs 50,0±2,8ng/ml. Houve declínio (PTo verify the effect of heat stress (HS on plasma testosterone, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 concentrations, eight Saanen (n=4 and Alpine Brown (n=4 bucks were kept in climate chamber under thermal neutral conditions (13.0ºC to 26.7ºC for 30 days. After a resting period (60 days, the same bucks were submitted to heat stress (23.7ºC to 34.0ºC for another 30 days. To neutralize the seasonal variations of hormonal profiles throughout the period, the photoperiod was controlled every 30 days altering long (16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness and short days (8 hours of light and 16 hours of darkness. The blood samples were collected twice a week during five weeks. In both breeds, there was no effect of HS (P>0.05 on plasma concentrations of testosterone (1.8±0.2 vs 1.3±0.2ng/ml and T4 (52.7±2.8 vs 50.0±2.8ng/ml. There was a decline (P<0.01 of plasma T3 concentrations (1.3±0.1 vs 1.0±0.1ng/ml after HS treatment, but this reduction was only

  12. Testosterone conjugating activities in invertebrates: are they targets for endocrine disruptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, G; Sternberg, R M; LeBlanc, G A; Porte, C

    2005-02-10

    Testosterone conjugation activities, microsomal acyltransferases and cytosolic sulfotransferases, were investigated in three invertebrate species, the gastropod Marisa cornuarietis, the amphipod Hyalella azteca, and the echinoderm Paracentrotus lividus. The goals of the study were to characterize steroid conjugation pathways in different invertebrate phyla and to assess the susceptibility of those processes to disruption by environmental chemicals. All three species exhibited palmitoyl-CoA: testosterone acyltransferase activity (ATAT) in the range of 100-510 pmol/min/mg protein. Despite similarities in specific activities, kinetic studies indicated that ATAT had a higher affinity for testosterone but a lower V(max) in M. cornuarietis than in P. lividus, and intermediate values were found for H. azteca. In contrast, the activity of testosterone sulfotransferase (SULT) was rather low (0.05-0.18 pmol/min/mg protein) in M. cornuarietis and H. azteca. The low activity precluded kinetic analyses and inhibition studies with these species. P. lividus digestive tube displayed high SULT activity (50-170 pmol/min/mg protein) at moderate testosterone concentrations, but was inhibited at high testosterone concentrations. The interference of model pollutants (triphenyltin (TPT), tributyltin (TBT), and fenarimol) with these conjugation pathways was investigated in vitro. Both TPT and TBT (100 microM) inhibited ATAT in P. lividus (68 and 42% inhibition, respectively), and appeared to act as non-competitive inhibitors. ATAT activity in M. cornuarietis was less affected by organotins, and a significant inhibition (20% inhibition) was detected only with TBT. Fenarimol (100 microM) did not affect ATAT in any of the species tested. Sulfation of testosterone was suppressed by the organotins as well as fenarimol when using cytosolic preparations from P. lividus. These results demonstrated the existence of interphyla differences in testosterone conjugation, and revealed that these

  13. Endocrine Society of Australia position statement on male hypogonadism (part 1): assessment and indications for testosterone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Bu B; Grossmann, Mathis; McLachlan, Robert I; Handelsman, David J; Wittert, Gary A; Conway, Ann J; Stuckey, Bronwyn Ga; Lording, Douglas W; Allan, Carolyn A; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Burger, Henry G

    2016-08-15

    This article, Part 1 of the Endocrine Society of Australia's position statement on male hypogonadism, focuses on assessment of male hypogonadism, including the indications for testosterone therapy. (Part 2 will deal with treatment and therapeutic considerations.) Key points and recommendations are:Pathological hypogonadism arises due to diseases of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or testes (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism). It is a clinical diagnosis with a pathological basis, confirmed by hormone assays.Hormonal assessment is based on measurement of circulating testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations. Measurement of sex hormone-binding globulin levels can be informative, but use of calculated free testosterone is not recommended for clinical decision making.Testosterone replacement therapy is warranted in men with pathological hypogonadism, regardless of age.Currently, there are limited data from high-quality randomised controlled trials with clinically meaningful outcomes to justify testosterone treatment in older men, usually with chronic disease, who have low circulating testosterone levels but without hypothalamic, pituitary or testicular disease.Obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes are associated with lowering of circulating testosterone level, but without elevation of LH and FSH levels. Whether these are non-specific consequences of non-reproductive disorders or a correctable deficiency state is unknown, but clear evidence for efficacy and safety of testosterone therapy in this setting is lacking.Glucocorticoid and opioid use is associated with possibly reversible reductions in circulating testosterone level, without elevation of LH and FSH levels. Where continuation of glucocorticoid or opioid therapy is necessary, review by an endocrinologist may be warranted.Changes in management as result of the position statement: Men with pathological hypogonadism should

  14. The development of a testosterone stimulation test in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and its use in evaluating deslorelin contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, S D; Camacho, F C; Carrillo, L; Guy, N; Govea, J; Martinez, O; Parãs, A; Lisle, A T; D'Occhio, M

    2008-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine the variability of testosterone secretion in the Virginia Opossum over a 24 h period and to develop a testosterone stimulation test that would provide an index of the prevailing testosterone biosynthetic capacity of the testes; the latter was used to clinically evaluate the efficacy of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist contraceptive. Sexually-mature captive opossums (n = 12) located in Africam Safari (Mexico) sampled every 12 h over 24 h consistently showed basal (<0.21 ng mL(-1)) blood testosterone concentrations. Intra-muscular injection of buserelin (2 microg mL(-1)) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG; 1000 IU) resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) of plasma testosterone concentrations with maximal concentrations (3.9 ng mL(-1) and 5.8 ng mL(-1) respectively) occurring 120 min after injection. Plasma testosterone declined relatively rapidly to basal concentrations after 240 min with hCG but remained elevated after the same period of time with buserelin. Male opossums treated with (n = 6) and without (n = 6) a controlled-release deslorelin implant (Suprelorin; 4.7 mg deslorelin) were evaluated over a 10-week period for changes in testosterone secretion (hCG stimulation test) and sperm production (spermatorrhea). At the end of this period, the animals were hemi-castrated and their relative testicular quantitative histology compared. Testosterone concentration decreased over the course of the study in both treated and control animals (P < 0.0001) but there was no apparent effect of deslorelin on testosterone secretion, testicular histology (relative proportions of testicular cell types and seminiferous tubule diameter), or sperm production (presence of sperm in the cauda epididymis or urine).

  15. Use of parenteral testosterone in hypospadias cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Satav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the effect of parenteral testosterone on penile length, preputial hood, vascularity of dartos pedicle in patients with hypospadias. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 patients with hypospadias were included in this study. Injection aquaviron (oily solution each ml containing testosterone propionate 25 mg was given deep intramuscularly in three doses with an interval of 3 weeks before reconstructive surgery at the dose of 2 mg/kg body weight. Preoperatively penile length, transverse preputial width and diameter at the base of the penis were measured. Basal testosterone levels were obtained before the institution of therapy and on the day of operation. Results: Following parenteral testosterone administration, the mean increase in penile length, transverse preputial width and diameter at the base of penis was 1.01 ± 0.25 cm (P < 0.001, 1.250 ± 0.52 cm and 0.61 ± 0.35 cm, respectively, (P < 0.001. Serum testosterone level after injection was well within normal range for that age. Conclusion: Parenteral testosterone increased phallus size, diameter and prepuce hypertrophy without any adverse effects. However, due to lack of a control group we cannot make any inferences. Controlled studies are required to establish the benefits of parenteral testosterone.

  16. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martin N

    2017-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fulfilling Desire: Evidence for negative feedback between men’s testosterone, sociosexual psychology, and sexual partner number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puts, David A.; Pope, Lauramarie E.; Hill, Alexander K.; Cárdenas, Rodrigo A.; Welling, Lisa L. M.; Wheatley, John R.; Breedlove, S. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Across human societies and many nonhuman animals, males have greater interest in uncommitted sex (more unrestricted sociosexuality) than do females. Testosterone shows positive associations with male-typical sociosexual behavior in nonhuman animals. Yet, it remains unclear whether the human sex difference in sociosexual psychology (attitudes and desires) is mediated by testosterone, whether any relationships between testosterone and sociosexuality differ between men and women, and what the nature of these possible relationships might be. In studies to resolve these questions, we examined relationships between salivary testosterone concentrations and sociosexual psychology and behavior in men and women. We measured testosterone in all men in our sample, but only in those women taking oral contraception (OC-using women) in order to reduce the influence of ovulatory cycle variation in ovarian hormone production. We found that OC-using women did not differ from normally-ovulating women in sociosexual psychology or behavior, but that circulating testosterone mediated the sex difference in human sociosexuality and predicted sociosexual psychology in men but not OC-using women. Moreover, when sociosexual psychology was controlled, men’s sociosexual behavior (number of sexual partners) was negatively related to testosterone, suggesting that testosterone drives sociosexual psychology in men and is inhibited when those desires are fulfilled. This more complex relationship between androgen and male sexuality may reconcile some conflicting prior reports. PMID:25644313

  18. Acute putaminal necrosis and white matter demyelination in a child with subnormal copper metabolism in Wilson disease: MR imaging and spectroscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Chun-Jung; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Chen, Cheng-Yu.; Chin, Shy-Chy; Hsueh, Chun-Jen; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chu, Hsin; Zimmerman, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD) that manifests solely with acute and severe neurological damage in the absence of hepatic disease and Kayser-Fleischer ring of the cornea is rare and difficult to diagnose at the acute setting. This report describes unusual diffusion and proton spectroscopic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a 12-year-old boy with WD who presented with hemichorea and subnormal copper metabolism. The MR imaging findings of lactate accumulation, decrease of N-acerylaspartate/creatinine (NAA/Cr) ratio and markedly increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the asymmetrical edematous putaminal lesions in the early stage were suggestive of acute necrosis with anaerobic metabolism of glucose leading to poor clinical outcome at follow-up. (orig.)

  19. Acute putaminal necrosis and white matter demyelination in a child with subnormal copper metabolism in Wilson disease: MR imaging and spectroscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, Chun-Jung; Chung, Hsiao-Wen [National Taiwan University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taipei (Taiwan); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (Taiwan); Chen, Cheng-Yu.; Chin, Shy-Chy; Hsueh, Chun-Jen [Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (Taiwan); Liu, Yi-Jui [Feng Chia University, Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Taichung (Taiwan); Chu, Hsin [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Taipei (Taiwan); Zimmerman, Robert A. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Wilson disease (WD) that manifests solely with acute and severe neurological damage in the absence of hepatic disease and Kayser-Fleischer ring of the cornea is rare and difficult to diagnose at the acute setting. This report describes unusual diffusion and proton spectroscopic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a 12-year-old boy with WD who presented with hemichorea and subnormal copper metabolism. The MR imaging findings of lactate accumulation, decrease of N-acerylaspartate/creatinine (NAA/Cr) ratio and markedly increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the asymmetrical edematous putaminal lesions in the early stage were suggestive of acute necrosis with anaerobic metabolism of glucose leading to poor clinical outcome at follow-up. (orig.)

  20. Effect of Testosterone Treatment on Adipokines and Gut Hormones in Obese Men on a Hypocaloric Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng Tang Fui, Mark; Hoermann, Rudolf; Grossmann, Mathis

    2017-04-01

    In obese men with lowered testosterone levels, testosterone treatment augments diet-associated loss of body fat. We hypothesized that testosterone treatment modulates circulating concentrations of hormonal mediators of fat mass and energy homeostasis in obese men undergoing a weight loss program. Prespecified secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Tertiary referral center. Obese men (body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 ) with a repeated total testosterone level ≤12 nmol/L. One hundred participants mean age 53 years (interquartile range 47 to 60 years) receiving 10 weeks of a very low-energy diet followed by 46 weeks of weight maintenance were randomly assigned at baseline to 56 weeks of intramuscular testosterone undecanoate (cases, n = 49) or matching placebo (controls, n = 51). Eighty-two men completed the study. Between-group differences in leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, glucagon like peptide-1, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, and amylin levels. At study end, compared with controls, cases had greater reductions in leptin [mean adjusted difference (MAD), -3.6 ng/mL (95% CI, -5.3 to -1.9); P diet-associated weight loss. Testosterone treatment may reduce leptin resistance in obese men.

  1. [Influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in adult male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Yang, Rupu; Li, Shihong; Zheng, Guoqing; Xi, Yu; Cheng, Xuemin; Hou, Jiaxiang; Cui, Liuxin; Ba, Yue

    2013-03-01

    To explore the influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone in adult male. Cross-sectional study was conducted in three villages of Tongxu county including high fluoride group (HFG), defluoridation project group (DFPG) and control group (CG) based on the fluoride concentration in drinking water. Adult male who were born and raised in the village and aged 18 - 50 years old were recruited using cluster sampling. Fasting blood and morning urine samples were collected. The fluoride levels in drinking water and urine were detected by fluoride-ion selective electrode method. Serum SHBG level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The chemical luminescence immune analysis method was used to detect serum testosterone content. Serum SHBG level was 47.85 nmol/L in CG, 31.37 nmol/L in DFPG and 24.52 nmol/L in HFG respectively. There were significant difference among of three groups (P < 0.05). Serum testosterone level was 3.69 ng/ml in CG, 4.61 ng/ml in DFPG and 4.83 ng/ml in HFG respectively. Serum testosterone level in HFG was significantly higher than that in CG (P < 0.05). Serum SHBG level in HFG has positive correlation with serum testosterone (r = 0.230, P = 0.049), which has not been observed in DFPG and CG. Long-time fluorine exposure may affect serum SHBG and testosterone level in adult male.

  2. The putative effects of D-Aspartic acid on blood testosterone levels: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Roshanzamir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp is in invertebrate and vertebrate neuroendocrine tissues, where it carries out important physiological functions. Recently, it has been reported that D-Asp is involved in the synthesis and release of testosterone and is assumed can be used as a testosterone booster for infertile men, and by athletes to increase muscle mass and strength. Objective: The aim of this review is to summarize available evidence related to the effects of D-Asp on serum testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: We conducted a systematic review of all type studies, which evaluated the effect of the D-Asp on blood testosterone including published papers until October 2015, using PubMed, ISI Web of Science, ProQuest and Scopus database. Results: With 396 retrieved records, 23 animal studies and 4 human studies were included. In vivo and in vitro animal studies revealed the effect of D-Asp depending on species, sex and organ-specific. Our results showed that exogenous D-Asp enhances testosterone levels in male animal’s studies, whereas studies in human yielded inconsistent results. The evidence for this association in man is still sparse, mostly because of limited number and poor quality studies. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for more and well-designed human clinical trials with larger sample sizes and longer duration to investigate putative effects of D-Asp on testosterone concentrations.

  3. An interlaboratory study of the pharmacokinetics of testosterone following intramuscular administration to Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, B C; Sams, R A; Guinjab-Cagmat, J; Szabo, N J; Colahan, P; Stanley, S D

    2011-12-01

    Testosterone is an anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) that is endogenously produced by both male and female horses that also has the potential for abuse when administered exogenously to race horses. To recommend appropriate withdrawal guidelines so that veterinarians can discontinue therapeutic use prior to competition, the pharmacokinetics and elimination of testosterone were investigated. An aqueous testosterone suspension was administered intramuscularly in the neck of Thoroughbred horses (n = 20). The disposition of testosterone from this formulation was characterized by an initial, rapid absorption phase followed by a much more variable secondary absorption phase. The median terminal half-life was 39 h. A second focus of this study was to compare the testosterone concentrations determined by two different laboratories using a percentage similarity model with a coefficient of variation of 16.5% showing good agreement between the two laboratories results. Based on the results of this study, a withdrawal period of 30 days for aqueous testosterone administered IM is recommended. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Variation in testosterone and corticosterone in amphibians and reptiles: relationships with latitude, elevation, and breeding season length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Husak, Jerry; Escallón, Camilo; Moore, Ignacio T

    2012-11-01

    Latitudinal variation in life-history traits has been the focus of numerous investigations, but underlying hormonal mechanisms have received much less attention. Steroid hormones play a central role in vertebrate reproduction and may be associated with life-history trade-offs. Consequently, circulating concentrations of these hormones vary tremendously across vertebrates, yet interspecific geographic variation in male hormone concentrations has been studied in detail only in birds. We here report on such variation in amphibians and reptiles, confirming patterns observed in birds. Using phylogenetic comparative analyses, we found that in amphibians, but not in reptiles, testosterone and baseline corticosterone were positively related to latitude. Baseline corticosterone was negatively related to elevation in amphibians but not in reptiles. For both groups, testosterone concentrations were negatively related to breeding-season length. In addition, testosterone concentrations were positively correlated with baseline corticosterone in both groups. Our findings may best be explained by the hypothesis that shorter breeding seasons increase male-male competition, which may favor increased testosterone concentrations that modulate secondary sexual traits. Elevated energetic demands resulting from greater reproductive intensity may require higher baseline corticosterone. Thus, the positive relationship between testosterone and corticosterone in both groups suggests an energetic demand for testosterone-regulated behavior that is met with increased baseline glucocorticoid concentrations.

  5. Serum levels of INSL3, AMH, Inhibin B and Testosterone during pubertal transition in healthy boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Mouritsen, Annette

    2014-01-01

    to luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, inhibin B, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) during puberty in healthy boys.MethodsTen boys were included from the longitudinal part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. Pubertal evaluation, including testicular volume, was performed...... and blood samples drawn every 6 months for 5 years. Serum concentrations of testosterone were determined by a newly developed LC-MS/MS method, and serum concentrations of INSL3, AMH, inhibin B, FSH and LH, respectively, were determined by validated immunoassays.ResultsSerum INSL3 levels increased...... progressively with increasing age, pubertal onset and testicular volume. In six of ten boys, LH increased prior to the first observed increase in INSL3. In the remaining four boys, the increase in LH and INSL3 was observed at the same examination. The increases in serum concentrations of LH, testosterone...

  6. Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in aging male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Hong-Feng; Tuo, Ying; Xing, Wei-Jie; Ji, Su-Yun; Gao, Yong; Deng, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-month-old male C57BL/6 mice with low serum testosterone levels were used as a late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) animal model for examining the effects of velvet antler polypeptide (VAP) on sexual function and testosterone synthesis. These mice received VAP for 5 consecutive weeks by daily gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg kg-1 body weight per day (n = 10 mice per dose). Control animals (n = 10) received the same weight-based volume of vehicle. Sexual behavior and testosterone levels in serum and interstitial tissue of testis were measured after the last administration of VAP. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms of how VAP affects sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in vivo, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in Leydig cells was also measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR. As a result, VAP produced a significant improvement in the sexual function of these aging male mice. Serum testosterone level and intratesticular testosterone (ITT) concentration also increased in the VAP-treated groups. The expression of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD was also found to be enhanced in the VAP-treated groups compared with the control group. Our results suggested that VAP was effective in improving sexual function in aging male mice. The effect of velvet antler on sexual function was due to the increased expression of several rate-limiting enzymes of testosterone synthesis (StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD) and the following promotion of testosterone synthesis in vivo.

  7. Relationships among musical aptitude, digit ratio and testosterone in men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy C Borniger

    Full Text Available Circulating adult testosterone levels, digit ratio (length of the second finger relative to the fourth finger, and directional asymmetry in digit ratio are considered sexually dimorphic traits in humans. These have been related to spatial abilities in men and women, and because similar brain structures appear to be involved in both spatial and musical abilities, neuroendocrine function may be related to musical as well as spatial cognition. To evaluate relationships among testosterone and musical ability in men and women, saliva samples were collected, testosterone concentrations assessed, and digit ratios calculated using standardized protocols in a sample of university students (N = 61, including both music and non-music majors. Results of Spearman correlations suggest that digit ratio and testosterone levels are statistically related to musical aptitude and performance only within the female sample: A those females with greater self-reported history of exposure to music (p = 0.016 and instrument proficiency (p = 0.040 scored higher on the Advanced Measures of Music Audiation test, B those females with higher left hand digit ratio (and perhaps lower fetal testosterone levels were more highly ranked (p = 0.007 in the orchestra, C female music students exhibited a trend (p = 0.082 towards higher testosterone levels compared to female non-music students, and D female music students with higher rank in the orchestra/band had higher testosterone levels (p = 0.003 than lower ranked students. None of these relationships were significant in the male sample, although a lack of statistical power may be one cause. The effects of testosterone are likely a small part of a poorly understood system of biological and environmental stimuli that contribute to musical aptitude. Hormones may play some role in modulating the phenotype of musical ability, and this may be the case for females more so than males.

  8. Testosterone and aging: clinical research directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liverman, Catharyn T; Blazer, Dan G., II

    2004-01-01

    .... In particular there has been growing concern about an increase in the number of middle-aged and older men using testosterone and the lack of scientific data on the effect it may have on aging males...

  9. Testosterone Replacement, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Seon Nam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength and physical function decrease in older men, as do testosterone levels. Nonetheless, the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on muscle strength and physical function remain inconclusive and equivocal. We conducted a rapid systematic review, the results of which showed that testosterone replacement does not affect muscle strength (measured by hand grip strength and leg muscle strength, although it may increase physical function (measured by the 6-minute walk test, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score, and other physical performance tests. However, most of the studies were conducted in the United States or Europe and did not include participants from Asian or other ethnic backgrounds; therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of testosterone replacement in a broader population.

  10. The laboratory diagnosis of testosterone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Darius A; Brannigan, Robert E; Fuchs, Eugene F; Kim, Edward D; Marmar, Joel L; Sandlow, Jay I

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation and treatment of hypogonadal men has become an important part of urologic practice. Fatigue, loss of libido, and erectile dysfunction are commonly reported, but nonspecific symptoms and laboratory verification of low testosterone (T) are an important part of evaluation in addition to a detailed history and physical examination. Significant intraindividual fluctuations in serum T levels, biologic variation of T action on end organs, the wide range of T levels in human serum samples, and technical limitations of currently available assays have led to poor reliability of T measurements in the clinical laboratory setting. There is no universally accepted threshold of T concentration that distinguishes eugonadal from hypogonadal men; thus, laboratory results have to be interpreted in the appropriate clinical setting. This review focuses on clinical, biological, and technological challenges that affect serum T measurements to educate clinicians regarding technological advances and limitations of the currently available laboratory methods to diagnose hypogonadism. A collaborative effort led by the American Urological Association between practicing clinicians, patient advocacy groups, government regulatory agencies, industry, and professional societies is underway to provide optimized assay platforms and evidence-based normal assay ranges to guide clinical decision making. Until such standardization is commonplace in clinical laboratories, the decision to treat should be based on the presence of signs and symptoms in addition to serum T measurements. Rigid interpretation of T ranges should not dictate clinical decision making or define coverage of treatment by third party payers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Circatrigintan cycle of testosterone in human male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celec, P.; Kudela, M.; Bursky, P.; Ostatnikova, D.; Zdenek PUTZ, Z.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years the influence of testosterone on physical and mental well-being has become a focus of research attention. Testosterone is no more considered the m ale hormone . It was proved to influence woman's behaviour and mental functioning as well as that of a man. Cyclic changes throughout the menstrual cycle in women are known. To search for the infradian variations of human male testosterone levels in a follow up study, which was held in autumn 1999 (one month of continuous sampling) and in autumn 2000 (two and a half months of continuous sampling). Testosterone was determined in saliva, which contains biologically active fraction, unbound to proteins. In autumn 2000 sampling of 31 males (mean age 21.3 ± 1.3) collected saliva in the morning 30 minutes after waking-up every second day during one month and every third day during the following 6 weeks. Saliva was deeply frozen and analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Data of our preliminary study (based on samples collected in 1999) indicated circatrigintan variations of male salivary testosterone. By the use of two different methods (zones of minimum-moving averages and analysis of variance) circatrigintan and circavigintan cycles of salivary testosterone were found in the collected data of our subjects. The article considerates clinical applications of variation of hormonal levels. (authors)

  12. Serum testosterone as a prognostic factor in patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Christensen, I J

    1994-01-01

    In 245 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate, serum concentrations of testosterone have been measured before androgen deprivation therapy, and patients were divided in quartiles according to their serum concentration. Pretreatment level of serum testosterone...... was confirmed as having significant prognostic value on progression-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival, and the hazard ratios of lower quartiles compared to the upper quartile for these endpoints were 2.3, 2.1, and 2.0, respectively. However, correlations with symptomatology and other pretreatment...

  13. Developmental Programming: Impact of Excess Prenatal Testosterone on Intrauterine Fetal Endocrine Milieu and Growth in Sheep1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L.; Abbott, David H.; Welch, Kathleen B.; MohanKumar, Puliyur S.; Phillips, David J.; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and consequent changes in maternal and fetal endocrine environments. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were administered either cottonseed oil (control) or testosterone propionate in cottonseed oil (100 mg, i.m. twice weekly), from Day 30 to Day 90 of gestation (term is ∼147 d). Maternal (uterine) and fetal (umbilical) arterial samples were collected at Days 64–66, 87–90, and 139–140 (range; referred to as D65, D90, and D140, respectively) of gestation. Concentrations of gonadal and metabolic hormones, as well as differentiation factors, were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer, radioimmunoassay, or ELISA. Findings indicate that testosterone treatment produced maternal and fetal testosterone levels comparable to adult males and D65 control male fetuses, respectively. Testosterone treatment increased fetal estradiol and estrone levels during the treatment period in both sexes, supportive of placental aromatization of testosterone. These steroidal changes were followed by a reduction in maternal estradiol levels at term, a reduction in activin A availability, and induction of intrauterine growth restriction in D140 female fetuses. Overall, our findings provide the first direct evidence in support of the potential for both androgenic as well as estrogenic contribution in the development of adult reproductive and metabolic pathology in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep. PMID:20739662

  14. Consequences of elevating plasma testosterone in females of a socially monogamous songbird: evidence of constraints on male evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Neal, Dawn M; Gaudioso, Jacqueline M; Casto, Joseph M; Parker-Renga, Ian M; Snajdr, Eric A; Duffy, Deborah L; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2004-08-01

    To explore whether selection for testosterone-mediated traits in males might be constrained by costs of higher testosterone to females, we examined the effects of experimental elevation of plasma testosterone on physiological, reproductive, and behavioral parameters in a female songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). We used subcutaneous implants to elevate testosterone (T) in captive and free-living female juncos. In captive birds, we measured the effects of high T on body mass, feather molt, and brood patch formation. In the field, we monitored its effects on the timing of egg laying, clutch size, egg size, egg steroid levels, incubation, and nest-defense behavior. Females implanted with testosterone (T-females) had significantly higher circulating levels of testosterone than did control females (C-females). Captive T-females had lower body mass, were less likely to develop brood patches, and delayed feather molt relative to C-females. Among free-living females, the interval between nest completion and appearance of the first egg was longer for T-females than for C-females and egg yolk concentrations of testosterone were higher, but there were no significant differences in estradiol levels, clutch size, or egg size. Incubation and nest defense behavior were also similar between T- and C-females. Our results suggest that selection on males for higher testosterone might initially lead to a correlated response in females producing changes in body mass and feather molt, both of which could be detrimental. Other possible female responses would be delayed onset of reproduction, which might reduce reproductive success, and higher yolk testosterone, which might have either positive or negative effects on offspring development. We found no reason to expect reduced parental behavior by females as a negative fitness consequence of selection for higher testosterone in males.

  15. Testosterone and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, R; Dimitrakakis, C

    2015-11-01

    Testosterone (T) is the most abundant biologically active hormone in women. Androgen receptors (AR) are located throughout the body including the breast where T decreases tissue proliferation. However, T can be aromatized to estradiol (E2), which increases proliferation and hence, breast cancer (BCA) risk. Increased aromatase expression and an imbalance in the ratio of stimulatory estrogens to protective androgens impacts breast homeostasis. Recent clinical data supports a role for T in BCA prevention. Women with symptoms of hormone deficiency treated with pharmacological doses of T alone or in combination with anastrozole (A), delivered by subcutaneous implants, had a reduced incidence of BCA. In addition, T combined with A effectively treated symptoms of hormone deficiency in BCA survivors and was not associated with recurrent disease. Most notably, T+A implants placed in breast tissue surrounding malignant tumors significantly reduced BCA tumor size, further supporting T direct antiproliferative, protective and therapeutic effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Within-Clutch Variation in Yolk Testosterone as an Adaptive Maternal Effect to Modulate Avian Sibling Competition : Evidence from a Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Martina; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bronstein, Judith L.; Demas, Greg

    In many species, embryos are exposed to maternal hormones in utero, in the egg, or in the seed. In birds, mothers deposit substantial testosterone into their eggs, which enhances competitive ability of offspring. These maternal testosterone concentrations vary systematically within clutches in

  17. Yolk-albumen testosterone in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination: relation with development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Victoria; Bowden, Rachel M; Crews, David

    2013-06-01

    The leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination as well as temperature-influenced polymorphisms. Research suggests that in oviparous reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination, steroid hormones in the yolk might influence sex determination and sexual differentiation. From captive leopard geckos that were all from the same incubation temperature regime, we gathered freshly laid eggs, incubated them at one of two female-biased incubation temperatures (26 or 34°C), and measured testosterone content in the yolk-albumen at early or late development. No differences in the concentration of testosterone were detected in eggs from different incubation temperatures. We report testosterone concentrations in the yolk-albumen were higher in eggs of late development than early development at 26°C incubation temperatures, a finding opposite that reported in other TSD reptiles studied to date. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Photonic Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Film for the Detection of Testosterone in Aqueous Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas J. Kadhem

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection of testosterone in aqueous solutions is a difficult task due to the low concentration levels that are relevant in environmental and physiological samples. Current analytical methods are expensive and/or complex. To address this issue, we fabricated a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP photonic film for the detection of testosterone in water. The films were obtained using colloidal crystals as templates for the pore morphology. Monodispersed silica particles with an average diameter 330 nm were used to obtain the colloidal crystal by vertical deposition. A solution of acrylic acid with testosterone as the imprinted template was infiltrated in the colloidal crystal and polymerized via bulk polymerization; the particles were then removed by acid etching and the testosterone eluted by a suitable solvent. The material was characterized by FTIR, swelling experiments and microscopy; MIPs were investigated by equilibrium rebinding, kinetics and reuse experiments. The results showed that the MIPs exhibited selectivity to the template, a 30-min equilibration time and stability after at least six cycles of use and regeneration. After incubation, the reflectance spectra of the films showed a shift of the Bragg diffraction peak that correlated with testosterone concentration in the 5–100 ppb range.

  19. Exogenous Testosterone Enhances the Reactivity to Social Provocation in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Wagels

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone affects human social behavior in various ways. While testosterone effects are generally associated with muscular strength and aggressiveness, human studies also point towards enhanced status–seeking motives after testosterone administration. The current study tested the causal influence of exogenous testosterone on male behavior during a competitive provocation paradigm. In this double blind, randomized, placebo (PL-controlled study, 103 males were assigned to a PL or testosterone group receiving a colorless PL or testosterone gel. To induce provocation, males played a rigged reaction time game against an ostensible opponent. When participants lost, the opponent subtracted money from the participant who in return could subtract money from the ostensible opponent. Participants subjectively indicated anger and self-estimated treatment affiliation (testosterone or PL administration. A trial-by-trial analysis demonstrated that provocation and success during the repeated games had a stronger influence on participants’ choice to reduce money from the opponent if they had received testosterone. Participants who believed to be in the testosterone group were angrier after the experiment and increased monetary reductions during the task course. In line with theories about mechanisms of testosterone in humans, provocation is shown to be necessary for the agency of exogenous testosterone. Thus, testosterone reinforces the conditional adjustment of aggressive behavior but not aggressive behavior per se. In contrast undirected frustration is not increased by testosterone but probably interferes with cognitive appraisals about biological mechanisms of testosterone.

  20. Exogenous Testosterone Enhances the Reactivity to Social Provocation in Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagels, Lisa; Votinov, Mikhail; Kellermann, Thilo; Eisert, Albrecht; Beyer, Cordian; Habel, Ute

    2018-01-01

    Testosterone affects human social behavior in various ways. While testosterone effects are generally associated with muscular strength and aggressiveness, human studies also point towards enhanced status-seeking motives after testosterone administration. The current study tested the causal influence of exogenous testosterone on male behavior during a competitive provocation paradigm. In this double blind, randomized, placebo (PL)-controlled study, 103 males were assigned to a PL or testosterone group receiving a colorless PL or testosterone gel. To induce provocation, males played a rigged reaction time game against an ostensible opponent. When participants lost, the opponent subtracted money from the participant who in return could subtract money from the ostensible opponent. Participants subjectively indicated anger and self-estimated treatment affiliation (testosterone or PL administration). A trial-by-trial analysis demonstrated that provocation and success during the repeated games had a stronger influence on participants' choice to reduce money from the opponent if they had received testosterone. Participants who believed to be in the testosterone group were angrier after the experiment and increased monetary reductions during the task course. In line with theories about mechanisms of testosterone in humans, provocation is shown to be necessary for the agency of exogenous testosterone. Thus, testosterone reinforces the conditional adjustment of aggressive behavior but not aggressive behavior per se . In contrast undirected frustration is not increased by testosterone but probably interferes with cognitive appraisals about biological mechanisms of testosterone.

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of testosterone evaluated in all-trans retinoic acid differentiated HL-60 cells, granulocytes, and monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Alex; Moesby, Lise; Timm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The sex hormones are known to affect innate immunity in humans. In this study we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of testosterone in a model system comprising of all-trans retinoic acid differentiated HL-60 cells, and confirmed the results in human granulocytes and monocytes. Results showed...... that testosterone at pharmacological doses reduced the production of interleukin-8 and reactive oxygen species from differentiated HL-60 cells in a concentration dependent manner without affecting phagocytosis. The cells were stimulated with zymosan, lipopolysaccharide, or Bacillus subtilis. At the highest...... concentration of testosterone (120 µM), interleukin-8 secretion was reduced 42-80%, and production of reactive oxygen species was reduced 32-46%. Flutamide, an antagonist of the classical intracellular androgen receptor, was unable to antagonize the immunosuppressive effect of testosterone. We further...

  2. DDT increases hepatic testosterone metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Albores, Arnulfo; Cebrian, Mariano E. [Cinvestav-IPN, Seccion de Toxicologia, Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Manuel [Cinvestav-IPN, Departamento de Biologia Celular (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites are considered as endocrine disruptors able to promote hormone-dependent pathologies. We studied the effects of technical-grade DDT on hepatic testosterone metabolism and testosterone hydroxylase activity ratios in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with a single dose of technical-grade DDT (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24 h later. Hepatic microsomes were incubated with [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone and the metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by radio scanning. DDT increased testosterone biotransformation and modified the profile of metabolites produced in a sex-dependent manner. Males treated with a representative dose (10 mg/kg) produced relatively less androstenedione (AD), 2{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), and 16{alpha}-OHT but higher 6{beta}-OHT whereas treated females produced less 7{alpha}-OHT and AD but higher 6{beta}-OHT and 6{alpha}-OHT than their respective controls. In both sexes DDT decreased the relative proportion of AD and increased that of 6{beta}-OHT suggesting that the androgen-saving pathway was affected. The testosterone 6{alpha}-/15{alpha}-OHT ratio, a proposed indicator of demasculinization, was increased in treated males. This effect was in agreement with the demasculinizing ability proposed for DDT. The effects on 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT and 6-dehydrotestosterone/16{alpha}-OHT ratios followed a similar tendency, with the ratio 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT being the most sensitive marker. Interestingly, these ratios were reduced in treated females suggesting that technical-grade DDT shifted testosterone hydroxylations toward a more masculine pattern. Thus, technical-grade DDT altered the hepatic sexual dimorphism in testosterone metabolism and decreased the metabolic differences between male and female rats. (orig.)

  3. Unsuspected Clenbuterol Toxicity in a Patient Using Intramuscular Testosterone

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    Matthew K. Griswold

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Clenbuterol is a beta-agonist that has been abused by fitness-oriented individuals for muscle growth and weight loss. We report a case of a 46-year-old man who presented tachycardic, hypokalemic, and hyperglycemic after injecting testosterone obtained from Brazil. He developed refractory hypotension and was started on an esmolol infusion for suspected beta-agonist toxicity. Laboratory analysis showed a detectable clenbuterol serum concentration. Analysis of an unopened ampule contained boldenone undecylenate, clenbuterol, and vitamin E. This case illustrates a novel exposure that caused beta-agonist toxicity and was treated successfully with rapid-onset beta blocker.

  4. Serum testosterone levels of HbSS (sickle cell disease male subjects in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Adediran Adewumi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is a major problem in sickle cell disease patients, especially in males. In addition to low serum testosterone, other abnormalities involving the accessory sex organs, such as the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland, as well as marked decrease in ejaculate volume may be observed in male HbSS patients. Hence, the need to study the role of sex hormones as a cause of infertility in male HbSS patients. Methods An unmatched case-control study was performed using seventy-five consenting subjects from Lagos University Teaching Hospital. These included 47 patients with haemoglobin phenotype SS from the Sickle cell clinic and 28 volunteered medical students and members of staff with haemoglobin phenotype AA. Demographic data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 5 mls of blood was collected from each subject between 9.00 am & 11.am, and assayed for serum testosterone concentration. Results The concentrations of serum testosterone in HbSS patients ranged from 0.2 to 4.3 ng/ml with a mean of 1.28 ± 0.72 ng/ml whilst the values in HbAA controls ranged from 1.2 to 6.9 ng/ml with a mean of 2.63 ± 1.04 ng/ml. Seven (25.0% of the 28 controls had serum testosterone concentration lower than the quoted reference (normal range whereas 44 (93.6% of the 47 HbSS subjects had serum testosterone concentration lower than the reference range. Conclusion Overall, subjects with HbSS have significantly lower mean serum testosterone than HbAA controls.

  5. Diurnal and seasonal cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA rhythms in boys and girls during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchock, Robert L; Dorn, Lorah D; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2007-01-01

    Diurnal and seasonal rhythms of cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA were examined, as little is known about the relationship between these rhythmicities and pubertal development. Salivary samples were obtained from 60 boys and 60 girls at approximately 07:45, 08:00, 08:30, 12:00, 16:50, and 21:00 h. The participants' ages ranged from 8-14 yrs, and each participant was tested three times at six-month intervals. The study was conducted at a General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) and at the homes of the participants. All hormones showed diurnal fluctuations. The acrophase (peak time) of cortisol occurred earlier than for testosterone or DHEA and showed a seasonal effect, with the acrophase occurring earlier in spring than in summer. The cortisol acrophase also occurred later in the day for boys than for girls during later puberty. Seasonal effects were found only for cortisol with higher concentrations in the spring and summer. Cortisol concentrations were relatively stable across pubertal maturation, but significantly lower concentrations were observed at pubertal stage 3 compared to the other stages. Morning cortisol levels were also higher in boys at pubertal stage 2. Testosterone concentrations were higher in boys at pubertal stages 3 and 4, and DHEA was lower at pubertal stage 1 than 3 and 4 for both boys and girls. For the total sample, there was a positive correlation between DHEA and testosterone during early puberty (stages 1-3) but not later puberty (stages 4-5). Awakening secretory activity correlated with daytime secretory activity for testosterone and DHEA, but not for cortisol. These data provide novel chronobiological information on cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA as it relates to sexual maturation and encourage further study on both normal and abnormal endocrine rhythms.

  6. Digit Ratio (2D:4D, Aggression, and Testosterone in Men Exposed to an Aggressive Video Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam P. Kilduff

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relative lengths of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in “challenge” situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a “challenge” is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression.

  7. Testosterone administration reduces lying in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wibral

    Full Text Available Lying is a pervasive phenomenon with important social and economic implications. However, despite substantial interest in the prevalence and determinants of lying, little is known about its biological foundations. Here we study a potential hormonal influence, focusing on the steroid hormone testosterone, which has been shown to play an important role in social behavior. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 91 healthy men (24.32±2.73 years received a transdermal administration of 50 mg of testosterone (n=46 or a placebo (n=45. Subsequently, subjects participated in a simple task, in which their payoff depended on the self-reported outcome of a die-roll. Subjects could increase their payoff by lying without fear of being caught. Our results show that testosterone administration substantially decreases lying in men. Self-serving lying occurred in both groups, however, reported payoffs were significantly lower in the testosterone group (p<0.01. Our results contribute to the recent debate on the effect of testosterone on prosocial behavior and its underlying channels.

