WorldWideScience

Sample records for subnational levels interdisciplinary

  1. Meeting the International Health Regulations (2005) surveillance core capacity requirements at the subnational level in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Riesgo, Luis Garcia-Castrillo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The revised World Health Organization's International Health Regulations (2005) request a timely and all-hazard approach towards surveillance, especially at the subnational level. We discuss three questions of syndromic surveillance application in the European context for assessing pu...

  2. The HIV epidemic and prevention response in Tigrai, Ethiopia: a synthesis at sub-national level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabas, GebreAb; Pegurri, Elisabetta; Selassie, Hiwot Haile; Naamara, Warren; Zemariam, Samuel

    2014-06-20

    This study, the first of its kind carried out at sub-national level in Ethiopia, was conducted in order to understand the dynamics of HIV transmission at regional and district level in Tigrai, Ethiopia; and to assess the adequacy of the HIV prevention response. Routine data from health centres, data from available published and grey literature and studies, and primary qualitative information were triangulated to draw an updated picture of the HIV epidemic, HIV response and resource allocation in Tigrai. HIV prevalence in Tigrai was 1.8% in 2011 (EDHS). ANC data show that there has been a continuous decline in the prevalence of HIV in both urban and rural areas (urban: 14.9% in 2001 to 5.0% in 2009; rural: 5.2% in 2001 to 1.3% in 2009, ANC surveillance data). Variability in prevalence by zone and by district was observed. Possible reasons for higher prevalence include the presence of mobile seasonal workers, highly urbanized centres, a high concentration of economic activity and connecting roads and large commercial farms. Sex workers, seasonal farm workers and HIV negative partners in discordant couples were identified as being at higher risk. There is no evidence that programme planning is done on the basis of geographical variations in HIV prevalence and there are gaps in programmes and services for certain high risk population groups. Considerable efforts have been invested in the HIV prevention response in Tigrai however, these efforts do not fully respond to the actual needs. For a more effective and targeted HIV prevention response, studies and data syntheses need to be carried out at sub-national level in order to accurately identify local specificities and plan accordingly. Resources should be targeted towards areas where transmission is linked to sex work, mobility and the mobile labour workforce.

  3. Advancing reference emission levels in subnational and national REDD+ initiatives: a CLASlite approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Florian; Asner, Gregory P; Joseph, Shijo

    2015-12-01

    Conservation and monitoring of tropical forests requires accurate information on their extent and change dynamics. Cloud cover, sensor errors and technical barriers associated with satellite remote sensing data continue to prevent many national and sub-national REDD+ initiatives from developing their reference deforestation and forest degradation emission levels. Here we present a framework for large-scale historical forest cover change analysis using free multispectral satellite imagery in an extremely cloudy tropical forest region. The CLASlite approach provided highly automated mapping of tropical forest cover, deforestation and degradation from Landsat satellite imagery. Critically, the fractional cover of forest photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and bare substrates calculated by CLASlite provided scene-invariant quantities for forest cover, allowing for systematic mosaicking of incomplete satellite data coverage. A synthesized satellite-based data set of forest cover was thereby created, reducing image incompleteness caused by clouds, shadows or sensor errors. This approach can readily be implemented by single operators with highly constrained budgets. We test this framework on tropical forests of the Colombian Pacific Coast (Chocó) - one of the cloudiest regions on Earth, with successful comparison to the Colombian government's deforestation map and a global deforestation map.

  4. Child Safety Reference Frameworks: a Policy Tool for Child Injury Prevention at the Sub-national Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtes, Beatrice; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Mackay, Morag; Vincenten, Joanne; Brand, Helmut

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the Child Safety Reference Frameworks (CSRF), a policy advice tool that places evidence-based child safety interventions, applicable at the sub-national level, into a framework resembling the Haddon Matrix. The CSRF is based on work done in previous EU funded projects, which we have adapted to the field of child safety. The CSRF were populated following a literature review. Four CSRF were developed for four domains of child safety: road, water and home safety, and intentional injury prevention. The CSRF can be used as a reference, assessment and comparative tool by child safety practitioners and policy makers working at the sub-national level.

  5. The Non-Economic Quality of Life on a Sub-National Level in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, Stephanie; Naude, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Most research on the non-economic quality of life have been (a) on a national level or performed on cross-country comparisons, and/or (b) used subjective indicators to measure how people perceive their non-economic quality of life. In this paper, our main contribution is to construct objective indicators of the non-economic quality of life for 354…

  6. A Model and Strategies for Realizing Secondary Level Interdisciplinary Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, James A.; Campbell, Star; Bardwell, Jenny

    This paper discusses strategies that can be used to realize interdisciplinary instruction at the secondary level and details a sample curriculum that employs themes related to human nutrition. The Secondary Level Interdisciplinary Curriculum is organized around five thematic units that present nutrition issues highly relevant to adolescents:…

  7. Cultural vs. Economic: Re-Visiting the Determinants of Fertility at a Sub-National Level in the U.S, 1990 - 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R. Porter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that through the past century, and especially since 1950, the world population has grown at an accelerating pace landing the current world's population at about 6.5 billion and, according to UN projections, it is expected to reach 9.1 billion by 2050 (Bongaarts 2005. However, this growth is not uniform and tends to vary both regionally and intra-regionally around the world (Bongaarts 1998. There are competing theories as to the true determinants of fertility levels and these identified patterns (Caldwell 2001. The bulk of these theories pit economic determinants versus socio-cultural determinants as the primary indicators concerning the onset of fertility decline. However, most of this work has had an international focus with very few examining sub-national trends in fertility patterns. This paper draws on the work of one study which examined sub-national trends in the U.S. in hopes of better understanding current trends in determining fertility in the U.S. (Cutright 1983. An OLS regression approach is employed allowing for the examination of the two competing theories. Findings suggest that, while both are certainly significant, the role of economic determinants.

  8. Avoiding the Fiscal Pitfalls of Subnational Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation; World Bank; Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency

    2011-01-01

    Since investment climate reforms in developing countries started gaining traction in the 1990s, most efforts have focused on issues at the national level, achieving varying degrees of success for reasons that are relatively well understood. This handbook provides an overview of efforts and achievements in subnational investment climate reforms. It is organized as follows. Chapter 2 reviews...

  9. Spatiotemporal Evolution of Ebola Virus Disease at Sub-National Level during the 2014 West Africa Epidemic: Model Scrutiny and Data Meagreness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Santermans

    Full Text Available The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has infected at least 27,443 individuals and killed 11,207, based on data until 24 June, 2015, released by the World Health Organization (WHO. This outbreak has been characterised by extensive geographic spread across the affected countries Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, and by localized hotspots within these countries. The rapid recognition and quantitative assessment of localised areas of higher transmission can inform the optimal deployment of public health resources.A variety of mathematical models have been used to estimate the evolution of this epidemic, and some have pointed out the importance of the spatial heterogeneity apparent from incidence maps. However, little is known about the district-level transmission. Given that many response decisions are taken at sub-national level, the current study aimed to investigate the spatial heterogeneity by using a different modelling framework, built on publicly available data at district level. Furthermore, we assessed whether this model could quantify the effect of intervention measures and provide predictions at a local level to guide public health action. We used a two-stage modelling approach: a a flexible spatiotemporal growth model across all affected districts and b a deterministic SEIR compartmental model per district whenever deemed appropriate.Our estimates show substantial differences in the evolution of the outbreak in the various regions of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, illustrating the importance of monitoring the outbreak at district level. We also provide an estimate of the time-dependent district-specific effective reproduction number, as a quantitative measure to compare transmission between different districts and give input for informed decisions on control measures and resource allocation. Prediction and assessing the impact of control measures proved to be difficult without more accurate data. In conclusion, this study provides us a

  10. A Socio-Ecological Approach for Identifying and Contextualising Spatial Ecosystem-Based Adaptation Priorities at the Sub-National Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Bourne

    Full Text Available Climate change adds an additional layer of complexity to existing sustainable development and biodiversity conservation challenges. The impacts of global climate change are felt locally, and thus local governance structures will increasingly be responsible for preparedness and local responses. Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA options are gaining prominence as relevant climate change solutions. Local government officials seldom have an appropriate understanding of the role of ecosystem functioning in sustainable development goals, or access to relevant climate information. Thus the use of ecosystems in helping people adapt to climate change is limited partially by the lack of information on where ecosystems have the highest potential to do so. To begin overcoming this barrier, Conservation South Africa in partnership with local government developed a socio-ecological approach for identifying spatial EbA priorities at the sub-national level. Using GIS-based multi-criteria analysis and vegetation distribution models, the authors have spatially integrated relevant ecological and social information at a scale appropriate to inform local level political, administrative, and operational decision makers. This is the first systematic approach of which we are aware that highlights spatial priority areas for EbA implementation. Nodes of socio-ecological vulnerability are identified, and the inclusion of areas that provide ecosystem services and ecological resilience to future climate change is innovative. The purpose of this paper is to present and demonstrate a methodology for combining complex information into user-friendly spatial products for local level decision making on EbA. The authors focus on illustrating the kinds of products that can be generated from combining information in the suggested ways, and do not discuss the nuance of climate models nor present specific technical details of the model outputs here. Two representative case studies from

  11. Exploring the use of social network analysis to measure communication between disease programme and district managers at sub-national level in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawonga, Mary; Blaauw, Duane; Fonn, Sharon

    2015-06-01

    With increasing interest in maximising synergies between disease control programmes (DCP) and general health services (GHS), methods are needed to measure interactions between DCP and GHS actors. In South Africa, administrative integration reforms make GHS managers at decentralised level (district managers) responsible for the oversight of DCP operations within districts, with DCP managers (programme managers) providing specialist support. The reforms necessitate interdependence, but these actors work together ineffectively. Communication is crucial for joint working, but no research to assess communication between these actors has been done. This study explores the use of social network analysis (SNA) to measure the extent to which programme and district managers in South Africa communicate, using HIV monitoring and evaluation (M&E) as an exemplar. Data were collected from fifty one managers in two provinces during 2010-2011, to measure: a) one-on-one task-related communication - talking about the collation (verification, reporting) and use of HIV data for monitoring HIV interventions; and b) group communication through co-participating in management committees where HIV data are used for monitoring HIV interventions in districts. SNA measures were computed to describe actor centrality, network density (cohesion), and communication within and between respective manager groups. Block modelling was applied to identify management committees that connect respective manager groups. Results show HIV programme managers located at higher level communicated largely amongst themselves as a group (homophily), seldom talked to the district managers to whom they are supposed to provide specialist HIV M&E support, and rarely participated with them in management committees. This research demonstrates the utility of SNA as a tool for measuring the extent of communication between DCP and GHS actors at sub-national level. Actions are needed to bridge observed communication gaps in

  12. A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO SUB-NATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA is investigating sustainability metrics from an economic and environmental perspective to determine their applicability at a sub-national level. Metrics are derived from Ecological Footprint, Emergy Analysis, Net Regional Product, and Fisher Information. We chose severa...

  13. SUB-NATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY FROM A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA is investigating sustainability metrics from an economic and environmental perspective to determine their applicability at a sub-national level. Metrics are derived from Ecological Footprint, Emergy Analysis, Net Regional Product, and Fisher Information. We chose severa...

  14. Contextualizing Obesity and Diabetes Policy: Exploring a Nested Statistical and Constructivist Approach at the Cross-National and Subnational Government Level in the United States and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. Gómez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background This article conducts a comparative national and subnational government analysis of the political, economic, and ideational constructivist contextual factors facilitating the adoption of obesity and diabetes policy. Methods We adopt a nested analytical approach to policy analysis, which combines cross-national statistical analysis with subnational case study comparisons to examine theoretical prepositions and discover alternative contextual factors; this was combined with an ideational constructivist approach to policy-making. Results Contrary to the existing literature, we found that with the exception of cross-national statistical differences in access to healthcare infrastructural resources, the growing burden of obesity and diabetes, rising healthcare costs and increased citizens’ knowledge had no predictive affect on the adoption of obesity and diabetes policy. We then turned to a subnational comparative analysis of the states of Mississippi in the United States and Rio Grande do Norte in Brazil to further assess the importance of infrastructural resources, at two units of analysis: the state governments versus rural municipal governments. Qualitative evidence suggests that differences in subnational healthcare infrastructural resources were insufficient for explaining policy reform processes, highlighting instead other potentially important factors, such as state-civil societal relationships and policy diffusion in Mississippi, federal policy intervention in Rio Grande do Norte, and politicians’ social construction of obesity and the resulting differences in policy roles assigned to the central government. Conclusion We conclude by underscoring the complexity of subnational policy responses to obesity and diabetes, the importance of combining resource and constructivist analysis for better understanding the context of policy reform, while underscoring the potential lessons that the United States can learn from Brazil.

  15. Subnational electoral contexts and corruption in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Faughnan, Brian M.; Hiskey, Jonathan; Revey, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    "Scholars of the world's most recent democratization processes have tended to focus on how national-level institutions have developed and how citizens have interpreted and responded to those developments. In this paper, we argue that the distinct subnational political environments that emerge from uneven national regime transitions are important determinants of how people view their political world. Specifically, we argue that citizens' experiences with and attitudes towards corruption are pa...

  16. SUBNATIONAL REGIONALISM IN A SUPRANATIONAL CONTEXT: THE CASE OF HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellison

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available European economic integration drives a political economy of regionalism that—far more than traditional divisions between labor and capital—defines the principal axis of political-economic division in the New Europe. The New Economy drives a radical shift in EU policy from cohesion or redistribution toward innovation promotion, affecting distributional struggles and policy approaches at the EU, national and subnational levels. Shifting strategies pose significant challenges at the national and subnational levels with important implications for future EU, national and subnational economic and regional development policy goals. At the national level, and in particular less developed economies, the New Economy creates incentives for the increasing centralization of decision-making. EU-level reforms, such as the Lisbon Agenda and an increasing emphasis on cohesion as opposed to structural funding, do much to strengthen these trends. Subnational regions, at least in the near term, may be the principal losers. But such trends are likely to strengthen future demands for greater subnational political decentralization.

  17. Multilevel governance challenges in transitioning towards a national approach for REDD+:Evidence from 23 subnational REDD+ initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar, Ashwin; Larson, Anne M; Duchelle, Amy E; Myers, Rodd; Gozales Tovar, Jazmin

    2015-01-01

    Although REDD+ was conceived as a national approach to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, many of the early advances have been at the subnational level. It is critical to link these subnational efforts to emerging national REDD+ frameworks, including with respect to finance and benefit distribution, setting reference levels, measurement, reporting and verification (MRV), land policy and safeguards. We use evidence from interviews with proponents from 23 subnational ...

  18. Fluorescence: An Interdisciplinary Phenomenon for Different Education Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Moreno, J. M.; Perales, F. J.; Romero, J.; Sánchez, P.; Gómez-Robledo, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the scientific foundations of a natural phenomenon of undoubted interest and applicability in our day, fluorescence, and its possibilities for teaching at three educational levels: primary, secondary and university. It begins by describing the nature of the phenomenon and continues by explaining how we work with students of the…

  19. Variation in attrition at subnational level: review of the Botswana National HIV/AIDS Treatment (Masa) programme data (2002-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mansour; Price, Natalie; El-Halabi, Shenaaz; Mlaudzi, Naledi; Keapoletswe, Koona; Lebelonyane, Refeletswe; Fetogang, Ernest Benny; Chebani, Tony; Kebaabetswe, Poloko; Masupe, Tiny; Gabaake, Keba; Auld, Andrew; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Marlink, Richard

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the variation in all-cause attrition [mortality and loss to follow-up (LTFU)] among HIV-infected individuals in Botswana by health district during the rapid and massive scale-up of the National Treatment Program. Analysis of routinely collected longitudinal data from 226 030 patients who received ART through the Botswana National HIV/AIDS Treatment Program across all 24 health districts from 2002 to 2013. A time-to-event analysis was used to measure crude mortality and loss to follow-up rates (LTFU). A marginal structural model was used to evaluate mortality and LTFU rates by district over time, adjusted for individual-level risk factors (e.g. age, gender, baseline CD4, year of treatment initiation and antiretroviral regimen). Mortality rates in the districts ranged from the lowest 1.0 (95% CI 0.9-1.1) in Selibe-Phikwe, to the highest 5.0 (95% CI 4.0-6.1), in Mabutsane. There was a wide range of overall LTFU across districts, including rates as low as 4.6 (95% CI 4.4-4.9) losses per 100 person-years in Ngamiland, and 5.9 (95% CI 5.6-6.2) losses per 100 person-years in South East district, to rates as high as 25.4 (95% CI 23.08-27.89) losses per 100 person-years in Mabutsane and 46.3 (95% CI 43.48-49.23) losses per 100 person-years in Okavango. Even when known risk factors for mortality and LTFU were adjusted for, district was a significant predictor of both mortality and LTFU rates. We found statistically significant variation in attrition (mortality and LTFU) and data quality among districts. These findings suggest that district-level contextual factors affect retention in treatment. Further research needs to investigate factors that can potentially cause this variation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Monitoring subnational violence in Asia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This makes it difficult to understand why some countries experience ethnic riots and others do not, or why many stable, middle-income countries, especially in Asia, have protracted subnational conflicts. Previous research supported by The Asia Foundation has highlighted that more and better data, produced at a ...

  1. Subnational insolvency : cross-country experiences and lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lili; Waibel, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Subnational insolvency is a reoccurring event in development, as demonstrated by historical and modern episodes of subnational defaults in both developed and developing countries. Insolvency procedures become more important as countries decentralize expenditure, taxation, and borrowing, and broaden subnational credit markets. As the first cross-country survey of procedures to resolve subna...

  2. An Investigation of (Non- Inclusive Growth in Nigeria’s Sub-Nationals: Evidence from Elasticity Approach

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    Enobong Udoh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to estimate and rank the performance of sub-nationals in terms of their quality of growth using an index of inequality elasticity of poverty. The study puts forward a scenario matrix to hypothesize the four qualities of growth according to its interactions with inequality and poverty. This model is useful for developing countries that lack GDP data at the sub-national level, provided growth (at the national level has been positive for the period under review. The study found that for Nigeria’s sub-nationals, the null hypothesis of non-inclusive growth was rejected for the different poverty measures.

  3. Sub-national Revenue Mobilization in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo; Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge; Sepulveda, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problem of sub-national revenue mobilization in Peru and proposes several policy reforms to improve collection performance while maintaining a sound revenue structure. In particular, the paper analyzes the current revenues of regional and municipal governments and identifies the main priorities for reform. Among the most important problems are the acute inequalities and inefficiencies associated with revenue sharing from extractive industries. These revenues represent ...

  4. Interdisciplinary collaboration within project-level NEPA teams in the US Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Freeman; Marc J. Stern; Michael Mortimer; Dale J. Blahna; Lee K. Cerveny

    2011-01-01

    Interdisciplinary teamwork has become a foundation of natural resources planning and management in the US. Yet, we know little about the degree of interdisciplinary collaboration of natural resource planning teams. We conducted 10 case studies of Forest Service NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) teams working on projects related to the 2005 Travel Management Rule...

  5. Arctic strategies of sub-national regions : Why and how sub-national regions of Northern Finland and Sweden mobilize as Arctic stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    The stakes are high in the Arctic region in terms of economic opportunities, environmental challenges and political interests, not least considering the fact that stakeholders include the most powerful nations in the world. This study departs from the notion that sub-national levels of government, in areas most affected by developments in the Arctic; risk being put in the background in favor of high-level and high-tension politics. Using theories on paradiplomacy and marginality, this study m...

  6. Subnational taxation in developing countries : a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on tax assignment in decentralized countries. Ideally, own-source revenues should be sufficient to enable at least the richest subnational governments to finance from their own resources all locally-provided services that primarily benefit local residents. Subnational taxes should also not unduly distort the allocation of resources. Most importantly, to the extent ...

  7. Laws for fiscal responsibility for subnational discipline : international experience

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lili; Steven B. Webb

    2011-01-01

    Fiscal responsibility laws are institutions with which multiple governments in the same economy -- national and subnational --can commit to help avoid irresponsible fiscal behavior that could have short-term advantages to one of them but that would be collectively damaging. Coordination failures with subnational governments in the 1990s contributed to macroeconomic instability and led seve...

  8. Executive-level reviews of seclusion and restraint promote interdisciplinary collaboration and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Diane E; de Nesnera, Alexander; Souther, Justin W

    2009-08-01

    Elimination of seclusion and restraint requires support at all levels of an organization, especially from leaders who visibly champion and communicate their vision. Nurses, physicians, educators, and administrators at New Hampshire Hospital, an acute psychiatric inpatient facility, have established a standard meeting time and place for an executive-level review of every episode of seclusion and restraint. The standing meeting demonstrates the organization's commitment to caring for both patients and staff. The daily meetings foster a spirit of interdisciplinary collaboration, where direct care staff have the opportunity to tell their stories and share their ideas and concerns in an environment that is caring, supportive, and devoid of criticism or blame. Narrative descriptions of emergency interventions, including what was learned from debriefings with patients and staff involved, provide data about factors that may contribute to the use of seclusion or restraint. This forum provides visible administrative and clinical support that promotes creative thinking, collaborative problem solving, and the exploration of new ideas recommended by those directly involved in providing patient care. It has fostered exploration and development of strategies that have minimized episodes of aggressive behavior as well as seclusion and restraint.

  9. Sub-national mapping of population pyramids and dependency ratios in Africa and Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Carla; Hornby, Graeme M.; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Gaughan, Andrea E.; Linard, Catherine; Bird, Tomas J.; Kerr, David; Lloyd, Christopher T.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2017-07-01

    The age group composition of populations varies substantially across continents and within countries, and is linked to levels of development, health status and poverty. The subnational variability in the shape of the population pyramid as well as the respective dependency ratio are reflective of the different levels of development of a country and are drivers for a country's economic prospects and health burdens. Whether measured as the ratio between those of working age and those young and old who are dependent upon them, or through separate young and old-age metrics, dependency ratios are often highly heterogeneous between and within countries. Assessments of subnational dependency ratio and age structure patterns have been undertaken for specific countries and across high income regions, but to a lesser extent across the low income regions. In the framework of the WorldPop Project, through the assembly of over 100 million records across 6,389 subnational administrative units, subnational dependency ratio and high resolution gridded age/sex group datasets were produced for 87 countries in Africa and Asia.

  10. Forms and Levels of Integration: Evaluation of an Interdisciplinary Team-Building Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Armstrong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Team science models are frequently promoted as the best way to study complex societal and environmental problems. Despite increasing popularity, there is relatively little research on the processes and mechanisms that facilitate the emergence of integration of interdisciplinary teams. This article evaluates a suite of recent team-building and grant-writing activities designed to address water management in the Western U.S. We use qualitative methods to document the emergence of integrative capacity at the individual, group, and institutional levels, with particular attention to the role of graduate students and non-academic practitioners in a team science planning project. Our findings highlight the importance of social integration as a basis for conceptual integration and an ability to relate these concepts to real-world problems. The findings also demonstrate the value of qualitative evaluation measures of team readiness, capacity, and intellectual outputs to complement conventional evaluation indicators that rely on quantitative scientific outputs, particularly for team science projects still in the planning stages.

  11. NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND SUBNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

    We investigate the role of national institutions on subnational African development in a novel framework that accounts for both local geography and cultural-genetic traits. We exploit the fact that the political boundaries on the eve of African independence partitioned more than 200 ethnic groups across adjacent countries subjecting similar cultures, residing in homogeneous geographic areas, to different formal institutions. Using both a matching type and a spatial regression discontinuity approach we show that differences in countrywide institutional structures across the national border do not explain within-ethnicity differences in economic performance, as captured by satellite images of light density. The average noneffect of national institutions on ethnic development masks considerable heterogeneity partially driven by the diminishing role of national institutions in areas further from the capital cities.

  12. NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND SUBNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the role of national institutions on subnational African development in a novel framework that accounts for both local geography and cultural-genetic traits. We exploit the fact that the political boundaries on the eve of African independence partitioned more than 200 ethnic groups across adjacent countries subjecting similar cultures, residing in homogeneous geographic areas, to different formal institutions. Using both a matching type and a spatial regression discontinuity approach we show that differences in countrywide institutional structures across the national border do not explain within-ethnicity differences in economic performance, as captured by satellite images of light density. The average noneffect of national institutions on ethnic development masks considerable heterogeneity partially driven by the diminishing role of national institutions in areas further from the capital cities. PMID:25802926

  13. Comparing methods for assessing the effectiveness of subnational REDD+ initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Astrid B.; Duchelle, Amy E.; Angelsen, Arild; Avitabile, Valerio; De Sy, Veronique; Herold, Martin; Joseph, Shijo; de Sassi, Claudio; Sills, Erin O.; Sunderlin, William D.; Wunder, Sven

    2017-07-01

    The central role of forests in climate change mitigation, as recognized in the Paris agreement, makes it increasingly important to develop and test methods for monitoring and evaluating the carbon effectiveness of REDD+. Over the last decade, hundreds of subnational REDD+ initiatives have emerged, presenting an opportunity to pilot and compare different approaches to quantifying impacts on carbon emissions. This study (1) develops a Before-After-Control-Intervention (BACI) method to assess the effectiveness of these REDD+ initiatives; (2) compares the results at the meso (initiative) and micro (village) scales; and (3) compares BACI with the simpler Before-After (BA) results. Our study covers 23 subnational REDD+ initiatives in Brazil, Peru, Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia and Vietnam. As a proxy for deforestation, we use annual tree cover loss. We aggregate data into two periods (before and after the start of each initiative). Analysis using control areas (‘control-intervention’) suggests better REDD+ performance, although the effect is more pronounced at the micro than at the meso level. Yet, BACI requires more data than BA, and is subject to possible bias in the before period. Selection of proper control areas is vital, but at either scale is not straightforward. Low absolute deforestation numbers and peak years influence both our BA and BACI results. In principle, BACI is superior, with its potential to effectively control for confounding factors. We conclude that the more local the scale of performance assessment, the more relevant is the use of the BACI approach. For various reasons, we find overall minimal impact of REDD+ in reducing deforestation on the ground thus far. Incorporating results from micro and meso level monitoring into national reporting systems is important, since overall REDD+ impact depends on land use decisions on the ground.

  14. Promoting hand hygiene in healthcare through national/subnational campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, E; Allegranzi, B; Kilpatrick, C; Bagheri Nejad, S; Graafmans, W; Pittet, D

    2011-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) First Global Patient Safety Challenge conducted a baseline survey of coordinated large-scale activities in improving hand hygiene in healthcare in 2007. The survey was repeated in early 2009 to assess current status and generate information on factors contributing to success. Coordinated activities were identified through WHO regional offices and experts in the field. An online survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted during March-April 2009. Personnel involved in all 38 campaigns/programmes in 2009 completed the survey. Of these, 29 were active national/subnational-level initiatives and 22 (75.8%) were initiated after the Challenge launch in October 2005. Main targets were general, district, and university hospitals with increasing coverage of long-term care facilities and primary care. The scope varied from awareness-raising to formal scaled-up activities with ongoing evaluation. Most initiatives (20/29) obtained funding from multiple sources with governments among the main funders; governments also initiated 25/29 (86.2%) programmes. The facilitator role played by the Challenge in initiating and supporting activities with tools and recommendations was clearly identified. The perceived significance of specific barriers varied considerably across initiatives. Those related to commitment (priority and support) and resource availability were important across all regions. Hand hygiene is being promoted in healthcare in many nations/subnations with clear objectives, strategies, and governmental support through policies and resource allocation. While this is important for sustainability, further action is required to initiate coordinated activities across the world, including countries with limited resources. Copyright © 2011 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of the Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Decoding Area Studies and Interdisciplinary Majors: Building a Framework for Entry-Level Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Kristina Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Decoding disciplinary expertise for novices is increasingly part of the undergraduate curriculum. But how might area studies and other interdisciplinary programs, which require integration of courses from multiple disciplines, decode expertise in a similar fashion? Additionally, as a part of decoding area studies and interdisciplines, how might a…

  16. The politics of subnational undemocratic regime reproduction in Argentina and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Giraudy, Agustina

    2010-01-01

    This article studies the continued existence of subnational undemocraticregimes in Argentina and Mexico, two countries that have recently experiencednational democratization. The first part of the article offers a conceptualizationof subnational democracy and measures its territorial extension across all subnational units. The second part explores a common, albeit not systematically tested explanation about subnational undemocratic regime continuity, namely, that these regimes persist because...

  17. Poverty Mapping Project: Global Subnational Prevalence of Child Malnutrition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Subnational Prevalence of Child Malnutrition dataset consists of estimates of the percentage of children with weight-for-age z-scores that are more than...

  18. Poverty Mapping Project: Global Subnational Infant Mortality Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Subnational Infant Mortality Rates consists of estimates of infant mortality rates for the year 2000. The infant mortality rate for a region or country is...

  19. National and subnational HIV/AIDS coordination: are global health initiatives closing the gap between intent and practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukhadze Natia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A coordinated response to HIV/AIDS remains one of the 'grand challenges' facing policymakers today. Global health initiatives (GHIs have the potential both to facilitate and exacerbate coordination at the national and subnational level. Evidence of the effects of GHIs on coordination is beginning to emerge but has hitherto been limited to single-country studies and broad-brush reviews. To date, no study has provided a focused synthesis of the effects of GHIs on national and subnational health systems across multiple countries. To address this deficit, we review primary data from seven country studies on the effects of three GHIs on coordination of HIV/AIDS programmes: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR, and the World Bank's HIV/AIDS programmes including the Multi-country AIDS Programme (MAP. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted at national and subnational levels (179 and 218 respectively in seven countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and South America, between 2006 and 2008. Studies explored the development and functioning of national and subnational HIV coordination structures, and the extent to which coordination efforts around HIV/AIDS are aligned with and strengthen country health systems. Results Positive effects of GHIs included the creation of opportunities for multisectoral participation, greater political commitment and increased transparency among most partners. However, the quality of participation was often limited, and some GHIs bypassed coordination mechanisms, especially at the subnational level, weakening their effectiveness. Conclusions The paper identifies residual national and subnational obstacles to effective coordination and optimal use of funds by focal GHIs, which these GHIs, other donors and country partners need to collectively address.

  20. DOES FISCAL DISCIPLINE TOWARDS SUBNATIONAL GOVERNMENTS AFFECT CITIZENS' WELL-BEING? EVIDENCE ON HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Piacenza, Massimiliano; Turati, Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at assessing the impact of fiscal discipline towards sub-national governments on citizens' well-being. We model fiscal discipline by considering the expectations of deficit bailouts by Central Government, and focus on a particular dimension of well-being, namely health outcomes at the regional level. We study then how bailout expectations affect the expenditure for health care policies carried out by Regional Governments: in the presence of opportunistic behaviours by local go...

  1. EVALUATION OF THE SUB-NATIONAL DECENTRALIZATION OF THE HEALTH IN VENEZUELA INFANTILE MATERNAL PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Ávila Urdaneta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The work approaches the evaluation of the decentralization of the health at sub-national level in Venezuela, maternal program Infantile (PROMIN, period 1998-2004: Case of study, Estado Zulia. With the samples of ten Municipalities and Coordinators of Health (CH. Of the results and conclusions, it is appraised that in Venezuela with the Model of Integral Attention with respect to the PROMIN (1998-2004, the reason of Maternal Mortality RMM average for the country ascends to 60 by 100,000 NVR (OPS, 2003, whereas in Zulia was in 79,9; they emphasize the Municipalities: Cañada de Urdaneta with but the high one of 214.13, followed of Mara 149.44 by 100,000 NVR. Key words: Sub-national decentralization of the Health, Infantile Maternal Program, Indicating of Morbidity and Mortality, Coordination of the Municipal Health.

  2. Multilevel governance challenges in transitioning towards a national approach for REDD+: evidence from 23 subnational REDD+ initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Ravikumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although REDD+ was conceived as a national approach to reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation, many of the early advances have been at the subnational level. It is critical to link these subnational efforts to emerging national REDD+ frameworks, including with respect to finance and benefit distribution, setting reference levels, measurement, reporting and verification (MRV, land policy and safeguards. We use evidence from interviews with proponents from 23 subnational REDD+ initiatives in six countries to characterize the multilevel governance challenges for REDD+. We analyse the differences in perceived challenges between subnational jurisdictional programs and project-based initiatives, and then analyse proponents’ perceptions of the relationship between government policies at multiple levels and these REDD+ initiatives. We find important multilevel governance challenges related to vertical coordination and information sharing and horizontal and inter-sectoral tensions, as well as concerns over accountability, equity and justice. Though the shift to a nested, jurisdictional or national REDD+ is sometimes approached as a technical design issue, this must be accompanied by an understanding of the interests and power relations among actors at different levels. We outline challenges and suggest priority areas for future research and policy, as countries move towards a national REDD+ system.

  3. Neurointerventional research between 2003 and 2012: slow growth, high interdisciplinary collaboration, and a low level of funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J Y; Yoon, D Y; Yoon, S D; Nam, S A; Cho, B M

    2014-10-01

    Neurointerventional therapy of cerebrovascular disease is a greatly expanding field across many specialty disciplines. The goal of this study was to analyze the characteristics and trends of scientific publications that focused on neurointervention during the past decade. A bibliometric evaluation of neurointerventional research published between 2003 and 2012 was conducted by using the PubMed data base. Analyzed parameters included the year of publication, type of document, language of the article, topic, declared funding, country of origin, type of collaboration between disciplines, the first author's specialty, and subject category and the Impact Factor of the publishing journal. Between 2003 and 2012, a total of 2123 articles were published, of which 1107 (52.1%) were original articles, 1948 (91.8%) were written in English, 192 (9.0%) received funding, 661 (31.1%) were published by the United States, and 1060 (49.9%) resulted from interdisciplinary collaboration. Neurosurgery departments produced the most articles (n = 910, 42.9%), followed by radiology (n = 747, 35.2%) and neurology (n = 270, 12.7%). The time-trend analysis in the number of publications demonstrated slow growth from 2003 to 2012, with an average annual growth rate of +6.0%. The fields of neurosurgery, radiology, and neurology have contributed substantially to neurointervention research. Slow growth, high interdisciplinary collaboration, and a low level of funding are peculiar characteristics of research in this field. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  4. Interdisciplinary shared decision-making: taking shared governance to the next level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golanowski, Marie; Beaudry, Diane; Kurz, Lynne; Laffey, William J; Hook, Mary L

    2007-01-01

    Healthcare organizations have been challenged to make high-quality, safe, and reliable care more affordable, portable, transparent, and efficient. Skillful leadership and contributions from all members of the organization are needed to accomplish these changes. This article describes how one organization, driven by a vision for finding better ways, embarked on a journey to design, implement, and refine their model for interdisciplinary shared decision-making (SDM). The model was based on the principles of accountability, equity, ownership, and partnership, and designed to support staff members in right decision-making at the point of service. The success of SDM depends on leaders who believe in the process and demonstrate their commitment by holding front-line managers accountable for allocating resources and coaching staff. Point-of-service staff, in turn, must accept ownership and accountability for the content of their work and be willing to develop their SDM knowledge, comfort, and skills over time. Preliminary outcomes indicate that these new processes have had a positive effect in helping the organization find better ways to innovate and improve patient care.

  5. Multi-level computational methods for interdisciplinary research in the HathiTrust Digital Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Jaimie; Allen, Colin; Börner, Katy; Light, Robert; McAlister, Simon; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Rose, Robert; Rose, Doori; Otsuka, Jun; Bourget, David; Lawrence, John; Reed, Chris

    2017-01-01

    We show how faceted search using a combination of traditional classification systems and mixed-membership topic models can go beyond keyword search to inform resource discovery, hypothesis formulation, and argument extraction for interdisciplinary research. Our test domain is the history and philosophy of scientific work on animal mind and cognition. The methods can be generalized to other research areas and ultimately support a system for semi-automatic identification of argument structures. We provide a case study for the application of the methods to the problem of identifying and extracting arguments about anthropomorphism during a critical period in the development of comparative psychology. We show how a combination of classification systems and mixed-membership models trained over large digital libraries can inform resource discovery in this domain. Through a novel approach of "drill-down" topic modeling-simultaneously reducing both the size of the corpus and the unit of analysis-we are able to reduce a large collection of fulltext volumes to a much smaller set of pages within six focal volumes containing arguments of interest to historians and philosophers of comparative psychology. The volumes identified in this way did not appear among the first ten results of the keyword search in the HathiTrust digital library and the pages bear the kind of "close reading" needed to generate original interpretations that is the heart of scholarly work in the humanities. Zooming back out, we provide a way to place the books onto a map of science originally constructed from very different data and for different purposes. The multilevel approach advances understanding of the intellectual and societal contexts in which writings are interpreted.

  6. Multi-level computational methods for interdisciplinary research in the HathiTrust Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Colin; Börner, Katy; Light, Robert; McAlister, Simon; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Rose, Robert; Rose, Doori; Otsuka, Jun; Bourget, David; Lawrence, John; Reed, Chris

    2017-01-01

    We show how faceted search using a combination of traditional classification systems and mixed-membership topic models can go beyond keyword search to inform resource discovery, hypothesis formulation, and argument extraction for interdisciplinary research. Our test domain is the history and philosophy of scientific work on animal mind and cognition. The methods can be generalized to other research areas and ultimately support a system for semi-automatic identification of argument structures. We provide a case study for the application of the methods to the problem of identifying and extracting arguments about anthropomorphism during a critical period in the development of comparative psychology. We show how a combination of classification systems and mixed-membership models trained over large digital libraries can inform resource discovery in this domain. Through a novel approach of “drill-down” topic modeling—simultaneously reducing both the size of the corpus and the unit of analysis—we are able to reduce a large collection of fulltext volumes to a much smaller set of pages within six focal volumes containing arguments of interest to historians and philosophers of comparative psychology. The volumes identified in this way did not appear among the first ten results of the keyword search in the HathiTrust digital library and the pages bear the kind of “close reading” needed to generate original interpretations that is the heart of scholarly work in the humanities. Zooming back out, we provide a way to place the books onto a map of science originally constructed from very different data and for different purposes. The multilevel approach advances understanding of the intellectual and societal contexts in which writings are interpreted. PMID:28922416

  7. Global, regional, national, and selected subnational levels of stillbirths, neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim; Gyawali, Bishal

    2016-01-01

    on the basis of improving SDI alone. Interpretation Gains in child survival have been large, widespread, and in many places in the world, faster than what was anticipated based on improving levels of development. Yet some countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, still had high rates of under-5 mortality...... the 4·4% rate of decrease from 1990 met the MDG4 pace of decrease. However, absolute levels of under-5 mortality remained high in many countries, with 11 countries still recording rates exceeding 100 per 1000 livebirths in 2015. Marked decreases in under-5 deaths due to a number of communicable diseases....... At the global level, we recorded a divergence in observed and expected levels of under-5 mortality starting in 2000, with the observed trend falling much faster than what was expected based on SDI through 2015. Between 2000 and 2015, the world recorded 10·3 million fewer under-5 deaths than expected...

  8. You'll never lobby alone : explaining the participation of sub-national authorities in the European Commissions open consultations

    OpenAIRE

    Hecke, Van, Matti; Bursens, Peter; Beyers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The multi-level system of the EU constrains the institutionalized representation of the regional tier of government. Consequently, sub-national authorities seek to represent their interests through various lobbying practices, including taking part in the European Commissions open consultations. In this paper, we argue that varying levels with which SNAs take part in open consultations cannot be adequately explained by regional-level conditions such as resources or autonomy. Instead,...

  9. Distinctive identity claims in federal systems: Judicial policing of subnational variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni; Gardner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    It is characteristic of federal states that the scope of subnational power and autonomy are subjects of frequent dispute, and that disagreements over the reach of national and subnational power may be contested in a wide and diverse array of settings. Subnational units determined to challenge...... nationally imposed limits on their power typically have at their disposal many tools with which to press against formal boundaries. Federal systems, moreover, frequently display a surprising degree of tolerance for subnational obstruction, disobedience, and other behaviors intended to expand subnational...

  10. Sub-national assessment of inequality trends in neonatal and child mortality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Angelica

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Brazil's large socioeconomic inequalities together with the increase in neonatal mortality jeopardize the MDG-4 child mortality target by 2015. We measured inequality trends in neonatal and under five mortality across municipalities characterized by their socio-economic status in a period where major pro poor policies were implemented in Brazil to infer whether policies and interventions in newborn and child health have been successful in reaching the poor as well as the better off. Methods Using data from the 5,507 municipalities in 1991 and 2000, we developed accurate estimates of neonatal mortality at municipality level and used these data to investigate inequality trends in neonatal and under five mortality across municipalities characterized by socio-economic status. Results Child health policies and interventions have been more effective in reaching the better off than the worst off. Reduction of under five mortality at national level has been achieved by reducing the level of under five mortality among the better off. Poor municipalities suffer from worse newborn and child health than richer municipalities and the poor/rich gaps have increased. Conclusion Our analysis highlights the importance of monitoring progress on MDGs at sub-national level and measuring inequality gaps to accurately target health and inter-sectoral policies. Further efforts are required to improve the measurement and monitoring of trends in neonatal and under five mortality at sub-national level, particularly in developing countries and countries with large socioeconomic inequalities.

  11. Accuracy of Nearly Extinct Cohort Methods for Estimating Very Elderly Subnational Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Terblanche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing very elderly populations (ages 85+ have potentially major implications for the cost of income support, aged care, and healthcare. The availability of accurate estimates for this population age group, not only at a national level but also at a state or regional scale, is vital for policy development, budgeting, and planning for services. At the highest ages census-based population estimates are well known to be problematic and previous studies have demonstrated that more accurate estimates can be obtained indirectly from death data. This paper assesses indirect estimation methods for estimating state-level very elderly populations from death counts. A method for incorporating internal migration is also proposed. The results confirm that the accuracy of official estimates deteriorates rapidly with increasing age from 95 and that the survivor ratio method can be successfully applied at subnational level and internal migration is minor. It is shown that the simpler alternative of applying the survivor ratio method at a national level and apportioning the estimates between the states produces very accurate estimates for most states and years. This is the recommended method. While the methods are applied at a state level in Australia, the principles are generic and are applicable to other subnational geographies.

  12. Empirical validation of the UNAIDS Spectrum model for subnational HIV estimates: case-study of children and adults in Manicaland, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silhol, Romain; Gregson, Simon; Nyamukapa, Constance; Mhangara, Mutsa; Dzangare, Janet; Gonese, Elizabeth; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Case, Kelsey K; Mahy, Mary; Stover, John; Mugurungi, Owen

    2017-04-01

    More cost-effective HIV control may be achieved by targeting geographical areas with high infection rates. The AIDS Impact model of Spectrum - used routinely to produce national HIV estimates - could provide the required subnational estimates but is rarely validated with empirical data, even at a national level. The validity of the Spectrum model estimates were compared with empirical estimates. Antenatal surveillance and population survey data from a population HIV cohort study in Manicaland, East Zimbabwe, were input into Spectrum 5.441 to create a simulation representative of the cohort population. Model and empirical estimates were compared for key demographic and epidemiological outcomes. Alternative scenarios for data availability were examined and sensitivity analyses were conducted for model assumptions considered important for subnational estimates. Spectrum estimates generally agreed with observed data but HIV incidence estimates were higher than empirical estimates, whereas estimates of early age all-cause adult mortality were lower. Child HIV prevalence estimates matched well with the survey prevalence among children. Estimated paternal orphanhood was lower than empirical estimates. Including observations from earlier in the epidemic did not improve the HIV incidence model fit. Migration had little effect on observed discrepancies - possibly because the model ignores differences in HIV prevalence between migrants and residents. The Spectrum model, using subnational surveillance and population data, provided reasonable subnational estimates although some discrepancies were noted. Differences in HIV prevalence between migrants and residents may need to be captured in the model if applied to subnational epidemics.

  13. The European Union and the autonomy of sub-national authorities: Towards an analysis of constraints and opportunities in sub-national decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleurke, F.; Willemse, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores what is known about the actual impact of the EU on sub-national (local and regional) government. Existing research on the impact of the EU on sub-national authorities appears to have a strong emphasis on the positive effects or the opportunities that emanate from the EU. By

  14. A systematic review of sub-national food insecurity research in South Africa: Missed opportunities for policy insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselhorn, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Food insecurity is an intractable problem in South Africa. The country has a tradition of evidence-based decision making, grounded in the findings of national surveys. However, the rich insights from sub-national surveys remain a largely untapped resource for understandings of the contextual experience of food insecurity. A web-based search identified 169 sub-national food insecurity studies conducted in the post-apartheid period between 1994 and 2014. The systematic review found that the studies used 27 different measures of food insecurity, confounding the comparative analysis of food insecurity at this level. While social grants have brought a measure of poverty relief at household level, unaffordable diets were the root cause of food insecurity. The increasing consumption of cheaper, more available and preferred ‘globalised’ foods with high energy content and low nutritional value lead to overweight and obesity alongside child stunting. Unless a comparable set of indicators is used in such surveys, they are not able to provide comparable information on the scope and scale of the problem. Policy makers should be engaging with researchers to learn from these studies, while researchers need to share this wealth of sub-national study findings with government to strengthen food security planning, monitoring, and evaluation at all levels. PMID:28829787

  15. A systematic review of sub-national food insecurity research in South Africa: Missed opportunities for policy insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Misselhorn

    Full Text Available Food insecurity is an intractable problem in South Africa. The country has a tradition of evidence-based decision making, grounded in the findings of national surveys. However, the rich insights from sub-national surveys remain a largely untapped resource for understandings of the contextual experience of food insecurity. A web-based search identified 169 sub-national food insecurity studies conducted in the post-apartheid period between 1994 and 2014. The systematic review found that the studies used 27 different measures of food insecurity, confounding the comparative analysis of food insecurity at this level. While social grants have brought a measure of poverty relief at household level, unaffordable diets were the root cause of food insecurity. The increasing consumption of cheaper, more available and preferred 'globalised' foods with high energy content and low nutritional value lead to overweight and obesity alongside child stunting. Unless a comparable set of indicators is used in such surveys, they are not able to provide comparable information on the scope and scale of the problem. Policy makers should be engaging with researchers to learn from these studies, while researchers need to share this wealth of sub-national study findings with government to strengthen food security planning, monitoring, and evaluation at all levels.

  16. Air pollution co-benefits of low carbon policies in road transport: a sub-national assessment for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Shivika; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-08-01

    This letter assesses low carbon scenarios for India at the subnational level in the passenger road transport sector. We estimate the future passenger mobility demand and assess the impact of carbon mitigation policies using the Asia-Pacific Integrated Assessment/Enduse models. This letter focuses on the transitions of energy and emissions of passenger transport in India in alternate scenarios i.e. the business-as-usual scenario and a low carbon scenario that aligns to the 2 °C temperature stabilization target agreed under the global climate change negotiations. The modelling results show that passenger mobility demand will rise in all sub-national regions of India in the coming few decades. However, the volume and modal structure will vary across regions. Modelling assessment results show that aligning global low carbon policies with local policies has potential to deliver significant air quality co-benefits. This analysis provides insights into the comparative dynamics of environmental policymaking at sub-national levels.

  17. Building an electronic book on the Internet: ``CSEP -- an interdisciplinary syllabus for teaching computational science at the graduate level``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, C.E.; Strayer, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Umar, V.M. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Computational Science Education Project was initiated in September 1991, by the Department of Energy to develop a syllabus for teaching interdisciplinary computational science. CSEP has two major activities. The writing and maintenance of an electronic book (e-book) and educational outreach to the computational science communities through presentations at professional society meetings, journal articles, and by training educators. The interdisciplinary nature of the project is intended to contribute to national technological competitiveness by producing a body of graduates with the necessary skills to operate effectively in high performance computing environments. The educational outreach guides and supports instructors in developing computational science courses and curricula at their institutions. The CSEP e-book provides valuable teaching material around which educators have built. The outreach not only introduces new educators to CSEP, but also establishes a synergistic relationship between CSEP authors, reviewers and users.

  18. SECURITY RISKS, MYTHS IN A TRANSITIONING SUB-NATIONAL REGIONAL ECONOMY (CROSS RIVER STATE AND IMAGINATIVE GEOGRAPHIES OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. UKWAYI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of an “international community” through accumulation of perceived risks that contrasts with those risks (of considerably lower levels of seriousness compared to those perceived constitutes one of the interesting (or intriguing subjects of risks and disaster studies surrounding the 9/11 era. The constructions of “imaginative geographies”, have frequently been biased in the practices that underlie the mapping of the foreign places tend to put-down the affected regions in their “paintings” for the global community. The latter are subsequently “demonized” in their ratings of competence for participating in world trade, tourism, travel, among other social/cultural, and economic and political activities. The objective of this article is to highlight how the exaggeration of risks (contrasted to actually existing/lived risks, practices that are frequently associated with such adverse “imaginative geographies” poses sub-national regional development dilemma in Nigeria’s Niger Delta. We trace the roots of adverse “imaginative geographies” of Nigeria to the Abacha dictatorship (1993-1997. Then we highlight the mixed characteristics of the Niger Delta conditions during the “return of positive image recapture” by Nigeria’s federal government (re-democratisation of the Fourth Republic, 1999-present, re-branding campaigns; as well as adverse conditions present. Most significantly, we show that despite these adversities, a combination of favorable geographical size, differentiation, sub-national regional security programme formulation and management taking aims at diversification have created “large oases” of peace and security in Cross River State, a part of the Niger Delta that has been completely unscathed by insurgencies of the nearby sub-national region and further away national origin. Apart from identifying sub-national regions qualifying for delisting from “adverse imaginative geographies” due to

  19. NATIONAL AND SUB-NATIONAL OFFSHORING IMPACT ON EMPLOYMENT: AN APPLICATION TO MADRID REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángeles Tobarra Gómez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of delocalization on a national economy has been widely studied, however subnational delocalization remains as an unvisited field for researchers. This paper studies the effects of fragmentation and the subsequent localization outside or abroad on the level of industrial and services employment in Madrid region. We work with Madrid data from regional input-output tables and estimate a labour demand function using panel data. Our results show a significant and small negative effect on regional employment of intra-industrial inputs from the national economy and abroad, while imported inputs from other sectors and origins are complementary to employment, resulting in a positive net effect on employment. The increasing specialization in main activities and the use of external providers by firms have a positive impact on the employment of Madrid region.

