WorldWideScience

Sample records for subnanogram mass gems

  1. The Gated Electrostatic Mass Spectrometer (GEMS): Definition and Preliminary Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrero, Federico A; Jones, Hollis H; Lee, Jeffrey G

    2008-01-01

    ... for the GEMS idea among other approaches to TOF spectrometry. Since GEMS is based on electrostatic energy analyzers (ESAs), a detailed description of the small deflection energy analyzer (SDEA) is given in the next section. The earth's upper atmosphere and the atmospheres of other planets have been investigated with different types of mass spectrometers for mo...

  2. The gated electrostatic mass spectrometer (GEMS): definition and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Federico A; Jones, Hollis H; Lee, Jeffrey G

    2008-10-01

    GEMS is a new type of time-of-flight mass spectrometer based on an electrostatic energy analyzer. Mass resolution equals the energy analyzer kinetic energy resolution, which is set by its slit size. In GEMS, monochromatic ions enter the entrance slit at random times, and the gated ion deflection produced by the electrostatic field in the analyzer rejects ions that are inside the analyzer at gate onset, detecting those entering the analyzer after gate onset. This provides mass separation while overcoming the temporal and spatial spread problems typical of TOF applications. Paradoxically, GEMS works because all ion masses follow identical trajectories. GEMS is easily multiplied into two-dimensional arrays to increase sensitivity in space applications, requires relatively low voltages, and uses only a few electrical connections. Thus, it is easy to package GEMS as a small, low-power instrument for applications in harsh environments. A disadvantage of GEMS is that its output is the integral of the TOF spectrum and the derivative of the raw data must be taken, a procedure that is likely to add noise. A version of GEMS detecting un-deflected ions (u-GEMS) has been tested to demonstrate the time-integrated feature of the raw data but without the benefit of energy analysis. This paper describes GEMS implemented with the small deflection energy analyzer (SDEA), a compact version of the parallel plate energy analyzer. SDEA is described both analytically and with ion trajectory simulations using the ion trajectory simulation software SIMION; the results are then used to describe GEMS and compute its performance.

  3. Graphics gems

    CERN Document Server

    Glassner, Andrew S

    1993-01-01

    ""The GRAPHICS GEMS Series"" was started in 1990 by Andrew Glassner. The vision and purpose of the Series was - and still is - to provide tips, techniques, and algorithms for graphics programmers. All of the gems are written by programmers who work in the field and are motivated by a common desire to share interesting ideas and tools with their colleagues. Each volume provides a new set of innovative solutions to a variety of programming problems.

  4. GEM Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-31

    The GEM collaboration was formed in June 1991 to develop a major detector for the SSC. The primary physics objectives of GEM are those central to the motivation for the SSC, to study high p{sub T} physics - exemplified by the search for Higgs bosons - and to search for new physics beyond the standard model. The authors present in this Technical Design Report (TDR) a detector with broad capabilities for the discovery and subsequent study of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass and flavor, and other physics requiring precise measurements of gammas, electrons, and muons - hence the name, GEM. In addition, as a design goal, they have taken care to provide the robustness needed to do the physics that requires high luminosity. Finally, good coverage and hermeticity allow the detection of missing transverse energy, E{sub T}. The GEM design emphasizes clean identification and high resolution measurement of the primary physics signatures for high p{sub T} physics. The approach is to make precise energy measurements that maximize the sensitivity to rare narrow resonances, to detect the elementary interaction products (quarks, leptons, and photons), and to build in the features required to reduce backgrounds.

  5. Graphics gems

    CERN Document Server

    Heckbert, Paul S

    1994-01-01

    Graphics Gems IV contains practical techniques for 2D and 3D modeling, animation, rendering, and image processing. The book presents articles on polygons and polyhedral; a mix of formulas, optimized algorithms, and tutorial information on the geometry of 2D, 3D, and n-D space; transformations; and parametric curves and surfaces. The text also includes articles on ray tracing; shading 3D models; and frame buffer techniques. Articles on image processing; algorithms for graphical layout; basic interpolation methods; and subroutine libraries for vector and matrix algebra are also demonstrated. Com

  6. Skywalking GEMS and UDF

    OpenAIRE

    Jahnke, K; Sanchez, S. F.; HaeUssler, B.