  8. Endogenous testosterone attenuates neointima formation after moderate coronary balloon injury in male swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Darla L; Masseau, Isabelle; Ivey, Jan; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Bowles, Douglas K

    2009-04-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that testosterone increases coronary smooth muscle protein kinase C delta (PKC delta) both in vivo and in vitro and inhibits coronary smooth muscle proliferation by inducing G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest in a PKC delta-dependent manner. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether endogenous testosterone limits coronary neointima (NI) formation in a porcine model of post-angioplasty restenosis. Sexually mature, male Yucatan miniature swine were either left intact (IM), castrated (CM), or castrated with testosterone replacement (CMT; Androgel, 10 mg/day). Angioplasty was performed in both the left anterior descending and left circumflex coronary arteries with balloon catheter overinflation to induce either moderate (1.25-1.3 x diameter; 3 x 30 s) or severe (1.4x diameter; 3 x 30 s) injury, and animals were allowed to recover for either 10 or 28 days. Injured coronary sections were dissected, fixed, stained (Verheoff-Van Gieson, Ki67, PKC delta, p27), and analysed. Vessels without internal elastic laminal rupture were excluded. Following moderate injury, intimal area, intima-to-media ratio (I/M), and I/M normalized to rupture index (RI) were increased in CM compared with IM and CMT. RI, medial area, and intimal/medial thickness (IMT) were not different between groups. NI formation was inversely related to serum testosterone concentration. Conversely, following severe injury, there were no significant differences between the groups. Testosterone inhibited proliferation and stimulated PKC delta and p27(kip1) expression during NI formation (10 days post-injury). These findings demonstrate that endogenous testosterone limits coronary NI formation in male swine and provides support for a protective role for testosterone in coronary vasculoproliferative diseases, such as restenosis and atherosclerosis.

  9. A Low-Testosterone State Associated with Endometrioma Leads to the Apoptosis of Granulosa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yoshihiro J.; Tanabe, Akiko; Nakamura, Yoko; Yamamoto, Hikaru; Hayashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Tomohito; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masami; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Although endometriosis is suspected to be a cause of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), the mechanism(s) underlying this process have not been elucidated. Recently, androgens were shown to promote oocyte maturation and to play a role in folliculogenesis. In addition, several reports have documented low testosterone levels in the follicular fluid obtained from endometriosis patients. We therefore examined whether the low levels of serum testosterone are associated with the apoptosis of granulosa cells in follicles obtained from endometriosis patients. Serum samples were collected from 46 patients with endometriosis and from 62 patients without endometriosis who received assisted reproductive therapy. Specimens of the ovaries obtained from 10 patients with endometrioma were collected using laparoscopy. The mean serum testosterone concentration in the patients with endometriosis was significantly lower than that observed in the patients without endometriosis. Furthermore, high expression of a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 member, BimEL, in the follicles was found to be associated with a low serum testosterone level. We clarified the underlying mechanisms using a basic approach employing human immortalized granulosa cells derived from a primary human granulosa cell tumor, the COV434 cell line. The in vitro examination demonstrated that testosterone inhibited apoptosis induced by sex steroids depletion via the PI3K/Akt-FoxO3a pathway in the COV434 cells. In conclusion, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the anti-apoptotic effects of testosterone on granulosa cells, and found that a low-testosterone status is a potentially important step in the development of premature ovarian insufficiency in patients with endometriosis. PMID:25536335

  10. A low-testosterone state associated with endometrioma leads to the apoptosis of granulosa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro J Ono

    Full Text Available Although endometriosis is suspected to be a cause of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI, the mechanism(s underlying this process have not been elucidated. Recently, androgens were shown to promote oocyte maturation and to play a role in folliculogenesis. In addition, several reports have documented low testosterone levels in the follicular fluid obtained from endometriosis patients. We therefore examined whether the low levels of serum testosterone are associated with the apoptosis of granulosa cells in follicles obtained from endometriosis patients. Serum samples were collected from 46 patients with endometriosis and from 62 patients without endometriosis who received assisted reproductive therapy. Specimens of the ovaries obtained from 10 patients with endometrioma were collected using laparoscopy. The mean serum testosterone concentration in the patients with endometriosis was significantly lower than that observed in the patients without endometriosis. Furthermore, high expression of a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 member, BimEL, in the follicles was found to be associated with a low serum testosterone level. We clarified the underlying mechanisms using a basic approach employing human immortalized granulosa cells derived from a primary human granulosa cell tumor, the COV434 cell line. The in vitro examination demonstrated that testosterone inhibited apoptosis induced by sex steroids depletion via the PI3K/Akt-FoxO3a pathway in the COV434 cells. In conclusion, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the anti-apoptotic effects of testosterone on granulosa cells, and found that a low-testosterone status is a potentially important step in the development of premature ovarian insufficiency in patients with endometriosis.

  11. Dificuldade visual em escolares: conhecimentos e ações de professores do ensino fundamental que atuam com alunos que apresentam visão subnormal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparetto Maria Elisabete R. Freire

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: 1 Verificar os conhecimentos e ações desenvolvidas por professores do ensino fundamental, que atuam com alunos que apresentam visão subnormal, em relação aos sinais e sintomas indicativos de dificuldades visuais dos alunos; 2 Obter informações indispensáveis ao planejamento de ações preventivas direcionadas à saúde ocular na escola. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se levantamento entre professores do ensino fundamental de escolas públicas do município de Campinas/SP, que atuavam com alunos que apresentavam visão subnormal, no ano letivo de 1999. Foram incluídas 23 escolas onde se localizava essa população. Foi utilizado questionário auto-aplicável como instrumento de coleta de dados. RESULTADOS: De 84 professores, 68 (81% responderam ao questionário. A média de tempo de experiência profissional de magistério era de 20,8 anos. A maioria (92,6% não relatou formação na área da deficiência visual. Em relação ao conhecimento sobre os sinais e sintomas indicativos de dificuldade visual, a maioria indicou a dificuldade para ler na lousa (94,1%, seguida da cefal��ia (89,7% e a aproximação exagerada dos objetos aos olhos (88,2%. Desses professores, 55,9% identificaram alunos que apresentavam dificuldades visuais. Entre os que declararam ter identificado esses alunos, 84,2% proveram orientações ao escolar e 63,2% aos familiares para encaminhamento do problema. Somente 26,3% orientaram o aluno a procurar o oftalmologista. CONCLUSÃO: Os professores apresentaram conhecimento insuficiente quanto à saúde ocular e, portanto, as ações desenvolvidas não foram completas e abrangentes. Sugere-se a implantação de um programa de saúde ocular em todo o sistema público de ensino, visando desenvolver ações de prevenção da incapacidade visual, promoção e recuperação da saúde ocular.

  12. Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Wallner, Kent E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an association between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase ≥25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease ≥25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA response

  13. Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, Al V. [Western Radiation Oncology, Mountain View, CA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an association between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase {>=}25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease {>=}25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA response

  14. Late-onset hypogonadism: beyond testosterone

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    Carlo Foresta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Late-onset hypogonadism is defined as a combination of low testosterone (T levels and typical symptoms and signs. A major area of uncertainty is whether T concentrations are always really sufficient to fully reflect Leydig cell (dysfunction. Mild testicular alteration could be diagnosed only by additional biochemical markers, such as luteinizing hormone (LH and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. These markers help in identifying the so-called "subclinical" hypogonadism (normal T, high LH levels. Patients with hypogonadism have frequently low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D due to impairment of the hydroxylating enzyme CYP2R1 in the testis. However, no data have been published dealing with the best treatment option (cholecalciferol - the Vitamin D precursor, or calcidiol - 25-hydroxylated form of Vitamin D in these patients. We studied 66 patients with classic hypogonadism (total T [TT] <12 nmol l−1 , LH ≥ 8 IU l−1 (n = 26 and subclinical hypogonadism (TT ≥ 12 nmol l−1 , LH ≥ 8 IU l−1 (n = 40 and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (<50 nmol l−1 . Subjects received cholecalciferol (5000 IU per week (n = 20 or calcidiol (4000 IU per week (n = 46, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH were evaluated after 3 months of therapy. Supplementation with calcidiol significantly increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D and significantly decreased PTH levels in both groups of men with hypogonadism (primary, n = 16 and subclinical, n = 30, whereas supplementation with cholecalciferol did not modify their levels. This study shows for the first time that the administration of the 25-hydroxylated form of Vitamin D (calcidiol, and not the administration of the precursor cholecalciferol, restores 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in subjects with hypogonadism.

  15. Reduction of calprotectin and phosphate during testosterone therapy in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L; Christensen, L. L.; Pedersen, Susanne Møller

    2017-01-01

    . Setting: Odense Androgen Study—the effect of Testim and training in hypogonadal men. Participants: Men aged 60–78 years old with a low normal concentration of free of bioavailable testosterone 94 cm recruited from 2008 to 2009 (N = 48) by advertisement. Intervention...

  16. Hippocampal testosterone relates to reference memory performance and synaptic plasticity in male rats

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    Kristina eSchulz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Steroids are important neuromodulators influencing cognitive performance and synaptic plasticity. While the majority of literature concerns adrenal- and gonadectomized animals, very little is known about the natural endogenous release of hormones during learning. Therefore, we measured blood and brain (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex testosterone, estradiol, and corticosterone concentrations of intact male rats undergoing a spatial learning paradigm which is known to reinforce hippocampal plasticity. We found significant modulations of all investigated hormones over the training course. Corticosterone and testosterone were correlated manifold with behaviour, while estradiol expressed fewer correlations. In the recall session, testosterone was tightly coupled to reference memory performance, which is crucial for reinforcement of synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Intriguingly, prefrontal cortex and hippocampal levels related differentially to reference memory performance. Correlations of testosterone and corticosterone switched from unspecific activity to specific cognitive functions over training. Correspondingly, exogenous application of testosterone revealed different effects on synaptic and neuronal plasticity in trained versus untrained animals. While hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP of the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP was prolonged in untrained rats, both the fEPSP- and the population spike amplitude-LTP was impaired in trained rats. Behavioural performance was unaffected, but correlations of hippocampal field potentials with behaviour were decoupled in treated rats. The data provide important evidence that besides adrenal, also gonadal steroids play a mechanistic role in linking synaptic plasticity to cognitive performance.

  17. How do we love? Romantic love style in men is related to lower testosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babková Durdiaková, J; Celec, P; Koborová, I; Sedláčková, T; Minárik, G; Ostatníková, D

    2017-09-22

    Testosterone has been widely investigated in associations with many aspects of social interactions, emotions and behavior. No research has been conducted on its contribution to the variability of love styles in human. The aim of this paper was to uncover the possible relationship between not only the actual plasma testosterone levels, but also the prenatal testosterone level (expressed as 2D:4D ratio) and the sensitivity of androgen receptor and love typology in young healthy men. There are six love styles which are primary including Eros (passionate romantic love), Ludus (playful) and Storge (friendly) and secondary love consisting of Mania (obsessive), Pragma (practical realistic) and Agape (altruistic). Our results pointed out that low testosterone concentrations are associated with higher score for Eros, Ludus, Pragma, Mania love style. No significant association was proved for other tested parameters of androgenicity (2D:4D, sensitivity of androgen receptor) and love style after correction was applied. Different attitudes and behavior in relationships do have a biological foundation related to endogenous testosterone levels in plasma. Future studies should address questions about the family and social background of participants to differentiate here between moral rules or/and social-conventional rules.

  18. Seasonal and social correlates of fecal testosterone and cortisol levels in wild male muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, K B; Ziegler, T E; Wittwer, D J

    1999-04-01

    Fecal testosterone and cortisol levels were analyzed from six wild male muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) over a 19-month period at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga in Minas Gerais, Brazil, to investigate the hormonal correlates of seasonal sexual behavior and environmental conditions. Group mean testosterone levels based on weekly samples from the six males did not differ between copulatory and noncopulatory periods or between rainy and dry seasons. Cortisol levels did change with copulatory periods, and were significantly higher during the second dry season, when mating continued following an exceptionally heavy rainy season, than during the first dry season, when mating ceased. Males exhibited individual variation in the timing of their hormone shifts relative to their sexual activity, but neither hormone levels nor sexual activity were related to male age. Despite individual differences in the timing of testosterone fluctuations around the onset and offset of the copulatory season, all males exhibited elevated cortisol concentrations following a slight increase in testosterone at the beginning of the copulatory season. Both the lack of significant changes in testosterone levels with the onset of the rainy and copulatory season and the lack of prebreeding increases in cortisol may be related to the low levels of overt aggression displayed by male muriquis over access to mates. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Developmental programming: impact of prenatal testosterone excess on pre- and postnatal gonadotropin regulation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Thompson, Robert C; Herkimer, Carol; Welch, Kathleen B; Flak, Jonathan; Karsch, Fred J; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore mechanisms that mediate hypersecretion of LH and progressive loss of cyclicity in female sheep exposed during fetal life to excess testosterone. Our working hypothesis was that prenatal testosterone excess, by its androgenic action, amplifies GnRH-induced LH (but not FSH) secretion and, thus, hypersecretion of LH in adulthood, and that this results from altered developmental gene expression of GnRH and estradiol (E2) receptors, gonadotropin subunits, and paracrine factors that differentially regulate LH and FSH synthesis. We observed that, relative to controls, females exposed during fetal life to excess testosterone, as well as the nor-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone, exhibited enhanced LH but not FSH responses to intermittent delivery of GnRH boluses under conditions in which endogenous LH (GnRH) pulses were suppressed. Luteinizing hormone hypersecretion was more evident in adults than in prepubertal females, and it was associated with development of acyclicity. Measurement of pituitary mRNA concentrations revealed that prenatal testosterone excess induced developmental changes in gene expression of pituitary GnRH and E2 receptors and paracrine modulators of LH and FSH synthesis in a manner consistent with subsequent amplification of LH release. Together, this series of studies suggests that prenatal testosterone excess, by its androgenic action, amplifies GnRH-induced LH response, leading to LH hypersecretion and acyclicity in adulthood, and that this programming involves developmental changes in expression of pituitary genes involved in LH and FSH release.

  20. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6......-month testosterone therapy did not improve insulin sensitivity. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on regional body fat distribution and on the levels of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. DESIGN: A randomized......, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 6-month testosterone treatment (gel) in 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. METHODS: Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT...

  1. Sex Reversal Of Nila Gift (Oreochromis Niloticus) After Feeding By Natural Testosteron Hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasibuan, Adria PM.; Umar, Jenny M.

    2002-01-01

    Natural testosteron hormonal derived from cow testis was given on fish larva for sex reversal. Concentration of natural testosteron hormone was determined by isotopic dilution technique using Radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results of experiments in aquarium showed that the A treatment produced only 24% of male nila gift, B treatment was 87%, and C treatment was 92%. While result of sex reversal was observed in fish pond was 29%, 83%, and 87% for A,B, and C treatments respectively. Fish weight after 40 days was 2.60 gram and 0.65 gram for male and female respectively. Natural testosteron hormone given to nila gift as sex reversal, was successful to produce male nila gift

  2. Effect of Purine Nucleoside Analogue-Acyclovir on The Sperm Parameters and Testosterone Production in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acyclovir (ACV, a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue derived fromguanosine, is known to be toxic to gonads and the aim of this study was to evaluate theeffect of ACV on the sperm parameters and testosterone production in rat.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats (220± 20 g were randomly divided into five groups (n=8 for each group. One groupserved as control and one group served as sham control [distilled water was intraperitoneally(i.p. injected]. ACV was administered intraperitoneally in the drugtreatment groups (4, 16 and 48 mg/kg/day for 15 days. Eighteen days after the lastinjection, rats were sacrificed by CO2 inhalation. After that, cauda epididymideswere removed surgically. At the end, sperm concentrations in the cauda epididymis,sperm motility, morphology, viability, chromatin quality and DNA integrity wereanalyzed. Serum testosterone concentrations were determined.Results: The results showed that ACV did not affect sperm count, but decreased spermmotility and sperm viability at 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels. Sperm abnormalities increasedat 48 mg/kg dose-level of ACV. Further, ACV significantly increases DNA damageat 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels and chromatin abnormality at all doses. Besides, asignificant decrease in serum testosterone concentrations was observed at 16 and 48 mg/kg doses.Conclusion: The present results highly support the idea that ACV induces testicular toxicityby adverse effects on the sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in malerats.

  3. Validity of Serum Testosterone, Free Androgen Index, and Calculated Free Testosterone in Women with Suspected Hyperandrogenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal K. Al Kindi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There are technical limitations for the currently available methods of measuring serum total and free testosteronein females. The study objectives were to evaluate the usefulness of serum total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, free androgen index (FAI, and calculated free testosterone (CFT in the assessment of androgen status in women investigated for suspected hyperandrogenism.Methods: This is a case control study that was conducted during the period from 1st May 2011 to 31st October 2011 on 122 patients aged (18-45 years whom were referred to the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory from the Endocrinology and Gynecology Clinics, Royal Hospital, Oman. Women with no clinical feature or laboratory data indicative of hormonal dysfunction and with midluteal progesterone >30 nmol/L were selected as controls (group 1; n=18. The patients were divided into subgroups based on the clinical/laboratory diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS [group 2; n=19, hirsutism (group 3; n=18, menstrual disturbances (irregularities or infertility (group 4; n=49, as well as combination of PCOS or hirsutism and menstrual disturbances or infertility (group 5;n=18. Serum total testosterone and SHBG were measured, FAI was calculated as percentage ratio of total testosterone to SHBG values, and CFT was calculated according to Vermeulen equation.Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the mean levels of testosterone, FAI and CFT in each patient group compared with the control group. For diagnosing hyperandrogenism, each indicator was selected at the recommended cut-off: testosterone >3.0 nmol/L, SHBG 5%, and CFT >32 pmol/L. In group 2, 89.5% and 94.7% of the patients had increased FAI and CFT, respectively; compared with 36.4% for increased testosterone. In group 3, 88.9% and 88.9% of the patients had similarly increased FAI and CFT, respectively; compared with 66.7% for testosterone. In group 4, patients had 63.3% and 73

  4. Testosterone and aging: clinical research directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liverman, Catharyn T; Blazer, Dan G., II

    2004-01-01

    .... Viewed by some as an “antiaging tonic,†testosterone’s reputation and increased use by men of all ages in the United States have outpaced the scientific evidence about its potential benefits and risks...

  5. Testosterone inhibits trust, but promotes reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; van den Bergh, B.; van Son, V.; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smids, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone has been associated with behavior intended to obtain or maintain high social status. Although such behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior

  6. Testosterone Inhibits Trust but Promotes Reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; Bergh, B. van den; Son, V. van; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smidts, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone has been associated with behavior intended to obtain or maintain high social status. Although such behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior

  7. Testosterone inhibits trust but promotes reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; Bergh, B. van den; Son, V. van; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smidts, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Although dominance behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior but also through prosocial behavior. In the present experiment, we investigated the impact of testosterone

  8. Oestrogen, testosterone, cytotoxin and cholinesterase inhibitor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oestrogen, testosterone, cytotoxin and cholinesterase inhibitor removal during reclamation of sewage to drinking water. ... Risks associated with sewage effluent and reclaimed sewage should be closely monitored; therefore water at the Gammams Sewage Treatment Plant (GSTP) inlet and outlet, as well as reclaimed water ...

  9. The use of a sensitive equilibrium dialysis method for the measurement of free testosterone levels in healthy, cycling women and in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha-Hikim, I; Arver, S; Beall, G; Shen, R; Guerrero, M; Sattler, F; Shikuma, C; Nelson, J C; Landgren, B M; Mazer, N A; Bhasin, S

    1998-04-01

    Measurements of total and free testosterone levels in women have lacked precision and accuracy because of limited assay sensitivity. The paucity of normative data on total and free testosterone levels in healthy women has confounded interpretation of androgen levels in women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other disease states. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop sensitive assays for the measurement of the low total and free testosterone levels in women to define the range for these hormones during the normal menstrual cycle and assess the total and free testosterone levels in HIV-infected women. By using a larger volume of serum, increasing the incubation time, and reducing the antibody concentration, the sensitivity of the total testosterone assay was increased to 0.008 nmol/L, and that of the free testosterone assay was increased to 2 pmol/L. The mean percent free testosterone was 1.0 +/- 0.1% of the total testosterone. Serum total and free testosterone levels in the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, but both demonstrated a modest preovulatory increase, 3 days before the LH peak. Serum total [0.50 +/- 0.32 (14.60 +/- 9.22) vs. 1.2 +/- 0.7 nmol/L (34.3 +/- 21.0 ng/dL); P copy number. Serum FSH, but not LH, levels were significantly higher in HIV-infected women than in controls. Using assays with sufficient sensitivity, we defined the range for total and free testosterone levels during the normal menstrual cycle. Serum total and free testosterone levels are lower in HIV-infected women and correlate inversely with plasma HIV ribonucleic acid levels. The hypothesis that androgen deficiency contributes to wasting in HIV-infected women remains to be tested.

  10. Interrelationships of serum testosterone and free testosterone index with FFM and strength in aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tracey Ann; Blackman, Marc R; Harman, S Mitchell; Tobin, Jordan D; Schrager, Matthew; Metter, E Jeffery

    2002-08-01

    Muscle mass and strength losses during aging may be associated with declining levels of serum testosterone (T) in men. Few studies have shown a direct relationship between T and muscle mass and strength. Subjects were 262 men, aged 24-90 yr, from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who had T and sex hormone-binding globulin sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) measurements, from which the free T index (FTI) was calculated (T/SHBG) from serum samples collected longitudinally since 1963, total body fat mass and arm and leg fat-free mass (FFM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and arm and leg strength by dynanomometry. Mixed-effects models estimated T and FTI at the time of mass and strength measurements. Age, total body fat, arm and leg FFM, T, and FTI were significantly associated with concentric and eccentric strength. FTI, not T, was modestly, but directly, related to arm and leg strength after fat, arm and leg FFM, height, and age were accounted for and indirectly through body mass. FTI is a better predictor of arm and leg strength than T in aging men.

  11. Steroid hormone concentrations and physiological toxicity of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven bioassays were used to determine oestradiol (E2), oestrone (E1) and testosterone (T) concentrations, as well as neurotoxicity, cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity, in water sampled during 2010 and 2011. Oestradiol and E1 concentrations of up to 7.2 pg ml–1 and 7.6 pg ml–1, respectively, were recorded. Testosterone ...

  12. Lower testosterone levels with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy than with surgical castration: new insights attained by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Tim M.; Bui, Hong N.; Meuleman, Eric J. H.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Hartman, Jeroen F.; van Adrichem, Nick; Boevé, Egbert; de Ronde, Willem; van Moorselaar, R. Jeroen A.; Vis, André N.

    2012-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy by bilateral orchiectomy (surgical castration) or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy (medical castration) is recommended for advanced or metastatic prostate cancer. Both methods aim at reducing serum testosterone concentrations to a castrate level

  13. The marketing of testosterone treatments for age-related low testosterone or 'Low T'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzes, Barbara

    2018-06-01

    To summarize the research evidence on promotion of testosterone for 'Low T', or age-related hypogonadism. Marketing of testosterone for 'Low T' has relied on strategies that are inadequately regulated to prevent off-label promotion, such as unbranded 'disease-awareness' advertising campaigns targeting the general public, sponsored continuing medical education (CME) and ghostwriting. A recent US analysis of television advertising exposure levels versus insurance claims found that both unbranded 'disease-awareness' advertising and branded ads were associated with increased rates of testosterone testing, treatment initiation, and treatment without prior testing. Exposés of sponsored CME and ghostwriting indicate misrepresentation of the research evidence on the sequelae of untreated low testosterone and on treatment efficacy. In the United States, advertising to the general public ceased in 2014 after the Food and Drug Administration changed product labeling to clarify that testosterone is only indicated for pathological hypogonadism. Unbranded 'disease-awareness' advertising to the general public and 'Low T' messages for health professionals have continued elsewhere. The review of the experience of promotion of testosterone for 'Low T' and research evidence on effects of advertising targeting the public highlights the need for improved regulation of unbranded 'disease awareness' advertising to ensure adequate protection of public.

  14. Effects of dietary phytoestrogens on plasma testosterone and triiodothyronine (T3) levels in male goat kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to xenoestrogens in humans and animals has gained increasing attention due to the effects of these compounds on reproduction. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of low-dose dietary phytoestrogen exposure, i.e. a mixture of genistein, daidzein, biochanin A and formononetin, on the establishment of testosterone production during puberty in male goat kids. Methods Goat kids at the age of 3 months received either a standard diet or a diet supplemented with phytoestrogens (3 - 4 mg/kg/day) for ~3 months. Plasma testosterone and total and free triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were determined weekly. Testicular levels of testosterone and cAMP were measured at the end of the experiment. Repeated measurement analysis of variance using the MIXED procedure on the generated averages, according to the Statistical Analysis System program package (Release 6.12, 1996, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA) was carried out. Results No significant difference in plasma testosterone concentration between the groups was detected during the first 7 weeks. However, at the age of 5 months (i.e. October 1, week 8) phytoestrogen-treated animals showed significantly higher testosterone concentrations than control animals (37.5 nmol/l vs 19.1 nmol/l). This elevation was preceded by a rise in plasma total T3 that occurred on September 17 (week 6). A slightly higher concentration of free T3 was detected in the phytoestrogen group at the same time point, but it was not until October 8 and 15 (week 9 and 10) that a significant difference was found between the groups. At the termination of the experiment, testicular cAMP levels were significantly lower in goats fed a phytoestrogen-supplemented diet. Phytoestrogen-fed animals also had lower plasma and testicular testosterone concentrations, but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion Our findings suggest that phytoestrogens can stimulate testosterone synthesis during puberty in

  15. Effects of dietary phytoestrogens on plasma testosterone and triiodothyronine (T3 levels in male goat kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekstedt Elisabeth

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to xenoestrogens in humans and animals has gained increasing attention due to the effects of these compounds on reproduction. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of low-dose dietary phytoestrogen exposure, i.e. a mixture of genistein, daidzein, biochanin A and formononetin, on the establishment of testosterone production during puberty in male goat kids. Methods Goat kids at the age of 3 months received either a standard diet or a diet supplemented with phytoestrogens (3 - 4 mg/kg/day for ~3 months. Plasma testosterone and total and free triiodothyronine (T3 concentrations were determined weekly. Testicular levels of testosterone and cAMP were measured at the end of the experiment. Repeated measurement analysis of variance using the MIXED procedure on the generated averages, according to the Statistical Analysis System program package (Release 6.12, 1996, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA was carried out. Results No significant difference in plasma testosterone concentration between the groups was detected during the first 7 weeks. However, at the age of 5 months (i.e. October 1, week 8 phytoestrogen-treated animals showed significantly higher testosterone concentrations than control animals (37.5 nmol/l vs 19.1 nmol/l. This elevation was preceded by a rise in plasma total T3 that occurred on September 17 (week 6. A slightly higher concentration of free T3 was detected in the phytoestrogen group at the same time point, but it was not until October 8 and 15 (week 9 and 10 that a significant difference was found between the groups. At the termination of the experiment, testicular cAMP levels were significantly lower in goats fed a phytoestrogen-supplemented diet. Phytoestrogen-fed animals also had lower plasma and testicular testosterone concentrations, but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion Our findings suggest that phytoestrogens can stimulate testosterone

  16. Testosterone is associated with self-employment among Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Francis J; Han, Liang; Martin, Sean; Zhang, Song; Wittert, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Testosterone has pronounced effects on men's physiological development and smaller, more nuanced, impacts on their economic behavior. In this study of 1199 Australian adult males, we investigate the relationship between the self-employed and their serum testosterone levels. Because prior studies have identified that testosterone is a hormone that is responsive to external factors (e.g. competition, risk-taking), we explicitly control for omitted variable bias and reverse causality by using an instrumental variable approach. We use insulin as our primary instrument to account for endogeneity between testosterone and self-employment. This is because prior research has identified a relationship between insulin and testosterone but not between insulin and self-employment. Our results show that there is a positive association between total testosterone and self-employment. Robustness checks using bioavailable testosterone and another similar instrument (daily alcohol consumption) confirm this positive finding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Análise crítica do desempenho evolutivo da visão subnormal no Instituto Benjamin Constant Critical analysis of the progressive performance of low vision in Benjamin Constant Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Alves da Costa Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a efetividade do setor de Visão Subnormal no Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC e comprovar a real necessidade de um Instituto nos moldes do Instituto Benjamin Constant na atual política de inclusão. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico, realizado de 1º de outubro de 1990 a 20 de dezembro de 2002, analisando três períodos de atendimento no setor de Visão Subnormal no Instituto Benjamin Constant: a 1991 - início do atendimento; b 1995 - integração médico-pedagógica; c 2002 - estágio atual. Nesta análise foram estudados os seguintes indicadores: I - número de atendimentos no setor de Visão Subnormal; II - condições do setor de Visão Subnormal no Instituto Benjamin Constant e III - associados. RESULTADOS: Observou-se aumento do atendimento, que passou a ser mais abrangente após a integração médico-pedagógica. Outros indicadores, como a capacitação de profissionais médicos, a participação em cursos de capacitação no Instituto Benjamin Constant, o aumento do número de convênios e encaminhamentos para o Instituto Benjamin Constant, além da Reabilitação, também confirmam a efetividade do setor de Visão Subnormal no Instituto Benjamin Constant. CONCLUSÕES: O setor de Visão Subnormal mostrou ser a interface entre o serviço médico e o serviço pedagógico, passando a interagir posteriormente com a Reabilitação e a Coordenação de Educação Física. Isto acarretou mudança de postura de diferentes setores do Instituto Benjamin Constant com relação ao paciente portador de visão subnormal, desde o educando até o paciente da comunidade. Desse modo, o Instituto Benjamin Constant mostrou a sua utilidade no tocante à política de inclusão.PURPOSE: To evaluate effectiveness of the Low Vision the Benjamin Constant Institute (BCI and confirm the real necessity of an Institute like BCI in the present inclusion policy. METHODS: Ecological study, analyzing 3 periods of Low Vision Assistance at the Benjamin

  18. High Yolk Testosterone Transfer Is Associated with an Increased Female Metabolic Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Canale, Cindy I; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Yolk androgens of maternal origin are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects. Although in many species short-term benefits of exposure to high yolk androgen concentrations for the offspring have been observed, females differ substantially in the amount of androgens they transfer to their eggs. It suggests that costs for the offspring or the mother constrain the evolution of maternal hormone transfer. However, to date, the nature of these costs remains poorly understood. Unlike most previous work that focused on potential costs for the offspring, we here investigated whether high yolk testosterone transfer is associated with metabolic costs (i.e., a higher metabolic rate) for the mother. We show that Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) females that deposit higher testosterone concentrations into their eggs have a higher resting metabolic rate. Because a higher metabolic rate is often associated with a shorter life span, this relationship may explain the negative association between yolk testosterone transfer and female longevity observed in the wild. Our results suggest that metabolic costs for the mother can balance the short-term benefits of yolk testosterone exposure for the offspring, thereby contributing to the maintenance of variation in maternal yolk hormone transfer in natural populations.

  19. Free testosterone as marker of adaptation to medium-intensive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkurnikov, M U; Donnikov, A E; Akimov, E B; Sakharov, D A; Tonevitsky, A G

    2008-09-01

    A 4-week study of adaptation reserves of the body was carried out during medium intensive exercise (medium intensive training: 60-80% threshold anaerobic metabolism). Two groups of athletes were singled out by the results of pulsometry analysis: with less than 20% work duration at the level above the 80% threshold anaerobic metabolism and with more than 20% work duration at the level above 80% threshold anaerobic metabolism. No appreciable differences between the concentrations of total testosterone, growth hormone, and cortisol before and after exercise in the groups with different percentage of anaerobic work duration were detected. In group 1 the concentrations of free testosterone did not change throughout the period of observation in comparison with the levels before training. In group 2, the level of free testosterone increased in comparison with the basal level: from 0.61+/-0.12 nmol/liter at the end of week 1 to 0.98+/-0.11 nmol/liter at the end of week 4 (p<0.01). The results indicate that the level of free testosterone can be used for evaluating the degree of athlete's adaptation to medium intensive exercise.

  20. Does Testosterone Modulate Mood States and Physical Performance in Young Basketball Players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloski, Bernardo; Aoki, Marcelo S; de Freitas, Camila G; Schultz de Arruda, Ademir F; de Moraes, Helena S; Drago, Gustavo; Borges, Thiago O; Moreira, Alexandre

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to examine and compare mood states profile and physical performance during different training phases between 2 groups of adolescent basketball players that were differentiated according to baseline testosterone concentration (T). The basketball players were submitted to an intensified training period (OVL) followed by a tapering period (TP). Twenty-three young male basketball players initiated the study. Experimental criteria data were used to stratify 16 players into high-testosterone (HTC) or low-testosterone (LTC) concentration groups. All the 16 athletes undertook 5 weeks of OVL followed by a 3-week TP. Saliva sampling, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IRL1) test and the T-test were conducted at the beginning (T1), after OVL (T2), and after TP (T3). A similar increase in internal training load was observed during OVL when compared with TP in both groups (p 0.05); however, LTC displayed a higher score for fatigue (p 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that LTC athletes may be more susceptible to changes in mood states during intensified training periods. In addition, data indicate that a periodized training program successfully improved the physical performance (endurance and agility) of young basketball players; however, this improvement was not affected by testosterone level.

  1. Subnormal expression of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in progeny disposed toward a high incidence of tumors after in utero exposure to benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urso, P.; Gengozian, N.

    1984-01-01

    Pregnant mice were exposed to 150 μg benzol[a]pyrene (BaP) per gram of body weight during fetogenesis (d 11-17 of gestation) and the progeny were assayed for humoral and cell mediated immune responses at different time intervals after birth. Immature offspring (1-4 wk) were severely suppressed in their ability to produce antibody (plaque-) forming cells (PFC) against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and in the ability of their lymphocytes to undergo a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). Lymphocytes from these progeny showed a moderate to weak capacity to inhabit production of colony-forming units (CFU) in host spleens following transfer with semiallogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells into lethally x-irradiated recipients syngeneic to the BM (in vivo graft-versus-host response, GVHR). A severe and sustained suppression in the MLR and the PFC response occurred from the fifth month up to 18 mo. The in vivo GVHR, also subnormal later in life, was not as severely suppressed as the other two parameters. Tumor incidence in the BP-exposed progeny was 8- to 10-fold higher than in those encountering corn oil alone from 18 to 24 mo of age. These data show that in utero exposure to the chemical carcinogen BaP alters development of components needed for establishing competent hemoral and cell-mediated functions of the immune apparatus and leads to severe and sustained postnatal suppression of the defense mechanism. The immunodeficiency exhibited, particularly in the T-cell compartment (MLR, GVHR), before and during the increase in tumor frequency, may provide a favorable environment for the growth of nascent neoplasms induced by BaP. 30 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  2. Light induced degradation of testosterone in waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulliet, Emmanuelle, E-mail: e.vulliet@sca.cnrs.fr [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France); Falletta, Marine; Marote, Pedro [Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques - UMR 5180, Universite Claude Bernard, 43 bd du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lomberget, Thierry [Laboratoire de Chimie Therapeutique, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Faculte de Pharmacie-ISPB, EA 4443 Biomolecules, Cancer et Chimioresistances, INSERM U863 Hormones steroides et proteines de liaison, IFR 62, 8 avenue Rockefeller, F-69373, Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Paisse, Jean-Olivier; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France)

    2010-08-01

    The degradation of testosterone under simulated irradiations was studied in phosphate buffers and in natural waters at various excitation wavelengths. The quantum yield of photolysis was significantly lower at 313 nm (2.4 x 10{sup -3}) than at 254 nm (0.225). The formation of several photoproducts was observed, some of them being rapidly transformed in turn while others show higher stability towards subsequent irradiations. The nature of the main products was tentatively identified, both deduced from their spectral and spectrometric data and by comparison with synthesised standard compounds. Among the obtained photoproducts, the main one is possibly a spiro-compound, hydroxylated derivative of testosterone originating from the photohydratation of the enone group. The photodegradation pathway includes also photorearrangements. One of them leads to (1,5,10)-cyclopropyl-17{beta}-hydroxyandrostane-2-one. The pH of the water does not seem to affect the rate of phototransformation and the nature of the by-products.

  3. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L

    2015-11-10

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to "sex differences" in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology.

  4. Oxytocin, testosterone, and human social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-05-01

    I describe an integrative social-evolutionary model for the adaptive significance of the human oxytocinergic system. The model is based on a role for this hormone in the generation and maintenance of social familiarity and affiliation across five homologous, functionally similar, and sequentially co-opted contexts: mothers with offspring, female and male mates, kin groups, individuals with reciprocity partners, and individuals within cooperating and competing social groups defined by culture. In each situation, oxytocin motivates, mediates and rewards the cognitive and behavioural processes that underlie the formation and dynamics of a more or less stable social group, and promotes a relationship between two or more individuals. Such relationships may be positive (eliciting neurological reward, reducing anxiety and thus indicating fitness-enhancing effects), or negative (increasing anxiety and distress, and thus motivating attempts to alleviate a problematic, fitness-reducing social situation). I also present evidence that testosterone exhibits opposite effects from oxytocin on diverse aspects of cognition and behaviour, most generally by favouring self-oriented, asocial and antisocial behaviours. I apply this model for effects of oxytocin and testosterone to understanding human psychological disorders centrally involving social behaviour. Reduced oxytocin and higher testosterone levels have been associated with under-developed social cognition, especially in autism. By contrast, some combination of oxytocin increased above normal levels, and lower testosterone, has been reported in a notable number of studies of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and, in some cases, higher oxytocin involves maladaptively 'hyper-developed' social cognition in these conditions. This pattern of findings suggests that human social cognition and behaviour are structured, in part, by joint and opposing effects of oxytocin and testosterone, and that extremes of such joint

  5. Histological and histochemical studies on the female reproductive system of rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) after testosterone propionate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, A K; Seth, T N

    1975-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of testosterone propionate (Perandren, CIBA) at a dose level of 2.5 mg per day for 10 days into adult female parakeet caused an increment of differentiated follicles in the ovary. The histological study of the testosterone treated oviduct of the bird showed well developed villi with a significant number of tubular glands particularly in the middle and distal parts of the oviduct. The high level of alkaline phosphatase activity and ascorbic acid concentration in the distal part of the oviduct in treated birds probably increase the power of hatchable eggs which has a close relationship with the enzyme and vitamin C concentration in the uterus. The testosterone treatment causes a marked depletion of granulosal vitamins from ovary but augments the ascorbate mobilization in the thecal region to a very great extent probably due to more LH secretion from the pituitary.

  6. Testosterone therapy in microphallic hypospadias: topical or parenteral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalapathi, G; Rao, K L N; Chowdhary, S K; Narasimhan, K L; Samujh, Ram; Mahajan, J K

    2003-02-01

    Local or systemic application of testosterone is reported to stimulate penile growth. Intramuscular testosterone has been found to be effective in 50% of patients; however, variable results have been reported with topical testosterone. The current study is an attempt to compare the efficacy of intramuscular versus topical testosterone application. A total of 26 consecutive patients with hypospadias and small penis (enlargement was observed in 60% children in group A and 75% in group B. Although the desired therapeutic effect of testosterone was achieved in both the groups, this study failed to show any significant difference between the 2 routes of administration. However, in group A, (topical) serum testosterone crossed the normal range in 15% of patients and was associated with significant reversible side effects. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  7. Validation of an enzyme-immunoassay for the non-invasive monitoring of faecal testosterone metabolites in male cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribbenow, Susanne; Wachter, Bettina; Ludwig, Carsten; Weigold, Annika; Dehnhard, Martin

    2016-03-01

    In mammals, the sex hormone testosterone is the major endocrine variable to objectify testicular activity and thus reproductive function in males. Testosterone is involved in the development and function of male reproductive physiology and sex-related behaviour. The development of a reliable androgen enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) to monitor faecal testosterone metabolites (fTM) is a powerful tool to non-invasively assess the gonadal status of males. We validated an epiandrosterone EIA for male cheetahs by performing a testosterone radiometabolism study followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses and excluding possible cross-reactivities with androgenic metabolites not derived from testosterone metabolism. The physiological and biological relevance of the epiandrosterone EIA was validated by demonstrating (1) a significant increase in fTM concentrations within one day in response to a testosterone injection, (2) a significant increase in fTM concentrations within one day in response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection, which failed following a placebo injection, and (3) significant differences in fTM concentrations between adult male and adult female cheetahs and between adult and juvenile male cheetahs of a free-ranging population. Finally, we demonstrated stability of fTM concentrations measured in faecal samples exposed to ambient temperatures up to 72h. Our results clearly demonstrate that the epiandrosterone EIA is a reliable non-invasive method to monitor testicular activity in male cheetahs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship between sleep disorders and testosterone in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Wittert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3 h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture.