  20. Interdisciplinary Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagib Callaos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication is fundamental in scientific practice and an integral part of academic work. The practice of communication cannot be neglected by those who are trying to advance scientific research. Effective means should continuously be identified in order to open channels of communication within and among disciplines, among scientists and between scientists and the general public.[1]The increasing importance of interdisciplinary communication has been pointed out by an increasing number of researchers and scholars, as well as in conferences and roundtables on the subject. Some authors even estimate that "interdisciplinary study represents the future of the university."[2] Since interdisciplinary study is "the most underthought critical, pedagogical and institutional concept in modern academy"[3] it is important to think and reflect, and even do some research, on this concept or notion. Research and practice based reflections with regards to this issue are important especially because the increasing complexity and proliferation of scientific research is generating countless specialties, sub-specialties and sub-sub-specialties, with their respective special languages; which were "created for discrete local areas of research based upon the disconnected branches of science."[4] On the other hand, scientific, technical and societal problems are requiring multi- or inter-disciplinary consideration. Consequently, interdisciplinary communication channels are being needed with urgency, and scientific research should be integrated, not just in the context of its discipline, but also in the context of related disciplines. Much more reflection and research should be done on this issue. Research on adequate research integration and communication is urgently required, i.e. meta-research efforts should be done in order to relate research results in an adequate and more useful way. This meta-research effort might be done in the context of each particular

  1. Subnational variation for care at birth in Tanzania: is this explained by place, people, money or drugs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne E. Armstrong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania achieved the Millennium Development Goal for child survival, yet made insufficient progress for maternal and neonatal survival and stillbirths, due to low coverage and quality of services for care at birth, with rural women left behind. Our study aimed to evaluate Tanzania’s subnational (regional-level variations for rural care at birth outcomes, i.e., rural women giving birth in a facility and by Caesarean section (C-section, and associations with health systems inputs (financing, health workforce, facilities, and commodities, outputs (readiness and quality of care and context (education and GDP. Methods We undertook correlation analyses of subnational-level associations between health system inputs, outputs, context, and rural care at birth outcomes; and constructed implementation readiness barometers using benchmarks for each health system input indicator. We used geographical information system (GIS mapping to visualise subnational variations in care at birth for rural women, with a focus on service availability and readiness, and collected qualitative data to investigate financial flows from national to council level to understand variation in financing inputs. Results We found wide subnational variation for rural care at birth outcomes, health systems inputs, and contextual indicators. There was a positive association between rural women giving birth in a facility and by C-section; maternal education; workforce and facility density; and quality of care. There was a negative association between these outcomes and proportion of all births to rural women, total fertility rate, and availability of essential commodities at facilities. Per capita recurrent expenditure was positively associated with facility births (correlation coefficient = 0.43; p = 0.05 but not with C-section. Qualitative results showed that the health financing system is complex and insufficient for providing care at birth services

  2. Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3): Subnational Administrative Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3) Subnational Administrative Boundaries are the basis of the population data products in GPWv3. Due to copyright...

  3. Interdisciplinary approach at the primary healthcare level for Bolivian immigrants with Chagas disease in the city of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikanai Yasuda, Maria Aparecida; Sátolo, Camila Gonçalves; Carvalho, Noemia Barbosa; Atala, Magda Maya; Ferrufino, Rosario Quiroga; Leite, Ruth Moreira; Furucho, Célia Regina; Luna, Expedito; Silva, Rubens Antonio; Hage, Marcia; Oliveira, Caroline Medeji Ramos de; Busser, Felipe Delatorre; Freitas, Vera Lucia Teixeira de; Wanderley, Dalva Marli Valerio; Martinelli, Luzia; Almeida, Sonia Regina; Viñas, Pedro Albajar; Carneiro, Nivaldo

    2017-03-01

    In a pioneering cross-sectional study among Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, the epidemiological profile, clinical manifestations and morbidity of Chagas disease were described. The feasibility of the management of Chagas disease at primary healthcare clinics using a biomedical and psychosocial interdisciplinary approach was also tested. Previously, a Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection rate of 4.4% among 633 immigrants was reported. The samples were screened using two commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) tests generated with epimastigote antigens, and those with discrepant or seropositive results were analyzed by confirmatory tests: indirect immunofluorescence (IFI), TESA-blot and a commercial recombinant ELISA. PCR and blood cultures were performed in seropositive patients. The majority of the 28 seropositive patients were women, of whom 88.89% were of child-bearing age. The predominant clinical forms of Chagas disease were the indeterminate and atypical cardiac forms. Less than 50% received the recommended antiparasitic treatment of benznidazole. An interdisciplinary team was centered on primary healthcare physicians who applied guidelines for the management of patients. Infectologists, cardiologists, pediatricians and other specialists acted as reference professionals. Confirmatory serology and molecular biology tests, as well as echocardiography, Holter and other tests, were performed for the assessment of affected organs in secondary healthcare centers. The published high performance of two commercial ELISA tests was not confirmed. An interdisciplinary approach including antiparasitic treatment is feasible at the primary healthcare level for the management of Chagas disease in Bolivian immigrants. The itinerant feature of immigration was associated with a lack of adherence to antiparasitic treatment and was considered a main challenge for the clinical management of this population. This approach is recommended for management

  4. Wheat yield loss attributable to heat waves, drought and water excess at the global, national and subnational scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, M.; Ceglar, A.; Dentener, F.; Toreti, A.

    2017-06-01

    Heat waves and drought are often considered the most damaging climatic stressors for wheat. In this study, we characterize and attribute the effects of these climate extremes on wheat yield anomalies (at global and national scales) from 1980 to 2010. Using a combination of up-to-date heat wave and drought indexes (the latter capturing both excessively dry and wet conditions), we have developed a composite indicator that is able to capture the spatio-temporal characteristics of the underlying physical processes in the different agro-climatic regions of the world. At the global level, our diagnostic explains a significant portion (more than 40%) of the inter-annual production variability. By quantifying the contribution of national yield anomalies to global fluctuations, we have found that just two concurrent yield anomalies affecting the larger producers of the world could be responsible for more than half of the global annual fluctuations. The relative importance of heat stress and drought in determining the yield anomalies depends on the region. Moreover, in contrast to common perception, water excess affects wheat production more than drought in several countries. We have also performed the same analysis at the subnational level for France, which is the largest wheat producer of the European Union, and home to a range of climatic zones. Large subnational variability of inter-annual wheat yield is mostly captured by the heat and water stress indicators, consistently with the country-level result.

  5. Integration of microbiology and infectious disease teaching courses in an interdisciplinary training programme (Master level) centred on the 'One world, one health' WHO concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveillard, Matthieu; Ruvoen, Nathalie; Lepelletier, Didier; Fradet, Stéphanie; Couvreur, Sébastien; Krempf, Michel; Magras, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    This report describes the integration of the microbiology and infectious diseases teaching courses in an international Master's level interdisciplinary programme based on the 'One world, one health' WHO concept, and reports the students and teachers' evaluation related to their feelings of about this innovative programme. The integration was evaluated by recording the positioning of these two topics in the five teaching units constituting the programme, and by identifying their contribution in the interactions between the different teaching units. The satisfaction of students was assessed by a quantitative survey, whereas the feelings of students and teachers were assessed by interviews. The study demonstrated that microbiology and infectious diseases were widely involved in interactions between the teaching units, constituting a kind of cement for the programme. The students assigned a mean score of 3.7 to the topics dealing with microbiology and infectious diseases. According to the qualitative data, students and teachers considered that the interdisciplinary approach provided new insights but reported problems of communication, probably inherent to the multiculturalism of the class. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Perceived and measured levels of environmental pollution: interdisciplinary research in the subarctic lowlands of northeast European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R; Habeck, Joachim Otto; Karjalainen, Timo P; Virtanen, Tarmo; Solovieva, Nadia; Jones, Viv; Kuhry, Peter; Ponomarev, Vasily I; Mikkola, Kari; Nikula, Ari; Patova, Elena; Crittenden, Peter D; Young, Scott D; Ingold, Tim

    2006-08-01

    Using interdisciplinary field research in the Usa Basin, northeast European Russia, we compared local inhabitants' perception of environmental problems with chemical and remote-sensing signatures of environmental pollution and their local impacts. Extensive coal mining since the 1930s around Inta and Vorkuta has left a legacy of pollution, detected by measuring snowpack, topsoil, and lichen chemistry, together with remote-sensing techniques and analysis of lake water and sediments. Vorkuta and its environs suffered the worst impacts, with significant metal loading and alkalization in lakes and topsoils, elevated metals and cations in terricolous (reindeer) lichens, and changes in vegetation communities. Although the coal industry has declined recently, the area boasts a booming oil and gas industry, based around Usinsk. Local perceptions and concerns of environmental pollution and protection were higher in Usinsk, as a result of increased awareness after a major oil spill in 1994, compared with Vorkuta's inhabitants, who perceived air pollution as the primary environmental threat. Our studies indicate that the principal sources of atmospheric emissions and local deposition within 25 to 40 km of Vorkuta were coal combustion from power and heating plants, coal mines, and a cement factory. Local people evaluated air pollution from direct observations and personal experiences, such as discoloration of snow and respiratory problems, whereas scientific knowledge played a minor role in shaping these perceptions.

  7. Creating interdisciplinary education within monodisciplinary structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvig, Katrine; Lyall, Catherine; R. Meagher, Laura

    2017-01-01

    to the processes of creating interdisciplinary education initiatives within traditional monodisciplinary universities. In this study, we thus explore how interdisciplinary education and teaching emerge and develop within universities that have little or no established infrastructure to support interdisciplinarity......The literature on interdisciplinary higher education is influenced by two overall trends: one looks at the institutional level of specially designed interdisciplinary institutions, while the other assesses individual interdisciplinary educational activities. Much less attention is given....... Using qualitative data from a multi-part case study, we examine the development of diverse interdisciplinary educational efforts within a traditional faculty-structured university in order to map the ways in which interdisciplinary educational elements have been created, supported, challenged or even...

  8. Neo-Patrimonialism and Subnational Authoritarianism in Mexico. The Case of Oaxaca Neopatrimonialismo y autoritarismo subnacional en México. El caso de Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Durazo Herrmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available How do subnational authoritarian enclaves emerge (or survive ina democratic transition at the federal level? How can they endure large-scalesocial protests, like the one that shook Oaxaca in 2006? While federal tolerancefor subnational authoritarian practices is a necessary condition, it isinsufficient in itself to explain why subnational political systems sustain andeventually reproduce authoritarian practices in the first place. In this article,therefore, I focus on the internal dimension of subnational authoritarianism.I argue that, because of its reliance on two distinct sources of legitimacy,Oaxaca’s neo-patrimonial domination system was able to respond to theformal democratizing pressures emanating from the federal transition withoutlosing its authoritarian nature. This process of hybridization transformedOaxacan institutions, but left social structures and the political dynamics thatemerge from them – the sources of subnational authoritarianism – almostintact. By exploring the evolution of neo-patrimonialism and hybridizationin Oaxaca from a theoretical perspective, I address the issues of change andcontinuity in the emergence of subnational authoritarian enclaves, in Mexicoand elsewhere. ¿Cómo es que algunos enclaves autoritarios subnacionales emergen (o susbsisten tras las transiciones a la democracia de sus federaciones? ¿Cómo sobreviven a movilizaciones masivas como las que conoció Oaxaca en 2006? La tolerancia federal es una condición necesaria para el desarrollo de las prácticas autoritarias subnacionales, pero es insuficiente para explicar cómo dichas prácticas aparecen y se reproducen en algunos sistemas políticos subnacionales. Por ello, en este artículo estudio la dimensión interna del autoritarismo subnacional. Arguyo que, al basarse en dos fuentes distintas de legitimidad, el sistema oaxaqueño de dominación neopatrimonial fue capaz de responder a las presiones democráticas provenientes de la federaci

  9. Burden of disease in Japan: using national and subnational data to inform local health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Liao, Yi; Bilano, Ver; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-05-01

    The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study has been instrumental in guiding global health policy development since the early 1990s. The GBD 2010 project provided rich information about the key causes of mortality, disability-adjusted life years, and their associated risk factors in Japan and provided a unique opportunity to incorporate these data into health planning. As part of the latest update of this project, GBD 2013, the Japanese GBD collaborators plan to update and refine the available burden of disease data by incorporating sub-national estimates of the burden of disease at the prefectural level. These estimates will provide health planners and policy makers at both the national and prefectural level with new, more refined tools to adapt local public health initiatives to meet the health needs of local populations. Moreover, they will enable the Japanese health system to better respond to the unique challenges in their rapidly aging population and as a complex combination of non-communicable disease risk factors begin to dominate the policy agenda. Regional collaborations will enable nations to learn from the experiences of other nations that may be at different stages of the epidemiological transition and have different exposure profiles and associated health effects. Such analyses and improvements in the data collection systems will further improve the health of the Japanese, maintain Japan's excellent record of health equity, and provide a better understanding of the direction of health policy in the region.

  10. Burden of Disease in Japan: Using National and Subnational Data to Inform Local Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gilmour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Global Burden of Disease (GBD study has been instrumental in guiding global health policy development since the early 1990s. The GBD 2010 project provided rich information about the key causes of mortality, disability-adjusted life years, and their associated risk factors in Japan and provided a unique opportunity to incorporate these data into health planning. As part of the latest update of this project, GBD 2013, the Japanese GBD collaborators plan to update and refine the available burden of disease data by incorporating sub-national estimates of the burden of disease at the prefectural level. These estimates will provide health planners and policy makers at both the national and prefectural level with new, more refined tools to adapt local public health initiatives to meet the health needs of local populations. Moreover, they will enable the Japanese health system to better respond to the unique challenges in their rapidly aging population and as a complex combination of non-communicable disease risk factors begin to dominate the policy agenda. Regional collaborations will enable nations to learn from the experiences of other nations that may be at different stages of the epidemiological transition and have different exposure profiles and associated health effects. Such analyses and improvements in the data collection systems will further improve the health of the Japanese, maintain Japan's excellent record of health equity, and provide a better understanding of the direction of health policy in the region.

  11. Combining high-resolution gross domestic product data with home and personal care product market research data to generate a subnational emission inventory for Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Juliet Elizabeth Natasha; Vamshi, Raghu; Holmes, Christopher; Rowson, Matthew; Miah, Taqmina; Price, Oliver Richard

    2014-04-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is reliant on good estimates of product usage information and robust exposure models. Over the past 20 to 30 years, much progress has been made with the development of exposure models that simulate the transport and distribution of chemicals in the environment. However, little progress has been made in our ability to estimate chemical emissions of home and personal care (HPC) products. In this project, we have developed an approach to estimate subnational emission inventory of chemical ingredients used in HPC products for 12 Asian countries including Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam (Asia-12). To develop this inventory, we have coupled a 1 km grid of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) estimates with market research data of HPC product sales. We explore the necessity of accounting for a population's ability to purchase HPC products in determining their subnational distribution in regions where wealth is not uniform. The implications of using high resolution data on inter- and intracountry subnational emission estimates for a range of hypothetical and actual HPC product types were explored. It was demonstrated that for low value products (500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the implications on emissions being assigned to subnational regions can vary by several orders of magnitude. The implications of this on conducting national or regional level risk assessments may be significant. Further work is needed to explore the implications of this variability in HPC emissions to enable the HPC industry and/or governments to advance risk-based chemical management policies in emerging markets. © 2013 SETAC.

  12. "It takes a village" to raise research productivity: impact of a Trauma Interdisciplinary Group for Research at an urban, Level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NeSmith, Elizabeth G; Medeiros, Regina S; Ferdinand, Colville H B; Hawkins, Michael L; Holsten, Steven B; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2013-07-01

    Few interdisciplinary research groups include basic scientists, pharmacists, therapists, nutritionists, laboratory technicians, as well as trauma patients and families, in addition to clinicians. Increasing interprofessional diversity within scientific teams working to improve trauma care is a goal of national organizations and federal funding agencies such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This article describes the design, implementation, and outcomes of a Trauma Interdisciplinary Group for Research (TIGR) at a Level 1 trauma center as it relates to increasing research productivity, with specific examples excerpted from an ongoing NIH-funded study. We used a pretest/posttest design with objectives aimed at measuring increases in research productivity following a targeted intervention. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis was used to develop the intervention, which included research skill-building activities, accomplished by adding multidisciplinary investigators to an existing NIH-funded project. The NIH project aimed to test the hypothesis that accelerated biologic aging from chronic stress increases baseline inflammation and reduces inflammatory response to trauma (projected n = 150). Pre-TIGR/post-TIGR data related to participant screening, recruitment, consent, and research processes were compared. Research productivity was measured through abstracts, publications, and investigator-initiated projects. Research products increased from 12 to 42 (approximately 400%). Research proposals for federal funding increased from 0 to 3, with success rate of 66%. Participant screenings for the NIH-funded study increased from 40 to 313. Consents increased from 14 to 70. Laboratory service fees were reduced from $300 per participant to $5 per participant. Adding diversity to our scientific team via TIGR was exponentially successful in (1) improving research productivity, (2) reducing research costs, and (3) increasing research

  13. "It takes a village" to raise research productivity: Impact of a Trauma Interdisciplinary Group for Research (TIGR) at an urban, Level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, Elizabeth G; Medeiros, Regina S; Ferdinand, Colville H B; Hawkins, Michael L; Holsten, Steven B; Dong, Yanbin; Zhu, Haidong

    2013-07-01

    Few interdisciplinary research groups include basic scientists, pharmacists, therapists, nutritionists, lab technicians, as well as trauma patients and families, in addition to clinicians. Increasing interprofessional diversity within scientific teams working to improve trauma care is a goal of national organizations and federal funding agencies like the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This paper describes the design, implementation, and outcomes of a Trauma Interdisciplinary Group for Research (TIGR) at a Level 1 trauma center as it relates to increasing research productivity, with specific examples excerpted from an on-going NIH-funded study. We utilized a pre-test/post-test design with objectives aimed at measuring increases in research productivity following a targeted intervention. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis was used to develop the intervention which included research skill-building activities, accomplished by adding multidisciplinary investigators to an existing NIH-funded project. The NIH project aimed to test the hypothesis that accelerated biologic aging from chronic stress increases baseline inflammation and reduces inflammatory response to trauma (projected N=150). Pre/Post-TIGR data related to participant screening, recruitment, consent, and research processes were compared. Research productivity was measured through abstracts, publications, and investigator-initiated projects. Research products increased from N =12 to N=42; (~ 400%). Research proposals for federal funding increased from N=0 to N=3, with success rate of 66%. Participant screenings for the NIH-funded study increased from N=40 to N=313. Consents increased from N=14 to N=70. Lab service fees were reduced from $300/participant to $5/participant. Adding diversity to our scientific team via TIGR was exponentially successful in 1) improving research productivity, 2) reducing research costs, and 3) increasing research products and mentoring activities

  14. Boundary breaking for interdisciplinary learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Kidron

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to contribute to the body of knowledge on processesby which students develop interdisciplinary understanding of contents, as well as to suggest technology-enhanced means for supporting them in these processes in the context of higher education. In doing so, we suggest a rethinking of three traditional practices that tend to characterise typical higher education instruction: (1 compartmentalisation of disciplines; (2 traditional pedagogy; and (3 traditional hierarchies based on levels of expertise. Our high-level conjecture was that meaningful dialogue with peers and experts supports both the deepening of ideas in one knowledge domain and the formation of connections between ideas from several domains, both of which are required for the development of interdisciplinary understanding. We developed the Boundary Breaking for Interdisciplinary Learning (BBIL model, which harnesses technology to break boundaries between disciplines, learners and organisational levels of hierarchy. Findings indicate that 36 undergraduate students who participated in an interdisciplinary online course that implemented the BBIL model have significantly improved their interdisciplinary understanding of the course contents. This study illustrates how innovative use of available, free and low-cost technology can produce a ‘positive disruption’ in higher education instruction.

  15. Interdisciplinary Art Education Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, J.

    1998-01-01

    Highlights the different forms of interdisciplinary teaching methods (integrated, related-arts, and correlated education) in order to provide a historical perspective of interdisciplinary education to art educators. Provides eight guidelines for future interdisciplinary programs in art education. Intends to prepare art educators for the…

  16. Subnational mobility and consumption-based environmental accounting of US corn in animal protein and ethanol supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy M; Goodkind, Andrew L; Kim, Taegon; Pelton, Rylie E O; Suh, Kyo; Schmitt, Jennifer

    2017-09-19

    Corn production, and its associated inputs, is a relatively large source of greenhouse gas emissions and uses significant amounts of water and land, thus contributing to climate change, fossil fuel depletion, local air pollutants, and local water scarcity. As large consumers of this corn, corporations in the ethanol and animal protein industries are increasingly assessing and reporting sustainability impacts across their supply chains to identify, prioritize, and communicate sustainability risks and opportunities material to their operations. In doing so, many have discovered that the direct impacts of their owned operations are dwarfed by those upstream in the supply chain, requiring transparency and knowledge about environmental impacts along the supply chains. Life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been used to identify hotspots of environmental impacts at national levels, yet these provide little subnational information necessary for guiding firms' specific supply networks. In this paper, our Food System Supply-Chain Sustainability (FoodS3) model connects spatial, firm-specific demand of corn purchasers with upstream corn production in the United States through a cost minimization transport model. This provides a means to link county-level corn production in the United States to firm-specific demand locations associated with downstream processing facilities. Our model substantially improves current LCA assessment efforts that are confined to broad national or state level impacts. In drilling down to subnational levels of environmental impacts that occur over heterogeneous areas and aggregating these landscape impacts by specific supply networks, targeted opportunities for improvements to the sustainability performance of supply chains are identified.

  17. Surface Level Ozone and its Adverse Effects on Crops and Forests: A Need for an Interdisciplinary Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar V. Krupa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface level ozone (O3 is clearly a global scale problem with regard to its adverse effects on crops, forests and native, terrestrial plant ecosystems. Photochemists and meteorologists are continuing to define the chemistry and physics of the prevalence of O3 at the ground level. Similarly, plant scientists in the U.S. and Europe have examined the effects of O3 on crops and tree seedlings or saplings through large-scale studies. Examples include the U.S. National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN, the U.S. EPA’s (Environmental Protection Agency’s San Bernardino National Forest Photochemical Oxidant Study, European Open-top Chambers Programme (EOTCP, and several ongoing EU (European Union projects. In addition, there have been studies on mature tree responses through field measurements and by simulation modeling.

  18. Evaluating the sub-national fidelity of national Initiatives in decentralized health systems: Integrated Primary Health Care Governance in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eboreime, Ejemai Amaize; Abimbola, Seye; Obi, Felix Abrahams; Ebirim, Obinna; Olubajo, Olalekan; Eyles, John; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla Lynette; Mambulu, Faith Nankasa

    2017-03-21

    Policy making, translation and implementation in politically and administratively decentralized systems can be challenging. Beyond the mere sub-national acceptance of national initiatives, adherence to policy implementation processes is often poor, particularly in low and middle-income countries. In this study, we explore the implementation fidelity of integrated PHC governance policy in Nigeria's decentralized governance system and its implications on closing implementation gaps with respect to other top-down health policies and initiatives. Having engaged policy makers, we identified 9 core components of the policy (Governance, Legislation, Minimum Service Package, Repositioning, Systems Development, Operational Guidelines, Human Resources, Funding Structure, and Office Establishment). We evaluated the level and pattern of implementation at state level as compared to the national guidelines using a scorecard approach. Contrary to national government's assessment of level of compliance, we found that sub-national governments exercised significant discretion with respect to the implementation of core components of the policy. Whereas 35 and 32% of states fully met national criteria for the structural domains of "Office Establishment" and Legislation" respectively, no state was fully compliant to "Human Resource Management" and "Funding" requirements, which are more indicative of functionality. The pattern of implementation suggests that, rather than implementing to improve outcomes, state governments may be more interested in executing low hanging fruits in order to access national incentives. Our study highlights the importance of evaluating implementation fidelity in providing evidence of implementation gaps towards improving policy execution, particularly in decentralized health systems. This approach will help national policy makers identify more effective ways of supporting lower tiers of governance towards improvement of health systems and outcomes.

  19. Authentic Interdisciplinary Instruction: Raising the Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohnsen, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    This article addressed the need for authentic interdisciplinary instruction. Authentic interdisciplinary instruction is defined as a learning activity that simultaneously improves student performance related to grade-level standards in two or more disciplines (e.g., science and physical education). The process described for creating authentic…

  20. Interdisciplinary assessment of sea-level rise and climate change impacts on the lower Nile delta, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušnik, Janez; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia S; Baumert, Niklas; Kloos, Julia; Renaud, Fabrice G; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Mabrouk, Badr; Savić, Dragan A; Kapelan, Zoran; Ludwig, Ralf; Fischer, Georg; Roson, Roberto; Zografos, Christos

    2015-01-15

    CLImate-induced changes on WAter and SECurity (CLIWASEC) was a cluster of three complementary EC-FP7 projects assessing climate-change impacts throughout the Mediterranean on: hydrological cycles (CLIMB - CLimate-Induced changes on the hydrology of Mediterranean Basins); water security (WASSERMed - Water Availability and Security in Southern EuRope and the Mediterranean) and human security connected with possible hydro-climatic conflicts (CLICO - CLImate change hydro-COnflicts and human security). The Nile delta case study was common between the projects. CLIWASEC created an integrated forum for modelling and monitoring to understand potential impacts across sectors. This paper summarises key results from an integrated assessment of potential challenges to water-related security issues, focusing on expected sea-level rise impacts by the middle of the century. We use this common focus to illustrate the added value of project clustering. CLIWASEC pursued multidisciplinary research by adopting a single research objective: sea-level rise related water security threats, resulting in a more holistic view of problems and potential solutions. In fragmenting research, policy-makers can fail to understand how multiple issues can materialize from one driver. By combining efforts, an integrated assessment of water security threats in the lower Nile is formulated, offering policy-makers a clearer picture of inter-related issues to society and environment. The main issues identified by each project (land subsidence, saline intrusion - CLIMB; water supply overexploitation, land loss - WASSERMed; employment and housing security - CLICO), are in fact related. Water overexploitation is exacerbating land subsidence and saline intrusion, impacting on employment and placing additional pressure on remaining agricultural land and the underdeveloped housing market. All these have wider implications for regional development. This richer understanding could be critical in making better

  1. Challenges to Local Government Innovation: Legal and Institutional Impediments to the Exercise of Innovative Economic Development Policy by Subnational Jurisdictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grydehøj

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A local government can use innovative governance practices to expand its jurisdictional capacity, thereby promoting local economic development. There are, however, legal and institutional impediments to the exercise of such innovative economic development policy. Using the subnational jurisdiction of Shetland as a case study, this paper considers how local government innovation can be a key driver of economic development. Local government innovation can nevertheless become subject to legal challenges by authorities in the higher-level jurisdictions (Scotland, the United Kingdom, and the European Union in the case of Shetland. Community concerns related to standards of good governance can compound these difficulties, resulting in a significant decrease in democratic accountability and a weakening of the local government’s de facto capacity to plan and implement policy. Before local governments can make the most of multilevel governance, local communities and high-lever jurisdictions must re-assess standards of legitimacy for local government functions and structures.

  2. National and subnational hypertension prevalence estimates for the Republic of Ireland: better outcome and risk factor data are needed to produce better prevalence estimates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barron, Steve

    2014-01-10

    Hypertension is a global public health challenge. National prevalence estimates can conceal important differences in prevalence in subnational areas. This paper aims to develop a consistent set of national and subnational estimates of the prevalence of hypertension in a country with limited data for subnational areas.

  3. Teaching an Interdisciplinary Graduate-Level Methods Course in an Openly-Networked Connected Learning Environment: A Glass Half-Full

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secret, Mary; Bryant, Nita L.; Cummings, Cory R.

    2017-01-01

    Our paper describes the design and delivery of an online interdisciplinary social science research methods course (ISRM) for graduate students in sociology, education, social work, and public administration. Collaborative activities and learning took place in two types of computer-mediated learning environments: a closed Blackboard course…

  4. Sub-national entities’ participation in Brazil’s foreign policy and in regional integration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Ventura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on how sub-national entities’ gradual participation in Brazilian foreign policy has come about, with reference to a decentralised scenario of the decision-making process in Itamaraty, where the ministries and presidential organs have a voice on many strategic themes, mainly concerning development. The article examines the insertion of sub-national entities into the decision-making process in the Southern Common Market (Mercosur, and concludes that in spite of the incipient participation, relevant contributions to the process of regional integration have arisen. Regarding the hypothesis that the participation of the federative entities in the decision-making process generates local and regional development, we argue that this is an alternative to increasing state efficiency. In conclusion, and despite the incipient institutionalisation that does not guarantee their vote in the decision-making process, at least their voice is heard.

  5. Operational research to inform a sub-national surveillance intervention for malaria elimination in Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Jo-An

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful reduction of malaria transmission to very low levels has made Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, a target for early elimination by 2014. High malaria transmission in neighbouring provinces and the potential for local asymptomatic infections to cause malaria resurgence highlights the need for sub-national tailoring of surveillance interventions. This study contributes to a situational analysis of malaria in Isabel Province to inform an appropriate surveillance intervention. Methods A mixed method study was carried out in Isabel Province in late 2009 and early 2010. The quantitative component was a population-based prevalence survey of 8,554 people from 129 villages, which were selected using a spatially stratified sampling approach to achieve uniform geographical coverage of populated areas. Diagnosis was initially based on Giemsa-stained blood slides followed by molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Local perceptions and practices related to management of fever and treatment-seeking that would impact a surveillance intervention were also explored using qualitative research methods. Results Approximately 33% (8,554/26,221 of the population of Isabel Province participated in the survey. Only one subject was found to be infected with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf (96 parasites/μL using Giemsa-stained blood films, giving a prevalence of 0.01%. PCR analysis detected a further 13 cases, giving an estimated malaria prevalence of 0.51%. There was a wide geographical distribution of infected subjects. None reported having travelled outside Isabel Province in the previous three months suggesting low-level indigenous malaria transmission. The qualitative findings provide warning signs that the current community vigilance approach to surveillance will not be sufficient to achieve elimination. In addition, fever severity is being used by individuals as an indicator for malaria and a trigger for timely treatment

  6. Operational research to inform a sub-national surveillance intervention for malaria elimination in Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Successful reduction of malaria transmission to very low levels has made Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, a target for early elimination by 2014. High malaria transmission in neighbouring provinces and the potential for local asymptomatic infections to cause malaria resurgence highlights the need for sub-national tailoring of surveillance interventions. This study contributes to a situational analysis of malaria in Isabel Province to inform an appropriate surveillance intervention. Methods A mixed method study was carried out in Isabel Province in late 2009 and early 2010. The quantitative component was a population-based prevalence survey of 8,554 people from 129 villages, which were selected using a spatially stratified sampling approach to achieve uniform geographical coverage of populated areas. Diagnosis was initially based on Giemsa-stained blood slides followed by molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Local perceptions and practices related to management of fever and treatment-seeking that would impact a surveillance intervention were also explored using qualitative research methods. Results Approximately 33% (8,554/26,221) of the population of Isabel Province participated in the survey. Only one subject was found to be infected with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) (96 parasites/μL) using Giemsa-stained blood films, giving a prevalence of 0.01%. PCR analysis detected a further 13 cases, giving an estimated malaria prevalence of 0.51%. There was a wide geographical distribution of infected subjects. None reported having travelled outside Isabel Province in the previous three months suggesting low-level indigenous malaria transmission. The qualitative findings provide warning signs that the current community vigilance approach to surveillance will not be sufficient to achieve elimination. In addition, fever severity is being used by individuals as an indicator for malaria and a trigger for timely treatment-seeking and case reporting

  7. Contrasts in China and Soviet reform: sub-national and national causes

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Hongyi

    2005-01-01

    Why did reform in China and the former Soviet Union produce drastically different outcomes? Why did some provinces in China embrace faster economic reform than others? This article argues that the state sector and reform initiatives in the sub-national units, reform strategies, entrenchment and maturation of central planning, the size of the defence industry, policy choice and the historical context help explain the differences in Soviet and Chinese reform courses and outcomes. A predominant ...

  8. Subnational fiscal sustainability analysis : what can we learn from Tamil Nadu ?

    OpenAIRE

    Ianchovichina, Elena; Liu, Lili; Nagarajan, Mohan

    2006-01-01

    In the late 1990s the Indian state of Tamil Nadu experienced an unprecedented fiscal deterioration, which was part of the widespread fiscal deterioration in Indian states. This deterioration was troubling because current expenditure outgrew total revenue, leaving little fiscal space for infrastructure spending. The paper presents a framework for subnational fiscal sustainability analysis and applies it to Tamil Nadu where subsequent fiscal adjustment has been ambitious and politically challen...

  9. Social capital and the social economy in a sub-national island jurisdiction

    OpenAIRE

    Groome Wynne, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This paper begins with an explanation of social capital and its manifestation in structures and institutes of the social economy. It then describes how Prince Edward Island (PEl) is using social capital in the pursuit of economic sustainability. Next, the paper explores case studies of other sub-national island jurisdictions (SNIJs) and highlights how PEl could learn from the successes and failures of these other islands. Finally, it generates suggestions on how to more effe...

  10. Understanding the Complexities of Subnational Incentives in Supporting a National Market for Distributed Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B.; Doris, E.; Getman, D.

    2014-09-01

    Subnational policies pertaining to photovoltaic (PV) systems have increased in volume in recent years and federal incentives are set to be phased out over the next few. Understanding how subnational policies function within and across jurisdictions, thereby impacting PV market development, informs policy decision making. This report was developed for subnational policy-makers and researchers in order to aid the analysis on the function of PV system incentives within the emerging PV deployment market. The analysis presented is based on a 'logic engine,' a database tool using existing state, utility, and local incentives allowing users to see the interrelationships between PV system incentives and parameters, such as geographic location, technology specifications, and financial factors. Depending on how it is queried, the database can yield insights into which combinations of incentives are available and most advantageous to the PV system owner or developer under particular circumstances. This is useful both for individual system developers to identify the most advantageous incentive packages that they qualify for as well as for researchers and policymakers to better understand the patch work of incentives nationwide as well as how they drive the market.

  11. Exploring the Effectiveness of Interdisciplinary Instruction on Learning: A Case Study in a College Level Course on Culture, Aid, and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Frank

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity for higher education students to study a topic through multiple, integrated angles is rare even though life outside of the classroom is filled with problems that require blending of knowledge areas to make appropriate decisions. The authors created a course at the United States Air Force Academy called Foreign Area Studies (FAS 495 in the Spring 2012 semester that integrated African studies, economics, history, political science, literature, project management, military strategy, language, culture, and environmental engineering in the study of how foreign aid has affected Mozambique and how an engineering technology along with cultural consciousness can be effectively used for good. To determine effectiveness of the interdisciplinary approach, qualitative data from student reflection papers and in-class discussions were collected and analyzed. The intent of this paper is to highlight the challenges and lessons learned from developing a project based interdisciplinary course. Results suggest a project based course with interdisciplinary pedagogy can be effective in meeting course goals and increasing meaningful student learning.

  12. Ten principles of good interdisciplinary team work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Booth, Andrew; Ariss, Steven; Smith, Tony; Enderby, Pam; Roots, Alison

    2013-05-10

    Interdisciplinary team work is increasingly prevalent, supported by policies and practices that bring care closer to the patient and challenge traditional professional boundaries. To date, there has been a great deal of emphasis on the processes of team work, and in some cases, outcomes. This study draws on two sources of knowledge to identify the attributes of a good interdisciplinary team; a published systematic review of the literature on interdisciplinary team work, and the perceptions of over 253 staff from 11 community rehabilitation and intermediate care teams in the UK. These data sources were merged using qualitative content analysis to arrive at a framework that identifies characteristics and proposes ten competencies that support effective interdisciplinary team work. Ten characteristics underpinning effective interdisciplinary team work were identified: positive leadership and management attributes; communication strategies and structures; personal rewards, training and development; appropriate resources and procedures; appropriate skill mix; supportive team climate; individual characteristics that support interdisciplinary team work; clarity of vision; quality and outcomes of care; and respecting and understanding roles. We propose competency statements that an effective interdisciplinary team functioning at a high level should demonstrate.

  13. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  14. Sub-national population policy: the case of North Sulawesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G W

    1989-04-01

    Since the 1970s, Indonesia has placed increasing emphasis on the development of stronger planning capacity at the regional level; however, the concept of regional autonomy is still viewed with suspicion given Indonesia's history of regional separatist movements. This fact has implications for the need for national population policy to be formulated and implemented with a view toward the varying conditions faced by different provinces and regions. The author presents a case study of fertility, mortality, migration, urbanization, and the development of human capital in 1 Indonesian province--North Sulawesi--to illustrate that special characteristics and internal diversity can demand individualized responses by policy makers. In terms of these 5 areas, the following observations can be made about conditions in North Sulawesi: 1) mortality rates are already below the national average, although infant mortality remains unacceptably high; 2) fertility rates are also well below the national average and approaching replacement level without any aggressive family planning outreach activities, but there remains a need to identify the ultimate fertility target and the extent to which intervention is required; 3) there is little scope for absorbing transmigrants, but there are some major issues regarding population redistribution within the province; 4) although there are no large cities, the increasing dominance of Manado is a concern; and 5) the quality of education and an employment structure to match the well-educated labor force are more important than an expansion of these services. A central concern is the ability of North Sulawesi to prevent "brain drain" to Jakarta; however, the province's capacity to do so is dependent on decisions made in Jakarta about the allocation of revenue, regulations regarding the processing of copra and cloves, new air routes, and the extent of regional autonomy to be tolerated in decisions affecting provincial growth.

  15. Subnational distribution of average farm size and smallholder contributions to global food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samberg, Leah H.; Gerber, James S.; Ramankutty, Navin; Herrero, Mario; West, Paul C.

    2016-12-01

    Smallholder farming is the most prevalent form of agriculture in the world, supports many of the planet’s most vulnerable populations, and coexists with some of its most diverse and threatened landscapes. However, there is little information about the location of small farms, making it difficult both to estimate their numbers and to implement effective agricultural, development, and land use policies. Here, we present a map of mean agricultural area, classified by the amount of land per farming household, at subnational resolutions across three key global regions using a novel integration of household microdata and agricultural landscape data. This approach provides a subnational estimate of the number, average size, and contribution of farms across much of the developing world. By our estimates, 918 subnational units in 83 countries in Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, and South and East Asia average less than five hectares of agricultural land per farming household. These smallholder-dominated systems are home to more than 380 million farming households, make up roughly 30% of the agricultural land and produce more than 70% of the food calories produced in these regions, and are responsible for more than half of the food calories produced globally, as well as more than half of global production of several major food crops. Smallholder systems in these three regions direct a greater percentage of calories produced toward direct human consumption, with 70% of calories produced in these units consumed as food, compared to 55% globally. Our approach provides the ability to disaggregate farming populations from non-farming populations, providing a more accurate picture of farming households on the landscape than has previously been available. These data meet a critical need, as improved understanding of the prevalence and distribution of smallholder farming is essential for effective policy development for food security, poverty reduction, and conservation agendas.

  16. Interdisciplinary Work in Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum; Rasmussen, Gitte Lyng

    the interdisciplinary cooperation in the local practice. What the systemic logic brings into the interdisciplinary cooperation is not just an organizational framework and support, but also a specific vocabulary and a specific task or way of thinking, which in some ways overrules the individual professionals’ own...... the professional knowledge and tasks. Our project shows that the professionals coming from outside the local school often disturb this fine local balancing of professional orientations and coupling of skills. Both because it can be a very slow process of getting in touch with and bringing in these professionals...

  17. The Interdisciplinary Cornucopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbaratta, Philip A.

    At North Shore Community College (NSCC), students in career programs comprise 70% of the student population. To counter the vocational-school effect of programs heavily emphasizing career training, interdisciplinary, team-taught courses were initiated. However, the time required in planning, scheduling, and grading along with other problems…

  18. Making interdisciplinary education effective for rehabilitation students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, J; Tryssenaar, J

    1994-01-01

    Interdisciplinary education has been recommended as a way of preparing students for team practice after graduation. There is debate in the literature over the best way to implement interdisciplinary education sessions, and many factors can influence their effectiveness. This paper is a case description report of a pilot project developed to promote interdisciplinary learning. The Northern Studies Stream of McMaster University's School of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy in Ontario, Canada developed a project that combined students from the occupational therapy and physiotherapy programs for small group tutorials held during clinical placements. The project incorporated suggestions from the literature in order to encourage cooperation and interdisciplinary learning. Participants were mature, second-degree students with similar levels of clinical experience. The sessions were a required part of the academic course, but were ungraded. Tutorials focused on issues relevant to clinical practice for both groups and were facilitated by faculty from both professions. Evaluation was positive, suggesting student characteristics (eg, level of experience and maturity) and session design features that may be helpful in planning future interdisciplinary education experiences.

  19. Greenland as a self-governing sub-national territory in international relations: past, current and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackrén, Maria; Jakobsen, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    . This article reviews developments from the World War II to the present regarding international relations from a Greenlandic perspective. As a self-governing sub-national territory within the realm of Denmark, Greenland does not have the ultimate decision-making power within foreign and security policy. The new...

  20. Chaos: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Education in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Saebyok

    2009-01-01

    Since society and science need interdisciplinary works, the interesting topic of chaos is chosen for interdisciplinary education in physics. The educational programme contains various university-level activities such as computer simulations, chaos experiment and team projects besides ordinary teaching. According to the participants, the programme…

  1. Trends in contraceptive use and distribution of births with demographic risk factors in Ethiopia: a sub-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Solomon; Abdullah, Muna; Mekonnen, Yared; Maïga, Abdoulaye; Akinyemi, Akanni; Amouzou, Agbessi; Friedman, Howard; Barros, Aluisio J D; Hounton, Sennen

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows that family planning contributes to the decline in child mortality by decreasing the proportions of births that are considered high risk. The main objective of the present analysis was to examine the trends in use of modern contraceptives and their relationship with total fertility rate (TFR) and distribution of births by demographic risk factors as defined by mother's age, birth interval, and birth order at the sub-national level in Ethiopia. Analyses used data from three Demographic and Health Surveys in Ethiopia (2000, 2005, and 2011), which are nationally representative data collected through questionnaire-based interviews from women 15-49 using a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling. First, we examined the trends of and relationship between TFR (in the 3 years before each survey) and modern contraceptive use among currently married women in all administrative regions over the time period 2000-2011 using linear regression analysis. We also examined the relationship between birth risks and under-five mortality using the no-risk group as a reference. Finally, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the relationship between the effect of being a resident in one of the regions and having an avoidable birth risk (which includes births to mothers younger than 18 and older than 34 years, birth interval of less than 24 months and birth order higher than third) after adjusting for select covariates including wealth, educational status, residence, religion and exposure to family planning information. Sub-national-level regression analysis showed an inverse relationship between modern contraceptive use among married women and the TFR, with an average decrease of TFR by one child per woman associated with a 13 percentage point increase in modern contraceptive use between 2000 and 2011. A high percentage of births in Ethiopia (62%) fall in one of the risk categories (excluding first births), with wide regional variation from 55% in

  2. The Promise and Pragmatism of Interdisciplinary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Steve H.; Clark, Judith Z.

    1999-01-01

    Barriers to interdisciplinary teamwork in allied health education include loss of revenue, schedule conflicts, differences in degree level, identity and status protection, and content control issues. Ways to foster teamwork include all-inclusive cross-enrollment, web-based curricula, and hiring of faculty across disciplinary lines. (SK)

  3. Assessment of human immediate response capability related to tsunami threats in Indonesia at a sub-national scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Post

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Human immediate response is contextualized into different time compartments reflecting the tsunami early warning chain. Based on the different time compartments the available response time and evacuation time is quantified. The latter incorporates accessibility of safe areas determined by a hazard assessment, as well as environmental and demographic impacts on evacuation speed properties assessed using a Cost Distance Weighting GIS approach.

    Approximately 4.35 million Indonesians live in tsunami endangered areas on the southern coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali and have between 20 and 150 min to reach a tsunami-safe area. Most endangered areas feature longer estimated-evacuation times and hence the population possesses a weak immediate response capability leaving them more vulnerable to being directly impacted by a tsunami. At a sub-national scale these hotspots were identified and include: the Mentawai islands off the Sumatra coast, various sub-districts on Sumatra and west and east Java. Based on the presented approach a temporal dynamic estimation of casualties and displacements as a function of available response time is obtained for the entire coastal area. As an example, a worst case tsunami scenario for Kuta (Bali results in casualties of 25 000 with an optimal response time (direct evacuation when receiving a tsunami warning and 120 000 for minimal response time (no evacuation. The estimated casualties correspond well to observed/reported values and overall model uncertainty is low with a standard error of 5%.

    The results obtained allow for prioritization of intervention measures such as early warning chain, evacuation and contingency planning, awareness and preparedness strategies down to a sub-district level and can be used in tsunami early warning decision support.

  4. Nonextensive entropy interdisciplinary applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tsallis, Constantino

    2004-01-01

    A great variety of complex phenomena in many scientific fields exhibit power-law behavior, reflecting a hierarchical or fractal structure. Many of these phenomena seem to be susceptible to description using approaches drawn from thermodynamics or statistical mechanics, particularly approaches involving the maximization of entropy and of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics and standard laws in a natural way. The book addresses the interdisciplinary applications of these ideas, and also on various phenomena that could possibly be quantitatively describable in terms of these ideas.

  5. Building Interdisciplinary Research Models Through Interactive Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessels, Amanda J; Robinson, Brian; O'Rourke, Michael; Begg, Melissa D; Larson, Elaine L

    2015-12-01

    Critical interdisciplinary research skills include effective communication with diverse disciplines and cultivating collaborative relationships. Acquiring these skills during graduate education may foster future interdisciplinary research quality and productivity. The project aim was to develop and evaluate an interactive Toolbox workshop approach within an interprofessional graduate level course to enhance student learning and skill in interdisciplinary research. We sought to examine the student experience of integrating the Toolbox workshop in modular format over the duration of a 14-week course. The Toolbox Health Sciences Instrument includes six modules that were introduced in a 110-minute dialogue session during the first class and then integrated into the course in a series of six individual workshops in three phases over the course of the semester. Seventeen students participated; the majority were nursing students. Three measures were used to assess project outcomes: pre-post intervention Toolbox survey, competency self-assessment, and a postcourse survey. All measures indicated the objectives were met by a change in survey responses, improved competencies, and favorable experience of the Toolbox modular intervention. Our experience indicates that incorporating this Toolbox modular approach into research curricula can enhance individual level scientific capacity, future interdisciplinary research project success, and ultimately impact on practice and policy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Epistemic dependence in interdisciplinary groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hanne; Wagenknecht, Susann

    2013-01-01

    In interdisciplinary research scientists have to share and integrate knowledge between people and across disciplinary boundaries. An important issue for philosophy of science is to understand how scientists who work in these kinds of environments exchange knowledge and develop new concepts and th...... they engage in when participating in interdisciplinary research in a group, and we compare our findings with those of other studies in interdisciplinary research.......In interdisciplinary research scientists have to share and integrate knowledge between people and across disciplinary boundaries. An important issue for philosophy of science is to understand how scientists who work in these kinds of environments exchange knowledge and develop new concepts...