  9. Treatment of Men for "Low Testosterone": A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Huo

    Full Text Available Testosterone products are recommended by some prescribers in response to a diagnosis or presumption of "low testosterone" (low-T for cardiovascular health, sexual function, muscle weakness or wasting, mood and behavior, and cognition. We performed a systematic review of 156 eligible randomized controlled trials in which testosterone was compared to placebo for one or more of these conditions. We included studies in bibliographic databases between January 1, 1950 and April 9, 2016, and excluded studies involving bodybuilding, contraceptive effectiveness, or treatment of any condition in women or children. Studies with multiple relevant endpoints were included in all relevant tables. Testosterone supplementation did not show consistent benefit for cardiovascular risk, sexual function, mood and behavior, or cognition. Studies that examined clinical cardiovascular endpoints have not favored testosterone therapy over placebo. Testosterone is ineffective in treating erectile dysfunction and controlled trials did not show a consistent effect on libido. Testosterone supplementation consistently increased muscle strength but did not have beneficial effects on physical function. Most studies on mood-related endpoints found no beneficial effect of testosterone treatment on personality, psychological well-being, or mood. The prescription of testosterone supplementation for low-T for cardiovascular health, sexual function, physical function, mood, or cognitive function is without support from randomized clinical trials.

  10. The Relation Between Metabolic Syndrome and Testosterone Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel Prashant

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The most important pathogenic factors for metabolic syndrome are insulin resistance and obesity. The clinical presentation of this syndrome results from its influence on glucose and fat metabolism. Testosterone deficiency has a prevalence of up to 50% in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A low level of testosterone is a factor for cardiovascular diseases and predictor of metabolic syndrome and, on the other hand, the components of metabolic syndrome can lead to low testosterone. This article reveals the bidirectional link between low testosterone level or hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome.

  11. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development

  12. Development of LC-MS/MS confirmatory method for the determination of testosterone in bovine serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the European Union the use of steroid growth promoters is prohibited under Council Directive 96/22/EC. For effective control of illegal use of natural steroids, highly sensitive analytical methods are required, because sex hormones can be present in very low concentrations in biological samples. The aim of the study was to develop a confirmatory method for the detection of testosterone in bovine serum at ppt level.

  13. Prenatal testosterone exposure worsen the reproductive performance of male rat at adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Zahediasl, Saleh; Ghasemi, Asghar; Piryaei, Abbas; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive system is extremely susceptible to environmental insults, for example exogenous steroids during gestational development and differentiation. Experimental induction of androgen excess during prenatal life in female animal models reprograms their reproductive physiology, however the fetal programming of the male reproductive system by androgen excess has not been well studied. We aimed to determine the effect of prenatal exposure of two different doses of testosterone on different gestational days, on the male reproductive system using a rat model. Sixteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and two control groups. Experimental group І were subcutaneously injected with 3 mg free testosterone on gestational days 16-19 and its controls received solvent for that time; experimental group П were subcutaneously injected with 20 mg free testosterone on day 20 of gestational period and its controls received solvent at the same time. The reproductive system morphology and function of 32 male offspring of these study groups were compared at days 6-30-60 of age and after puberty. The anogenital distance of the male offspring of both experimental groups had no significant differences on the different days of measurement, compared with controls. In the offspring of experimental group І, the testes weight, number of Sertoli, Spermatocyte and Spermatid cells, sperm count and motility and the serum concentration of testosterone after puberty were significantly decreased; except for reduction of sperm motility (pmale rat fetuses to excess testosterone disrupted reproductive function, an effect highly dependent on the time, duration and level of exposure. It seems that the reproductive system in individuals exposed to high levels of androgens during fetal life should be evaluated at puberty and likely to be treated.

  14. Retrospective Analysis of Dose Titration and Serum Testosterone Level Assessments in Patients Treated With Topical Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muram, David; Kaltenboeck, Anna; Boytsov, Natalie; Hayes-Larson, Eleanor; Ivanova, Jasmina; Birnbaum, Howard G; Swindle, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    Patterns of care following topical testosterone agent (TTA) initiation are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize care following TTA initiation and compare results between patients with and without a serum testosterone (T) assay within 30 days before and including TTA initiation. Adult men (N=4,146) initiating TTAs from January 1, 2011, to March 31, 2012, were identified from a commercially insured database. Patients were included if they initiated at recommended starting dose (RSD) and had ≥12 and ≥6 months of continuous eligibility preinitiation (baseline) and postinitiation (study period), respectively. Patients were stratified by preinitiation T assay. Maintenance dose attainment month was determined using unadjusted generalized estimating equations regression to compare dose relative to RSD month by month. Outcomes included maintenance dose attainment month, time to stopping of index TTA refills or a claim for nonindex testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), and proportion of patients with study period T assay or diagnosis of hypogonadism (HG) or another low testosterone condition, and were compared using chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Maintenance dose was attained in Month 4 postinitiation, at 115.2% of RSD. Approximately 46% of patients had a preinitiation T assay; these men were more likely to receive a diagnosis of HG or another low testosterone condition, to have a follow-up T assay, to continue treatment by filling a nonindex TRT, and less likely to stop refilling treatment with their index TTA. Differences in care following TTA initiation suggest that preinitiation T assays (i.e., guideline-based care) may be helpful in ensuring treatment benefits. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Plasma testosterone and androstenedione in insulin dependent patients at time of diagnosis and during the first year of insulin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Madsbad, S; Krarup, T

    1982-01-01

    Ten male patients and 6 female patients with newly diagnosed insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and significant ketosis were studied before and during the first year of insulin treatment. At onset plasma concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione were significantly (P less than 0...

  16. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Barone

    Full Text Available A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  17. Preliminary study on the effect of castration and testosterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of castration and testosterone replacement on the testosterone level of the New Zealand rabbit, 16 apparently healthy adult male rabbits were used. The animals were divided into four groups with each group having four rabbits. The first group served as the control group. The rabbits in the second group ...

  18. A cohort effect on serum testosterone levels in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perheentupa, A; Mäkinen, J; Laatikainen, T

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a population-level decline in serum testosterone exists in Finnish men. In comparison with other European populations, Finnish men have compared well in the studies of reproductive health (i.e. semen quality, incidence of cryptorchidism and testicular cancer); thus, we...... expected no significant cohort-dependent decrease in serum testosterone....

  19. Lowered testosterone in male obesity: Mechanisms, morbidity and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ng Tang Fui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing modernization and urbanization of Asia, much of the future focus of the obesity epidemic will be in the Asian region. Low testosterone levels are frequently encountered in obese men who do not otherwise have a recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT axis pathology. Moderate obesity predominantly decreases total testosterone due to insulin resistance-associated reductions in sex hormone binding globulin. More severe obesity is additionally associated with reductions in free testosterone levels due to suppression of the HPT axis. Low testosterone by itself leads to increasing adiposity, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of metabolic complications. Obesity-associated hypotestosteronemia is a functional, non-permanent state, which can be reversible, but this requires substantial weight loss. While testosterone treatment can lead to moderate reductions in fat mass, obesity by itself, in the absence of symptomatic androgen defi ciency, is not an established indication for testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy may lead to a worsening of untreated sleep apnea and compromise fertility. Whether testosterone therapy augments diet- and exercise-induced weight loss requires evaluation in adequately designed randomized controlled clinical trials.

  20. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the male sex hormones (androgens), including primary and secondary hypogonadism, delayed or precocious puberty, impotence in males and, in females...

  1. Seasonal changes in plasma testosterone levels in the male South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-18

    Feb 18, 1991 ... It is also known that melatonin, B-endorphin and prolactin are important in the timing of reactivation of reproduction in the European hedgehog (Fowler 1988b). Although the present study, based upon total circulating testosterone levels illustrates a clear seasonal cycle in plasma testosterone in A. fronlalis,.

  2. Plasma testosterone levels in Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, M S; DeLong, M R; Hanfelt, J; Gearing, M; Levey, A

    2004-02-10

    Testosterone deficiency, a treatable condition commonly seen in aging men, has been linked to Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD). In normal subjects, low testosterone levels are associated with cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, yet the relationship between testosterone levels and cognitive function in PD and AD remains unclear. To examine the relationship of testosterone levels to age and cognitive function in PD and AD. Plasma testosterone levels were determined in men enrolled in a clinical registry of subjects with PD and AD, and neuropsychological testing was performed on subjects who consented. Testosterone levels in men with PD were compared with those in men with AD. In both groups, the relationship between testosterone levels and neuropsychological test scores was analyzed, adjusting for age and education. Linear regression analysis revealed that testosterone levels decreased with age in male PD patients (p frontal lobe dysfunction in normal aged men, together with these results, suggest that the hormonal deficiency may act as a "second hit" to impair cognitive function in neurodegenerative disease.

  3. Aluminum-induced testosterone decrease results in physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, there has been much controversy on the role of testosterone on social and aggression behaviors. This work aimed to determine the effect of testosterone decrease, induced by aluminum exposure on the level of aggression. Male Swiss-Webster strain mice were classified into three groups. The first (control group) ...

  4. High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Terence C

    2007-09-22

    The ultimatum game is a simple negotiation with the interesting property that people frequently reject offers of 'free' money. These rejections contradict the standard view of economic rationality. This divergence between economic theory and human behaviour is important and has no broadly accepted cause. This study examines the relationship between ultimatum game rejections and testosterone. In a variety of species, testosterone is associated with male seeking dominance. If low ultimatum game offers are interpreted as challenges, then high-testosterone men may be more likely to reject such offers. In this experiment, men who reject low offers ($5 out of $40) have significantly higher testosterone levels than those who accept. In addition, high testosterone levels are associated with higher ultimatum game offers, but this second finding is not statistically significant.

  5. Prospective Analysis on the Effect of Botanical Medicine (Tribulus terrestris) on Serum Testosterone Level and Semen Parameters in Males with Unexplained Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaiah, Mohamed Farid; Elkhayat, Yasser Ibrahim; Saleh, Sameh Fayek GamalEl Din; Abd El Salam, Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-06-23

    We evaluated the role of Tribulus terrestris in males with unexplained infertility and its effect on serum testosterone and semen parameters. Thirty randomized male patients presenting to Andrology outpatient clinic complaining of idiopathic infertility were selected. They were given Tribulus terrestris (750 mg) in three divided doses for three months. The effect of Tribulus terrestris on serum testosterone (total and free) and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as its impact on semen parameters in those patients, was studied. No statistically significant difference was observed in the levels of testosterone (total and free) and LH and semen parameters (sperm concentration or motility, or abnormal forms) before and after the treatment. In addition, no statistically significant correlations were observed between testosterone (free and total) and LH and semen parameters before and after the treatment. Tribulus terrestris was ineffective in the treatment of idiopathic infertility.

  6. Growth Inhibition by Testosterone in an Androgen Receptor Splice Variant-Driven Prostate Cancer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Daisuke; Nakayama, Kazuhide; Masaki, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Akira; Kusaka, Masami; Watanabe, Tatsuya

    2016-12-01

    Castration resistance creates a significant problem in the treatment of prostate cancer. Constitutively active splice variants of androgen receptor (AR) have emerged as drivers for resistance to androgen deprivation therapy, including the next-generation androgen-AR axis inhibitors abiraterone and enzalutamide. In this study, we describe the characteristics of a novel castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) model, designated JDCaP-hr (hormone refractory). JDCaP-hr was established from an androgen-dependent JDCaP xenograft model after surgical castration. The expression of AR and its splice variants in JDCaP-hr was evaluated by immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The effects of AR antagonists and testosterone on JDCaP-hr were evaluated in vivo and in vitro. The roles of full-length AR (AR-FL) and AR-V7 in JDCaP-hr cell growth were evaluated using RNA interference. JDCaP-hr acquired a C-terminally truncated AR protein during progression from the parental JDCaP. The expression of AR-FL and AR-V7 mRNA was upregulated by 10-fold in JDCaP-hr compared with that in JDCaP, indicating that the JDCaP and JDCaP-hr models simulate castration resistance with some clinical features, such as overexpression of AR and its splice variants. The AR antagonist bicalutamide did not affect JDCaP-hr xenograft growth, and importantly, testosterone induced tumor regression. In vitro analysis demonstrated that androgen-independent prostate-specific antigen secretion and cell proliferation of JDCaP-hr were predominantly mediated by AR-V7. JDCaP-hr cell growth displayed a bell-shaped dependence on testosterone, and it was suppressed by physiological concentrations of testosterone. Testosterone induced rapid downregulation of both AR-FL and AR-V7 expression at physiological concentrations and suppressed expression of the AR target gene KLK3. Our findings support the clinical value of testosterone therapy, including bipolar androgen therapy, in the

  7. Testosterone, free testosterone, and free androgen index in women: Reference intervals, biological variation, and diagnostic value in polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H.N.; Sluss, P.M.; Hayes, F.J.; Blincko, S.; Knol, D.L.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of our study was to determine reference intervals and biologic variation for testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and free androgen index (FAI) in women with accurate methods and to test the discriminative value of these parameters in a polycystic ovary syndrome

  8. Testosterone is an independent determinant of bone mineral density in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilkova, Olga; Mokhort, Tatiana; Sanec, Igor; Sharshakova, Tamara; Hayashida, Naomi; Takamura, Noboru

    2011-01-01

    Although many reports have elucidated pathophysiological characteristics of abnormal bone metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DT2), determinants of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with DT2 are still controversial. We examined 168 Belarussian men 45-60 years of age. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), immunoreactive insulin, and C-reactive protein concentrations were assessed. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray densitometry of the lumbar spine (L(1)-L(4)). Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured, and free testosterone (FT) was calculated. Using univariate linear regression analysis, BMD of the lumbar spine was significantly correlated with FT (r=0.32, pDT2.

  9. Daily and seasonal variations of serum testosterone levels in bulls after chemical or surgical castration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, T.; Bodrogi, L. (Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary). 1. Belklinika); Makray, S. (Mezoegazdasagi Foeiskola, Kaposvar (Hungary))

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of serum testosterone levels were studied by a radio-immunological assay (RIA) in 7-9 months old Holstein-Friesian bulls. Significant correlation was found between the hormone level and age (rather than body mass) of adult animals. The daily dynamics of hormone level varied to a large extent indicating that only several and repeated hormonal investigations allowed the evaluation of hormonal state and sexual function in bulls. The serum testosterone lewel was the highest in October and the lowest in April; the seasonal differences were not significant. The hormone level of blood was minimal already 24 hours after the surgical castration. Chemical castration (tannic acid-ZnSOsub(4) injection into both testes) resulted in a slower and more moderate decrease of the hormone concentration.

  10. Daily and seasonal variations of serum testosterone levels in bulls after chemical or surgical castration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, Tibor; Bodrogi, Lajos

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of serum testosterone levels were studied by a radio-immunological assay (RIA) in 7-9 months old Holstein-Friesian bulls. Significant correlation was found between the hormone level and age (rather than body mass) of adult animals. The daily dynamics of hormone level varied to a large extent indicating that only several and repeated hormonal investigations allowed the evaluation of hormonal state and sexual function in bulls. The serum testosterone lewel was the highest in October and the lowest in April; the seasonal differences were not significant. The hormon level of blood was minimal already 24 hours after the surgical castration. Chemical castration (tannic acid-ZnSOsub(4) injection into both testes) resulted in a slower and more moderate decrease of the hormone concentration. (author)

  11. Towards more physiological manipulations of hormones in field studies: comparing the release dynamics of three kinds of testosterone implants, silastic tubing, time-release pellets and beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Rene; Trappschuh, Monika; Gahr, Manfred; Goymann, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    Hormone manipulations are of increasing interest in the areas of physiological ecology and evolution, because hormones are mediators of complex phenotypic changes. Often, however, hormone manipulations in field settings follow the approaches that have been used in classical endocrinology, potentially using supra-physiological doses. To answer ecological and evolutionary questions, it may be important to manipulate hormones within their physiological range. We compare the release dynamics of three kinds of implants, silastic tubing, time-release pellets, and beeswax pellets, each containing 3mg of testosterone. These implants were placed into female Japanese quail, and plasma levels of testosterone measured over a period of 30 days. Testosterone in silastic tubing led to supraphysiological levels. Also, testosterone concentrations were highly variable between individuals. Time-release pellets led to levels of testosterone that were slightly supraphysiological during the first days. Over the period of 30 days, however, testosterone concentrations were more consistent. Beeswax implants led to a physiological increase in testosterone and a relatively constant release. The study demonstrated that hormone implants in 10mm silastic tubing led to a supraphysiological peak in female quail. Thus, the use of similar-sized or even larger silastic implants in males or in other smaller vertebrates needs careful assessment. Time-release pellets and beeswax implants provide a more controlled release and degrade within the body. Thus, it is not necessary to recapture the animal to remove the implant. We propose beeswax implants as an appropriate procedure to manipulate testosterone levels within the physiological range. Hence, such implants may be an effective alternative for field studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical practice experience with testosterone treatment in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Drew; Siemens, D Robert; Izard, Jason; Black, Angela; Morales, Alvaro

    2008-11-01

    To report on a clinical practice series of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT) in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS), examining clinical efficacy, biochemical parameters and effects on prostate health over a 2-year period. A retrospective review of 85 patients with symptoms of TDS and at least a 3-month trial of TRT was performed in this single-centre, clinical practice setting. Three domains of symptomatology were evaluated: libido, erectile function and energy levels. Symptoms were assessed by a combination of patient reporting, physician's assessment and validated symptom assessment scores. Total testosterone (TT), calculated bio-available testosterone (BT) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were continuously measured and effects on prostate health were examined. Only 38 (45%) patients in this cohort remained on TRT for >2 years. The most common reason for discontinuing treatment was lack of clinical response but those remaining on TRT had continued improvement in libido, erectile function and energy levels. During treatment, the average TT and calculated BT values significantly increased compared with the baseline values at most of the evaluated time points, with no significant change in average PSA values. In all, 15% of this cohort had some degree of progression of lower urinary tract symptoms. Seven patients had eight 'for-cause' prostate biopsies either during supplementation or at any date after completion, with an only three positive for cancer. Only 45% of men on TRT remained on treatment for >2 years in this clinical practice experience of men with TDS. Those remaining showed persistent improvement in their symptoms. The average TT and BT values increased significantly with no significant change in PSA levels.

  13. Plasmatic testosterone values in 105 Klinefelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboch, J; Neuwirth, J; Starka, L

    1975-01-01

    Clinical, spermiologic and karyologic examinations and determinations of plasmatic testosterone were performed in a group of 105 chromatin-positive patients aged 16 to 45 years. A comparison with a control group of 108 somatosexually well developed and fertile men at the age of 21 to 55 years has established that in the Klinefelter's syndrome the male sex hormone level in the blood was highly significantly lower. Whereas in the control group the male sex hormone values in the blood were dependent on age, it was not possible to prove any dynamic changes in the process of ageing between 21 and 45 years in chromatin-positive patients. A comparison of some phenotypical and laboratory findings in the various chromosomal variants of Klinefelter's syndrome shows that comparatively the least changes were found in patients with a mosaic of 46,XY/47,XXY.

  14. Testosterone, Cortisol and Financial Risk-Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Herbert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Both testosterone and cortisol have major actions on financial decision-making closely related to their primary biological functions, reproductive success and response to stress, respectively. Financial risk-taking represents a particular example of strategic decisions made in the context of choice under conditions of uncertainty. Such decisions have multiple components, and this article considers how much we know of how either hormone affects risk-appetite, reward value, information processing and estimation of the costs and benefits of potential success or failure, both personal and social. It also considers how far we can map these actions on neural mechanisms underlying risk appetite and decision-making, with particular reference to areas of the brain concerned in either cognitive or emotional functions.

  15. Measurement of dihydro testosterone by radioimmunoassay after celite column chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lando, V.S.

    1992-01-01

    A method for measuring dihydro testosterone after celite column chromatography is developed. One milliliter of serum containing 1000 cpm of tritiated dihydro testosterone was extracted with hexane: ethyl acetate (2:3): dried, diluted with non saturated iso octane and injected in the column previously washed with 3.5 ml of pure iso octane. The serum was eluted from the column with pure iso octane (3.5 ml) followed by 5% ethyl acetate in iso octane. The quantity of tritiated dihydro testosterone which was recovered ranged from 50% to 80% in all assays. The sensitivity of the method was 4 ng/d l. The intra-assay variation was less than 9% and the inter-assay variation was less than 9,7%. It was measured dihydro testosterone, testosterone and testosterone/dihydro testosterone ratio in the following groups: Group 1- forty-one normal adult subjects in basal conditions, Group 2 - six normal adult subjects, evaluated in basal conditions and after stimulus with 6000 International Unity of human Chorionic Gonadotropin; Group 3- six pre-puberal children with unilateral cryptochidism. Group 4- eight patients with male pseudo hermaphroditism due to 5-alpha-reductase deficiency in basal conditions and after HCG. (author)

  16. Testosterone regulates granzyme K expression in rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta Dibyendu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Testosterone depletion induces increased germ cell apoptosis in testes. However, limited studies exist on genes that regulate the germ cell apoptosis. Granzymes (GZM are serine proteases that induce apoptosis in various tissues. Multiple granzymes, including GZMA, GZMB and GZMN, are present in testes. Th us, we investigated which granzyme may be testosterone responsive and possibly may have a role in germ cell apoptosis aft er testosterone depletion. Methods. Ethylene dimethane sulfonate (EDS, a toxicant that selectively ablates the Leydig cells, was injected into rats to withdraw the testosterone. The testosterone depletion effects after 7 days post-EDS were verified by replacing the testosterone exogenously into EDS-treated rats. Serum or testicular testosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. Using qPCR, mRNAs of granzyme variants in testes were quantified. The germ cell apoptosis was identified by TUNEL assay and the localization of GZMK was by immunohistochemistry. Results. EDS treatment eliminated the Leydig cells and depleted serum and testicular testosterone. At 7 days post-EDS, testis weights were reduced 18% with increased germ cell apoptosis plus elevation GZMK expression. GZMK was not associated with TUNEL-positive cells, but was localized to stripped cytoplasm of spermatids. In addition, apoptotic round spermatids were observed in the caput epididymis. Conclusions. GZMK expression in testes is testosterone dependent. GZMK is located adjacent to germ cells in seminiferous tubules and the presence of apoptotic round spermatids in the epididymis suggest its role in the degradation of microtubules in ectoplasmic specializations. Thus, overexpression of GZMK may indirectly regulate germ cell apoptosis by premature release of round spermatids from seminiferous tubule lumen.

  17. Radioimmunologic determination of testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone in the plasma of women with hirsutism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    The testosterone (T) and 5α dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations were investigated in 270 women with hirsutism by means of radio-immunology in the peripheral plasma. The technique of the radio-immunological determination of the hormones T and DHT by chromatographic column separation is described in detail. The average concentrations of T were 530 +- 297 pg/ml and of DHT 312 +- 191 pg/ml. This way they are higher than in healthy women. Then, the results of the particular determinations were evaluated and compared with clinical data. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Sex Difference in Testosterone Response to a Video Game Contest

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, Allan; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Edelbrock, Sandy

    1997-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) were assayed from saliva samples given by young men (n = 28) and women (n = 32) before, during, and after competing with a same-sex partner in a video game. The T response to the competition is different in each sex; the C response is the same. Male results confirm prior reports of a pre-contest rise in testosterone. Male results did not confirm previous findings that after a contest, the testosterone of winners is higher than that of losers, perhaps because ...

  19. The endocrine pharmacology of testosterone therapy in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettel, Michael

    The review starts off by outlining the history of the discovery of the male sex hormone testosterone and the historical background to the various, often dubious, approaches to the treatment of age-related endocrine disorders in older men. A discussion of congenital androgen deficiency in young men is followed by methods of diagnosing hypogonadism in older men. Among therapeutic options, the alternatives to direct testosterone replacement are discussed, although none of them have proved to be particularly successful in clinical practice. For testosterone replacement itself, various routes of administration and pharmaceutical formulations are now available, facilitating good monitoring and individualized therapy.

  20. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Polycythemia in HIV-infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkas, Charles Kyriakos; Vaamonde, Carlos M.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to assess testosterone use as a primary risk factor for polycythemia in 21 HIV-infected men. Any testosterone use within two months of first elevated hemoglobin was associated with polycythemia (matched odds ratio 6.55; 95% CI 1.83-23.4; P=0.004) and intramuscular administration demonstrated a stronger association than topical use. No adverse cardiovascular or thrombotic events were observed. HIV-infected patients taking testosterone should undergo routine hematologic monitoring with adjustment of therapy when appropriate. PMID:22008652

  1. Simultaneous measurement of total Estradiol and Testosterone in human serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wang, Yuesong; Gatcombe, Matthew; Farris, Jacob; Botelho, Julianne C.; Caudill, Samuel P.; Vesper, Hubert W.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable measurement of total testosterone and estradiol is critical for their use as biomarkers of hormone related disorders in patient care and translation research. We developed and validated a mass spectrometry method to simultaneously quantify these analytes in human serum without chemical derivatization. Serum is equilibrated with isotopic internal standards and treated with acidic buffer to release hormones from their binding proteins. Lipids are isolated and polar impurities are removed by two serial liquid-liquid extraction steps. Total testosterone and estradiol are measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in combination of positive and negative electrospray ionization modes. The method shows broad analytical measurement range for both testosterone 0.03–48.5 nM (0.75–1400 ng/dL) and estradiol 11.0–5138 pM (2.99–1400 pg/mL) and excellent agreement with certified reference materials (mean bias less than 2.1% to SRM 971, BCR 576, 577, and 578) and a high order reference method (mean bias 1.25% for testosterone and −0.84% for estradiol). The high accuracy of the method was monitored and certified by CDC Hormone Standardization (HoSt) Program for two years with mean bias −0.7% (95%CI: −1.6% to 0.2%) for testosterone and 0.1% (95%CI: −2.2% to 2.3%) for estradiol. The method precision over a 2-year period for Quality Control pools at low, medium and high concentrations was 2.7–2.9% for testosterone and 3.3–5.3% for estradiol. With the consistently excellent accuracy and precision, this method is readily applicable for high-throughput clinical and epidemiological studies. PMID:28801832

  2. Testosterone Treatment and Cognitive Function in Older Men With Low Testosterone and Age-Associated Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Susan M; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Ellenberg, Susan S; Gill, Thomas M; Shumaker, Sally A; Pleasants, Debbie D; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bhasin, Shalender; Cauley, Jane A; Cella, David; Crandall, Jill P; Cunningham, Glenn R; Ensrud, Kristine E; Farrar, John T; Lewis, Cora E; Molitch, Mark E; Pahor, Marco; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Cifelli, Denise; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan J; Wang, Christina; Hou, Xiaoling; Snyder, Peter J

    2017-02-21

    Most cognitive functions decline with age. Prior studies suggest that testosterone treatment may improve these functions. To determine if testosterone treatment compared with placebo is associated with improved verbal memory and other cognitive functions in older men with low testosterone and age-associated memory impairment (AAMI). The Testosterone Trials (TTrials) were 7 trials to assess the efficacy of testosterone treatment in older men with low testosterone levels. The Cognitive Function Trial evaluated cognitive function in all TTrials participants. In 12 US academic medical centers, 788 men who were 65 years or older with a serum testosterone level less than 275 ng/mL and impaired sexual function, physical function, or vitality were allocated to testosterone treatment (n = 394) or placebo (n = 394). A subgroup of 493 men met criteria for AAMI based on baseline subjective memory complaints and objective memory performance. Enrollment in the TTrials began June 24, 2010; the final participant completed treatment and assessment in June 2014. Testosterone gel (adjusted to maintain the testosterone level within the normal range for young men) or placebo gel for 1 year. The primary outcome was the mean change from baseline to 6 months and 12 months for delayed paragraph recall (score range, 0 to 50) among men with AAMI. Secondary outcomes were mean changes in visual memory (Benton Visual Retention Test; score range, 0 to -26), executive function (Trail-Making Test B minus A; range, -290 to 290), and spatial ability (Card Rotation Test; score range, -80 to 80) among men with AAMI. Tests were administered at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Among the 493 men with AAMI (mean age, 72.3 years [SD, 5.8]; mean baseline testosterone, 234 ng/dL [SD, 65.1]), 247 were assigned to receive testosterone and 246 to receive placebo. Of these groups, 247 men in the testosterone group and 245 men in the placebo completed the memory study. There was no significant mean

  3. Within-clutch variation in yolk testosterone as an adaptive maternal effect to modulate avian sibling competition: evidence from a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martina; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2013-01-01

    In many species, embryos are exposed to maternal hormones in utero, in the egg, or in the seed. In birds, mothers deposit substantial testosterone into their eggs, which enhances competitive ability of offspring. These maternal testosterone concentrations vary systematically within clutches in different patterns and may enable mothers to adaptively fine-tune competitive hierarchies within broods. We performed a comparative analysis to investigate this hypothesis using a broad set of avian species. We expected species with small size differences among siblings (arising from small hatching asynchrony or slow growth rates) to aim for survival of the whole brood in good years and therefore compensate last-hatching eggs with relatively more testosterone. We expected species with large size differences among siblings (large hatching asynchrony or fast growth rates) to produce surplus young as insurance against failed offspring and to facilitate elimination of redundant surplus young by bestowing last-hatching eggs with relatively less testosterone. As predicted, we found that maternal testosterone compensation to last-hatching eggs is stronger when size differences among siblings become smaller. Maternal testosterone compensation to last-hatching eggs also correlated negatively with hatching asynchrony and growth rates. These findings provide evidence for correlated evolution of several maternal effects that together support different maternal reproductive strategies.

  4. Long-term testosterone treatment during pregnancy does not alter insulin or glucose profile in a sheep model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recabarren, Monica; Carrasco, Albert; Sandoval, Daniel; Diaz, Felipe; Sir-Petermann, Teresa; Recabarren, Sergio E

    2017-09-07

    The administration of testosterone to pregnant sheep to resemble fetal programming of the polycystic ovary syndrome could alter other hormones/factors of maternal origin with known effects on fetal growth. Hence, we studied the weekly profile of insulin, progesterone and glucose during a treatment with testosterone propionate given biweekly from weeks 5 to 17 of pregnancy (term at 21 weeks) and checked the outcome of their fetuses at 17 weeks of gestation after C-section. Control dams were only exposed to the vehicle of the hormone. The testosterone administration did not cause any significant change in the maternal weekly profile of insulin, progesterone or glucose concentration, although the plasma levels of testosterone in the treated dams were inversely correlated to the levels of progesterone. Testosterone treatment also induced an inverse correlation between mean maternal insulin levels and fetal insulin levels; however, the fetal zoometric parameters, body weight, or insulin levels did not differ between exposed and not exposed fetuses. Therefore, treatment with testosterone during pregnancy does not cause significant impact on insulin levels in the mother, leading to less effect on the programming of fetal growth.

  5. Testosterone Responders to Continuous Androgen Deprivation Therapy Show Considerable Variations in Testosterone Levels on Followup: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyid, Rashid K; Sayyid, Abdallah K; Klaassen, Zachary; Fadaak, Kamel; Goldberg, Hanan; Chandrasekar, Thenappan; Ahmad, Ardalanejaz; Leao, Ricardo; Perlis, Nathan; Chadwick, Karen; Hamilton, Robert J; Kulkarni, Girish S; Finelli, Antonio; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Fleshner, Neil E

    2018-01-01

    We determined whether men on continuous androgen deprivation therapy who achieve testosterone less than 0.7 nmol/l demonstrate subsequent testosterone elevations during followup and whether such events predict worse oncologic outcomes. We evaluated a random, retrospective sample of 514 patients with prostate cancer treated with continuous androgen deprivation therapy in whom serum testosterone was less than 0.7 nmol/l at University Health Network between 2007 and 2016. Patients were followed from the date of the first testosterone measurement of less than 0.7 nmol/l to progression to castrate resistance, death or study period end. Study outcomes were the development of testosterone elevations greater than 0.7, greater than 1.1 and greater than 1.7 nmol/l, and progression to a castrate resistant state. Survival curves were constructed to determine the rate of testosterone elevations. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was done to assess whether elevations predicted progression to castrate resistance. Median patient age was 74 years and median followup was 20.3 months. Within 5 years of followup 82%, 45% and 18% of patients had subsequent testosterone levels greater than 0.7, greater than 1.1 and greater than 1.7 nmol/l, respectively. In 96% to 100% of these patients levels less than 0.7 nmol/l were subsequently reestablished within 5 years. No patient baseline characteristic was associated with elevations and elevations were not a significant predictor of progression to a castrate resistant state. Men on continuous androgen deprivation therapy in whom initial testosterone is less than 0.7 nmol/l frequently show subsequent elevations in serum testosterone. Such a development should not trigger an immediate response from physicians as these events are prognostically insignificant with regard to oncologic outcomes. Levels are eventually reestablished at less than 0.7 nmol/l. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  6. Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fornieles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS. A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94 and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57 in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

  7. Imbalance in the diurnal salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio in men with severe obstructive sleep apnea: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Dima-Cozma, Lucia Corina; Bercea, Raluca Mihaela; Lupusoru, Catalina Elena; Mihaescu, Traian; Cozma, Sebastian; Patacchioli, Francesca Romana

    2016-01-01

    The complex relationship between sleep disorders and hormones could lead to alterations in the production of cortisol and testosterone in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the diurnal trajectories of salivary free-testosterone, free-cortisol and their ratio (T/C). Ten subjects newly diagnosed with OSA, based on nocturnal polysomnography evaluation and excessive daytime sleepiness, and seven matched controls were consecutively recruited. Cortisol and testosterone were measured in salivary samples collected upon awakening, at noon and in the evening. The psychometric evaluation of anxiety/depression and referred sexual function disturbances was performed to evaluate the presence of neuropsychological comorbidities. The main finding was that OSA subjects displayed hypocortisolism upon awakening and a significant reduction in testosterone concentration in the evening in comparison with the control group, which has maintained the physiological testosterone and cortisol diurnal fluctuation, with higher hormone concentrations in the morning and lower concentrations in the evening. The use of data from multiple diurnal measurements rather than a single point allowed the detection of T/C ratio changes of opposite signs at the beginning and end of the day: the OSA subjects had a higher T/C ratio than the controls in the morning, while their T/C ratio was significantly lower than that of the controls in the evening. The imbalances in the anabolic-catabolic diurnal equilibrium suggest that OSA is associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, potentially an underlying cause of some of the neuropsychological comorbidities observed in OSA patients. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Long Rest Interval Promotes Durable Testosterone Responses in High-Intensity Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudese, Estevão; Simão, Roberto; Senna, Gilmar; Vingren, Jakob L; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Baffi, Matheus; Miranda, Humberto

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of rest period duration (1 vs. 3 minute between sets) on acute hormone responses to a high-intensity and equal volume bench press workout. Ten resistance-trained men (25.2 ± 5.6 years; 78.2 ± 5.7 kg; 176.7 ± 5.4 cm; bench press relative strength: 1.3 ± 0.1 kg per kilogram of body mass) performed 2 bench press workouts separated by 1 week. Each workout consisted of 5 sets of 3 repetitions performed at 85% of 1 repetition maximum, with either 1- or 3-minute rest between sets. Circulating concentrations of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), cortisol (C), testosterone/cortisol ratio (TT/C), and growth hormone (GH) were measured at preworkout (PRE), and immediately (T0), 15 minutes (T15), and 30 minutes (T30) postworkout. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded before and after each set. For TT, both rest lengths enhanced all postexercise verifications (T0, T15, and T30) compared with PRE, with 1 minute showing decreases on T15 and T30 compared with T0. For FT, both 1- and 3-minute rest protocols triggered augmentations on distinct postexercise moments (T0 and T15 for 1 minute; T15 and T30 for 3-minute) compared with PRE. The C values did not change throughout any postexercise verification for either rests. The TT/C ratio was significantly elevated for both rests in all postexercise moments compared with PRE. Finally, GH values did not change for both rest lengths. In conclusion, although both short and long rest periods enhanced acute testosterone values, the longer rest promoted a long-lasting elevation for both TT and FT.

  9. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eCelec

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences.

  10. Effects of Testosterone Administration on Strategic Gambling in Poker Play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honk, Jack; Will, Geert-Jan; Terburg, David; Raub, Werner; Eisenegger, Christoph; Buskens, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone has been associated with economically egoistic and materialistic behaviors, but -defensibly driven by reputable status seeking- also with economically fair, generous and cooperative behaviors. Problematically, social status and economic resources are inextricably intertwined in humans,

  11. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterski James

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological responses to aerosolized VEEV in non-human primates. Serial samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone and cytokines prior to and during infection in 8 captive male macaques. Infected animals exhibited a febrile response with few significant changes in cytokine levels. Baseline testosterone levels were positively associated with viremia following exposure and were significantly higher than levels obtained during infection. Such findings suggest that disease-induced androgen suppression is a reasonable area for future study. Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions.

  12. Analysis of seminal plasma from brown bear (Ursus arctos during the breeding season: Its relationship with testosterone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Anel-López

    Full Text Available Seminal plasma (SP plays an important role in the motility, viability and maintenance of the fertilizing capacity of mammalian spermatozoa. This study is the first on brown bear (Ursus arctos SP components, and has two main objectives: 1 to define the SP composition in bear ejaculate and 2 to identify variations in SP composition in relation to high and low levels of testosterone in serum during the breeding season. Forty-eight sperm samples from 30 sexually mature male brown bears (Ursus arctos were obtained by electroejaculation, and their serum testosterone levels were assessed to sort the animals into 2 groups (high and low testosterone levels, threshold 5 ng/dl. The biochemical and protein compositions of the SP samples were assessed, and sperm motility was analyzed. We found that lactate dehydrogenase was significantly higher in the low-serum-testosterone samples, while concentrations of lipase and Mg+ values were significantly higher in the high-serum-testosterone samples. In contrast, sperm motility did not significantly differ (P>0.05 between the testosterone level groups (total motility: 74.42.8% in the high-level group vs. 77.1±4.7% in the low-level group. A reference digital model was constructed since there is no information for this wild species. To do this, all gel images were added in a binary multidimensional image and thirty-three spots were identified as the most-repeated spots. An analysis of these proteins was done by qualitative equivalency (isoelectric point and molecular weight with published data for a bull. SP protein composition was compared between bears with high and low serum testosterone, and three proteins (binder of sperm and two enzymes not identified in the reference bull showed significant (P<0.05 quantitative differences. We conclude that male bears with high or low serum testosterone levels differs only in some properties of their SP, differences in enzyme LDIP2, energy source LACT2, one protein (similar to

  13. Effect of testosterone on antler growth in yearling male reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ryg

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available 1. The effect of exogenous testosterone on ander growth in yearling male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus was tested. 2. Testosterone (33 mg/kg inhibited antler growth, and in one animal induced cleaning and subsequent casting of the antlers. This animal grew a new set of antlers, which were cleaned at the normal time. 3. During treatment, there was an inverse relationship between peak testosterone levels and antler growth rate. 4. There was no effect of treatment on body weight or food intake. 5. It is concluded that the effects of testosterone on antler growth are qualitatively the same in reindeer as in other deer. However, because high testosterone doses were necessary to produce effects, it is questionable whether this hormone normally is responsible for the cessation of antler growth in reindeer.Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ettårige reinbukker.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: 1. Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ett-årige reinbukker (Rangifer tarandus tarandus ble undersøkt. 2. Testosteron (33 mg/kg hemmet gevirveksten, og hos ett dyr førte behandlingen til at geviret ble feiet og deretter felt. Deretter vokste det ut ett nytt gevir, som ble feiet til vanlig tid. 3. Det var en negativ korrelasjon mellom maksimale testosteronnivåer og gevirvekst under behandlingen. 4. Det var ingen effekt på forinntak eller vektutvikling. 5. Det blir konkludert med at virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst er kvalitativt den samme hos rein som hos andre hjortedyr. Det er likevel tvilsomt om testosteron normalt er ansvarlig for avslutningen av gevirvekst hos rein, fordi store testosterondoser måtte til for å få noen virkning.Testosteronin vaikutus vuodenikåisten urosporojen sarvien kasvuun.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: 1. Tutkimuksessa seurattiin ruiskeena annetun testosteronin vaikutusta vuodenikåisten urosporojen (Rangifer tarandus tarandus sarvien kasvuun. 2. Testosteron! (33 mg/kg hidasti sarvien

  14. Partial androgen deficiency, depression and testosterone treatment in aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Mario; Scarlatti, Fabiano; Quarta, Antonio Lucio; Tagariello, Pietro

    2009-02-01

    This study provides a critical review of the literature on depressive symptoms of partial androgen deficiency (PADAM) and their treatment with Testosterone (T). PADAM in aging males is responsible for a variety of behavioral symptoms, such as weakness, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction, lower psychological vitality, depressive mood, anxiety, insomnia, difficulty in concentrating, and memory impairment. The psychological and behavioural aspects of PADAM may overlap with signs and symptoms of major depression. Evidence of the relationship between androgen deficiency and male depression comes from studies that have assessed depression in hypogonadal subjects, the association between low T level and male depressive illness, and the antidepressant action of androgen replacement. The etiology of depressive symptoms of PADAM is multifactorial, and results from the interaction of the biological and psychosocial changes that take place during the mid-life transition. Although data derived from androgen treatment trials and androgen replacement do not support T treatment or replacement as more efficacious than placebo for major depressive disorder (MDD), the clinical impression is that, in some sub-threshold depressive syndromes, T may lead to antidepressant benefits.

  15. Testosterone determination in amniotic fluid for sec diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroa C, M.M.

    1985-11-01

    This study was carried on 50 samples of amniotic fluid obtained from pregnant patients with gestation old of 38 to 40 weeks; diagnosis of the foetus sex was made by measuring the testosterone levels by radioimmunoassay technique. It was found that 94% of the cases were correctly diagnosed. The testosterone levels found in the amniotic fluid of male and female foetus were significantly different (L<0.01) these confirm the efficacy of the method. (author)

  16. High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers

    OpenAIRE

    Burnham, Terence C

    2007-01-01

    The ultimatum game is a simple negotiation with the interesting property that people frequently reject offers of ‘free’ money. These rejections contradict the standard view of economic rationality. This divergence between economic theory and human behaviour is important and has no broadly accepted cause. This study examines the relationship between ultimatum game rejections and testosterone. In a variety of species, testosterone is associated with male seeking dominance. If low ultimatum game...

  17. Mechanism of testosterone deficiency in the transgenic sickle cell mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Musicki

    Full Text Available Testosterone deficiency is associated with sickle cell disease (SCD, but its underlying mechanism is not known. We investigated the possible occurrence and mechanism of testosterone deficiency in a mouse model of human SCD. Transgenic sickle male mice (Sickle exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone and increased luteinizing hormone (LH levels compared with wild type (WT mice, indicating primary hypogonadism in Sickle mice. LH-, dbcAMP-, and pregnenolone- (but not 22-hydroxycholesterol- stimulated testosterone production by Leydig cells isolated from the Sickle mouse testis was decreased compared to that of WT mice, implying defective Leydig cell steroidogenesis. There also was reduced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR, but not cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, in the Sickle mouse testis. These data suggest that the capacity of P450scc to support testosterone production may be limited by the supply of cholesterol to the mitochondria in Sickle mice. The sickle mouse testis exhibited upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox and increased oxidative stress, measured as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and unchanged protein expression of an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1. Mice heterozygous for the human sickle globin (Hemi exhibited intermediate hypogonadal changes between those of WT and Sickle mice. These results demonstrate that testosterone deficiency occurs in Sickle mice, mimicking the human condition. The defects in the Leydig cell steroidogenic pathway in Sickle mice, mainly due to reduced availability of cholesterol for testosterone production, may be related to NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that targeting testicular oxidative stress or steroidogenesis mechanisms in SCD offers a potential treatment for improving phenotypic changes associated with testosterone deficiency in this disease.

  18. Testosterone-Fatty Acid esterification: a unique target for the endocrine toxicity of tributyltin to gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Gerald A; Gooding, Meredith P; Sternberg, Robin M

    2005-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, a global occurrence of sexual aberration has occurred whereby females among populations of prosobranch snails exhibit male sex characteristics. This condition, called imposex, has been causally associated with exposure to the biocide tributyltin. Tributyltin-exposed, imposex snails typically have elevated levels of testosterone which have led to the postulate that this endocrine dysfunction is responsible for imposex. This overview describes recent evidence that supports this postulate. Gastropods maintain circulating testosterone levels and administration of testosterone to females or castrates stimulates male sex differentiation in several snail species. Studies in the mud snail (Ilyanassa obsoleta) have shown that gastropods utilize a unique strategy for regulating free testosterone levels. Excess testosterone is converted to fatty acid esters by the action of a testosterone-inducible, high capacity/low affinity enzyme, acyl-CoA:testosterone acyl transferase, and stored within the organisms. Free testosterone levels are regulated during the reproductive cycle apparently due to changes in esterification/desterification suggesting that testosterone functions in the reproductive cycle of the organisms. Testosterone esterification provides a unique target in the testosterone regulatory machinery of snails that is altered by tributyltin. Indeed, imposex and free testosterone levels were elevated in field collected snails containing high tin levels, while testosterone-fatty acid ester pools were reduced in these organisms. These observations indicate that tributyltin elevates free testosterone by reducing the retention of testosterone as fatty acid-esters. This endocrine effect of tributyltin may be responsible for imposex.

  19. Stress-induced suppression of testosterone secretion in male alligators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, V A; Elsey, R M

    1986-08-01

    In order to test the effect of acute stress on gonadal hormone secretion in reptiles, six mature male alligators were captured, and a blood sample was taken within 5 min of capture. Additional blood samples were taken at timed intervals for up to 41 hr, and plasma testosterone and corticosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Plasma testosterone declined to 50% of the initial value by 4 hr and dropped to less than 10% of initial by 24 hr. Plasma corticosterone increased during the first 12 hr, declined at 24 hr, and rose again at 40 hr. Blood samples from male alligators collected in North and South Carolina, south Florida, and in south Louisiana in two consecutive breeding seasons were also assayed for testosterone and corticosterone. In these populations there were significant differences in mean plasma testosterone and corticosterone levels. Elevated corticosterone levels were consistently seen in alligators caught in traps and from which a blood sample was taken several hours later. Plasma testosterone, although consistently lower in trapped alligators, did not show a negative correlation with plasma corticosterone. Farm-reared alligators bled once, released, and bled again at 24 hr also showed a highly significant suppression of testosterone secretion. These results demonstrate that stress has a rapid and dramatic effect on testicular steroid secretion in both farm-reared and wild alligators.

  20. Tritium labelling of testosteron by selective hydrogenation of dihydrotestosteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Cristian; Matei, Lidia; Simion, Elena; Barna, Catalina; Condac, Eduard

    2002-01-01

    Elemental tritium is obtained during the decontamination process of the moderator from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant. It might be stocked for use in controlled fusion, in a relatively far future, or, it might be immediately used as raw material in the synthesis of labelled compounds with important economic value. Labelling of testosteron with tritium was necessary for the carrying out of radiometric and molecular biology studies concerning androgen dependent diseases. Testosteron was labelled by selective hydrogenation of 1,2 dihydrotestosteron acetate. The forerunner was synthesized in two steps: 1) esterification of testosteron using acetic anhydride, and 2) selective dehydrogenation with 2,6-dichloro-3,5-dicyan-1,4 quinone (DDQ) of the ester formed in the first step. Testosteron acetate was synthesized and purified with yields of 73%, and 80%, respectively. The dehydrogenation process was characterized by yields of 82% for synthesis and 33% for purification. The tritium labelled hormone was obtained in two steps: 1) selective hydrogenation of Δ 1 - testosteron acetate in the presence of T 2 gas, at low pressure, and 2) hydrolysis of the ester at basic pH. The raw product obtained was purified by preparative thin layer chromatography. The physical and chemical characterization of labelled testosteron reveals a radiochemical purity higher than 98% and a specific activity of 53.4 Ci/mmol. (authors)

  1. Synthesis of steroids {sup 14}C-4: acetates of 19-nor-testosterone and testosterone; Syntheses de steroides {sup 14}C-4: acetates de 19-nor-testosterone et de testosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floch, H

    1962-07-01

    The acetates of 19-nor-testosterone 4-{sup 14}C and testosterone 4-{sup 11}C have been prepared from ICH{sub 3}H{sub 8} {sup 14}C with respective yields of 32 percents and 56 percents in report of ICH{sub 3}-{sup 14}C. The cyclization in acid medium has given correct yields in opposition with the cyclization in alkaline medium that gives low yields for the testosterone and negative yields for the 19-nor-testosterone. [French] Les acetates de 19-nortestosterone 4-{sup 14}C et de testosterone 4-{sup 11}C ont ete prepares a partir de l'ICH{sub 3}H{sub 8} {sup 14}C avec des rendements respectifs de 32 pour cent et de 56 pour cent par rapport a l'ICH{sub 3}-{sup 14}C. La cyclisation en milieu acide nous a donne de bons rendements contrairement a la cyclisation en milieu alcalin qui donne des rendements faibles pour la testosterone et negatifs pour la 19-nortestosterone. (auteur)

  2. Mechanical muscle function and lean body mass during supervised strength training and testosterone therapy in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Thue; Christensen, Louise L; Madsen, Klavs

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study.......To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study....

  3. Synthesis of testosteron-1,2-T and its metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Cristian; Matei, Lidia; Barna, Catalina; Condac, Eduard

    2002-01-01

    The androgen dependent diseases appear due to some blocking in different steps of the sexual hormone synthesis (testosterone, dehydrotestosterone) or to some changes in the communication system through the androgen receptor. In the diagnosis of these diseases, the hormonal dosage in plasma plays a major role. The molecules of interest labelled with tritium can be easily identified in multi-component and very complex systems. In the studies conducted in the field of molecular biology, tritium must be introduced in the biological stable positions of the compounds. In the particular case of the testosterone, the positions 1, 2, or 7 of the steroid structure are recommended to be labelled. The labelled testosterone was obtained by selective hydrogenation of D1- testosterone acetate. The former was synthesized starting with testosterone, in two steps: (1) protection of the hydroxyl group by esterification of testosterone using acetic anhydride, and (2) selective oxidative dehydrogenation with 2,6-dichloro-3,5-dicyan-1,4 quinone (DDQ) of the ester formed in the first step. Testosterone acetate was synthesized and purified with yields of 73%, and 80%, respectively. The oxidative process was characterized by yields of 82 % for synthesis and 33% for purification. The products were analyzed by TLC, melting point determination and GC MS. The tritium labelled hormone was obtained by selective catalytic hydrogenation of D1- testosterone acetate in the presence of T 2 gas, at low pressure, and hydrolysis of the ester at basic pH, followed by neutralization of residual NaOH with HCl. The steric and thermodynamic parameters of the hydrogenation reaction were analyzed using computational chemistry methods (Hyperchem 7 and CS Chem Office). Labelled crude product obtained was purified by preparative thin layer chromatography. TLC - radiochromatograms of labelled compounds obtained by tritiation of 1,2 dehydrotestosterone acetate are shown. The physical and chemical characterization

  4. The Effect of Testosterone Topical Solution in Hypogonadal Men With Suboptimal Response to a Topical Testosterone Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Patrick R; Kim, Edward D; Ruff, Dustin D; Seftel, Allen D

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of axillary administration of a 2% testosterone solution (Axiron ® ) in hypogonadal (HGN) men who had had a suboptimal response to treatment with a commercially available topical testosterone gel. HGN men averaging 57 years old, with a mean body mass index of 31.9 kg/m 2 and median baseline testosterone level (T-level) of 185.2 ng/dL, who had failed to reach normal T-levels with a topical testosterone gel (Androgel 1.62%, Androgel, Testim, or Fortesta) were treated with a 2% testosterone solution until T-levels reached a normal range (from ≥300 to ≤1,050 ng/dL) or for up to 9 weeks. Outcomes included the cumulative percentage of men with a serum T-level in the normal range during treatment with Axiron and improvement in symptoms of low energy level and low sexual drive. During the study, 95% of HGN men (72/78) attained a T-level in the normal range. The median T-level at endpoint was 495.7 ng/dL, a threefold increase over baseline, p levels within the first 2 weeks of treatment. In a post hoc analysis, all subjects with baseline body mass indexes >35 kg/m 2 ( n = 19) achieved T-levels in the normal range. Prior to treatment, over 61% of subjects (48/78) reported impairment in either energy level or sexual drive. After treatment (or testosterone normalization), energy level improved in 75% of subjects and sexual drive improved in 70%. Topical 2% testosterone solution is a safe and effective treatment for HGN men who have had a suboptimal response to previous treatment with topical testosterone gels.

  5. A novel double-layer molecularly imprinted polymer film based surface plasmon resonance for determination of testosterone in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yuan; Jing, Lijing; Ding, Yonghong; Wei, Tianxin, E-mail: txwei@bit.edu.cn

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • The in-situ photo-grafting polymerization method was used to prepare the polymer film. • The synthesized MIF was layer stucture film. • The MIF exhibited good imprinting effect and highly selectivity. - Abstract: This work aimed to prepare a novel double-layer structure molecularly imprinted polymer film (MIF) on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chips for detection of testosterone in aqueous media. The film was synthesized by in-situ UV photo polymerization. Firstly, the modification of gold surface of SPR chip was performed by 1-dodecanethiol. Then double-layer MIF was generated on the 1-dodecanethiol modified gold surface. The non-modified and imprinted surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Analysis of SPR spectroscopy showed that the imprinted sensing film displayed good selectivity for testosterone compared to other analogues and the non-imprinted polymer film (NIF). Within the concentrations range of 1 × 10{sup −12}–1 × 10{sup −8} mol/L, the coupling angle changes of SPR were linear with the negative logarithm of testosterone concentrations (R{sup 2} = 0.993). Based on a signal/noise ratio of three, the detection limit was estimated to be 10{sup −12} mol/L. Finally, the developed MIF was successfully applied to the seawater detection of testosterone. The results in the experiments suggested that a combination of SPR sensing with MIF was a promising alternative method for detection of testosterone in aqueous media.

  6. A novel double-layer molecularly imprinted polymer film based surface plasmon resonance for determination of testosterone in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yuan; Jing, Lijing; Ding, Yonghong; Wei, Tianxin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The in-situ photo-grafting polymerization method was used to prepare the polymer film. • The synthesized MIF was layer stucture film. • The MIF exhibited good imprinting effect and highly selectivity. - Abstract: This work aimed to prepare a novel double-layer structure molecularly imprinted polymer film (MIF) on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chips for detection of testosterone in aqueous media. The film was synthesized by in-situ UV photo polymerization. Firstly, the modification of gold surface of SPR chip was performed by 1-dodecanethiol. Then double-layer MIF was generated on the 1-dodecanethiol modified gold surface. The non-modified and imprinted surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Analysis of SPR spectroscopy showed that the imprinted sensing film displayed good selectivity for testosterone compared to other analogues and the non-imprinted polymer film (NIF). Within the concentrations range of 1 × 10 −12 –1 × 10 −8 mol/L, the coupling angle changes of SPR were linear with the negative logarithm of testosterone concentrations (R 2 = 0.993). Based on a signal/noise ratio of three, the detection limit was estimated to be 10 −12 mol/L. Finally, the developed MIF was successfully applied to the seawater detection of testosterone. The results in the experiments suggested that a combination of SPR sensing with MIF was a promising alternative method for detection of testosterone in aqueous media

  7. Testosterone replacement elevates the serum uric acid levels in patients with female to male gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Masami; Sugimoto, Morito; Ariyoshi, Yuichi; Mahmood, Sabina; Araki, Motoo; Ishii, Kazushi; Nasu, Yasutomo; Nagai, Atsushi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) results from a disagreement between a person's biological sex and the gender to which he or she identifies. With respect to the treatment of female to male GID, testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is available. The uric acid (UA) level can be influenced by testosterone; however, the early effects and dose-dependency of TRT on the serum UA concentration have not been evaluated in this population. We herein conducted a dose-response analysis of TRT in 160 patients with female to male GID. The TRT consisted of three treatment groups who received intramuscular injections of testosterone enanthate: 125 mg every two weeks, 250 mg every three weeks and 250 mg every two weeks. Consequently, serum UA elevation was observed after three months of TRT and there was a tendency toward testosterone dose-dependency. The onset of hyperuricemia was more prevalent in the group who received the higher dose. We also demonstrated a positive correlation between increased levels of serum UA and serum creatinine. Since the level of serum creatinine represents an individual's muscle volume and the muscle is a major source of purine, which induces UA upregulation, the serum UA elevation observed during TRT is at least partially attributed to an increase in muscle mass. This is the first study showing an association between serum UA elevation and a TRT-induced increase in muscle mass. The current study provides important information regarding TRT for the follow-up and management of the serum UA levels in GID patients.

  8. Vitex agnus castus as prophylaxis for osteopenia after orchidectomy in rats compared with estradiol and testosterone supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehmisch, S; Boeckhoff, J; Wille, J; Seidlova-Wuttke, D; Rack, T; Tezval, M; Wuttke, W; Stuermer, K M; Stuermer, E K

    2009-06-01

    Osteoporosis research undertaken in males is rare and there are only a few therapeutic options. Phytoestrogens might be a safe alternative for prophylaxis. Sixty 3-month-old male rats were orchidectomized and divided into five groups. The groups either received soy-free food (C), estradiol (E), testosterone (T) or Vitex agnus castus in different concentrations (AC high/AC low) for 12 weeks. The tibia metaphysis was tested biomechanically and histomorphometrically. The AC high group reached 87% of the biomechanical values of the estradiol group and was significantly superior to the control group. Testosterone supplementation resulted in poor biomechanical properties. The cortical bone parameters of the AC group were similar to the control group, while supplementation with estradiol and testosterone demonstrated a reduction of cortical bone. The AC high group reached 88.4% of trabecular bone area, 80.7% of trabecular number and 66.9% of the number of trabecular nodes compared with estradiol supplementation. Vitex agnus castus demonstrated osteoprotective effects in males. It preserves the cortical as well as the trabecular bone and might be a safe alternative for HRT. Testosterone supplementation has positive effects on trabecular bone, which are concurrently counteracted by the loss of cortical bone. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Uptake of [3H]testosterone and its metabolites by the brain and pituitary gland of the fetal macaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, R.P.; Bonsall, R.W.; Rees, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    Testosterone is secreted by the fetal testis during gestation, and this is thought to influence certain aspects of the brain's subsequent development. To study this action at the neuronal level, nine macaque fetuses were injected with 250 microCi [3H]testosterone via the umbilical vein at about 120 days gestation. After 60 min, samples of brain and peripheral tissue were studied by autoradiography or HPLC. Purified nuclear pellets were prepared, and radioactivity in ether extracts was fractionated by HPLC and identified by coelution with internal standard steroids. Concentrations of radioactivity were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) in the hypothalamus-preoptic area than in amygdala, hippocampus, midbrain, and cerebral and cerebellar cortexes, and most of the radioactivity (75%) in the hypothalamus-preoptic area coeluted with 17 beta-estradiol. Radioactivity coeluting with 17 beta-estradiol was also detected in nuclear fractions from amygdala (44%). In contrast, 80% of the radioactivity extracted from pituitary gland nuclei coeluted with testosterone. Most of the neurons labeled in autoradiograms were located in the hypothalamus and preoptic area, fewer were found in the amygdala, and labeling in the frontal or motor cortex did not exceed chance levels. Results suggested that aromatization and, consequently, estrogen receptors play a role in the effects of testosterone on the hypothalamus and amygdala of the primate fetus at this stage of development

  10. Protective effect of royal jelly on the sperm parameters and testosterone level and lipid peroxidation in adult mice treated with oxymetholone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensieh Zahmatkesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters, testosterone level, and malondialdehyde (MDA production in mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult male NMRI mice weighing 30±2 g were used. All the animals were divided into 4 groups. Control group: received saline 0.1 ml/mouse/day orally for 30 days. Royal Jelly group (RJ: received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Oxymetholone group: the received Oxymetholone (OX at dose of 5 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Royal Jelly+Oxymetholone group: received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg/day orally concomitant with OX administration. Sperm count, sperm motility, viability, maturity, and DNA integrity were analyzed. Furthermore, serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were determined. Results: In Oxymetholone group, sperm count, motility as well as testosterone concentration reduced significantly (p

  11. Safety and efficacy of testosterone gel in the treatment of male hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore M Lakshman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Kishore M Lakshman, Shehzad BasariaSection of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition. Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Transdermal testosterone gels were first introduced in the US in 2000. Since then, they have emerged as a favorable mode of testosterone substitution. Serum testosterone levels reach a steady-state in the first 24 hours of application and remain in the normal range for the duration of the application. This pharmacokinetic profile is comparable to that of testosterone patch but superior to injectable testosterone esters that are associated with peaks and troughs with each dose. Testosterone gels are as efficacious as patches and injectable forms in their effects on sexual function and mood. Anticipated increases in prostate-specific antigen with testosterone therapy are not significantly different with testosterone gels, and the risk of polycythemia is lower than injectable modalities. Application site reactions, a major drawback of testosterone patches, occur less frequently with testosterone gels. However, inter-personal transfer is a concern if appropriate precautions are not taken. Superior tolerability and dose flexibility make testosterone gel highly desirable over other modalities of testosterone replacement. Androgel and Testim, the two currently available testosterone gel products in the US, have certain brandspecific properties that clinicians may consider prior to prescribing.Keywords: testosterone gel, Androgel, Testim, hypogonadism

  12. The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazem Bassil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nazem Bassil1, Saad Alkaade2, John E Morley1,31Division of Geriatric Medicine; 2Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University Health Sciences Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 3GRECC, VA Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USAAbstract: Increased longevity and population aging will increase the number of men with late onset hypogonadism. It is a common condition, but often underdiagnosed and undertreated. The indication of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT treatment requires the presence of low testosterone level, and symptoms and signs of hypogonadism. Although controversy remains regarding indications for testosterone supplementation in aging men due to lack of large-scale, long-term studies assessing the benefits and risks of testosterone-replacement therapy in men, reports indicate that TRT may produce a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism that include improvement in libido and sexual function, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, mood, erythropoiesis, cognition, quality of life and cardiovascular disease. Perhaps the most controversial area is the issue of risk, especially possible stimulation of prostate cancer by testosterone, even though no evidence to support this risk exists. Other possible risks include worsening symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, liver toxicity, hyperviscosity, erythrocytosis, worsening untreated sleep apnea or severe heart failure. Despite this controversy, testosterone supplementation in the United States has increased substantially over the past several years. The physician should discuss with the patient the potential benefits and risks of TRT. The purpose of this review is to discuss what is known and not known regarding the benefits and risks of TRT.Keywords: hypogonadism, testosterone replacement therapy, erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease

  13. Testosterone influences spatial strategy preferences among adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, Mark D; Fox, Elliott C; Larsen, Gregory D; Batson, Christopher G; Wagner, Benjamin A; Maher, Jack

    2013-05-01

    Males outperform females on some spatial tasks, and this may be partially due to the effects of sex steroids on spatial strategy preferences. Previous work with rodents indicates that low estradiol levels bias females toward a striatum-dependent response strategy, whereas high estradiol levels bias them toward a hippocampus-dependent place strategy. We tested whether testosterone influenced the strategy preferences in male rats. All subjects were castrated and assigned to one of three daily injection doses of testosterone (0.125, 0.250, or 0.500 mg/rat) or a control group that received daily injections of the drug vehicle. Three different maze protocols were used to determine rats' strategy preferences. A low dose of testosterone (0.125 mg) biased males toward a motor-response strategy on a T-maze task. In a water maze task in which the platform itself could be used intermittently as a visual cue, a low testosterone dose (0.125 mg) caused a significant increase in the use of a cued-response strategy relative to control males. Results from this second experiment also indicated that males receiving a high dose of testosterone (0.500 mg) were biased toward a place strategy. A third experiment indicated that testosterone dose did not have a strong influence on the ability of rats to use a nearby visual cue (floating ball) in the water maze. For this experiment, all groups seemed to use a combination of place and cued-response strategies. Overall, the results indicate that the effects of testosterone on spatial strategy preference are dose dependent and task dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fatherhood, pairbonding and testosterone in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzawa, Christopher W; Gettler, Lee T; Muller, Martin N; McDade, Thomas W; Feranil, Alan B

    2009-10-01

    In species with a high level of paternal care, including humans, testosterone (T) is believed to help mediate the trade-off between parenting and mating effort. This hypothesis is supported by the observation of lower T in pairbonded men or fathers compared to single, non-fathers; however, prior work has highlighted population variation in the association between T and pairbonding or fatherhood status. Here we evaluate this hypothesis in a large (n=890), representative birth cohort of young men (age range 20.5-22.5 years) living in Cebu City, the Philippines. Bioavailable T was measured in saliva collected prior to bed and immediately upon waking the following morning. Plasma T and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured in morning plasma samples. In this sample, 20% of men were pairbonded, defined as living with a partner or married, 13% were fathers, and roughly half of fathers reported involvement in childcare. Pairbonded men had significantly lower T at both times of day. Unlike in other populations, this relationship was accounted for entirely by fatherhood status: among the large sub-sample of non-fathers, mean T was nearly identical among pairbonded and single men. There was a strong association between self-reported involvement in childcare and lower evening T, supporting the idea that the evening nadir in T is related to social interactions across the day. Similar relationships were found for total plasma T and LH, suggesting that these relationships are coordinated by centrally-mediated changes in LH secretion. The relatively modest T difference in relation to fatherhood at Cebu, in comparison to other studies, may reflect a lower level of paternal involvement in childcare activities in this population. Our findings using a large, well-characterized birth cohort support the hypothesized role of T as a mediator of mating and parenting effort in humans, while contributing evidence for cultural variation in the relative importance of pairbonding and fathering

  15. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-β-[ 75 Se] selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor

  16. Testosterone and paternal care in East African foragers and pastoralists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martin N.; Marlowe, Frank W.; Bugumba, Revocatus; Ellison, Peter T.

    2008-01-01

    The ‘challenge hypothesis’ posits that testosterone facilitates reproductive effort (investment in male–male competition and mate-seeking) at the expense of parenting effort (investment in offspring and mates). Multiple studies, primarily in North America, have shown that men in committed relationships, fathers, or both maintain lower levels of testosterone than unpaired men. Data from non-western populations, however, show inconsistent results. We hypothesized that much of this cross-cultural variation can be attributed to differential investment in mating versus parenting effort, even among married fathers. Here, we directly test this idea by comparing two neighbouring Tanzanian groups that exhibit divergent styles of paternal involvement: Hadza foragers and Datoga pastoralists. We predicted that high levels of paternal care by Hadza fathers would be associated with decreased testosterone in comparison with non-fathers, and that no such difference between fathers and non-fathers would be evident in Datoga men, who provide minimal direct paternal care. Twenty-seven Hadza men and 80 Datoga men between the ages of 17 and 60 provided morning and afternoon saliva samples from which testosterone was assayed. Measurements in both populations confirmed these predictions, adding further support to the hypothesis that paternal care is associated with decreased testosterone production in men. PMID:18826936

  17. Anaerobic testosterone degradation in Steroidobacter denitrificans - Identification of transformation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrbach, Michael; Krauss, Martin; Preiss, Alfred; Kohler, Hans-Peter E.; Hollender, Juliane

    2010-01-01

    The transformation of the androgenic steroid testosterone by gammaproteobacterium Steroidobacter denitrificans was studied under denitrifying conditions. For the first time, growth experiments showed that testosterone was mineralized under consumption of nitrate and concurrent biomass production. Experiments with cell suspensions using [4- 14 C]-testosterone revealed the intermediate production of several transformation products (TPs). Characterisation of ten TPs was carried out by means of HPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization as well as 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one (trans-androsterone) was formed in the highest amount followed by 5α-androstan-3,17-dione. The data suggests that several dehydrogenation and hydrogenation processes take place concurrently in ring A and D because no consistent time-resolved pattern of TP peaks was observed and assays using 2 TPs as substrates resulted in essentially the same TPs. The further transformation of testosterone in S. denitrificans seems to be very efficient and fast without formation of detectable intermediates. - Testosterone is completely mineralized by Steroidobacter denitrificans under denitrifying conditions with initial formation of several reduced and oxidized transformation products.

  18. Effects of Testosterone Administration on Strategic Gambling in Poker Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Honk, Jack; Will, Geert-Jan; Terburg, David; Raub, Werner; Eisenegger, Christoph; Buskens, Vincent

    2016-01-04

    Testosterone has been associated with economically egoistic and materialistic behaviors, but -defensibly driven by reputable status seeking- also with economically fair, generous and cooperative behaviors. Problematically, social status and economic resources are inextricably intertwined in humans, thus testosterone's primal motives are concealed. We critically addressed this issue by performing a placebo-controlled single-dose testosterone administration in young women, who played a game of bluff poker wherein concerns for status and resources collide. The profit-maximizing strategy in this game is to mislead the other players by bluffing randomly (independent of strength of the hand), thus also when holding very poor cards (cold bluffing). The profit-maximizing strategy also dictates the players in this poker game to never call the other players' bluffs. For reputable-status seeking these materialistic strategies are disadvantageous; firstly, being caught cold bluffing damages one's reputation by revealing deceptive intent, and secondly, not calling the other players' bluffs signals submission in blindly tolerating deception. Here we show that testosterone administration in this game of bluff poker significantly reduces random bluffing, as well as cold bluffing, while significantly increasing calling. Our data suggest that testosterone in humans primarily motivates for reputable-status seeking, even when this elicits behaviors that are economically disadvantageous.

  19. Neuroprotective effects of testosterone treatment in men with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kurth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. While current medication reduces relapses and inflammatory activity, it has only a modest effect on long-term disability and gray matter atrophy. Here, we have characterized the potential neuroprotective effects of testosterone on cerebral gray matter in a pilot clinical trial. Ten men with relapsing–remitting MS were included in this open-label phase II trial. Subjects were observed without treatment for 6 months, followed by testosterone treatment for another 12 months. Focal gray matter loss as a marker for neurodegeneration was assessed using voxel-based morphometry. During the non-treatment phase, significant voxel-wise gray matter decreases were widespread (p≤ 0.05 corrected. However, during testosterone treatment, gray matter loss was no longer evident. In fact, a significant gray matter increase in the right frontal cortex was observed (p≤ 0.05 corrected. These observations support the potential of testosterone treatment to stall (and perhaps even reverse neurodegeneration associated with MS. Furthermore, they warrant the investigation of testosterone's neuroprotective effects in larger, placebo controlled MS trials as well as in other neurodegenerative diseases. This is the first report of gray matter increase as the result of treatment in MS.

  20. Testosterone administration decreases generosity in the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Paul J; Kurzban, Robert; Ahmadi, Sheila; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Park, Jang; Efremidze, Levan; Redwine, Karen; Morgan, Karla; Matzner, William

    2009-12-16

    How do human beings decide when to be selfish or selfless? In this study, we gave testosterone to 25 men to establish its impact on prosocial behaviors in a double-blind within-subjects design. We also confirmed participants' testosterone levels before and after treatment through blood draws. Using the Ultimatum Game from behavioral economics, we find that men with artificially raised T, compared to themselves on placebo, were 27% less generous towards strangers with money they controlled (95% CI placebo: (1.70, 2.72); 95% CI T: (.98, 2.30)). This effect scales with a man's level of total-, free-, and dihydro-testosterone (DHT). Men in the lowest decile of DHT were 560% more generous than men in the highest decile of DHT. We also found that men with elevated testosterone were more likely to use their own money punish those who were ungenerous toward them. Our results continue to hold after controlling for altruism. We conclude that elevated testosterone causes men to behave antisocially.

  1. Anaerobic testosterone degradation in Steroidobacter denitrificans - Identification of transformation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrbach, Michael, E-mail: michael.fahrbach@web.d [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Krauss, Martin, E-mail: martin.krauss@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Preiss, Alfred, E-mail: alfred.preiss@item.fraunhofer.d [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM), Nikolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Kohler, Hans-Peter E., E-mail: hkohler@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hollender, Juliane, E-mail: juliane.hollender@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    The transformation of the androgenic steroid testosterone by gammaproteobacterium Steroidobacter denitrificans was studied under denitrifying conditions. For the first time, growth experiments showed that testosterone was mineralized under consumption of nitrate and concurrent biomass production. Experiments with cell suspensions using [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone revealed the intermediate production of several transformation products (TPs). Characterisation of ten TPs was carried out by means of HPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization as well as {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. 3{beta}-hydroxy-5{alpha}-androstan-17-one (trans-androsterone) was formed in the highest amount followed by 5{alpha}-androstan-3,17-dione. The data suggests that several dehydrogenation and hydrogenation processes take place concurrently in ring A and D because no consistent time-resolved pattern of TP peaks was observed and assays using 2 TPs as substrates resulted in essentially the same TPs. The further transformation of testosterone in S. denitrificans seems to be very efficient and fast without formation of detectable intermediates. - Testosterone is completely mineralized by Steroidobacter denitrificans under denitrifying conditions with initial formation of several reduced and oxidized transformation products.

  2. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-11-13

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-..beta..-(/sup 75/Se) selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor.

  3. Does Competition Really Bring Out the Worst? Testosterone, Social Distance and Inter-Male Competition Shape Parochial Altruism in Human Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekhof, Esther Kristina; Wittmer, Susanne; Reimers, Luise

    2014-01-01

    Parochial altruism, defined as increased ingroup favoritism and heightened outgroup hostility, is a widespread feature of human societies that affects altruistic cooperation and punishment behavior, particularly in intergroup conflicts. Humans tend to protect fellow group members and fight against outsiders, even at substantial costs for themselves. Testosterone modulates responses to competition and social threat, but its exact role in the context of parochial altruism remains controversial. Here, we investigated how testosterone influences altruistic punishment tendencies in the presence of an intergroup competition. Fifty male soccer fans played an ultimatum game (UG), in which they faced anonymous proposers that could either be a fan of the same soccer team (ingroup) or were fans of other teams (outgroups) that differed in the degree of social distance and enmity to the ingroup. The UG was played in two contexts with varying degrees of intergroup rivalry. Our data show that unfair offers were rejected more frequently than fair proposals and the frequency of altruistic punishment increased with increasing social distance to the outgroups. Adding an intergroup competition led to a further escalation of outgroup hostility and reduced punishment of unfair ingroup members. High testosterone levels were associated with a relatively increased ingroup favoritism and also a change towards enhanced outgroup hostility in the intergroup competition. High testosterone concentrations further predicted increased proposer generosity in interactions with the ingroup. Altogether, a significant relation between testosterone and parochial altruism could be demonstrated, but only in the presence of an intergroup competition. In human males, testosterone may promote group coherence in the face of external threat, even against the urge to selfishly maximize personal reward. In that way, our observation refutes the view that testosterone generally promotes antisocial behaviors and

  4. Local Preparation and Evaluation of Double - antibody Liquid Phase Radioimmunoassay System for Detection of Human Testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafik, H.M.; Sallam, Kh.M.; Ebeid, N.H.; Elshaer, M.R.; Elshae, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Preparation, evaluation and optimization of testosterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) system using liquid phase double antibody is considered to be the main objective. Three primary components were prepared and characterized to obtain valid and accurate system. These components were polyclonal testosterone antibody, the "1"2"5I-testosterone tracer and set of testosterone standards. The production of polyclonal testosterone antibody was undertaken by immunizing two groups of females white New-Zealand rabbits with testosterone-3-(O-carboxy methyloxime): BSA as immunogen through primary immunization and five boosters. Both R 1 and R 4 gave anti-serum has a high immuno reactivity. The preparation of "1"2"5I-testosterone tracer was carried out using three different conjugates (testosterone-3-TME, testosterone-3-histamine and testosterone-3-BSA) by electrophilic substitution mechanism using chloramine-T as oxidizing agent. Tracers were characterized in terms of radiochemical yield %, radiochemical purity %, specific activity and immuno reactivity. A set of testosterone standards were prepared using highly purified testosterone antigen. Optimization and validation tests of the local liquid phase RIA system were carried out. In conclusion, the results showed that, the local testosterone RIA system is sensitive, specific and accurate with significant cost reduction in comparison with commertial kit and extended use of the method for routine investigation of variety of diseases especially hypogonadism and associated male infertility

  5. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G.

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, [3H]testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with [3H]testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis

  6. Partial Androgen Deficiency, Depression, and Testosterone Supplementation in Aging Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Amore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge on the correlation between depressive symptoms with a syndrome called partial androgen deficiency of the aging male (PADAM and on the potential benefits of testosterone (T treatment on mood. Despite, the causative nature of the relationship between low T levels and depression is uncertain, many hypogonadal men suffer from depression and vice versa several depressed patients are affected by hypogonadism. Supplementation with testosterone failed to show sound evidence of effectiveness in the treatment of depression. Nevertheless, testosterone supplementation has proved to be effective on some domains significant for the quality of life of aged patients with PADAM (sexual function and cognitive functions, muscular strengths.

  7. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. (Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  8. The number of life-history stages does not influence the androgen responsiveness to male-male interactions: sedentary and migratory black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros) do not elevate testosterone in response to simulated territorial intrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, C P; Blas, J; Goymann, W

    2014-09-01

    High plasma levels of testosterone at the beginning of the breeding season adjust male physiology for mating and promote territorial behavior in birds. Conversely intra-sexual competition may elicit a temporary increase in circulating testosterone. Male black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros) from migratory populations show the expected increase in baseline testosterone during early breeding, but circulating testosterone levels do not change in response to male-male interactions. Because sedentary populations express fewer life-history stages they may be more flexible in timing of life-history stages and more responsive to environmental modulation of hormone concentrations. Therefore, we tested whether the androgen responsiveness to male-male interactions differs between migratory (6 life-history stages) and sedentary black redstarts (3 life-history stages) during early breeding, predicting that in contrast to migratory birds, sedentary birds would modulate testosterone in response to simulated territorial intrusions (STI). In contrast to our prediction, sedentary males did not modulate post-capture testosterone levels in response to simulated territorial intrusions. Males of both populations increased testosterone after an injection of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), demonstrating that they were capable of increasing testosterone. Interestingly, in sedentary males the GnRH injection elicited a higher testosterone response in STI males than in control males. The two populations did not differ in their behavioral response to the STIs, except that sedentary males spent less time close to the decoy. In combination with previous data from black redstarts and other socially monogamous and biparental birds our current study adds to the growing evidence that current theory regarding hormone-behavior relationship needs to be refined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Low- and high-testosterone individuals exhibit decreased aversion to economic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Steven J; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A; McLaurin, R Edward; Kuhn, Cynthia M; LaBar, Kevin S; Platt, Michael L; Huettel, Scott A

    2011-04-01

    Testosterone is positively associated with risk-taking behavior in social domains (e.g., crime, physical aggression). However, the scant research linking testosterone to economic risk preferences presents inconsistent findings. We examined the relationship between endogenous testosterone and individuals' economic preferences (i.e., risk preference, ambiguity preference, and loss aversion) in a large sample (N = 298) of men and women. We found that endogenous testosterone levels have a significant U-shaped association with individuals' risk and ambiguity preferences, but not loss aversion. Specifically, individuals with low or high levels of testosterone (more than 1.5 SD from the mean for their gender) were risk and ambiguity neutral, whereas individuals with intermediate levels of testosterone were risk and ambiguity averse. This relationship was highly similar in men and women. In contrast to received wisdom regarding testosterone and risk, the present data provide the first robust evidence for a nonlinear association between economic preferences and levels of endogenous testosterone.

  10. Shaped and Balanced by Hormones : cortisol, testosterone and the psychoneuroendocrinology of human socio-emotional behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormones testosterone and cortisol can be considered hormones for environmental challenges; they are involved in adaptive neural and behavioral responses towards emotional stimuli. A key challenge of human psychoneuroendocrinology is to unravel the neural mechanisms by which testosterone

  11. Prolonged exposure to acetaminophen reduces testosterone production by the human fetal testis in a xenograft model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Driesche, Sander; Macdonald, Joni; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Most common male reproductive disorders are linked to lower testosterone exposure in fetal life, although the factors responsible for suppressing fetal testosterone remain largely unknown. Protracted use of acetaminophen during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons...

  12. Strength training and testosterone treatment have opposing effects on migration inhibitor factor levels in ageing men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Christensen, L. L.; Kvorning, T.

    2013-01-01

    Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men......Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men...

  13. Association between plasma testosterone and work-related neck and shoulder disorders among female workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaergaard, A; Hansen, Åse Marie; Rasmussen, K

    2000-01-01

    The aims were to study the association between anabolic hormone testosterone in plasma and the presence of musculoskeletal disorders among female workers and to study the association between changes in testosterone and changes in musculoskeletal complaints....

  14. Phthalate-Induced Pathology in the Foetal Testis Involves More Than Decreased Testosterone Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foetal exposure to phthalates is known to adversely impact male reproductive development and function. Developmental anomalies of reproductive tract have been attributed to impaired testosterone synthesis. However, species differences in the ability to produce testosterone have...