  7. Characterizing the epidemiological transition in Mexico: national and subnational burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gretchen; Dias, Rodrigo H; Thomas, Kevin J A; Rivera, Juan A; Carvalho, Natalie; Barquera, Simón; Hill, Kenneth; Ezzati, Majid

    2008-06-17

    Rates of diseases and injuries and the effects of their risk factors can have substantial subnational heterogeneity, especially in middle-income countries like Mexico. Subnational analysis of the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors can improve characterization of the epidemiological transition and identify policy priorities. We estimated deaths and loss of healthy life years (measured in disability-adjusted life years [DALYs]) in 2004 from a comprehensive list of diseases and injuries, and 16 major risk factors, by sex and age for Mexico and its states. Data sources included the vital statistics, national censuses, health examination surveys, and published epidemiological studies. Mortality statistics were adjusted for underreporting, misreporting of age at death, and for misclassification and incomparability of cause-of-death assignment. Nationally, noncommunicable diseases caused 75% of total deaths and 68% of total DALYs, with another 14% of deaths and 18% of DALYs caused by undernutrition and communicable, maternal, and perinatal diseases. The leading causes of death were ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, liver cirrhosis, and road traffic injuries. High body mass index, high blood glucose, and alcohol use were the leading risk factors for disease burden, causing 5.1%, 5.0%, and 7.3% of total burden of disease, respectively. Mexico City had the lowest mortality rates (4.2 per 1,000) and the Southern region the highest (5.0 per 1,000); under-five mortality in the Southern region was nearly twice that of Mexico City. In the Southern region undernutrition and communicable, maternal, and perinatal diseases caused 23% of DALYs; in Chiapas, they caused 29% of DALYs. At the same time, the absolute rates of noncommunicable disease and injury burdens were highest in the Southern region (105 DALYs per 1,000 population versus 97 nationally for noncommunicable diseases; 22 versus 19 for injuries). Mexico is at an advanced stage

  8. Characterizing the epidemiological transition in Mexico: national and subnational burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Stevens

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rates of diseases and injuries and the effects of their risk factors can have substantial subnational heterogeneity, especially in middle-income countries like Mexico. Subnational analysis of the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors can improve characterization of the epidemiological transition and identify policy priorities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated deaths and loss of healthy life years (measured in disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] in 2004 from a comprehensive list of diseases and injuries, and 16 major risk factors, by sex and age for Mexico and its states. Data sources included the vital statistics, national censuses, health examination surveys, and published epidemiological studies. Mortality statistics were adjusted for underreporting, misreporting of age at death, and for misclassification and incomparability of cause-of-death assignment. Nationally, noncommunicable diseases caused 75% of total deaths and 68% of total DALYs, with another 14% of deaths and 18% of DALYs caused by undernutrition and communicable, maternal, and perinatal diseases. The leading causes of death were ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, liver cirrhosis, and road traffic injuries. High body mass index, high blood glucose, and alcohol use were the leading risk factors for disease burden, causing 5.1%, 5.0%, and 7.3% of total burden of disease, respectively. Mexico City had the lowest mortality rates (4.2 per 1,000 and the Southern region the highest (5.0 per 1,000; under-five mortality in the Southern region was nearly twice that of Mexico City. In the Southern region undernutrition and communicable, maternal, and perinatal diseases caused 23% of DALYs; in Chiapas, they caused 29% of DALYs. At the same time, the absolute rates of noncommunicable disease and injury burdens were highest in the Southern region (105 DALYs per 1,000 population versus 97 nationally for noncommunicable diseases; 22 versus

  9. Characterizing the Epidemiological Transition in Mexico: National and Subnational Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gretchen; Dias, Rodrigo H; Thomas, Kevin J. A; Rivera, Juan A; Carvalho, Natalie; Barquera, Simón; Hill, Kenneth; Ezzati, Majid

    2008-01-01

    Background Rates of diseases and injuries and the effects of their risk factors can have substantial subnational heterogeneity, especially in middle-income countries like Mexico. Subnational analysis of the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors can improve characterization of the epidemiological transition and identify policy priorities. Methods and Findings We estimated deaths and loss of healthy life years (measured in disability-adjusted life years [DALYs]) in 2004 from a comprehensive list of diseases and injuries, and 16 major risk factors, by sex and age for Mexico and its states. Data sources included the vital statistics, national censuses, health examination surveys, and published epidemiological studies. Mortality statistics were adjusted for underreporting, misreporting of age at death, and for misclassification and incomparability of cause-of-death assignment. Nationally, noncommunicable diseases caused 75% of total deaths and 68% of total DALYs, with another 14% of deaths and 18% of DALYs caused by undernutrition and communicable, maternal, and perinatal diseases. The leading causes of death were ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, liver cirrhosis, and road traffic injuries. High body mass index, high blood glucose, and alcohol use were the leading risk factors for disease burden, causing 5.1%, 5.0%, and 7.3% of total burden of disease, respectively. Mexico City had the lowest mortality rates (4.2 per 1,000) and the Southern region the highest (5.0 per 1,000); under-five mortality in the Southern region was nearly twice that of Mexico City. In the Southern region undernutrition and communicable, maternal, and perinatal diseases caused 23% of DALYs; in Chiapas, they caused 29% of DALYs. At the same time, the absolute rates of noncommunicable disease and injury burdens were highest in the Southern region (105 DALYs per 1,000 population versus 97 nationally for noncommunicable diseases; 22 versus 19 for injuries

  10. DEVELOPMENT SUB-NATIONAL AND POLITICAL CONDUCT OF INDUSTRIAL BOURGEOISIE IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL DURING THE 1990S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Andre Cadoná

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990s, before the States nation crisis, economic openness and integration into the globalization of capital in the country, subnational governments in Brazil have increasingly pressured by the bourgeoisie of their respective territories for the definition of "competitive strategies", to create more favorable conditions of competitiveness for the capital already located locally and to international capital invested in the country during that decade. Thus, the "subnational spaces" gained importance as sites of struggle, especially for the forces representing the capital. In Rio Grande do Sul, the interest in making the country competitive in attracting gaucho capital boosted the industrial bourgeoisie to a broad political mobilization in defense of an adaptation project subject to the logic of the sub-space of globalization of capital.

  11. Interdisciplinary robotics project for first-year engineering degree students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aznar, Mercedes; Zacarés, José Francisco; López, Jaime; Sánchez, Rafael; Pastor, José M; Llorca, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    .... Interdisciplinary projects can be a suitable tool for competence-based learning. A priori, this might be complicated, as subjects are traditionally studied at the university level in isolated compartments, with a fragmented structure...

  12. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Dinosaur Fossils, Morphology, Ethology, and Energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipko, Stephen J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary minicourse on dinosaur fossils, morphology, ethology, and energetics. Suggests and provides examples of hands-on activities for junior high school- through college-level students. (DS)

  13. The role of leadership in people-centred health systems: a sub-national study in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigudu, Simukai; Jasseh, Momodou; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Corrah, Tumani; Demba, Adama; Balen, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Recently, increasing attention has been given to behavioural and relational aspects of the people who both define and shape health systems, placing them at the core. A growing refrain includes the assertion that important decisions determining health system performance, including agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation, are made by people. Within this actor-oriented approach, good leadership has been identified as a key contributing factor in health systems strengthening. However, leadership remains ill-defined and under-researched, especially in resource-limited settings, and understanding the links between leadership and health outcomes remains a challenge. We explore the concept and practice of healthcare leadership at sub-national level in a low-income country setting, using a people-centric research methodology. In June and July 2013, 15 in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants in formal healthcare leadership roles across urban, peri-urban and rural settings of The Gambia, West Africa. Participants included the entire spectrum of Regional Health Team (RHT) Directors and Chief Executive Officers of all government hospitals, as well as one clinical officer-in-charge in a secondary-level major health centre. We found reference to several important aspects of, and approaches to, leadership, including (i) setting a clear vision; (ii) engendering shared leadership; and (iii) paying attention to human relations in management. Participants described attending to constituencies in government, international development agencies and civil society, as well as to the populations they serve. By illuminating the multi-polar networks within which these leaders are embedded, and through which they operate, we provide insight into the complex 'organizational ecology' of the Gambian health system. There is a need to further research and develop healthcare leadership across all levels, within various political, socio-economic and cultural

  14. The Modernization of the Audit Courts of Brazil: PROMOEX deployment assessment in Audit Courts subnational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Gomes da Rocha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mainly since the Brazilian Federal Constitution of 1988, the Brazilian Courts of Accounts (TC had expanded its expertise to carry out the control of management of public entities on different perspectives, such as operational, accounting, budgetary and financial. The differences between these institutions in terms of economic, technological and human resources were factors that made it difficult to adapt these institutions to the new acquired competences. The Promoex then emerged as a solution for modernization of Brazilian subnational Courts of Accounts. Such solution had funds of US $ 64.4 million dollars. The purpose of this research, therefore, is to assess the implementation of this program by 33 TCs. The evaluation was conducted from documents collected from web pages of MPOG, ATRICON, IRB and the Portal of Brazil Courts of Accounts. The Loan Agreement 1628-OC / BR, Object Compliance Report, Progress Reports of the 1st and 2nd semesters of 2013 (final report, and surveys conducted by the FIA and FGV also were scrutinized. The results indicate that the Promoex was less than expected; the modernization proposals were more focused on solving administrative problems, as well as by the low impact of Promoex over the actions developed by the TCs.

  15. Does fiscal discipline towards subnational governments affect citizens' well-being? Evidence on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Massimiliano; Turati, Gilberto

    2014-02-01

    This paper aims to assess the impact on citizens' well-being of fiscal discipline imposed by the central government on subnational governments. Because healthcare policies involve strategic interactions between different layers of governments in many different countries, we focus on a particular dimension of well-being, namely citizens' health. We model fiscal discipline by considering government expectations of future deficit bailouts from the central government. We then study how these bailout expectations affect the expenditure for healthcare policies carried out by decentralized governments. To investigate this issue, we separate efficient health spending from inefficiencies by estimating an input requirement frontier. This allows us to assess the effects of bailout expectations on both the structural component of health expenditure and its deviations from the 'best practice'. The evidence from the 15 Italian ordinary statute regions (observed from 1993 to 2006) points out that bailout expectations do not significantly influence the position of the frontier, thus not affecting citizens' health. However, they do appear to exert a remarkable impact on excess spending. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Interdisciplinary Introductory Course in Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortsarts, Yana; Morris, Robert W.; Utell, Janine M.

    2010-01-01

    Bioinformatics is a relatively new interdisciplinary field that integrates computer science, mathematics, biology, and information technology to manage, analyze, and understand biological, biochemical and biophysical information. We present our experience in teaching an interdisciplinary course, Introduction to Bioinformatics, which was developed…

  17. Interdisciplinary approaches in career studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khapova, S.N.; Arthur, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    This is the opening article in a Human Relations special issue on 'Interdisciplinary approaches to contemporary career studies'. After introducing a story of an 'exceptional - but real' career, we argue for an urgent shift toward greater interdisciplinary inquiry. We reflect on the story to describe

  18. Interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Kupka, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    What do combustion engines, fusion reactors, weather forecast, ocean flows, our sun, and stellar explosions in outer space have in common? Of course, the physics and the length and time scales are vastly different in all cases, but it is also well known that in all of them, on some relevant length scales, the material flows that govern the dynamical and/or secular evolution of the systems are chaotic and often unpredictable: they are said to be turbulent. The interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence are brought together in this volume containing chapters written by experts from very different fields, including geophysics, astrophysics, and engineering. It covers several subjects on which considerable progress was made during the last decades, from questions concerning the very nature of turbulence to some practical applications. These subjects include: a basic introduction into turbulence, statistical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, turbulent convection in stars, atmospheric turbulence in the context of nume...

  19. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  20. National and subnational all-cause and cause-specific child mortality in China, 1996-2015: a systematic analysis with implications for the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunhua; Liu, Li; Chu, Yue; Perin, Jamie; Dai, Li; Li, Xiaohong; Miao, Lei; Kang, Leni; Li, Qi; Scherpbier, Robert; Guo, Sufang; Rudan, Igor; Song, Peige; Chan, Kit Yee; Guo, Yan; Black, Robert E; Wang, Yanping; Zhu, Jun

    2017-02-01

    China has achieved Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce under-5 mortality rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In this study, we estimated the national and subnational levels and causes of child mortality in China annually from 1996 to 2015 to draw implications for achievement of the SDGs for China and other low-income and middle-income countries. In this systematic analysis, we adjusted empirical data on levels and causes of child mortality collected in the China Maternal and Child Health Surveillance System to generate representative estimates at the national and subnational levels. In adjusting the data, we considered the sampling design and probability, applied smoothing techniques to produce stable trends, fitted livebirth and age-specific death estimates to natvional estimates produced by the UN for international comparison, and partitioned national estimates of infrequent causes produced by independent sources to the subnational level. Between 1996 and 2015, the under-5 mortality rate in China declined from 50·8 per 1000 livebirths to 10·7 per 1000 livebirths, at an average annual rate of reduction of 8·2%. However, 181 600 children still died before their fifth birthday, with 93 400 (51·5%) deaths occurring in neonates. Great inequity exists in child mortality across regions and in urban versus rural areas. The leading causes of under-5 mortality in 2015 were congenital abnormalities (35 700 deaths, 95% uncertainty range [UR] 28 400-45 200), preterm birth complications (30 900 deaths, 24 200-40 800), and injuries (26 600 deaths, 21 000-33 400). Pneumonia contributed to a higher proportion of deaths in the western region of China than in the eastern and central regions, and injury was a main cause of death in rural areas. Variations in cause-of-death composition by age were also examined. The contribution of preterm birth complications to mortality decreased after the neonatal period; congenital abnormalities remained an

  1. A framework to promote collective action within the One Health community of practice: Using participatory modelling to enable interdisciplinary, cross-sectoral and multi-level integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Binot

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of a One Health (OH approach in this context calls for improved integration among disciplines and improved cross-sectoral collaboration, involving stakeholders at different levels. For sure, such integration is not achieved spontaneously, implies methodological guidelines and has transaction costs. We explore pathways for implementing such collaboration in SEA context, highlighting the main challenges to be faced by researchers and other target groups involved in OH actions. On this basis, we propose a conceptual framework of OH integration. Throughout 3 components (field-based data management, professional training workshops and higher education, we suggest to develop a new culture of networking involving actors from various disciplines, sectors and levels (from the municipality to the Ministries through a participatory modelling process, fostering synergies and cooperation. This framework could stimulate long-term dialogue process, based on the combination of case studies implementation and capacity building. It aims for implementing both institutional OH dynamics (multi-stakeholders and cross-sectoral and research approaches promoting systems thinking and involving social sciences to follow-up and strengthen collective action.

  2. National and subnational mortality effects of metabolic risk factors and smoking in Iran: a comparative risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzadfar Farshad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality from cardiovascular and other chronic diseases has increased in Iran. Our aim was to estimate the effects of smoking and high systolic blood pressure (SBP, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, total cholesterol (TC, and high body mass index (BMI on mortality and life expectancy, nationally and subnationally, using representative data and comparable methods. Methods We used data from the Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance Survey to estimate means and standard deviations for the metabolic risk factors, nationally and by region. Lung cancer mortality was used to measure cumulative exposure to smoking. We used data from the death registration system to estimate age-, sex-, and disease-specific numbers of deaths in 2005, adjusted for incompleteness using demographic methods. We used systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies to obtain the effect of risk factors on disease-specific mortality. We estimated deaths and life expectancy loss attributable to risk factors using the comparative risk assessment framework. Results In 2005, high SBP was responsible for 41,000 (95% uncertainty interval: 38,000, 44,000 deaths in men and 39,000 (36,000, 42,000 deaths in women in Iran. High FPG, BMI, and TC were responsible for about one-third to one-half of deaths attributable to SBP in men and/or women. Smoking was responsible for 9,000 deaths among men and 2,000 among women. If SBP were reduced to optimal levels, life expectancy at birth would increase by 3.2 years (2.6, 3.9 and 4.1 years (3.2, 4.9 in men and women, respectively; the life expectancy gains ranged from 1.1 to 1.8 years for TC, BMI, and FPG. SBP was also responsible for the largest number of deaths in every region, with age-standardized attributable mortality ranging from 257 to 333 deaths per 100,000 adults in different regions. Discussion Management of blood pressure through diet, lifestyle, and pharmacological interventions should be a priority in Iran

  3. Social cost of carbon pricing of power sector CO2: accounting for leakage and other social implications from subnational policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistline, John E.; Rose, Steven K.

    2018-01-01

    In environments where climate policy has partial coverage or unequal participation, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions or economic activity may shift to locations and sectors where emissions are unregulated. This is referred to as leakage. Leakage can offset or augment emissions reductions associated with a policy, which has important environmental and economic implications. Although leakage has been studied at national levels, analysis of leakage for subnational policies is limited. This is despite greater market integration and many existing state and regional environmental regulations in the US. This study explores leakage potential, net emissions changes, and other social implications in the US energy system with regionally differentiated pricing of power sector CO2 emissions. We undertake an economic analysis using EPRI’s US-REGEN model, where power sector CO2 emissions are priced in individual US regions with a range of social cost of carbon (SCC) values. SCC estimates are being considered by policy-makers for valuing potential societal damages from CO2 emissions. In this study, we evaluate the emissions implications within the SCC pricing region, within the power sector outside the SCC region, and outside the power sector (i.e. in the rest of the energy system). Results indicate that CO2 leakage is possible within and outside the electric sector, ranging from negative 70% to over 80% in our scenarios, with primarily positive leakage outcomes. Typically ignored in policy analysis, leakage would affect CO2 reduction benefits. We also observe other potential societal effects within and across regions, such as higher electricity prices, changes in power sector investments, and overall consumption losses. Efforts to reduce leakage, such as constraining power imports into the SCC pricing region likely reduce leakage, but could also result in lower net emissions reductions, as well as larger price increases. Thus, it is important to look beyond leakage and consider a

  4. Under-5 mortality in 2851 Chinese counties, 1996–2012: a subnational assessment of achieving MDG 4 goals in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Li, Xiaohong; Zhou, Maigeng; Luo, Shusheng; Liang, Juan; Liddell, Chelsea A; Coates, Matthew M; Gao, Yanqiu; Wang, Linhong; He, Chunhua; Kang, Chuyun; Liu, Shiwei; Dai, Li; Schumacher, Austin E; Fraser, Maya S; Wolock, Timothy M; Pain, Amanda; Levitz, Carly E; Singh, Lavanya; Coggeshall, Megan; Lind, Margaret; Li, Yichong; Li, Qi; Deng, Kui; Mu, Yi; Deng, Changfei; Yi, Ling; Liu, Zheng; Ma, Xia; Li, Hongtian; Mu, Dezhi; Zhu, Jun; Murray, Christopher J L; Wang, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background In the past two decades, the under-5 mortality rate in China has fallen substantially, but progress with regards to the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 at the subnational level has not been quantified. We aimed to estimate under-5 mortality rates in mainland China for the years 1970 to 2012. Methods We estimated the under-5 mortality rate for 31 provinces in mainland China between 1970 and 2013 with data from censuses, surveys, surveillance sites, and disease surveillance points. We estimated under-5 mortality rates for 2851 counties in China from 1996 to 2012 with the reported child mortality numbers from the Annual Report System on Maternal and Child Health. We used a small area mortality estimation model, spatiotemporal smoothing, and Gaussian process regression to synthesise data and generate consistent provincial and county-level estimates. We compared progress at the county level with what was expected on the basis of income and educational attainment using an econometric model. We computed Gini coefficients to study the inequality of under-5 mortality rates across counties. Findings In 2012, the lowest provincial level under-5 mortality rate in China was about five per 1000 livebirths, lower than in Canada, New Zealand, and the USA. The highest provincial level under-5 mortality rate in China was higher than that of Bangladesh. 29 provinces achieved a decrease in under-5 mortality rates twice as fast as the MDG 4 target rate; only two provinces will not achieve MDG 4 by 2015. Although some counties in China have under-5 mortality rates similar to those in the most developed nations in 2012, some have similar rates to those recorded in Burkina Faso and Cameroon. Despite wide differences, the inter-county Gini coefficient has been decreasing. Improvement in maternal education and the economic boom have contributed to the fall in child mortality; more than 60% of the counties in China had rates of decline in under-5 mortality rates

  5. Human error and patient safety: interdisciplinary course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Augustine R; Fabri, Peter J; Wolfson, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The medical community has only recently begun to address how human error affects patient safety. In order to confront human error in medicine, there is a need to teach students who are entering the health professions how potential errors may manifest and train them to prevent or mitigate these problems. The objective is to describe a semester-long, interdisciplinary, human error and patient safety course taught at the University of South Florida. Six interdisciplinary groups, composed of students from five of the university's colleges, were formed. The curriculum consisted of expert lecturers, readings, case studies, and analysis of patient safety problems. Students were evaluated based on their group's work on the final project and peer evaluations. Nursing students scored the highest in each category evaluated. Physicians and medical students had the lowest evaluations in team participation and active engagement. All students rated the course highly and indicated that it enhanced their ability to work in interprofessional settings. The students showed improved knowledge and substantive skill level relative to patient safety and human error concepts. Working in interdisciplinary teams gave the students a better understanding of the role each discipline can have in improving health care systems and health care delivery.

  6. Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Education: CIC Project on the Future of Independent Higher Education. Innovations in Teaching and Learning. Research Brief 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    During the most recent decade, interdisciplinary instruction at the undergraduate level has increased rapidly. Independent colleges and universities are both innovators in developing new approaches to interdisciplinary education and strong supporters of traditional liberal arts disciplines. Some observers argue that interdisciplinary approaches…

  7. Building interdisciplinary biomedical research using novel collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Katya; Faux, Russell; Corkey, Barbara; Coleman, David

    2013-02-01

    Traditionally, biomedical research has been carried out mainly within departmental boundaries. However, successful biomedical research increasingly relies on development of methods and concepts crossing these boundaries, requiring expertise in different disciplines. Recently, major research institutes have begun experimenting with ways to foster an interdisciplinary ethos. The Evans Center for Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research ("the Evans Center") at Boston University is a new organizational paradigm to address this challenge. The Evans Center is built around interdisciplinary research groups termed affinity research collaboratives (ARCs). Each ARC consists of investigators from several academic departments and at least two research disciplines, bound by a common goal to investigate biomedical problems concerning human disease. Novel aspects of the Evans Center include a "bottom-up" approach to identifying areas of ARC research (research vision and strategy are typically initiated by a core group of faculty with input from the center director); a pre-ARC period of faculty affiliation/project(s)' self-selection prior to formation of a peer-reviewed ARC; and Evans Center support for innovative ARCs for up to three years pending yearly metric evaluation, followed by continued administrative support as a group matures into an ARC program.Since its inception in early 2009, the Evans Center has documented achievements at discovery/publication, grant award, and educational levels. Enhanced interactions between members of individual ARCs, as assessed by quantitative networking analysis, are discussed in the context of high productivity. As universities seek new approaches to stimulate interdisciplinary research, the Evans Center and its ARCs are offered as a productive model for leveraging discovery.

  8. National and Subnational Population-Based Incidence of Cancer in Thailand: Assessing Cancers with the Highest Burdens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shama Virani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, five cancer types—breast, cervical, colorectal, liver and lung cancer—contribute to over half of the cancer burden. The magnitude of these cancers must be quantified over time to assess previous health policies and highlight future trajectories for targeted prevention efforts. We provide a comprehensive assessment of these five cancers nationally and subnationally, with trend analysis, projections, and number of cases expected for the year 2025 using cancer registry data. We found that breast (average annual percent change (AAPC: 3.1% and colorectal cancer (female AAPC: 3.3%, male AAPC: 4.1% are increasing while cervical cancer (AAPC: −4.4% is decreasing nationwide. However, liver and lung cancers exhibit disproportionately higher burdens in the northeast and north regions, respectively. Lung cancer increased significantly in northeastern and southern women, despite low smoking rates. Liver cancers are expected to increase in the northern males and females. Liver cancer increased in the south, despite the absence of the liver fluke, a known factor, in this region. Our findings are presented in the context of health policy, population dynamics and serve to provide evidence for future prevention strategies. Our subnational estimates provide a basis for understanding variations in region-specific risk factor profiles that contribute to incidence trends over time.

  9. Associations between key intervention coverage and child mortality: an analysis of 241 sub-national regions of sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akachi, Yoko; Steenland, Maria; Fink, Günther

    2017-12-21

    Reducing child mortality remains a key objective in the Sustainable Development Goals. Although remarkable progress has been made with respect to under-5 mortality over the last 25 years, little is known regarding the relative contributions of public health interventions and general improvements in socioeconomic status during this time period. We combined all available data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to construct a longitudinal, multi-level dataset with information on subnational-level key intervention coverage, household socioeconomic status and child health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. The dataset covers 562 896 child records and 769 region-year observations across 24 countries. We used multi-level multivariable logistics regression models to assess the associations between child mortality and changes in the coverage of 17 key reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health interventions such as bednets, water and sanitation infrastructure, vaccination and breastfeeding practices, as well as concurrent improvements in social and economic development. Full vaccination coverage was associated with a 30% decrease in the odds of child mortality [odds ratio (OR) 0.698, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.564, 0.864], and continued breastfeeding was associated with a 24% decrease in the odds of child mortality (OR 0.759, 95% CI 0.642, 0.898). Our results suggest that changes in vaccination coverage, as well as increases in female education and economic development, made the largest contributions to the positive mortality trends observed. Breastfeeding was associated with child survival but accounts for little of the observed declines in mortality due to declining coverage levels during our study period. Our findings suggest that a large amount of progress has been made with respect to coverage levels of key health interventions. Whereas all socioeconomic variables considered appear to strongly predict health outcomes, the same was true only for very

  10. Modeling interdisciplinary activities involving Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a didactical model is presented. The goal of the model is to work as a didactical tool, or conceptual frame, for developing, carrying through and evaluating interdisciplinary activities involving the subject of mathematics and philosophy in the high schools. Through the terms...... of Horizontal Intertwining, Vertical Structuring and Horizontal Propagation the model consists of three phases, each considering different aspects of the nature of interdisciplinary activities. The theoretical modelling is inspired by work which focuses on the students abilities to concept formation in expanded...... domains (Michelsen, 2001, 2005a, 2005b). Furthermore the theoretical description rest on a series of qualitative interviews with teachers from the Danish high school (grades 9-11) conducted recently. The special case of concrete interdisciplinary activities between mathematics and philosophy is also...

  11. City evacuations an interdisciplinary approach

    CERN Document Server

    Binner, Jane; Branicki, Layla; Galla, Tobias; Jones, Nick; King, James; Kolokitha, Magdalini; Smyrnakis, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Evacuating a city is a complex problem that involves issues of governance, preparedness education, warning, information sharing, population dynamics, resilience and recovery. As natural and anthropogenic threats to cities grow, it is an increasingly pressing problem for policy makers and practitioners.   The book is the result of a unique interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers in the physical and social sciences to consider how an interdisciplinary approach can help plan for large scale evacuations.  It draws on perspectives from physics, mathematics, organisation theory, economics, sociology and education.  Importantly it goes beyond disciplinary boundaries and considers how interdisciplinary methods are necessary to approach a complex problem involving human actors and increasingly complex communications and transportation infrastructures.   Using real world case studies and modelling the book considers new approaches to evacuation dynamics.  It addresses questions of complexity, not only ...

  12. Socialisation to Interdisciplinary Legal Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfke, Werner; Mayoral, Juan A.; Hvidt, Martine Stagelund

    2018-01-01

    This article provides novel empirical survey evidence on socialization factors leading lecturers to implement interdisciplinary teaching in law. Recent debates on the legal scholarship and higher education legal institutions advocates for the introduction of interdisciplinary approaches to legal...... studies. Nevertheless, there is still few evidence of how this lecturing philosophy might be affected by the socialization with other disciplines. For that purpose, we analyse the case of external lectures in the Faculty of Law at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, who covers the majority...... of the teaching staff in this institution. To explain the adoption of interdisciplinary teaching, we rely on socialization factors connected to their former higher education and socialization in research and multidisciplinary environments....

  13. Making Interdisciplinary Subjects Relevant to Students: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines issues relating to the design/redesign of the pedagogy of interdisciplinary undergraduate subjects. Examples include: (a) law subjects for students in Business Management or Building and Surveying; (b) "English Communication for Business" for students in English; and (c) "Information technology in Business" for students in…

  14. Interdisciplinary collaboration between medical and non-medical professions in health and social care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielová, Jana; Veleminsky, Milos

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of interdisciplinary collaboration between medical and non-medical professions in health and social care. The introduction defines basic terms such as interdisciplinary cooperation, interdisciplinary team, and health and social care. Additionally, it highlights the significance and contribution of interdisciplinary collaboration in the care of the patient/client in health and social care. The aim of the paper is to identify factors influencing the process of interdisciplinary collaboration between, in particular, social workers and physicians. In compliance with the main goal of the research, the following partial goals were included: 1) to identify factors that limit the process of interdisciplinary collaboration between social workers and physicians, and 2) to identify factors which support the process of interdisciplinary collaboration between social workers and physicians. Based on the research goals, a systematic review was selected as the research method for the paper. The research dataset consisted of articles obtained from the following databases: EBSO, PUBMED/MEDLINE, SCIENCE DIRECT and SCOPUS. The databases were search using the following keywords: interprofessional cooperation, interdisciplinary, collaboration, social work, and physicians/doctors. Using the results, the following factors supporting interdisciplinary collaboration were identified: acknowledgement of colleagues' expertise, recognition of roles, positive level of communication, and mutual respect. Factors that limit interdisciplinary processes included the following: varying professional perspectives, theoretical differences, lack of knowledge, and poor communication.

  15. Nanotechnology: Interdisciplinary science of applications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    (Lengke et al., 2007). Nanotechnology infuse scientific branches from biology, chemistry, physics and engineering, hence called interdisciplinary subject opens new doors of applications (Kulzer and Orrit, 2004). The fundamental of nanotechnology lies in the fact that properties of material change dramatically when size.

  16. Epistemological Pluralism: Reorganizing Interdisciplinary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaddeus R. Miller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite progress in interdisciplinary research, difficulties remain. In this paper, we argue that scholars, educators, and practitioners need to critically rethink the ways in which interdisciplinary research and training are conducted. We present epistemological pluralism as an approach for conducting innovative, collaborative research and study. Epistemological pluralism recognizes that, in any given research context, there may be several valuable ways of knowing, and that accommodating this plurality can lead to more successful integrated study. This approach is particularly useful in the study and management of social-ecological systems. Through resilience theory's adaptive cycle, we demonstrate how a focus on epistemological pluralism can facilitate the reorganization of interdisciplinary research and avoid the build-up of significant, but insufficiently integrative, disciplinary-dominated research. Finally, using two case studies - urban ecology and social-ecological research in Alaska - we highlight how interdisciplinary work is impeded when divergent epistemologies are not recognized and valued, and that by incorporating a pluralistic framework, these issues can be better explored, resulting in more integrated understanding.

  17. Interdisciplinary Science Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, P. J.; Hine, D.; Barnard, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Science history shows us that interdisciplinarity is a spontaneous process that is intrinsic to, and engendered by, research activity. It is an activity that is done rather than an object to be designed and constructed. We examine three vignettes from the history of science that display the interdisciplinary process at work and consider the…

  18. Interdisciplinary Research and Information Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Discusses information overload and examines several ways in which actual and potential overload affects research choices for the solo researcher in interdisciplinary areas. Topics include information overload and teamwork; entry barriers to certain specialties, including necessary background knowledge; and information utilization and knowledge…

  19. [The quality of interdisciplinary communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, S; Dalla Pozza, L Visoná; Mola, E; Facchin, P

    2011-01-01

    Because of a continued increase of complex patients and the development of many areas of sub-specialities in medicine, the use and quality of interdisciplinary communication has been found to be lacking, especially between hospital and primary care physicians, causing a significant gap in the documentation, coverage and care of individual patients. The study focuses on state of the art interdisciplinary communication, with consideration given to current used tools and priorities. An ad hoc questionnaire surveyed 118 physicians about their profession, the types of patients, the frequency of complex cases, the tools used to communicate with each patient and how the physicians rated these tools. The rate of patients needing interdisciplinary communication is 17% of the entire patient sample, all of this percentage having complex health care needs (terminally ill, disabled, often without a personal support network). Physicians frequently used paper documents, despite their lack of quality, as well as the telephone to communicate with other colleagues. Computer devices were scarcely used. Many Doctors (71%) value the actual interdisciplinary communication of low quality, despite the fact that it is considered to have a significant influence on the quality of health care. New tools and methods are needed. For example, dedicated standards of multidisciplinary and multi-professional Continuing Medical Education (CME), as well as the use of computer tools allowing for shared clinical records.

  20. Interdisciplinary Methods in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosens, Barbara; Fiedler, Fritz; Boll, Jan; Higgins, Lorie; Johnson, Gary; Kennedy, Brian; Strand, Eva; Wilson, Patrick; Laflin, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the face of a myriad of complex water resource issues, traditional disciplinary separation is ineffective in developing approaches to promote a sustainable water future. As part of a new graduate program in water resources, faculty at the University of Idaho have developed a course on interdisciplinary methods designed to prepare students for…

  1. Interdisciplinary Common Ground: Techniques and Attentional Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, P. Sven

    2014-01-01

    Common ground in the interdisciplinary research process is the pivot from disciplinary to interdisciplinary perspective. As thinking moves from disciplinary to interdisciplinary, what is the shape or structure of attention, how does intellectual content transform in the attending process? Four common ground techniques--extension, redefinition,…

  2. Interdisciplinary consensus on management of premenstrual disorders in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Petra; Bodmer, Christine; Ehlert, Ulrike; Eltbogen, Roger; Ging, Ankica; Streuli, Isabelle; von Wolff, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Premenstrual disorders (PMD) can affect women throughout their entire reproductive years. In 2016, an interdisciplinary expert meeting of general gynecologists, gynecological endocrinologists, psychiatrists and psychologists from Switzerland was held to provide an interdisciplinary algorithm on PMD management taking reproductive stages into account. The Swiss PMD algorithm differentiates between primary and secondary PMD care providers incorporating different levels of diagnostic and treatment. Treatment options include cognitive behavioral therapy, alternative therapy, antidepressants, ovulation suppression and diuretics. Treatment choice depends on prevalent PMD symptoms, (reproductive) age, family planning, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidities, comedication and the woman's preference. Regular follow-ups are mandatory.

  3. Structural Narratology and Interdisciplinary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohammadi Kalesar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between structural narratology and interdisciplinary studies. We will try to answer two main questions: What factors have been effective in narratology’s orientation toward interdisciplinary studies? Is this tendency the result of a possibility in narration or a methodological necessity? The movement of narratology to interdisciplinary is observable not only in new narratological tendencies but also in changes in structural theories. Therefore, this article will trace the roots of this tendency in the revises and critiques of these theories until 1970s. By tracing these changes it can be realized that the theories of structural narrotology have broken with idea of independence and self-sufficiency of literature and embraced other disciplines. The main factors in these changes are: attention to cultural elements and reading process in the perception of narrative structure. These considerations have been accompanied by some results; first, the main targets of narratology changed from investigating textual properties to reading and understanding the narration process; second, some disciplines and fields related to culture and mind studies found their way into narratology.

  4. Interdisciplinary Programs Focused Populations: The Case of Health Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Yavich, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The Ariel University has a unique interdisciplinary program in healthcare management that targets experienced healthcare professionals who wish to earn an academic degree. Only one academic study has been held so far on the integration of graduates of an academic university-level school in healthcare management in the field. In the current study,…

  5. Methods for Enhancing Efficiency of Interdisciplinary Team Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Pat Spencer

    The paper reviews difficulties in special education interdisciplinary team decision making and relates the experiences of one team's efforts to increase intra-team communication. Among problems cited are lack of focus in discussions, unequal levels of participation, and limited abilities to produce recommendations or provide therapy in a truly…

  6. Interdisciplinary Professional Development: Astrolabes for Medievalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2014-06-01

    Astronomers and astronomy educators have significantly broadened the intended audience for their outreach activities, from the traditional venues of public schools, libraries and planetariums to national parks, coffee houses, and concert halls. At the same time, significant attention has been paid to improving the quality and relevance of professional development directed toward preservice and inservice science teachers. Many of our outreach and professional development programs have also become increasingly creative in their use of interdisciplinary connections to astronomy, such as cultural astronomy and the history of astronomy. This poster describes a specific example of interdisciplinary professional development directed at a different audience, humanities faculty and researchers, through hands-on workshops on the basic astronomical background and usage of an astrolabe conducted at the International Congress on Medieval Studies at Western Michigan University in 2013 and 2014. The goal was to explain the basic astronomy behind astrolabes (as well as their cultural relevance) to medieval scholars in history, literature, and other disciplines. The intention was to increase their comfort with manipulating and explaining astrolabes to a basic level where they could share their knowledge with their own college classes. In this way the relevance of astronomy to myriad human endeavors could be reinforced by humanities faculty within their own courses.

  7. Transformation of Geography as an Interdisciplinary Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Afrakhteh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Geography as a science of the spatial analysis of phenomena is based on three main objectives: studying spatial structures, examining the locational-spatial order of socio-economic activities, and searching spatial relationships and functions through hierarchical leveling of rural and urban settlements. The applied form of geography or “spatial planning” addresses the modification of spatial structures, the locational-spatial order of activities, and the organization of spatial relationships and functions. There are mutual interactions between structure and function in this spatial order. Science has developed a complex structure through the electronic revolution, which is called “third wave science”; also specialized studies have developed. Specialized studies result in a very deep understanding of subjects, but this deep understanding always remains just in a “spot” and its applications could be traumatic, which is because it is not regulated in combination with other dimensions of human life. This kind of science cannot be beneficial in human life or solve some important problems. The main aim of this article, which is based on qualitative content analysis, is to analyze geography as an interdisciplinary science. The findings of the study show that geographical research has interdisciplinary characteristics; otherwise it cannot explain today’s complex problems. Geography can both use the findings of other sciences, including statistics, mathematics, economics, sociology, history and psychology, and provide them with services and help.

  8. A Fiscal Need Approach to Sub-National Fiscal Equalization. Application to the Case of Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S Leonardo E Letelier; M Francisco R Mesa

    2015-01-01

      This research is intended to measure the gap between the existing level of grants for municipalities for school level education, primary health services and other services, regarding a theoretically...

  9. Functional Analysis in Interdisciplinary Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nursultanov, Erlan; Ruzhansky, Michael; Sadybekov, Makhmud

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents current research in functional analysis and its applications to a variety of problems in mathematics and mathematical physics. The book contains over forty carefully refereed contributions to the conference “Functional Analysis in Interdisciplinary Applications” (Astana, Kazakhstan, October 2017). Topics covered include the theory of functions and functional spaces; differential equations and boundary value problems; the relationship between differential equations, integral operators and spectral theory; and mathematical methods in physical sciences. Presenting a wide range of topics and results, this book will appeal to anyone working in the subject area, including researchers and students interested to learn more about different aspects and applications of functional analysis.

  10. Theoretical Considerations of Interdisciplinary Expertise in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Peran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jnterdisciplinwy traffic expertise is being increasingly appliedin road traffic. It is not possible to determine whether anaccident had been intentionally set up without such expertise.The interdisciplinary expertise is the result of mutual work ofseveral different interdisciplinary experts. The paper analysesthe basic characteristics of interdisciplinary investigation ofset-up traffic accidents. Special attention has been paid to interdisciplinwyexpertise of set-up traffic accidents involving injuredpersons or fatalities.

  11. Teaching about Fascism: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, Claire

    1980-01-01

    Describes a university course which teaches the history of fascism and nazism through interdisciplinary methods: philosophy, film, literature, and art. Visiting lecturers include survivors of concentration camps. (KC)

  12. Interdisciplinary Approach in Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Zeidmane

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the scientific literature available on the types of general competences and their classification caused the authors to conclude that it is necessary to implement interdisciplinary approach in engineering education to develop competences necessary for engineers to make them competitive in the labour market. The attention should be paid to a professional foreign language, computer literacy and educational psychology recommendations. To improve professional foreign language skills, CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning method should be integrated in the study process of engineering education. In order to develop information literacy competence, it is important to create a single e-study environment. The academic staff, developing study subjects for engineering programmes, should focus on the study content and study methods. As regards the content, the compromise should be sought between fundamental acquisition of the knowledge of the subject matter, the know-how of the application of this knowledge as well as the use of brand new software in the calculations. The paper presents the examples of the application of the interdisciplinary approach in the universities, where the authors of the paper are affiliated: the LUA (Latvia University of Agriculture and the RTU (Riga Technical University, respectively.

  13. GeoCREV: veterinary geographical information system and the development of a practical sub-national spatial data infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ferrè

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates and discusses the key issues of the geographical information system (GIS developed by the Unit of Veterinary Epidemiology of the Veneto region (CREV, defined according to user needs, spatial data (availability, accessibility and applicability, development, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationships, constraints and policies. GeoCREV, the support system for decision-making, was designed to integrate geographic information and veterinary laboratory data with the main aim to develop a sub-national, spatial data infrastructure (SDI for the veterinary services of the Veneto region in north-eastern Italy. Its implementation required (i collection of data and information; (ii building a geodatabase; and (iii development of a WebGIS application. Tools for the management, collection, validation and dissemination of the results (public access and limited access were developed. The modular concept facilitates the updating and development of the system according to user needs and data availability. The GIS management practices that were followed to develop the system are outlined, followed by a detailed discussion of the key elements of the GIS implementation process (data model, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationship, user dimension and institutional framework. Problems encountered in organising the non-spatial data and the future work directions are also described.

  14. How to Enhance Interdisciplinary Competence--Interdisciplinary Problem-Based Learning versus Interdisciplinary Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassler, Mirjam; Dettmers, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary competence is important in academia for both employability and sustainable development. However, to date, there are no specific interdisciplinary education models and, naturally, no empirical studies to assess them. Since problem-based learning (PBL) and project-based learning (PjBL) are learning approaches that emphasize…

  15. Evaluation of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Julie T

    2008-08-01

    Interdisciplinarity has become a widespread mantra for research, accompanied by a growing body of publications. Evaluation, however, remains one of the least-understood aspects. This review of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research evaluation categorizes lessons from the emergent international literature on the topic reviewed in 2007. It defines parallels between research performance and evaluation, presents seven generic principles for evaluation, and reflects in the conclusion on changing connotations of the underlying concepts of discipline, peer, and measurement. Interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research performance and evaluation are both generative processes of harvesting, capitalizing, and leveraging multiple expertise. Individual standards must be calibrated, and tensions among different disciplinary, professional, and interdisciplinary approaches carefully managed in balancing acts that require negotiation and compromise. Readiness levels are strengthened by antecedent conditions that are flexible enough to allow multiple pathways of integration and collaboration. In both cases, as well, new epistemic communities must be constructed and new cultures of evidence produced. The multidisciplinary-interdisciplinary-transdisciplinary research environment spans a wide range of contexts. Yet seven generic principles provide a coherent framework for thinking about evaluation: (1) variability of goals; (2) variability of criteria and indicators; (3) leveraging of integration; (4) interaction of social and cognitive factors in collaboration; (5) management, leadership, and coaching; (6) iteration in a comprehensive and transparent system; and (7) effectiveness and impact.

  16. Interdisciplinary robotics project for first-year engineering degree students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Aznar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of both transversal and specific competences cannot be achieved using conventional methodologies. New methodologies must be applied that promote the necessary competences for proper professional development. Interdisciplinary projects can be a suitable tool for competence-based learning. A priori, this might be complicated, as subjects are traditionally studied at the university level in isolated compartments, with a fragmented structure. Taking advantage of the creation of new degree programs in Mechanical Engineering and Electronic Engineering and Industrial Automation, in the 2010-11 academic year we decided to add an interdisciplinary project (IP to our teaching methodology. The importance of this project lies in the fact that it requires the participation of all the courses in all the academic years in the degree program. The present article explains the methodology used in the interdisciplinary project and how it was implemented in the first year of the Mechanical Engineering and Electronic Engineering and Industrial Automation degree programs. Furthermore, an evaluation is conducted of all four years of the interdisciplinary project, revealing the main problems with its execution and how they have been addressed.

  17. Using a Low Cost Flight Simulation Environment for Interdisciplinary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia; ALi, Syed F.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary education is increasingly being emphasized for engineering undergraduates. However, often the focus is on interaction between engineering disciplines. This paper discusses the experience at Tuskegee University in providing interdisciplinary research experiences for undergraduate students in both Aerospace Engineering and Psychology through the utilization of a low cost flight simulation environment. The environment, which is pc-based, runs a low-cost of-the-shelf software and is configured for multiple out-of-the-window views and a synthetic heads down display with joystick, rudder and throttle controls. While the environment is being utilized to investigate and evaluate various strategies for training novice pilots, students were involved to provide them with experience in conducting such interdisciplinary research. On the global inter-disciplinary level these experiences included developing experimental designs and research protocols, consideration of human participant ethical issues, and planning and executing the research studies. During the planning phase students were apprised of the limitations of the software in its basic form and the enhancements desired to investigate human factors issues. A number of enhancements to the flight environment were then undertaken, from creating Excel macros for determining the performance of the 'pilots', to interacting with the software to provide various audio/video cues based on the experimental protocol. These enhancements involved understanding the flight model and performance, stability & control issues. Throughout this process, discussions of data analysis included a focus from a human factors perspective as well as an engineering point of view.

  18. Toward an Interdisciplinary Science of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Linda J.; Fryling, Mitch J.

    2009-01-01

    Cultural events are of interest to scientists working in many scientific domains. Given this, an interdisciplinary science of culture may provide a more thorough understanding of cultural phenomena. However, interdisciplinary sciences depend upon the validity and vitality of the participating disciplines. This article reviews the nature of…

  19. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  20. Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we…

  1. Enhancing Adult Learning through Interdisciplinary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntiri, Daphne W.; Schindler, Roslyn Abt; Henry, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    This examination of the pedagogical and curricular characteristics and imperatives of an interdisciplinary studies program for adult learners, within a wider context of theory and practice, draws on the example of a general education course to demonstrate the vitality between interdisciplinary thinking and adult learning.

  2. Criminologyof the future: interdisciplinary scientific connections

    OpenAIRE

    Antonyan Yu.M.

    2014-01-01

    The results of interdisciplinary scientific connections of the modern criminology conditional on the open character of this science and the necessity of its further development are given. The narrow-purpose character of criminological researches is noted: trivial subject matter; the criminologists’ lack of psychological, psychiatric, economical, historical, biological, ethnological and other knowledge; insufficiency of complex interdisciplinary works and empirical studies. Different viewpoint...

  3. Teaching Interdisciplinary Engineering and Science Educations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Lise B.; S. Stachowicz, Marian

    2014-01-01

    creating new knowledge. We will address the challenges by defining the term interdisciplinary in connection with education, and using the Problem Based Learning educational approach and experience from the engineering and science educational areas to find the obstacles. Two cases based on interdisciplinary...

  4. Engaging Undergraduates through Interdisciplinary Research in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Anura U.; Offutt, Christine; Whitling, Jacqueline; Woodhouse, Donald

    2012-01-01

    To recruit and retain more students in all science disciplines at our small (5,000 student) public university, we implemented an interdisciplinary strategy focusing on nanotechnology and enhanced undergraduate research. Inherently interdisciplinary, the novelty of nanotechnology and its growing career potential appeal to students. To engage…

  5. Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Otto; Zelinka, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The book you hold in your hands is the outcome of the “2014 Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems” held in the historical city of Florence. The book consists of 37 chapters from 4 areas of Physical Modeling of Complex Systems, Evolutionary Computations, Complex Biological Systems and Complex Networks. All 4 parts contain contributions that give interesting point of view on complexity in different areas in science and technology. The book starts with a comprehensive overview and classification of complexity problems entitled Physics in the world of ideas: Complexity as Energy”  , followed by chapters about complexity measures and physical principles, its observation, modeling and its applications, to solving various problems including real-life applications. Further chapters contain recent research about evolution, randomness and complexity, as well as complexity in biological systems and complex networks. All selected papers represent innovative ideas, philosophical overviews and state-of-the-...

  6. The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, E. C.; Cerdà, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Pereg, L.; Quinton, J. N.; Six, J.; Van Oost, K.

    2015-01-01

    The holistic study of soils requires an interdisciplinary approach involving biologists, chemists, geologists, and physicists, amongst others, something that has been true from the earliest days of the field. In more recent years this list has grown to include anthropologists, economists, engineers, medical professionals, military professionals, sociologists, and even artists. This approach has been strengthened and reinforced as current research continues to use experts trained in both soil science and related fields and by the wide array of issues impacting the world that require an in-depth understanding of soils. Of fundamental importance amongst these issues are biodiversity, biofuels/energy security, climate change, ecosystem services, food security, human health, land degradation, and water security, each representing a critical challenge for research. In order to establish a benchmark for the type of research that we seek to publish in each issue of SOIL, we have outlined the interdisciplinary nature of soil science research we are looking for. This includes a focus on the myriad ways soil science can be used to expand investigation into a more holistic and therefore richer approach to soil research. In addition, a selection of invited review papers are published in this first issue of SOIL that address the study of soils and the ways in which soil investigations are essential to other related fields. We hope that both this editorial and the papers in the first issue will serve as examples of the kinds of topics we would like to see published in SOIL and will stimulate excitement among our readers and authors to participate in this new venture.

  7. Interdisciplinary robotics project for first-year engineering degree students

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Aznar; José Francisco Zacarés; Jaime López; Rafael Sánchez; Pastor, José M.; Jaume Llorca

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of both transversal and specific competences cannot be achieved using conventional methodologies. New methodologies must be applied that promote the necessary competences for proper professional development. Interdisciplinary projects can be a suitable tool for competence-based learning. A priori, this might be complicated, as subjects are traditionally studied at the university level in isolated compartments, with a fragmented structure. Taking advantage of the creation of ne...

  8. National and sub-national burden of visual impairment in Iran 1990-2013; study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Elham; Mohammadi, Seyed-Farzad; Fotouhi, Akbar; Lashay, Alireza; Asadi-lari, Mohsen; Mahdavi, Alireza; Jabbarvand, Mahmoud; Sobhani, Sahar; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2014-12-01

    Although Visual impairment (VI) and its prevention is a public health issue, sub-optimal information about its magnitude in national level and its distribution is one of the impediments for visual health advocacy. In this article, we are detailing the approaches which will be taken to estimate the magnitude (prevalence, incidence, and burden), distribution, and trend (1990 to 2013) of low vision and blindness in Iran. Besides that, an attempt will be made to describe inequalities and their determinants. After finalizing the list of diseases, a systematic search will be started using confirmed search terms and all published and unpublished data will be extracted. Other data sources, including data from hospital records will be added to the data extraction sheet. Using distinct statistical models including spatio-temporal model and multilevel autoregressive model, we will estimate rate of burden measures of eye disease and their uncertainty interval by sex, age, year, and province as well as social determinants of visual impairment inequality. The results are to be reported in separated analyses of meta-analysis, trend, risk factors and diseases burden, inequality, Bayesian prediction modeling, and map for visualizing the results. The results of the current study will address gaps in different regions and have implication for evidence-based policy making in Iran.

  9. How good is compliance with smoke-free legislation in India? Results of 38 subnational surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Goel, Sonu; Harries, Anthony D; Lal, Pranay; Singh, Rana J; Kumar, Ajay M V; Wilson, Nevin C

    2014-09-01

    India has been implementing smoke-free legislation since 2008 prohibiting smoking in public places. This study aimed to assess the level of compliance with smoke-free legislation (defined as the presence of no-smoking signage and the absence of active smoking, smoking aids, cigarette butts/bidi ends and smoking smell) and the role of enforcement systems in Indian jurisdictions. This was a cross-sectional, retrospective review of reports and primary data sheets of surveys conducted in 38 selected jurisdictions across India in 2012-2013. Of 20 455 public places (in 38 jurisdictions), 10 377 (51%) demonstrated full compliance with smoke-free law. Educational institutions and healthcare facilities performed well at 65% and 62%, respectively, while eateries and frequently visited other public places (such as bus stands, railway stations, shopping malls, stadia, cinema halls etc.) performed poorly at 37% and 27%, respectively. Absence of no-smoking signage was the largest contributor to non-compliance across all types of public places. Enforcement systems were present in all jurisdictions, but no associations could be demonstrated between these and smoke-free compliance. Smoke-free compliance in public places in India was suboptimal and was mainly related to the absence of no-smoking signage. This warrants further pragmatic and innovative ways to improve the situation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Interdisciplinary Doctoral Leadership Training in Early Intervention: Considerations for Research and Practice in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Juliann; Snyder, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This article examines issues associated with the preparation of doctoral-level personnel to assume interdisciplinary scholarship and leadership roles in early intervention (EI). Following a review of national reports focused on EI doctoral leadership training, the preparation of educational researchers, and interdisciplinary doctoral programs in…

  11. Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zelinka, Ivan; Rössler, Otto

    2014-01-01

    The book you hold in your hands is the outcome of the "ISCS 2013: Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems" held at the historical capital of Bohemia as a continuation of our series of symposia in the science of complex systems. Prague, one of the most beautiful European cities, has its own beautiful genius loci. Here, a great number of important discoveries were made and many important scientists spent fruitful and creative years to leave unforgettable traces. The perhaps most significant period was the time of Rudolf II who was a great supporter of the art and the science and attracted a great number of prominent minds to Prague. This trend would continue. Tycho Brahe, Niels Henrik Abel, Johannes Kepler, Bernard Bolzano, August Cauchy Christian Doppler, Ernst Mach, Albert Einstein and many others followed developing fundamental mathematical and physical theories or expanding them. Thus in the beginning of the 17th century, Kepler formulated here the first two of his three laws of planetary motion on ...

  12. Interdisciplinary studies and our practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, David D

    2006-01-01

    Why should psychoanalysts learn about neighboring disciplines? It is often argued that, although information from neuroscience, neuropsychology, evolutionary psychology, and other fields may be of interest to analysts, it has no real effect on their practice: on the way they listen, the way they react, or the way they treat their patients. A corollary of this position is that there is no reason to include such information in a psychoanalytic curriculum, since it does not help candidates become better analysts. Against this view, two reasons are advanced for the importance of interdisciplinary study. The more general reason is that it grounds psychoanalysis in the broader scientific world, reducing its isolation and inbred parochialism. This can help justify the discipline intellectually, possibly in advance of and independently of supportive research from within the field (e.g., outcome studies). The second reason is that our own minds, and particularly those of the generation now entering training, have been altered by changes in the scientific zeitgeist and we need to have some grasp of these changes. Finally, six examples of findings from other disciplines are presented that even now may be contributing to thinking about psychoanalytic practice.

  13. Teaching Bioethics from an Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Rivers, Jr.; Brock, D. Heyward

    1982-01-01

    Outlines an interdisciplinary workshop in bioethics for secondary teachers taught by a team consisting of a scientist, a philosopher, and a literary critic. Discusses definitions, topics, reading selections, problems, and value. (DC)

  14. Eliciting conceptual models to support interdisciplinary research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beers, P.J.; Bots, P.G.W.

    2009-01-01

    Constructing interdisciplinary knowledge is particularly difficult because scientific knowledge is situated in its discipline. Researchers must find common ground to share, and this causes high transaction costs. This article reports a method of conceptual analysis to elicit, analyse and compare

  15. Radiology: An interdisciplinary profession more than ever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lissner, J.; Fenzl, G.; Gebauer, A.; Ingrisch, H.; Willich, N.

    1983-06-01

    The interdisciplinary character of Radiology emerges especially in those areas which are known as interventional Radiology. The most important methods are Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty, Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography, puncture and drainage of abscesses, extraction of intraluminal foreign bodies as well as therapeutical occlusion of vessels. Furthermore Nuclear Medicine emphasizes the interdisciplinary position e.g. the application of SPECT in the diagnoses and localization of disturbances of regional myocardial perfusion in coronary heart disease. Radiotherapy as a clinical discipline has an interdisciplinary character by the field of its application. In particular the new interstitial ways of therapy e.g. the insertion of J-125 Seeds into the prostate gland require a close cooperation between the urologic surgeon and the radiologists. The methods presented have increased the interdisciplinary position of radiology more than ever.

  16. One thousand words: evaluating an interdisciplinary art education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Craig M; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana

    2015-04-01

    Art Rounds, an innovative interdisciplinary program, began as a pilot project to determine if use of fine arts instructional strategies would be of benefit in health professional education. Specifically, students were exposed to fine art and taught to use visual thinking strategies (VTS). The initial evaluation of the pilot program revealed improved physical observation skills, increased tolerance for ambiguity, and increased interest in communication skills. More recently, the Art Rounds program has been expanded to an interdisciplinary elective course open to both nursing student and medical students at all levels. An evaluation of Art Rounds as a semester- long course was conducted by course faculty and compared to the original pilot program for differences and similarities. Outcomes have demonstrated that the use of visual arts and humanities continues to be highly effective in improving students' physical observation skills and a powerful tool for teaching nursing students how to be skilled clinicians. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Interdisciplinary approach for improved esthetic results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinical report describes an interdisciplinary (orthodontic, prosthodontics and operative dentist approach for the coordinated treatment of an adult patient diagnosed with severely mutilated dentition secondary to caries lesion warranting restorative procedures that was facilitated with orthodontic treatment. The patient′s specific esthetic expectation for the anterior teeth and improved smile were successfully met through planned treatment, including orthodontic tooth movement, restoration and porcelain conversion crowns. Such coordinated interdisciplinary evaluations and treatment are necessary for improved esthetics.

  18. Library amd information studies interdisciplinary practice in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and motivations for interdisciplinary academic offerings, trends towards interdisciplinary LIS curricula, and challenges of interdisciplinary academic programmes. My ultimate purpose is to inform policy, theory and practice in the design and implementation of LIS interdisciplinary academic programmes in Africa. Innovation ...

  19. Interdisciplinary Adventures in Perceptual Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocast, Christopher S.

    A portfolio dissertation that began as acoustic ecology and matured into perceptual ecology, centered on ecomusicology, bioacoustics, and translational audio-based media works with environmental perspectives. The place of music in Western eco-cosmology through time provides a basis for structuring an environmental history of human sound perception. That history suggests that music may stabilize human mental activity, and that an increased musical practice may be essential for the human project. An overview of recent antecedents preceding the emergence of acoustic ecology reveals structural foundations from 20th century culture that underpin modern sound studies. The contextual role that Aldo Leopold, Jacob von Uexkull, John Cage, Marshall McLuhan, and others played in anticipating the development of acoustic ecology as an interdiscipline is detailed. This interdisciplinary aspect of acoustic ecology is defined and defended, while new developments like soundscape ecology are addressed, though ultimately sound studies will need to embrace a broader concept of full-spectrum "sensory" or "perceptual" ecology. The bioacoustic fieldwork done on spawning sturgeon emphasized this necessity. That study yielded scientific recordings and spectrographic analyses of spawning sounds produced by lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, during reproduction in natural habitats in the Lake Winnebago watershed in Wisconsin. Recordings were made on the Wolf and Embarrass River during the 2011-2013 spawning seasons. Several specimens were dissected to investigate possible sound production mechanisms; no sonic musculature was found. Drumming sounds, ranging from 5 to 7 Hz fundamental frequency, verified the infrasonic nature of previously undocumented "sturgeon thunder". Other characteristic noises of sturgeon spawning including low-frequency rumbles and hydrodynamic sounds were identified. Intriguingly, high-frequency signals resembling electric organ discharges were discovered. These

  20. Interdisciplinary Science in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, L. M.; Lopresti, V. C.; Papali, P.

    1993-05-01

    The practice of science is by its very nature interdisciplinary. Most school curricula, however, present science as a "layer cake" with one year each of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. Students are too often left with a fragmented, disjointed view of the sciences as separate and distinct bodies of information. The continuity of scientific thought and the importance of major ideas such as energy, rates of change, and the nature of matter are not seen. We describe two efforts to integrate the sciences in a middle school curriculum and in an introductory science course for prospective elementary teachers. Introductory physical science for eighth graders at the Park School has three major units: "Observing the Sky", "The Nature of Matter", and "The Nature of Light". The course moves from simple naked-eye observations of the Sun and Moon to an understanding of the apparent motions of the Sun and of the Earth's seasons. In "The Nature of Matter", students construct operational definitions of characteristic properties of matter such as density, boiling point, solubility, and flame color. They design and perform many experiments and conclude by separating a mixture of liquids and solids by techniques such as distillation and fractional crystallization. In studying flame tests, students learn that different materials have different color "signatures" and that the differences can be quantified with a spectroscope. They then observe solar absorption lines with their spectroscopes and discover which elements are present in the Sun. Teachers of young children are potentially some of the most powerful allies in increasing our country's scientific literacy, yet most remain at best uneasy about science. At Wheelock College we are designing a course to be called "Introduction to Natural Science" for elementary education majors. We will address special needs of many in this population, including science anxiety and poor preparation in mathematics. A broad conceptual

  1. What is subnational constitucionalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Pinheiro Faro Homem de Siqueira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este pequeno enasio tem por objetivo delinear a noção de constitucionalismo subnacional por meio da tentativa de descrever o fenômeno desde algumas reflexões relevantes para entendê-lo. Cada componente da expressão é investigado separadamente. Algumas das características também são discutidas. E, ao final, tem-se uma noção do conceito, mesmo que ainda preliminar.

  2. Advanced interdisciplinary undergraduate program: light engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakholdin, Alexey; Bougrov, Vladislav; Voznesenskaya, Anna; Ezhova, Kseniia

    2016-09-01

    The undergraduate educational program "Light Engineering" of an advanced level of studies is focused on development of scientific learning outcomes and training of professionals, whose activities are in the interdisciplinary fields of Optical engineering and Technical physics. The program gives practical experience in transmission, reception, storage, processing and displaying information using opto-electronic devices, automation of optical systems design, computer image modeling, automated quality control and characterization of optical devices. The program is implemented in accordance with Educational standards of the ITMO University. The specific features of the Program is practice- and problem-based learning implemented by engaging students to perform research and projects, internships at the enterprises and in leading Russian and international research educational centers. The modular structure of the Program and a significant proportion of variable disciplines provide the concept of individual learning for each student. Learning outcomes of the program's graduates include theoretical knowledge and skills in natural science and core professional disciplines, deep knowledge of modern computer technologies, research expertise, design skills, optical and optoelectronic systems and devices.

  3. Semantics of interdisciplinary data and information integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P.; Raskin, R.; Sinha, A. K.

    2009-05-01

    We have developed an application of semantic web methods and technologies to address the integration of interdisciplinary earth-science datasets. The specific use case addresses seeking and using atmospheric chemistry and volcano geochemistry datasets. We have developed an integration framework based on semantic descriptions (ontologies) of the linking relations between the application domains. In doing this, we have extensively leveraged and existing ontology frameworks such as SWEET, VSTO and GEON as well as included extentions of them when needed. We present the components of this application, including the ontologies, the registration of datasets with ontologies at several levels of granularity, the data sources, and application results from the use case. We will also present the cur rent and near-future capabilities we are developing. This work arises from the Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project, which is an NASA/ESTO/ACCESS-funded project performed in part by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), McGuinness Associates, NASA/JPL and Virginia Polytechnic University.

  4. Interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Bernini, Marco; Callard, Felicity; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C; Bell, Vaughan; Cook, Chris C H; Csordas, Thomas; Humpston, Clara; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Moseley, Peter; Powell, Hilary; Raballo, Andrea; Smailes, David; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-07-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of scientific, clinical, and narrative accounts of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), the phenomenology of voice hearing remains opaque and undertheorized. In this article, we outline an interdisciplinary approach to understanding hallucinatory experiences which seeks to demonstrate the value of the humanities and social sciences to advancing knowledge in clinical research and practice. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH utilizes rigorous and context-appropriate methodologies to analyze a wider range of first-person accounts of AVH at 3 contextual levels: (1) cultural, social, and historical; (2) experiential; and (3) biographical. We go on to show that there are significant potential benefits for voice hearers, clinicians, and researchers. These include (1) informing the development and refinement of subtypes of hallucinations within and across diagnostic categories; (2) "front-loading" research in cognitive neuroscience; and (3) suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, we argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH can nourish the ethical core of scientific enquiry by challenging its interpretive paradigms, and offer voice hearers richer, potentially more empowering ways to make sense of their experiences. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  5. Re-thinking approaches to undergraduate health professional education: Interdisciplinary Rural Placement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Lisa; Spencer, Judy; Dunn, Mark; Albert, Edi; Walker, Judith; Farrell, Gerry

    2003-01-01

    The Interdisciplinary Rural Placement Program involved the development, implementation and evaluation of a common rural primary health care module. Designed for undergraduate nursing, medical and pharmacy students of the University of Tasmania, students undertook clinical experiences and a collaborative primary health care project at two different Rural Health Teaching Sites across Tasmania. The aim of the project was for interdisciplinary students to work and learn together to enhance their understanding of the cooperative and collaborative nature of professional practice among rural health care workers. This paper will describe the development and implementation of the Interdisciplinary Rural Placement Program and critically discuss the outcomes in relation to nursing. In this paper, three issues will be explored. Firstly, how student nurses questioned their sense of subordination when in fact the level of recognition by their interdisciplinary peers led them to refute this. Secondly, concerns with overcoming the difficulties of coordinating student recruitment and conflicting timetables, while working within existing curricula, will be discussed. The final issue explores the student nurses' recognition that despite inherent tensions and conflict, the need to work as a cohesive and cooperative interdisciplinary team was vital. This project highlighted the challenges that health professions continue to work through in contemporary practice and education sectors. A key recommendation for education providers is that true interdisciplinary education must be achieved through an experiential framework.

  6. Exosemiotics: an inter-disciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mary L.

    2000-06-01

    Over the past several hundred years, many ideas have been expressed as to how human beings might communicate with extraterrestrials. These ideas have been put forth by experts from a diverse range of fields including physical scientists, mathematicians, behavioral scientists, philosophers and creative writers who have widely differing views on how to express ourselves coherently with civilizations from other worlds. This paper will look at some of these differing viewpoints and stress the need for an inter-disciplinary approach to the challenges of sending and, perhaps most important, receiving messages. Could we decipher a message if we got one? Who is doing the listening and what advantages could an inter-disciplinary approach bring to these efforts? What are some inter-disciplinary approaches to sending messages to extraterrestrials?

  7. [Implementation of interdisciplinary multimodal pain therapy according to OPS 8‑918 : Recommendations of the ad hoc commission for interdisciplinary multimodal pain therapy of the German Pain Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, B; Böger, A; Brinkschmidt, T; Casser, H-R; Irnich, D; Kaiser, U; Klimczyk, K; Lutz, J; Pfingsten, M; Sabatowski, R; Schiltenwolf, M; Söllner, W

    2018-02-01

    With the implementation of the German diagnosis-related groups (DRG) reimbursement system in hospitals, interdisciplinary multimodal pain therapy was incorporated into the associated catalogue of procedures (OPS 8‑918). Yet, the presented criteria describing the procedure of interdisciplinary multimodal pain therapy are neither precise nor unambiguous. This has led to discrepancies in the interpretation regarding the handling of the procedure-making it difficult for medical services of health insurance companies to evaluate the accordance between the delivered therapy and the required criteria. Since the number of pain units has increased in recent years, the number of examinations by the medical service of health insurance companies has increased. This article, published by the ad hoc commission for interdisciplinary multimodal pain therapy of the German Pain Association, provides specific recommendations for correct implementation of interdisciplinary multimodal pain therapy in routine care. The aim is to achieve a maximum level of accordance between health care providers and the requirements of the medical examiners from health insurance companies. More extensive criteria regarding interdisciplinary multimodal pain treatment in an in-patient setting, especially for patients with chronic and complex pain, are obviously needed. Thus, the authors further discuss specific aspects towards further development of the OPS-code. However, the application of the OPS-code still leaves room regarding treatment intensity and process quality. Therefore, the delivery of pain management in sufficient quantity and quality still remains the responsibility of each health care provider.

  8. Crime in media: an interdisciplinary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Palma Wolff

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses conceptual issues that present problems for interdisciplinary research - criminality and urban space; the transversal aspects of violence - developed by researchers from diff erent fi elds: communications, psychology and social services. Highlighted in this work, above all, are questions related to the media and journalism; which constitute one of the axes of the proposal (media, growing juvenile component of criminality, drugs and social control but are inevitably interconnected with the others due to the interdisciplinary force of the initiative. It is argued that the processes of report construction, the subject agenda and consumption of the news constitute complex semioses that involve other semiotic systems.

  9. Music and physics: a cultural, interdisciplinary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Myles W

    2008-06-01

    This essay investigates the triangular exchange among physicists, musicians, and instrument makers in nineteenth-century Germany by proffering a material, cultural, and interdisciplinary history. It does so by analyzing four concrete examples of such exchanges: the relationship between musical automata and virtuosi, the reed pipe as an object of music and scientific measurement, the history of standardizing performance pitch, and the attempts to measure musical virtuosity. The goal of the essay is to suggest ways in which interdisciplinary cultural histories, which take the scientific content seriously, can be an improvement upon purely disciplinary histories.

  10. Personal Professional Reflection as Interdisciplinary Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Oksana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of professional reflection as interdisciplinary problem is the necessary condition of quality analysis for personal professional becoming. Personal becoming in a profession is related to forming the necessary professional skills of a person, behaviour stereotypes which is the area of pedagogics. Reflection processes are inalienable part of self-knowledge of a person which result must lead to his self-perfection (including professional one and studying within the psychology increasingly. Thus the aim of the article is to ground the determination of professional reflection as an interdisciplinary problem in pedagogics and psychology.

  11. Humanity in God's Image: An Interdisciplinary Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welz, Claudia

    . Claudia Welz offers an interdisciplinary exploration of theological and ethical 'visions' of the invisible. By analysing poetry and art, Welz exemplifies human self-understanding in the interface between the visual and the linguistic. The content of the imago Dei cannot be defined apart from the image......How can we, in our times, understand the biblical concept that human beings have been created in the image of an invisible God? This is a perennial but increasingly pressing question that lies at the heart of theological anthropology. Humanity in God's Image: An Interdisciplinary Exploration...

  12. Interdisciplinary Study on Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    linguistic level in the sense that the system requires no dictionary of terms, natural- langauge -like syntax, or high-level interpreter to generate its...interaction with the world, mental imagery, intuition, and some types of learning, particularly adap- tation and learning of skills . It is these...Nevertheless, ambitious plans for fifth generation computers,2 and other similar commercial plans, indicate that intense development, * as opposed to

  13. Enriching Social Work through Interdisciplinary Disability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Irene; Quaglia, Christine; Leslie, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This paper recommends that faculties of Social Work incorporate Disability Studies in their curriculum by embracing its interdisciplinary deconstructionist perspective. Disability Studies encourages Social Work to move beyond person-in--the-environment and anti-oppressive approaches to find more effective ways of removing barriers for persons with…

  14. An Interdisciplinary Study in Initial Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraz Rada, Virginia; Yáñez de Aldecoa, Cristina; Gisbert Cervera, Mercè; Espuny Vidal, Cinta

    2014-01-01

    This experiment of innovative university education shows the interdisciplinary work carried out in the studies of the Bachelor of Science in Education at the University of Andorra. The study was developed within two subjects: Communication Technology (TAC) and Cultural Heritage Education in Andorra. The main objective of this experiment is to…

  15. The voice clinic: an interdisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammage, L A; Nichol, H; Morrison, M D

    1983-10-01

    The University of British Columbia Voice Clinic provides care to patients with various types of voice disorder, and the effectiveness of therapy is enhanced by an interdisciplinary approach. The Voice Clinic team includes an otolaryngologist, speech pathologist, psychiatrist, and singing teacher consultant. This paper particularly highlights the interactions between the speech pathologist and psychiatrist in their therapy programs for voice disordered patients.

  16. Three Interdisciplinary Studies on IT Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantman, Sonia Vilvovsky

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides interdisciplinary insights into the role of client's internal collaborative experience in managing communication during a complex outsourced project, building a quality client-vendor relationship and ultimately achieving success in the project. Each of the three studies in this dissertation identifies a gap in…

  17. Exploring Interdisciplinary Themes in Introductory Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Kristin A.; Bott, Jennifer P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method for helping introductory psychology students identify interdisciplinary connections among 5 social science disciplines. Pre- and posttest data assessed 359 undergraduates' understanding of psychology's relation to other fields. Results indicate the method is effective and provides one way for individual instructors to address…

  18. Media Theory: A Framework for Interdisciplinary Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Geoffrey

    As the field of media studies progresses it moves with increasing fluency and fluidity among the disciplines, and the patterns of relationship that adhere in these dynamics hint at what the disciplines have to say to each other in general. For media studies to exercise a significant impulse toward holism and interdisciplinary synthesis, a model is…

  19. Anesthesia: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary approach for teaching the topic of anesthesia as one aspect of a chemistry-oriented course for nonscience majors which focuses on timely topics such as the energy crisis and drugs. Historical treatment with the examination of literature is emphasized in teaching. (HM)

  20. Restorative and orthodontic interdisciplinary management of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fixed bridge prosthesis, implant-retained crowns or removable dentures were the treatment options for tooth replacement. Due to ... designed for the patient in this study is a typical example of interdisciplinary management by the restorative dentist and the orthodontist to give appropriate care to the adult orthodontic patient.

  1. Interdisciplinary Approach: A Lever to Business Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmak, Jamil; Bélanger, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    The advances in interdisciplinary studies are driving universities to utilize their available resources to efficiently enable development processes and provide increasing examples of research while gradually allocating the disciplines' resources. Ultimately, this trend asks universities to provide a platform of integrated disciplines, along with…

  2. Using smartphones to improve interdisciplinary collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Manhertz, Durline

    2017-04-16

    Most individuals in the United States have access to and use smartphones to facilitate effective collaboration. Health information technology is invaluable to the improvement of collaboration and communication in the healthcare setting. The versatile nature of technology has demonstrated that healthcare professionals are dependent on its use. Smartphones play a key role in keeping interdisciplinary team members connected.

  3. Thoughts about multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2013-10-01

    This essay focuses on multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary research. The definitions and objectives for these three types of multiple discipline research are given. Discussion centers on the gains and losses that may be experienced by individual nurses who engage in such research, as well as gains and losses for the discipline of nursing.

  4. Identifying Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration in Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinarity is defined as communication and collaboration across academic disciplines. The instructional technology (IT) field has claimed to have an interdisciplinary nature influenced by neighboring fields such as psychology, communication, and management. However, it has been difficult to find outstanding evidence of the field's…

  5. Interdisciplinary analysis of digital government work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Hans J.; Mai, Jens Erik; Fidel, Raya

    2006-01-01

    This bird-of-a-feather session attempts to break interdisciplinary ground in the context of work content, workflow, and work context analysis in Digital Government. The authors argue that using and connecting multiple theories and disciplines might yield more robust results and deeper understanding...... of the Digital Government evolution than strictly disciplinary research....

  6. Facilitating Interdisciplinary Learning: Lessons from Project Kaleidoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezar, Adrianna; Elrod, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Many major funding organizations, policymakers, government agencies, and other higher education stakeholders want higher education to encourage interdisciplinary learning so that students graduate with the requisite skills to take on complex jobs in science, policy, business, and industry. Calls for this kind of change have been most urgent within…

  7. Teaching the Broad, Interdisciplinary Impact of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David; Atlas, Pierre; Haberski, Raymond; Higgs, Jamie; Kiley, Patrick; Maxwell, Michael, Jr.; Mirola, William; Norton, Jamey

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most encompassing idea in biology, evolution has impacted not only science, but other academic disciplines as well. The broad, interdisciplinary impact of evolution was the theme of a course taught at Marian College, Indianapolis, Indiana in 2002, 2004, and 2006. Using a strategy that could be readily adopted at other institutions,…

  8. The Challenges of Interdisciplinary Epistemology in Neuroaesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, James

    2011-01-01

    Neuroaesthetics is a burgeoning new interdisciplinary research space in which cognitive science, psychology, neuroscience, and philosophy intersect in order to better inform our understanding of aesthetic experience. The purpose of this study is to analyze high-profile work in neuroaesthetics in the light of recent research into interdisciplinary…

  9. QUANTA: An Interdisciplinary Learning Community (Four Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avens, Cynthia; Zelley, Richard

    QUANTA is a year-long interdisciplinary program at Daytona Beach Community College (Florida) that seeks to establish a learning community of students and teachers. Three courses (English, Pyschology, and Humanities) are integrated around a common theme each semester of the freshman year, and are taught using a collaborative teaching model. This…

  10. Going interdisciplinary in Uganda's education system | Namusisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the relevance of interdisciplinary education, the crisis in which Uganda's education system is, where specialisation is at its peak. It analyses the form of the present curriculum, which leaves the learner in state of dilemma. The author again shows the need for interdisciplinarity, tries to find out whether ...

  11. Conceptualising linguistic access to knowledge as interdisciplinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conceptualising linguistic access to knowledge as interdisciplinary collaboration. ... Journal for Language Teaching ... We draw on a number of case studies to show how reconceptualising the work of communication lecturers can enhance collaboration between communication and content lectures in science, engineering ...

  12. The Electric Humanities: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Michael T.; Litwin, James L.

    An interdisciplinary "Coordinated Quarter of Mass Media Studies," instituted at Bowling Green State University with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities, is the subject of this paper. The first part of the paper tells how instructors from the subject areas of popular culture, psychology, sociology, speech communication, and…

  13. Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Librarian Involvement in Grant Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Marci D.; Cordell, Sigrid Anderson; Joque, Justin; MacEachern, Mark P.; Song, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Librarians are excellent research collaborators, although librarian participation is not usually considered, thereby making access to research funds difficult. The University of Michigan Library became involved in the university's novel funding program, MCubed, which supported innovative interdisciplinary research on campus, primarily by funding…

  14. Reflections on Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Sociology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If the original ambition of sociology to constitute itself into an encyclopaedia of the social sciences has largely failed (because of the obligation to restrict its scope through disciplinary specialization), the discipline has been more successful as a key actor in interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary encounters that cover a wide ...

  15. Lexicography and its interdisciplinary contacts, with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with the three semiotic 'dimensions', and relating them to various interdisciplinary or problem-solving fields, such as sociolinguistics and computational linguistics. Thirdly, several points of view in Lexicography are presented, and an explicit framework is developed for displaying its place relative to its 'mother', 'sister' and ...

  16. Legal Doctrinal Scholarship and Interdisciplinary Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bodig (Matyas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe paper offers a legal theoretical analysis of the disciplinary character of the contemporary practice of legal scholarship. It is assumed that the challenges of interdisciplinary engagement are particularly revealing about the nature of legal scholarship. The paper argues for an

  17. Synergistic Knowledge Development in Interdisciplinary Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Shorna R.; La Lopa, Joseph Mick; Ross-Davis, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Problem solving, interpersonal skills, information literacy, and critical and independent thinking are essential qualities that employers seek, yet many undergraduates lack. We structured an interdisciplinary classroom and experiential learning environment where students from three undergraduate courses (Hospitality and Tourism Management,…

  18. Using Interdisciplinary Arts Education to Enhance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Maureen Reilly

    2009-01-01

    Amid crossing currents of educational expectations pressing on principals, the author advocates for enhancing inclusion of the visual and performing arts. Although electives and clubs provide arts exposure to a selected few, many students do not receive consistent and high-quality arts experiences. Carefully planned, interdisciplinary arts…

  19. Interdisciplinary Practices in iSchools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte; Ho, Shuyan Mary

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinarity is in the DNA of the iSchools. This workshop invites you to discuss how inter-disciplinarity plays out in theory and practice. The workshop addresses the uniqueness of the iSchools, provides an interactive framework to discuss and reflect on interdisciplinary practice. It sugg...

  20. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  1. Interdisciplinary Aspects of Learning: Physics and Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleg, Yavoruk

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with interdisciplinary aspects of learning in the case of physics and psychology. It describes the lab-based academic course focused on: observation and experimentation; discovery of new scientific facts; measurement; identification of errors; the study of psychological characteristics of people (time perception, the reaction…

  2. Teaching design engineering in an interdisciplinary programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Homminga, Jasper Johan; Endedijk, Maaike Dorine; Visscher, Klaasjan; Krab-Hüsken, Leonie; van den Berg, Frank; Wilhelm, P.

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS, the Academy of Technology and Liberal Arts & Sciences, is an interdisciplinary three-year Bachelor of Science honours programme for talented students that opened its doors in September 2013. This international programme uses the concept of project-led education to teach students to integrate

  3. Multidisciplinary, Interdisciplinary, and Transdisciplinary Collaboration: Implications for Vocational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Audrey

    2009-01-01

    The literature on interdisciplinarity identifies several forms of collaboration: multidisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and interdisciplinary (as bridge building or integration). To assist vocational psychology translate its interdisciplinary discourse into action, this paper uses that literature to identify the benefits, challenges and conditions…

  4. Interdisciplinary Teaming: Solution to Instructing Heterogeneous Groups of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Robert A.; Manning, M. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Discusses interdisciplinary team collaboration for teachers, including structuring a successful team meeting, the 10-step interdisciplinary problem-solving meeting, evaluation of team collaboration, and effective team communication. (SR)

  5. Universal Design and disability: an interdisciplinary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lid, Inger Marie

    2014-01-01

    To discuss Universal Design (UD) as an interdisciplinary topic with relevance for rehabilitation professions and planning and building professions. Significant for this topic is to discuss to what model of disability UD strategies correlates. The paper argues that the UN Convention on the Rights for Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) pre-supposes a relational model of disability. This is a theoretical paper on the understanding of UD and the significance of UD as a subject of interdisciplinary research and teaching. The paper is based on literature and focuses on how to understand UD in interdisciplinary contexts. Both impairment effects and disabling barriers are important for understanding UD. Rehabilitation professions together with user-representatives provide knowledge on impairments as an aspect of human diversity; planning professionals provide knowledge on architecture and spatial planning. As an emerging field of knowledge, UD involves different knowledge; however, these differences may also lead to difficulties in communication. Both theoretically and practically UD must correspond to an understanding of disability as relational, involving person, interaction and barriers. Implementing UD strategies ought to be linked to a concept of person that clearly includes impairments as a dimension of human plurality. In conclusion, the paper suggests that a common knowledge platform can prove productive for interdisciplinary work with UD. Implications for Rehabilitation Universal Design is a strategy to improve equal access for people with disabilities. A concept of the person and of disability is of importance for implementing Universal Design strategies. The interdisciplinary involvement in Universal Design must involve rehabilitation professions to attend to the individual dimension in Universal Design.

  6. How to carry out interdisciplinary legal research
    Some experiences with an interdisciplinary research method

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy Schrama

    2011-01-01

    Interdisciplinary legal research, in which non-legal data are combined with legal data, is a fairly new branch of legal scholarship in the Netherlands. Although it improves the possibilities to measure the effectiveness of legal instruments, it also raises numerous methodological questions, such as a lack of matching empirical data and the translation of legal concepts in socio-empirical terms. Both the pros and cons of the interdisciplinary research method will be addressed and illustrated o...

  7. Interdisciplinary research career development: building interdisciplinary research careers in women's health program best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Steven E; Bodurtha, Joann; Nagel, Joan D

    2011-11-01

    The Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Institutes and Centers and the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) have sponsored an interdisciplinary research career development program in five funding cycles since 2000 through a K12 mechanism titled "Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health (BIRCWH)." As of 2010, 407 scholars have been supported in interdisciplinary women's health research and a total of 63 BIRCWH program awards have been made to 41 institutions across the U.S. In an effort to share practical approaches to interdisciplinary research training, currently funded BIRCWH sites were invited to submit 300-word bullet-point style summaries describing their best practices in interdisciplinary research training following a common format with an emphasis on practices that are innovative, can be reproduced in other places, and advance women's health research. Twenty-six program narratives provide unique perspectives along with common elements and themes in interdisciplinary research training best practices.

  8. Teaching and Learning in Interdisciplinary Higher Education: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelt, E.J.H.; Biemans, H.; Tobi, H.; Luning, P.A.; Mulder, M.

    2009-01-01

    Interdisciplinary higher education aims to develop boundary-crossing skills, such as interdisciplinary thinking. In the present review study, interdisciplinary thinking was defined as the capacity to integrate knowledge of two or more disciplines to produce a cognitive advancement in ways that would

  9. Starting to Uncover the Mystery of Interdisciplinary Research in Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2016-01-01

    The multidisciplinary nature of kinesiology seems to be an ideal configuration for conducting interdisciplinary research. Proposed as a potential solution to overcome fragmentation, interdisciplinary research has a role within kinesiology that remains unknown. In this study, we explored kinesiologists' perceptions of interdisciplinary research,…

  10. Developing Interdisciplinary Workforce to Meet Future Aerospace Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    The presentation will focus on the importance of interdisciplinary research for addressing future aerospace challenges. Examples of current research activities at NASA's Glenn Research Center will be provided to illustrate the importance of interdisciplinary research. Challenges with conducting interdisciplinary research will be discussed.

  11. From Surprise Parties to Mapmaking: Undergraduate Journeys toward Interdisciplinary Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Carolyn; Leonard, Jeannie Brown

    2010-01-01

    As educators in academic programs featuring interdisciplinary learning, the authors can attest that helping undergraduate students in an interdisciplinary studies major engage in interdisciplinary learning--that is, draw from two or more disciplines to advance understanding of a problem, question, or phenomenon--is no mean feat. Consequently, the…

  12. Fostering intentional interdisciplinary leadership in developmental disabilities: the North Carolina LEND experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Angela; Margolis, Lewis H; Umble, Karl; Chewning, Linda

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the effects of interdisciplinary leadership training on a retrospective cohort (2001-2009) of the University of North Carolina MCH Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (UNC-CH LEND) program, including LEND graduates who were selected to participate in a focused Interdisciplinary Leadership Development Program (ILDP) in addition to their LEND training. Specifically, the study examined graduates' reports of the relationship between LEND training and their attitudes/beliefs about interdisciplinary practice, as well as their reported use of interdisciplinary skills in their post-fellowship practice settings. Using a post-test design, participants in the LEND and ILDP programs were contacted to complete an on-line survey. Using a Conceptual Model guided by EvaluLEAD, respondents were asked to rate the influence of the UNC-LEND training program on their attitudes/beliefs and skills using a 5-point Likert scale, as well as through open-ended descriptions. The 49 LEND respondents represented a 56% overall response rate from years 2001-2009. ILDP participants reported greater agreement with interdisciplinary attitudes/beliefs and more frequent use of interdisciplinary skills than did the non-participants. Graduates of LEND as well as ILDP reported the influence of training through a range of qualitative responses. Response examples highlight the influence of LEND training to promote outcomes at the individual, organizational and systems level. Findings from this study illustrate that MCHB funded LEND training has a strong influence on the future employment and interdisciplinary practices of graduates for the MCH workforce as well as services for individuals with developmental disabilities, their families and systems of care.

  13. Quality improvement of interdisciplinary rounds by leadership training based on essential quality indicators of the Interdisciplinary Rounds Assessment Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Have, Elsbeth C. M.; Nap, Raoul E.; Tulleken, Jaap E.

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of interdisciplinary teams in the intensive care unit (ICU) has focused attention on leadership behavior. Daily interdisciplinary rounds (IDRs) in ICUs integrate leadership behavior and interdisciplinary teamwork. The purpose of this intervention study was to measure the effect of

  14. The Interdisciplinary Curriculum for Oncology Palliative Care Education (iCOPE): Meeting the Challenge of Interprofessional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapmire, Tara; Hermann, Carla; Earnshaw, Lori; Faul, Anna; Jones, Carol; Kayser, Karen; Martin, Amy; Shaw, Monica Ann; Woggon, Frank; Pfeifer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Interprofessional education is necessary to prepare students of the health professions for successful practice in today's health care environment. Because of its expertise in interdisciplinary practice and team-based care, palliative care should be leading the way in creating educational opportunities for students to learn the skills for team practice and provision of quality patient-centered care. Multiple barriers exist that can discourage those desiring to create and implement truly interdisciplinary curriculum. Design: An interdisciplinary faculty team planned and piloted a mandatory interdisciplinary palliative oncology curriculum and responded to formative feedback. Setting/Subjects: The project took place at a large public metropolitan university. Medical, nursing, and social work students and chaplains completing a clinical pastoral education internship participated in the curriculum. Measurements: Formative feedback was received via the consultation of an interdisciplinary group of palliative education experts, focus groups from students, and student evaluations of each learning modality. Results: Multiple barriers were experienced and successfully addressed by the faculty team. Curricular components were redesigned based on formative feedback. Openness to this feedback coupled with flexibility and compromise enabled the faculty team to create an efficient, sustainable, and feasible interdisciplinary palliative oncology curriculum. Conclusion: Interdisciplinary palliative education can be successful if faculty teams are willing to confront challenges, accept feedback on multiple levels, and compromise while maintaining focus on desired learner outcomes. PMID:24972279

  15. The Interdisciplinary Curriculum for Oncology Palliative Care Education (iCOPE): meeting the challenge of interprofessional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Barbara A; Schapmire, Tara; Hermann, Carla; Earnshaw, Lori; Faul, Anna; Jones, Carol; Kayser, Karen; Martin, Amy; Shaw, Monica Ann; Woggon, Frank; Pfeifer, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Background: Interprofessional education is necessary to prepare students of the health professions for successful practice in today's health care environment. Because of its expertise in interdisciplinary practice and team-based care, palliative care should be leading the way in creating educational opportunities for students to learn the skills for team practice and provision of quality patient-centered care. Multiple barriers exist that can discourage those desiring to create and implement truly interdisciplinary curriculum. An interdisciplinary faculty team planned and piloted a mandatory interdisciplinary palliative oncology curriculum and responded to formative feedback. The project took place at a large public metropolitan university. Medical, nursing, and social work students and chaplains completing a clinical pastoral education internship participated in the curriculum. Formative feedback was received via the consultation of an interdisciplinary group of palliative education experts, focus groups from students, and student evaluations of each learning modality. Multiple barriers were experienced and successfully addressed by the faculty team. Curricular components were redesigned based on formative feedback. Openness to this feedback coupled with flexibility and compromise enabled the faculty team to create an efficient, sustainable, and feasible interdisciplinary palliative oncology curriculum. Interdisciplinary palliative education can be successful if faculty teams are willing to confront challenges, accept feedback on multiple levels, and compromise while maintaining focus on desired learner outcomes.

  16. Interdisciplinary research: putting the methods under the microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Douglas K

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the desirability of interdisciplinary inquiry has been widely acknowledged, indeed has become 'the mantra of science policy', the methods of interdisciplinary collaboration are opaque to outsiders and generally remain undescribed. Discussion Many have analysed interdisciplinarity, especially in relation to the creation of new disciplines and institutions. These analyses are briefly outlined. Still, there currently persists a silence about the methods of interdisciplinary collaboration itself, and the core of this paper proposes a template for such methods. Summary Breaking this silence – by making the methods of interdisciplinary projects transparent – could further invigorate interdisciplinary research.

  17. 4th international interdisciplinary chaos symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Santo; Caglar, Suleyman; Ozer, Mehmet; Chaos and complex systems

    2013-01-01

    Complexity Science and Chaos Theory are fascinating areas of scientific research with wide-ranging applications.  The interdisciplinary nature and ubiquity of complexity and chaos are features that provides scientists with a motivation to pursue general theoretical tools and frameworks. Complex systems give rise to emergent behaviors, which in turn produce novel and interesting phenomena in science, engineering, as well as in the socio-economic sciences. The aim of all Symposia on Chaos and Complex Systems (CCS) is to bring together scientists, engineers, economists and social scientists, and to discuss the latest insights and results obtained in the area of corresponding nonlinear-system complex (chaotic) behavior. Especially for the “4th International Interdisciplinary Chaos Symposium on Chaos and Complex Systems,” which took place April 29th to May 2nd, 2012 in Antalya, Turkey, the scope of the symposium had been further enlarged so as to encompass the presentation of work from circuits to econophysic...

  18. Trending Approaches in Innovation Using Interdisciplinary Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cherinka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This presentation presents a study of approaches to foster open innovation, including the use of crowds and social media to leverage and utilize interdisciplinary sources. Crowds are inherently interdisciplinary, and they contain experts. Wisdom can be extracted from these sources. However, the peril of bias and "group think" could be detrimental if not carefully exposed. The process of innovation benefits from a diversity of skills and perspectives. There are technology and communication trends that enable unprecedented access to information, people and even group sentiment, offering new ways to collaborate, connect producers to consumers to investors, and ultimately to innovate. As an example, we will highlight the potential value of applying crowd-sourcing models to commercial and government environments

  19. Joint Interdisciplinary Earth Science Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, Menas

    2004-01-01

    The report spans the three year period beginning in June of 2001 and ending June of 2004. Joint Interdisciplinary Earth Science Information Center's (JIESIC) primary purpose has been to carry out research in support of the Global Change Data Center and other Earth science laboratories at Goddard involved in Earth science, remote sensing and applications data and information services. The purpose is to extend the usage of NASA Earth Observing System data, microwave data and other Earth observing data. JIESIC projects fall within the following categories: research and development; STW and WW prototyping; science data, information products and services; and science algorithm support. JIESIC facilitates extending the utility of NASA's Earth System Enterprise (ESE) data, information products and services to better meet the science data and information needs of a number of science and applications user communities, including domain users such as discipline Earth scientists, interdisciplinary Earth scientists, Earth science applications users and educators.

  20. Woodstock Scholarship : An Interdisciplinary Annotated Bibliography

    OpenAIRE

    Gatten, Jeffrey N.

    2016-01-01

    "Since August 1969, the Woodstock Music and Art Fair looms large when recounting the history and impact of the baby boom generation and the societal upheavals of the Sixties. Scholars study the sociological, political, musical, and artistic impact of the event and use it as a cultural touchstone when exploring alternative perspectives or seeking clarity. This interdisciplinary annotated bibliography records the details of over 400 English-language resources on the Festival, including books, c...

  1. Pluralistic dialoguing: A theory of interdisciplinary teamworking

    OpenAIRE

    Antoinette McCallin, Ph.D., M.A. (hons), B.A., RGON

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this emerging grounded theory study was to discover the main concerns of health professionals working in interdisciplinary teams, and to explain the processes team members used to continually resolve practice problems. Data collected from forty-four participants from seven disciplines in two teaching hospitals in New Zealand, included eighty hours each of interviewing and participant observation. In this paper the theory of pluralistic dialoguing is presented. It is argued that int...

  2. Interdisciplinary Teaching Enhances Learning across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Debbie Galante

    2009-01-01

    Sometimes students don't think they're musical, and even if they do, they may still question how taking a music class now might help them in the future. Interdisciplinary teaching--an educational style that takes in elements of more than one subject at a time--can be a major help in such cases. In the words of Elizabeth Ann McAnally, general music…

  3. Poverty and Vulnerability - An Interdisciplinary Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Makoka, Donald; Kaplan, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the concepts of poverty and vulnerability as well as the interconnections and differences between them using an interdisciplinary approach. While poverty is a static concept, vulnerability has a forward-looking dimension. We, therefore, review the methodologies that different disciplines use to measure poverty and vulnerability. In particular, the differences between vulnerability to natural disasters, vulnerability to climate change, as well as vulnerability to poverty a...

  4. [Interdisciplinary quality management in preventive medicine institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert

    2004-12-01

    Like all health care institutions, preventive medicine institutions, too, need a quality assurance structure. An integrated system consisting of "balanced score card", "finite-elements-model" and "interdisciplinary quality circles" is presented. This organisational structure allows the implementation of quality assurance in complex institutions as well, such as health care organisations. In addition, this concept guarantees broad acceptance by all team members, not least due to complexity reduction.

  5. Epistemology and politics of interdisciplinary methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gabriel Rodríguez Zoya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to propound a complex concept of interdiscipline, one that should be epistemologically rigorous, methodologically viable and politically critical. This implies to assume an explicit ideological position that involves a particular conception of the relation between science and society: interdisciplinary knowledge is necessary for a politics being able to intervene in complex problems affecting people life in Latin America.

  6. Leadership styles in interdisciplinary health science education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasnett, Bonita; Clay, Maria

    2008-12-01

    The US Institute of Medicine recommends that all health professionals should deliver patient-centered care as members of interdisciplinary health science teams. The current application of the Bolman and Deal Leadership model to health sciences provides an interesting point of reference to compare leadership styles. This article reviews several applications of that model within academic health care and the aggregate recommendations for leaders of health care disciplines based on collective findings.

  7. ENTRA - or the chances of interdisciplinary work; ENTRIA - oder die Chancen des Interdisziplinaeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Clemens [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz; Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Endlagerforschung; Smeddinck, Ulrich [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Rechtswissenschaften

    2015-07-01

    Since 2013 about 60 scientists work together in the research platform ENTRA (disposal options for radioactive residuals: interdisciplinary analyses and development of evaluation criteria). The scientists group includes physicists, mathematicians, engineers, jurists, experts from ethics, social and political sciences. The common question is the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The contribution describes the concept of interdisciplinary work, using the example of the definition of terms like risk by different scientists, projects for specific disposal options, the problem of public distrust, the problem of limiting values and the optimization of final repository systems.

  8. An 8-week interdisciplinary learning module, which focuses on innovation and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brigitte; Andersen, Helle Tvorup; Duus, Lene

    by a team with members from the five educations. The team has developed an 8 -week learning mod-ule, which focuses on innovation and entrepreneurship. The interdisciplinary module has an inno-vative didactic design using blended learning as the overarching principle. Relevance Our workshop contributes...... to the topic:” Innovative and sustainable teaching for health and social care education”. The interdisciplinary learning module contributes at several levels to match future challenges in the health services for students and teachers. The different innovative learning methods also contribute to students...

  9. Development of Emotional Skills through Interdisciplinary Practices Integrated into a University Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Pertegal-Felices

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emotional profile of university students has been related to both academic performance and professional success. Such evidence has led higher education professionals to ask whether students can be trained in emotional skills at university stage. However, learning specific emotional skills requires a considerable investment of time from students. This paper presents an intervention aimed at developing emotional skills through interdisciplinary teamwork, without adding specific courses that could decrease the time that students devote to their core studies. The results indicated that working in interdisciplinary teams improved the level of emotional skills without hindering the attainment of academic objectives.

  10. Pluralistic dialoguing: A theory of interdisciplinary teamworking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette McCallin, Ph.D., M.A. (hons, B.A., RGON

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this emerging grounded theory study was to discover the main concerns of health professionals working in interdisciplinary teams, and to explain the processes team members used to continually resolve practice problems. Data collected from forty-four participants from seven disciplines in two teaching hospitals in New Zealand, included eighty hours each of interviewing and participant observation. In this paper the theory of pluralistic dialoguing is presented. It is argued that interdisciplinary work is possible whenthe team replaces the discipline focus with a client-focused care and thinks differently about service delivery. Thinking cooperatively requires individual team members to dialogue with colleagues, thereby deconstructing traditional ways of thinking and reconstructing new approaches to interdisciplinary practice. Although dialoguing was an informal process occurring within clinical spaces, as the effects of health reform and restructuring intensify teams also need to establish formal dialogue groups to facilitate team practice development and support team learning in the continually changing fast-paced practice context.