  15. Association of PSA, free-PSA and testosteron levels in serum of patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiwin Mailana; Kristina Dwi P; Sri Insani WW; Puji Widayati

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer screening can be done by measuring the concentration levels of PSA, free-PSA and testosterone in serum that examined with radioimmunoassay (RIA). A total of 30 patients of 45-81 years old had enrolled in this study and were taken their venous blood. The aim of research is to know the relationship between PSA and testosterone free-PSA with BPH and prostate cancer. Results showed that there was no correlation between age with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.06), but there is a relationship between PSA with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.002), the relationship between free-PSA with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.001). No correlation was found between PSA ratio with BPH and prostate cancer as well as the absence of a relationship between testosterone with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.924). (author)

  16. Elevated testosterone and hypergonadotropism in active adolescents of normal weight with oligomenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, K; Rosenthal, A; Kasa-Vubu, Josephine Z

    2009-10-01

    Oligomenorrhea in active adolescent females of normal weight is presumed to be related to hypoestrogenism secondary to physical activity and decreased fat mass. We hypothesized that active adolescents with oligomenorrhea would have lower estrogen levels than normal controls with similar levels of cardiovascular fitness. Twenty healthy participants between the ages of 16 and 20 years were recruited at least 2 years postmenarche. Adolescents reporting fewer than 9 cycles a year (n = 6) were compared to 14 controls with monthly menstrual cycles. Histories of eating disorder, hirsutism, severe acne, depression, or amenorrhea were cause for exclusion. Body composition and bone density were measured by total body dual x-ray absorpitometry. Cardiovascular fitness was evaluated by measuring oxygen consumption during exercise. Control subjects were matched by age, body mass index (BMI), and fitness level. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, progesterone, and estradiol were obtained. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.1. Cardiovascular fitness in both groups was within normal limits for age. No significant differences in BMI, estradiol concentrations, or bone density were found, but trunk fat mass was lower in adolescents with oligomenorrhea who also reported more frequent exercise. Testosterone concentrations and LH/FSH ratios were significantly higher in participants with irregular menstrual cycles (P = 0.0018 and exercise-induced oligomenorrhea.

  17. The effect of baseline testosterone on the efficacy of degarelix and leuprolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damber, Jan-Erik; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Iversen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of baseline testosterone on testosterone control and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) suppression using data from a phase III trial (CS21) comparing degarelix and leuprolide in prostate cancer.......To investigate the effects of baseline testosterone on testosterone control and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) suppression using data from a phase III trial (CS21) comparing degarelix and leuprolide in prostate cancer....

  18. Perfil do paciente albino com visão subnormal e melhoria da acuidade visual com a adaptação de recursos ópticos e/ou eletrônicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fleury de Lemos Pereira

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o perfil do paciente albino no departamento de visão subnormal do Instituto Benjamin Constant. Ressaltar o tempo de acompanhamento, a frequência do seguimento, e a melhora visual com a adaptação de recursos ópticos e/ou eletrônicos. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo com dados de 77 pacientes albinos com idade entre 1 a 53 anos de idade atendidos no Instituto Benjamin Constant, entre 2003 e 2014. Resultados: O recurso óptico mais adaptado foi o telescópio de Galilleu 2.8x. Todos os pacientes referiram ganho de visão com os equipamentos. A maioria dos pacientes apresentaram acuidade visual com recursos ópticos entre 20/25 e 20/160. Conclusão: Os recursos ópticos auxiliaram na melhora da função visual e na qualidade de vida dos pacientes com albinismo ocular.

  19. Testosterone deficiency in dialysis patients: Differences according to the dialysis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secundino Cigarrán

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Circulating testosterone levels in men on dialysis were independently associated with HD technique. It can be concluded that a new factor—namely the dialysis technique—may be associated with falling testosterone levels and the associated loss of muscle mass and inflammation. Further studies are needed to establish whether the dialysis technique itself triggers testosterone elimination.

  20. Variation in circulating testosterone during mating predicts reproductive success in a wild songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Apfelbeck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone is an important sex hormone and mediates reproduction in male vertebrates. There is ample evidence that testosterone coordinates the expression of physiological, morphological and behavioural traits during reproduction and many of these traits are under sexual selection. However, only few studies so far have examined if individual variation in testosterone is correlated with reproductive success. Because socially monogamous bird species pass through different phases within a breeding cycle and each of these phases requires the expression of different behaviours, the relation between testosterone and reproductive success could vary with breeding stage. Here we investigate the link between reproductive success and testosterone in European stonechats – a socially monogamous songbird with biparental care. Previous studies found that territorial aggression in breeding stonechats depends on testosterone and that testosterone levels peak during the mating phase. Thus, high testosterone levels during mating may influence reproductive success by promoting territorial aggression and mate guarding. We found that males with two breeding attempts produced a similar number of fledglings as males with three breeding attempts. However, males with two breeding attempts expressed higher levels of testosterone than males with just one or those with three breeding attempts, regardless of whether testosterone was measured during the mating or the parental phase of the first brood. Furthermore, testosterone levels during mating, but not during parenting correlated with the total annual number of fledglings. Thus, individual variation in levels of plasma testosterone predicted reproductive success in stonechats.

  1. Plasma testosterone in the general population, cancer prognosis and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orsted, D D; Nordestgaard, B G; Bojesen, S E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Testosterone is an important anabolic hormone in humans and in vitro testosterone stimulates growth of lung and colon cancer cells. We tested the hypothesis that plasma testosterone associate with increased risk of cancer and with increased risk of early death after cancer. MATERIALS...

  2. Modulation of AKR1C2 by curcumin decreases testosterone production in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Hisamitsu; Lu, Yan; Noguchi, Takahiro; Muto, Satoru; Okada, Hiroshi; Kawato, Suguru; Horie, Shigeo

    2018-04-01

    Intratumoral androgen biosynthesis has been recognized as an essential factor of castration-resistant prostate cancer. The present study investigated the effects of curcumin on the inhibition of intracrine androgen synthesis in prostate cancer. Human prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells were incubated with or without curcumin after which cell proliferation was measured at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Prostate tissues from the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model were obtained after 1-month oral administration of 200 mg/kg/d curcumin. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations in LNCaP prostate cancer cells were determined through LC-MS/MS assay. Curcumin inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin decreased the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory proteins, CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 in prostate cancer cell lines, supporting the decrease of testosterone production. After 1-month oral administration of curcumin, Aldo-Keto reductase 1C2 (AKR1C2) expression was elevated. Simultaneously, decreased testosterone levels in the prostate tissues were observed in the TRAMP mice. Meanwhile, curcumin treatments considerably increased the expression of AKR1C2 in prostate cancer cell lines, supporting the decrease of dihydrotestosterone. Taken together, these results suggest that curcumin's natural bioactive compounds could have potent anticancer properties due to suppression of androgen production, and this could have therapeutic effects on prostate cancer. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  3. Individual testosterone decline and future mortality risk in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Stine Agergaard; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Juul, Anders

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Male aging is characterized by a decline in testosterone (T) levels with a substantial variability between subjects. However, it is unclear whether differences in age-related changes in T are associated with general health. We investigated associations between mortality and intra...

  4. Causal relationship between obesity and serum testosterone status in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Joel; Haring, Robin; Grarup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    randomization (MR) analysis on prospective cohorts. SETTING: Five cohorts from Denmark, Germany and Sweden (Inter99, SHIP, SHIP Trend, GOOD and MrOS Sweden). PARTICIPANTS: 7446 Caucasian men, genotyped for 97 BMI-associated SNPs and three testosterone-associated SNPs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BMI and serum...

  5. [Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-03-01

    The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulting in higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to improve oxygen delivery capacity. Adaptation is the process of natural acclimatization where genetical variations and acclimatization play a role in allowing subjects to live without any difficulties at high altitudes. Testosterone is a hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and ventilation and could be associated to the processes of acclimatization and adaptation to high altitude. Excessive erythrocytosis, which leads to chronic mountain sickness, is caused by low arterial oxygen saturation, ventilatory inefficiency and reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia. Testosterone increases during acute exposure to high altitude and also in natives at high altitude with excessive erythrocytosis. Results of current research allow us to conclude that increase in serum testosterone and hemoglobin is adequate for acclimatization, as they improve oxygen transport, but not for high altitude adaptation, since high serum testosterone levels are associated to excessive erythrocytosis.

  6. Comparison of the pre-treatment testosterone levels in benign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D.E. Orakwe

    2017-01-26

    Jan 26, 2017 ... Abstract. Objectives: To compare serum testosterone and prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of patients diagnosed of prostate cancer to those with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Subjects and methods: One hundred and thirteen male patients with or without LUTS who had indica- tion(s) for prostate ...

  7. Testosterone levels and the genetic variation of sex hormone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lillian

    1Physiology and Hormones Department, Animal Health Research Institute, ... hormone-binging globulin (SHBG) that is the major transporter protein of sex ... genotypes, one of which is likely to be associated with low testosterone ..... sex steroid hormones in men from the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

  8. Testosterone and estrogen in multiple sclerosis: from pathophysiology to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collongues, Nicolas; Patte-Mensah, Christine; De Seze, Jérôme; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe-Guy; Derfuss, Tobias

    2018-06-01

    Neuroprotection and remyelination are two unmet needs in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Therapeutic potential has been identified with sexual hormones, supported in women by a decrease in MS activity during the pregnancy, in men by a greater severity of symptoms and a faster progression than in women. Areas covered: The therapeutic effect of testosterone and estrogens is reviewed. Both hormones have demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect. Testosterone has an effect in protecting neurons in culture against glutamate-induced toxicity and oxidative stress, and stimulates myelin formation and regeneration mediated through the neural androgen receptor. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, estrogens significantly decrease inflammation in the central nervous system via ERα, while its action on ERβ leads to myelin and axon reparation. Estriol therapy in two phase 2 trials showed a decrease in clinical disease activity and inflammatory parameters in MRI. However, evidence of a therapeutic effect of testosterone is scarce. Expert commentary: Phase 3 trials with estriol as an add-on supplementation are now mandatory. Testosterone is another candidate to be tested in phase 2 trials. These hormones should be considered as an adjunctive therapy. New validated tools are needed to assess their effect on neuroprotection and remyelination.

  9. Testicular descent: INSL3, testosterone, genes and the intrauterine milieu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Main, Katharina M; Toppari, Jorma

    2011-01-01

    Complete testicular descent is a sign of, and a prerequisite for, normal testicular function in adult life. The process of testis descent is dependent on gubernacular growth and reorganization, which is regulated by the Leydig cell hormones insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and testosterone. Investi...

  10. Serum testosterone levels in Nigerian male marijuana and cigarette ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of marijuana and cigarette use on serum levels of testosterone, the principal androgen in man has been a matter of serious controversy; and there is a paucity of reports on the subject in Nigeria in West Africa south of Sahara. We therefore investigated the effects of the use of these substances on serum levels of ...

  11. Testosterone suppression of CRH-stimulated cortisol in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinow, David R; Roca, Catherine A; Schmidt, Peter J; Danaceau, Merry A; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-10-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in 10 men (ages 18-45 years) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower (pcortisol area under the curve was lower at a trend level (pcortisol : ACTH ratio, a measure of adrenal sensitivity, was lower during testosterone replacement (pcortisol. These data demonstrate that testosterone regulates CRH-stimulated HPA axis activity in men, with the divergent effects on ACTH and cortisol suggesting a peripheral (adrenal) locus for the suppressive effects on cortisol. Our results further demonstrate that the enhanced stimulated HPA axis activity previously described in young men compared with young women cannot be ascribed to an activational upregulation of the axis by testosterone.

  12. Association of testosterone levels with socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Zimbabwean men11 , American men,7,8,12 and Japanese ..... total and free testosterone levels in healthy men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. ... bee D.E., Louis J.G. Goorey, Huibert A.P. Sex-hormone.

  13. Association of testosterone levels with socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects. Biometric measurements including weight, height and waist circumference were also recorded. Results: Serum testosterone levels of Ugandan men were within the normal physiological ranges. Married participants and ...

  14. Testosterone supplementation restores vasopressin innervation in the senescent rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, E.; Fliers, E.; Swaab, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    The vasopressin (AVP) innervation in the male rat brain is decreased in senescence. This decrease is particularly pronounced in brain regions where AVP fiber density is dependent on plasma levels of sex steroids. Since plasma testosterone levels decrease progressively with age in the rat, the

  15. A longitudinal analysis of women's salivary testosterone and intrasexual competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; Cobey, Kelly D; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2016-02-01

    Research on within-subject changes in women's intrasexual competitiveness has generally focused on possible relationships between women's intrasexual competitiveness and estimates of their fertility. While this approach is useful for testing hypotheses about the adaptive function of changes in women's intrasexual competitiveness, it offers little insight into the proximate mechanisms through which such changes might occur. To investigate this issue, we carried out a longitudinal study of the hormonal correlates of changes in intrasexual competitiveness in a large sample of heterosexual women (N=136). Each woman provided saliva samples and completed an intrasexual competitiveness questionnaire in five weekly test sessions. Multilevel modeling of these data revealed a significant, positive within-subject effect of testosterone on intrasexual competitiveness, indicating that women reported greater intrasexual competitiveness when testosterone was high. By contrast, there were no significant effects of estradiol, progesterone, estradiol-to-progesterone ratio, or cortisol and no significant effects of any hormones on reported relationship jealousy. This is the first study to demonstrate correlated changes in measured testosterone levels and women's reported intrasexual competitiveness, implicating testosterone in the regulation of women's intrasexual competitiveness. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Medial Amygdala and Aggressive Behavior : Interaction Between Testosterone and Vasopressin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; Roozendaal, B.; Boorsma, F.; Van Den Brink, T.H.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper considers the functional significance of the testosterone-dependent vasopressinergic neurons of the medial amygdala (Ame) in intermale aggressive behavior of rats. Local microinfusion of vasopressin into the medial amygdala causes an increase in offensive behavior both in gonadally intact

  17. Testosterone levels and the genetic variation of sex hormone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samy Naeem

    2018-03-15

    Mar 15, 2018 ... 1Physiology and Hormones Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Agricultural ... Firstly, this study aimed to determine the levels of testosterone in different-age ..... reduction in steroid-binding affinity due to impairment .... gene influence serum SHBG levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  18. the effect of intramuscular implantation of testosterone on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental design was factorial (2 x 2 with four replicates). There were two nutritional treatments ... The crystalline implant of testosterone was placed in the gluteal muscle by means of a trocar and cannula. Animals were weighed (± 0,5 kg at 0700) at inter- vals of two weeks. Feed and water were withdrawn at.

  19. Polycystic Ovary Induction in Mouse by Testosterone Enanthate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kalhori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: Polycystic ovary is the most common cause of infertility in Women. Animal models are required for understanding the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary. The objective of this study then was to develop an animal model for inducing the polycystic ovaries using testosterone enanthate.Materials & Methods: In this study, for inducing the polycystic ovary phenotype, female rats about12-14 days-old were injected daily with testosterone enanthate for 2 and 4 weeks (experiment groups: 1 and 2, while the control groups (1 and 2 were injected only with vehicle.The ovaries from both groups were fixed and then were used for histological studies.Results: Testosterone enanthate treatment causes the histological changes in mouse ovary and significantly increased the percentage of preantral and cystic follicles and decreased the percentage of antral follicles in the experiment group, comparing with the control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: It concluded that testosterone enanthate can induces polycystic ovary in mouse.

  20. Marketing and Testosterone Treatment in the USA: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandari, Jathin; Ayyash, Omar M; Emery, Sherry L; Wessel, Charles B; Davies, Benjamin J

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration only for classic hypogonadism, although off-label indications have resulted in a dramatic expansion in prescriptions in the USA. Marketing may significantly affect prescriber behavior. To systematically review all available evidence on marketing and TRT in the USA. PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were searched up to July 2017 for all relevant publications reporting on assessments of the TRT market size, economic costs associated with hypogonadism, trends in TRT prescriptions, drug discontinuation rates, and advertising and sales efforts in the USA. Twenty retrospective studies were included in the final analysis. The market size for hypogonadism constitutes 5.6-76.8% of men in the USA, with the lower end of the range representing the strictest criteria for diagnosis. Men with a diagnosis of hypogonadism consume $14 118 in direct and indirect costs to the payer. Over the last 2 decades, TRT prescriptions have increased between 1.8- and 4-fold. After 1 yr, 80-85% of men discontinue TRT. There is an association between direct-to-consumer advertising and testosterone testing, TRT prescriptions, and TRT without testosterone testing. There is a high prevalence of misinformation on Internet advertising. Off-label indications have driven the dramatic expansion of TRT prescriptions over the last 2 decades. Direct-to-consumer advertising poses a unique challenge in the USA. Overtreatment can be avoided by applying strict diagnostic criteria for hypogonadism, which limits the addressable market for TRT. In this report, we reviewed the relationship between marketing and testosterone therapy in the USA. We found that many patients are prescribed testosterone without an appropriate diagnosis of hypogonadism, which may be related to the marketing efforts for off-label prescribing. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phthalates might interfere with testicular function by reducing testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Hsiang; Li, Sih-Syuan; Wu, Meng-Hsing; Pan, Hsien-An; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2015-11-01

    Do phthalates create a male reproductive hormone imbalance by down-regulating the secretion of testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3)? Our study suggests that exposure to phthalates is related to a reduction in the secretion of testosterone and INSL3 in adult males. There is evidence that exposure to phthalates, an abundant group of industrial plasticizers, negatively affects testosterone biosynthesis, but little is known about the mechanism in men. The hypothesis that exposure to phthalates reduces the levels of testosterone and INSL3, a marker of Leydig cell function, is underexplored. This case-control study of 176 men ran from 2010 to 2012. Infertile men were recruited through infertility clinics in Taiwan, fertile men were recruited from childbirth preparation classes and all were categorized based on the World Health Organization definition of infertility and by the diagnoses of obstetricians. Urinary concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites were measured, along with serum levels of FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT), estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin and Inhibin B. Androgen status indices including free testosterone (fT) and the free androgen index (FAI) were calculated. The circulating INSL3 level was evaluated using a radioimmunoassay. Non-parametric analyses, trend tests and linear regression models were used. Urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate were significantly higher in infertile than in fertile men. Serum Inhibin B, the Inhibin B : FSH ratio, the TT : LH ratio and INSL3 were significantly lower in infertile men. In multiple regression models controlled for potential confounders, there is an inverse association between urinary levels of mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), MEHP, MEHP% and serum TT (P = 0.001, 0.007, 0.042 and 0.012, respectively). The inverse associations were also found between urinary levels of MiBP, monobenzyl

  2. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch

    2016-01-01

    training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. RESULTS: Former AAS abusers...... exhibited significantly lower median (25th -75th percentiles) total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9-17.7) nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6-22.0) nmol/l) (P testosterone levels below...... the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l) whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P

  3. Salivary testosterone in female-to-male transgender adolescents during treatment with intra-muscular injectable testosterone esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H.N.; Schagen, S.E.; Klink, D.T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In our hospital, female-To-male (FtM) transgender adolescents from the age of 16 are treated with two- or four-weekly intra-muscular injections of testosterone-esters. Some patients treated with four-weekly injections have complaints of fatigue and experience mood swings towards the

  4. Use of 6α- and 6β-carboxymethyl testosterone-bovine serum albumin conjugates in radioimmunoassay for testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.D.; Mason, N.R.

    1975-01-01

    The synthesis of 6α- and 6β-testosterone-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugates is described. 6β-Carboxymethyl-4-androstene-3,17-dione was prepared by a route analogous to that described earlier for 6β-carboxymethyl progesterone. Sodium borohydride reduction of the 3 and 17 keto groups and subsequent selective oxidation of the resulting 3β,17β-diol using MnO 2 provided 6β-carboxymethyl testosterone. Further acid catalyzed epimerization of the C-6 center gave the isomeric 6α-carboxymethyl testosterone. The 6α- and 6β-testosterone derivatives were attached to BSA via a mixed anhydride coupling employing tributylamine and i-butylchlorocarbonate. For each molecule of BSA, the 6α- and 6β-conjugates contained an average of 23 and 20 steroid residues, respectively. Antisera to the conjugates exhibited similar high specificities toward various steroids, the only incidence of serious cross-reaction being the expected case of dihydrotestosterone. (U.S.)

  5. Testosterone Treatment and Sexual Function in Older Men With Low Testosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Glenn R; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Rosen, Raymond C; Wang, Christina; Bhasin, Shalender; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Parsons, J Kellogg; Gill, Thomas M; Molitch, Mark E; Farrar, John T; Cella, David; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Cauley, Jane A; Cifelli, Denise; Crandall, Jill P; Ensrud, Kristine E; Gallagher, Laura; Zeldow, Bret; Lewis, Cora E; Pahor, Marco; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Hou, Xiaoling; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan J; Tabatabaie, Vafa; Ellenberg, Susan S; Snyder, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    The Testosterone Trials are a coordinated set of seven trials to determine the efficacy of T in symptomatic men ≥65 years old with unequivocally low T levels. Initial results of the Sexual Function Trial showed that T improved sexual activity, sexual desire, and erectile function. To assess the responsiveness of specific sexual activities to T treatment; to relate hormone changes to changes in sexual function; and to determine predictive baseline characteristics and T threshold for sexual outcomes. A placebo-controlled trial. Twelve academic medical centers in the United States. A total of 470 men ≥65 years of age with low libido, average T sexual intercourse at least twice a month. Men were assigned to take T gel or placebo for 1 year. Sexual function was assessed by three questionnaires every 3 months: the Psychosexual Daily Questionnaire, the Derogatis Interview for Sexual Function, and the International Index of Erectile Function. Compared with placebo, T administration significantly improved 10 of 12 measures of sexual activity. Incremental increases in total and free T and estradiol levels were associated with improvements in sexual activity and desire, but not erectile function. No threshold T level was observed for any outcome, and none of the 27 baseline characteristics predicted responsiveness to T. In older men with low libido and low T levels, improvements in sexual desire and activity in response to T treatment were related to the magnitude of increases in T and estradiol levels, but there was no clear evidence of a threshold effect.

  6. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the biochemical complexity of seminal fluid, we attempt to study the possible correlation between fructose, which is secreted under the effect of androgen hormone, and autoimmunity, which might play a role in varicocele associated infertility, in reducing sperm motility. Seminal fructose, antisperm antibodies (ASAs and blood steroids hormones (testosterone and progesterone levels were measured in 66 infertile males with varicocele and 84 without varicocele referred for fertility treatment. Seminal analysis was performed with biochemical measurements of seminal fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR for ASA. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The mean values for serum testosterone were 380.74±24.331, 365.9±16.55, and 367.5±21.8 ng/dl, progesterone 0.325±0.243, 0.341±0.022, and 0.357  ±  0.0306 ng/ml, and seminal plasma fructose 359.6  ±  26.75, 315.6  ±  13.08, and 332.08  ±  24.38 mg/dl in males with varicocele, without varicocele, and fertile males, respectively. A significant high level of testosterone was observed within varicocele group (P=.001. This result showed that testosterone may play a role as an infertility determinant in subjects with varicocele. ASA was detected in 18 (26.47% of cases with varicocele, 20 (38.46% without varicocele, and in 16 (32.0% fertile men. Cases with ASAs associated with low sperm motility morphology. An inverse correlation between sperm-bound antibodies and viscosity has been shown (P=.017. ASA showed some significant inverse relations with ages, durations of infertility, and viscosity (P<.05. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between ASA positive seminal plasma and testosterone concentration among infertile cases (with or without varicocele and fertile (P<.05. Our results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with

  7. High protein diets do not attenuate decrements in testosterone and IGF-I during energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Paul C; Margolis, Lee M; McClung, James P; Young, Andrew J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2014-05-01

    Energy deficit (ED) diminishes fat-free mass (FFM) with concomitant reductions in anabolic hormone secretion. A modest increase in protein to recommended dietary allowance (RDA) levels during ED minimally attenuates decrements in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The impact of dietary protein above the RDA on circulating anabolic hormones and their relationships with FFM in response to ED are not well described. Thirty-three adults were assigned diets providing protein at 0.8 (RDA), 1.6 (2×-RDA), and 2.4 (3×-RDA) g/kg/d for 31days. Testosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and IGF-I system components were assessed after a 10-day period of weight-maintenance (WM) and after a 21-day period of ED (40%) achieved by an increase in energy expenditure and decreased energy intake. Associations between the change in FFM and anabolic hormone levels were determined. As compared to WM and regardless of dietary protein intake, total and free testosterone, total IGF-I, and acid-labile subunit decreased (Phormones or IGF-I system components measured. Changes in FFM in response to ED were negatively associated with acid-labile subunit (ALS) (r=-0.62, Phormone concentrations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    tissue suggests that testosterone regulates HSL activity. To test whether this is also true in the heart, we measured HSL activity in the left ventricle of sedentary male rats that had been treated with testosterone supplementation or orchidectomy with or without testosterone substitution. Left ventricle...... HSL activity against TG was significantly elevated in intact rats supplemented with testosterone. HSL activity against both TG and diacylglyceride was reduced by orchidectomy, whereas testosterone replacement fully reversed this effect. Moreover, testosterone increased left ventricle free fatty acid...... levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid...

  9. Testosterone like Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Mucuna pruriens Seeds and its Effects on Serum Biochemical Metabolites in Immature Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmad*, Zia-ur-Rahman1, Nafees Akhtar and Shujait Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone like activity of seeds of Mucuna pruriens and its effects on serum biochemical metabolites in immature male rats were investigated. Forty eight immature male rats were divided into four equal groups. Rats of groups A and B were orally given ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Mucuna pruriens seeds daily at the dose rate of 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 14 days. Rats of group C were injected with testosterone at the dose rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight daily, while rats of group D served as controls. After 7 days, six rats from each group were euthanized, while the remaining six rats from each group were euthanized after 14 days of treatment. Rats given ethanolic extract gained higher weight compared to controls (P<0.05. Testis weight was the highest in rats treated with testosterone. The effect of treatments on the weight of the liver and the kidneys was non significant. Rats given ethanolic or aqueous extract had higher serum testosterone concentration than controls. Similarly, rats given ethanolic or aqueous extract had higher serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol compared to controls. Moreover, ethanolic extract treated rats also had higher total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol than aqueous extract treated rats. However, differences in serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol between control and testosterone injected rats were non significant. Serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and ALT activity did not differ among rats of four groups. Serum AST activity and urea were lower in rats treated with ethanolic or aqueous extract compared to controls. Thus, seeds of Mucuna pruriens had testosterone like activity and increased serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, with no adverse effects on the serum LDL cholesterol, liver or kidney functions.

  10. Differential testosterone response to GnRH-induced LH release before and after musth in adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Boonprasert, Khajohnpat; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-04-15

    Bull elephants exhibit marked increases in testosterone secretion during musth, and studies have shown a heightened sensitivity of the testis to GnRH-stimulated testosterone production in musth compared to nonmusth males. However, activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis before or soon after musth has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to evaluate LH and testosterone responses to GnRH challenge in nine adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bulls during three periods relative to musth: premusth, postmusth, and nonmusth. Bulls were administered 80 μg of a GnRH agonist, and blood was collected before and after injection to monitor serum hormone concentrations. The same bulls were injected with saline 2 weeks before each GnRH challenge and monitored using the same blood collection protocol. All bulls responded to GnRH, but not saline, with an increase in LH and testosterone during all three periods. The mean peak LH (1.76 ± 0.19 ng/mL; P elephants. Furthermore, although the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is active throughout the year, the testis appears to be more responsive to LH in terms of testosterone production in the period leading up to musth, compared to the nonmusth and postmusth periods. This heightened sensitivity, perhaps as a result of LH receptor up-regulation, may prime the testis for maximal testosterone production, leading to the physiological and behavioral changes associated with musth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radioautographic study of two target organs (epididymis and femoral glands) after injection of 3H testosterone in a non-mammalian vertebrate, the viviparous Lizard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufaure, J.-P.; Chambon, Monique.

    1978-01-01

    After 3 H testosterone injection into castrated males of the Lizard Lacerta vivipara, the radioactive compound is detected by radioautography of epididymis, femoral glands, gut and liver. Between 1 hr. 30 min. to 12 hrs. of retention the 3 H material concentrates progressively into nuclei of the glandular cells of epididymis and femoral organs although no particular concentration occurs in gut and liver cells. This submammalian model is consistent with those previously described for mammals [fr

  12. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Consequences of Testosterone Supplements in Young and Old Male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Implications for Testosterone Supplements in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmasso, Carolina; Patil, Chetan N; Yanes Cardozo, Licy L; Romero, Damian G; Maranon, Rodrigo O

    2017-10-17

    The safety of testosterone supplements in men remains unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that in young and old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), long-term testosterone supplements increase blood pressure and that the mechanism is mediated in part by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. In untreated males, serum testosterone exhibited a sustained decrease after 5 months of age, reaching a nadir by 18 to 22 months of age. The reductions in serum testosterone were accompanied by an increase in body weight until very old age (18 months). Testosterone supplements were given for 6 weeks to young (12 weeks-YMSHR) and old (21-22 months-OMSHR) male SHR that increased serum testosterone by 2-fold in young males and by 4-fold in old males. Testosterone supplements decreased body weight, fat mass, lean mass, and plasma leptin, and increased plasma estradiol in YMSHR but had no effect in OMSHR. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly higher in OMSHR than in YMSHR and testosterone supplements decreased MAP in OMSHR, but significantly increased MAP in YMSHR. Enalapril, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, reduced MAP in both control and testosterone-supplemented YMSHR, but had a greater effect on MAP in testosterone-treated rats, suggesting the mechanism responsible for the increase in MAP in YMSHR is mediated at least in part by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Taken together with previous studies, these data suggest that testosterone supplements may have differential effects on men depending on age, cardiovascular and metabolic status, and dose and whether given long-term or short-term. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  13. Sperm production, testicular size, serum gonadotropins and testosterone levels in Merino and Corriedale breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Abella, D; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Villegas, N; Bentancur, O

    1999-01-01

    The relationships between testis size, hormone secretion and sperm production were studied during the spring (December) and autumn (May) in rams of two breeds with different breeding seasons and body weights (Corriedale and Australian Merino) maintained on native pastures and under natural photoperiods in Uruguay. Blood samples were collected at 20-min intervals during a 260-360-min period in 13 rams (four Corriedale, nine Australian Merino) during the late spring and autumn. Rams were weighed and testis size was estimated by orchimetry at each time period. Sperm production was estimated during a 2-week period, 2 months before blood collection and during each week following every blood collection. There was no relationship between testicular size and sperm production measured at the same time, nor between live weight and sperm production. In contrast, testicular volume during the late spring was correlated with sperm production in the autumn (r = 0.65; P = 0.02). The autumn serum LH was higher in Corriedale than in Merino rams. LH pulsatility was unaffected by season, but LH pulse frequency tended to be higher in Corriedale than in Merino rams, particularly in the late spring (2.37 versus 1.56 pulses/6 h; P = 0.08). Serum testosterone concentration was similar in both breeds and seasons. FSH levels were higher in the late spring than in the autumn in both breeds (Corriedale: 2.83 +/- 0.48 versus 2.17 +/- 0.24 ng x mL(-1); Merino: 2.23 +/- 0.24 versus 1.88 +/- 0.17 ng x mL(-1)). FSH and testosterone concentrations during the late spring were positively correlated with autumn sperm production (P = 0.07 and P = 0.03, respectively). In conclusion, the present experiment suggests that LH secretion is not a good parameter for the prediction of sperm production. In contrast, in our conditions (breeds and native pastures) testicular size and testosterone or FSH concentrations from the late spring may be used to predict sperm production in the autumn.

  14. Prenatal testosterone treatment alters LH and testosterone responsiveness to GnRH agonist in male sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO E RECABARREN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence is accumulating that prenatal testosterone (T compromises reproductive function in the female, the effects of excess T in utero on the postnatal development of male reproductive function has not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of prenatal T excess on age-related changes in pituitary and gonadal responsiveness to GnRH in the male sheep. We used the GnRH agonist, leuprolide (10 µg/kg, as a pharmacologic challenge at 5, 10, 20 and 30 weeks of age. These time points correspond to early and late juvenile periods and the prepubertal and postpubertal periods of sexual development, respectively. LH and T were measured in blood samples collected before and after GnRH agonist administration. The area under the response curve (AUC of LH increased progressively in both controls and prenatal T-treated males from 5 to 20 weeks of age (P<0.01. The LH responses in prenatal T-treated males were lower at 20 and 30 weeks of age compared to controls (P<0.05. AUC-T increased progressively in control males from 5 through 30 weeks of age and prenatal T-treated males from 5 to 20 weeks of age. The T response in prenatal T-treated males was higher at 20 weeks compared to controls of same age but similar to controls and prenatal T-treated males at 30 weeks of age (P <0.05. Our findings suggest that prenatal T treatment advances the developmental trajectory of gonadal responsiveness to GnRH in male offspring

  15. The role and molecular mechanism of D-aspartic acid in the release and synthesis of LH and testosterone in humans and rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronsini Salvatore

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background D-aspartic acid is an amino acid present in neuroendocrine tissues of invertebrates and vertebrates, including rats and humans. Here we investigated the effect of this amino acid on the release of LH and testosterone in the serum of humans and rats. Furthermore, we investigated the role of D-aspartate in the synthesis of LH and testosterone in the pituitary and testes of rats, and the molecular mechanisms by which this amino acid triggers its action. Methods For humans: A group of 23 men were given a daily dose of D-aspartate (DADAVIT® for 12 days, whereas another group of 20 men were given a placebo. For rats: A group of 10 rats drank a solution of either 20 mM D-aspartate or a placebo for 12 days. Then LH and testosterone accumulation was determined in the serum and D-aspartate accumulation in tissues. The effects of D-aspartate on the synthesis of LH and testosterone were gauged on isolated rat pituitary and Leydig cells. Tissues were incubated with D-aspartate, and then the concentration (synthesis of LH and cGMP in the pituitary and of testosterone and cAMP in the Leydig cells was determined. Results In humans and rats, sodium D-aspartate induces an enhancement of LH and testosterone release. In the rat pituitary, sodium D-aspartate increases the release and synthesis of LH through the involvement of cGMP as a second messenger, whereas in rat testis Leydig cells, it increases the synthesis and release of testosterone and cAMP is implicated as second messenger. In the pituitary and in testes D-Asp is synthesized by a D-aspartate racemase which convert L-Asp into D-Asp. The pituitary and testes possesses a high capacity to trapping circulating D-Asp from hexogen or endogen sources. Conclusion D-aspartic acid is a physiological amino acid occurring principally in the pituitary gland and testes and has a role in the regulation of the release and synthesis of LH and testosterone in humans and rats.

  16. Use of Exogenous Testosterone for the Treatment of Male Factor Infertility: A Survey of Nigerian Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omisanjo, Olufunmilade Akinfolarin; Ikuerowo, Stephen Odunayo; Abdulsalam, Moruf Adekunle; Ajenifuja, Sheriff Olabode; Shittu, Khadijah Adebisi

    2017-01-01

    Though exogenous testosterone is known for its contraceptive effects in men, it is sometimes prescribed by medical practitioners for the treatment of male factor infertility in the mistaken belief that exogenous testosterone improves sperm count. The aim of this study was to evaluate the scope of testosterone use in the treatment of male factor infertility by medical practitioners in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey using a structured questionnaire was carried out amongst doctors attending a regular Continuing Medical Education (CME) programme in Lagos, Nigeria. There were 225 respondents. Most of the respondents (69.8%, n = 157) indicated that exogenous testosterone increases sperm count. Only 22 respondents (9.8%) indicated (correctly) that exogenous testosterone decreases sperm count. Seventy-seven respondents (34.2%) had prescribed some form of exogenous testosterone in the treatment of male factor infertility. The vast majority of respondents who had prescribed testosterone (81.8%, n = 63) thought exogenous testosterone increases sperm count. There was no statistically significant difference in the pattern of prescription across the respondents' specialty ( p = 0.859) or practice type ( p = 0.747). The misuse of exogenous testosterone for the treatment of male infertility was common amongst the respondents, with most of them wrongly believing that exogenous testosterone increases sperm count.

  17. Testosterone replacement therapy and the heart: friend, foe or bystander?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, David S; Canfield, Steven; Wang, Run

    2016-12-01

    The role of testosterone therapy (TTh) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes is still controversial, and it seems will remain inconclusive for the moment. An extensive body of literature has investigated the association of endogenous testosterone and use of TTh with CVD events including several meta-analyses. In some instances, a number of studies reported beneficial effects of TTh on CVD events and in other instances the body of literature reported detrimental effects or no effects at all. Yet, no review article has scrutinized this body of literature using the magnitude of associations and statistical significance reported from this relationship. We critically reviewed the previous and emerging body of literature that investigated the association of endogenous testosterone and use of TTh with CVD events (only fatal and nonfatal). These studies were divided into three groups, "beneficial (friendly use)", "detrimental (foe)" and "no effects at all (bystander)", based on their magnitude of associations and statistical significance from original research studies and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies and of randomized controlled trials (RCT's). In this review article, the studies reporting a significant association of high levels of testosterone with a reduced risk of CVD events in original prospective studies and meta-analyses of cross-sectional and prospective studies seems to be more consistent. However, the number of meta-analyses of RCT's does not provide a clear picture after we divided it into the beneficial, detrimental or no effects all groups using their magnitudes of association and statistical significance. From this review, we suggest that we need a study or number of studies that have the adequate power, epidemiological, and clinical data to provide a definitive conclusion on whether the effect of TTh on the natural history of CVD is real or not.

  18. Testosterone Suppression of CRH-stimulated Cortisol in Men

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinow, David R.; Roca, Catherine A.; Schmidt, Peter J.; Danaceau, Merry A.; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-01-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in ten men (ages 18–45) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower ...

  19. Choosing Fighting Competitors Among Men: Testosterone, Personality, and Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borráz-León, Javier I; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Rantala, Markus J; Mayagoitia-Novales, Lilian

    2018-01-01

    Higher testosterone levels have been positively related to a variety of social behaviors and personality traits associated with intrasexual competition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of testosterone levels and personality traits such as aggressiveness, competitiveness, and self-esteem on the task of choosing a fighting competitor (a rival) with or without a motivation to fight. In Study 1, a group of 119 men participated in a task for choosing a rival through pictures of men with high-dominant masculinity versus low-dominant masculinity. Participants completed three personality questionnaires and donated two saliva samples (pre-test and post-test sample) to quantify their testosterone levels. We found that the probability of choosing high-dominant masculine men as rivals increased with higher aggressiveness scores. In Study 2, the task of choosing rivals was accompanied by motivations to fight (pictures of women with high or low waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]). In this context, we observed that the probability of choosing dominant masculine men as rivals depended on the WHR of the women. Overall, average levels of post-test testosterone, aggressiveness, and high self-esteem increased the probability to fight for women with low WHR independently of the dominance masculinity of the rivals. Our results indicate that human decisions, in the context of intrasexual competition and mate choice, are regulated by physiological and psychological mechanisms allowing men to increase their biological fitness. We discuss our results in the light of the plasticity of human behavior according to biological and environmental forces.

  20. The effects of prenatal testosterone on wages: Evidence from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, John V C; Bryukhanov, Maksym; Kochergina, Ekaterina; Orel, Ekaterina; Polyachenko, Sergiy; Yudkevich, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Is in utero exposure to testosterone correlated with earnings? The question matters for understanding determinants of wage differences that have attracted so much attention among economists in the past decade. Evidence indicates that markers for early testosterone exposure are correlated with traits like risk-taking and aggressiveness. But it is not at all clear how such findings might map into labor market success. We combine unique data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey with measured markers (2D:4D ratios) for testosterone exposure and find that lower digit ratios (higher T) correlate with higher wages for women and for men, when controlling for age, education and occupation. There is also some evidence of a potential non-linear, inverse U-effect of digit ratios on wages but this is sensitive to choice of specification. These findings are consistent with earlier work on prenatal T and success in careers (Coates et al., 2009) but inconsistent with the work of Gielen et al. (2016) who find differing effects for men and women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ENDOCRINE EVALUATION OF ATHLETE FOR TESTOSTERONE OR ITS ANALOGUES ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Osredkar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Doping involves the use of substances and methods prohibited by international and national sports institutions. The use of certain substances and methods is harmful to the human organism, so all sports organisations are trying to protect athletes from the harmful side effects of such substances and methods.Methods. The article deals with special protocol, which is used in the case, when the testosterone/epitestosterone ratio in urine is higher than 6 and less then 10. When establishing the use of testosterone or analogues, ketoconazol is used. If after the application the presence of a testosterone (T to epitestosterone (E ratio is greater than six (6 to one (1, there is an evidence of doping offence.Conclusions. In the case of T/E greater than 6, it is mandatory that the relevant medical authority conducts an investigation before the sample is declared positive. A full report should be written and should include a review of previous tests, subsequent tests and any results of endocrine investigations.

  2. CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN RECEIVING EXOGENOUS TESTOSTERONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Mandi D; Noble, Jason A; Peyman, Gholam A

    2017-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) is a serous detachment of the neurosensory retina commonly associated with male sex, Type-A personality and corticosteroid use. Exogenous administration of androgens and development of CSR in men has been reported. Only one case of CSR in a postmenopausal woman receiving exogenous androgen therapy has been reported. The authors describe three cases of chronic CSR in postmenopausal women receiving exogenous testosterone therapy. Diagnosis was based on characteristic clinical, fluorescein angiographic, and optical coherence tomography findings. The three women were being treated with exogenous testosterone and progesterone therapy for symptoms of menopause and libido loss. Average age at presentation was 54.7 years (53-56 years), average duration of exogenous androgen use was 61 months (36-87 months), with average 19.7-month follow-up. Resolution of symptoms seemed correlated with cessation of androgen use despite treatment with oscillatory photodynamic therapy and intravitreal pharmacotherapy with antivascular endothelial growth factor agents. Exogenous testosterone is increasingly prescribed for menopausal symptoms and libido loss. Treatment with oscillatory photodynamic therapy, supplemental bevacizumab intravitreal pharmacotherapy, and cessation of exogenous androgen therapy was successful in three cases of chronic, therapy-resistant CSR. Ophthalmologists should inquire about androgen usage in patients who present with CSR, especially in the setting of therapy resistance.

  3. Association of subcutaneous testosterone pellet therapy with developing secondary polycythemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotker, Katherine Lang; Alavian, Michael; Nelson, Bethany; Baird, Grayson L; Miner, Martin M; Sigman, Mark; Hwang, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    A variety of methods for testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) exist, and the major potential risks of TRT have been well established. The risk of developing polycythemia secondary to exogenous testosterone (T) has been reported to range from 0.4% to 40%. Implantable T pellets have been used since 1972, and secondary polycythemia has been reported to be as low as 0.4% with this administration modality. However, our experience has suggested a higher rate. We conducted an institutional review board-approved, single-institution, retrospective chart review (2009–2013) to determine the rate of secondary polycythemia in 228 men treated with subcutaneously implanted testosterone pellets. Kaplan–Meyer failure curves were used to estimate time until the development of polycythemia (hematocrit >50%). The mean number of pellets administered was 12 (range: 6–16). The mean follow-up was 566 days. The median time to development of polycythemia whereby 50% of patients developed polycythemia was 50 months. The estimated rate of polycythemia at 6 months was 10.4%, 12 months was 17.3%, and 24 months was 30.2%. We concluded that the incidence of secondary polycythemia while on T pellet therapy may be higher than previously established. PMID:29205178

  4. Diagnostic value of daily fluctuations in the free form of testosterone and cortisol in men with obesity and metabolic syndrome under the age of 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The important pathogenetic link of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS in men are disorders of testosterone production in the testes and adrenal adrenal cortisol production. Тestosterone deficiency and functional hypercortisolism have a mutual influence on each other. Comprehensive assessment of testosterone and cortisol balance and identify their daily variability in the saliva may improve the diagnosis of hormonal disorders in men with obesity and MS. In the present study, by comparative and correlation analysis assessed the circadian rhythm of cortisol and testosterone production in young and middle age men, finding the relationship between the concentration of these hormones in the morning and evening portions of saliva with the changes of anthropometric, hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. The study involved 35 patients with MS, 16 – with overweight and obesity without the MS and 19 – with normal body weight. In men with obesity and MS found a violation of the circadian rhythm of testosterone production. Evening saliva testosterone showed a close correlation with the parameters of the MSome and clinical symptoms of androgen deficiency, as well as a more pronounced decrease with age. Circadian rhythm of cortisol production was not violated, but cortisol was significantly increased in the evening portion of saliva in patients with obesity and MS. MS was associated not only with an increase in the concentration of free salivary cortisol in the evening hours, but with lower cortisol levels in the batch of saliva collected in the morning, which is consistent with other studies.

  5. Androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone) for women undergoing assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Helen E; Rishworth, Josephine R; Siristatidis, Charalampos S; Kroon, Ben

    2015-11-26

    Infertility is a condition affecting 10% to 15% of couples of reproductive age. It is generally defined as "the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse". The treatment of infertility may involve manipulation of gametes or of the embryos themselves. These techniques are together known as assisted reproductive technology (ART). Practitioners are constantly seeking alternative or adjunct treatments, or both, in the hope that they may improve the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques. This Cochrane review focusses on the adjunct use of synthetic versions of two naturally-produced hormones, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone (T), in assisted reproduction.DHEA and its derivative testosterone are steroid hormones proposed to increase conception rates by positively affecting follicular response to gonadotrophin stimulation, leading to greater oocyte yields and, in turn, increased chance of pregnancy. To assess the effectiveness and safety of DHEA and testosterone as pre- or co-treatments in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. We searched the following electronic databases, trial registers and websites up to 12 March 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG) Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, electronic trial registers for ongoing and registered trials, citation indexes, conference abstracts in the Web of Science, PubMed and OpenSIGLE. We also carried out handsearches. There were no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing DHEA or testosterone as an adjunct treatment to any other active intervention, placebo, or no treatment in women undergoing assisted reproduction. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted relevant data and assessed them for risk of bias. We pooled studies using fixed-effect models. We calculated

  6. Testosterone therapy increased muscle mass and lipid oxidation in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Louise; Højlund, Kurt; Hougaard, David M

    2011-01-01

    The indication for testosterone therapy in aging hypogonadal men without hypothalamic, pituitary, or testicular disease remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of testosterone therapy on insulin sensitivity, substrate metabolism, body composition, and lipids...... lipid oxidation (b = 5.65 mg/min/m(2), p = 0.045) increased and basal glucose oxidation (b = -9.71 mg/min/m(2), p = 0.046) decreased in response to testosterone therapy even when corrected for changes in LBM. No significant changes in insulin-stimulated Rd was observed (b = -0.01mg/min/m(2), p = 0.......92). Testosterone therapy increased muscle mass and lipid oxidation in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels; however, our data did not support an effect of testosterone on whole-body insulin sensitivity using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique....

  7. CYCLICAL SUBNORMAL SEPARATION IN A-GROUPS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Then the fieldhn-=-Ihk contains a primitive I.!~ root of unity say .... Proof: We first denote the group algebra kG by W, viewed as a right module. ... Since the characteristic polynomial of x on V3 is the same as that of x on r , it is enough t q show ...

  8. Growing Up Or Growing Old? Cellular Aging Linked With Testosterone Reactivity To Stress In Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Shachet, Andrew; Phan, Jenny; Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H.; Wren, Michael; Esteves, Kyle; Theall, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the established relation between testosterone and aging in older adults, we tested whether buccal telomere length (TL), an established cellular biomarker of aging, was associated with testosterone levels in youth. Methods Children, mean age 10.2 years, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area and salivary testosterone was measured during both an acute stressor and diurnally. Buccal TL was measured using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (MMQ-PCR). Testosterone and telomere length data was available on 77 individuals. The association between buccal TL and testosterone was tested using multivariate Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to account for clustering of children within families. Results Greater peak testosterone levels (β=-0.87, p < 0.01) and slower recovery (β=-0.56, p < 0.01) and reactivity (β = -1.22, p < 0.01) following a social stressor were significantly associated with shorter buccal TL after controlling for parental age at conception, child age, sex, sociodemographic factors and puberty. No association was initially present between diurnal measurements of testosterone or morning basal testosterone levels and buccal TL. Sex significantly moderated the relation between testosterone reactivity and buccal TL. Conclusions The association between testosterone and buccal TL supports gonadal maturation as a developmentally sensitive biomarker of aging within youth. As stress levels of testosterone were significantly associated with buccal TL, these findings are consistent with the growing literature linking stress exposure and accelerated maturation. The lack of association of diurnal testosterone or morning basal levels with buccal TL bolsters the notion of a shared stress-related maturational mechanism between cellular stress and the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. These data provide novel evidence supporting the interaction of aging, physiologic stress and cellular processes as an underlying

  9. An interlaboratory comparison between similar methods for determination of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Aarrebo; Mortier, Leen; Koh, Eitetsu

    2014-01-01

    /L for melatonin, 0.56 and 6.72 nmol/L for cortisol and 11.9 and 73.8 pmol/L for testosterone. This indicates a large interlaboratory variation. The present study emphasizes the importance of external quality control for the analysis of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva.......An interlaboratory comparison study for melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva in which five laboratories participated is reported in this study. Each laboratory blindly measured eight samples prepared from natural saliva spiked with melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in the range 0...

  10. Interspecific variation in egg testosterone levels: implications for the evolution of bird song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamszegi, L Z; Biard, C; Eens, M; Møller, A P; Saino, N

    2007-05-01

    Although interspecific variation in maternal effects via testosterone levels can be mediated by natural selection, little is known about the evolutionary consequences of egg testosterone for sexual selection. However, two nonexclusive evolutionary hypotheses predict an interspecific relationship between egg testosterone levels and the elaboration of sexual traits. First, maternal investment may be particularly enhanced in sexually selected species, which should generate a positive relationship. Secondly, high prenatal testosterone levels may constrain the development of sexual characters, which should result in a negative relationship. Here we investigated these hypotheses by exploring the relationship between yolk testosterone levels and features of song in a phylogenetic study of 36 passerine species. We found that song duration and syllable repertoire size were significantly negatively related to testosterone levels in the egg, even if potentially confounding factors were held constant. These relationships imply that high testosterone levels during early development of songs may be detrimental, thus supporting the developmental constraints hypothesis. By contrast, we found significant evidence that song-post exposure relative to the height of the vegetation is positively related to egg testosterone levels. These results support the hypothesis that high levels of maternal testosterone have evolved in species with intense sexual selection acting on the location of song-posts. We found nonsignificant effects for intersong interval and song type repertoire size, which may suggest that none of the above hypothesis apply to these traits, or they act simultaneously and have opposing effects.

  11. The Effects of Testosterone on Oxidative Stress Markers in Mice with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Choobineh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI causes infertility in male patients through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, semen and hormone abnormalities. Oxidative stress (OS is involved in poor semen quality and subsequent infertility in males with SCI. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of SCI on the level of testosterone hormone. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous testosterone on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonylation (PCO, as markers of OS, in 10 groups of SCI mice. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC was determined using the 2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical cation assay. Results: Exogenous testosterone administration in mice with SCI significantly reduced SOD and GPx enzyme activities and MDA level. There was no significant decrease in PCO content. In addition, TAC remarkably increased in the sham and SCI groups not treated with testosterone but remained unchanged in all other experimental groups. Exogenous testosterone also reduced serum testosterone levels in all groups except the positive control group. Conclusion: Our cumulative data indicated that SCI could cause sterility by disturbing the plasmatic testosterone balance. The normal level of endogenous testosterone was not completely restored by exogenous testosterone administration.

  12. Prenatal sex determination by radioimmunoassay of testosterone with and without chromatography of the amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distler, W.; Boniver-Ollmann, U.; Tigges, J.; Terinde, R.; Claussen, U.

    1979-01-01

    Amniotic fluid testosterone measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) without chromatography (immunoreactive testosterone) seems not to be a definitive test for prenatal sex determination in all cases. In this study testosterone (T) levels measured by RIA with chromatography of the amniotic fluid samples were compared with immunoreactive testosterone (iT) values, to determine the predictive accuracy of the two methods. In 111 amniotic fluid samples between 15 and 19 weeks of gestation iT and T were measured parallelly. There are significant differences between iT- and T-means of both sexes (p [de

  13. The effects of testosterone on immune function in quail selected for divergent plasma corticosterone response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark L; Buchanan, Katherine L; Evans, Matthew R; Marin, Raul H; Satterlee, Daniel G

    2009-10-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) suggests that the male sex hormone testosterone has a dual effect; it controls the development and expression of male sexually selected signals, and it suppresses the immune system. Therefore only high quality males are able to fully express secondary sexual traits because only they can tolerate the immunosuppressive qualities of testosterone. A modified version of the ICHH suggests that testosterone causes immunosuppression indirectly by increasing the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Lines of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) selected for divergent responses in levels of plasma CORT were used to test these hypotheses. Within each CORT response line (as well as in a control stock) we manipulated levels of testosterone in castrated quail by treatment with zero (sham), low or high testosterone implants, before testing the birds' humoral immunity and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced immune response, as well as body condition. The PHA-induced response was not significantly affected by CORT selected line, testosterone treatment or their interaction. There was, however, a significant effect of CORT line on humoral immunity in that the control birds exhibited the greatest antibody production, but there was no significant effect of testosterone manipulation on humoral immunity. The males in the sham implant treatment group had significantly greater mass than the males in the high testosterone group, suggesting a negative effect of high testosterone on general body condition. We discuss these results in the context of current hypotheses in the field of sexual selection.

  14. Effects of testosterone on blood leukocytes in plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ibrahim, J B

    1989-01-01

    Gonadectomized male mice aged 5 weeks were given 5 mg testosterone propionate daily for 14 days. The treatment significantly decreased the number of blood leukocytes. The number of all individual types of leukocytes except basophils in vehicle-treated gonadectomized mice was increased. Testosterone-treated mice consistently had a lower number of leukocytes after being infected with Plasmodium berghei than did vehicle-treated mice. The results suggest that testosterone suppresses the production of leukocytes and that testosterone-treated mice become more susceptible to parasite infection.

  15. Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

  16. Association between Use of Exogenous Testosterone Therapy and Risk of Venous Thrombotic Events among Exogenous Testosterone Treated and Untreated Men with Hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Benoit, Karin; Wang, Wei; Motsko, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Limited information exists about whether exogenous testosterone therapy is associated with a risk of venous thrombotic events. We investigated via cohort and nested case-control analyses whether exogenous testosterone therapy is associated with the risk of venous thrombotic events in men with hypogonadism. Databases were reviewed to identify men prescribed exogenous testosterone therapy and/or men with a hypogonadism diagnosis. Propensity score 1:1 matching was used to select patients for cohort analysis. Cases (men with venous thrombotic events) were matched 1:4 with controls (men without venous thrombotic events) for the nested case-control analysis. Primary outcome was defined as incident idiopathic venous thrombotic events. Cox regression and conditional logistic regression were used to assess HRs and ORs, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. A total of 102,650 exogenous testosterone treated and 102,650 untreated patients were included in cohort analysis after matching, and 2,785 cases and 11,119 controls were included in case-control analysis. Cohort analysis revealed a HR of 1.08 for all testosterone treated patients (95% CI 0.91, 1.27, p = 0.378). Case-control analysis resulted in an OR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.92, 1.13, p = 0.702) for current exogenous testosterone therapy exposure and an OR of 0.92 (95% CI 0.82, 1.03, p = 0.145) for past exogenous testosterone therapy exposure. These results remained nonstatistically significant after stratifying by exogenous testosterone therapy administration route and age category. Most sensitivity analyses yielded consistent results. No significant association was found between exogenous testosterone therapy and incidents of idiopathic or overall venous thrombotic events in men with hypogonadism. However, some discrepant findings exist for the association between injectable formulations and the risk of overall venous thrombotic events. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research

  17. UGT2B17 genotype and the pharmacokinetic serum profile of testosterone during substitution therapy with testosterone undecanoate. A retrospective experience from 207 men with hypogonadism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Kirstine; Jørgensen, Niels; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Testosterone (T) is mainly excreted in the urine as testosterone glucuronide (TG). This glucuronidation is partly dependent on the UGT2B17 genotype, and TG excretion is therefore lower in men having the UGT2B17 deletion. However, the possible influence of UGT2B17 genotype on serum T...... during androgen therapy is unknown. We retrospectively investigated the possible association between the UGT2B17 gene polymorphism and serum T levels in hypogonadal men during Testosterone undecanoate (TU) substitution therapy. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred and seven patients treated with TU (Nebido...

  18. Melatonin and its correlation with testosterone in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is considered to be the most common endocrine disorder affecting women. Melatonin, a small lipophilic indoleamine, and reproductive hormones may be interrelated. Melatonin influences sex steroid production at different stages of ovarian follicular maturation as melatonin receptors have been demonstrated at multiple sites in ovary and in intrafollicular fluid. It plays role as an antioxidant and free radical scavanger which protects follicles from oxidative stress, rescuing them from atresia, leading to complete follicular maturation and ovulation. Aims: To study the role of melatonin in PCOS and to investigate its correlation with testosterone in patients suffering from PCOS. Settings and Design: A total of 50 women with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria, 2003 and 50 age and weight matched healthy controls were selected and serum melatonin estimation was done in both the groups and correlated with serum total testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, detailed history, clinical examination and hormonal evaluation [basal levels of leutinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, insulin, total testosterone, progesterone and melatonin] were carried out in all the participants including both cases and controls. For melatonin estimation, blood samples were collected between 12:00 am and 04:00 am on day 2 nd of menstrual cycle and analyzed by using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test was used to compare the significant difference in mean values between cases and control groups. Chi-square test was used to test the significant association between the qualitative variables. Linear correlation coefficient and regression analysis were done to see the amount and direction of relationship between quantitative variables. Results: The mean melatonin level was observed to be significantly

  19. Differential effects of 2-difluoromethylornithine and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) on the testosterone-induced growth of ventral prostate and seminal vesicles of castrated rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Käpyaho, K; Kallio, A; Jänne, J

    1984-01-01

    2-Difluoromethylornithine totally prevented any increases in putrescine and spermidine concentrations in the ventral prostate of castrated rats during a 6-day testosterone treatment. Prostatic ornithine decarboxylase activity was inhibited by 80%, whereas S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase was stimulated by more than 9-fold. In seminal vesicle, the inhibition of putrescine and spermidine accumulation, as well as of ornithine decarboxylase activity, was only minimal, and no stimulation of S-ad...

  20. Relationships among frozen-thawed semen fertility, physical parameters, certain routine sperm characteristics and testosterone in breeding Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to examine the relationships among frozen-thawed semen fertility, physical parameters, seminal quality, and testosterone concentration in Murrah buffalo bulls. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 breeding Murrah buffalo bulls (either progeny tested or under progeny testing program were randomly selected from two government bull farms in Punjab. None of the bulls selected for this study had any preceding physical abnormality. A field fertility trial was conducted to determine the first service conception rate (FSCR. The number of females inseminated per bull semen was 10. All the bulls were inspected for structural soundness, measurement of scrotal circumference, testicular biometry, and internal pelvic area (IPA. Frozen-thawed semen was evaluated for total motility, progressive motility, viability, concentration, abnormality, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST. Testosterone was estimated in blood plasma, seminal plasma as well as frozen-thawed semen extracts for establishing relationship. Results: The FSCR was 48% in the bulls having a scrotal circumference of ≥44 cm, although, there was no significant correlation between FSCR and scrotal circumference. Similarly, no consistent relationship existed between sperm concentration and scrotal circumference. A positive correlation was observed between IPA and FSCR (r=0.294. Of the six post-thaw seminal components (total motility, progressive motility, viability, HOST (%, total abnormality and concentration only total motility had a high significant (p<0.01 correlation with FSCR (r=0.694. Varied correlations existed between other seminal parameters and fertility. Using a simple regression analysis, the post-thaw motility, IPA, prepuce length and testosterone (independent variables combined to explain approximately 62% of the variation in the FSCR (dependent variable. Conclusion: The present study indicated that despite low to high correlations between seminal

  1. The relationship between total testosterone levels and prostate cancer: a review of the continuing controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klap, Julia; Schmid, Marianne; Loughlin, Kevin R

    2015-02-01

    For many years it was believed that higher total testosterone contributed to prostate cancer and caused rapid cancer growth. International guidelines consider that adequate data are not available to determine whether there is additional risk of prostate cancer from testosterone replacement. Numerous studies with multiple designs and contradictory conclusions have investigated the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer development. To establish current knowledge in this field we reviewed the literature on total testosterone and the subsequent risk of prostate cancer as well as the safety of exogenous testosterone administration in patients with a history of prostate cancer. We searched the literature to identify articles from 1994 to 2014 related to the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer. Emphasis was given to prospective studies, series with observational data and randomized, controlled trials. Case reports were excluded. Articles on testosterone replacement safety were selected by patient population (under active surveillance or with a prostate cancer history). We organized our results according to the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer, including 1) the possible link between low total testosterone and prostate cancer, 2) the effect of high levels and 3) the absence of any link. Finally, we summarized studies of the risk of exogenous testosterone administration in patients already diagnosed with prostate cancer, treated or on active surveillance. We selected 45 articles of the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer, of which 18 and 17 showed a relationship to low and high total testosterone, respectively, and 10 showed no relation. Total testosterone was defined according to the definition in each article. Contradictory findings have been reported, largely due to the disparate methodologies used in many studies. Most studies did not adhere to professional society guidelines

  2. Dose-dependent testosterone sensitivity of the steroidal passport and GC-C-IRMS analysis in relation to the UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahm, Emmanuel; Mullen, Jenny E; Gårevik, Nina; Ericsson, Magnus; Schulze, Jenny J; Rane, Anders; Ekström, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The newly implemented Steroid Module of the Athlete Biological Passport has improved doping tests for steroids. A biomarker included in this passport is the urinary testosterone glucuronide to epitestosterone glucuronide (T/E) ratio, a ratio greatly affected by a deletion polymorphism in UGT2B17. Suspect urine doping tests are further analyzed with gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) to determine the origin of the androgen. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of the steroidal module and the IRMS analysis, in subjects administered with three doses of testosterone enanthate (500, 250, and 125 mg), in relation to the UGT2B17 polymorphism. All subjects carrying the UGT2B17 enzyme reached the traditionally used threshold, a T/E ratio of 4, after all three administered doses, whereas none of the subjects devoid of this enzyme reached a T/E of 4. On the other hand, using the athlete biological passport and IRMS analysis, all three doses could be detected to a high degree of sensitivity. The concentrations of all steroids included in the steroidal module were dose dependently increased, except for epitestosterone which decreased independent of dose. The decrease in epitestosterone was significantly associated with circulatory levels of testosterone post dose (rs =0.60 and p=0.007). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that administration of a single dose of 125-500 mg testosterone enanthate could be detected using the athlete biological passport, together with IRMS. Since IRMS is sensitive to testosterone doping independent of UGT2B17 genotype, also very small changes in the steroidal passport should be investigated with IRMS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism independently influences recovery of male sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy in postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, Giacomo; Delli Muti, Nicola; Corona, Giovanni; Maggi, Mario; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    Few and contradictory studies have evaluated the possible influence of androgen receptor (AR) gene CAG repeat polymorphism on male sexual function. In this study we evaluated the role of AR gene CAG repeat polymorphism in the recovery of sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition which is often associated with hypopituitarism and in which the sexual benefits of TRT must be distinguished from those of pituitary-function replacement therapies. Fifteen men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were retrospectively assessed before and after TRT. Main outcome measures included sexual parameters as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire, levels of pituitary dependent hormones (total testosterone, free T3, free T4, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], prolactin), and results of genetic analysis (AR gene CAG repeat number). Plasma concentrations of free T3, free T4, cortisol, and prolactin did not vary significantly between the two phases, while testosterone and IGF-1 increased significantly after TRT. A significant improvement in all sexual parameters studied was found. The number of CAG triplets was negatively and significantly correlated with changes in all the sexual parameters, while opposite correlations were found between changes in sexual parameters and changes in testosterone levels; no correlation of change in IGF1 with change in sexual parameters was reported. On multiple linear regression analysis, after correction for changes in testosterone, nearly all the associations between the number of CAG triplets and changes in sexual parameters were confirmed. Shorter length AR gene CAG repeat number is associated with the recovery of sexual function after TRT in postsurgical male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, independently of the effects of concomitant pituitary-replacement therapies. © 2014 International Society

  4. The effects of transdermal testosterone and oestrogen therapy on dry eye in postmenopausal women: a randomised, placebo-controlled, pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golebiowski, Blanka; Badarudin, Noor; Eden, John; Gerrand, Leanne; Robinson, Jennifer; Liu, Jinzhu; Hampel, Ulrike; You, Jingjing; Stapleton, Fiona

    2017-07-01

    Sex hormones could provide a future treatment avenue for dry eye post menopause. However, there are few well-controlled studies. This study investigates the impact of testosterone and oestrogen on dry eye symptoms and signs in postmenopausal women. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted involving 40 women with dry eye (age 63.9±5.1 years, 13.2±6.3 years post menopause). Ten women were assigned to each of four treatment groups: transdermal testosterone, oestradiol, testosterone/oestradiol combination and placebo. Assessment at baseline and after 8 weeks: ocular symptoms, tear osmolarity, tear stability, tear secretion, meibomian gland assessment, corneal and conjunctival sensitivity, serum concentrations of 17β-oestradiol, 3-α-androstanediol-glucuronide and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Differences from placebo were examined using one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett's t-test. Within-group analyses included paired t-tests and Spearman correlation. Dryness intensity after 8 weeks was significantly worse in the oestrogen group compared with placebo (p=0.04). No significant changes in other symptoms, tear function, meibomian gland function, lid morphology, corneal or conjunctival sensitivity were observed in any of the groups when compared with the change in placebo after 8 weeks. Within-group analyses showed increased tear secretion in the testosterone/oestradiol combination group (p=0.03) and a strong association between increased serum androgen and improved tear stability in the testosterone group (ρ=0.83,p=0.01). Oestrogen supplementation may worsen ocular symptoms in postmenopausal women with dry eye, whereas no impact of testosterone therapy on symptoms was apparent. The positive effects of oestrogen and testosterone on tear function require confirmation in a larger study, with sample size calculated from the data generated herein. Placebo control is essential in studies of dry eye therapies. ACTRN

  5. Teeth, sex, and testosterone: aging in the world's smallest primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zohdy

    Full Text Available Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp. are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus from 2003-2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1-8, mean = 2.59 ± 1.63 SE, three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus. Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can

  6. Testosterone induces molecular changes in dopamine signaling pathway molecules in the adolescent male rat nigrostriatal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertia D Purves-Tyson

    Full Text Available Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission [synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase, breakdown (catechol-O-methyl transferase; monoamine oxygenase, transport [vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT, dopamine transporter (DAT] and receptors (DRD1-D5] would be changed by testosterone or its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 17β-estradiol, in the nigrostriatal pathway of adolescent male rats. We found that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased DAT and VMAT mRNAs in the substantia nigra and that testosterone increased DAT protein at the region of the cell bodies, but not in target regions in the striatum. Dopamine receptor D2 mRNA was increased and D3 mRNA was decreased in substantia nigra and/or striatum by androgens. These data suggest that increased testosterone at adolescence may change dopamine responsivity of the nigrostriatal pathway by modulating, at a molecular level, the capacity of neurons to transport and respond to dopamine. Further, dopamine turnover was increased in the dorsal striatum following gonadectomy and this was prevented by testosterone replacement. Gene expression changes in the dopaminergic cell body region may serve to modulate both dendritic dopamine feedback inhibition and reuptake in the dopaminergic somatodendritic field as well as dopamine release and re-uptake dynamics at the presynaptic terminals in the striatum. These testosterone-induced changes of molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission in males are primarily androgen

  7. Measurement of serum testosterone during androgenic suppression in patients with prostate cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, J; Regis, L; Celma, A; Planas, J

    2016-10-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend measuring serum testosterone (ST) during androgenic suppression (AS) to assess its efficacy and define castration resistance (CR). The objectives of this systematic review were to assess the level of scientific evidence that justify checking ST levels during AS, when to perform it and for what purpose. We performed a search in PubMed with the following mesh terms: androgen suppression, testosterone, and prostate cancer. The search was narrowed to original articles published in English. We found 8 publications that analysed the clinical impact of ST concentrations during AS. In all of the series, ST was measured using chemiluminescent assays. However, only indirect methods based on liquid or gas chromatography for its extraction and subsequent quantification using mass spectrometry are recommended, especially for measuring low levels. The endpoints were specific survival and CR-free survival. Six studies were retrospective. The series were not uniform in terms of clinical stage, types of AS and ST assessment methods. In general, low ST levels (<20ng/dL or <32ng/dL) were related to longer CR-free survival. The measurements were performed every 3 or 6 months. Four studies confirmed the beneficial effect of adding bicalutamide when detecting microelevations above 50ng/dL. The level of scientific evidence justifying the measurement of ST during AS is low, and the methods employed for quantifying ST levels are inadequate. However, we consider it useful to check ST levels during AS, and there appears to be an association between low ST levels and better disease outcomes. In the event of microelevations above 50ng/dL, we recommend the administration of bicalutamide. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Recovery responses of testosterone, growth hormone, and IGF-1 after resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Nindl, Bradley C

    2017-03-01

    The complexity and redundancy of the endocrine pathways during recovery related to anabolic function in the body belie an oversimplistic approach to its study. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of resistance exercise (RE) on the recovery responses of three major anabolic hormones, testosterone, growth hormone(s), and insulin-like growth factor 1. Each hormone has a complexity related to differential pathways of action as well as interactions with binding proteins and receptor interactions. Testosterone is the primary anabolic hormone, and its concentration changes during the recovery period depending on the upregulation or downregulation of the androgen receptor. Multiple tissues beyond skeletal muscle are targeted under hormonal control and play critical roles in metabolism and physiological function. Growth hormone (GH) demonstrates differential increases in recovery with RE based on the type of GH being assayed and workout being used. IGF-1 shows variable increases in recovery with RE and is intimately linked to a host of binding proteins that are essential to its integrative actions and mediating targeting effects. The RE stress is related to recruitment of muscle tissue with the glandular release of hormones as signals to target tissues to support homeostatic mechanisms for metabolism and tissue repair during the recovery process. Anabolic hormones play a crucial role in the body's response to metabolism, repair, and adaptive capabilities especially in response to anabolic-type RE. Changes of these hormones following RE during recovery in the circulatory biocompartment of blood are reflective of the many mechanisms of action that are in play in the repair and recovery process. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. A New Combination of Testosterone and Nestorone Transdermal Gels for Male Hormonal Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilani, Niloufar; Roth, Mara Y.; Amory, John K.; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Dart, Clint; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Kumar, Narender; Blithe, Diana L.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Combinations of testosterone (T) and nestorone (NES; a nonandrogenic progestin) transdermal gels may suppress spermatogenesis and prove appealing to men for contraception. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of T gel alone or combined with NES gel in suppressing spermatogenesis. Design and Setting: This was a randomized, double-blind, comparator clinical trial conducted at two academic medical centers. Participants: Ninety-nine healthy male volunteers participated in the study. Interventions: Volunteers were randomized to one of three treatment groups applying daily transdermal gels (group 1: T gel 10 g + NES 0 mg/placebo gel; group 2: T gel 10 g + NES gel 8 mg; group 3: T gel 10 g + NES gel 12 mg). Main Outcome Variable: The main outcome variable of the study was the percentage of men whose sperm concentration was suppressed to 1 million/ml or less by 20–24 wk of treatment. Results: Efficacy data analyses were performed on 56 subjects who adhered to the protocol and completed at least 20 wk of treatment. The percentage of men whose sperm concentration was 1 million/ml or less was significantly higher for T + NES 8 mg (89%, P male range throughout the treatment period. Adverse effects were minimal in all groups. Conclusion: A combination of daily NES + T gels suppressed sperm concentration to 1 million/ml or less in 88.5% of men, with minimal adverse effects, and may be further studied as a male transdermal hormonal contraceptive. PMID:22791756

  10. Cardiac hypertrophy and IGF-1 response to testosterone propionate treatment in trained male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żebrowska Aleksandra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested that testosterone exerts a growth-promoting effect in the heart. Limited data are available regarding interactions between possible endocrine/paracrine effects in response to exercise training. Therefore, we examined supraphysiological testosterone-induced heart hypertrophy and cardiac insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 content in sedentary and exercise-trained rats.

  11. Testosterone administration in women increases amygdala responses to fearful and happy faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, P.A.; Honk, J. van; Ramsey, N.F.; Stein, D.J.; Hermans, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Data from both rodents and humans show that testosterone reduces fear. This effect is hypothesized to result from testosterone's down regulating effects on the amygdala, a key region in the detection of threat and instigator of fight-or-flight behavior. However, neuroimaging studies employing

  12. A review on the relationship between testosterone and life-course persistent antisocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, B.O.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Life-course persistent antisocial behavior is 10 to 14 times more prevalent in males and it has been suggested that testosterone levels could account for this gender bias. Preliminary studies with measures of fetal testosterone find inconsistent associations with antisocial behavior, especially

  13. Testosterone increases amygdala reactivity in middle-aged women to a young adulthood level.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingen, G.A. van; Zylicz, S.A.; Pieters, S.; Mattern, C.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone modulates mood and sexual function in women. However, androgen levels decline with age, which may relate to the age-associated change in sexual functioning and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders. These effects of testosterone are potentially mediated by the amygdala. In the

  14. Primary testicular failure in Klinefelter's syndrome: the use of bivariate luteinizing hormone-testosterone reference charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of androgen deficiency is based on clinical features and confirmatory low serum testosterone levels. In early primary testicular failure, a rise in serum LH levels suggests inadequate androgen action for the individual's physiological requirements despite a serum testosterone level ...

  15. Association of testosterone and BDNF serum levels with craving during alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Annemarie; Lenz, Bernd; Opfermann, Birgitt; Gröschl, Michael; Janke, Eva; Stange, Katrin; Groh, Adrian; Kornhuber, Johannes; Frieling, Helge; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies show associations between testosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF) serum levels. BDNF and testosterone have been independently reported to influence alcohol consumption. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a possible interplay of testosterone and BDNF contributing to alcohol dependence. Regarding possible interplay of testosterone and BDNF and the activity of the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA), we included cortisol serum levels in our research. We investigated testosterone and BDNF serum levels in a sample of 99 male alcohol-dependent patients during alcohol withdrawal (day 1, 7, and 14) and compared them to a healthy male control group (n = 17). The testosterone serum levels were significantly (p BDNF serum levels (day 1: p = 0.008). In a subgroup of patients showing high cortisol serum levels (putatively mirroring high HPA activity), we found a significant association of BDNF and testosterone as well as with alcohol craving measured by the Obsessive and Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). Our data suggest a possible association of BDNF and testosterone serum levels, which may be relevant for the symptomatology of alcohol dependence. Further studies are needed to clarify our results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. STUDIES ON WILD HOUSE MICE .4. ON THE HEREDITY OF TESTOSTERONE AND READINESS TO ATTACK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOORTMERSSEN, GA; BENUS, RF; SLUYTER, F

    1992-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine the role of the Y chromosome in the development of aggression in wild house mice. The aggression-eliciting property of testosterone depends not only on circulating adult testosterone, but also on perinatal sensitization of the central nervous system to this steroid.

  17. Endogenous testosterone is not associated with the trade-off between paternal and mating effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Whitham, Megan; Komdeur, Jan; van der Velde, Marco; Moore, Ignacio T.

    2011-01-01

    Males may face a trade-off between caring for offspring and pursuing additional matings. In birds, the androgen testosterone has been suggested to be a key proximate mediator in this trade-off for several reasons. At the population level, high testosterone is typically associated with the period of

  18. Exogenous testosterone enhances responsiveness to social threat in the neural circuitry of social aggression in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.J.; Ramsey, N.F.; Honk, J. van

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a range of species, the androgen steroid testosterone is known to potentiate neural circuits involved in intraspecific aggression. Disorders of impulsive aggression in humans have likewise been associated with high testosterone levels, but human evidence for the link between

  19. Testosterone increases amygdala reactivity in middle-aged women to a young adulthood level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingen, Guido A.; Zylicz, Staś A.; Pieters, Sara; Mattern, Claudia; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Fernández, Guillén

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone modulates mood and sexual function in women. However, androgen levels decline with age, which may relate to the age-associated change in sexual functioning and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders. These effects of testosterone are potentially mediated by the amygdala. In the

  20. Stable carbon isotope ratio profiling of illicit testosterone preparations--domestic and international seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Lance; Cawley, Adam; Drury, Jason; Edey, Claire; Hasick, Nicole; Goebel, Catrin

    2014-10-01

    Gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is now established as a robust and mature analytical technique for the doping control of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids in human sport. It relies on the assumption that the carbon isotope ratios of naturally produced steroids are significantly different to synthetically manufactured testosterone or testosterone prohormones used in commercial medical or dietary supplement products. Recent publications in this journal have highlighted the existence of black market testosterone preparations with carbon isotope ratios within the range reported for endogenous steroids (i.e. δ(13) C ≥ -25.8 ‰). In this study, we set out to profile domestic and international law enforcement seizures of illicit testosterone products to monitor the prevalence of 'enriched' substrates--which if administered to human subjects would be considered problematic for the use of current GC-C-IRMS methodologies for the doping control of testosterone in sport. The distribution of δ(13) C values for this illicit testosterone sample population (n = 283) ranged from -23.4 ‰ to -32.9 ‰ with mean and median of -28.6 ‰--comparable to previous work. However, only 13 out of 283 testosterone samples (4.6 %) were found to display δ(13) C values ≥ -25.8 ‰, confirming that in the vast majority of cases of illicit testosterone administration, current GC-C-IRMS doping control procedures would be capable of confirming misuse. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Translational Perspective on the Role of Testosterone in Sexual Function and Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlasek, Carol A; Mulhall, John; Davies, Kelvin; Wingard, Christopher J; Hannan, Johanna L; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Musicki, Biljana; Khera, Mohit; González-Cadavid, Nestor F; Burnett, Arthur L

    2016-08-01

    The biological importance of testosterone is generally accepted by the medical community; however, controversy focuses on its relevance to sexual function and the sexual response, and our understanding of the extent of its role in this area is evolving. To provide scientific evidence examining the role of testosterone at the cellular and molecular levels as it pertains to normal erectile physiology and the development of erectile dysfunction and to assist in guiding successful therapeutic interventions for androgen-dependent sexual dysfunction. In this White Paper, the Basic Science Committee of the Sexual Medicine Society of North America assessed the current basic science literature examining the role of testosterone in sexual function and dysfunction. Testosterone plays an important role in sexual function through multiple processes: physiologic (stimulates activity of nitric oxide synthase), developmental (establishes and maintains the structural and functional integrity of the penis), neural (development, maintenance, function, and plasticity of the cavernous nerve and pelvic ganglia), therapeutically for dysfunctional regulation (beneficial effect on aging, diabetes, and prostatectomy), and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition (testosterone supplement to counteract phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor resistance). Despite controversies concerning testosterone with regard to sexual function, basic science studies provide incontrovertible evidence for a significant role of testosterone in sexual function and suggest that properly administered testosterone therapy is potentially advantageous for treating male sexual dysfunction. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Testosterone sorption and desorption: Effects of soil particle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yong, E-mail: yqi01@unomaha.edu [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Zhang, Tian C. [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Ren, Yongzheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Smaller soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates. • The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand. • Small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. • Colloids (clays) have high potential to facilitate the transport of hormones in soil–water environments. - Abstract: Soils contain a wide range of particles of different diameters with different mobility during rainfall events. Effects of soil particles on sorption and desorption behaviors of steroid hormones have not been investigated. In this study, wet sieve washing and repeated sedimentation methods were used to fractionate the soils into five ranges. The sorption and desorption properties and related mechanisms of testosterone in batch reactors filled with fractionated soil particles were evaluated. Results of sorption and desorption kinetics indicate that small soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates than that of big ones. Thermodynamic results show the sorption processes are spontaneous and exothermal. The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand, depending mainly on specific surface area and surface functional groups. The urea control test shows that hydrogen bonding contributes to testosterone sorption onto clay and silt but not on sand. Desorption tests indicate sorption is 36–65% irreversible from clay to sand. Clays have highest desorption hysteresis among these five soil fractions, indicating small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. The results provide indirect evidence on the colloid (clay)-facilitated transport of hormones (micro-pollutants) in soil environments.

  3. Ageing male and testosterone: Current status and treatment guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Vasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the decline in androgens is generally gradual and not a complete deficiency, clinical significance of this decline is still unclear, and there is controversy as to whether a specific syndrome of androgen deficiency or ′andropause′ exists. The term andropause or androgen deficiency in aging males (ADAM underwent revisions to, partial androgen deficiency in aging male (PADAM, late onset hypogonadism (LOH and now symptomatic late onset hypogonadism (SLOH, signifying, the evolving nature of this phenomenon. Since this happens at a time of life, when many men have associated comorbities, it′s difficult to assess the exact impact of androgen decline, due to which, the issues surrounding androgen replacement therapy in men with symptomatic late-onset hypogonadism have been marred in controversy. Although with age, a decline in testosterone levels will occur in virtually all men, there is no way of predicting, who, will experience andropausal symptoms of sufficient severity and also long-term safety data on testosterone administration in this setting, is lacking. This article will focus on the controversies and practices of androgen replacement.

  4. Exercise training improves free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F; Grace, Fergal M

    2017-07-01

    As the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone (free-T) and cortisol (all in serum) were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years) older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six-week training; baseline (phase A), following conditioning exercise (phase B) and post-HIIT (phase C). Each measurement phase used identical methods. TT was significantly increased following HIIT (~17%; P  HIIT compared to baseline (~4.5%; P  = 0.023). Cortisol remained unchanged from A to C ( P  = 0.138). The present data indicate a combination of preconditioning, and HIIT increases TT and SHBG in sedentary older males, with the HIIT stimulus accounting for a small but statistically significant increase in free-T. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of small improvements in free-T in aging men. © 2017 The authors.