  11. Integrated interdisciplinary training in the radiological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, D J; Vazquez, M; Buonanno, M; Amundson, S A; Bigelow, A W; Garty, G; Harken, A D; Hei, T K; Marino, S A; Ponnaiya, B; Randers-Pehrson, G; Xu, Y

    2014-02-01

    The radiation sciences are increasingly interdisciplinary, both from the research and the clinical perspectives. Beyond clinical and research issues, there are very real issues of communication between scientists from different disciplines. It follows that there is an increasing need for interdisciplinary training courses in the radiological sciences. Training courses are common in biomedical academic and clinical environments, but are typically targeted to scientists in specific technical fields. In the era of multidisciplinary biomedical science, there is a need for highly integrated multidisciplinary training courses that are designed for, and are useful to, scientists who are from a mix of very different academic fields and backgrounds. We briefly describe our experiences running such an integrated training course for researchers in the field of biomedical radiation microbeams, and draw some conclusions about how such interdisciplinary training courses can best function. These conclusions should be applicable to many other areas of the radiological sciences. In summary, we found that it is highly beneficial to keep the scientists from the different disciplines together. In practice, this means not segregating the training course into sections specifically for biologists and sections specifically for physicists and engineers, but rather keeping the students together to attend the same lectures and hands-on studies throughout the course. This structure added value to the learning experience not only in terms of the cross fertilization of information and ideas between scientists from the different disciplines, but also in terms of reinforcing some basic concepts for scientists in their own discipline.

  12. Medialogy – An Interdisciplinary Education Challenge in a Problem Based Learning Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2012-01-01

    Different new educations in the field of media and technology are constantly developing worldwide. Searching on the Internet almost every university has programs in both media and communication. Several universities are discussing the challenges to offer double degrees, so the students can combine...... an individual education according to their interests. Other universities are offering interdisciplinary educations in the field of media technology. Having worked with those interdisciplinary engineering and science educations for several years, it seems to be a challenge to define the students’ key competences......, and the ability of such educations to provide new scientific paradigms and disciplines. This paper investigates the challenges connected to a new interdisciplinary science and engineering program: Medialogy at Aalborg University. The program includes Bachelor and Master level educations and combines humanistic...

  13. Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary actions in the care of elderly with Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Mara Alexandre Bertazone

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the available evidence in the literature on the effect of multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary actions on health or in the treatment of the elderly with Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: an integrative revision made in databases, without accrual period of publication of articles, using controlled and non controlled descriptors. Results: the initial search resulted in a total of 508 studies, six of which were considered eligible for analysis. The results showed that the multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary actions used were effective in the care of the elderly with Alzheimer’s disease. The main effects observed were improved behavioral problems and cognitive function and the decrease use of psychotropic drugs. Conclusion: multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary actions can provide more effective care for the elderly with Alzheimer’s disease, maximizing their cognitive and functional levels, with improvement in the quality of life for both the patient and for the family/caregivers.

  14. Using integrated research and interdisciplinary science: Potential benefits and challenges to managers of parks and protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Charles; Powell, Robert B.; Machlis, Gary; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; van Riper, Carena J.; von Ruschkowski, Eick; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Galipeau, Russell E.

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to build a case for utilizing interdisciplinary science to enhance the management of parks and protected areas. We suggest that interdisciplinary science is necessary for dealing with the complex issues of contemporary resource management, and that using the best available integrated scientific information be embraced and supported at all levels of agencies that manage parks and protected areas. It will take the commitment of park managers, scientists, and agency leaders to achieve the goal of implementing the results of interdisciplinary science into park management. Although such calls go back at least several decades, today interdisciplinary science is sporadically being promoted as necessary for supporting effective protected area management(e.g., Machlis et al. 1981; Kelleher and Kenchington 1991). Despite this history, rarely has "interdisciplinary science" been defined, its importance explained, or guidance provided on how to translate and then implement the associated research results into management actions (Tress et al. 2006; Margles et al. 2010). With the extremely complex issues that now confront protected areas (e.g., climate change influences, extinctions and loss of biodiversity, human and wildlife demographic changes, and unprecedented human population growth) information from more than one scientific discipline will need to be brought to bear in order to achieve sustained management solutions that resonate with stakeholders (Ostrom 2009). Although interdisciplinary science is not the solution to all problems, we argue that interdisciplinary research is an evolving and widely supported best practice. In the case of park and protected area management, interdisciplinary science is being driven by the increasing recognition of the complexity and interconnectedness of human and natural systems, and the notion that addressing many problems can be more rapidly advanced through interdisciplinary study and analysis.

  15. An investigation of teachers' perceptions and implementation of interdisciplinary mathematics and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golley, Priscilla Sue

    1997-11-01

    The problem. Today science education faces several dilemmas. Among these are that too few students are leaving school with the competency required to pursue careers in a society heavily influenced by science and technology, and many students lose or fail to develop a positive attitude toward science and basic scientific literacy in school. Therefore, many students leave school lacking the knowledge necessary to be informed decision makers and citizens. Reform efforts suggest that one way to approach such problems is through the development and implementation of interdisciplinary curriculum. Research questions. (1) What processes or actions are part of the construction of a project of interdisciplinary problem solving? (2) What teacher beliefs were expressed during the construction of a project of interdisciplinary problem solving? (3) What concerns emerged as unique to the investigation? Research paradigm and methodology. This investigation used a naturalistic paradigm consistent with Lincoln and Guba's (1985) guidelines. Four high school science and mathematics teachers participated in a one year project for purposes of development and implementation of an interdisciplinary project related to the concept of sound. Data from participants were collected through interviews, observations, surveys, and document analysis. Discussion. Processes or actions that project participants developed as they implemented a interdisciplinary unit of instruction on the topic of sound were, (a) teach and be taught the concepts and language related to the learning, (b) teach students concepts and language, (c) present a problem to students that requires application of concepts from the disciplines of physics and trigonometry, and (d) evaluate using performance assessment. Beliefs of project participants include a belief not exhibited in practice that interdisciplinary curriculum requires a change in technique or approach toward teaching. Levels of discomfort were believed to be due to

  16. The Rise and Fall of a Required Interdisciplinary Course: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Barbara E.; Huckfeldt, Vaughn E.

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet the South Dakota Board of Regents requirements for an upper level writing course with global perspective for all graduates, the administration at the University of South Dakota established an interdisciplinary course to be taken by all majors. Two faculty members from different disciplines were assigned to teach each section with…

  17. The Physics of Music with Interdisciplinary Approach: A Case of Prospective Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turna, Özge; Bolat, Mualla

    2016-01-01

    Physics of music is an area that is covered by interdisciplinary approach. In this study it is aimed to determine prospective music teachers' level of association with physics concepts which are related to music. The research is a case study which combines qualitative and quantitative methods. Eighty-four students who were studying at the…

  18. Games-Based Learning as an Interdisciplinary Approach to Literacy across Curriculum for Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Literacy remains an area of concern in early secondary education in Scotland (ages 12-14), with recent research suggesting a continued decline in attainment levels. As literacy underpins learning, interdisciplinary and collaborative approaches to teaching literacy are now being emphasized through the new Curriculum for Excellence that aims to…

  19. Interdisciplinary and Intercultural Differences in Learning Strategy Use: Implications for Language Processing, Curriculum and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Saad F.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examines English as foreign language college interdisciplinary and intercultural differences in learning strategy use and their implications for language processing. Positivism underpins this research at the levels of ontology (standardized variables), epistemology (detachment from the subjects) and methodology, using nomothetic…

  20. Using Folk Dance and Geography to Teach Interdisciplinary, Multicultural Subject Matter: A School-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovegno, Inez; Gregg, Madeleine

    2007-01-01

    Background: Many scholars have called for physical education to be part of interdisciplinary units at the elementary level. The study of Native American cultures is required in most North American elementary schools. Folk dance, however, has traditionally included Western European folk dances, square dance, and, more recently, line dancing. In our…

  1. Interdisciplinary New University: A New Model for Faculties of Arts and Sciences in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Hasan; Hacifazlioglu, Ozge

    2012-01-01

    The concept of new university reduces the depth of disciplinary understanding at the undergraduate level. Instead, interdisciplinary understanding has been put forward, where room is provided for the broader development of student. Receiving training from multiple perspectives will provide students with the skills necessary in an era of present…

  2. Orientations and outcome of interdisciplinary research: the case of research behaviour in translational medical science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Norn, Maria Theresa; Alkærsig, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The importance of interdisciplinary research in accelerating the progress and commercialization of science is widely recognized, yet little is known about how academic research self-organizes towards interdisciplinarity. In this paper, we therefore explore the micro-level behavior of researchers...

  3. Constructing an Interdisciplinary Context for Definition of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokolov, S. A.

    One of the main problems in understanding life is that that lifecannot be defined as a self-evident phenomenon. Instead, definitions of life inevitably depend on the context: social, ethical, theological, and scientific. Even in a purely scientific context, different scientific disciplines and approaches provide a variety of criteria related to life. My intention is to define life in an interdisciplinary context, where the class of living systems can be presented as a particular case in series of systems: physical, chemical, prebiotic, biotic, ecological, social, cognitive, etc. related by a universal principle. To this end, the first step in establishing general criteria for life is to define the essential features of life processes. The very functional principle of living beings is circular organization (feedback circularity) embedded on different levels of organization: molecular, genetic, cellular, neural, behavioural, mental, and social. Understanding that the degree of system's wholeness, i.e. degree of feedback net integration can serve as a primary parameter, we can in principle construct an interdisciplinary context in which different systems including living beings can be analyzed, defined and compared.

  4. Doing Interdisciplinary Mixed Methods Health Care Research: Working the Boundaries, Tensions, and Synergistic Potential of Team-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2016-04-01

    Current trends in health care research point to a shift from disciplinary models to interdisciplinary team-based mixed methods inquiry designs. This keynote address discusses the problems and prospects of creating vibrant mixed methods health care interdisciplinary research teams that can harness their potential synergy that holds the promise of addressing complex health care issues. We examine the range of factors and issues these types of research teams need to consider to facilitate efficient interdisciplinary mixed methods team-based research. It is argued that concepts such as disciplinary comfort zones, a lack of attention to team dynamics, and low levels of reflexivity among interdisciplinary team members can inhibit the effectiveness of a research team. This keynote suggests a set of effective strategies to address the issues that emanate from the new field of research inquiry known as team science as well as lessons learned from tapping into research on organizational dynamics. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Fostering Interdisciplinary Communication between Pharmacy and Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiersma, Mary E.; Keib, Carrie N.; Cailor, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate pharmacy and nursing student self-perceptions of interdisciplinary communication skills, faculty member perceptions of interdisciplinary communication skills, and changes in those skills after increasing the interdisciplinary education content. Design. Two cohorts of pharmacy and nursing (bachelors of science in nursing, BSN) students in respective, semester-long research courses engaged in active learning on interdisciplinary communication, with the second cohort receiving additional content on the topic. At semester completion, students presented a research project at an interdisciplinary poster session. Assessment. Self-, peer-, and faculty evaluations (4 items; 5-point Likert-type) assessing self-confidence and actual interdisciplinary communication skills were completed during the poster session. Overall, students responded they were “very confident” or “extremely confident” regarding the skills, with greater confidence reported by the second cohort. Faculty members agreed that students exhibited effective interdisciplinary communication skills, with stronger agreement for the second cohort. Conclusion. Including interdisciplinary education and experiences in a curriculum increases students’ interdisciplinary communication skills. Using multiple interdisciplinary experiences may result in greater increases in these skills. PMID:26430270

  6. Investment-driven industrial localisation in Calabar, free trade zone and environs, south-eastern/southsouth, Nigeria: Evidence on recent sub-national regional economic diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingwe Richard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The type of foreign direct investment (FDI mostly received by Nigeria in the past decades has formed one of the central points of the discussion of the nature of investment in development in this country acknowledged as Africa’s second largest economy. The way FDI receipt varies by size and type by sub-national regions (especially the 36 states, Federal Capital Territory in Abuja and the 774 Local Government Areas forming Nigeria’s federation has so been poorly addressed. However, scholars recently reported on the receipt of FDI in Cross River State following the state government’s policy that is being praised by Nigeria’s federal government agencies and international governmental organizations -including United Nations Systems in Nigeria, among others. The praises recognize Cross River State Government’s practice of good governance and cost-effective resource management as it confronts challenges including declining funds hitherto allocated from the pooled federation account. The objective of this article is to is to contribute towards understanding recent foreign direct investment in Cross River State. This article follows on theoretical perspectives and background recently reported by presenting findings of an empirical case study of recent and ongoing increasing investments in the Calabar Free Trade Zone (CFTZ city of Cross River State (Nigeria. We apply methods of descriptive case study to inform on the increasing commitment of foreign investments towards manufacturing engagement in Calabar urban region/environs. We present Calabar region’s previous/recent development challenges and provide some details of the recent increasing foreign investments in the Calabar FTZ city, before analyzing and synthesizing the recent increasing foreign investments in the Calabar FTZ city. It is demonstrated that the recent economic dynamics would engender a set of socio-economic, spatial and ecological/environmental responses and explain their

  7. From words to action: visibility of management in supporting interdisciplinary team working in an acute rehabilitative geriatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Sandra C; Cassar, Vincent; Scully, Judy W

    2013-01-01

    The following case study aims to explore management's, health professionals' and patients' experiences on the extent to which there is visibility of management support in achieving effective interdisciplinary team working, which is explicitly declared in the mission statement of a 60-bed acute rehabilitative geriatric hospital in Malta. A total of 21 semi-structured interviews were conducted with the above-mentioned key stakeholders. Three main distinct yet interdependent themes emerged as a result of thematic analysis: "managing a team-friendly hospital", "interdisciplinary team components", and "interdisciplinary team processes". The findings show that visibility of management support and its alignment with the process and content levels of interdisciplinary teamwork are key to integrated care for acute rehabilitative geriatric patients. The emerging phenomena may not be reproducible in a different context; although many of the emerging themes could be comfortably matched with the existing literature. The implications are geared towards raising the consciousness and conscientiousness of good practice in interdisciplinary teamwork in hospitals, as well as in emphasizing organizational and management support as crucial factors for team-based organizations. Interdisciplinary teamwork in acute rehabilitative geriatrics provides optimal quality and integrated health care delivery with the aim that the older persons are successfully discharged back to the community. The authors draw on solid theoretical frameworks--the complexity theory, team effectiveness model and the social identity theory--to support their major finding, namely the alignment of organizational and management support with intra-team factors at the process and content level.

  8. Understanding the assembly of interdisciplinary teams and its impact on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungeanu, Alina; Huang, Yun; Contractor, Noshir S.

    2013-01-01

    Interdisciplinary teams are assembled in scientific research and are aimed at solving complex problems. Given their increasing importance, it is not surprising that considerable attention has been focused on processes of collaboration in interdisciplinary teams. Despite such efforts, we know less about the factors affecting the assembly of such teams in the first place. In this paper, we investigate the structure and the success of interdisciplinary scientific research teams. We examine the assembly factors using a sample of 1,103 grant proposals submitted to two National Science Foundation interdisciplinary initiatives during a 3-year period, including both awarded and non-awarded proposals. The results indicate that individuals’ likelihood of collaboration on a proposal is higher among those with longer tenure, lower institutional tier, lower H-index, and with higher levels of prior co-authorship and citation relationships. However, successful proposals have a little bit different relational patterns: individuals’ likelihood of collaboration is higher among those with lower institutional tier, lower H-index, (female) gender, higher levels of prior co-authorship, but with lower levels of prior citation relationships. PMID:24470806

  9. Second-Order Science of Interdisciplinary Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    Context: The problems that are most in need of interdisciplinary collaboration are “wicked problems,” such as food crises, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development, with many relevant aspects, disagreement on what the problem is, and contradicting solutions. Such complex problems bo...... perspectivist approach to science is based on the second-order cybernetics and systems theories of von Foerster, Maruyama, Maturana & Varela, and Luhmann, coupled with embodied theories of cognition and semiotics as a general theory of meaning from von Uexküll and Peirce....

  10. Disciplinary knowledge production and interdisciplinary humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz; Stjernfelt, Frederik; Emmeche, Claus

    2016-01-01

    The chapter offers an introduction to this volume on frontier research in the humanities. It frames recent discussions on research governance, public value of research, and the heterogeneous nature of the humanities within the overall context of international research policy and initiatives...... economy needs to include combined efforts in developing new technologies and at the same time creating new models of democracy, engagement, and sustainable behaviour, which draw on a range of interdisciplinary competences. Special challenges such as the role reserved for humanities and how to integrate...

  11. Relevance: An Interdisciplinary and Information Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Greisdorf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of information science for evaluating information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information behavior.

  12. History and Psi knowledges – interdisciplinary considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D'Assunção Barros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the interdisciplinary relations between History and psi knowledge, attempting to elaborate a comparative parallel between History of Mentalities, History of Imaginary, and also other historiographical modalities that interact with Psychology. The intention is to clarify some central aspects related to these fields of History and to discuss the historiography concerning each one of these modalities, in order to examine authors as Johannes Huizinga, Marc Bloch, Lucien Febvre, Robert Mandrou, Carlo Ginzburg, Philippe Ariès, Michel Vovelle, Georges Duby, Jacques Le Goff e Jean Delumeau, and at the same time discuss influences of Carl Jung, Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan, Wilhelm Reich and others.

  13. EDITORIAL: MUSLIM SCHOLARS TOWARDS WESTERN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available It could be spoken up that ‘ulama’ of classical and medieval ages carried out interdisciplinary approaches in dealing with difficulties they had encountered in understanding Islamic texts or teachings. This could be indicated from a number of the ‘ulama’ who possessed not only one expertise but more, such as an Arabic linguist who was also expert both in Islamic jurisprudence, quranic exegesis and Muhammadan tradition. Therefore, it was common sense that when they were interpreting quranic verses they not only exercised other quranic verses or Muhammadan tradition but also the Arabic linguistic or Islamic jurisprudence to catch the meaning of the verses they had been interpreting.

  14. Interdisciplinary contributions to theory for collaborative networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dekkers, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Scientific progress on a field is mostly discussed within disciplines. Far less attention is paid to outside or between disciplines' work. To speed up research progresses for Collaborative Networks in Manufacturing, a base for further grounded theory establishment is propagated recalling some of the most relevant chapters of philosophy of science. The focus is put onto the roles of disciplines and their scholars involved in interdisciplinary contexts in order to further motivate as well as to hint at a number of catalysing forces and fruitful impacts of outside disciplines' work.

  15. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many of underground facilities, ranging from simple cavities to fully equipped laboratories, have been established worldwide (1) to evaluate the impacts of emplacing nuclear wastes in underground research laboratories (URLs) and (2) to measure rare physics events in deep underground laboratories (DULs). In this presentation, we compare similarities and differences between URLs and DULs in focus of site characterization, in quantification of quietness, and in improvement of signal to noise ratios. The nuclear waste URLs are located primarily in geological medium with potentials for slow flow/transport and long isolation. The URL medium include plastic salt, hard rock, soft clay, volcanic tuff, basalt and shale, at over ~500 m where waste repositories are envisioned to be excavated. The majority of URLs are dedicated facilities excavated after extensive site characterization. The focuses are on fracture distributions, heterogeneity, scaling, coupled processes, and other fundamental issues of earth sciences. For the physics DULs, the depth/overburden thickness is the main parameter that determines the damping of cosmic rays, and that, consequently, should be larger than, typically, 800m. Radioactivity from rocks, neutron flux, and radon gas, depending on local rock and ventilation conditions (largely independent of depth), are also characterized at different sites to quantify the background level for physics experiments. DULs have been constructed by excavating dedicated experimental halls and service cavities near to a road tunnel (horizontal access) or in a mine (vertical access). Cavities at shallower depths are suitable for experiments on neutrinos from artificial source, power reactors or accelerators. Rocks stability (depth dependent), safe access, and utility supply are among factors of main concerns for DULs. While the focuses and missions of URLs and DULs are very different, common experience and lessons learned may be useful for ongoing development of new

  16. Undergraduate engineering students' experiences of interdisciplinary learning: a phenomenographic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Chien

    Engineers are expected to work with people with different disciplinary knowledge to solve real-world problems that are inherently complex, which is one of the reasons that interdisciplinary learning has become a common pedagogical practice in engineering education. However, empirical evidence on the impact of interdisciplinary learning on undergraduates is lacking. Regardless of the differences in the scope of methods used to assess interdisciplinary learning, frameworks of interdisciplinary learning are imperative for developing attainable outcomes as well as interpreting assessment data. Existing models of interdisciplinary learning have been either conceptual or based on research faculty members' experiences rather than empirical data. The study addressed the gap by exploring the different ways that undergraduate engineering students experience interdisciplinary learning. A phenomenographic methodological framework was used to guide the design, data collection, and data analysis of the study. Twenty-two undergraduate engineering students with various interdisciplinary learning experiences were interviewed using semi-structured protocols. They concretely described their experiences and reflected meaning associated with those experiences. Analysis of the data revealed eight qualitatively different ways that students experience interdisciplinary learning, which include: interdisciplinary learning as (A) no awareness of differences, (B) control and assertion, (C) coping with differences, (D) navigating creative differences, (E) learning from differences, (F) bridging differences, (G) expanding intellectual boundaries, and (H) commitment to holistic perspectives. Categories D through H represent a hierarchical structure of increasingly comprehensive way of experiencing interdisciplinary learning. Further analysis uncovered two themes that varied throughout the categories: (i) engagement with differences and (ii) purpose and integration. Students whose experiences lie

  17. Chasing polys: Interdisciplinary affinity and its connection to physics identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Tyler D.

    This research is based on two motivations that merge by means of the frameworks of interdisciplinary affinity and physics identity. First, a goal of education is to develop interdisciplinary abilities in students' thinking and work. But an often ignored factor is students interests and beliefs about being interdisciplinary. Thus, this work develops and uses a framework called interdisciplinary affinity. It encompasses students interests in making connections across disciplines and their beliefs about their abilities to make those connections. The second motivation of this research is to better understand how to engage more students with physics. Physics identity describes how a student sees themselves in relation to physics. By understanding how physics identity is developed, researchers and educators can identify factors that increase interest and engagement in physics classrooms. Therefore, physics identity was used in conjunction with interdisciplinary affinity. Using a mixed methods approach, this research used quantitative data to identify the relationships interdisciplinary affinity has with physics identity and the physics classroom. These connections were explored in more detail using a case study of three students in a high school physics class. Results showed significant and positive relationships between interdisciplinary affinity and physics identity, including the individual interest and recognition components of identity. It also identified characteristics of physics classrooms that had a significant, positive relationship with interdisciplinary affinity. The qualitative case study highlighted the importance of student interest to the relationship between interdisciplinary affinity and physics identity. It also identified interest and mastery orientation as key to understanding the link between interdisciplinary affinity and the physics classroom. These results are a positive sign that by understanding interdisciplinary affinity and physics identity

  18. Empowering Graduate Students to Lead on Interdisciplinary Societal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, E.

    2015-12-01

    Challenging societal problems that cannot be solved by one method or one discipline alone, like epidemic preparedness, mental health, and climate change, demand leadership and the ability to work across disciplines from those with specialized expertise. Teaching leadership at the graduate school level is a challenge that many schools are striving to meet, through mechanisms like project-based courses, leadership skill development workshops, and others. We argue that some of the most valuable but most difficult leadership skills to learn are those that require cultural norms that are fundamentally different from those traditionally encountered in graduate school. These include the ability to make informed decisions based on limited knowledge and resources, the need to make choices in the face of uncertainty, and the recognition that one ultimately bears responsibility for the outcomes. These skills are also among the most important for students planning on nonacademic careers. Acquiring such skills requires a focus on learning-by-doing and a culture of graduate student empowerment. This submission focuses on the experience of students in a student-centered, interdisciplinary, cross-campus leadership program called Emerging Leaders in Science and Society (ELISS), hosted by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ELISS establishes the expectation that students act as leaders, which in itself reframes leadership as an achievable goal. A major finding from two years of experience with ELISS is the critical importance of establishing cultures of trust and empowerment at the graduate level in order to foster development of transferable skills. ELISS graduate students specifically focus on interdisciplinary collaboration (the 13 2015 fellows come from 13 academic disciplines); stakeholder engagement, primarily focused on outreach to both traditional and nontraditional experts in our communities outside of academia; and solution-generating rather

  19. The penetration of neoliberalism in the sub-national levels. The Cordoba case: analysis of new State’s provincial laws and the Fiscal Pact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gabriel Manzo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze the strategies of difusion/imposition and the content of the neoliberalism in the provinces and municipalities of Argentina using the “Córdoba’s case” as a case of reference. It is divided in two main parts: the first one, presents the strategies that the central agents use to espread/impose the neoliberalism in different parts of the planet and the main features of the neoliberal reforms of first and second generation; the second one, makes an historical analysis of the political field of Córdoba and a juridical analysis of the norms that gave form to the process of the “New State” and the “Fiscal Pact” of 2000.

  20. Interdisciplinary Approaches to Managing Pain in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickson-Griffiths, Abigail; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Herr, Keela

    2016-11-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to managing pain has been widely used in managing specific pain conditions (eg, lower back and fibromyalgia) but not reviewed specifically for older adults. Interdisciplinary approaches have been used in primary, residential long-term, and acute care settings, where a variety of health care professionals work on pain teams to manage pain in older adults. Given the multidimensional nature of pain in older adults, interdisciplinary approaches to managing pain are recommended in practice. This article reviews the rationale supporting an interdisciplinary approach to managing pain in older adults and summarizes studies that have evaluated this approach. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. UTERINE BLEEDING IN PUBERTY — PRINCIPLES OF INTERDISCIPLINARY SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Uvarova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available International conventional views on a problem of pubertal uterine bleeding are elucidated in the article. Clinical peculiarities and risk factors, diagnostic methods and therapy of pubertal uterine bleeding in girls is thought out considering multiple factors of pathogenesis and concomitant diseases. Revealed principles of interdisciplinary treatment of girls with uterine bleeding by pediatricians and gynecologists for children and adolescents are designed to facilitate early of premorbid health status, features of reproductive organs development and genital organs state. These steps would allow to hamper pathology progression and result in better levels of reproductive health in mothers in the future.Key words: uterine bleedings in puberty, adolescent girls, gynecology diseases, duagnostics and treatment.

  2. How nature works complexity in interdisciplinary research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sanayei, Ali; Zenil, Hector; Rössler, Otto

    2014-01-01

    This book is based on the outcome of the “2012 Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems” held at the island of Kos.  The book consists of 12 selected papers of the symposium starting with a comprehensive overview and classification of complexity problems, continuing by chapters about complexity, its observation, modeling and its applications to solving various problems including real-life applications. More exactly, readers will have an encounter with the structural complexity of vortex flows, the use of chaotic dynamics within evolutionary algorithms, complexity in synthetic biology, types of complexity hidden inside evolutionary dynamics and possible controlling methods, complexity of rugged landscapes, and more. All selected papers represent innovative ideas, philosophical overviews and state-of-the-art discussions on aspects of complexity.  The book will be useful as instructional material for senior undergraduate and entry-level graduate students in computer science, physics, applied mathemat...

  3. Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    countries and territories, 11 of which were analysed at the subnational level. We quantified eight underlying causes of maternal death and four timing categories, improving estimation methods since GBD 2013 for adult all-cause mortality, HIV-related maternal mortality, and late maternal death. Secondary...

  4. RETHINKING RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick J. Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1950s academics and professionals have proposed a number of disciplinary and sector based interpretations of why, when and where households move or choose to stay in the same housing unit at different periods of the life cycle and especially the family cycle. This article challenges studies that only analyse one set of factors. The article stems from a synthesis of 20 years of research by the author who  has an interdisciplinary training in the broad field of people-environment relations. First, it reviews some key concepts related to human ecology, including housing, culture, identity and cultivation. Then it will consider how these concepts can be applied to interpret residential mobility using an interdisciplinary approach. An empirical case study of residential mobility in Geneva, Switzerland is presented in order to show how this approach can help improve our understanding of the motives people have regarding the wish to stay in their residence or to move elsewhere.

  5. Hydrology: The interdisciplinary science of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Richard M.; Lall, Upmanu; Cai, Ximing; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Weiskel, Peter K.; Hooper, Richard P.; Matalas, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world where biophysical and social processes are tightly coupled. Hydrologic systems change in response to a variety of natural and human forces such as climate variability and change, water use and water infrastructure, and land cover change. In turn, changes in hydrologic systems impact socioeconomic, ecological, and climate systems at a number of scales, leading to a coevolution of these interlinked systems. The Harvard Water Program, Hydrosociology, Integrated Water Resources Management, Ecohydrology, Hydromorphology, and Sociohydrology were all introduced to provide distinct, interdisciplinary perspectives on water problems to address the contemporary dynamics of human interaction with the hydrosphere and the evolution of the Earth’s hydrologic systems. Each of them addresses scientific, social, and engineering challenges related to how humans influence water systems and vice versa. There are now numerous examples in the literature of how holistic approaches can provide a structure and vision of the future of hydrology. We review selected examples, which taken together, describe the type of theoretical and applied integrated hydrologic analyses and associated curricular content required to address the societal issue of water resources sustainability. We describe a modern interdisciplinary science of hydrology needed to develop an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of the connectedness between human and natural systems and to determine effective solutions to resolve the complex water problems that the world faces today. Nearly, every theoretical hydrologic model introduced previously is in need of revision to accommodate how climate, land, vegetation, and socioeconomic factors interact, change, and evolve over time.

  6. Hydrology: The interdisciplinary science of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Richard M.; Lall, Upmanu; Cai, Ximing; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Weiskel, Peter K.; Hooper, Richard P.; Matalas, Nicholas C.

    2015-06-01

    We live in a world where biophysical and social processes are tightly coupled. Hydrologic systems change in response to a variety of natural and human forces such as climate variability and change, water use and water infrastructure, and land cover change. In turn, changes in hydrologic systems impact socioeconomic, ecological, and climate systems at a number of scales, leading to a coevolution of these interlinked systems. The Harvard Water Program, Hydrosociology, Integrated Water Resources Management, Ecohydrology, Hydromorphology, and Sociohydrology were all introduced to provide distinct, interdisciplinary perspectives on water problems to address the contemporary dynamics of human interaction with the hydrosphere and the evolution of the Earth's hydrologic systems. Each of them addresses scientific, social, and engineering challenges related to how humans influence water systems and vice versa. There are now numerous examples in the literature of how holistic approaches can provide a structure and vision of the future of hydrology. We review selected examples, which taken together, describe the type of theoretical and applied integrated hydrologic analyses and associated curricular content required to address the societal issue of water resources sustainability. We describe a modern interdisciplinary science of hydrology needed to develop an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of the connectedness between human and natural systems and to determine effective solutions to resolve the complex water problems that the world faces today. Nearly, every theoretical hydrologic model introduced previously is in need of revision to accommodate how climate, land, vegetation, and socioeconomic factors interact, change, and evolve over time.

  7. An interdisciplinary study in initial teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Larraz Rada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment of innovative university education shows the interdisciplinary work carried out in the studies of the Bachelor of Science in Education at the University of Andorra. The study was developed within two subjects: Communication Technology (TAC and Cultural Heritage Education in Andorra. The main objective of this experiment is to foster the use of technological resources and digital materials, with the aim of drawing cultural heritage closer to the classroom. Based on a previous study of documentation and an analysis of online educational materials, the students have to design an e-book, which is understood to be digital material in the curricular field of cultural heritage. This digital material is a didactic proposal that focuses on the construction of knowledge by primary school students. During the elaboration of the materials the instructors introduce follow-up activities. The results of the experiment show that, from an interdisciplinary approach, and a problem-solving, learning-centered methodology, specific and transferable abilities in initial teacher training can be studied and evaluated.

  8. Editorial "The Interdisciplinary Nature of SOIL"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, E. C.; Cerdá, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Pereg, L.; Quinton, J. N.; Six, J.; Van Oost, K.

    2014-09-01

    The holistic study of soils requires an interdisciplinary approach involving biologists, chemists, geologists, and physicists amongst others, something that has been true from the earliest days of the field. This approach has been strengthened and reinforced as current research continues to use experts trained in both soil science and related fields and by the wide array of issues impacting the world's biosphere that require an in-depth understanding of soils. Of fundamental importance amongst these issues are biodiversity, biofuels/energy security, climate change, ecosystem services, food security, human health, land degradation, and water security, each representing a critical challenge for research. In order to establish a benchmark for the type of research we seek to highlight in each issue of SOIL, here in this editorial, we outline the interdisciplinary nature of soil science research that we are seeking for in SOIL, with a focus on the myriad ways soil science can be used to expand investigation into a more holistic and therefore richer approach to soil research. In addition, we provide a selection of invited review papers in the first issue of SOIL that address the study of soils and the ways in which soil investigations are essential to other related fields. We hope that both this editorial and the first issue will serve as examples of the kinds of topics we would like to see published in SOIL and will stimulate excitement among our readers and authors to participate in this new venture.

  9. Interdisciplinary perspectives on Latin American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Pakkasvirta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La historia de los estudios sobre América Latina es sin lugar a dudas, multi e interdisciplinaria pero menos transdisciplinaria. Sin embargo, existen una variedad de posibilidades y oportunidades interesantes para desarrollar los estudios temáticos y culturales hacia un enfoque más radical y transdisciplinario. Este artículo analiza diferentes formas de sistematizar algunos aspectos de los estudios Latino-americanos como un campo específico o como una ‘disciplina’. Esto incluye como requisito una cultura de aprendizaje democrática, el uso del realismo crítico de una manera interdisciplinaria, la combinación de análisis interno-externo y el repensar las formas de análisis de datos cualitativos y cuantitativos. English: The history of Latin American studies is, without doubt, multi- and interdisciplinary but less transdisciplinary. There are nevertheless a host of interesting possibilities and opportunities to develop area and cultural studies toward a more radical transdisciplinary approach. This article, addresses several ways of systematising some aspects of Latin American studies as a distinct academic field or as a ‘discipline’. These include a request for a democratic learning culture, the use of critical realism in an interdisciplinary way, the combination of internal–external analysis, and the rethinking of quantitative and qualitative analysis and data.

  10. Criminologyof the future: interdisciplinary scientific connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonyan Yu.M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of interdisciplinary scientific connections of the modern criminology conditional on the open character of this science and the necessity of its further development are given. The narrow-purpose character of criminological researches is noted: trivial subject matter; the criminologists’ lack of psychological, psychiatric, economical, historical, biological, ethnological and other knowledge; insufficiency of complex interdisciplinary works and empirical studies. Different viewpoints on the type of criminologists’ education are analyzed. That emphasizes the necessity of cooperation between criminology and other sciences, such as: sociology, demography, culturology, psychology, economics, pedagogics, psychiatry, ethnology, history, biology, political science, philosophy and others. The phenomenon of criminology is argued: it studies a “bad”, criminal, immoral person unlike other sciences (it belongs to the number of sciences which object is person. The main parameter of criminology as a science is examined – its subject which allows to distinguish it from other legal disciplines especially from criminal law. New aspects of interconnection between criminology and criminal procedure, criminalistics, the theory of investigation activity and criminal executive law are shown. The stable connections with family law, banking law, financial law and administrative law are considered. The author emphasizes the significant potential of developing criminology in its connection with nonlegal sciences: sociology, psychiatry, economics, statistics, psychology (including criminal psychology, biology and philosophy. It is noted that prospects and progress of criminology are possible only in its cooperation with other sciences.

  11. Training the Workforce: Description of a Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Education and Mentoring Program in Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stacie; O'Mahony, Sean; Baron, Aliza; Ansari, Aziz; Deamant, Catherine; Frader, Joel; Leyva, Ileana; Marschke, Michael; Preodor, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The rapid increase in demand for palliative care (PC) services has led to concerns regarding workforce shortages and threats to the resiliency of PC teams. To describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a regional interdisciplinary training program in PC. Thirty nurse and physician fellows representing 22 health systems across the Chicago region participated in a two-year PC training program. The curriculum was delivered through multiple conferences, self-directed e-learning, and individualized mentoring by expert local faculty (mentors). Fellows shadowed mentors' clinical practices and received guidance on designing, implementing, and evaluating a practice improvement project to address gaps in PC at their institutions. Enduring, interdisciplinary relationships were built at all levels across health care organizations. Fellows made significant increases in knowledge and self-reported confidence in adult and pediatric PC and program development skills and frequency performing these skills. Fellows and mentors reported high satisfaction with the educational program. This interdisciplinary PC training model addressed local workforce issues by increasing the number of clinicians capable of providing PC. Unique features include individualized longitudinal mentoring, interdisciplinary education, on-site project implementation, and local network building. Future research will address the impact of the addition of social work and chaplain trainees to the program. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Breaking Down Walls to Creativity through Interdisciplinary Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes initial success in developing an interdisciplinary studio for teaching collaborative creativity and design, with faculty from multiple departments co-teaching and co-mentoring interdisciplinary student groups engaged in social innovation. The rationale for developing this studio has been to prepare students for the kind of…

  13. Examining the Impact of Interdisciplinary Programs on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattuca, Lisa R.; Knight, David; Seifert, Tricia A.; Reason, Robert D.; Liu, Qin

    2017-01-01

    We investigated how learning outcomes of students majoring in interdisciplinary fields differ from those of students in discipline-based majors. We found that students in interdisciplinary majors report less change in Critical Thinking and Need For Cognition than their peers in disciplinary majors, but no difference in change in Positive Attitude…

  14. Fostering Interdisciplinary Thinking through an International Development Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Rachel L.; Esperanza, Jennifer; Phan, Diep

    2016-01-01

    Despite widespread acknowledgment of the importance of interdisciplinary pedagogy, disciplinary teaching remains the norm on most campuses, primarily due to cost and institutional constraints. Bridging the gap between literature on interdisciplinary teaching and active-learning techniques, this article describes an innovative and less costly…

  15. Inclusive and Exclusive Knowledge Practices in Interdisciplinary, International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tange, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a critical engagement with the principle of inclusion, as manifest in three international, interdisciplinary master programmes in Denmark. Initially, it is proposed that one focuses on the knowledge practices found in international, interdisciplinary education, asking to what extent these suggest inclusion in the sense that all…

  16. Scientific Aspects of Leonardo da Vinci's Drawings: An Interdisciplinary Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, Sally A.

    While interdisciplinary courses can help demonstrate the relevance of learning to students and reinforce education from different fields, they can be difficult to implement and are often not cost effective. An interdisciplinary art history course at Ohio's Sinclair Community College incorporates science into the art history curriculum, making use…

  17. Integrating Interdisciplinary Research-Based Experiences in Biotechnology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rupa S.; Wales, Melinda E.

    2012-01-01

    The increasingly interdisciplinary nature of today's scientific research is leading to the transformation of undergraduate education. In addressing these needs, the University of Houston's College of Technology has developed a new interdisciplinary research-based biotechnology laboratory curriculum. Using the pesticide degrading bacterium,…

  18. Use of the Interdisciplinary Team Approach in the Rehabilitation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research and clinical experience have shown the importance of using a team approach in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. The interdisciplinary team approach is recommended in the managing or rehabilitation of such patients. This study sought to determine if the interdisciplinary team approach was utilized in the ...

  19. How to Launch a Doctoral Interdisciplinary Leadership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Barbara L.; Cherney, Isabelle D.; Martin, Jim R.; Breen, Jennifer Moss; Oltman, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    Building a doctoral program in leadership is never an easy task, and building an interdisciplinary doctoral program is even more difficult. Yet, it is the interdisciplinary approach that differentiates typical leadership programs from others and offers learners an integrated view of leadership theories and practices. This special report presents…

  20. Interdisciplinary thinking in agricultural and life sciences higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelt, E.J.H.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Luning, P.A.; Tobi, H.; Mulder, M.

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary thinking as a skill appears to be of value to higher education students and those in employment. This idea is explored with reference to the agricultural and life sciences. The need for further understanding of the development of interdisciplinary thinking is acknowledged. This is

  1. Film Scenes in Interdisciplinary Education: Teaching the Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Young-mee; Kim, Kwang-sun; Im, Tami

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is gaining importance in education owing to its rapid development. This study addresses the importance of interdisciplinary education between technology and the humanities. The use of films as a teaching resource is suitable for interdisciplinary education because films represent creative forecasts and predictions on…

  2. An Interdisciplinary Model for Connecting Writing, Psychology, and Printmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Staci

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an effective model for a manageable interdisciplinary project that shows students the connections among art, English, and other disciplines; gives composition students an external audience for their writing; and emphasizes the importance of research in the process of creating arguments and art. This interdisciplinary project…

  3. Evolution of interdisciplinary collaboration: what are stimulating conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Edelenbos (Jurian); N.E.W. Bressers (Nanny); L. Vandenbussche (Lieselot)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, the attention paid to interdisciplinary working focused on putting it into practice. As it turns out, this is not without problems. This paper looks closely at the development of interdisciplinary working in a longitudinal case study. Our objective is to provide insight into

  4. Towards mutual understanding within interdisciplinary palaeoenvironmental research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Förster, F.; Großmann, R.; Hinz, M.

    2013-01-01

    the humanities and natural sciences alike. This comprises the disciplines art history, prehistoric archaeology, classical archaeology, ecology, geography, geology, and history. As a result, it can be stated that landscape is a cultural term: Landscapes are a cultural construct, and any landscape is the result......The term landscape is a crucial term for a diversity of scientific disciplines researching the Quaternary, each of which maintains different concepts and definitions. With increasing interdisciplinary research cooperation between disparate disciplines, a basis for communication has...... of contemporary vision which is culturally influenced by the current context. Thus, landscapes are always shaped through today's construction of landscapes, independent from the discipline, and equally if in or for modern, or prehistoric times, and equally, if with or without humans....

  5. Chronicles of laboratory workshops and interdisciplinary teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Signe Juhl; Omar, Ghada Said Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Scholars in the Robot Culture and Aesthetics group (ROCA; Department of Arts and Cultural Studies, Copenhagen University) unite cultural and aesthetic theories within a practice-based approach by working together in laboratory workshops to explore, imagine and theorise in order to create new types...... of human-technology interaction. When taking part in practice-based robotics workshops to explore open-ended activities, a setting has been created to foster the exploration of aesthetic processes in different ways than in traditional research processes. Using this unorthodox approach to knowledge......, exploring open ending activities within practice-based learning in a teaching setting, an in-progress research project, studying students interdisciplinary and inter-sectorial collaborations through practice related issues in a module on Maternal and Child Health will be presented. Doing so theory...

  6. Organizing Knowing in Interdisciplinary MRI Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    This paper addresses organizational knowledge practices pertaining to the interdisciplinary work of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at a hospital radiology department. The setting occasions an interesting venue for exploring domestication of MRI as it unfolds in distributed settings of collective...... envisaged to deal with the department’s appropriation of a new MRI scanner, occasioned by the replacement of an existing model. Work was reorganised to reflect this aspect in the practice protocols from early on, where personnel previously assigned only to other imaging modalities such as the department......'s CT-scan and X-ray machines, were to take on MRI scanning, on an albeit rotational basis. Opening up to a broader group of operators to the scanning practice was to allow for organizational flexibility and a broader basis for competence building among radiology staff, where different occupational...

  7. Optoelectronic lessons as an interdisciplinary lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Wu, Maocheng; Gu, Jihua

    2017-08-01

    It is noticed that more and more students in college are passionately curious about the optoelectronic technology, since optoelectronic technology has advanced extremely quickly during the last five years and its applications could be found in a lot of domains. The students who are interested in this area may have different educational backgrounds and their majors cover science, engineering, literature and social science, etc. Our course "History of the Optoelectronic Technology" is set up as an interdisciplinary lecture of the "liberal education" at our university, and is available for all students with different academic backgrounds from any departments of our university. The main purpose of the course is to show the interesting and colorful historical aspects of the development of this technology, so that the students from different departments could absorb the academic nourishment they wanted. There are little complex derivations of physical formulas through the whole lecture, but there are still some difficulties about the lecture which is discussed in this paper.

  8. Ovarian cancer in an interdisciplinary context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, Lene

      Introduction Worldwide, ovarian cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer, with more than 200,000 new cases each year and 125,000 related deaths. During the last decade, centralization and standardisation of surgical treatment have proven to be important tools in ovarian cancer to improve...... quality and survival. However, treatment efforts must be combined with high quality care, psychosocial support and organisational improvements.   Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate an optimal debulking surgery programme in ovarian cancer, and subsequently develop a method of monitoring...... care resources and in future research. By using the interdisciplinary approach, women with ovarian cancer can benefit from a coherent and collaborative health care system.  ...

  9. Heuristic thinking: interdisciplinary perspectives on medical error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegret F. Hannawa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 43 million adverse events occur across the globe each year at a cost of at least 23 million disability-adjusted life years and $132 billion in excess health care spending, ranking this safety burden among the top 10 medical causes of disability in the world.1 These findings are likely to be an understatement of the actual severity of the problem, given that the numbers merely reflect seven types of adverse events and completely neglect ambulatory care, and of course they only cover reported incidents. Furthermore, they do not include statistics on children and incidents from India and China, which host more than a third of the world’s population. Best estimates imply that about two thirds of these incidents are preventable. Thus, from a public health perspective, medical errors are a seri- ous global health burden, in fact ahead of high-profile health problems like AIDS and cancer. Interventions to date have not reduced medical errors to satisfactory rates. Even today, far too often, hand hygiene is not practiced properly (even in developed countries, surgical procedures take place in underequipped operating theaters, and checklists are missing or remain uncompleted. The healthcare system seems to be failing in managing its errors − it is costing too much, and the complexity of care causes severe safety hazards that too often harm rather than help patients. In response to this evolving discussion, the International Society for Quality in Healthcare recently nominated an Innovations Team that is now developing new strategies. One of the emerging themes is that the medical field cannot resolve this problem on its own. Instead, interdisciplinary collaborations are needed to advance effective, evidence-based interventions that will eventually result in competent changes. In March 2013, the Institute of Communication and Health at the University of Lugano organized a conference on Communicating Medical Error (COME 2013 in

  10. [Perspectives of an existential interdisciplinary body theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, R

    1990-01-01

    The existence analytical inquiry has developed corporal models that admit in their integrative-anthropological form fertile comparisons with a phenomenological radical immanence-philosophy of the constitution. The "body as partner" (W. Blankenburg) and the not objectivitical measurable connection of the "figure- and functionbody" contain estimates, to understand the body as living "I can" (Maine de Biran; Husserl) that means as really final subjectivity, ipseity or "soul", like the french phenomenologist Michel Henry from the creature of the not secularized affectivity has analyzed. With that the remained rests of the still from world categories imaginaried connection get powered (transcendence, sensuousness, settlement by Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, Schütz for example) to conceive the body as not inferable absolute origin being. Seen interdisciplinary there from results a new foundation for an evidence as constitution-comprehension, that can psychological like therapeutical the pathogenous for instance theoretical world/constitution/soul-distortions help over-power.

  11. Mathematics without boundaries surveys in interdisciplinary research

    CERN Document Server

    Rassias, Themistocles

    2014-01-01

    This volume consists of chapters written by eminent scientists and engineers from the international community and presents significant advances in several theories, and applications of an interdisciplinary research. These contributions focus on both old and recent developments of Global Optimization Theory, Convex Analysis, Calculus of Variations, and Discrete Mathematics and Geometry, as well as several applications to a large variety of concrete problems, including  applications of computers  to the study of smoothness and analyticity of functions, applications to epidemiological diffusion, networks, mathematical models of elastic and piezoelectric fields, optimal algorithms, stability of neutral type vector functional differential equations, sampling and rational interpolation for non-band-limited signals, recurrent neural network for convex optimization problems, and experimental design.  The book also contains some review works, which could prove particularly useful for a broader audience of readers i...

  12. Transfer and Cohesion in Interdisciplinary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Harnow Klausen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the great challenges of interdisciplinary education is to create sufficient cohesion between disciplines. It is suggested that cohesion depends on the transfer of knowledge (in a broad sense, which includes skill and competences among the disciplines involved. Some of the most characteristic types of such transfer are identified and analyzed: Transfer of factual knowledge, theories, methods, models, skills, modes of collaboration and organization, meta-competences, disciplinary self-consciousness, problem selection, framework construction and motivation. Though some of these types of transfer may have a greater or smaller potential for creating cohesion, different kinds of cohesion may serve different interests, and there is no reason to assume that e.g. joint problem solving or theoretical integration should be more conducive to cohesion than e.g. contributions to motivation or disciplinary self-consciousness.

  13. Development and evaluation of interdisciplinary team standards of patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverley, L; Dobson, D; Atkinson, M; Caldwell, L

    1997-01-01

    Interdisciplinary team collaboration is considered an essential component of most health care services. The overall goal of such collaboration in mental health services/ psychiatry is to provide a comprehensive biopsychosocial perspective organized around patient needs and stages of treatment. There is also increasing interest in using an interdisciplinary framework to monitor and evaluate patient care. Unfortunately, little information is available regarding treatment standards that address the issue of interdisciplinary team collaboration. This project was designed to formulate a set of interdisciplinary team standards of patient care. This article presents the standards and provides an overview of the interdisciplinary processes through which they were developed. An empirical evaluation of the standards within one service area--The Affective Disorders Clinic--is also included.

  14. Factors that impact interdisciplinary natural science research collaboration in academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2005-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration occurs when people with different educational and research backgrounds bring complementary skills to bear on a problem or task. The strength of interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration is its capacity to bring together diverse scientific knowledge...... to address complex problems and questions. However, interdisciplinary scientific research can be difficult to initiate and sustain. We do not yet fully understand factors that impact interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration. This study synthesizes empirical data from two empirical studies...... to provide a more comprehensive understanding of interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration within the natural sciences in academia. Data analysis confirmed factors previously identified in various literatures and yielded new factors. A total of twenty factors were identified, and classified...

  15. How to carry out interdisciplinary legal research
    Some experiences with an interdisciplinary research method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Schrama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary legal research, in which non-legal data are combined with legal data, is a fairly new branch of legal scholarship in the Netherlands. Although it improves the possibilities to measure the effectiveness of legal instruments, it also raises numerous methodological questions, such as a lack of matching empirical data and the translation of legal concepts in socio-empirical terms. Both the pros and cons of the interdisciplinary research method will be addressed and illustrated on the basis of family law research which incorporates socio-empirical data. There are, however, no simple solutions to the pitfalls, but to create awareness of the potential problems may contribute to a better research design and, in the end, to better results.

  16. A multidimensional approach to examine student interdisciplinary learning in science and engineering in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelt, Elsbeth; Luning, Pieternelleke Arianne; Boekel, van Tiny; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Preparing science and engineering students to work in interdisciplinary teams necessitates research on teaching and learning of interdisciplinary thinking. A multidimensional approach was taken to examine student interdisciplinary learning in a master course on food quality management. The

  17. A multidimensional approach to examine student interdisciplinary learning in science and engineering in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelt, Elsbeth; Luning, Pieternelleke Arianne; Boekel, van Tiny; Mulder, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Preparing science and engineering students to work in interdisciplinary teams necessitates research on teaching and learning of interdisciplinary thinking. A multidimensional approach was taken to examine student interdisciplinary learning in a master course on food quality management. The

  18. Interdisciplinary Team Training: Content and Methodology. Interdisciplinary Team Training and Humanistic Patient Care for Hospices. Monograph 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dottie C.; Grady, Kathleen A.

    This monograph, the fourth in a series of five, provides training information for hospice staff in improving interdisciplinary team functions and humanistic care provisions. Its purpose is to prepare a skilled team of trainers with information about hospices that is relevant to hospice interdisciplinary team training and to document experiences in…

  19. An Inter-Disciplinary Language for Inter-Disciplinary Communication: Academic Globalization, Ethos, Pathos, and Logos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szabo White

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the intersection of character, emotions, and logic, much like a Hungarian Rhapsody which is beautifully sad; this paper explores ethos, pathos, and logos in the context of Academic Globalization. As students of the world, an inter-disciplinary language is pivotal for inter-disciplinary communication. Given that the current state of the world stems primarily from miscommunications, it is imperative to launch a cognitive language tool which underscores global commonalities and mitigates cultural differences. Such a platform would foster interdisciplinary research, education, and communication. New paradigms would evolve, grounded in ethos, pathos, and logos. Like yin and yang, these states are interrelated, interacting, and interchanging learning spheres. Just as day and night blend at some point; just as the Parthenon epitomized Greek thought, celebrated the birthplace of democracy, and for the first time, depicted everyday citizens in friezes- underscoring their impactful role- ethos, pathos, and logos represent cross-disciplinary communication devices which synergistically transform and ignite academic globalization. The Literature Review links the concepts of ethos, pathos, and logos with the seminal work Lewis and his LMR framework, which has given birth to Cultureactive and subsequently to ICE [InterCultural Edge]. http://www.fuqua.duke.edu/ciber/programs/we_organize/ice/ Accessed February 14, 2014

  20. An interdisciplinary approach to teaching in a multi-disciplinary context - A model for teaching geociences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmun, H.

    2015-12-01

    As a major component of an NSF-funded STEM program, a seminar-style course called the Catalyst Seminar was developed and offered over three consecutive semesters. The program included undergraduate students in the geosciences, computer science, mathematics and physics. The Catalyst Seminar was designed to expose scholars to the interdisciplinary research options and careers in these disciplines. The Seminar also provided a venue for scholars to meet regularly, build a sense of community and to engage in research projects that would enhance their preparation for multi and interdisciplinary careers in the sciences. The first semester of the Seminar was devoted to Exposure and Connections, accomplished through lectures by invited speakers on topics related to the disciplines participating in the Program. Scholars were required to read journal articles related to the lectures and to write a final short paper reflecting on the experience, all activities that are known to students at this level. Overall, this was a somewhat passive learning approach to research in classrooms. In the following two semesters a more active approach to engage students in interdisciplinary research was used. Students were asked to take ownership of their learning process through disciplinary and interdisciplinary engagement in a project. In one semester this process was guided by the seminar coordinator who was in charge of selecting and leading the 'research project' which although challenging to scholars, was 'safe' enough that answers were readily available. In the other semester the approach was student-centered, with a coordinator that merely facilitated the formation of interdisciplinary research teams that took complete charge of the entire research enterprise. I will discuss our observations and assessment of the outcomes of this instructional experience with relation to the teaching of geoscience, in particular to attracting students into this field.

  1. Budgeting based on need: a model to determine sub-national allocation of resources for health services in Indonesia

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    Ensor Tim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allocating national resources to regions based on need is a key policy issue in most health systems. Many systems utilise proxy measures of need as the basis for allocation formulae. Increasingly these are underpinned by complex statistical methods to separate need from supplier induced utilisation. Assessment of need is then used to allocate existing global budgets to geographic areas. Many low and middle income countries are beginning to use formula methods for funding however these attempts are often hampered by a lack of information on utilisation, relative needs and whether the budgets allocated bear any relationship to cost. An alternative is to develop bottom-up estimates of the cost of providing for local need. This method is viable where public funding is focused on a relatively small number of targeted services. We describe a bottom-up approach to developing a formula for the allocation of resources. The method is illustrated in the context of the state minimum service package mandated to be provided by the Indonesian public health system. Methods A standardised costing methodology was developed that is sensitive to the main expected drivers of local cost variation including demographic structure, epidemiology and location. Essential package costing is often undertaken at a country level. It is less usual to utilise the methods across different parts of a country in a way that takes account of variation in population needs and location. Costing was based on best clinical practice in Indonesia and province specific data on distribution and costs of facilities. The resulting model was used to estimate essential package costs in a representative district in each province of the country. Findings Substantial differences in the costs of providing basic services ranging from USD 15 in urban Yogyakarta to USD 48 in sparsely populated North Maluku. These costs are driven largely by the structure of the population

  2. Budgeting based on need: a model to determine sub-national allocation of resources for health services in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Tim; Firdaus, Hafidz; Dunlop, David; Manu, Alex; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Ayu Puspandari, Diah; von Roenne, Franz; Indradjaya, Stephanus; Suseno, Untung; Vaughan, Patrick

    2012-08-29

    Allocating national resources to regions based on need is a key policy issue in most health systems. Many systems utilise proxy measures of need as the basis for allocation formulae. Increasingly these are underpinned by complex statistical methods to separate need from supplier induced utilisation. Assessment of need is then used to allocate existing global budgets to geographic areas. Many low and middle income countries are beginning to use formula methods for funding however these attempts are often hampered by a lack of information on utilisation, relative needs and whether the budgets allocated bear any relationship to cost. An alternative is to develop bottom-up estimates of the cost of providing for local need. This method is viable where public funding is focused on a relatively small number of targeted services. We describe a bottom-up approach to developing a formula for the allocation of resources. The method is illustrated in the context of the state minimum service package mandated to be provided by the Indonesian public health system. A standardised costing methodology was developed that is sensitive to the main expected drivers of local cost variation including demographic structure, epidemiology and location. Essential package costing is often undertaken at a country level. It is less usual to utilise the methods across different parts of a country in a way that takes account of variation in population needs and location. Costing was based on best clinical practice in Indonesia and province specific data on distribution and costs of facilities. The resulting model was used to estimate essential package costs in a representative district in each province of the country. Substantial differences in the costs of providing basic services ranging from USD 15 in urban Yogyakarta to USD 48 in sparsely populated North Maluku. These costs are driven largely by the structure of the population, particularly numbers of births, infants and children and also key

  3. National and sub-national prevalence, trend, and burden of cardiometabolic risk factors in Iranian children and adolescents, 1990 - 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Hovsepian, Silva; Qorbani, Mostafa; Jamshidi, Fahimeh; Fallah, Zahra; Djalalinia, Shirin; Peykari, Niloofar; Delavari, Alireza; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors are a major health threat at the global level, notably for developing countries. The tracking of cardiometabolic risk factors from childhood to adulthood is well documented. Therefore, more attention needs to be directed at primordial and primary prevention of NCDs. Given the high prevalence of NCDs and their risk factors in Iranian population, a study was designed to determine the attributable burden of cardiometabolic risk factors in Iranian pediatric population during past decades. This paper explains the definitions, organization, data sources, methods of data gathering or generating, data analyses, and the trend analysis of the study. A national expert working group addressed unmet needs and offered consultations on the selection of risk factors and the practical definition of disease. In the later stages, during the course of the study, they will supervise the statistical modeling methods, the interpretation of results, and the publication strategy. Also an international expert advisory group will collaborate with the project team. The findings of this study could provide basic information regarding NCD related risk factors, and their burden and trends in children, which is necessary for health policy decisions to reduce the burden of disease and to plan cost-effective preventive strategies.

  4. Barriers and Solutions to Conducting Large International, Interdisciplinary Research Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischke, Erin C; Knowlton, Jessie L; Phifer, Colin C; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose; Propato, Tamara S; Eastmond, Amarella; de Souza, Tatiana Martins; Kuhlberg, Mark; Picasso Risso, Valentin; Veron, Santiago R; Garcia, Carlos; Chiappe, Marta; Halvorsen, Kathleen E

    2017-12-01

    Global environmental problems such as climate change are not bounded by national borders or scientific disciplines, and therefore require international, interdisciplinary teamwork to develop understandings of their causes and solutions. Interdisciplinary scientific work is difficult enough, but these challenges are often magnified when teams also work across national boundaries. The literature on the challenges of interdisciplinary research is extensive. However, research on international, interdisciplinary teams is nearly non-existent. Our objective is to fill this gap by reporting on results from a study of a large interdisciplinary, international National Science Foundation Partnerships for International Research and Education (NSF-PIRE) research project across the Americas. We administered a structured questionnaire to team members about challenges they faced while working together across disciplines and outside of their home countries in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. Analysis of the responses indicated five major types of barriers to conducting interdisciplinary, international research: integration, language, fieldwork logistics, personnel and relationships, and time commitment. We discuss the causes and recommended solutions to the most common barriers. Our findings can help other interdisciplinary, international research teams anticipate challenges, and develop effective solutions to minimize the negative impacts of these barriers to their research.

  5. Barriers and Solutions to Conducting Large International, Interdisciplinary Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischke, Erin C.; Knowlton, Jessie L.; Phifer, Colin C.; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose; Propato, Tamara S.; Eastmond, Amarella; de Souza, Tatiana Martins; Kuhlberg, Mark; Picasso Risso, Valentin; Veron, Santiago R.; Garcia, Carlos; Chiappe, Marta; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.

    2017-12-01

    Global environmental problems such as climate change are not bounded by national borders or scientific disciplines, and therefore require international, interdisciplinary teamwork to develop understandings of their causes and solutions. Interdisciplinary scientific work is difficult enough, but these challenges are often magnified when teams also work across national boundaries. The literature on the challenges of interdisciplinary research is extensive. However, research on international, interdisciplinary teams is nearly non-existent. Our objective is to fill this gap by reporting on results from a study of a large interdisciplinary, international National Science Foundation Partnerships for International Research and Education (NSF-PIRE) research project across the Americas. We administered a structured questionnaire to team members about challenges they faced while working together across disciplines and outside of their home countries in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. Analysis of the responses indicated five major types of barriers to conducting interdisciplinary, international research: integration, language, fieldwork logistics, personnel and relationships, and time commitment. We discuss the causes and recommended solutions to the most common barriers. Our findings can help other interdisciplinary, international research teams anticipate challenges, and develop effective solutions to minimize the negative impacts of these barriers to their research.

  6. Lógicas de centro versus dinâmicas de margens: a questão subnacional na União Européia The logic of the centre versus the dynamic of the nargins: the sub-national issue in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Medeiros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto é composto de três partes, seguidas por uma conclusão. Na primeira, propõe-se uma análise do estado da arte da reflexão sobre a dialética centro-periferia. A segunda aponta o quanto esta reflexão se mostra instigante para a compreensão de processos de integração regional, em geral, e daqueles da União Européia, em particular. Em seguida, a terceira parte foca a questão do multilevel governance, propondo uma análise das unidades subnacionais da Alemanha e da França, no âmago da União Européia. Finalmente, algumas considerações são feitas à guisa de conclusão. Como todo processo político, a integração regional não aporta benefícios similares a todas as suas partes. A desigualdade manifesta-se em graus múltiplos e sem preconceito de fronteiras. A dicotomia centro-periferia existe em termos geoeconômicos, mas não segundo os princípios ideológicos estabelecidos por Prebisch. Para analisar os processos integrativos, presta-se mais uma percepção de multilevel governance, em que, sem dúvida, as unidades subnacionais não podem deixar de ser escrutadas.This article is written in three parts and a conclusion. In the first part, a reflection on the state of the art thoughts about the center-periphery ideas is developed. The second part shows how these thoughts could be applied in understanding regional integration processes in general and within the European Union in particular. The third part focuses on the multilevel governance issues and proposes an analysis of the French and German sub-national units at the European Union. As a political process, regional integration is far from bringing only benefits to the parts involved in it. The disparities emerge in multiple levels and they are not confined to national borders. The center-periphery dichotomy is a fact in geo-economical terms, although not in accordance with ideological conceptions as those set up by Prebisch. In understanding integration

  7. The Politics of Subnational Undemocratic Regime Reproduction in Argentina and Mexico La política de reproducción de los regímenes subnacionales no democráticos en Argentina y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Giraudy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the continued existence of subnational undemocraticregimes in Argentina and Mexico, two countries that have recently experiencednational democratization. The first part of the article offers a conceptualizationof subnational democracy and measures its territorial extension across all subnational units. The second part explores a common, albeit not systematically tested explanation about subnational undemocratic regime continuity, namely, that these regimes persist because they meet national incumbents’ strategic political needs. This claim is tested using statistical analyses to contrast patterns of spending across undemocratic subnational units during the presidencies of Menem (1989-1999, De la Rúa (2000-2001, Duhalde (2002, and Kirchner (2003-2007 in Argentina, and Fox (2000-2006 in Mexico. Contradicting conventional wisdom, the results show that presidents only reproduce a handful of subnational undemocratic regimes, as not all of them can meet presidential needs. In addition, the results reveal that the strategic calculation of presidents regarding this  reproduction is dictated by factors that have been largely overlooked by the literature. Este artículo estudia la existencia de regímenes subnacionales no-democráticos en Argentina y México, dos pa��ses que recientemente han experimentado procesos de democratización a nivel nacional. La primera parte del artículo conceptualiza y define la democracia subnacional y mide su extensión territorial en la totalidad de los distritos subnacionales. La segunda parte explora la validez de una de las explicaciones más habituales en esta área de estudio según la cual los regímenes subnacionales no-democráticos permanecen en el poder debido a que son útiles para satisfacer las necesidades políticas de los funcionarios nacionales. La validez de esta explicación se testea con análisis estadísticos que determinan los patrones de distribución territorial de

  8. Providing Data Access for Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, R. P.; Couch, A.

    2012-12-01

    Developing an interdisciplinary understanding of human and environmental interactions with water requires access to a variety of data kinds collected by various organizations. The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is a standards-based, services-oriented architecture designed for time-series data. Such data represents an important type of data in water studies. Through the efforts of HIS, a standard transmission language, WaterML2, has been adopted by the Open Geospatial Consortium and is under consideration by the World Meteorologic Organization as an international standards. Web services have also been developed to retrieve data and metadata. HIS is completed with a metadata catalog, hosted by San Diego Supercomputing Center, which indexes more than 20 million time series provided from over 90 different services. This catalog is supported through a hierarchically organized controlled vocabulary that is open for community input and mediation. Data publishers include federal agencies, universities, state agencies, and non-profit organizations such as watershed associations. Accessing data from such a broad spectrum of sources through a uniform service standard promises to truly transform the way in which hydrologic research is done. CUAHSI HIS is a large-scale prototype at this time, but a proposal is under consideration by the National Science Foundation to operationalize HIS through a data facility, tentatively called the CUAHSI Water Data Center. Establishing HIS is an important step to enable research into human-environment interactions with water, but it is only one step. Other data structures will need to be made accessible and interoperable to support this research. Some data—such as two-dimensional GIS coverages—already have widely used standards for transmission and sharing. The US Federal government has long operated a clearinghouse for federal geographic data that is now being augmented with other services such as ArcGIS OnLine. Other data

  9. Politics of the Periphery: An Introduction to Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America Política de la periferia. Una introducción a autoritarismo y democratización subnacional en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward L. Gibson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an introduction to the topic featured in JPLA 2/2010 "Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America." It discusses the papers by Carlos Gervasoni, Agustina Giraudy, Julián Durazo Herrmann, Alfred P. Montero, and Tracy Beck Fenwick that follow in this issue. Why feature the topic “subnational authoritarianism and democratization” in the Journal of Politics in Latin America? Because despite widespread agreement that subnational jurisdictions in Latin America vary considerably in the democratic character of their politics, political scientists are still largely in the dark about how to conceptualize and measure this situation, and have scant knowledge about mechanisms that sustain and undermine it. This collection of articles makes major headway toward clearing our methodological and theoretical ignorance of these topics. El artículo es una introducción al tema especial de JPLA 2/2010 "autoritarismo y democratización subnacional en América Latina". Discute las contribuciones de Carlos Gervasoni, Agustina Giraudy, Julián Durazo Herrmann, Alfred P. Montero y Tracy Beck Fenwick que estan unidas en esta edición. ¿Porqué presentar el tema “autoritarismo y democratización subnacional” en el Journal of Politics in Latin America? Porque a pesar del acuerdo general que en América Latina las jurisdicciones subnacionales varian considerablementes  en el carácter democrático de su política, la mayoría de politólogos todavía esta insegura como conceptualizar y medir ésta situación, y tiene poco conocimiento de los mecanismos que la mantienen o subvierten. Esta colección de artículos ofrece aproximaciones metodológicas y teóricas al tema.

  10. Beyond AI: Interdisciplinary Aspects of Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Romportl, Jan; Zackova, Eva; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : Contemplations, Expectations, Applications

    2013-01-01

    Products of modern artificial intelligence (AI) have mostly been formed by the views, opinions and goals of the “insiders”, i.e. people usually with engineering background who are driven by the force that can be metaphorically described as the pursuit of the craft of Hephaestus. However, since the present-day technology allows for tighter and tighter mergence of the “natural” everyday human life with machines of immense complexity, the responsible reaction of the scientific community should be based on cautious reflection of what really lies beyond AI, i.e. on the frontiers where the tumultuous ever-growing and ever-changing cloud of AI touches the rest of the world.   The chapters of this boo are based on the selected subset of the presentations that were delivered by their respective authors at the conference “Beyond AI: Interdisciplinary Aspects of Artificial Intelligence” held in Pilsen in December 2011.   From its very definition, the reflection of the phenomena that lie beyond AI must be i...

  11. Insights from a Modular Interdisciplinary Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.; Carmona, V.

    2016-12-01

    A laboratory curriculum is naturally oriented towards "hands on" and problem-based learning. An earth science course, like chemical ecology, has the additional advantage of interdisciplinary education. Our Chemical Ecology course at Loyola Marymount University was structured as a small modular workshop. Students first gained hands-on experience with each analytical technique in the laboratory. The class then discussed these first datasets, delved into lecture topics, and tweaked their experimental procedures. Lastly, students were given time to design and execute their own experiments and present their findings. Three-to-four class periods were allotted for each laboratory topic. Detailed information and student reflections will be presented from the Spectroscopy module. Students used the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent method to extract the phenolic content of vegetation and/or soils. Because phenols are produced by plants for defense, this spectroscopic laboratory activity provided insight on allelopathy using analytical chemistry. Students were extremely engaged and learned not only the lab theory and technique, but also its application to our local ecology.

  12. Interdisciplinary perspectives on abstracts for information retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Keng Chan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the abstract genre from the perspectives of English for Specific Purposes (ESP practitioners and information professionals. It aims to determine specific interdisciplinary interests in the abstract, and to explore areas of collaboration in terms of research and pedagogical practices. A focus group (FG comprising information professionals from the Division of Information Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, convened for a discussion on the subject of abstracts and abstracting. Two major issues that have significant implications for ESP practices emerged during the discussion. While differences in terms of approach to and objectives of the abstract genre are apparent between information professionals and language professionals, the demands for specific cognitive processes involved in abstracting proved to be similar. This area of similarity provides grounds for awareness raising and collaboration between the two disciplines. While ESP practitioners need to consider adding the dimension of information science to the rhetorical and linguistic scaffolding that they have been providing to novice-writers, information professionals can contribute useful insights about the qualities of abstracts that have the greatest impact in meeting the end-users' needs in information search.

  13. Contemporary Feminist Discourse, an Interdisciplinary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowadays, feminist discourse requires an interdisciplinary approach, through the sociology or media studies. Comparing with other periods of time, the new feminists understood the inherent power of New Media and tend to use it as a tool, for making their

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, feminist discourse requires an interdisciplinary approach, through the sociology ormedia studies. Comparing with other periods of time, the new feminists understood the inherent power ofNew Media and tend to use it as a tool, for making their message more popular. Is it effective? Is it a waste oftime? Although, it is premature to draw conclusions, the social facts that are to be used in this research (news,specific blogs and sites, feedback on social networks seem to tilt the balance towards a positive impactcreated by recent feminist discourse. The aim of this research is to draw the features of the communicationestablished between feminist organizations, media institutions and media consumers, as it will be revealedduring the three case studies proposed. The pattern can be designed as follows: feminist organizations launcha message; media institutions ignore it or transform it into a piece of news; readers or listeners reach themessage, giving their immediate feedback on social networks, blogs and sites belonging to feministorganizations or media institutions. Feminist organizations are new comers in Romania, since the oldest ofthem being launched 10 years ago, comparing with European Women's Lobby, socially active for decades.Among the current Romanian feminist organizations Centrul Filia (Filia Center, Mame pentru Mame(Mothers for Mothers and Pro Women will be analyzed. The novelty of this paper consists mostly inrevealing their online impact on Romanian audience.

  14. MEDICAL EDUCATION - INTERDISCIPLINARY LIGHT OF ANDRAGOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Cristina Uliana Peterle

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Programme for Reorientation of Vocational Training in Health (Pro-Health and the Education Program of Work for Health (Health-PET are linked with the prospect of shifting training. Thus, we seek to replace the traditional model of organization of health care has historically focused on illness and hospitalization. One of the fundamental premises is to strengthen the teaching-service integration with the Family Health Strategy, where the action is based on the principles of integrity, fairness and universality of the Unified Health System as a space to the development of actions in a comprehensive approach of the health and disease. This article presents the authors' experience as mentors and tutors of projects and actions of the Health PET / Federal District, in partnership with the University of Brasilia in the vision of the development of interdisciplinary activities. By exposing the facilitators of coping strategies, as well as those that hinder raises the reflection on the concept of integrating medical education teaching and service in the light of Andragogy, which considers the experience as a key element of educational methods.

  15. Interdisciplinary collisions: bringing healthcare professionals together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engum, Scott A; Jeffries, Pamela R

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of its reports, Health professions education: A bridge to quality (2003) and To err is human: Building a safer health system (2000), the Institute of Medicine has continued to emphasize interprofessional education (IPE), founded on quality improvement and informatics, as a better way to prepare healthcare professionals for practice. As this trend continues, healthcare education will need to implement administrative and educational processes that encourage different professions to collaborate and share resources. With greater numbers of students enrolled in health professional programs, combined with ethical imperatives for learning and reduced access to quality clinical experiences, medical and nursing education increasingly rely on simulation education to implement interdisciplinary patient safety initiatives. In this article, the authors describe one approach, based on the Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice released by the Interprofessional Education Collaborative (2011), toward providing IPE to an audience of diverse healthcare professionals in academia and clinical practice. This approach combines professional standards with the authors' practical experience serving on a key operations committee, comprising members from a school of medicine, a school of nursing, and a large healthcare system, to design and implement a new state-of-the-art simulation center and its IPE-centered curriculum.

  16. The Interdisciplinary Management of Acute Chest Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Raphael R; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Söllner, Wolfgang; Frieling, Thomas; Müller, Christian; Christ, Michael

    2015-11-06

    Acute chest pain of non-traumatic origin is a common reason for presentation to physician's offices and emergency rooms. Coronary heart disease is the cause in up to 25% of cases. Because acute chest pain, depending on its etiology, may be associated with a high risk of death, rapid, goal-oriented management is mandatory. This review is based on pertinent articles and guidelines retrieved by a selective search in PubMed. History-taking, physical examination, and a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) are the first steps in the differential diagnostic process and generally allow the identification of features signifying a high risk of lifethreatening illness. If the ECG reveals ST-segment elevation, cardiac catheterization is indicated. The timedependent measurement of highly sensitive troponin values is a reliable test for the diagnosis or exclusion of acute myocardial infarction. A wide variety of other potential causes (e.g., vascular, musculoskeletal, gastroenterologic, or psychosomatic) must be identified from the history if they are to be treated appropriately. Elderly patients need special attention. Acute chest pain is a major diagnostic challenge for the physician. Common errors are traceable to non-recognition of important causes and to an inadequate diagnostic work-up. Future studies should be designed to help optimize the interdisciplinary management of patients with chest pain.

  17. Teaching Earth Sciences as an interdisciplinary subject: Novel module design involving research literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Vincent C. H.

    2010-05-01

    The study of Earth Sciences requires an interdisciplinary approach as it involves understanding scientific knowledge originating from a wide spectrum of research areas. Not only does it include subjects ranging from, for instance, hydrogeology to deep crustal seismology and from climate science to oceanography, but it also has many direct applications in closely related disciplines such as environmental engineering and natural resources management. While research crossing traditional disciplinary boundaries in geosciences is becoming increasingly common, there is only limited integration of interdisciplinary research in the teaching of the subject. Given that the transition from undergraduate education based on subject modules to postgraduate interdisciplinary research is never easy, such integration is a highly desirable pedagogical approach at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. My presentation is based on a recent teaching project involving novel design of an undergraduate course. The course is implemented in order to address the synergy between research and teaching (Tong, 2009). This project has been shown to be effective and successful in teaching geosciences undergraduates at the University of London. The module consists of studying core geophysical principles and linking them directly to a selection of recently published research papers in a wide range of interdisciplinary applications. Research reviewing and reporting techniques are systematically developed, practised and fully integrated into teaching of the core scientific theories. A fully-aligned assignment with a feedback website invites the students to reflect on the scientific knowledge and the study skills related to research literature they have acquired in the course. This teaching project has been recognized by a teaching award (http://www.clpd.bbk.ac.uk/staff/BETA). In this presentation, I will discuss how undergraduate teaching with a focus on research literature in Earth Sciences can

  18. Promoting US-China Critical Zone Science Collaboration and Coordination Through Established Subnational Bilateral Science Partnerships: The US-China EcoPartnership for Economic and Environmental Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, T. R.; Guo, D.; Plante, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of critical zone (CZ) science has gained wide recognition with actively funded and emerging CZ observatory programs across the globe. There is much to be gained through international collaboration that links field, laboratory, and modeling efforts from across the emerging global CZ networks, but building international ties is difficult, especially when peer-to-peer connections are nascent, separated by great distances, and span different cultural and political environments. The U.S. and China share many climatic and geological similarities but differ greatly in the magnitude and timescale of human alteration of their landscapes making the comparative study of their respective pasts, current state, and future co-evolution an outstanding scientific opportunity to better understand, predict, and respond to human influence on the CZ. Leveraging the infrastructure and trust capital of longstanding sub-national volunteer scientific networks to bring together people and organizations is a resource-efficient mechanism to build cross-network CZ programs. The U.S.-China EcoPartnership for Environmental Sustainability (USCEES) is one of 30 current EcoPartnerships established beginning in May 2008 by a joint agreement between the U.S. Department of State and China's National Development and Reform Commission with the overarching goal of addressing the interconnected challenges of environmental, social, and economic sustainability through bi-national research innovation, communication, and entrepreneurship. The 2015 USCEES annual conference on "Critical Zone Science, Sustainability, and Services in a Changing World" was co-sponsored by the U.S. Cross-CZO Working Group on Organic Matter Dynamics and hosted three NSF-funded workshops on organic matter dynamics:1) methods for large and complex data analysis, 2) erosion and deposition processes, and 3) mineralogical and microbial controls on reactivity and persistence. This paper highlights outcomes from the workshops

  19. Water Diplomacy: Perspectives from a Group of Interdisciplinary Graduate Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Read, Laura; Garcia, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    ...) at Tufts University, have formed to respond to demand for progress in this area. This paper presents a Water Diplomacy IGERT student perspective on the benefits and challenges of interdisciplinary water education...

  20. Water and Society: Interdisciplinary Education in Natural Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kulcsar, Laszlo J; Aistrup, Joseph A; Bulatewicz, Thomas; Peterson, Jeffrey M; Welch, Stephen M; Steward, David R

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource management and education must account for both the natural and human components of a complex system, yet examples of such interdisciplinary approaches are still relatively rare, especially in education...

  1. Evaluating Treatment Outcome in an Interdisciplinary Pediatric Pain Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Bennett

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide descriptive data evaluating outcome and treatment satisfaction among former pediatric patients and their parents seen in an interdisciplinary treatment program for complex pain syndromes.

  2. The Importance of Interdisciplinary Research Training and Community Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simone V; Vessali, Misha; Pratt, Jacob A; Watts, Samantha; Pratt, Janey S; Raghavan, Preeti; DeSilva, Jeremy M

    2015-10-01

    Funding agencies and institutions are creating initiatives to encourage interdisciplinary research that can be more easily translated into community initiatives to enhance health. Therefore, the current research environment calls for interdisciplinary education and skills to create sustained partnerships with community institutions. However, formalized opportunities in both of these areas are limited for students embarking on research careers. The purpose of this paper is to underscore the historical and current importance of providing interdisciplinary training and community dissemination for research students. We also suggest an approach to begin to address the existing gap. Specifically, we suggest embedding a 10-week summer rotation into existing research curricula with the goals of: (1) providing students with a hands-on interdisciplinary research experience, (2) facilitating dialogue between research students and community settings to disseminate science to the public, and (3) sparking collaborations among researchers who seek to create a way to sustain summer program rotations with grant funding. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. PRACTICAL STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCING INTERDISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION IN NEUROEDUCATIONAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nouri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to overcome artificial obstructions and limitations in our scientific understanding of the complexity of educational issues is the major driver of interdisciplinary collaboration in the field of Neuroeducational Studies. To get full advantage of interdisciplinary collaboration therefore, it would be necessary to identify and develop a number of practical strategies that facilitate such endeavor. The relevance literature suggests that making effective interdisciplinary collaboration in the field is dependent on a number of factors, including: creating a common language and conceptual vocabulary; developing graduate educational programs; providing training programs for neuroscientists and educators; and developing neuroeducational research organizations. It is concluded that, interdisciplinary collaboration is a potential key that ensures a more prosperous future for the field and it will be best realized based on authentic dialogue among scientists and educators.

  4. Interdisciplinary Management of Patient with Advanced Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochar, Gagan Deep; Jayan, B; Chopra, S S; Mechery, Reenesh; Goel, Manish; Verma, Munish

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the interdisciplinary management of an adult patient with advanced periodontal disease. Treatment involved orthodontic and periodontal management. Good esthetic results and dental relationships were achieved by the treatment.

  5. Interdisciplinary thinking in agricultural and life sciences higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelt, E J H; Biemans, H J A; Luning, P A; Tobi, H; Mulder, M

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary thinking as a skill appears to be of value to higher education students and those in employment. This idea is explored with reference to the agricultural and life sciences. The need for further understanding of the development of interdisciplinary thinking is acknowledged. This is closely related to the requirement for well-founded curriculum and course design. This publication presents a brief introduction to a systematic review of scientific research into teaching and learning in interdisciplinary higher education. While tentative, the understanding arising from the review findings is considered to be of potential value to educational practice. A selection of the review findings is presented by way of illustration. The selection is believed to be of relevance to the agricultural and life sciences. The review findings presented here take the form of interdisciplinary thinking sub skills and enabling conditions.

  6. Developing apprentice skills for innovation through interdisciplinary training and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslam, Christian Ravn

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with training students of vocational education programs; specifically, tradesmen and skilled workers to better utilise value networks and knowledge hubs, set up through government initiatives, as an innovation platform. The study indicates that massively interdisciplinary...

  7. A reality-oriented approach to interdisciplinary work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K A

    2001-01-01

    Although there is a long history of support in the literature for interdisciplinary education, practice, and research, the actual implementation of such activities has varied greatly. Numerous variables inhibit interdisciplinary work, including a tendency to focus on the many barriers to, rather than opportunities for, such work, a lack of solid data documenting its benefits, the difficulty inherent in finding solutions to the conflicts that arise among the disciplines involved, and organizational reward and regulation systems geared toward single-discipline work. Nonetheless, the goal of interdisciplinary work persists, and there are several notable examples of success. Strategies are outlined for incremental achievement of interdisciplinary aspirations in less-than-ideal environments. These strategies include scanning the environment for promising opportunities, setting realistic goals, building commitment to those goals, avoiding useless battles, and celebrating successes. Specific examples of such strategies as used in the Health Science Center at the University of Florida are provided. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  8. The rise of environmental analytical chemistry as an interdisciplinary activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Modern scientific endeavour is increasingly delivered within an interdisciplinary framework. Analytical environmental chemistry is a long-standing example of an interdisciplinary approach to scientific research where value is added by the close cooperation of different disciplines. This editorial piece discusses the rise of environmental analytical chemistry as an interdisciplinary activity and outlines the scope of the Analytical Chemistry and the Environmental Chemistry domains of TheScientificWorldJOURNAL (TSWJ), and the appropriateness of TSWJ's domain format in covering interdisciplinary research. All contributions of new data, methods, case studies, and instrumentation, or new interpretations and developments of existing data, case studies, methods, and instrumentation, relating to analytical and/or environmental chemistry, to the Analytical and Environmental Chemistry domains, are welcome and will be considered equally.

  9. EDITORIAL: International and Interdisciplinary Perspectives in Contemporary Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Manrai, Ajay K.

    2015-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest among marketing scholars in conducting international and interdisciplinary research. Such research is highly relevant to assess global market opportunities, risks, rapidly changing geo-politics and other environmental dynamics. The international and interdisciplinary research could help understand the way these variables affect country selection and mode of entry decisions, design of global value chain, use of Internet and social media, and assessment of comp...

  10. GeoJourney: A Field-Based, Interdisciplinary Approach to Teaching Geology, Native American Cultures, and Environmental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Joe; Elkins, Nichole M. L.; Hemmings, Sarah N. J.

    2008-01-01

    GeoJourney is an interdisciplinary field trip in geology, Native American studies, and environmental studies designed for introductory-level undergraduates. The program travels 23,345 kilometers by van to national parks, industrial sites, museums, and Indian reservations in 24 of the United States. During the day, students carry out hands-on…

  11. The adoption of an interdisciplinary instructional model in secondary education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misicko, Martin W.

    This study describes the experiences of a secondary high school involved in the adoption of an interdisciplinary curriculum. An interdisciplinary curriculum is defined as both the precalculus and physics curriculums taught collaboratively throughout the school year. The students' academic performances were analyzed to gage the success of the interdisciplinary model. The four year study compared students taught precalculus in a traditional discipline-based classroom versus those facilitated in an interdisciplinary precalculus/physics model. It also documents the administrative changes necessary in restructuring a high school to an interdisciplinary team teaching model. All of the students in both pedagogical models received instruction from the same teacher, and were given identical assessment materials. Additionally, the curriculum guidelines and standards of learning were duplicated for both models. The primary difference of the two models focused on the applications of mathematics in the physics curriculum. Prerequisite information was compared in both models to ensure that the students in the study had comparable qualifications prior to the facilitation of the precalculus curriculum. Common trends were analyzed and discussed from the student's performance data. The students enrolled in the interdisciplinary model appeared to outperform the discipline-based students in common evaluative assessments. The themes and outcomes described in this study provide discussion topics for further investigation by other school districts. Further study is necessary to determine whether scheduling changes may have influenced student performances, and to examine whether other content areas may experience similar results.

  12. Interdisciplinary doctorial supervision: lessons for nurse education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Fiona; Timmins, Bernard; O'Rourke, Pearl; Long, Siobhan; Ekins, Ray; Coyle, Eugene

    2014-11-01

    This paper concerns a reflection on one interdisciplinary doctorate supervision project. It outlines key elements for success within this supervisory context. The aim of this paper is to present a reflection on interdisciplinary doctorate supervision project experience and examine these experiences in light of literature on the topic. Reflection was carried out using Rolfe et al. (2010) framework for reflexivity. The supervised engineering project aimed to develop, demonstrate and evaluate a new framework for the design of customisable assistive technology (AT) which involved professionals working with AT and users with disabilities. As this research occurs in between disciplines, it required an innovative and interdisciplinary approach, with an ultimate merger between health sciences and design engineering disciplines and external liaison with adults with disabilities and a disability service provider. Interdisciplinary research is popular contemporarily and addresses societal needs. In the case outlined, clear understandings were developed, in addition to clear territorial boundaries that helped guide the novel research. Steps to success in interdisciplinary research supervision include selecting the appropriate interdisciplinary team; ensuring open communication; establishing and agreeing boundaries of the research and supervision; keeping an open mind; tolerance of lack of expertise in some areas; regular meetings and communication; keeping the student focused and agreeing publication plans in advance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interdisciplinary team leadership: a revisionist approach for an old problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallin, Antoinette

    2003-11-01

    Understanding of interdisciplinary teamwork is evolving. During health care restructuring, leaders across organizations have challenging responsibilities when work groups must integrate changing organizational values with new modes of service delivery. In this environment, a well-functioning interdisciplinary team in which clinicians work as member-leaders has the potential to further organizational change and foster improvements in patient outcomes. In this paper it is argued that the term interdisciplinary team leadership should be embraced cautiously as it may be a revisionist approach to an old problem, namely a means to modify existing theories of leadership that have been vague and continue to be poorly understood despite considerable effort to explicate knowledge over several decades. Preliminary research suggests that interdisciplinary team leadership is a model of shared leadership that requires more development if it is to become the cornerstone of interdisciplinary team practice in a radically reforming health sector. Stewardship is proposed as a potential philosophy for interdisciplinary team leadership, and a new, shared leadership role of practice leader is suggested.

  14. Practice-Based Interdisciplinary Approach and Environmental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar Datta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary researchers and educators, as community members, creators of knowledge, and environmental activists and practitioners, have a responsibility to build a bridge between community practice, academic scholarship, and professional contributions aimed at establishing environmental sustainability. In this paper, I focus on an undervalued area of environmental politics, practices, and often unarticulated assumptions which underlie human–environmental relations. This article challenges interdisciplinary studies that are not connected with practice by reconfiguring the meaning of a community-based, interdisciplinary approach. Drawing from works by Foucault, Latour, and Haraway, this paper first shows how to reconfigure the meaning of an interdisciplinary approach. Second, using Bourdieu and Brightman’s ethnographic studies as a framework, the paper situates practice as central to our efforts to deconstruct and replace current interdisciplinary initiatives with a practice-based approach. Through a practice-based interdisciplinary approach (PIA, environmental educators and researchers gain an awareness of and learn to make an investment in sustainable communities. As teams of environmental researchers practising in the local community, they are meaningfully involved with the community, with each other, and with the environment.

  15. Promoting interdisciplinary education - the Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöschl, G.; Carr, G.; Bucher, C.; Farnleitner, A. H.; Rechberger, H.; Wagner, W.; Zessner, M.

    2012-02-01

    The Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems (DK-WRS) is a programme that aims to educate students in interdisciplinary water science through cutting edge research at an international level. It is funded by the Austrian Science Fund and designed to run over a period of 12 yr during which 80 doctoral students are anticipated to graduate. This paper reports on our experiences of setting up and implementing the Programme. We identify three challenges: integrating the disciplines, maintaining depth in an interdisciplinary programme, and teaching subjects remote to each student's core expertise. To address these challenges we adopt a number of approaches. We use three levels of instruments to foster integration across the disciplines: joint groups (e.g. a joint study programme), joint science questions (e.g. developed in annual symposia), and joint study sites. To maintain depth we apply a system of quality control including regular feedback sessions, theses by journal publications and international study exchange. For simultaneously teaching students from civil and environmental engineering, biology, geology, chemistry, mathematics we use visually explicit teaching, learning by doing, extra mentoring and by cross relating associated subjects. Our initial assessment of the Programme shows some very positive outcomes. Joint science questions formed between students from various disciplines indicate integration is being achieved. The number of successful publications in top journals suggests that depth is maintained. Positive feedback from the students on the variety and clarity of the courses indicates the teaching strategy is working well. Our experiences have shown that implementing and running an interdisciplinary doctoral programme has its challenges and is demanding in terms of time and human resources but seeing interactions progress and watching people grow and develop their way of thinking in an interdisciplinary environment is a valuable reward.

  16. Promoting interdisciplinary education − the Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wagner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems (DK-WRS is a programme that aims to educate students in interdisciplinary water science through cutting edge research at an international level. It is funded by the Austrian Science Fund and designed to run over a period of 12 yr during which 80 doctoral students are anticipated to graduate. This paper reports on our experiences of setting up and implementing the Programme. We identify three challenges: integrating the disciplines, maintaining depth in an interdisciplinary programme, and teaching subjects remote to each student's core expertise. To address these challenges we adopt a number of approaches. We use three levels of instruments to foster integration across the disciplines: joint groups (e.g. a joint study programme, joint science questions (e.g. developed in annual symposia, and joint study sites. To maintain depth we apply a system of quality control including regular feedback sessions, theses by journal publications and international study exchange. For simultaneously teaching students from civil and environmental engineering, biology, geology, chemistry, mathematics we use visually explicit teaching, learning by doing, extra mentoring and by cross relating associated subjects. Our initial assessment of the Programme shows some very positive outcomes. Joint science questions formed between students from various disciplines indicate integration is being achieved. The number of successful publications in top journals suggests that depth is maintained. Positive feedback from the students on the variety and clarity of the courses indicates the teaching strategy is working well. Our experiences have shown that implementing and running an interdisciplinary doctoral programme has its challenges and is demanding in terms of time and human resources but seeing interactions progress and watching people grow and develop their way of thinking in an interdisciplinary environment is a

  17. Is Management Interdisciplinary? The Evolution of Management as an Interdisciplinary Field of Research and Education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Baalen (Peter); L. Karsten (Luchien)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractManagement research and education are often characterized as being interdisciplinary. However, most discussions on what interdisciplinarity in management studies means have bogged down in ideological fixations. In this paper we alternatively take a historical perspective and analyze the

  18. INTERDISCIPLINARY INTEGRATION IN FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ METHODOLOGICAL TRAINING ON THE BASIS OF PRAXEOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevheniia Provorova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the essence of interdisciplinary integration and its influence on the future music teachers’ methodological training on the basis of praxeological approach are disclosed taking into account methods of analysis, generalization, questionnaires, surveys, discussion, and interviews. The State Standard for Secondary Education in Ukraine emphasizes the necessity of correlation between different subjects as a major component in forming students’ holistic understanding of the world and its interacting with people through work. The need for integrative link is marked in educational standards for future music teachers’ training. Hrebeniuk, L.Masol, O. Otych, B. Yusov, O. Rudnytska, and O. Shcholokova devote their scientific articles to various aspects of using interdisciplinary links in future teachers’ training, in particular in future music teachers’ one. The methodological basis of the study are the basic principles of the theory of cognition; basic conditions of praxeological approach and their implementing into future music teachers’ methodological training. It is proved that interdisciplinary integration enables developing future music teachers’ holistic professional and methodological knowledge and skills as components of methodological readiness to singing activities. The interdisciplinary links, used in the process of future music teachers’ training, mean subject-subject relationships between university teachers and students while studying. To make interdisciplinary integration systematic it is important to update continuously the curriculum and syllabus according to new approaches, including the praxeological approach; taking into account the students’ individual characteristics, abilities and needs; focusing on future music teachers’ music and performing activities in their teaching activities. Implementing the exercises, tasks, which are designed in accordance with methods of interdisciplinary integration on

  19. Interdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Metabolism Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    With its rapid rise as a metaphor to express coupled natural-human systems in cities, the concept of urban metabolism is evolving into a series of relatively distinct research frameworks amongst various disciplines, with varying definitions, theories, models, and emphases. In industrial ecology, housed primarily within the disciplinary domain of engineering, urban metabolism research has focused on quantifying material and energy flows into, within, and out of cities, using methodologies such as material flow analysis and life cycle assessment. In the field of urban ecology, which is strongly influenced by ecology and urban planning, research focus has been placed on understanding and modeling the complex patterns and processes of human-ecological systems within urban areas. Finally, in political ecology, closely aligned with human geography and anthropology, scholars theorize about the interwoven knots of social and natural processes, material flows, and spatial structures that form the urban metabolism. This paper offers three potential interdisciplinary urban metabolism research tracks that might integrate elements of these three "ecologies," thereby bridging engineering and the social and physical sciences. First, it presents the idea of infrastructure ecology, which explores the complex, emergent interdependencies between gray (water and wastewater, transportation, etc) and green (e.g. parks, greenways) infrastructure systems, as nested within a broader socio-economic context. For cities to be sustainable and resilient over time-space, the theory follows, these is a need to understand and redesign these infrastructure linkages. Second, there is the concept of an urban-scale carbon metabolism model which integrates consumption-based material flow analysis (including goods, water, and materials), with the carbon sink and source dynamics of the built environment (e.g. buildings, etc) and urban ecosystems. Finally, there is the political ecology of the material

  20. Architecture for the Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA) is leading an EarthCube (EC) Integrative Activity to develop a governance structure and technology framework that enables partner data systems to share technology, infrastructure, and practice for documenting, curating, and accessing heterogeneous geoscience data. The IEDA data facility provides capabilities in an extensible framework that enables domain-specific requirements for each partner system in the Alliance to be integrated into standardized cross-domain workflows. The shared technology infrastructure includes a data submission hub, a domain-agnostic file-based repository, an integrated Alliance catalog and a Data Browser for data discovery across all partner holdings, as well as services for registering identifiers for datasets (DOI) and samples (IGSN). The submission hub will be a platform that facilitates acquisition of cross-domain resource documentation and channels users into domain and resource-specific workflows tailored for each partner community. We are exploring an event-based message bus architecture with a standardized plug-in interface for adding capabilities. This architecture builds on the EC CINERGI metadata pipeline as well as the message-based architecture of the SEAD project. Plug-in components for file introspection to match entities to a data type registry (extending EC Digital Crust and Research Data Alliance work), extract standardized keywords (using CINERGI components), location, cruise, personnel and other metadata linkage information (building on GeoLink and existing IEDA partner components). The submission hub will feed submissions to appropriate partner repositories and service endpoints targeted by domain and resource type for distribution. The Alliance governance will adopt patterns (vocabularies, operations, resource types) for self-describing data services using standard HTTP protocol for simplified data access (building on EC GeoWS and other `RESTful' approaches). Exposure

  1. [Population and environment. Requests for interdisciplinary analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudela, F

    1991-01-01

    Serious difficulties impede interdisciplinary research involving demographers, ecologists, and other students of the environment. The 1st problem concerns definitions of the different subject areas. Demographers have focused on the dynamics of some indicators that reflect complex and heterogeneous population processes. The relative autonomy of demography as a discipline was gained through an empirical orientation reflected in the statistical treatment of causality. But the traditional demographic paradigm is insufficient for untangling the causal mechanisms underlying population dynamics. Environmental disciplines on the other hand face methodologic difficulties in transcending a strictly biological focus to incorporate aspects of cultural and social influence on ecological processes. "Human ecology", a possible meeting ground for ecological and demographic studies, is more of an ambitious program of transdisciplinary research than an independent discipline. Relations between the environment and development processes, including population aspects, are of increasing international concern. A conceptual base has developed in Latin America which emphasizes the global and structural aspects of the environment and of development styles. It has been extremely difficult to apply the entire conceptualization to the concrete environmental problems that are of current interest to both civil society and governments. It may be time to replace the umbrella term "environment", defining it in more specific, systemic, and operational terms. It is time to delimit study topics in terms of concrete problems. A good example would be the situation of Lake Chapala, the largest lake in Mexico. Damage caused to it cannot be assessed by referring to the "population explosion" or an "overall development style". Environmental, economic, and sociodemographic aspects will however necessarily enter the analysis. Fragile and unstable situations are of special interest in the study of relations

  2. Legacy model integration for enhancing hydrologic interdisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, A.; Arabi, M.; David, O.