  5. The Effect of Special Operations Training on Testosterone, Lean Body Mass, and Strength and the Potential for Therapeutic Testosterone Replacement: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    low bone mass, and physical frailty. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010; 58(6):1134-1143. 22. Hildreth KL, Barry DW, Moreau KL, Vande Griend J, Meacham RB, et...88PA, Case # 2016-0120, 15 Jan 2016. 14. ABSTRACT Special Operations Forces (SOF) are routinely exposed to physically demanding missions that...deprivation, and decreased testosterone. A secondary purpose is to summarize the effects of exogenous testosterone therapy in healthy males as well as to

  6. The Effects of Chronic Ingestion of Mercuric Chloride on Fertility and Testosterone Levels in Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Heath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although male infertility is well researched, the effects of inorganic mercury on male reproduction and fertility are less well known. Studies pertaining to mercury and male fertility identified reduced concentration of testosterone in the serum of male workers, a toxic influence on fertility of organic mercury compounds within concentrations at the workplace, and increased days to pregnancy. We evaluated the effect of chronic mercuric chloride (HgCl2 exposure in male rats on reproductive endpoints. Thirty-day old male Sprague Dawley rats (n=31 were exposed to 0.0, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg/day of HgCl2 via gavage. After 60 days exposure, they were housed with nonexposed females for 21 days. A survivor analysis revealed the exposed animals took longer to impregnate the females and had a lower rate of impregnation. Further statistical analysis revealed a lower correlation between testicular testosterone levels and days to impregnate, and also lower sperm counts in the epididymis head and body of the exposed males. The results indicate that HgCl2 exposure had significant adverse effects on male rat reproduction endpoints including fertility at a dose that was not clinically toxic.

  7. Developmental Programming: Impact of Excess Prenatal Testosterone on Intrauterine Fetal Endocrine Milieu and Growth in Sheep1

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L.; Abbott, David H.; Welch, Kathleen B.; MohanKumar, Puliyur S.; Phillips, David J.; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and cons...

  8. Women's Preference for Attractive Makeup Tracks Changes in Their Salivary Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Claire I; Hahn, Amanda C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2015-12-01

    Previous research suggests that women's motivation to appear attractive is increased around the time of ovulation. However, the specific hormonal correlates of within-woman changes in motivation to appear attractive have not been investigated. To address this issue, we used a longitudinal design and a data-driven visual preference task. We found that women's preference for attractive makeup increases when their salivary testosterone levels are high. The relationship between testosterone level and preference for attractive makeup was independent of estradiol level, progesterone level, and estradiol-to-progesterone ratio. These results suggest that testosterone may contribute to changes in women's motivation to wear attractive makeup and, potentially, their motivation to appear attractive in general. Our results are also consistent with recent models of the role of testosterone in social behavior, according to which testosterone increases the probability of behaviors that could function to support the acquisition of mates and competition for resources. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Erythrocytosis Secondary to Testosterone Therapy in a Male with Cryptorchidism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthymia Vlachaki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypogonadism is association with aging (andropause can now be recognized earlier and treated with testosterone, thus resulting in the relief of symptoms and better quality of life. However, any patients that are treated with testosterone must be closely monitored in order to avoid the development of sleep apnea, cardiovascular diseases, hepatic dysfunction, plasma lipid disorders, or erythrocytosis, all of which are potential side effects of treatment. Herein, we present a case of erythrocytosis secondary to testosterone treatment in a patient with cryptorchidism. Hemoglobin levels returned to normal soon after phlebotomy and discontinuation of testosterone therapy. Physicians should be aware of the side effects of testosterone replacement therapy and cautiously monitor patients in order to avoid these side effects and cumbersome and expensive laboratory tests.

  10. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise eReimers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner’s dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, fifty male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject’s own favorite team (ingroup or fans of other teams (outgroups. Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving

  11. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner's dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, 50 male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject's own favorite team (ingroup) or fans of other teams (outgroups). Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism.

  12. Total testosterone levels are often more than three times elevated in patients with androgen-secreting tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Lambaa Altinok, Magda; Petersen, Kresten Rubeck

    2015-01-01

    surgery. Terminal hair growth on lip and chin gradually increases after menopause, which complicates distinction from normal physiological variation. Precise testosterone assays have just recently become available in the daily clinic. We present three women diagnosed with testosterone-producing tumours...... when total testosterone levels are above three times the upper reference limit....

  13. The perinatal effects of maternal caffeine intake on fetal and neonatal brain levels of testosterone, estradiol, and dihydrotestosterone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaismailoglu, S; Tuncer, M; Bayrak, S; Erdogan, G; Ergun, E L; Erdem, A

    2017-08-01

    Testosterone, estradiol, and dihydrotestosterone are the main sex steroid hormones responsible for the organization and sexual differentiation of brain structures during early development. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, adrenal cells, and gonads play a key role in the production of sex steroids and express adenosine receptors. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist; therefore, it can modulate metabolic pathways in these tissues. Besides, the proportion of pregnant women that consume caffeine is ∼60%. That is why the relationship between maternal caffeine consumption and fetal development is important. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this modulatory effect of maternal caffeine consumption on sex steroids in the fetal and neonatal brain tissues. Pregnant rats were treated with a low (0.3 g/L) or high (0.8 g/L) dose of caffeine in their drinking water during pregnancy and lactation. The testosterone, estradiol, and dihydrotestosterone levels in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus were measured using radioimmunoassay at embryonic day 19 (E19), birth (PN0), and postnatal day 4 (PN4). The administration of low-dose caffeine increased the body weight in PN4 male and female rats and anogenital index in PN4 males. The administration of high-dose caffeine decreased the adrenal weight in E19 male rats and increased testosterone levels in the frontal cortex of E19 female rats and the hypothalamus of PN0 male rats. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy affects sex steroid levels in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus of the offspring. This concentration changes of the sex steroids in the brain may influence behavioral and neuroendocrine functions at some point in adult life.

  14. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation

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    Behnaz Hajiuon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the probable effects of radiation and consumption of garlic on estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 5 male and 5 female groups of rat were used: control, sham (under exposed, experimental 1 (receiving garlic extract, and experimental 2 and 3 (receiving both extract and microwaves. After a one month, rats were weighed and serum levels of hormones were measured. Results: In male the mean body weight in the sham showed a significant decrease, whereas, an increase was seen in the experimental 3 compared with sham. Also, mean plasma testosterone levels in experimental 2 and 3 were reduced. Estrogen showed this decrease in all groups. Also in all groups progesterone showed increase. In female the mean body weights in different groups showed no significant changes, whereas a significant increase was seen in serum level of progesterone in experimental 2 and 3. Conclusion: Although, microwaves can cause weight lost, presence of allicin and vitamins A and B in garlic can compensate some of this weight lost. Microwaves and garlic extract have fewer effects on female reproductive system, reflected only in the serum progesterone concentration. Also they reflected in the number of Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen concentration. The differences observed in the responses of male and female to cell phone radiation might be attributed to the position of gonads in the body and sensitivity of testis to heat.

  15. Use of [1,2-3 h] testosterone in 5 α- reductase enzymatic activity dosing in dermal fibroblast cultures from polycystic ovarian patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, Lidia; Postolache, Cristian; Condac, Eduard

    2003-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome is an endocrine malady very frequent in women characterized by the presence of ovarian cysts, visible or not by ultrasonography, menstrual cycle deregulation and sometimes by high plasmatic concentrations of androgen hormones. Many cases of polycystic syndrome could not be easily diagnosed or had an erroneous diagnostic. Therefore, is useful to know the plasmatic androgen hormone profile. This profile could indicate the cause for observed clinical manifestations; this cause may be observed in ovarian, suprarenal glands or hypothalamo-hypophysis level. In vitro studies on dermal fibroblasts permit the detail determination of steroid hormones metabolism in target organs and offer important information regarding action mechanism. This study follows the identification of testosterone metabolites in fibroblasts and enzymatic activities of 5α-reductase using testosterone radioactively labeled with tritium. (authors)

  16. Leydig cell micronodules are a common finding in testicular biopsies from men with impaired spermatogenesis and are associated with decreased testosterone/LH ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Mette; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2003-01-01

    were examined using a semi-quantitative stereological method. In patients, serum concentrations of testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), oestradiol and inhibin-B were correlated with the findings on histological examination......, with the exception of testes with bilateral micronodules, which had significantly increased Leydig cell volume compared to those without micronodules. The number of micronodules correlated positively to LH (r = 0.577, p ... in the hyperstimulated testes, as reflected by an increased LH/testosterone ratio. In conclusion, Leydig cell micronodules were more frequent in biopsies with impaired spermatogenesis and associated with decreased ratios of testicular hormones to gonadotrophins. The presence of micronodules thus seems...

  17. Effects of Testosterone Level on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, E David; Poage, Wendy; Nyhuis, Allen; Price, David A; Dowsett, Sherie A; Muram, David

    2016-09-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common in older men and are frequently associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The relationship between BPH and endogenous total testosterone (TT) levels has been widely studied. The aim of this post hoc analysis was to determine the association between LUTS and endogenous TT levels in a subset of men participating in the 2013 Prostate Cancer Awareness Week, a U.S. community-based prostate cancer screening program. Men completed the International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) questionnaire, prostate size was estimated by a digital rectal examination, and serum TT and prostate-specific antigen levels were measured. Mean TT levels (ng/dl) did not significantly correlate with prostate size category (r = +.03, p = .69): normal, 419.2 (n = 106); enlarged, 394.7 (n = 71); abnormal, 416.4 (n = 7); and abnormal/suspicious, 515.2 (n = 19). Mean TT levels (ng/dl) did not significantly correlate with I-PSS category (r = -.06, p = .40): none, 468.5 (n = 15); mild, 414.0 (n = 138); moderate, 397.4 (n = 66); and severe, 437.9 (n = 7). Mean TT levels (ng/dl) did not significantly correlate with I-PSS quality of life rating (r = -.13, p = .055): delighted, 474.5 (n = 43); pleased, 424.6 (n = 65); mostly satisfied, 361.2 (n = 63); mixed, 448.2 (n = 29); mostly dissatisfied, 337.2 (n = 17); and unhappy, 435.8 (n = 6). Adjustment for prostate size or prostate-specific antigen levels yielded similar findings. In conclusion, endogenous TT levels did not correlate with LUTS or prostate size, and these findings support the saturation theory in which TT is not able to induce further androgen-stimulated prostate tissue growth due to receptor saturation. Any worsening of LUTS following testosterone replacement therapy in hypogonadal men may be related to stimulation of prostatic cells previously deprived of testosterone. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. GSK-3β/NFAT Signaling Is Involved in Testosterone-Induced Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Duran

    Full Text Available Testosterone induces cardiac hypertrophy through a mechanism that involves a concerted crosstalk between cytosolic and nuclear signaling pathways. Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT is associated with the promotion of cardiac hypertrophy, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β is considered to function as a negative regulator, mainly by modulating NFAT activity. However, the role played by calcineurin-NFAT and GSK-3β signaling in testosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy has remained unknown. Here, we determined that testosterone stimulates cardiac myocyte hypertrophy through NFAT activation and GSK-3β inhibition. Testosterone increased the activity of NFAT-luciferase (NFAT-Luc in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with the activity peaking after 24 h of stimulation with 100 nM testosterone. NFAT-Luc activity induced by testosterone was blocked by the calcineurin inhibitors FK506 and cyclosporine A and by 11R-VIVIT, a specific peptide inhibitor of NFAT. Conversely, testosterone inhibited GSK-3β activity as determined by increased GSK-3β phosphorylation at Ser9 and β-catenin protein accumulation, and also by reduction in β-catenin phosphorylation at residues Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41. GSK-3β inhibition with 1-azakenpaullone or a GSK-3β-targeting siRNA increased NFAT-Luc activity, whereas overexpression of a constitutively active GSK-3β mutant (GSK-3βS9A inhibited NFAT-Luc activation mediated by testosterone. Testosterone-induced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy was established by increased cardiac myocyte size and [3H]-leucine incorporation (as a measurement of cellular protein synthesis. Calcineurin-NFAT inhibition abolished and GSK-3β inhibition promoted the hypertrophy stimulated by testosterone. GSK-3β activation by GSK-3βS9A blocked the increase of hypertrophic markers induced by testosterone. Moreover, inhibition of intracellular androgen receptor prevented testosterone-induced NFAT-Luc activation. Collectively, these results

  19. Dutasteride reduces prostate size and prostate specific antigen in older hypogonadal men with benign prostatic hyperplasia undergoing testosterone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stephanie T; Hirano, Lianne; Gilchriest, Janet; Dighe, Manjiri; Amory, John K; Marck, Brett T; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2011-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia and hypogonadism are common disorders in aging men. There is concern that androgen replacement in older men may increase prostate size and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We examined whether combining dutasteride, which inhibits testosterone to dihydrotestosterone conversion, with testosterone treatment in older hypogonadal men with benign prostatic hyperplasia reduces androgenic stimulation of the prostate compared to testosterone alone. We conducted a double-blind, placebo controlled trial of 53 men 51 to 82 years old with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate volume 30 cc or greater and serum total testosterone less than 280 ng/dl (less than 9.7 nmol/l). Subjects were randomized to daily transdermal 1% T gel plus oral placebo or dutasteride for 6 months. Testosterone dosing was adjusted to a serum testosterone of 500 to 1,000 ng/dl. The primary outcomes were prostate volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging, serum prostate specific antigen and androgen levels. A total of 46 subjects completed all procedures. Serum testosterone increased similarly into the mid-normal range in both groups. Serum dihydrotestosterone increased in the testosterone only but decreased in the testosterone plus dutasteride group. In the testosterone plus dutasteride group prostate volume and prostate specific antigen (mean ± SEM) decreased 12% ± 2.5% and 35% ± 5%, respectively, compared to the testosterone only group in which prostate volume and prostate specific antigen increased 7.5% ± 3.3% and 19% ± 7% (p = 0.03 and p = 0.008), respectively, after 6 months of treatment. Prostate symptom scores improved in both groups. Combined treatment with testosterone plus dutasteride reduces prostate volume and prostate specific antigen compared to testosterone only. Coadministration of a 5α-reductase inhibitor with testosterone appears to spare the prostate from androgenic stimulation during testosterone replacement in older

  20. Neonatal testosterone suppresses a neuroendocrine pulse generator required for reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Jean-Marc; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Le Masson, Gwendal; Oliet, Stéphane H.; Ciofi, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    The pituitary gland releases hormones in a pulsatile fashion guaranteeing signalling efficiency. The determinants of pulsatility are poorly circumscribed. Here we show in magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal oxytocin (OT) neurons that the bursting activity underlying the neurohormonal pulses necessary for parturition and the milk-ejection reflex is entirely driven by a female-specific central pattern generator (CPG). Surprisingly, this CPG is active in both male and female neonates, but is inactivated in males after the first week of life. CPG activity can be restored in males by orchidectomy or silenced in females by exogenous testosterone. This steroid effect is aromatase and caspase dependent, and is mediated via oestrogen receptor-α. This indicates the apoptosis of the CPG network during hypothalamic sexual differentiation, explaining why OT neurons do not burst in adult males. This supports the view that stereotypic neuroendocrine pulsatility is governed by CPGs, some of which are subjected to gender-specific perinatal programming.

  1. Relationship of serum and seminal plasma zinc levels and serum testosterone in oligospermic and azoospermic infertile men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.; Qasim, R.; Baig, M.; Rana, M.F.; Ali, M.; Khem, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To measure the zinc level in fertile and infertile population and to find out relationship of serum and seminal plasma zinc levels and serum testosterone in oligospermic and azoospermic infertile men. Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: The Infertility Clinic, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi, from January 2002-July 2003. Patients and Methods: Fifty-eight primary infertile male subjects, without any treatment, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least 12 months without conception with their partners, aged 20-40 years, having normal and regular menstrual cycles without any uterine pathology or hormonal disturbance were selected from Infertile Clinic, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. After semen analyses, they were grouped as, oligospermic (30), and azoospermic (28). Twenty-five known fertile male selected from general population (their spouse had given birth to a child within one year) and after semen analysis were taken as normospermic control group. Semen analyzed according to WHO criteria and serum and seminal plasma zinc was estimated by 5Br. PAPS colorimetric method. Serum testosterone, LH, and FSH were measured by ELISA, using kits supplied by Diagnostic System Laboratories (DSL), U.S.A. Results: The mean value for testosterone was significantly low in oligospermic, (8.04+0.76) and azoospermic subjects (7.14+0.27) as compared to normospermic (9.90+0.14) control groups (p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively), serum LH (p<0.05, p<0.001) respectively) and FSH (p<0.05) were significantly higher than normospermic control group. Serum and seminal plasma zinc levels was low in oligospermic, and azoospermic subjects when compared with normospermic control groups (p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively). This suggests its involvement in spermatogenesis and infertility in such patients. Seminal zinc level has weak correlation with testosterone in oligospermic (r=0.44, p<0.05) and with serum zinc in azoospermic

  2. Generation of Small Single Domain Nanobody Binders for Sensitive Detection of Testosterone by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Zhu, Min; Ma, Lu; Yan, Junrong; Lu, Xiaoling; Shen, Yanfei; Wan, Yakun

    2016-06-08

    A phage display library of variable domain of the heavy chain only antibody or nanobody (Nb) was constructed after immunizing a bactrian camel with testosterone. With the smaller molecular size (15 kDa), improved solubility, good stability, high affinity, specificity, and lower immunogenicity, Nbs are a promising tool in the next generation of diagnosis and medical applications. Testosterone is a reproductive hormone, playing an important role in normal cardiac function and being the highly predictive marker for many diseases. Herein, a simple and sensitive immunosensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Nbs was successfully developed for the determination of testosterone. We successfully isolated the antitestosterone Nbs from an immune phage display library. Moreover, one of the Nbs was biotinylated according to in vivo BirA system, which showed the highest production yield and the most stable case. Further, the EIS immunosensor was set up for testosterone detection by applying the biotinylated antitestosterone Nb. As a result, the biosensor exhibited a linear working range from 0.05 to 5 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.045 ng mL(-1). In addition, the proposed immunosensor was successfully applied in determining testosterone in serum samples. In conclusion, the proposed immunosensor revealed high specificity of testosterone detection and showed as a potential approach for sensitive and accurate diagnosis of testosterone.

  3. Behavioral cross-sensitization between testosterone and fenproporex in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Q. Conceição

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. However, few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of repeated testosterone treatment on behavioral effects of amphetamine derivatives, such as fenproporex. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated testosterone administration on fenproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent male Wistar rats were injected with testosterone (10 mg/kg sc for 10 days. After 3 days, animals received an acute injection of fenproporex (3.0 mg/kg ip and the locomotor activity was recorded during 40 min. Thirty days later, the same animals received the same treatment with testosterone followed by a fenproporex challenge injection as described above. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced behavioral sensitization to fenproporex in adolescent but not in adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated AAS treatment might increase the dependence vulnerability to amphetamine and its derivatives in adolescent rats.

  4. Basal testosterone, leadership and dominance: A field study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Schaveling, Jaap; van Vugt, Mark

    2016-10-01

    This article examines the role of basal testosterone as a potential biological marker of leadership and hierarchy in the workplace. First, we report the result of a study with a sample of male employees from different corporate organizations in the Netherlands (n=125). Results showed that employees with higher basal testosterone levels reported a more authoritarian leadership style, but this relationship was absent among those who currently held a real management position (i.e., they had at least one subordinate). Furthermore, basal testosterone levels were not different between managers and non-managers, and testosterone was not associated with various indicators of status and hierarchy such as number of subordinates, income, and position in the organizational hierarchy. In our meta-analysis (second study), we showed that basal testosterone levels were not associated with leadership in men nor in women (9 studies, n=1103). Taken together, our findings show that basal testosterone is not associated with having a leadership position in the corporate world or related to leadership styles in leaders. We suggest that basal testosterone could play a role in acquiring leadership positions through dominant and authoritarian behavior. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Radioimmunoassay of testosterone and of sexual hormone-binding globulin in plasma of women with hirsutism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warenik-Szymankiewicz, A.; Baron, J.; Chawlisz, K.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma-borne testosterone was determined in 176 women with hirsutism, and in 47 patients sexual hormone-binding globulin was determined as well. The highest average testosterone values were recorded from cases with congenital adrenogenital syndrome (AGS). In cases of postnatal AGS values were much lower, but they were clearly in excess of those recordable from Stein-Leventhal syndrome. Plasma borne testosterone in cases of hirsutism came very close to testosterone levels established in the context of Stein-Leventhal syndrome. Testosterone levels dropped with significance, following AGS treatment, using cortisol derivatives, and following wedge-shaped ovariectomy. Sexual hormone binding-globulin was found to be strongly reduced in almost all women with hirsutism. Such reduction seemed to suggest the presence of increased amounts of free active testosterone in the blood of those patients. Determination of plasma-borne testosterone in cases of hirsutism is considered to be essential to both diagnosis of the endocrinological syndromes and monitoring of therapy. (author)

  6. The Effects of Being in a “New Relationship” on Levels of Testosterone in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Farrelly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of previous research showing that different types of relationships affect levels of testosterone in men, this study examined whether categorizing relationship types according to relationship length can shed further light on variations in levels of testosterone. Salivary testosterone samples were obtained from a sample of men and details about their relationship status, sociosexual orientation, extra-pair sexual interest, and their perceptions of their relationships were recorded. Using a median split analysis, participants who indicated that they had been in their relationship for less than 12 months were categorized as being in “new relationships” and those in longer relationships being categorized as in long-term relationships. Results showed that levels of testosterone of single men and men in new relationships did not differ, but both had significantly greater levels of testosterone than men in long-term relationships. Differences in levels of testosterone were unrelated to sociosexual orientation and extra-pair sexual interest. These findings support the evolutionary explanation of levels of testosterone in men varying in accordance with their internal motivation to seek new potential mates.

  7. Behavioral cross-sensitization between testosterone and fenproporex in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, C Q; Engi, S A; Cruz, F C; Planeta, C S

    2017-11-17

    The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. However, few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of repeated testosterone treatment on behavioral effects of amphetamine derivatives, such as fenproporex. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated testosterone administration on fenproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent male Wistar rats were injected with testosterone (10 mg/kg sc for 10 days). After 3 days, animals received an acute injection of fenproporex (3.0 mg/kg ip) and the locomotor activity was recorded during 40 min. Thirty days later, the same animals received the same treatment with testosterone followed by a fenproporex challenge injection as described above. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced behavioral sensitization to fenproporex in adolescent but not in adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated AAS treatment might increase the dependence vulnerability to amphetamine and its derivatives in adolescent rats.

  8. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R. Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N.; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders’ financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  9. Exogenous testosterone enhances cortisol and affective responses to social-evaluative stress in dominant men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Erik L; Christian, Colton B; Morales, Pablo J; Harbaugh, William T; Mayr, Ulrich; Mehta, Pranjal H

    2017-11-01

    Stress often precedes the onset of mental health disorders and is linked to negative impacts on physical health as well. Prior research indicates that testosterone levels are related to reduced stress reactivity in some cases but correlate with increased stress responses in other cases. To resolve these inconsistencies, we tested the causal influence of testosterone on stress reactivity to a social-evaluative stressor. Further, prior work has failed to consider status-relevant individual differences such as trait dominance that may modulate the influence of testosterone on responses to stressors. Participants (n=120 males) were randomly assigned to receive exogenous testosterone or placebo (n=60 testosterone treatment group) via topical gel prior to a well-validated social-evaluative stressor. Compared to placebo, testosterone significantly increased cortisol and negative affect in response to the stressor, especially for men high in trait dominance (95% confidence intervals did not contain zero). The findings suggest that the combination of high testosterone and exposure to status-relevant social stress may confer increased risk for stress-mediated disorders, particularly for individuals high in trait dominance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Testosterone reactivity to facial display of emotions in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Caldbick, Evan; Watson, Neil V

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have examined testosterone's role in regulating the processing of facial displays of emotions (FDEs). However, the reciprocal process - the influence of FDEs, an evolutionarily ancient and potent class of social signals, on the secretion of testosterone - has not yet been studied. To address this gap, we examined the effects of emotional content and sex of facial stimuli in modulating endogenous testosterone fluctuations, as well as sex differences in the endocrine responses to faces. One hundred and sixty-four young healthy men and women were exposed, in a between-subjects design, to happy or angry same-sex or opposite-sex facial expressions. Results showed that in both men (n=85) and women (n=79), extended exposure to faces of the opposite sex, regardless of their apparent emotional content, was accompanied by an accumulation in salivary testosterone when compared to exposure to faces of the same sex. Furthermore, testosterone change in women exposed to angry expressions was greater than testosterone change in women exposed to happy expressions. These results add emotional facial stimuli to the collection of social signals that modulate endocrine status, and are discussed with regard to the evolutionary roles of testosterone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PREVALENCE OF TESTOSTERONE DEFICIENCY IN PATIENTS OF DIABETES MELLITUS LESS THAN 40 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes mellitus is common endocrine disorder which involves multiple organs and leads to significant morbidity and mortality due to accompanying complications. Erectile dysfunction, reduced libido, orgasmic dysfunction, and retrograde ejaculation are established complications found with variable prevalence in men with diabetes. METHODOLOGY In the present study, total 90 male patients of diabetes mellitus of age below 40 years were taken from medical outpatient department and indoor patients of medical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital of South Delhi. They were evaluated for complains regarding sexual dysfunction. Hormonal assays of serum free testosterone, LH, FSH, C-peptide, HbA1c and lipid profile were carried out in all patients. RESULT Present study shows that testosterone deficiency is quite common in young diabetic patients. Low serum free testosterone was more common in type 2 diabetes as compared to type 1 diabetes (38.46% Vs 29.41%. BMI has significant effect on serum free testosterone levels. Patients with higher BMI had negative correlation to free testosterone although testosterone deficiency was also seen in few lean patients. High serum triglyceride and low serum HDL were seen more frequently in patients with low free testosterone. CONCLUSION This study reveals that hypogonadism is not a rarity even at initial stages of diabetes. This study, although small, highlights importance of assessment of young diabetic patients for sexual dysfunction and hypogonadism.

  12. Serum Testosterone Levels in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonist Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Juan; Comas, Inma; Planas, Jacques; Maldonado, Xavier; Celma, Ana; Placer, José; Ferrer, Roser; Carles, Joan; Regis, Lucas

    2018-04-01

    Serum testosterone measurement is recommended to assess the efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and to diagnose castration resistance in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Currently, the accepted castrate level of serum testosterone is 50 ng/dL. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC MSMS) is the appropriate method to measure testosterone, especially at low levels. However, worldwide, chemiluminescent assays (CLIAs) are used in clinical laboratories, despite their lack of accuracy and reproducibility, because they are automatable, fast, sensitive, and inexpensive. We compared serum testosterone levels measured using LC MSMS and CLIAs in 126 patients with PCa undergoing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist therapy. The median serum testosterone level was 14.0 ng/dL (range, 2.0-67.0 ng/dL) with LC MSMS and 31.9 ng/dL (range, 10.0-91.6 ng/dL) with CLIA (P  50 ng/dL in 3 patients (2.4%). These ranges were found in 34 (27%), 72 (57.1%), and 20 (15.9%) patients when testosterone was measured using CLIA (P < .001). The castrate level of serum testosterone using LC MSMS and CLIA was 39.8 ng/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.1-43.4 ng/dL) and 66.5 ng/dL (95% CI, 62.3-71.2 ng/dL), respectively. We found that CLIA overestimated the testosterone levels in PCa patients undergoing LHRH agonist therapy. Thus, the castration level was incorrectly considered inadequate with CLIA in almost 15% of patients. The true castration level of serum testosterone using an appropriate method is < 50 ng/dL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modulation of SHBG binding to testosterone and estradiol by sex and morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasa, María Del Mar; Gulfo, José; Camps, Núria; Alcalá, Rosa; Monserrat, Laura; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Ortega, Francisco José; Esteve, Montserrat; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Alemany, Marià

    2017-04-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) binds and transports testosterone and estradiol in plasma. The possibility that SHBG is a mixture of transporting proteins has been postulated. We analyzed in parallel the effects of obesity status on the levels and binding capacity of circulating SHBG and their relationship with testosterone and estradiol. Anthropometric measures and plasma were obtained from apparently healthy young (i.e. 35 ± 7 years) premenopausal women ( n =  32) and men ( n =  30), with normal weight and obesity (BMI >30 kg/m 2 ). SHBG protein (Western blot), as well as the plasma levels of testosterone, estradiol, cortisol and insulin (ELISA) were measured. Specific binding of estradiol and testosterone to plasma SHBG was analyzed using tritium-labeled hormones. Significant differences in SHBG were observed within the obesity status and gender, with discordant patterns of change in testosterone and estradiol. In men, testosterone occupied most of the binding sites. Estrogen binding was much lower in all subjects. Lower SHBG of morbidly obese (BMI >40 kg/m 2 ) subjects affected testosterone but not estradiol. The ratio of binding sites to SHBG protein levels was constant for testosterone, but not for estradiol. The influence of gender was maximal in morbid obesity, with men showing the highest binding / SHBG ratios. The results reported here are compatible with SHBG being a mixture of at least two functionally different hormone-binding globulins, being affected by obesity and gender and showing different structure, affinities for testosterone and estradiol and also different immunoreactivity. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. EXOGENOUS TESTOSTERONE DOES NOT INDUCE OR EXACERBATE THE METABOLIC FEATURES ASSOCIATED WITH PCOS AMONG TRANSGENDER MEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kelly J; Liang, Jennifer J; Jolly, Divya; Weinand, Jamie D; Safer, Joshua D

    2018-04-06

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition which can include menstrual irregularity, metabolic derangement, and increased androgen levels. The mechanism of PCOS is unknown. Some suggest that excess production of androgens by the ovaries may cause or exacerbate the metabolic findings. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of increased testosterone on metabolic parameters on individuals presumed to be chromosomally female by examination of these parameters in hormone-treated transgender men. In 2015 and 2016, we asked all transgender men who visited the Endocrinology Clinic at Boston Medical Center treated with testosterone for consent for a retrospective anonymous chart review. Of the 36 men, 34 agreed (94%). Serum metabolic factors and body mass index levels for each patient were graphed over time, from initiation of therapy through 6 years of treatment. Bivariate analyses were conducted to analyze the impact of added testosterone. Regressions measuring the impact of testosterone demonstrated no significant change in levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, or low density lipoprotein cholesterol. There was a statistically significant decrease in BMI with increasing testosterone. There was also a statistically significant decrease in high density lipoprotein levels upon initiation of testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy in transgender men across a wide range of doses and over many years did not result in the abnormalities in HbA1c or dyslipidemia seen with PCOS. Instead, treatment of transgender men with testosterone resulted only in a shift of metabolic biomarkers toward the average physiologic male body. This retrospective chart review of 34 transgender men found that testosterone therapy does not induce or exacerbate the metabolic features associated with PCOS.

  15. Investigating the binding behaviour of two avidin-based testosterone binders using molecular recognition force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangl, Martina; Leitner, Michael; Riihimäki, Tiina; Lehtonen, Soili; Hytönen, Vesa P; Gruber, Hermann J; Kulomaa, Markku; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Ebner, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Molecular recognition force spectroscopy, a biosensing atomic force microscopy technique allows to characterise the dissociation of ligand-receptor complexes at the molecular level. Here, we used molecular recognition force spectroscopy to study the binding capability of recently developed testosterone binders. The two avidin-based proteins called sbAvd-1 and sbAvd-2 are expected to bind both testosterone and biotin but differ in their binding behaviour towards these ligands. To explore the ligand binding and dissociation energy landscape of these proteins, we tethered biotin or testosterone to the atomic force microscopy probe while the testosterone-binding protein was immobilized on the surface. Repeated formation and rupture of the ligand-receptor complex at different pulling velocities allowed determination of the loading rate dependence of the complex-rupturing force. In this way, we obtained the molecular dissociation rate (k(off)) and energy landscape distances (x(β)) of the four possible complexes: sbAvd-1-biotin, sbAvd-1-testosterone, sbAvd-2-biotin and sbAvd-2-testosterone. It was found that the kinetic off-rates for both proteins and both ligands are similar. In contrast, the x(β) values, as well as the probability of complex formations, varied considerably. In addition, competitive binding experiments with biotin and testosterone in solution differ significantly for the two testosterone-binding proteins, implying a decreased cross-reactivity of sbAvd-2. Unravelling the binding behaviour of the investigated testosterone-binding proteins is expected to improve their usability for possible sensing applications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. TESTOSTERONE CHANGES IN PATIENTS WITH LIVER CIRRHOSIS BEFORE AND AFTER ORTHOTOPIC LIVER TRANSPLANTATION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH MELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo NITSCHE

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Hypogonadism is a common clinical situation in male patients with liver cirrhosis. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of orthotopic liver transplantation on testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in male with advanced liver disease and also to determine the relationship of these changes with Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD score. Methods In a prospective study, serum levels of testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin of 30 male adult patients with end-stage liver disease were measured 2 to 4 hours before and 6 months after orthotopic liver transplantation. Results Total testosterone levels increased after orthotopic liver transplantation and the number of patients with normal testosterone levels increased from 18 to 24. Free testosterone mean level in the pre-transplant group was 7.8 pg/mL and increased to 11.5 pg/mL (P = 0.10 and sex hormone-binding globulin level decreased after orthotopic liver transplantation returning to normal levels in MELD ≤18 - group (A (P<0.05. Conclusions Serum level changes of testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin are more pronounced in cirrhotic males with MELD ≤18. Serum levels of testosterone and free testosterone increase and serum levels of sex hormone-binding globulin decrease after orthotopic liver transplantation.

  17. Autoradiographic study of the brain of the brambling (Fringilla montifringilla L.) after 3H-testosterone injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecke, J.; Haase, E.

    1980-01-01

    The topographic distribution of 3 H-testosterone and/or its metabolites in brains of brablings (Fringilla montifringilla L.) was studied autoradiographically and the intensity of labelling was estimated semiquantitatively. The highest accumulation of radioactivity was found in nuclei of the preoptic region and the hypothalamus. Cells of the nucleus preopticus medialis. Nucleus paraventricularis magnocellularis and nucleus lateralis hypothalami posterioris showed medium or high intensity labelling, while cells of the nucleus preopticus paraventricularis magnocellularis, nucleus hypothalamicus anterior medialis, nucleus hypothalamicus posterior medialis, and the infundibular area contained low or medium concentrations of radioactivity. The role of these nuclei in the gonadal feedback on the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system, in the control of the annual reproductive cycle and as effective sites of testosterone on sexual behaviour are discussed. Moderate accumulations of radioactivity were also observed in the hyperstriatum ventrale of the telencephalon, the nucleus intercollicularis of the mesencephalon and the nucleus nervi hypoglossi of the medulla. These structures are known to influence bird song and other vocalisations. Low labelled cells were found in the periventricular zone of the neostriatum, in the lateral septum, and more irregularly in other areas. The pattern of distribution was similar to that in other birds. (author)

  18. Osteoprotegerin Levels Decrease During Testosterone Therapy in Aging Men and are Associated with Changed Distribution of Regional Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L; Glintborg, D; Højlund, K

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of testosterone treatment are debated. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is an independent marker of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on OPG levels in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. A randomized, double......-blinded, placebo-controlled study of 6 months testosterone therapy (gel) in 38 men aged 60-78 years with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm was performed. Clinical evaluation, OPG, and C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements were carried out. Lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass, and bone mineral density (BMD) were...... established by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Power calculation was based on an increase in LBM during testosterone therapy and responders were defined as testosterone treated patients with increased...

  19. Conversion of 3H-testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in human hypertrophic prostatic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowska, B.; Zgliczynski

    1979-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a simple method for the determination of the conversion of testosterone to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) after incubation of human hypertrophic prostatic tissue with 3 H-testosterone. The mean conversion rate of 3 H-testosterone to 5α-DHT in hypertrophic prostatic tissue was found to be higher than in normal and carcinomatous tissue. The results indicate that androgen metabolism in the hypertrophic prostatic gland is enhanced. (orig.) [de

  20. Conversion of /sup 3/H-testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in human hypertrophic prostatic tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowska, B; Zgliczynski, [Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw (Poland). Clinic of Endocrinology

    1979-12-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a simple method for the determination of the conversion of testosterone to 5..cap alpha..-dihydrotestosterone (5..cap alpha..-DHT) after incubation of human hypertrophic prostatic tissue with /sup 3/H-testosterone. The mean conversion rate of /sup 3/H-testosterone to 5..cap alpha..-DHT in hypertrophic prostatic tissue was found to be higher than in normal and carcinomatous tissue. The results indicate that androgen metabolism in the hypertrophic prostatic gland is enhanced.

  1. Double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on the effects of testosterone supplementation in elderly men with moderate to low testosterone levels: design and baseline characteristics [ISRCTN23688581

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaar Harald JJ

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In ageing men testosterone levels decline, while cognitive function, muscle and bone mass, sexual hair growth, libido and sexual activity decline and the risk of cardiovascular diseases increase. We set up a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effects of testosterone supplementation on functional mobility, quality of life, body composition, cognitive function, vascular function and risk factors, and bone mineral density in older hypogonadal men. We recruited 237 men with serum testosterone levels below 13.7 nmol/L and ages 60–80 years. They were randomized to either four capsules of 40 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU or placebo daily for 26 weeks. Primary endpoints are functional mobility and quality of life. Secondary endpoints are body composition, cognitive function, aortic stiffness and cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral density. Effects on prostate, liver and hematological parameters will be studied with respect to safety. Measure of effect will be the difference in change from baseline visit to final visit between TU and placebo. We will study whether the effect of TU differs across subgroups of baseline waist girth ( At baseline, mean age, BMI and testosterone levels were 67 years, 27 kg/m2 and 10.72 nmol/L, respectively.

  2. Injection of Carica papaya L. Seed Extract of Cibinong Variety to Macaca fascicularis L. and its Effect to Quality of Spermatozoa and Level of Testosterone Hormone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Nuraini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lack of contraceptive choices which meet the requirements is one of the contributing factors to less participation of man in contraceptive use. This research aimed to study the effectiveness of natural material for alternative male contraception, by injecting papaya seed extract with Cibinong variety (Carica papaya L. to long tail monkey (Macaca fascicularis L. The research was conducted at Primates Study Center, Institute of Agriculture, Bogor. Total samples of this research were 8 monkeys, with three intervention groupsand one control group. Papaya seed extract was injected via intramuscular in 21 days, with dose for each group were 40 mg/monkey, 80 mg/monkey, and 120 mg/monkey. Data analysis of spermatozoa quality (motility, viability, morfology was done by using Cochran test before and after intervention stages, and during recovery stage. Meanwhile, data aalysis of spermatozoa concentration and testosterone hormone level was done by using Friedman test. Result of this reseachdemonstrated reduction of motility, viability, and morfology ofspermatozoa after inejction of papaya seed extract and increase to normal level at recovery stage (p ≤ 0.05. These results was supported with cement aglutination. The most effective dose was at 40 mg/monkey/day, with reduction of spermatozoa motility from 87.5 % to 40%, and reduction of testosterone level from 2.35 ng/mL to 1.83 ng/mL. Even though spermatozoa motility and testosterone hormone levelreduced, but its conditions were still in good condition category.

  3. Effectiveness, pharmacokinetics, and safety of a new sustained-release leuprolide acetate 3.75-mg depot formulation for testosterone suppression in patients with prostate cancer: a Phase III, open-label, international multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marberger, Michael; Kaisary, Amir V; Shore, Neal D; Karlin, Gary S; Savulsky, Claudio; Mis, Ricard; Leuratti, Chiara; Germa, Josep R

    2010-04-01

    A microencapsulated, sustained-release formulation of leuprolide acetate 3.75 mg has been developed. This study investigated the effectiveness, pharmacokinetics, and safety profile of a 1-month leuprolide acetate 3.75-mg depot formulation for suppressing testosterone concentrations in patients with prostate cancer. This was a Phase III, open-label, international multicenter clinical trial. Patients with prostate cancer who, in the judgment of the investigators, could benefit from androgen deprivation therapy received 6 monthly intramuscular injections of leuprolide acetate 3.75-mg depot. Plasma testosterone concentrations were determined at specific times throughout the study. The primary end point was the proportion of successful patients over the total number of evaluable patients (ie, patients with evaluable testosterone concentrations at all monthly assessments and no missing values due to treatment-related adverse events). Treatment success was defined as testosterone suppression below the clinical castration level (ie, n = 12), showed sustained release of leuprolide from the formulation. Values for AUC(0-t) calculated from day 0 to day 28, days 28 to 56, and days 56 to 84 were 25,976.5 (7892.0), 30,685.5 (9348.4), and 31,030.9 (10,745.0) pg/mL per day, respectively. The most common treatment-related adverse event was hot flashes (45.0% [72/160]). Fatigue, hyperhidrosis, night sweats, and headache each occurred in testosterone suppression and was well tolerated throughout the study in this cohort of patients with prostate cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00128531.