    2013-12-01

    Many challenges are introduced to interdisciplinary research in and around the hydrologic science community due to advances in computing technology and modeling capabilities in different programming languages, across different platforms and frameworks by researchers in a variety of fields with a variety of experience in computer programming. Many new hydrologic models as well as optimization, parameter estimation, and uncertainty characterization techniques are developed in scripting languages such as Matlab, R, Python, or in newer languages such as Java and the .Net languages, whereas many legacy models have been written in FORTRAN and C, which complicates inter-model communication for two-way feedbacks. However, most hydrologic researchers and industry personnel have little knowledge of the computing technologies that are available to address the model integration process. Therefore, the goal of this study is to address these new challenges by utilizing a novel approach based on a publish-subscribe-type system to enhance modeling capabilities of legacy socio-economic, hydrologic, and ecologic software. Enhancements include massive parallelization of executions and access to legacy model variables at any point during the simulation process by another program without having to compile all the models together into an inseparable 'super-model'. Thus, this study provides two-way feedback mechanisms between multiple different process models that can be written in various programming languages and can run on different machines and operating systems. Additionally, a level of abstraction is given to the model integration process that allows researchers and other technical personnel to perform more detailed and interactive modeling, visualization, optimization, calibration, and uncertainty analysis without requiring deep understanding of inter-process communication. To be compatible, a program must be written in a programming language with bindings to a common

  3. Interdisciplinary project-based learning: technology for improving student cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Stozhko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies a way of enhancing student cognition by using interdisciplinary project-based learning (IPBL in a higher education institution. IPBL is a creative pedagogic approach allowing students of one area of specialisation to develop projects for students with different academic profiles. The application of this approach in the Ural State University of Economics resulted in a computer-assisted learning system (CALS designed by IT students. The CALS was used in an analytical chemistry course with students majoring in Commodities Management and Expertise (‘expert’ students. To test how effective the technology was, the control and experimental groups were formed. In the control group, learning was done with traditional methods. In the experimental group, it was reinforced by IPBL. A statistical analysis of the results, with an application of Pearson χ 2 test, showed that the cognitive levels in both IT and ‘expert’ experimental groups improved as compared with the control groups. The findings demonstrated that IPBL can significantly enhance learning. It can be implemented in any institution of higher or secondary education that promotes learning, including the CALS development and its use for solving problems in different subject areas.

  4. A Novel Interdisciplinary Approach to Socio-Technical Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Chiara

    The chapter presents a novel interdisciplinary approach that integrates micro-sociological analysis into computer-vision and pattern-recognition modeling and algorithms, the purpose being to tackle socio-technical complexity at a systemic yet micro-grounded level. The approach is empirically-grounded and both theoretically- and analytically-driven, yet systemic and multidimensional, semi-supervised and computable, and oriented towards large scale applications. The chapter describes the proposed approach especially as for its sociological foundations, and as applied to the analysis of a particular setting --i.e. sport-spectator crowds. Crowds, better defined as large gatherings, are almost ever-present in our societies, and capturing their dynamics is crucial. From social sciences to public safety management and emergency response, modeling and predicting large gatherings' presence and dynamics, thus possibly preventing critical situations and being able to properly react to them, is fundamental. This is where semi/automated technologies can make the difference. The work presented in this chapter is intended as a scientific step towards such an objective.

  5. Interdisciplinary Data Resources for Volcanology at IEDA (Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Kerstin; Song, Lulin; Hsu, Leslie; Ji, Peng; Carter, Megan

    2015-04-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of relevant resources for data sharing, data publication, data visualization, and interoperability at IEDA (Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance, http://www.iedadata.org) that are essential to enable data-driven research for volcanological research. IEDA is a NSF-funded multi-disciplinary data facility for solid earth observational data from the ocean, Earth, and polar sciences that operates data systems and services to ensure the preservation, publication, documentation, and quality of the data, their broad discovery and re-usability as well as their accessibility and interoperability for interdisciplinary research. IEDA's data services are specifically designed to support individual researchers, especially in disciplines that typically generate and use small, but complex, heterogeneous, and unstructured datasets to help them fulfill the increasing demands of properly managing their data. These services include domain-focused data curation and synthesis, a wide range of tools for data discovery, access, visualization and analysis, as well as investigator support services that include tools for data submission, data publication, and data compliance support. A critical component of IEDA that is particularly relevant to volcanological research are data systems for physical samples collected in the Earth Sciences and for the data acquired on these samples in the field and in the lab. For example, IEDA's System for Earth Sample Registration provides a global catalog of samples that have an International Geo Sample Number (IGSN), a unique identifier for specimens and other sampling features in the Earth Sciences, that is used to unambiguously link samples, digital data, and publications (examples from the literature will be provided), and allows tracking of samples through their analytical history. The EarthChem Library, the PetDB synthesis, and the EarthChem Portal are IEDA data systems that support publication, discovery

  6. Distance Learning: Effectiveness of an Interdisciplinary Course in Speech Pathology and Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine S Ramos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of distance learning courses for the purpose of interdisciplinary continuing education in Speech Pathology and Dentistry. Methods: The online course was made available on the Moodle platform. A total of 30 undergraduates participated in the study (15 from the Dentistry course and 15 from the Speech Pathology course. Their knowledge was evaluated before and after the course, in addition to the user satisfaction by means of specific questionnaires. The course was evaluated by 6 specialists on the following aspects: presentation and quality of the content, audio-visual quality, adequacy to the target public, and information made available. To compare the obtained results in the pre- and post-course questionnaires, the test Wilcoxon was carried out, with a 5% significance level. Results: the teaching/learning process, including the theoretical/practical application for the interdisciplinary training, proved to be effective as there was a statistically significant difference between the pre- and post- course evaluations (p<0.001, the users’ satisfaction degree was favorable and the specialists evaluated the material as adequate regarding the target public, the audio-visual information quality and the strategies of content availability. Conclusion: The suggested distance-learning course proved to be effective for the purpose of Speech Pathology and Dentistry interdisciplinary education.

  7. The Interdisciplinary Generalist Curriculum (IGC) project: an overview of its experience and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, N; Davis, A; Wilson, M; Wartman, S; Sherwood, R; Nowalk, A; Kahn, R; Bazell, C

    2001-04-01

    The Interdisciplinary Generalist Curriculum (IGC) Project was a competitive, seven-year demonstration project funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). It was established to determine whether specific interdisciplinary innovations in preclinical medical school curricula could affect students' selection of careers in family medicine, general internal medicine, or general pediatrics. Through collaboration among the three generalist disciplines, the IGC innovation exposed all preclinical students in ten demonstration schools to a new or significantly enhanced preclinical curriculum that included a direct supervised clinical experience with a generalist physician preceptor. The project was managed by an interdisciplinary executive committee that was codirected by one representative each from family medicine, general internal medicine, and general pediatrics. A national advisory committee with representation from the academic and professional organizations of family medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics, and osteopathy provided input to the executive committee in guiding the project. The project was externally evaluated. Major outcomes of the IGC Project include sustained curricular changes in ten institutions, prompted by relatively few dollars and demonstration of models for collaboration at institutional and national levels. This supplement describes the IGC Project's experience and outcomes so that others may draw pertinent information to apply to their own efforts in medical education.

  8. Working together toward the issue of conjugal violence: the work of an interdisciplinary task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhomme, S; Ratcliffe, M

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 each of the Professional Councils at the Royal Victoria Hospital endorsed the creation of an Interdisciplinary Task Force on Conjugal Violence. Task force members were drawn from Medicine, Nursing and Social Work. The overall goal was to increase the quality of care that the interdisciplinary team could provide to their patients. This mandate encompassed three major tasks. First, to study the extent of awareness about the issue among health care professionals; second, to assess their needs for resources and education; and finally, to recommend and implement means of increasing the level of awareness of this health concern among professionals and patients. The task force members educated themselves about conjugal violence and developed a questionnaire that was distributed to health care professionals within the hospital. The number of individuals from each discipline who received the survey was proportionate to their actual number in the center and selected at random. Results of the survey indicated that all groups desired more information and education about the scope of the problem as well as means for assessing and intervening with patients who are abused. The task force developed a Conjugal Abuse Information Package, an Abuse Assessment Screen, a Public Awareness Program and an Ongoing Teaching Program for Health Care Professionals. This project provides an example of how an interdisciplinary health care team can successfully work together for the benefit of patients.

  9. Theological Requirements for Interdisciplinary Research on the Qur’an; Based on Epistemology, Terminology and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shojaei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direct bond between the Qur’an and Muslims’ beliefs is one of the important factors, considered to result in a kind of exclusivism in conducting research on the Qur’an on the part of religious scholars in the Islamic tradition of studying the Qur’an. Due to this kind of control, there has always been a restriction as to how the Qur’an must be approached. Thus, the results of these studies have been mainly in accordance with the Islamic beliefs and principles, because the researchers have already been fully familiar with Islam, Islamic theology and the Qur’an. But by the virtue of the changes and developments occurring in science and research and the emergence of interdisciplinary studies and also to avoid exclusivism, a larger number of researchers currently engage in Qur’anic studies. Considering the inevitability of this climate, the sensitivity of research on the Qur’an and necessity of preventing mistakes in this field, it is of great importance to identify theological requirements for Qur’anic study in various fields of research. This article, by focusing on the theological requirements for interdisciplinary research on the Qur’an and using library method, tries to introduce the requirements for this type of research at three levels of epistemology, terminology and methodology so as to develop a proper outline for such research and thus alleviate worries about the results of interdisciplinary Qur’anic studies.

  10. [Medical tourism and travel - an interdisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyer, W; Kim, B-S

    2014-01-01

    Medical tourism (or medical travel, international patient service, cross-border or global health care) is a new current phenomenon with increasing relevance for the two disciplines of medicine and tourism. Both sides hope to improve their reputation and image, as well as to increase their revenues and rate of employment; furthermore, they want to provide better care and service for patients and tourists: Medical tourism can close the gap of the health care system at home, providing better quality, quicker access and cheaper procedures abroad, also with treatments, not - legally - available in the sending country. For the tourism sector it broadens the variety of tourism products and supply of the host country and combines medical treatments and recovery with an attractive stay in a tourism destination for patients and their companions. But in spite of all popularity of this new type of tourism and treatment, there is quite a lack of theory and academic analysis. This article outlines the status quo of scientific research both from a medical and tourism point of view. This interdisciplinary method of approach is based mainly on a state-of-the art review of the current literature. There is a great need for more scientific research in the field of medical tourism, based on the common knowledge of both disciplines tourism and medicine. First there is neither an internationally agreed definition nor a common methodology for data collection. So the real impact of touristic and medical services both for the source and for the receiving countries is un-known and imprecise. Second the internal processes of the health system have to be adapted to the needs of international patients, e. g., medical fee schedule, billing, language, inter-cultural qualifications of the staff. Moreover the whole service chain has to be taken into account, especially the pre- and post-processes, which mostly start or end abroad. Here quality standards as well as accreditations are current

  11. A System on Chip approach to enhanced learning in interdisciplinary robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Stengaard; Falsig, Simon

    2011-01-01

    p, li { white-space: pre-wrap; } To sustain interdisciplinary teaching and learning in the rapidly growing and diversifying field of robotics, we have successfully employed FPGA based System on Chip (SoC) technology to provide abstraction between high level software and low level IO/ and control...... the framework in an embedded systems course and various student projects, and have found that it greatly enhance the students abilities to control hardware from software, and dramatically reduce the time spent on software $\\leftrightarrow$ hardware interfacing. As the framework is also scalable, it can support...

  12. Interdisciplinary collaboration in action: tracking the signal, tracing the noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callard, Felicity; Fitzgerald, Des; Woods, Angela

    Interdisciplinarity is often framed as an unquestioned good within and beyond the academy, one to be encouraged by funders and research institutions alike. And yet there is little research on how interdisciplinary projects actually work-and do not work-in practice, particularly within and across the social sciences and humanities. This article centres on "Hubbub", the first interdisciplinary 2-year research residency of The Hub at Wellcome Collection, which is investigating rest and its opposites in neuroscience, mental health, the arts and the everyday. The article describes how Hubbub is tracing, capturing and reflecting on practices of interdisciplinarity across its large, dispersed team of collaborators, who work across the social sciences, humanities, arts, mind and brain sciences, and public engagement. We first describe the distinctiveness of Hubbub (a project designed for a particular space, and one in which the arts are not positioned as simply illustrating or disseminating the research of the scientists), and then outline three techniques Hubbub has developed to map interdisciplinary collaboration in the making: (1) ethnographic analysis; (2) "In the Diary Room", an aesthetics of collaboration designed to harness and capture affective dynamics within a large, complex project; and (3) the Hubbub Collaboration Questionnaire, which yields quantitative and qualitative data, as well as a social network analysis of collaborators. We conclude by considering some themes that other inter-disciplinary projects might draw on for their own logics of tracking and tracing. This article forms part of an ongoing thematic collection dedicated to interdisciplinary research.

  13. Emerging interdisciplinary fields in the coming intelligence/convergence era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed

    2012-09-01

    Dramatic advances are in the horizon resulting from rapid pace of development of several technologies, including, computing, communication, mobile, robotic, and interactive technologies. These advances, along with the trend towards convergence of traditional engineering disciplines with physical, life and other science disciplines will result in the development of new interdisciplinary fields, as well as in new paradigms for engineering practice in the coming intelligence/convergence era (post-information age). The interdisciplinary fields include Cyber Engineering, Living Systems Engineering, Biomechatronics/Robotics Engineering, Knowledge Engineering, Emergent/Complexity Engineering, and Multiscale Systems engineering. The paper identifies some of the characteristics of the intelligence/convergence era, gives broad definition of convergence, describes some of the emerging interdisciplinary fields, and lists some of the academic and other organizations working in these disciplines. The need is described for establishing a Hierarchical Cyber-Physical Ecosystem for facilitating interdisciplinary collaborations, and accelerating development of skilled workforce in the new fields. The major components of the ecosystem are listed. The new interdisciplinary fields will yield critical advances in engineering practice, and help in addressing future challenges in broad array of sectors, from manufacturing to energy, transportation, climate, and healthcare. They will also enable building large future complex adaptive systems-of-systems, such as intelligent multimodal transportation systems, optimized multi-energy systems, intelligent disaster prevention systems, and smart cities.

  14. Interdisciplinary research and trans-disciplinary validity claims

    CERN Document Server

    Gethmann, C F; Hanekamp, G; Kaiser, M; Kamp, G; Lingner, S; Quante, M; Thiele, F

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinarity has seemingly become a paradigm for modern and meaningful research. Clearly, the interdisciplinary modus of deliberation enables to unfold relevant but quite different disciplinary perspectives to the reflection of broader scientific questions or societal problems. However, whether the comprehensive results of interdisciplinary reflection prove to be valid or to be acceptable in trans-disciplinary terms depends upon certain preconditions, which have to be fulfilled for securing scientific quality and social trust in advisory contexts. The present book is written by experts and practitioners of interdisciplinary research and policy advice. It analyses topical and methodological approaches towards interdisciplinarity, starting with the current role of scientific research in society. The volume continues with contributions to the issues of knowledge and acting and to trans-disciplinary deliberation. The final conclusions address the scientific system as substantial actor itself as well as the...

  15. Gender and Disciplinary Differences in Experiences with Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Maura; Creamer, Elizabeth G.

    This work directly compares three explanations for differences in experiences of interdisciplinary research collaborators using a sample of 347 academics from 144 different research intensive and extensive universities in the United States who were awarded funding from the same directorate of the National Science Foundation. The findings provide a much more positive view of interdisciplinary collaboration than is routinely found in the literature. Despite varied disciplinary backgrounds, members of the sample are extremely satisfied with their experiences with interdisciplinary collaboration and have much more in common than they differ in their attitudes and experiences, including how they meet collaborators, the difficulties they have encountered, their approach to the division of labor, and their interest in collaboration as a venue for learning. Findings dispute the stereotype that the relational element of collaboration is significantly more salient for women than it is for men.

  16. [Archaeology and criminology--Strengths and weaknesses of interdisciplinary cooperation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary cooperation of archaeology and criminology is often focussed on the scientific methods applied in both fields of knowledge. In combination with the humanistic methods traditionally used in archaeology, the finding of facts can be enormously increased and the subsequent hermeneutic deduction of human behaviour in the past can take place on a more solid basis. Thus, interdisciplinary cooperation offers direct and indirect advantages. But it can also cause epistemological problems, if the weaknesses and limits of one method are to be corrected by applying methods used in other disciplines. This may result in the application of methods unsuitable for the problem to be investigated so that, in a way, the methodological and epistemological weaknesses of two disciplines potentiate each other. An example of this effect is the quantification of qualia. These epistemological reflections are compared with the interdisciplinary approach using the concrete case of the "Eulau Crime Scene".

  17. Interdisciplinary approach to disaster resilience education and research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Giuliani, Luisa; Revez, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on the results of a survey on “Interdisciplinary working in disaster resilience” conducted by the WP4 work group of the ANDROID Network. The survey had the aim of gathering information on the state of art and practice in the field of disaster resilience and promoting co......-operation and interdisciplinary methodologies in research and education. The survey has been carried out by means of a questionnaire focusing on disaster-resilience projects and on the main challenges faced in interdisciplinary working. The results of the questionnaire, which collected 57 answers from more than 20 European...... in disaster-resilience design by social and cultural aspects, which are instead not often adequately considered in the practice. The establishment of an education on resilient design of urban system, which includes both social and technological aspects, emerges as a possible solution to overcome barriers...

  18. Integrating social sciences and humanities in interdisciplinary research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2016-01-01

    Recent attempts to integrate the social sciences and humanities (SSH) in funding for interdisciplinary research have been challenged by a number of barriers. In funding programmes, such as the EU Horizon 2020, the SSH are absent in most calls for contributions. This article revisits the main policy...... drivers for embedding SSH research in interdisciplinary research. By analysing recent policy initiatives, the article shows how policymakers across the world continue to be ambivalent regarding the role of the SSH. While many stakeholders acknowledge the need to integrate SSH research in solving key...... societal challenges, such as climate change, migration or national security, funding for SSH is limited and tends to focus on strategic interventions and instrumental solutions. By accounting for the diversity of interdisciplinary collaborations the article recommends a more context-sensitive approach...

  19. Fostering Collaborative and Interdisciplinary Research in Adult Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anne Erichsen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the interdisciplinary nature of research in adult education and suggests interactive research guides and other interactive resources for fostering collaboration and interdisciplinary inquiry. The purpose is to foster the development of a more functional literacy for information seeking as expressed across disciplines and the thoughtful integration of such information into academic and practical research projects within the field of adult education. Studies of researcher behavior are utilized to suggest some techniques and resources that could be employed more widely in conducting literature searches, including the creation and use of interactive resource guides. Some trends in libraries that offer promise for knowledge discovery and sharing, such as federated searching, customizable workspaces, and user-generated content, are also explored. Finally, tools and resources currently available to promote collaboration and interdisciplinary research are also noted.

  20. An interdisciplinary and collaborative initiative in palliative care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desa, Veena; Danjoux, Cyril; Matyas, Yvette; Fitch, Margaret; Husain, Amna; Horvath, Nina; Myers, Jeff; Clemons, Mark; Hux, Janet E; Barnes, Elizabeth A

    2008-11-23

    The scale and complexity of palliative care increasingly demands that researchers move beyond their own discipline and explore interdisciplinary collaboration. At a Palliative Care Research Retreat held in January 2006 at the Toronto Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre, researchers from multiple care settings with the center and from other Toronto hospitals came together with the vision of becoming Canadian leaders in palliative care research. As a result of this retreat, five interdisciplinary groups were formed to pursue research in the areas of pain and symptom management, access to services, translational research, education, and communication. An overview of the retreat and direction of research for each group is provided.

  1. Interdisciplinary for Social Engagement: Art and Design Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Angelique Wells

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this ever-changing world with a population of over seven billion, social equality, and environmental sustainability needs new innovative and inclusive solutions. Today, the interdisciplinary practice of art and design has the ability to raise social awareness and engagement in health-related issues. Art and design experiments with combining the traditional art methods with technology and interactive systems to communicate scientific research with problem solving goals. Creative interdisciplinary opens many doors to a variety of collaborative efforts in seeking proactive solutions to environmental and social issues.

  2. [Dementia in Germany: results of an interdisciplinary expert workshop].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blödt, Susanne; Kuhlmey, Adelheid; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Behl, Christian; Betsch, Frederik; Brinkhaus, Benno; Frühwald, Maria; Füsgen, Ingo; Jansen, Sabine; Köppel, Claus; Krüger, Eckhard; Macher, Marilen; Michalsen, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A; Riepe, Matthias W; Schimpf, Dorothea; Teut, Michael; Warme, Britta; Warning, Albrecht; Wilkens, Johannes; Witt, Claudia M

    2013-12-01

    In the aging population of Germany the consequences of Dementia for the society and the health care sector are complex and solutions require a multidisciplinary approach. The aim of the two-day interdisciplinary expert conference was to consider dementia from different perspectives, to identify dementia-related problems and to discuss integrative solutions under consideration of complementary therapies. In different working groups the experts developed solutions and recommendations with regards to political need, health care and future research priorities. The present recommendations profited very much from the interdisciplinary participants of the conference and brought together the expertise of different fields resulting in a comprehensive picture about dementia in Germany.

  3. Misconceptions of Synthetic Biology: Lessons from an Interdisciplinary Summer School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verseux, Cyprien; G Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos; Chizzolini, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, an international group of scholars from various fields analysed the "societal dimensions" of synthetic biology in an interdisciplinary summer school. Here, we report and discuss the biologists' observations on the general perception of synthetic biology by non-biologists who took part in...... understanding of the field to make informed decisions. Interdisciplinary events gathering scholars working in and around synthetic biology are an effective tool in addressing those issues....... in this event. Most attendees mainly associated synthetic biology with contributions from the best-known public figures of the field, rarely mentioning other scientists. Media extrapolations of those contributions appeared to have created unrealistic expectations and irrelevant fears that were widely...

  4. Considering dance practices as unique cases in interdisciplinary research studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne

    ” (Flyvbjerg, 2011) in the domain of qualitative research. Such designs are of specific relevance for research projects exploring body, movement and sensing in general. Thereafter I present the results of some of my resent studies. These studies are based in a critical constructive interdisciplinary......The aim of this paper is to present interdisciplinary considerations of relevance to strengthen dance research in relation to – and in cooperation with - other academic disciplines. I firstly describe how dance practices can be handled as “extreme cases” and cases with “maximal variations...

  5. Active Learning Techniques Applied to an Interdisciplinary Mineral Resources Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises

  6. Error management for musicians: an interdisciplinary conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse-Weber, Silke; Parncutt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Musicians tend to strive for flawless performance and perfection, avoiding errors at all costs. Dealing with errors while practicing or performing is often frustrating and can lead to anger and despair, which can explain musicians’ generally negative attitude toward errors and the tendency to aim for flawless learning in instrumental music education. But even the best performances are rarely error-free, and research in general pedagogy and psychology has shown that errors provide useful information for the learning process. Research in instrumental pedagogy is still neglecting error issues; the benefits of risk management (before the error) and error management (during and after the error) are still underestimated. It follows that dealing with errors is a key aspect of music practice at home, teaching, and performance in public. And yet, to be innovative, or to make their performance extraordinary, musicians need to risk errors. Currently, most music students only acquire the ability to manage errors implicitly – or not at all. A more constructive, creative, and differentiated culture of errors would balance error tolerance and risk-taking against error prevention in ways that enhance music practice and music performance. The teaching environment should lay the foundation for the development of such an approach. In this contribution, we survey recent research in aviation, medicine, economics, psychology, and interdisciplinary decision theory that has demonstrated that specific error-management training can promote metacognitive skills that lead to better adaptive transfer and better performance skills. We summarize how this research can be applied to music, and survey-relevant research that is specifically tailored to the needs of musicians, including generic guidelines for risk and error management in music teaching and performance. On this basis, we develop a conceptual framework for risk management that can provide orientation for further music education and

  7. Error management for musicians: an interdisciplinary conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse-Weber, Silke; Parncutt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Musicians tend to strive for flawless performance and perfection, avoiding errors at all costs. Dealing with errors while practicing or performing is often frustrating and can lead to anger and despair, which can explain musicians' generally negative attitude toward errors and the tendency to aim for flawless learning in instrumental music education. But even the best performances are rarely error-free, and research in general pedagogy and psychology has shown that errors provide useful information for the learning process. Research in instrumental pedagogy is still neglecting error issues; the benefits of risk management (before the error) and error management (during and after the error) are still underestimated. It follows that dealing with errors is a key aspect of music practice at home, teaching, and performance in public. And yet, to be innovative, or to make their performance extraordinary, musicians need to risk errors. Currently, most music students only acquire the ability to manage errors implicitly - or not at all. A more constructive, creative, and differentiated culture of errors would balance error tolerance and risk-taking against error prevention in ways that enhance music practice and music performance. The teaching environment should lay the foundation for the development of such an approach. In this contribution, we survey recent research in aviation, medicine, economics, psychology, and interdisciplinary decision theory that has demonstrated that specific error-management training can promote metacognitive skills that lead to better adaptive transfer and better performance skills. We summarize how this research can be applied to music, and survey-relevant research that is specifically tailored to the needs of musicians, including generic guidelines for risk and error management in music teaching and performance. On this basis, we develop a conceptual framework for risk management that can provide orientation for further music education and

  8. Fostering Interdisciplinary Collaboration to Improve Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald A. Styron Jr.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the impact on student learning of those enrolled in courses where instructors participated in collegial coaching and peer mentoring. A nonequivalent group design methodology was employed along with an analysis of variance to analyze data. Findings indicated higher mastery levels of student learning outcomes, higher levels of perceived critical thinking and collaboration by students, statistical significance in critical thinking constructs, higher levels of persistence, and more A's and B's and fewer D's and F's in courses where faculty members were mentored as compared to courses where faculty members were not.

  9. A Holistic Approach to Interdisciplinary Innovation Supported by a Simple Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denise J. Stokholm, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Innovation is recognised as a strategy to achieve competitive businesses and products. Managing innovation at all levels requires integration of knowledge and interdisciplinary cooperation. Different understandings and approaches to innovation between professions often result in communication...... problems. To overcome this barrier a common ground is needed. This paper describes a holistic approach to innovation and presents a simple tool for facilitating cooperation on a diversity of innovation matters. It describes the development and use of the tool and demonstrates its capacity to support...

  10. The Phenomenon of Paradiplomacy in the Czech Republic: Representative Difficulties in the Concept of Paradiplomacy in the Subnational Unit of the Znojmo Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkéta Sanalla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main findings which are focusing interdisciplinary on contemporary trends in the regional policy in Central Europe. These findings are illustrated on regional policy activities in Znojmo region which is a pioneer in so called paradiplomacy activities. These deal consequents upon geographical emplacement on the border of the former Eastern Bloc which constitute area of renewed relations in united central Europe nowadays. These results are obtained by using classical theory of paradiplomacy from Ivo Duchacek and Panayotis Soldatos. Thesis from broader research in paradiplomacy is emphasised on the example of region Znojmo and its paradiplomacy policy. The work is based on case study, which tried to gain the most important facts about followed issues. Through an analysis of selected aspects in these sub-state units is shown its success in researched area which lies not only in a wide range of cultural and tourist industry activities but also in economic area. Management of Znojmo municipality use cross-border co-operation to reduce unemployment rate in region which is one of the key tasks. Negotiation in region is facilitated by creating ad-hoc region to overcome one of the fundamental difficulties of paradiplomacy concept which is the unclear definition of the term sub-state unit and the variety of participants in paradiplomatic negotiation.

  11. Measurement properties and implementation of a checklist to assess leadership skills during interdisciplinary rounds in the intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Have, Elsbeth C M; Nap, Raoul E; Tulleken, Jaap E

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of interdisciplinary teams in the intensive care unit (ICU) has focused attention on leadership behavior. A daily recurrent situation in ICUs in which both leadership behavior and interdisciplinary teamwork are integrated concerns the interdisciplinary rounds (IDRs). Although IDRs

  12. Interdisciplinary Project-Based Learning: Technology for Improving Student Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stozhko, Natalia; Bortnik, Boris; Mironova, Ludmila; Tchernysheva, Albina; Podshivalova, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    The article studies a way of enhancing student cognition by using interdisciplinary project-based learning (IPBL) in a higher education institution. IPBL is a creative pedagogic approach allowing students of one area of specialisation to develop projects for students with different academic profiles. The application of this approach in the Ural…

  13. Using Iceland as a Model for Interdisciplinary Honors Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kim; Thorgaard, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary approaches do not merely satisfy an abstract longing; in post-educational life--especially in a secular, Western, post-modern culture--young people must confront complex issues that transcend any one discipline. Educational systems accordingly have a duty to offer frameworks for understanding this complexity that go beyond any…

  14. Teaching Interdisciplinary Thematic Units in Language Arts. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Naomi

    This Digest discusses teaching interdisciplinary thematic units in language arts, noting that such units typically integrate broad areas of knowledge, such as social studies, mathematics, or ecology with the teaching of the four major language skills: reading, writing, listening, and speaking. The Digest presents a definition and rationale for…

  15. Interdisciplinary orthognathic treatment of high angle class III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For Class III adult patients, combined treatment strategy must be followed which includes either further dentoalveolar compensation or orthognathic surgery following decompensation of the teeth. This case report presents the interdisciplinary approach of a skeletal Class III malocclusion with increased vertical facial ...

  16. The Intelligent Career Framework as a Basis for Interdisciplinary Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Polly; Khapova, Svetlana N.; Arthur, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how separate behavioral science disciplines can be brought together to more fully understand the dynamics of contemporary careers. We adopt one interdisciplinary framework--that of the "intelligent career"--and use it to examine how separate disciplinary approaches relate to one another. The intelligent career framework…

  17. An Interdisciplinary Theme: Topographic Maps and Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James P.; Aulgur, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This is an interdisciplinary lesson designed for middle school students studying landforms and geological processes. Students create a two-dimensional topographic map from a three-dimensional landform that they create using clay. Students then use other groups' topographic maps to re-create landforms. Following this, students explore some basic…

  18. Motivating First-Year University Students by Interdisciplinary Study Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Franziska D.; Dirsch-Weigand, Andrea; Awolin, Malte; Pinkelman, Rebecca J.; Hampe, Manfred J.

    2017-01-01

    In order to increase student commitment from the beginning of students' university careers, the Technische Universität Darmstadt has introduced interdisciplinary study projects involving first-year students from the engineering, natural, social and history, economics and/or human sciences departments. The didactic concept includes sophisticated…

  19. The need for interdisciplinary research in personality studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oers, K.

    2007-01-01

    The target paper demonstrates the value of evolutionary genetics for personality research. Apart from a summing-up of concepts, the authors validate their theory with evidence from studies on both human- and animal personality. In this commentary, I want to show the need for inter-disciplinary

  20. Synthesis and Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals: An Interdisciplinary Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Karukstis, Kerry K.; Hanhan Li; Hendargo, Hansford C.; Cosand, Andrew J.; Fox, Marja M.

    2005-01-01

    A study involves multiple chemistry and physics concepts applied to a state of matter that has biological relevance. An experiment involving the synthesis and physical properties of liquid crystals illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of liquid crystal research and the practical devices derived from such research.

  1. Developing an Interdisciplinary Curriculum Framework for Aquatic-Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Laurel; Segale, Heather M.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Jenkins, Stephen H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from a July 2005 workshop and course aimed at developing an interdisciplinary course on modeling aquatic ecosystems that will provide the next generation of practitioners with critical skills for which formal training is presently lacking. Five different course models were evaluated: (1) fundamentals/general principles…

  2. Problems with and Needs for Interdisciplinary Interactions in Vocational Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Donna E. Palladino; Pennington, Deneen

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes 10 presentations in a discussion group of the 2007 joint international symposium of the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance, Society for Vocational Psychology, and National Career Development Association held in Padua, Italy. This discussion group focused on interdisciplinary interactions in…

  3. Interdisciplinary drought risk assessment for agriculture: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interdisciplinary drought risk assessment provides the true reflection of drought risk by integrating hazard data with adaptation, vulnerability and coping capacity. Traditional methods for drought risk calculation based purely on meteorological extremes do not provide an accurate reflection of disaster drought. Communal ...

  4. Senior Humanities: Interdisciplinary Education in English and Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Douglas Ross

    An interdisciplinary approach to teaching English and religion can eliminate some of the educational problems posed by each subject. Part one of this thesis presents a philosophy of education which suggests that confluent and student-centered methods of teaching can best develop creativity and, thus, lead to greater humanization of students. Part…

  5. Collaborative Research on Sustainability: Myths and Conundrums of Interdisciplinary Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sherren

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing interdisciplinary academic departments has been a common response to the challenge of addressing complex problems. However, the assumptions that guide the formation of such departments are rarely questioned. Additionally, the designers and managers of interdisciplinary academic departments in any field of endeavour struggle to set an organisational climate appropriate to the diversity of their members. This article presents a preliminary analysis of collaborative dynamics within two interdisciplinary university departments in Australia focused on sustainability. Social network diagrams and metrics of coauthorship and cosupervision are analysed qualitatively. A “vicarious interdisciplinarity” was identified among key academics working narrowly in order to earn the resources that allow them to support others working interdisciplinarily. Those supported in this way appear to benefit from the esteem and nonredundant collaborative connections their mentors provide via this strategy, but they experience uncertainty about their own career opportunities in similar settings. This article thus unearths a conundrum of succession for interdisciplinary academic environments, and suggests that simple colocation of diverse academic stars is an inadequate strategy to achieve effective intradepartmental collaboration.

  6. GIS-based Integration of Interdisciplinary Ecological Data to Detect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GIS-based Integration of Interdisciplinary Ecological Data to Detect Land-cover Changes in Creek Mangroves at Gazi Bay, Kenya. ... Very low values of basal area (7.7 m2/ha and 4.9 m2/ha) and complexity indices (1.86 and 1.12) at Makongeni and Kinondo 1, respectively, reflected intense human pressure in these areas.

  7. Ethics of Tax Law Compliance: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Richard G.; Longo, Peter J.; Rioux, Jean W.

    2012-01-01

    The first semester Tax I student seems to be interested in the ethical issue of why citizens should report their income and only take legitimate tax deductions when it is unlikely that anyone will ever know. This paper addresses this issue from an interdisciplinary approach of accounting, philosophy, and political science. The accounting…

  8. Interdisciplinary re-imagining of the concept of revelation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-24

    Apr 24, 2009 ... transformation of cognition and emotions, thus explaining why the propensity for religion and religious experience can be regarded as an essentially universal human attribute (Van. Huyssteen 2006:233ff ); that (b) a postfoundationalist approach to human uniqueness as an interdisciplinary problem should.

  9. Identifying Inputs to Leadership Development within an Interdisciplinary Leadership Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Aaron J.; Sorensen, Tyson J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers conducted a qualitative analysis of students' experiences while enrolled in an interdisciplinary leadership minor with the intent to determine programmatic inputs that spur leadership development. Based on students' reflections, three domains of programmatic inputs for leadership development within the minor were identified. These…

  10. An Interdisciplinary Experiment: Azo-Dye Metabolism by "Staphylococcus Aureus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklesby, Kayleigh; Smith, Robert; Sharp, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    An interdisciplinary and engaging practical is detailed which offers great versatility in the study of a qualitative and quantitative metabolism of azo-dyes by "Staphylococcus aureus". This practical has broad scope for adaptation in the number and depth of variables to allow a focused practical experiment or small research project. Azo-dyes are…

  11. Interdisciplinary Research Funding: Reaching Outside the Boundaries of Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedson, Patty

    2009-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research requires that experts from multiple disciplines work together to combine methods and ideas in an integrative fashion to generate new knowledge. In many respects, the field of kinesiology is ideally positioned to take advantage of its inherent multidisciplinary design. Because of the multidisciplinary structure of…

  12. Interdisciplinary collaboration as a prerequisite for inclusive education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard-Sørensen, Lotte; Riis Jensen, Charlotte; Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum

    2017-01-01

    to the development of an inclusive learning environment in mainstream schools. Not as a simple task of transferring knowledge, but as a process of transforming knowledge through interdisciplinary collaboration and co-teaching. The design of the study is inspired by the notion of participation within action research...

  13. Holding the Holders: An Interdisciplinary Group Well-Child Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchel, Mary Ann; Winesett, Heather; Hall, Katie; Ladd, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Using the structure of the group well-child visit model, the St. Luke's Interdisciplinary Group Well Child (IGWC) model integrates primary care and mental health, recognizing the power and importance of dyadic and family relationships in the first years of life. The pilot of this model attempted to harness the "port of entry" afforded…

  14. Interdisciplinary Professional Development Needs of Cooperative Extension Field Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondgerath, Travis

    2016-01-01

    The study discussed in this article sought to identify cross-program professional development needs of county-based Extension professionals (field educators). The study instrument was completed by 105 county-based Extension professionals. Interdisciplinary topics, such as program evaluation and volunteer management, were identified as subjects of…

  15. Researching Lifelong Learning Participation through an Interdisciplinary Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeren, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the interdisciplinary nature of studies in the field of lifelong learning participation. Until recently, participation studies have been presented in a rather fragmented way, often drawing on insights from separate disciplines such as sociology or psychology. The complex nature of lifelong learning participation, however, urges…

  16. An interdisciplinary approach to design at the University of Pretoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the implementation of an interdisciplinary approach to Design in Architecture, Landscape Architecture and Interior Architecture at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. Architecture, Landscape Architecture and Interior Architecture were previously offered as distinctive academic disciplines, located ...

  17. The Use of Mathematical Modeling in an Interdisciplinary Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshbarger, Ronald J.; Upshaw, Jane

    The University of South Carolina at Hilton Head offers a major in Hotel, Restaurant, and Tourism Administration (HRTA). Many students in the HRTA major take both the HRTA Tourism course and a business calculus course. An interdisciplinary research project was designed in an effort to interest these students in the power of calculus as a…

  18. Found in Translation: Interdisciplinary Arts Integration in Project AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Lara; Ingram, Debra; Weiss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This paper will share the arts-integration methodology used in Project AIM and address the question; "How is translation evident in interdisciplinary arts instruction, and how does it affect students?" Methods: The staff and researchers from Project AIM, (an arts-integration program of the Center for Community Arts Partnerships at…

  19. Interdisciplinary Entrepreneurial Leadership Education and the Development of Agricultural Innovators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Matthew M.

    2015-01-01

    This article qualitatively explores the potential of entrepreneurial leadership curricula to encourage interdisciplinary interest in agricultural issues and prompt diverse student engagement in agricultural leadership and innovation. The study focuses specifically on the activities and perspectives of 15 undergraduate students who completed an…

  20. Elementary Acid Rain Kit, Interdisciplinary, Grades 4-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    An interdisciplinary approach for teaching about acid rain is offered in this curriculum guide for teachers of grades 4-8. Skill and concept areas of science, math, social studies, art, and the language arts are developed in 12 activities which focus on the acid rain problems. A matrix of the activities and subject areas indicates the coverage…

  1. Forest Service interdisciplinary teams: size, composition, and leader characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee K. Cerveny; Dale J. Blahna; Marc J. Stern; Michael J. Mortimer; James W. Freeman

    2011-01-01

    Interdisciplinary (ID) teams were created by the US Forest Service in response to environmental legislation. In 2008, we surveyed 10 team leaders for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis of 106 recreation-related projects conducted between 2005 and 2008. Results were compared with current workforce data and previous studies of ID team leadership and...

  2. Tempered Radicals: Faculty Leadership in Interdisciplinary Curricular Change Authors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfien, Andrea C.; Badway, Norena Norton

    2015-01-01

    Scientists, researchers, and educators have promoted the improvement of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education by incorporating an interdisciplinary approach to the study of STEM; but current research offers little guidance about how this change can occur. This study expands on a new body of research examining faculty…

  3. Discipline Identity in Economic History: Reflecting on an Interdisciplinary Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The article by Aileen Fyfe (this issue) raises a number of important issues about academic identity and the importance of the disciplinary community in the creation and maintenance of that identity. It also discusses some of the additional difficulties faced by interdisciplinary disciplines; lack of recognition (and thus institutional support),…

  4. Drug Design, Development, and Delivery: An Interdisciplinary Course on Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prausnitz, Mark R.; Bommarius, Andreas S.

    2011-01-01

    We developed a new interdisciplinary course on pharmaceuticals to address needs of undergraduate and graduate students in chemical engineering and other departments. This course introduces drug design, development, and delivery in an integrated fashion that provides scientific depth in context with broader impacts in business, policy, and ethics.…

  5. The interdisciplinary approach in textbooks: A study on energy issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martín Gámez

    2014-09-01

     Results highlight a lack of consideration of environmental and social impacts derived from energy production and consumption, and also a lack of attention to interdisciplinary aspects. Attention given to renewable energies does not fit the present role of these kinds of energies in society, focusing more on non-renewable energies. Generally texts emphasize traditional energies without regard to the future possibilities.

  6. A testpart for interdisciplinary analyses in micro production engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohring, H-C.; Kersting, P.; Carmignato, S.; Yague-Fabra, J.A.; Maestro, M.; Jimenez, R.; Ferraris, E.; Taner Tunc, L.; Bleicher, F.; Wits, Wessel Willems; Walczak, K.; Hedlind, M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, a round robin test was initiated within the group of CIRP Research Affiliates. The aim was to establish a platform for linking interdisciplinary research in order to share the expertise and experiences of participants all over the world. This paper introduces a testpart which has been

  7. Analysis of the Interdisciplinary Nature of Library and Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebor, Gila

    2010-01-01

    Library and information science (LIS) is highly interdisciplinary by nature and is affected by the incessant evolution of technologies. A recent study surveying research trends in the years 2002-6 at various information science departments worldwide has found that a clear trend was identified in Masters theses and doctoral dissertations of social…

  8. Interdisciplinary Art Education: Building Bridges to Connect Disciplines and Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokrocki, Mary, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of discipline-based art education has been transformed into new avenues for teaching and learning that require an array of bridges to traverse creating new approaches and settings for art teaching and learning. The concept of interdisciplinary learning is one that should be scrutinized closely and research and practical applications…

  9. Model Coupling in Resource Economics: Conditions for Effective Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacLeod, Miles Alexander James; Nagatsu, Michiru

    2016-01-01

    In this article we argue for the importance of studying interdisciplinary collaborations by focusing on the role that good choice and design of model-building frameworks and strategies can play overcoming the inherent difficulties of collaborative research. We provide an empirical study of

  10. Collaboration between courses in the interdisciplinary course Food Microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Andersson, Pernille Hammar

    2014-01-01

    Food Microbiology is an interdisciplinary 12.5 ETCS second-year) course in a CDIO-based Bachelor of Engineering program in Food Science at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The course was first offered in 2011. Each session in the Food Microbiology course combines theory and practice...

  11. Preparing Students in Human Service Professions for Interdisciplinary Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauss, Linda K.; Kramer, Lisa G.; Linn, Margaret Inman; Silver, Paula T.; Soliman, Hussein H.; Wellmon, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an evaluation pf a training model that introduces graduate students from the professions of clinical psychology, education, physical therapy, and social work to interdisciplinary practice. Results indicate that, when compared with a control group, students who participated in the training model exhibited significant differences in…

  12. Mathematics in Literature and Cinema: An Interdisciplinary Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrán, H. Rafael; Kozek, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We describe our team-taught, interdisciplinary course "Numb3rs in Lett3rs & Fi1ms: Mathematics in Literature and Cinema," which explores mathematics in the context of modern literature and cinema. Our goal with this course is to advance collaborations between mathematics and the written/theatre-based creative arts.

  13. An Honors Interdisciplinary Community-Based Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, David; Terlecki, Melissa; Watterson, Nancy; Ratmansky, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how two faculty members at Cabrini College--one from biology and the other from psychology--incorporated interdisciplinary community-based research in an honors course on environmental watershed issues. The course, Environmental Psychology, was team-taught in partnership with a local watershed organization, the Valley Creek…

  14. Semantic Search in E-Discovery: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graus, D.; Ren, Z.; de Rijke, M.; van Dijk, D.; Henseler, H.; van der Knaap, N.

    2013-01-01

    We propose an interdisciplinary approach to applying and evaluating semantic search in the e-discovery setting. By combining expertise from the fields of law and criminology with that of information retrieval and extraction, we move beyond "algorithm-centric" evaluation, towards evaluating the

  15. An exploration of knowledge integration problems in interdisciplinary research teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayerl, P.S.; Steinheider, B.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of function-specific expertise into a shared knowledge base is a crucial, but complex process for success in interdisciplinary teams. This paper presents an empirically derived typology of knowledge integration problems and links their occurrence to degree of heterogeneity and

  16. Knacktive: Answering a Call for More Interdisciplinary, Collaborative, Educational Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadinger, David; Toomey, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Knacktive is a one-term course that incorporates a highly select group of undergraduate students and replicates the intense teamwork atmosphere of a technology-oriented, professional marketing communication agency. As an interdisciplinary learning opportunity, Knacktive melds students from five disciplines--including art and graphic design,…

  17. Paper to Plastics: An Interdisciplinary Summer Outreach Project in Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Fiona; Kelly, Thomas; Weerapana, Eranthie; Byers, Jeffery A.

    2014-01-01

    Paper to Plastics (P2P) is an interdisciplinary program that combines chemistry and biology in a research setting. The goal of this project is 2-fold: to engage students in scientific research and to educate them about sustainability and biodegradable materials. The scientific aim of the project is to recycle unwanted office paper to the useful…

  18. Assessing Changes in Teachers' Attitudes toward Interdisciplinary STEM Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salami, Mubarak K.; Makela, Carole J.; de Miranda, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Integrating engineering and technology concepts into K-12 science and math curricula through engineering design project-based learning has been found to increase students' interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), however preparing teachers to shift to interdisciplinary teaching remains a significant challenge.…

  19. Measurement in interdisciplinary research: The contributions of widely-defined measurement and portfolio representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, H.

    2014-01-01

    An area of application of measurement with increasing relevance to science and society is interdisciplinary research. Measurement in interdisciplinary research poses new challenges to the theory of measurement, especially when scientists with different disciplinary cultures collaborate. A common

  20. Rediscovering the Connection between the Arts: Introduction to the Symposium on Interdisciplinary Arts Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Introduces a six-article symposium on interdisciplinary art education. Maintains that the specialization of modern societies presents a barrier between the arts and an interdisciplinary approach to arts education. Previews five articles that follow in the symposium. (CFR)

  1. Exploring indicators of interdisciplinary research and education success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Gemma; Blanch, Anicet; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Brouwer, Roy; Bucher, Christian; Farnleitner, Andreas; Fürnkranz-Prskawetz, Alexia; Loucks, Daniel Pete; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Parajka, Juraj; Pfeifer, Norbert; Rechberger, Helmut; Wagner, Wolfgang; Zessner, Matthias; Blöschl, Günter

    2017-04-01

    Interdisciplinary research and education programmes aim to produce groundbreaking research, often on socially relevant topics, and to produce experts with the skills to work across disciplines. However, there are many outstanding questions on the effectiveness of interdisciplinary programmes. Such as whether they produce novel and groundbreaking research, whether interdisciplinary graduates are leading to a more interdisciplinary culture of research and practice in academia and beyond, and whether an interdisciplinary approach can more effectively address issues of societal relevance than a mono-disciplinary approach. The Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems at Vienna University of Technology is currently in its eighth year and offers a valuable case study to contribute to understanding interdisciplinary research and education. Ten different research fields are covered by the Programme and because collaborative research takes place both between researchers from different research fields (cross-disciplinary research) and from researchers from the same research field (mono-disciplinary research) we are able to compare the impacts of each research type. We specifically explored three questions: i) whether cross-disciplinary research leads to more innovative scientific findings than mono-disciplinary research, ii) whether cross-disciplinary researchers develop professional skills that benefit their future careers, and iii) whether cross-disciplinary research produces findings of greater societal relevance than mono-disciplinary research. To conduct the evaluation we identified a variety of indicators. Journal impact factors (IF) and citation rates of ISI indexed publications were used to compare scientific innovativeness. Based on these indicators, our findings suggest that cross-disciplinary work is more innovative. The cross-disciplinary work is published in journals with a slightly higher impact factor (mean IF is 2.36) and receives slightly more

  2. An interdisciplinary review of current and future approaches to improving human-predator relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, S; Barua, M; Beinart, W; Dickman, A; Holmes, G; Lorimer, J; Loveridge, A J; Macdonald, D W; Marvin, G; Redpath, S; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Zimmermann, A; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2017-06-01

    In a world of shrinking habitats and increasing competition for natural resources, potentially dangerous predators bring the challenges of coexisting with wildlife sharply into focus. Through interdisciplinary collaboration among authors trained in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences, we reviewed current approaches to mitigating adverse human-predator encounters and devised a vision for future approaches to understanding and mitigating such encounters. Limitations to current approaches to mitigation include too much focus on negative impacts; oversimplified equating of levels of damage with levels of conflict; and unsuccessful technical fixes resulting from failure to engage locals, address hidden costs, or understand cultural (nonscientific) explanations of the causality of attacks. An emerging interdisciplinary literature suggests that to better frame and successfully mitigate negative human-predator relations conservation professionals need to consider dispensing with conflict as the dominant framework for thinking about human-predator encounters; work out what conflicts are really about (they may be human-human conflicts); unravel the historical contexts of particular conflicts; and explore different cultural ways of thinking about animals. The idea of cosmopolitan natures may help conservation professionals think more clearly about human-predator relations in both local and global context. These new perspectives for future research practice include a recommendation for focused interdisciplinary research and the use of new approaches, including human-animal geography, multispecies ethnography, and approaches from the environmental humanities notably environmental history. Managers should think carefully about how they engage with local cultural beliefs about wildlife, work with all parties to agree on what constitutes good evidence, develop processes and methods to mitigate conflicts, and decide how to monitor and evaluate these. Demand for

  3. It's all about relationships: A qualitative study of health researchers' perspectives of conducting interdisciplinary health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolovich Lisa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interdisciplinary research has been promoted as an optimal research paradigm in the health sciences, yet little is known about how researchers experience interdisciplinarity in practice. This study sought to determine how interdisciplinary research was conceptualized and operationalized from the researcher's perspective and to better understand how best to facilitate interdisciplinary research success. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with health researchers with expertise or experience in conducting interdisciplinary research. Interviews were completed either in person or over the telephone using a semi-structured interview guide. Data collection occurred simultaneously with data analysis so that emerging themes could be explored in subsequent interviews. A content analysis approach was used. Results Nineteen researchers took part in this study. Interdisciplinary research was conceptualized disparately between participants, and there was modest attention towards operationalization of interdisciplinary research. There was one overriding theme, "It's all about relationships", that emerged from the data. Within this theme, there were four related subthemes: 1 Involvement in interdisciplinary research; 2 Why do I do interdisciplinary research?; 3 Managing and fostering interdisciplinary relationships; and 4 The prickly side to interdisciplinary research. Together, these themes suggest that the choice to conduct interdisciplinary research, though often driven by the research question, is highly influenced by interpersonal and relationship-related factors. In addition, researchers preferred to engage in interdisciplinary research with those that they had already established relationships and where their role in the research process was clearly articulated. A focus on relationship building was seen as a strong facilitator of interdisciplinary success. Conclusion Many health researchers experienced mixed reactions

  4. A Proposed Interdisciplinary Curriculum in Forensic Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Laurence E.; Pelham, Thomas W.; Holt, Jason

    2011-01-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand for expertise in human movement as applied to civil and criminal litigation, both private and public organizations have begun to seek the help of highly trained kinesiology specialists with advanced graduate-level university education and training. This paper will begin by identifying the key elements of the…

  5. Oppression, Power, Inequality: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Delores E. B. C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a year-long team-taught course in which students viewed the sources and consequences of inequality from the perspectives of sociology, English, and art. Explains that the first quarter focused on identity issues, the second on minority experiences, and the third on a video project addressing diversity at the campus or local level. (DAJ)

  6. An Examination of Learning Formats on Interdisciplinary Teamwork Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Carole K.; Reed, Evelyn

    2011-01-01

    Although interdisciplinary teamwork is a recommended practice and important for coordinated interdisciplinary programming in special education, there is limited research on pedagogical practices to prepare professionals to work together effectively. This study examined the effectiveness of a graduate interdisciplinary teamwork course taught…

  7. A Roadmap for Forming Successful Interdisciplinary Education Research Collaborations: A Reflective Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossio, Diana; Loch, Birgit; Schier, Mark; Mazzolini, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Current literature about interdisciplinary education research is focused on three points: conceptual definitions of interdisciplinarity, the need for interdisciplinary research to tackle the advent of problem-based research and the positive curriculum outcomes to be gained from interdisciplinary research. While this research is important, it does…

  8. Interdisciplinary Learning as a Basis for Formation of Intercultural Communicative Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redchenko, Nadezhda N.