  4. Evaluation of chemical castration with calcium chloride versus surgical castration in donkeys: testosterone as an endpoint marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Ali, Magda M; Abou-Khalil, Nasser S; Ali, Marwa F

    2016-03-08

    For the last few years, researchers have been interested in developing a method for chemical sterilization which may be a better alternative to surgical castration. An ideal chemical sterilant would be one that effectively arrests spermatogenesis and androgenesis as well as libido with absence of toxic or other side effects. Calcium chloride in various solutions and concentrations has been tested in many animal species, but few studies have been evaluated it in equines as a chemical sterilant. So, the objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of chemical castration with 20% calcium chloride dissolved in absolute ethanol in comparison with surgical castration in donkeys based on the changes in the serum testosterone level and the histopathological changes in treated testes. Twelve clinically healthy adult male donkeys were used in this study. Donkeys were divided randomly and equally into two groups: a surgical (S) group (n = 6) and a chemical (C) group (n = 6). Animals in the (S) group were subjected to surgical castration while those in the (C) group received a single bilateral intratesticular injection of 20% calcium chloride dissolved in absolute ethanol (20 ml/testis). Animals were kept under clinical observation for 60 days. Changes in animals' behavior and gross changes in external genitalia were monitored daily. Serum concentrations of testosterone were measured prior to treatment and at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days post-treatment. Testicles in the (C) group were examined histopathologically at the end of the experiment. Chemical castration with intratesticular calcium chloride vs. surgical castration failed to reduce serum concentrations of testosterone throughout the whole duration of the study; however it induced orchitis that was evident by focal necrotic areas in seminiferous tubules, cellular infiltration of neutrophils, proliferative intertubular fibrosis with a compensatory proliferation of Leydig cells. Donkeys tolerated the

  5. Maternal gestational cortisol and testosterone are associated with trade-offs in offspring sex and number in a free-living rodent (Urocitellus richardsonii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calen P Ryan

    Full Text Available The adaptive manipulation of offspring sex and number has been of considerable interest to ecologists and evolutionary biologists. The physiological mechanisms that translate maternal condition and environmental cues into adaptive responses in offspring sex and number, however, remain obscure. In mammals, research into the mechanisms responsible for adaptive sex allocation has focused on two major endocrine axes: the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis and glucocorticoids, and the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG axis and sex steroids, particularly testosterone. While stress-induced activation of the HPA axis provides an intuitive model for sex ratio and litter size adjustment, plasma glucocorticoids exist in both bound and free fractions, and may be acting indirectly, for example by affecting plasma glucose levels. Furthermore, in female mammals, activation of the HPA axis stimulates the secretion of adrenal testosterone in addition to glucocorticoids (GCs. To begin to untangle these physiological mechanisms influencing offspring sex and number, we simultaneously examined fecal glucocorticoid metabolites, free and bound plasma cortisol, free testosterone, and plasma glucose concentration during both gestation and lactation in a free-living rodent (Urocitellus richardsonii. We also collected data on offspring sex and litter size from focal females and from a larger study population. Consistent with previous work in this population, we found evidence for a trade-off between offspring sex and number, as well as positive and negative correlations between glucocorticoids and sex ratio and litter size, respectively, during gestation (but not lactation. We also observed a negative relationship between testosterone and litter size during gestation (but not lactation, but no effect of glucose on either sex ratio or litter size. Our findings highlight the importance of binding proteins, cross-talk between endocrine systems, and temporal windows

  6. Estradiol to testosterone ratio in metabolic syndrome men aged started 40 years above

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, R.; Siregar, Y.; Mardianto

    2018-03-01

    Disruption of adipose tissue, an endocrine organ, could turn out into the so-called metabolic syndrome. Aging men with lowering testosterone were related to metabolic syndrome and excessive aromatase activity in adipose tissue would increase estradiol level. This study hypothesized that estradiol to testosterone ratio is increasedin aging, metabolic syndrome men. A total of 52 men were randomly recruited for this study. A blood samplewas drawn before 11.00 AM after 10 hoursof overnight fasting, then aliquot serum kept in -20°C pending the research. Subjects were divided evenly into the metabolic syndrome and nonmetabolicsyndrome group. The hormonal assaywas measured on the day of research. Then examined with student t-test. Estradiol level in metabolic syndrome group was increased, but insignificant differ to the other group. Testosterone level decreased and significantly different between groups. In conclusion, estradiol to testosterone ratio was increased in themetabolic syndrome group but insignificant.

  7. Resistance training and testosterone levels in male patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper L.; Eidemak, Inge

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels' associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients. METHODS: Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice...... weekly. Blood samples were obtained to analyse testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), IGF-1, and IGF-binding protein 3. Muscle fibres' size was analysed in biopsies from m. vastus lateralis. RESULTS: The patients' testosterone levels were within the normal range at baseline (n = 20) (19.5 (8......-9370) ng/mL versus 3244 (3020-3983), P muscle fibre size (n = 12) remained stable throughout the study. Age-adjusted IGF-1 was associated with type 1 and 2 fibre sizes (P testosterone values were normal due to markedly increased...

  8. Differential effects of strength training and testosterone treatment on soluble CD36 in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Christensen, Louise L; Kvorning, Thue

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We measured soluble CD36 (sCD36) and body composition to determine the effects of testosterone treatment (TT) and/or strength training (ST) on cardiovascular risk in men with low normal testosterone levels. METHODS: Double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 54 men aged 60-78 years...... with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm randomized to TT (gel, 50-100 mg/day, n = 20), placebo (n = 18) or ST (n = 16) for 6 months. Moreover, the ST group was randomized to TT (ST + TT, n = 7) or placebo (ST + placebo, n = 9) after 3 months. OUTCOMES: sCD36, total and regional fat mass were....... units] vs. TT and vs. placebo (p testosterone and lean body mass. Fat mass measures significantly improved during ST + placebo, ST + TT, and TT vs. placebo. During ST + placebo, delta sCD36 was associated with delta total fat mass (r = 0.81) and delta...

  9. Testosterone increases urinary calcium excretion and inhibits expression of renal calcium transport proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Y.J.; Dimke, H.; Schoeber, J.P.H.; Hsu, S.C.; Lin, S.H.; Chu, P.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although gender differences in the renal handling of calcium have been reported, the overall contribution of androgens to these differences remains uncertain. We determined here whether testosterone affects active renal calcium reabsorption by regulating calcium transport proteins. Male mice had

  10. THE BIOCIDE TRIBUTYLTIN ALTERS TESTOSTERONE ESTERIFICATION IN MUD SNAILS (ILYANASSA OBSOLETA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biocide Tributyltin Alters Testosterone Esterification in Mud Snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta)Meredith P. Gooding and Gerald A. LeBlanc Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633Tributyltin (TBT...

  11. Uterine and ovarian changes during testosterone administration in young female-to-male transsexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Loverro

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our data suggest that long-term testosterone administration to female-to-male patients during reproductive age induces a low proliferative active endometrium, associated with some hypertrophic myometrial changes.

  12. Sex-specific effects of maternal testosterone on lateralization in a cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Sara M.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    Lateralization of cerebral functions is a fundamental aspect of the organization of brain and behaviour in vertebrates. Sex differences in human lateralization have inspired researchers to postulate several hypotheses concerning the effect of prenatal testosterone on lateralization, but few

  13. Testosterone administration does not affect men's rejections of low ultimatum game offers or aggressive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom J; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Correlative evidence suggests that testosterone promotes dominance and aggression. However, causal evidence is scarce and offers mixed results. To investigate this relationship, we administered testosterone for 48h to 41 healthy young adult men in a within-subjects, double-blind placebo-controlled balanced crossover design. Subjects played the role of responders in an ultimatum game, where rejecting a low offer is costly, but serves to destroy the proposer's profit. Such action can hence be interpreted as non-physical aggression in response to social provocation. In addition, subjects completed a self-assessed mood questionnaire. As expected, self-reported aggressiveness was a key predictor of ultimatum game rejections. However, while testosterone affected subjective ratings of feeling energetic and interested, our evidence strongly suggests that testosterone had no effect on ultimatum game rejections or on aggressive mood. Our findings illustrate the importance of using causal interventions to assess correlative evidence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Relating testosterone levels and free play social behavior in male and female preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, J R; Fano, E; Ahedo, L; Cardas, J; Brain, P F; Azpíroz, A

    2000-11-01

    This study assessed potential relationships between a series of behavioral measures seen in the interactions of preschool children with their peers (particularly aggressive behavior) and testosterone levels. 28 boys and 20 girls of preschool age were videotaped in free play interactions. Their behavior was then evaluated with particular emphasis on aggression and affiliation in play and social interactions. Testosterone levels were measured using radioimmunoassay in saliva samples. Correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship in boys between testosterone and giving and receiving aggression in the context of 'social interactions' (serious aggression), but not in the context of play (playful aggresstion). Testosterone can be a useful biological marker for serious aggression (and behavioral patterns reflecting different levels of sociability) in preschool boys.

  15. Testosterone replacement maintains smooth muscle content in the corpus cavernosum of orchiectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele Halmenschlager

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Normal testosterone levels maintain CC smooth muscle content and do not influence elastic fibers, collagen content and apoptotic index. Further studies should be performed in order to investigate the mechanisms by which androgen mediates its effects on CC structure.

  16. The relation between serum testosterone levels and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Colak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between serum testos-terone levels and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF in patients after kidney transplantation and with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Seventy-five male patients, aged between 18 and 68 years, who had kidney transplantation at least six months earlier, were enrolled into the study. Only renal transplant recipients and CKD patients with a creatinine level of 0.05. Serum testosterone levels were independent risk factors affecting IVC collapse index, systolic BP and LA. m-TORi and CNIs drugs might have no negative effect on serum testosterone levels, and improvement of the serum testosterone levels after transplantation might have a positive contribution on cardiac risk factors.

  17. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs do not influence the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone glucuronide ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eLundmark

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The UDP Glucuronosyl Transferase (UGT enzymes are important in the pharmacokinetics, and conjugation, of a variety of drugs including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs as well as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS. Testosterone glucuronidation capacity is strongly associated with a deletion polymorphism in the UGT2B17 gene. As the use of high doses of NSAIDs has been observed in athletes there is a risk for a drug-drug interaction that may influence the doping tests for AAS. In-vitro studies show inhibitory potential on UGT2B7, 2B15 and 2B17 enzymes by NSAIDs. The aim of this study was to investigate if concomitant use of NSAIDs and a single dose of testosterone enanthate would affect the excretion rate of testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronide (TG and EG as well as the T/E ratio, thereby affecting the outcome of the testosterone doping test.The study was designed as an open, randomized, cross-over study with subjects being their own control. The 23 healthy male volunteers, with either two, one or no allele (ins/ins, ins/del or del/del of the UGT2B17 gene, received the maximum recommended dose of NSAID (Ibuprofen or Diclofenac for six days. On day three, 500 mg of testosterone enanthate was administered. Spot urine samples were collected for 17 days. After a wash out period of four months the volunteers received 500 mg testosterone enanthate only, with subsequent spot urine collection for 14 days. The glucuronides of testosterone and epitestosterone were quantified. NSAIDs did not affect the excretion of TG or EG before the administration of testosterone. The concomitant use of NSAIDs and testosterone slightly increased the TG excretion while the EG excretion was less suppressed compared to testosterone use only. The effects of the NSAIDs on the TG and EG excretion did not differ between the UGT2B17 genotype groups. In conclusion, the outcome of testosterone doping tests does not seem to be affected by the use of NSAIDs.

  18. Testosterone: from initiating change to modulating social organisation in domestic fowl ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, John P.; Murphy, Kenneth J.; Bannon, Finian J.; Hynes, Niamh M.; Hayden, Thomas J.

    2009-07-01

    Testosterone (T) concentrations in many species are sensitive to seasonal changes and to changes in social conditions. However, the effect of the natural or endogenous T increase in the juvenile on their social behaviour is not well understood. In this study, T and behaviour were measured from the pro-social juvenile to the adult stage in semi-feral domestic fowl. During the pro-social phase T levels and the distance chicks maintained between each other, i.e. inter-individual distance (IID) were low. Then, as T increased, a corresponding increase in IID occurred and continued in males until dispersal to individual adult male territories. In the new and initially stable adult social structure, T declined and IID remained high, indicating a new behavioural mechanism was in place. Males first mated as T levels were declining. They were then challenged; then T increased, and then IID increased again. Adult male T levels fluctuate, being low or declining in a socially stable environment and increasing following a challenge, suggesting a regulatory or modulating role for T. The results are consistent with T having an endogenous role: in the juvenile, driving behavioural change towards adulthood, and in adulthood, a modulating role regulating social organisation.

  19. Bee venom suppresses testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia by regulating the inflammatory response and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; An, Hyo-Jin; Cheon, Se-Yun; Kwon, Ki-Rok; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2015-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is a common disorder in aging men, involves inflammation that is associated with an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell death. Because current BPH drug treatments have undesirable side effects, the development of well-tolerated and effective alternative medicines to treat BPH is of interest. Bee venom (BV) has been used in traditional medicine to treat conditions, such as arthritis and rheumatism, and pain. Although inflammation has been associated with BPH and BV has strong anti-inflammatory effects, the effects of BV on BPH are not fully understood. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the efficacy of BV against testosterone-induced BPH in rats. BV decreased prostate weight compared to the untreated group. In addition, BV suppressed serum dihydrotestosterone concentration levels and the levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the histological analysis. Furthermore, BV significantly decreased the levels of the apoptotic suppressors, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and increased the levels of the proapoptotic factors, Bax and caspase-3 activation. These results suggested that BV suppressed the development of BPH and has good potential as a treatment for BPH. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  20. Late-onset hypogonadism: the advantages of treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin rather than testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Cimino, Laura; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Morgia, Giuseppe; Calogero, Aldo E

    2016-01-01

    The traditional pharmacological treatment of patients with late onset hypogonadism (LOH) is represented by different formulations of testosterone (T) or alternatively by the extractive human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). The hormone replacement treatment (HRT) is associated with the potential increase of hematocrit, serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate volume. Moreover, the gynecomastia represent a condition frequently associated with HRT. Recent evidences showed the role of leydig cells in the 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D and the elevated frequency of hypovitaminosis D among LOH patients. Finally, another important aspect of LOH is represented by the frequency of secondary infertility due to age or to traditional HRT. This study evaluated 40 LOH patients treated for 6 months with extractive HCG (n = 10 patients) and three different formulations of T: transdermal (n = 10 patients), undecaonate (n = 10 patients) and enantate (n = 10 patients). Hormonal, anthropometric, metabolic and sperm parameters were evaluated and compared. Moreover, the main safety parameters and the results of the main questionnaires were evaluated. After treatment, HCG group showed serum concentrations of 25-OH-vitamin D significantly higher (p < 0.05) and serum concentrations of oestrogens significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with other groups. Moreover, they showed a mean value of hematocrit, PSA and prostate volume significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with other groups. Finally, all the groups treated with T showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of sperm density and of percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility compared with HCG group.

  1. Differential testosterone secretory capacity of the testes of aggressive and nonaggressive house mice during ontogeny

    OpenAIRE

    de Ruiter, Anne J H; Koolhaas, Jaap M; van Oortmerssen, Geert A; Bohus, Bela

    1992-01-01

    In this study, testosterone secretory capacity of testicular Leydig cells during ontogeny was determined in males of an aggressive and a nonaggressive genetic selection line of wild house mice. Neonates, 23-day-old prepubertals, and adult male mice were studied. A morphometric method was used to quantify 3-beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (3-beta-HSD)-stained Leydig cells in testicular sections to determine testosterone secretory capacity. We consider this parameter to reflect circulating t...

  2. Testosterone Combined with Electrical Stimulation and Standing: Effect on Muscle and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0190 TITLE: Testosterone Combined with Electrical Stimulation and Standing: Effect on Muscle and Bone PRINCIPAL...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing...29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Testosterone Combined with Electrical Stimulation and Standing: Effect on Muscle and Bone 5b

  3. Total Testosterone Levels and the Effect of Sildenafil on Type 2 Diabetics with Erectile Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Najib Fadhil Hadeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypotestosteronemia has been reported in approximately half of type 2 diabetic men in general. This study aims to assess serum total testosterone levels in type 2 diabetics with erectile dysfunction and to correlate the degree of improvement between sildenafil citrate and testosterone levels. Methods: A cross sectional and prospective comparative interventional study was conducted at the Diabetic Clinic of Assalam Teaching Hospital in Mosul, during the period from January 1, 2009 through to December 31, 2011. The study enrolled 120 type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction who were analyzed with regard to age, duration of diabetes, duration and severity of erectile dysfunction, serum total testosteron levels and the degree of response to sildenafil citrate in terms of testosterone levels. The data were statistically analyzed using the independent two-sample Student t test, χ2 test and Pearson correlation test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Thirty six percent of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction were found to have low serum testosterone levels. The hypotestosteronemic and normotestosteronemic subgroups were not significantly different in terms of mean age, duration of diabetes, reduction of libido, and reduction in erectile function. The rate and the degree of improvement of erection by sildenafil in the normo-and-hypotestosteronemic respondents were not significantly different, but the degree of improvement by sildenafil was significantly correlated to testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Conclusion: Hypotestosteronemia was found in 36% of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction. The degree of improvement of erectile dysfunction by sildenafil was directly proportional to the serum testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Therapeutic supplement with testosterone preparation in the hypotestosteronemic diabetics with erectile

  4. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Covariation Between DHEA and Testosterone in Adolescent Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Carol A; Moore, Mollie N; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2015-05-01

    Although several studies have shown that pubertal tempo and timing are shaped by genetic and environmental factors, few studies consider to what extent endocrine triggers of puberty are shaped by genetic and environmental factors. Doing so moves the field from examining correlated developmentally-sensitive biomarkers toward understanding what drives those associations. Two puberty related hormones, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone, were assayed from salivary samples in 118 MZ (62 % female), 111 same sex DZ (46 % female) and 103 opposite-sex DZ twin pairs, aged 12-16 years (M = 13.1, SD = 1.3). Pubertal status was assessed with a composite of mother- and self-reports. We used biometric models to estimate the genetic and environmental influences on the variance and covariance in testosterone and DHEA, with and without controlling for their association with puberty, and to test for sex differences. In males, the variance in testosterone and pubertal status was due to shared and non-shared environmental factors; variation in DHEA was due to genetic and non-shared environmental factors. In females, variance in testosterone was due to genetic and non-shared environmental factors; genetic, shared, and non-shared environmental factors contributed equally to variation in DHEA. In males, the testosterone-DHEA covariance was primarily due to shared environmental factors that overlapped with puberty as well as shared and non-shared environmental covariation specific to testosterone and DHEA. In females, the testosterone-DHEA covariance was due to genetic factors overlapping with pubertal status, and shared and non-shared environmental covariation specific to testosterone and DHEA.

  5. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender differences in serum testosterone and cortisol in patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaka, Hisashi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Kida, Sayaka; Kurita, Hirofumi; Shimano, Takahisa; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone may have a role distinct from cortisol in the pathophysiology of depression. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis affects the functions of sex steroid hormones through interaction with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The objective of this study was to investigate differences in serum levels of testosterone and cortisol in male and female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants included 87 inpatients with MDD at Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital. Serum levels of testosterone and cortisol were assessed at admission. Matched controls included 128 healthy individuals. Data from MDD patients and controls were compared separately for men and women. Correlations between serum hormone levels and scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) of patients were assessed by sex. Effects of various factors on testosterone and cortisol were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. In male patients with MDD, a significant negative correlation was seen between testosterone levels and the "retardation" score of HAM-D. However, serum testosterone levels were not significantly different in either male or female MDD patients compared with controls. Serum testosterone was negatively associated with the number of depressive episodes in male patients with MDD. Serum cortisol levels in female patients were significantly increased compared with female controls with no significant correlations between cortisol levels and HAM-D scores. The negative correlation between the sub-score of the HAM-D and testosterone may be associated with the biological pathophysiology of male depression. Findings of serum cortisol levels in women may suggest distinct characteristics of these hormones in men and women with MDD.

  7. Plasma Testosterone and the Course of Major Depressive Disorder in Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltay, Erik J; van der Mast, Roos C; Lauwen, Esther; Heijboer, Annemieke C; de Waal, Margot W M; Comijs, Hannie C

    2017-04-01

    To investigate associations between testosterone levels and major depressive disorder (MDD) in older men and women. In a cross-sectional, 2-year prospective analyses within the Netherlands Study on Depression in Older persons cohort study, 469 participants comprised 350 patients with MDD and 119 nondepressed participants in the comparison group (mean age 70.5 ± 7.3 years; 166 [35.4%] men). MDD was assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Baseline plasma total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were assessed to calculate free testosterone. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology was assessed every 6 months. Whereas SHBG levels did not differ between the depressed/nondepressed groups (F(1,149) = 0.075, p = 0.78), men with MDD had lower mean total and free testosterone levels than the comparison group in the multivariate adjusted analyses (F(1,150) = 7.249, p = 0.008, Cohen's d = 0.51; and F(1,149) = 8.548, p = 0.004 Cohen's d = 0.55, respectively). This could be ascribed to lower testosterone in men with "pure" MDD and not in men with MDD and comorbid anxiety. Nine men (5.4%) had a total testosterone level men (using all five measurement points during follow-up) baseline free testosterone was inversely associated with depression severity in the adjusted analyses (β = -0.15, t(151) = -2.15, p = 0.03). Testosterone levels were lower in men with MDD compared with healthy men after adjustment for confounders, such as body mass index. No significant associations were found in women. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inverse relationship between bioavailable testosterone and subclinical coronary artery calcification in non-obese Korean men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byoung-Jin Park; Jae-Yong Shim; Yong-Jae Lee; Jung-Hyun Lee; Hye-Ree Lee

    2012-01-01

    Although low testosterone levels in men have been associated with high risk for cardiovascular disease,little is known about the association between male sex hormones and subclinical coronary disease in men with apparently low cardiometabolic risk.This study was performed to investigate the association between male sex hormones and subclinical coronary artery calcification measured as coronary calcium score in non-obese Korean men.We examined the relationship of total testosterone,sex hormone-binding globulin,bioavai lable testosterone and free testosterone with coronary calcium score in 291 non-obese Korean men (mean age:52.8±9.3 years)not having a history of cardiovascular disease.Using multiple linear regression,we evaluated associations between log (sex hormone)levels and log (coronary calcium score) after adjusting for confounding variables in 105 men with some degree of coronary calcification defined as coronary calcium score ≥ 1.In multiple linear regression analysis,bioavailable testosterone was inversely associated with coronary calcium score (P=0.046) after adjusting for age,body mass index,smoking status,alcohol consumption,regular exercise,mean blood pressure,resting heart rate,C-reactive protein,fasting plasma glucose,total cholesterol,triglyceride,high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol,hypertension medication and hyperlipidemia medication,whereas total testosterone,sex hormone-binding globulin and free testosterone were not (P=0.674,P=0.121 and P=0.102,respectively).Our findings indicate that bioavailable testosterone is inversely associated with the degree of subclinical coronary artery calcification in non-obese men.

  9. Correlation Between Resting Testosterone/Cortisol Ratio and Sound-Induced Vasoconstriction at Fingertip in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooishi, Yuuki

    2018-01-01

    A sound-induced sympathetic tone has been used as an index for orienting responses to auditory stimuli. The resting testosterone/cortisol ratio is a biomarker of social aggression that drives an approaching behavior in response to environmental stimuli, and a higher testosterone level and a lower cortisol level can facilitate the sympathetic response to environmental stimuli. Therefore, it is possible that the testosterone/cortisol ratio is correlated with the sound-induced sympathetic tone. The current study investigated the relationship between the resting testosterone/cortisol ratio and vasoconstriction induced by listening to sound stimuli. Twenty healthy males aged 29.0 ± 0.53 years (mean ± S.E.M) participated in the study. They came to the laboratory for 3 days and listened to one of three types of sound stimuli for 1 min on each day. Saliva samples were collected for an analysis of salivary testosterone and cortisol levels on the day of each experiment. After the collecting the saliva sample, we measured the blood volume pulse (BVP) amplitude at a fingertip. Since vasoconstriction is mediated by the activation of the sympathetic nerves, the strength of the reduction in BVP amplitude at a fingertip was called the BVP response (finger BVPR). No difference was observed between the sound-induced finger BVPR for the three types of sound stimuli ( p = 0.779). The correlation coefficient between the sound-induced finger BVPR and the salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio within participants was significantly different from no correlation ( p = 0.011) and there was a trend toward a significance in the correlation between the sound-induced finger BVPR and the salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio between participants ( r = 0.39, p = 0.088). These results suggest that the testosterone/cortisol ratio affects the difference in the sound-evoked sympathetic response.

  10. Testosterone and androgen receptor gene polymorphism are associated with confidence and competitiveness in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenegger, Christoph; Kumsta, Robert; Naef, Michael; Gromoll, Jörg; Heinrichs, Markus

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Studies in non-human animals and humans have demonstrated the important role of testosterone in competitive interactions. Here, we investigated whether endogenous testosterone levels predict the decision to compete, in a design excluding spite as a motive underlying competitiveness. In a laboratory experiment with real monetary incentives, 181 men solved arithmetic problems, first under a noncompetitive piece rate, followed by a competition incentive scheme. We also assessed several parameters relevant to competition, such as risk taking, performance, and confidence in one's own performance. Salivary testosterone levels were measured before and 20min after the competition task using mass spectrometry. Participants were also genotyped for the CAG repeat polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene, known to influence the efficacy of testosterone signaling in a reciprocal relationship to the number of CAG repeats. We observed a significant positive association between basal testosterone levels and the decision to compete, and that higher testosterone levels were related to greater confidence in one's own performance. Whereas the number of CAG repeats was not associated with the choice to compete, a lower number of CAG repeats was related to greater confidence in those who chose to compete, but this effect was attributable to the polymorphism's effect on actual performance. An increase in testosterone levels was observed following the experiment, and this increase varied with self-reported high-school math grades. We expand upon the latest research by documenting effects of the androgen system in confidence in one's own ability, and conclude that testosterone promotes competitiveness without spite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diet-induced obesity and low testosterone increase neuroinflammation and impair neural function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Anusha; Lent-Schochet, Daniella; Pike, Christian J

    2014-09-16

    Low testosterone and obesity are independent risk factors for dysfunction of the nervous system including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigate the independent and cooperative interactions of testosterone and diet-induced obesity on metabolic, inflammatory, and neural health indices in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Male C57B6/J mice were maintained on normal or high-fat diet under varying testosterone conditions for a four-month treatment period, after which metabolic indices were measured and RNA isolated from cerebral cortex and sciatic nerve. Cortices were used to generate mixed glial cultures, upon which embryonic cerebrocortical neurons were co-cultured for assessment of neuron survival and neurite outgrowth. Peripheral nerve damage was determined using paw-withdrawal assay, myelin sheath protein expression levels, and Na+,K+-ATPase activity levels. Our results demonstrate that detrimental effects on both metabolic (blood glucose, insulin sensitivity) and proinflammatory (cytokine expression) responses caused by diet-induced obesity are exacerbated by testosterone depletion. Mixed glial cultures generated from obese mice retain elevated cytokine expression, although low testosterone effects do not persist ex vivo. Primary neurons co-cultured with glial cultures generated from high-fat fed animals exhibit reduced survival and poorer neurite outgrowth. In addition, low testosterone and diet-induced obesity combine to increase inflammation and evidence of nerve damage in the peripheral nervous system. Testosterone and diet-induced obesity independently and cooperatively regulate neuroinflammation in central and peripheral nervous systems, which may contribute to observed impairments in neural health. Together, our findings suggest that low testosterone and obesity are interactive regulators of neuroinflammation that, in combination with adipose-derived inflammatory pathways and other factors

  12. Developmental programming: deficits in reproductive hormone dynamics and ovulatory outcomes in prenatal, testosterone-treated sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Ye, W; Phillips, D J; Herkimer, C; Knight, P G; Padmanabhan, V

    2008-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess leads to neuroendocrine, ovarian, and metabolic disruptions, culminating in reproductive phenotypes mimicking that of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of this study was to determine the consequences of prenatal testosterone treatment on periovulatory hormonal dynamics and ovulatory outcomes. To generate prenatal testosterone-treated females, pregnant sheep were injected intramuscularly (days 30-90 of gestation, term=147 days) with 100 mg of testosterone-propionate in cottonseed oil semi-weekly. Female offspring born to untreated control females and prenatal testosterone-treated females were then studied during their first two breeding seasons. Sheep were given two injections of prostaglandin F2alpha 11 days apart, and blood samples were collected at 2-h intervals for 120 h, 10-min intervals for 8 h during the luteal phase (first breeding season only), and daily for an additional 15 days to characterize changes in reproductive hormonal dynamics. During the first breeding season, prenatal testosterone-treated females manifested disruptions in the timing and magnitude of primary gonadotropin surges, luteal defects, and reduced responsiveness to progesterone negative feedback. Disruptions in the periovulatory sequence of events during the second breeding season included: 1) delayed but increased preovulatory estradiol rise, 2) delayed and severely reduced primary gonadotropin surge in prenatal testosterone-treated females having an LH surge, 3) tendency for an amplified secondary FSH surge and a shift in the relative balance of FSH regulatory proteins, and 4) luteal responses that ranged from normal to anovulatory. These outcomes are likely to be of relevance to developmental origin of infertility disorders and suggest that differences in fetal exposure or fetal susceptibility to testosterone may account for the variability in reproductive phenotypes.

  13. Hypogonadism in the Aging Male Diagnosis, Potential Benefits, and Risks of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanth N. Surampudi; Christina Wang; Ronald Swerdloff

    2012-01-01

    Hypogonadism in older men is a syndrome characterized by low serum testosterone levels and clinical symptoms often seen in hypogonadal men of younger age. These symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased vitality, decreased muscle mass, increased adiposity, depressed mood, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism is a common disorder in aging men with a significant percentage of men over 60 years of age having serum testosterone levels below the lower limits of young...

  14. Behavioral cross-sensitization between testosterone and fenproporex in adolescent and adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Conceição, C.Q.; Engi, S.A.; Cruz, F.C.; Planeta, C.S.

    2017-01-01

    The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. Howev...

  15. Effects of exogenous testosterone on the ventral striatal BOLD response during reward anticipation in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Erno J; Bos, Peter A; Ossewaarde, Lindsey; Ramsey, Nick F; Fernández, Guillén; van Honk, Jack

    2010-08-01

    Correlational evidence in humans shows that levels of the androgen hormone testosterone are positively related to reinforcement sensitivity and competitive drive. Structurally similar anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are moreover widely abused, and animal studies show that rodents self-administer testosterone. These observations suggest that testosterone exerts activational effects on mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways involved in incentive processing and reinforcement regulation. However, there are no data on humans supporting this hypothesis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the effects of testosterone administration on neural activity in terminal regions of the mesolimbic pathway. In a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover design, 12 healthy women received a single sublingual administration of .5 mg of testosterone. During MRI scanning, participants performed a monetary incentive delay task, which is known to elicit robust activation of the ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Results show a positive main effect of testosterone on the differential response in the ventral striatum to cues signaling potential reward versus nonreward. Notably, this effect interacted with levels self-reported intrinsic appetitive motivation: individuals with low intrinsic appetitive motivation exhibited larger testosterone-induced increases but had smaller differential responses after placebo. Thus, the present study lends support to the hypothesis that testosterone affects activity in terminal regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system but suggests that such effects may be specific to individuals with low intrinsic appetitive motivation. By showing a potential mechanism underlying central reinforcement of androgen use, the present findings may moreover have implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of AAS dependency. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microvesicles Correlated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Lowered Testosterone Levels But Were Unaltered by Testosterone Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botha, Jaco; Velling Magnussen, Line; Nielsen, Morten Hjuler

    2017-01-01

    -nine type 2 diabetic males with lowered testosterone levels were assigned to either testosterone replacement therapy or placebo and evaluated at baseline and after 24 weeks. Microvesicles were analysed by flow cytometry and defined as lactadherin-binding particles within the 0.1-1.0 μm gate. Microvesicles...... of platelet, monocyte, and endothelial cell origin were identified by cell-specific markers and their expression of CD36 was investigated. Results. Triglycerides correlated positively with all investigated microvesicle phenotypes in this study (palanine...

  17. Protective Effects of Testosterone on Presynaptic Terminals against Oligomeric β-Amyloid Peptide in Primary Culture of Hippocampal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Fai Lau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing lines of evidence support that testosterone may have neuroprotective effects. While observational studies reported an association between higher bioavailable testosterone or brain testosterone levels and reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, there is limited understanding of the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms. Previous studies demonstrated that testosterone could alleviate neurotoxicity induced by β-amyloid (Aβ, but these findings mainly focused on neuronal apoptosis. Since synaptic dysfunction and degeneration are early events during the pathogenesis of AD, we aim to investigate the effects of testosterone on oligomeric Aβ-induced synaptic changes. Our data suggested that exposure of primary cultured hippocampal neurons to oligomeric Aβ could reduce the length of neurites and decrease the expression of presynaptic proteins including synaptophysin, synaptotagmin, and synapsin-1. Aβ also disrupted synaptic vesicle recycling and protein folding machinery. Testosterone preserved the integrity of neurites and the expression of presynaptic proteins. It also attenuated Aβ-induced impairment of synaptic exocytosis. By using letrozole as an aromatase antagonist, we further demonstrated that the effects of testosterone on exocytosis were unlikely to be mediated through the estrogen receptor pathway. Furthermore, we showed that testosterone could attenuate Aβ-induced reduction of HSP70, which suggests a novel mechanism that links testosterone and its protective function on Aβ-induced synaptic damage. Taken together, our data provide further evidence on the beneficial effects of testosterone, which may be useful for future drug development for AD.

  18. Testosterone Administration Moderates Effect of Social Environment on Trust in Women Depending on Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskens, Vincent; Raub, Werner; van Miltenburg, Nynke; Montoya, Estrella R; van Honk, Jack

    2016-06-10

    Animal research has established that effects of hormones on social behaviour depend on characteristics of both individual and environment. Insight from research on humans into this interdependence is limited, though. Specifically, hardly any prior testosterone experiments in humans scrutinized the interdependency of testosterone with the social environment. Nonetheless, recent testosterone administration studies in humans repeatedly show that a proxy for individuals' prenatal testosterone-to-estradiol ratio, second-to-fourth digit-ratio (2D:4D ratio), influences effects of testosterone administration on human social behaviour. Here, we systematically vary the characteristics of the social environment and show that, depending on prenatal sex hormone priming, testosterone administration in women moderates the effect of the social environment on trust. We use the economic trust game and compare one-shot games modelling trust problems in relations between strangers with repeated games modelling trust problems in ongoing relations between partners. As expected, subjects are more trustful in repeated than in one-shot games. In subjects prenatally relatively highly primed by testosterone, however, this effect disappears after testosterone administration. We argue that impairments in cognitive empathy may reduce the repeated game effect on trust after testosterone administration in subjects with relatively high prenatal testosterone exposure and propose a neurobiological explanation for this effect.

  19. First Assessment of the Sex Ratio for an East Pacific Green Sea Turtle Foraging Aggregation: Validation and Application of a Testosterone ELISA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camryn D Allen

    Full Text Available Determining sex ratios of endangered populations is important for wildlife management, particularly species subject to sex-specific threats or that exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination. Sea turtle sex is determined by incubation temperature and individuals lack external sex-based traits until sexual maturity. Previous research utilized serum/plasma testosterone radioimmunoassays (RIA to determine sex in immature/juvenile sea turtles. However, there has been a growing application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for wildlife endocrinology studies, but no study on sea turtles has compared the results of ELISA and RIA. This study provides the first sex ratio for a threatened East Pacific green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas foraging aggregation, a critical step for future management of this species. Here, we validate a testosterone ELISA and compare results between RIA and ELISA of duplicate samples. The ELISA demonstrated excellent correspondence with the RIA for providing testosterone concentrations for sex determination. Neither assay proved reliable for predicting the sex of reproductively active females with increased testosterone production. We then applied ELISA to examine the sex ratio of 69 green turtles foraging in San Diego Bay, California. Of 45 immature turtles sampled, sex could not be determined for three turtles because testosterone concentrations fell between the ranges for either sex (females: 4.1-113.1 pg/mL, males: 198.4-2,613.0 pg/mL and these turtles were not subsequently recaptured to enable sex determination; using a Bayesian model to predict probabilities of turtle sex we predicted all three 'unknowns' were female (> 0.86. Additionally, the model assigned all turtles with their correct sex (if determined at recapture with 100% accuracy. Results indicated a female bias (2.83F:1M among all turtles in the aggregation; when focusing only on putative immature turtles the sex ratio was 3.5F:1M. With appropriate

  20. Decision-making, financial risk aversion, and behavioral biases: The role of testosterone and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofsinger, John R; Patterson, Fernando M; Shank, Corey A

    2018-05-01

    We examine the relation between testosterone, cortisol, and financial decisions in a sample of naïve investors. We find that testosterone level is positively related to excess risk-taking, whereas cortisol level is negatively related to excess risk-taking (correlation coefficient [r]: 0.75 and -0.21, respectively). Additionally, we find support for the dual-hormone hypothesis in a financial context. Specifically, the testosterone-to-cortisol ratio is significantly related to loss aversion. Individuals with a higher ratio are 3.4 times more likely to sell losing stocks (standard error [SE]: 1.63). Furthermore, we find a positive feedback loop between financial success, testosterone, and cortisol. Specifically, financial success is significantly related to higher post-trial testosterone and cortisol by a factor of 0.53 (SE: 0.14). Finally, we find that in a competitive environment, testosterone level increases significantly, leading to greater risk-taking than in noncompetitive environment. Overall, this study underscores the importance of the endocrine system on financial decision-making. The results of this study are relevant to a broad audience, including investors looking to optimize financial performance, industry human resources, market regulators, and researchers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A herbal medicine, saikokaryukotsuboreito, improves serum testosterone levels and affects sexual behavior in old male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Zhi Jun; Ji, Su Yun; Dong, Wang; Zhang, Ya Nan; Zhang, Er Hong; Bin, Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is a clinical syndrome characterized with aging and declined serum testosterone levels. Sexual symptoms are also essential for the diagnosis of LOH. Testosterone replacement therapy is used widely to treat LOH. However, the side effects of it should not be ignored, such as fluid retention, hypertension and spermatogenic suppression. Therefore, alternate treatment modalities have been pursued. Herbal medicines used widely in China have achieved satisfying results with little side effects. Nonetheless, there are few pharmacological researches on them. In this study, 24-month-old mice were used as LOH animal models to explore the pharmacological effects of a herbal medicine, saikokaryukotsuboreito (SKRBT), on serum testosterone levels and sexual functions. Furthermore, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, a kind of rate-limiting enzyme of testosterone synthesis, was also examined. As a result, SKRBT improved the serum testosterone levels of these mice at a dose of 300 and 450 mg/kg. Multiple measures of sexual behavior were enhanced. The expression of StAR was also increased. Therefore, this study suggested that SKRBT can improve the serum testosterone levels by activating the expression of StAR and might be a viable option to treat sexual symptoms caused by LOH.

  2. Testosterone in the brain: neuroimaging findings and the potential role for neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfer, Peter; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Kasper, Siegfried

    2013-02-01

    Testosterone plays a substantial role in a number of physiological processes in the brain. It is able to modulate the expression of certain genes by binding to androgen receptors. Acting via neurotransmitter receptors, testosterone shows the potential to mediate a non-genomic so-called "neuroactive effect". Various neurotransmitter systems are also influenced by the aromatized form of testosterone, estradiol. The following article summarizes the findings of preclinical and clinical neuroimaging studies including structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI/fMRI), voxel based morphometry (VBM), as well as pharmacological fMRI (phfMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) regarding the effects of testosterone on the human brain. The impact of testosterone on the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and on sex-related prevalence differences have been supported by a wide range of clinical studies. An antidepressant effect of testosterone can be implicitly explained by its effects on the limbic system--especially amygdala, a major target in the treatment of depression--solidly demonstrated by a large body of neuroimaging findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypogonadism in the Aging Male Diagnosis, Potential Benefits, and Risks of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth N. Surampudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypogonadism in older men is a syndrome characterized by low serum testosterone levels and clinical symptoms often seen in hypogonadal men of younger age. These symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased vitality, decreased muscle mass, increased adiposity, depressed mood, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism is a common dis