    2016-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach provides many benefits that warrant the need for its use at technical universities teaching foreign language as an academic discipline. This article reviews recent Russian researches focused on interdisciplinary integration, summarizes advantages and proves overall high efficacy of the interdisciplinary approach to…

  9. From Saying to Doing Interdisciplinary Learning: Is Problem-Based Learning the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentoft, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Problem-based learning is often characterised as an approach encompassing interdisciplinary learning; however, little attention has been explicitly paid to what a claim of interdisciplinary problem-based learning means in practice. Even less attention has been given to address the consequences of interdisciplinary problem-based learning for…

  10. Agricultural water pollution control: An interdisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Watkins W.; Ching, Chauncey T. K.; Yanagida, John F.; Jakus, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Regulation and control of agricultural water pollution is unique and difficult to accomplish. Water quality standards are often proposed without adequate consideration of the overall economic impact on agricultural production. This article illustrates how economists and physical scientists can cooperate to develop appropriate control strategies for agricultural water pollution. Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a linear programming model to describe salt discharge as a function of water management, production levels, and an associated effluent charge. Four water management activities were chosen on the basis of different costs of production (including a parametrically varied effluent charge), water requirements, alfalfa yields, and levels of salt discharge. Results indicate that when the effluent charge is low (profitable. As the effluent charge is increased (0.20 0.40/metric ton salt discharged), it becomes progressively less profitable to produce alfalfa at maximum levels of pollutant discharge. When the effluent charge is >0.40/metric ton salt discharged, alfalfa production is no longer economically feasible. An important aspect of this approach is that it permits policy makers to identify explicitly the relationship between the environmental standard and the effect on agricultural production.

  11. United by Discord, Divided by Consensus: National and Sub-national Articulation in Bolivia and Peru, 2000–2010 Unidos por el disenso, separados por el consenso: La articulación nacional y subnacional en Bolivia y Perú, 2000–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vergara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From 2000 to 2010, Bolivia and Peru underwent similar processes of political decentralization toward the meso level of the government. Three elections later in Peru and two in Bolivia, the ability of national political parties to articulate interests differs markedly between the two countries. Peru tends toward fragmentation with national parties incapable of participating or successfully competing in subnational elections, while in Bolivia, the Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS – and other parties to a lesser extent – are increasingly capable of participating and winning subnational offices. This paper argues that, despite having undergone very similar institutional reforms, the difference between the cases can largely be explained by two “society-side” variables: the caliber of the political ideas in debate and political social density. The substantive quality of ideas in debate and a greater political social density have been crucial to the Bolivian trend, while their absence has lessened the possibility of anything similar occurring in Peru. In general terms, the article sheds light on the social conditions that favor party-building in a context of decentralization reform.Entre el 2000 y el 2010, Bolivia y Perú emprendieron procesos similares de descentralización política hacia el nivel meso de gobierno. Después de tres elecciones en Perú y dos en Bolivia, la capacidad de los partidos políticos nacionales para articular intereses difiere sustantivamente en ambos países. El Perú tiende a la fragmentación pues los partidos nacionales son incapaces de participar con éxito en los niveles sub-nacionales de competencia política, mientras que en Bolivia el Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS – y, en menor medida, otros partidos - incrementan su capacidad de participar y conseguir victorias en los niveles sub-nacionales. En este artículo se sostiene que, a pesar de haber pasado por reformas institucionales muy similares, la diferencia

  12. Interdisciplinary graduate student symposium organized by students for students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, C. P.; Goulet-Hanssens, A.; de Boef, M.; Hudson, E.; Pandzic, E.

    2010-12-01

    The volcanic tipping-point: is there evidence for an eruption trigger at the Valles supercaldera? What is the role of groundwater in a northern peatland, Schefferville, Quebec? What are the lower wind profiles of a landfalling hurricane? These are just a few of the research questions discussed at the 7th Annual Graduate Student Research Symposium (IGSRS): A universe of ideas, 25 - 26 March 2010, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec Canada. Each year the symposium hosts ~ 80 graduate students from multiple fields in the Faculty of Science. This event was initiated in 2004 by a group of graduate students who realized that our scientific futures depend on communication in interdisciplinary science. The conference is novel in that it is now in the 8th year and continues to be organized by students for students. The objectives of the IGSRS are to provide students the opportunity to (1) communicate in an interdisciplinary group, (2) enrich their own research by exchanging ideas with researchers from different scientific backgrounds, (3) give and receive valuable feedback on presentation formats and (4) develop skills to network with other researchers and industry personnel. The students are asked to present either in poster or oral format to an interdisciplinary audience. Presentation feedback on clarity to an interdisciplinary audience, scientific merit and presentation style is provided from their peers and judges who are academics or employed in industry. Preliminary results from formative evaluations for 2006 indicate 88% of the students attended for 1) experience in presenting to an interdisciplinary group and to 2) meet student researchers from other disciplines. Out of this majority 68 % of the students were scientifically stimulated by conversations with their peers (26 % were neutral). Feedback on the student poster presentation format is low (36 %) and due to poor scheduling by the organizers. Formative evaluations given by the judges to the symposium organizers

  13. Our school's Earth and Space Sciences Club: 12 years promoting interdisciplinary explorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarida Maria, Ana; Pereira, Hélder

    2017-04-01

    During the past 12 years, we have been engaging secondary level science students (15 to 18 years old) in the extracurricular activities of our school's Earth and Space Sciences Club, providing them with some of the skills needed to excel in science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM). Our approach includes the use of authentic scientific data, project based learning, and inquiry-centred activities that go beyond the models and theories present in secondary level textbooks. Moreover, the activities and projects carried out, being eminently practical, also function as an extension of the curriculum and frequently enable the demonstration of the applicability of several concepts taught in the classroom in real life situations. The tasks carried out during these activities and research projects often require the combination of two or more subjects, promoting an interdisciplinary approach to learning. Outside of the traditional classroom settings, through interdisciplinary explorations, students also gain hands-on experience doing real science. Thereby, during this time, we have been able to promote meaningful and lasting experiences and spark students' interest in a wide diversity of topics.

  14. The development of in-service science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge related to interdisciplinary science inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erica L.

    This study was situated in a NSF-funded multi-year teacher professional development project, STIS, between the university and a school district in the North Eastern United States. The STIS project affords an opportunity to understand the processes and conditions in which science teachers develop interdisciplinary science inquiry knowledge and how that is translated into their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). As part of that study and within the framework of PCK in science, this study explored (1) the extent to which the involvement of in-service science teachers in authentic research experiences impacts their PCK of interdisciplinary science inquiry, and (2) the factors that contribute to or constrain the development of interdisciplinary science inquiry PCK. This research study utilized a mixed method, explanatory research design. Cross-case analysis of 10 teachers and the development of 3 case studies were done to examine the development of in-service science teachers PCK over the course of the first 3 years of the STIS project. Results showed that teachers participating in the STIS project demonstrated various levels of change in regards to their PCK, understanding of ISI, and implementation of ISI in classroom practices. The core features of STIS identified as impacting this change included (1) the summer research connection, (2) collaboration with STEM students, (3) an active learning environment, and (4) duration. The core features and the major contextual factors that were identified were utilized to revise the STIS' conceptual framework and create a theory of action. The findings of this study have implications for planning and conducting effective in-service for science educators.

  15. An Integrative Approach to STEM Concepts in an Introductory Neuroscience Course: Gains in Interdisciplinary Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Alo C.; Mondoux, Michelle A.; Whitt, Jessica L.; Isaacs, André K.; Narita, Tomohiko

    2017-01-01

    Neuroscience is an integrative discipline for which students must achieve broad-based proficiency in many of the sciences. We are motivated by the premise that student pursuit of proficiency in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) can be supported by awareness of the application of knowledge and tools from the various disciplines for solving complex problems. We refer to this awareness as “interdisciplinary awareness.” Faculty from biology, chemistry, mathematics/computer science, physics, and psychology departments contributed to a novel integrative introductory neuroscience course with no pre-requisites. STEM concepts were taught in “flipped” class modules throughout the semester: Students viewed brief videos and completed accompanying homework assignments independently. In subsequent class meetings, students applied the STEM concepts to understand nervous system structure and function through engaged learning activities. The integrative introduction to neuroscience course was compared to two other courses to test the hypothesis that it would lead to greater gains in interdisciplinary awareness than courses that overlap in content but were not designed for this specific goal. Data on interdisciplinary awareness were collected using previously published tools at the beginning and end of each course, enabling within-subject analyses. Students in the integrative course significantly increased their identification of scientific terms as relevant to neuroscience in a term-discipline relevance survey and increased their use of terms related to levels of analysis (e.g., molecular, cellular, systems) in response to an open-ended prompt. These gains were seen over time within the integrative introduction to neuroscience course as well as relative to the other two courses. PMID:29371849

  16. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M.; Bonanno, George A.; Masten, Ann S.; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture). PMID:25317257

  17. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M; Bonanno, George A; Masten, Ann S; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture).

  18. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Southwick

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1 how do we define resilience, (2 what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3 how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4 what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture.

  19. Using Interdisciplinary research to enrich teachers and classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Timm, K.; Huffman, L. T.; Peart, L. W.; Hammond, J.; McMahon, E.

    2011-12-01

    Imagine being on the stern of a ship in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of New England as the crew dumps thousands of scallops on the deck, searching the Greenland ice sheet for a remote weather station, or uncovering secrets to past climates as you join an ocean sediment drilling team in Antarctica. So you ask yourself, what would you be doing in all of these places? What you would be doing is what hundreds of educators from around the world have done for over 20 years, participating in field-based Teacher Research Experience (TRE) programs. Teacher Research Experiences involve educators from varying grade levels and backgrounds in hands-on research as a member of a scientific research team. The teacher works side by side with actual research scientists, often on tasks similar to a field assistant or graduate student. As an important member of the research team teachers learn more about science content and the process of science. Subsequently, the educators play a key role in digesting and communicating the science to their students and the general public. TRE programs vary in many ways. Programs take place in a variety of settings-from laboratories to field camps, and from university campuses to aircraft or ships. The primary commonality of the TRE programs in this presentation-PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating), ANDRILL (ANtarctic geological DRILLing) Research Immersion for Science Educators (ARISE); Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) School of Rock (SOR); and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Teacher at Sea (TAS) program-is that these programs provide an authentic field-based research experience for teachers outside of a laboratory setting, frequently in harsh, remote, or unusual settings. In addition, each of these programs is federally funded, possess dedicated program management staff, leverage existing scientific and programmatic resources, and are usually national, and sometimes international, in scope

  20. Coordinate Reference System Metadata in Interdisciplinary Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, D. L.; Arctur, D. K.; Hnilo, J.; Danko, D. M.; Rutledge, G. K.

    2011-12-01

    For global climate modeling based on a unit sphere, the positional accuracy of transformations between "real earth" coordinates and the spherical earth coordinates is practically irrelevant due to the coarse grid and precision of global models. Consequently, many climate models are driven by data using real-earth coordinates without transforming them to the shape of the model grid. Additionally, metadata to describe the earth shape and its relationship to latitude longitude demarcations, or datum, used for model output is often left unspecified or ambiguous. Studies of weather and climate effects on coastal zones, water resources, agriculture, biodiversity, and other critical domains typically require positional accuracy on the order of several meters or less. This precision requires that a precise datum be used and accounted for in metadata. While it may be understood that climate model results using spherical earth coordinates could not possibly approach this level of accuracy, precise coordinate reference system metadata is nevertheless required by users and applications integrating climate and geographic information. For this reason, data publishers should provide guidance regarding the appropriate datum to assume for their data. Without some guidance, analysts must make assumptions they are uncomfortable or unwilling to make and may spend inordinate amounts of time researching the correct assumption to make. A consequence of the (practically justified for global climate modeling) disregard for datums is that datums are also neglected when publishing regional or local scale climate and weather data where datum information may be important. For example, observed data, like precipitation and temperature measurements, used in downscaling climate model results are georeferenced precisely. If coordinate reference system metadata are disregarded in cases like this, systematic biases in geolocation can result. Additionally, if no datum transformation was applied to

  1. Using Case Studies to Teach Interdisciplinary Water Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, C. H.; Tillotson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching about water resources and often emphasizes the biophysical sciences to understand highly complex hydrologic, ecologic and engineering systems, yet most impediments to improving management emerge from social processes. Challenges to more sustainable management often result from trade-offs among stakeholders (e.g., ecosystem services, energy, municipal use, and agriculture) and occur while allocating resources to competing goals of economic development, social equity, and efficient governance. Competing interests operating across multiple scales can increase tensions and prevent collaborative resolution of resource management problems. Here we discuss using specific, place-based cases to teach the interdisciplinary context of water management. Using a case approach allows instructors to first explore the geologic and hydrologic setting of a specific problem to let students understand where water comes from, then how it is used by people and ecosystems, and finally what conflicts arise from mismatches between water quality, quantity, timing, human demand, and ecosystem needs. The case approach helps students focus on specific problem to understand how the landscape influences water availability, without needing to first learn everything about the relevant fields. We look at geology, hydrology and climate in specific watersheds before addressing the human and ecosystem aspects of the broader, integrated system. This gives students the context to understand what limits water availability and how a water budget constrains possible solutions to sustainability problems. It also mimics the approach we have taken in research addressing these problems. In an example case the Spokane Coeur D'Alene basin, spanning the border between SE Washington and NW Idaho, includes a sole source aquifer system with high exchange between surface water and a highly conductive aquifer. The Spokane River does not meet water quality standards and is likely to face climate driven shifts

  2. Towards an interdisciplinary ICT applied ethics: language matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Buzato

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study seeks to support an interdisciplinary, theory-practice integrated work on the applied ethics of information and communication technologies (ICT. Current work on applied ICT ethics is of a disciplinary nature and seeks to apply traditional philosophical norms to novel situations that are not easily identified by analogy to previous cases. I propose an alternative view in which ICTs are seen as a moral environment and ethical agents are seen as human-computer hybrids (cyborgs whose experiences acquire ethical value ecologically. To implement such a view, I propose employing two different kinds of semiotics: a semiotics of meaning-making that is open to the environmental effects of cyborg acts across scales, and a material semiotics that allows for interdisciplinary practitioners to recognize the modes of existence involved in the ethical issues and work out better means-ends relationships among the modes pertinent to each discipline.

  3. Interdisciplinary action of nurses to children with suspected sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Leão Ciuffo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Understanding the role of nurses as members of interdisciplinary teams in the care of children with suspected sexual abuse. Methodology. This is a qualitative research based on the sociological phenomenology of Alfred Schutz. In 2008 were interviewed eleven nurses who worked in reference institutions for the care of child victims of sexual abuse in Rio de Janeiro. Results. The category called 'Interacting with other professionals in child care' emerged from the analysis of performance of professionals. The intersubjective relations between the nurses and the interdisciplinary team will enable to understand the intent of care from the perspective of social, emotional and psychological needs of children and their families. Conclusion. Interdisciplinarity favored the development of actions based on acceptance, listening and agreements on possible solutions in the care of children with suspected sexual abuse.

  4. Ontological metaphors for negative energy in an interdisciplinary context

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W; Gouvea, Julia; Sawtelle, Vashti; Turpen, Chandra; Redish, Edward F

    2013-01-01

    Teaching about energy in interdisciplinary settings that emphasize coherence among physics, chemistry, and biology leads to a more central role for chemical bond energy. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to chemical energy leads to modeling chemical bonds in terms of negative energy. While recent work on ontological metaphors for energy has emphasized the affordances of the substance ontology, this ontology is problematic in the context of negative energy. Instead, we apply a dynamic ontologies perspective to argue that blending the substance and location ontologies for energy can be effective in reasoning about negative energy in the context of reasoning about chemical bonds. We present data from an introductory physics for the life sciences (IPLS) course in which both experts and students successfully use this blended ontology. Blending these ontologies is most successful when the substance and location ontologies are combined such that each is strategically utilized in reasoning about particular ...

  5. Interdisciplinary treatment planning in inpatient settings: from myth to model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Kris A; Geller, Jeffrey L

    2010-09-01

    The staffs of many mental health facilities describe their treatment planning processes as interdisciplinary, but as most practicing clinicians know, this is more of a myth than reality. Individualized, person-focused treatment planning itself is not a simple endeavor. Effective treatment planning is further complicated by the fact that most discipline training programs teach neither treatment planning nor interdisciplinary methods to provide care and treatment. Psychiatric treatment teams are at a disadvantage from the start. Additionally, although facility and agency administrators expect treatment planning to occur, often the infrastructure to support the work is not there. This article describes a practical and effective treatment planning implementation model or framework developed by the authors, concentrating on three sub-sets of the treatment planning system: structure, content, and process.

  6. Ontological metaphors for negative energy in an interdisciplinary context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Dreyfus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Teaching about energy in interdisciplinary settings that emphasize coherence among physics, chemistry, and biology leads to a more central role for chemical bond energy. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to chemical energy leads to modeling chemical bonds in terms of negative energy. While recent work on ontological metaphors for energy has emphasized the affordances of the substance ontology, this ontology is problematic in the context of negative energy. Instead, we apply a dynamic ontologies perspective to argue that blending the substance and location ontologies for energy can be effective in reasoning about negative energy in the context of reasoning about chemical bonds. We present data from an introductory physics for the life sciences course in which both experts and students successfully use this blended ontology. Blending these ontologies is most successful when the substance and location ontologies are combined such that each is strategically utilized in reasoning about particular aspects of energetic processes.

  7. Students' Interdisciplinary Reasoning about "High-Energy Bonds" and ATP

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W; Sawtelle, Vashti; Svoboda, Julia; Turpen, Chandra; Redish, Edward F

    2012-01-01

    Students' sometimes contradictory ideas about ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and the nature of chemical bonds have been studied in the biology and chemistry education literatures, but these topics are rarely part of the introductory physics curriculum. We present qualitative data from an introductory physics course for undergraduate biology majors that seeks to build greater interdisciplinary coherence and therefore includes these topics. In these data, students grapple with the apparent contradiction between the energy released when the phosphate bond in ATP is broken and the idea that an energy input is required to break a bond. We see that students' perceptions of how each scientific discipline bounds the system of interest can influence how they justify their reasoning about a topic that crosses disciplines. This has consequences for a vision of interdisciplinary education that respects disciplinary perspectives while bringing them into interaction in ways that demonstrate consistency amongst the perspectiv...

  8. Negative Energy: Why Interdisciplinary Physics Requires Multiple Ontologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W; Gouvea, Julia; Sawtelle, Vashti; Turpen, Chandra; Redish, Edward F

    2013-01-01

    Much recent work in physics education research has focused on ontological metaphors for energy, particularly the substance ontology and its pedagogical affordances. The concept of negative energy problematizes the substance ontology for energy, but in many instructional settings, the specific difficulties around negative energy are outweighed by the general advantages of the substance ontology. However, we claim that our interdisciplinary setting (a physics class that builds deep connections to biology and chemistry) leads to a different set of considerations and conclusions. In a course designed to draw interdisciplinary connections, the centrality of chemical bond energy in biology necessitates foregrounding negative energy from the beginning. We argue that the emphasis on negative energy requires a combination of substance and location ontologies. The location ontology enables energies both "above" and "below" zero. We present preliminary student data that illustrate difficulties in reasoning about negativ...

  9. NEXUS/Physics: An interdisciplinary repurposing of physics for biologists

    CERN Document Server

    Redish, E F; Carleton, K L; Cooke, T J; Cooper, M; Crouch, C H; Dreyfus, B W; Geller, B; Giannini, J; Gouvea, J Svoboda; Klymkowsky, M W; Losert, W; Moore, K; Presson, J; Sawtelle, V; Thompson, K V; Turpen, C

    2013-01-01

    In response to increasing calls for the reform of the curriculum for life science majors and pre-medical students (Bio2010, Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians, Vision & Change), an interdisciplinary team has created NEXUS/Physics: a reinvention of an introductory physics curriculum for the life sciences. The curriculum interacts strongly and supportively with introductory biology and chemistry cours-es taken by life sciences students, with the goal of helping students build general, multi-discipline scientific competencies. In order to do this, our two-semester NEXUS/Physics course sequence is positioned as a second year course so students will have had some exposure to basic concepts in biology and chemistry. NEXUS/Physics stresses interdisciplinary examples and the content differs markedly from traditional introductory physics to facilitate this, including extending the discussion of energy to include interatomic potentials and chemical reactions, extending the discussion of thermodynamics to ...

  10. Students' interdisciplinary reasoning about "high-energy bonds" and ATP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Geller, Benjamin D.; Sawtelle, Vashti; Svoboda, Julia; Turpen, Chandra; Redish, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Students' sometimes contradictory ideas about ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and the nature of chemical bonds have been studied in the biology and chemistry education literatures, but these topics are rarely part of the introductory physics curriculum. We present qualitative data from an introductory physics course for undergraduate biology majors that seeks to build greater interdisciplinary coherence and therefore includes these topics. In these data, students grapple with the apparent contradiction between the energy released when the phosphate bond in ATP is broken and the idea that an energy input is required to break a bond. We see that students' perceptions of how each scientific discipline bounds the system of interest can influence how they justify their reasoning about a topic that crosses disciplines. This has consequences for a vision of interdisciplinary education that respects disciplinary perspectives while bringing them into interaction in ways that demonstrate consistency amongst the perspectives.

  11. The limits of discipline: towards interdisciplinary food studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Richard

    2012-11-05

    While the number of scholars working on the broad topic of food has never been greater, the topic is still divided among numerous disciplines and specialists who do not often communicate with each other. This paper discusses some of the deep differences between disciplinary approaches, and concludes that food scientists differ in some of their basic assumptions about human nature. After outlining some of the institutional issues standing in the way of interdisciplinary work, the paper argues for a more synthetic and empirical approach, grounded in the study of everyday life. True interdisciplinary collaboration will have to go beyond assembling multidisciplinary teams. Instead we must accept the limitations of the classic disciplinary paradigms, and be willing to question and test our methods and assumptions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interdisciplinary cooperation and studies in geoscience in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field, as the more innovative studies are increasingly crossing discipline boundaries and thus benefitting from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by supporting and promoting the creation of “meeting places” able to provide a framework for researchers and scholars involved in geoscience research to find common grounds for discussion and collaboration. Most recently, this was achieved by organizing the 1st Workshop on “Interdisciplinarity in Geosciences in the Carpathian Basin” (IGCB held in the Department of Geography at the University of Suceava (Romania, between the 18th and 22nd October 2012. This event brought together both an international group of scientists and local researchers which created opportunities for collaboration in research topics such as geography, environment, geology and botany, biology and ecology in the Carpathian Basin.

  13. Evaluating the impact of interdisciplinary research: a multilayer network approach

    CERN Document Server

    Omodei, Elisa; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, scientific challenges usually require approaches that cross traditional boundaries between academic disciplines, driving many researchers towards interdisciplinarity. Despite its obvious importance, there is a lack of studies on how to quantify the influence of interdisciplinarity on the research impact, posing uncertainty in a proper evaluation for hiring and funding purposes. Here we propose a method based on the analysis of bipartite interconnected multilayer networks of citations and disciplines, to assess scholars, institutions and countries interdisciplinary importance. Using data about physics publications and US patents, we show that our method allows to reveal, using a quantitative approach, that being more interdisciplinary causes -- in the Granger sense -- benefits in scientific productivity and impact. The proposed method could be used by funding agencies, universities and scientific policy decision makers for hiring and funding purposes, and to complement existing methods to rank univer...

  14. Symmetry – An International and Interdisciplinary Scientific Open Access Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As the publisher of MDPI journals, I am pleased to launch Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994, an international and interdisciplinary open access scientific journal. Twenty years ago, a journal entitled Symmetry – An Interdisciplinary and International Journal was launched by VCH Publishers, Inc. in New York, with Professor Istvan Hargittai as Editor-in-Chief. I submitted a paper which was processed by Professor Sven J. Cyvin from The University of Trondheim – The Norwegian Institute of Technology. The paper was accepted and scheduled for publication in the printed issue 4 of volume 1, 1990. I still keep a copy of the galley proofs. However, the publication of this journal was terminated after just the release of the first issue of volume 1, and this paper was finally published elsewhere [1]. [...

  15. Interdisciplinary Study of Numerical Methods and Power Plants Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana OPRIS

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology, electronics and computing opened the way for a cross-disciplinary research that brings benefits by combining the achievements of different fields. To prepare the students for their future interdisciplinary approach,aninterdisciplinary teaching is adopted. This ensures their progress in knowledge, understanding and ability to navigate through different fields. Aiming these results, the Universities introduce new interdisciplinary courses which explore complex problems by studying subjects from different domains. The paper presents a problem encountered in designingpower plants. The method of solvingthe problem isused to explain the numerical methods and to exercise programming.The goal of understanding a numerical algorithm that solves a linear system of equations is achieved by using the knowledge of heat transfer to design the regenerative circuit of a thermal power plant. In this way, the outcomes from the prior courses (mathematics and physics are used to explain a new subject (numerical methods and to advance future ones (power plants.

  16. 2nd Conference on Interdisciplinary Applications in Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Flores, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This book collects a number of important contributions presented during the Second Conference on Interdisciplinary Applications of Kinematics (IAK 2013) held in Lima, Peru. The conference brought together scientists from several research fields, such as computational kinematics, multibody systems, industrial machines, robotics, biomechanics, mechatronics, computational chemistry, and vibration analysis, and embraced all key aspects of kinematics, namely, theoretical methods, modeling, optimization, experimental validation, industrial applications, and design. Kinematics is an exciting area of computational mechanics and plays  a central role in a great variety of fields and industrial applications nowadays. Apart from research in pure kinematics, the field deals with problems of practical relevance that need to be solved in an interdisciplinary manner in order for new technologies to develop. The results presented in this book should be of interest for practicing and research engineers as well as Ph.D. stud...

  17. Design as a Cultural Venue for Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Volf, Mette

    2014-01-01

    and facilitating processes in a methodical and systematic manner. The user centred framing of designers, their imaginative capabilities and their expressive skills enable them to span complex boundaries within and across multidisciplinary teams. The aim of the present paper is to outline that designer's methods......Sense Making has become the strategic fuel for meaningful Change Making in organizations today. 1 When designers enter into and facilitate large interdisciplinary teams it changes the role of the designer from being characterised by aesthetic professionalism to thinking strategically...... and visual skills can be the link between mental models and languages that occur in interdisciplinary teams. The designer's methods such as visualization and prototyping as well as their Sensemaking methods2 can strengthen a team's chance to imagine future scenarios and their implications. It provides...

  18. Interdisciplinary approach to oral rehabilitation of patient with amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Burak; Oz, Ulas; Yilmaz, Hasan Guney

    2014-03-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a hereditary condition that affects the development of enamel, causing quantity, structural and compositional anomalies that involve all dentitions. Consequently, the effects can extend to both the primary and secondary dentitions. Patients with amelogenesis imperfecta may present with clinical difficulties, such as insufficient crown length, tooth sensitivity and orthodontic discrepancies, all of which can be resolved successfully with an interdisciplinary approach. This case report describes the interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of a 22-year-old patient with amelogenesis imperfecta. The proper alignment of anterior teeth and gingivo-cervical line was provided with orthodontic and periodontal treatments. All-ceramic crowns were placed on anterior, and metal-ceramic restorations were placed on posterior teeth to reduce sensitivity and improve esthetics with function. Improved esthetic appearance, reduced tooth sensitivity and the resolution of a potentially harmful psychosocial condition were achieved. Patient remained satisfied in the 12-month follow-up examination.

  19. Music Therapy and Special Music Education: Interdisciplinary Dialogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice-Ann Darrow

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from Professor Alice-Ann Darrow’s life-long work in the fields of music therapy and special music education, this interview brings to the fore the importance of interdisciplinary dialogue. A range of themes (including the notion of ‘musical rights’ and inclusion emerge and are discussed in relation to the development of interdisciplinary and collaborative work between different music practices. Darrow shares experiences from her personal and professional life that have shaped her work and way of thinking over the years. This interview can provide a framework within which readers can situate and further understand Darrow’s rich contribution within the fields of music therapy and special music education both nationally and internationally.

  20. Interdisciplinary Research for Engineering Skills Development Interdisciplinary Research for Engineering Skills Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel E. González-Lizardo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo reporta los resultados de una experiencia interdisciplinaria de investigaciónpara estudiantes de ingeniería, en el Laboratorio de Ingeniería de Plasma (PEL por sussiglas en inglés de la Universidad Politécnica de Puerto Rico (UPPR. Los rasgos fuertes de esta experiencia y su relación con los resultados esperados por la Junta de Acreditación para Ingeniería y Tecnología (ABET por sus siglas en inglés son destacados, y una descripción cualitativa de los resultados en términos de la ejecución de los estudiantes durante la experiencia y después de ella. Se presenta un ejemplo de las diferentes actividades realizadas por un equipo de estudiantes subgraduados y su relación con los resultados esperados por ABET. La experiencia de investigación en el PEL provee a los estudiantes con una oportunidad única para practicar la ingeniería antes de su graduación, a través de problemas reales, innovación, colaboración con otras instituciones, y presentación de su trabajo a audiencias de científicos e ingenieros. This work reports the results of an ad hoc interdisciplinary research experience for undergraduate engineering students at the Plasma Engineering Laboratory (PEL of the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico (PUPR. The strong features of this experience and their relationship with Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET outcomes are pointed out, and a qualitative description of the results is discussed, in terms of the performance of the students during the experience and after it. An example of the different activities performed by a team of undergraduate students, and their relationship with the ABET outcomes is presented. The undergraduate research at the PEL provides the students with a unique opportunity to practice engineering before graduation through real life problems, innovation, collaboration with other institutions, and presentation of their work for engineering and scientific audiences.

  1. Lingua-Pedagogy as the Interdisciplinary Research Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Yakovleva, A. N.

    2012-01-01

     The paper is devoted to lingua-pedagogy – one of the modern branches of pedagogy dealing with personal socialization in the process of foreign language learning. This interdisciplinary field of knowledge is related to linguistics, pedagogic psychology, development psychology and acmeology. Lingua-pedagogy undergoes the formation process; therefore, there still are a number of open questions concerning its place among the other sciences, and the final definitions of the main concepts and term...

  2. Christian Feasts dedicated to Saints – an Interdisciplinary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Maria Bolocan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Our paper is an interdisciplinary approach, of linguistic and theological analysis of a few lexemes that define saints who became popular in the Romanian culture and spirituality. Our ancient church, a fundamental part of our culture, has always been a coagulant factor for the unity of the Romanians worldwide. And this is also proven by the use of the religious vocabulary in all the anthropological, territorial, socio-professional and socio-cultural variants of the national Romanian language.

  3. A postcolonial gaze on monumentality: the need for interdisciplinary approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha Leal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on a master thesis. The article tries to unravel some of the interdisciplinary keys present in the work and necessary for the development of research on Public Space and Public Art. At the same time argues in favor of “post colonial” reading over the-produced space by the colonial powers, both in terms of its structural dimension and in the dimension of “decorum”.

  4. Interdisciplinary for Social Engagement: Art and Design Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hope Angelique Wells; Lyubava Fartushenko; Andrew Chamberlain

    2015-01-01

    In this ever-changing world with a population of over seven billion, social equality, and environmental sustainability needs new innovative and inclusive solutions. Today, the interdisciplinary practice of art and design has the ability to raise social awareness and engagement in health-related issues. Art and design experiments with combining the traditional art methods with technology and interactive systems to communicate scientific research with problem solving goals. Creative interdiscip...

  5. Coordinated aggregation in complex systems:. an interdisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basios, V.; Nicolis, S. C.; Deneubourg, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    The study of the topic of guided aggregation in biology brings together decision making, collective motion and the dynamical interplay between individuals and groups. At the same time it meets statistical mechanics and the physics of complex systems in a new paradigmatic thinking. We propose a research platform for implementation and for undertaking systematic studies of coordinated aggregation, in a truly multi- and inter-disciplinary fashion.

  6. Enhancing interdisciplinary climate change work through comprehensive evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Klink, Jenna; Koundinya, Vikram; Kies, Kim; Robinson, Courtney; Rao, Amulya; Berezowitz, Claire; Widhalm, Melissa; Prokopy, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This paper shares the details of an evaluation plan from an interdisciplinary climate change project that developed decision support tools (DSTs) for agricultural advisors and farmers. It showcases how evaluation enhanced the project work by providing opportunities for the team to reflect on and use data to improve performance. The plan included both formative and summative approaches, team member interviews to assess team functioning, usability testing of DSTs, outreach and marketing campaig...

  7. Innovative Teaching in Civil Engineering With Interdisciplinary Team Work

    OpenAIRE

    Heinendirk, Eva-Maria; Čadež, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Regarding the requirements of today’s work life, students should learn – beside the technical knowledge – how to work in teams. Successful team work, especially by interdisciplinary teams within construction processes, requires a wide range of competences and skills. Integration of these opportunities into education of construction engineers is discussed in this paper. The “Shift from Teaching to Learning” (WILDT, J. 2003) provides a strengthened focus on education of com...

  8. Inter-disciplinary teaching strategies for mental health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Lynne; Fitzpatrick, Renee; Abo-El Ella, Shaimaa

    2015-01-01

    The use of an inter-disciplinary teaching strategy in the context of mental health law is explored here as a means of balancing concerns for the patient's best interests and maximizing their autonomy. One law professor and one psychiatrist participated in joint teaching sessions in the Queen's University School of Medicine, and share their strategies for overcoming perceived conflicts between patient's legal rights and the practice of psychiatry. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of architect in interdisciplinary collaborative design studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Jutraž

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Architectural design is a complex process involving different actors. While studying architecture, students usually work alone, and they do not have many opportunities to collaborate with other professions. Consequently, they end up lacking the knowledge regarding other professions, as well as regarding communic42ation and collaboration with other professionals. They become too proud of themselves, which eventually prevents them from engaging in active collaboration and accepting compromises. Furthermore, it is essential for their future professional careers that architects collaborate with other professions, adopt their ideas and requirements. Such collaboration is recommended from the early stages of the design process onwards. The main focus of this article is to determine the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration in architecture projects through the process of studying architecture, the role of the architect within this process, and the manner in which decisions are usually made within an interdisciplinary team. The following research is based on the AEC Global Teamwork Course, which took place during school years 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014, 2013 at Stanford University under the leadership of Prof. Dr. Renate Fruchter. Students from all around the world worked together on an architectural project from its initial stages. They met twice only: at the beginning and at the end of the project, otherwise they worked on a virtual basis, using different digital tools intended for long-distance interdisciplinary collaboration. There were three case studies examined for the purposes of this article in which the main focus was placed on architects, more specifically on the challenges and the problems they were facing, the knowledge architects gained through interdisciplinary collaboration, and lessons learned in such a course that could help them with their professional careers.

  10. Interactive knowledge networks for interdisciplinary course navigation within Moodle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherl, Andre; Dethleffsen, Kathrin; Meyer, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Web-based hypermedia learning environments are widely used in modern education and seem particularly well suited for interdisciplinary learning. Previous work has identified guidance through these complex environments as a crucial problem of their acceptance and efficiency. We reasoned that map-based navigation might provide straightforward and effortless orientation. To achieve this, we developed a clickable and user-oriented concept map-based navigation plugin. This tool is implemented as an extension of Moodle, a widely used learning management system. It visualizes inner and interdisciplinary relations between learning objects and is generated dynamically depending on user set parameters and interactions. This plugin leaves the choice of navigation type to the user and supports direct guidance. Previously developed and evaluated face-to-face interdisciplinary learning materials bridging physiology and physics courses of a medical curriculum were integrated as learning objects, the relations of which were defined by metadata. Learning objects included text pages, self-assessments, videos, animations, and simulations. In a field study, we analyzed the effects of this learning environment on physiology and physics knowledge as well as the transfer ability of third-term medical students. Data were generated from pre- and posttest questionnaires and from tracking student navigation. Use of the hypermedia environment resulted in a significant increase of knowledge and transfer capability. Furthermore, the efficiency of learning was enhanced. We conclude that hypermedia environments based on Moodle and enriched by concept map-based navigation tools can significantly support interdisciplinary learning. Implementation of adaptivity may further strengthen this approach.

  11. Public Management and Disaster Risk Reduction: potential interdisciplinary contributions

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    Gerrit van der Waldt

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the interdisciplinary nature of Disaster Risk Reduction as an emerging field of study. The development of this field of study is interpreted within the context of the evolution of Public Management as an academic discipline. The author argues that the philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of both Public Management and Disaster Risk Reduction share commonalities. Thus, the foundational and functional aspects of Public Management did, and should continue to, inform and enrich the study of Disaster Risk Reduction.

  12. Public Management and Disaster Risk Reduction: potential interdisciplinary contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Gerrit van der Waldt

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the interdisciplinary nature of Disaster Risk Reduction as an emerging field of study. The development of this field of study is interpreted within the context of the evolution of Public Management as an academic discipline. The author argues that the philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of both Public Management and Disaster Risk Reduction share commonalities. Thus, the foundational and functional aspects of Public Management did, and should continue to, info...

  13. Elaboration of the New Paradigm of Interdisciplinary Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Patlavskiy, Serge

    1999-01-01

    In the article, the problem of creating a theoretical system for approaching the complex phenomena of Reality is discussed. The idea is expressed that epistemology, as the theory of cognitive process, has a dissociative character. The postulate of an integrated informational system is formulated. Such postulate is a suggested basis for creation of a unified methodology of cognition (investigation) which makes it possible to elaborate a new paradigm of interdisciplinary investigations as a sep...

  14. New perspectives on interdisciplinary earth science at the Dead Sea: The DESERVE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottmeier, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Kottmeier@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Agnon, Amotz [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel); Al-Halbouni, Djamil [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Alpert, Pinhas [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo (Israel); Corsmeier, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dahm, Torsten [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Eshel, Adam [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo (Israel); Geyer, Stefan [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research GmbH — UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Haas, Michael; Holohan, Eoghan [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Kalthoff, Norbert [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kishcha, Pavel [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo (Israel); Krawczyk, Charlotte [Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics (LIAG), Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover (Germany); Lati, Joseph [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo (Israel); Laronne, Jonathan B. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva (Israel); Lott, Friederike [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mallast, Ulf; Merz, Ralf [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research GmbH — UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Metzger, Jutta [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mohsen, Ayman [An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine (Country Unknown); and others

    2016-02-15

    The Dead Sea region has faced substantial environmental challenges in recent decades, including water resource scarcity, ~ 1 m annual decreases in the water level, sinkhole development, ascending-brine freshwater pollution, and seismic disturbance risks. Natural processes are significantly affected by human interference as well as by climate change and tectonic developments over the long term. To get a deep understanding of processes and their interactions, innovative scientific approaches that integrate disciplinary research and education are required. The research project DESERVE (Helmholtz Virtual Institute Dead Sea Research Venue) addresses these challenges in an interdisciplinary approach that includes geophysics, hydrology, and meteorology. The project is implemented by a consortium of scientific institutions in neighboring countries of the Dead Sea (Israel, Jordan, Palestine Territories) and participating German Helmholtz Centres (KIT, GFZ, UFZ). A new monitoring network of meteorological, hydrological, and seismic/geodynamic stations has been established, and extensive field research and numerical simulations have been undertaken. For the first time, innovative measurement and modeling techniques have been applied to the extreme conditions of the Dead Sea and its surroundings. The preliminary results show the potential of these methods. First time ever performed eddy covariance measurements give insight into the governing factors of Dead Sea evaporation. High-resolution bathymetric investigations reveal a strong correlation between submarine springs and neo-tectonic patterns. Based on detailed studies of stratigraphy and borehole information, the extension of the subsurface drainage basin of the Dead Sea is now reliably estimated. Originality has been achieved in monitoring flash floods in an arid basin at its outlet and simultaneously in tributaries, supplemented by spatio-temporal rainfall data. Low-altitude, high resolution photogrammetry, allied to

  15. Chronic pelvic pain in an interdisciplinary setting: 1-year prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Catherine; Williams, Christina; Bodmer-Roy, Sonja; Zhu, Sean; Arion, Kristina; Ambacher, Kristin; Wu, Jessica; Yosef, Ali; Wong, Fontayne; Noga, Heather; Britnell, Susannah; Yager, Holly; Bedaiwy, Mohamed A; Albert, Arianne Y; Lisonkova, Sarka; Yong, Paul J

    2018-01-01

    Endometriosis Health Profile-30, P pelvic pain severity at 1 year was independently associated with a higher score on the Pain Catastrophizing Scale at baseline (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.21, P = .04), controlling for baseline pain, treatment effects (surgery), age, and referral status. Improvements in chronic pelvic pain severity, quality of life, and health care utilization were observed in a 1-year cohort in an interdisciplinary setting. Higher pain catastrophizing at baseline was associated with greater chronic pelvic pain severity at 1 year. Consideration should be given to stratifying pelvic pain patients by catastrophizing level (rumination, magnification, helplessness) in research studies and in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Interdisciplinary approach to the demography of Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The trans-Atlantic slave trade dramatically changed the demographic makeup of the New World, with varying regions of the African coast exploited differently over roughly a 400 year period. When compared to the discrete mitochondrial haplotype distribution of historically appropriate source populations, the unique distribution within a specific source population can prove insightful in estimating the contribution of each population. Here, we analyzed the first hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA in a sample from the Caribbean island of Jamaica and compared it to aggregated populations in Africa divided according to historiographically defined segments of the continent's coastline. The results from these admixture procedures were then compared to the wealth of historic knowledge surrounding the disembarkation of Africans on the island. Results In line with previous findings, the matriline of Jamaica is almost entirely of West African descent. Results from the admixture analyses suggest modern Jamaicans share a closer affinity with groups from the Gold Coast and Bight of Benin despite high mortality, low fecundity, and waning regional importation. The slaves from the Bight of Biafra and West-central Africa were imported in great numbers; however, the results suggest a deficit in expected maternal contribution from those regions. Conclusions When considering the demographic pressures imposed by chattel slavery on Jamaica during the slave era, the results seem incongruous. Ethnolinguistic and ethnographic evidence, however, may explain the apparent non-random levels of genetic perseverance. The application of genetics may prove useful in answering difficult demographic questions left by historically voiceless groups. PMID:22360861

  17. Freshman Seminars: Interdisciplinary Engagements in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, M. K.

    2006-08-01

    The Freshman Seminar program at the University of Texas is designed to allow groups of fifteen students an engaging introduction to the University. The seminars introduce students to the resources of the university and allow them to identify interesting subjects for further research or future careers. An emphasis on oral and written communication by the students provides these first-year students a transition to college-level writing and thinking. Seminar activities include field trips to an art museum, a research library, and the Humanities Research Center rare book collection. This paper will report on two seminars, each fifteen weeks in length. In "The Galileo Scandal" students examine Galileo's struggle with the church (including a mock trial). They perform activities that connect his use of the telescope and observations to astronomical concepts. In "Astronomy and the Humanities" students analyze various forms of human expression that have astronomical connections (art, drama, literature, music, poetry, and science fiction); they perform hands-on activities to reinforce the related astronomy concepts. Evaluation of the seminars indicates student engagement and improvement in communication skills. Many of the activities could be used independently to engage students enrolled in standard introductory astronomy classes.

  18. Transmitting Mediterranean food culture through art: a creative interdisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernini, Sandro

    2006-12-01

    As a qualitative problem solving method, to manage the accelerating phenomenon of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents as well as to promote the Mediterranean Diet and the diversity of the Mediterranean Food Cultures heritage, it is presented a creative interdisciplinary approach through art. Taking into account that young generations are becoming the highest majority of the consumer population in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries, it is reported the artist practice and the creative community-based interdisciplinary experience of Plexus International, a network of artists and scientists of various nationalities and disciplines. Mediterranean Region and International. Young Populations. Through the Ark of the Well Being project, artists and scientists have collaborate together, promoting The 2005 Rome Call for a Common Action in the Mediterranean and raising more attention on the erosion of the cognitive capacities of young generations by hunger and malnutrition. A creative interdisciplinary approach was developed to transmit through art Mediterranean food culture with the aim to achieve a broader nutritional well being.

  19. The Paradigm of Critical Realism: Approach to an Interdisciplinary Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tavana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The debate of method of recognition in humanities, social and nature science is one of the apprehensions of Scientists in Wisdom Domain –especially in the modern world. This apprehension, before all things was of appearing in the paradigm of methodoligical between the advocates of the paradigms of positivism with having a share of the natural science. They used to values of naturalism in social and human studies. Additionally, testing and observation and repetition are present as the main terms of recognition. In front, the difference between human studies and natural science is important for the advocates of hermeneutic paradigm. Also, they speak about the methodology of interpretation (understanding of human and social phenomenon. But, in the second half of 20th century another paradigms was established as the Critical realism. This paradigm is tried to parther from the methodoloigcal binary and has a share from the recognition of ontological positivism and epistemological hermeneutics attain to a procedure of interdisciplinary about recognition. So, on the basis of this subject, this article mentioned this question that: would the critical realism receive as the methodology in interdisciplinary? Method of the Article is postulate. This article reasoned that multilayer ontology and epistemology redounded to multilayer methodology that could build up the knowledge of interdisciplinary.

  20. Why the Interdisciplinary Team Approach Works: Insights from Complexity Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemins, Elizabeth L; Brant, Jeannine; Kersten, Diane; Mullette, Elizabeth; Dickerson, Dustin

    2016-07-01

    Although an interdisciplinary approach is considered best practice for caring for patients at the end of life, or in need of palliative care (PC) services, there is growing tension between healthcare organizations' need to contain costs and the provision of this beneficial, yet resource-intensive service. To support the interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach by recognizing organizations, teams, patients, and families as complex adaptive systems, illustrated by a qualitative study of the experiences, roles, and attributes of healthcare professionals (HCPs) who work with patients in need of PC services. In-depth, semi-structured interviews of PC health professionals were conducted, transcribed, and independently reviewed using grounded theory methodology and preliminary interpretations. A combined deductive and inductive iterative qualitative approach was used to identify recurring themes. The study was conducted in a physician-led, not-for-profit, multispecialty integrated health system serving three large, Western, rural states. A purposive sample of 10 HCPs who regularly provide PC services were interviewed. A positive team/patient experience was related to individual attributes, including self-awareness, spirit of inquiry, humility, and comfort with dying. IDT attributes included shared purpose, relational coordination, holistic thinking, trust, and respect for patient autonomy. Professional and personal motivations also contributed to a positive team/patient experience. Interdisciplinary PC teams have the potential to significantly impact patient and team experiences when caring for seriously ill patients. Findings from this study support interventions that focus on relationship building and application of a complex systems theory approach to team development.