    2004-01-01

    The two large colour mosaics of the GEMS and UDF projects, both obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and ACS, consist of large amounts of data. We present two web application pages (the GEMS and UDF "Skywalker") that allow to pan around in these mosaics with downloading only small parts at a time.

  7. A new Slow Control and Run Initialization Byte-wise Environment (SCRIBE) for the quality control of mass-produced CMS GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Colafranceschi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The CMS collaboration aims at improving the muon trigger and tracking performance at the HL-LHC by installing new Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors in the endcaps of the CMS experiment. Construction and commissioning of GEM detectors for the first muon endcap stations is ramping up in several laboratories using common quality control protocols. The SCRIBE framework is a scalable and cross-platform web-based application for the RD51 Scalable Readout System (SRS) that controls data acquisition and analyzes data in near real time. It has been developed mainly to simplify and standardize measurements of the GEM detector response uniformities with x-rays across all production sites. SCRIBE works with zero suppression of raw SRS pulse height data. This has increased acquisition rates to 5 kHz for a CMS GEM detector with 3072 strips and allows strip-by-strip response comparisons with a few hours of data taking. SCRIBE also manages parallel data reconstruction to provide near real-time feedback on the detector ...

  8. GEM Detectors for the DarkLight Phase-1 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Prem Nazeer, Sahara Jesmin; DarkLight Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The DarkLight experiment has been proposed to search for a heavy photon A' in the mass range of 10-100 MeV/c2 produced in electron-proton collisions. Phase-I of DarkLight has started to take place in 2016 at the Low Energy Recirculator Facility (LERF) at Jefferson Lab. LERF delivered a 100 MeV electron beam onto a windowless hydrogen gas target. The phase-I detector tracks leptons inside the DarkLight solenoid with a set of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, combined with segmented scintillators for triggering. The GEM telescope consists of four 10 × 10 cm2 triple layer GEM chambers with 2D readout strips, mounted in a slightly angled fixed frame about 12 cm tall. The GEM data are read out with analog pipeline front-end cards (APV-25) each of which can process 128 readout channels. Each GEM chamber has 250 channels for each coordinate axis, read out with two APVs on each side, resulting in 2000 readout channels for the GEM stack, processed by 16 APVs. One Multi Purpose Digitizer (MPD) module is used to read out all of the 16 APV-25 cards. Details of the design and the readout of the GEM detectors will be presented, as well as discussion of their performance in the August run. This work has been supported by NSF PHY-1436680 and PHY-1505934.

  9. Graphics gems V (Macintosh version)

    CERN Document Server

    Paeth, Alan W

    1995-01-01

    Graphics Gems V is the newest volume in The Graphics Gems Series. It is intended to provide the graphics community with a set of practical tools for implementing new ideas and techniques, and to offer working solutions to real programming problems. These tools are written by a wide variety of graphics programmers from industry, academia, and research. The books in the series have become essential, time-saving tools for many programmers.Latest collection of graphics tips in The Graphics Gems Series written by the leading programmers in the field.Contains over 50 new gems displaying some of t

  10. Graphics Gems III IBM version

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, David

    1994-01-01

    This sequel to Graphics Gems (Academic Press, 1990), and Graphics Gems II (Academic Press, 1991) is a practical collection of computer graphics programming tools and techniques. Graphics Gems III contains a larger percentage of gems related to modeling and rendering, particularly lighting and shading. This new edition also covers image processing, numerical and programming techniques, modeling and transformations, 2D and 3D geometry and algorithms,ray tracing and radiosity, rendering, and more clever new tools and tricks for graphics programming. Volume III also includes a

  11. Graphics gems II

    CERN Document Server

    Arvo, James

    1991-01-01

    Graphics Gems II is a collection of articles shared by a diverse group of people that reflect ideas and approaches in graphics programming which can benefit other computer graphics programmers.This volume presents techniques for doing well-known graphics operations faster or easier. The book contains chapters devoted to topics on two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry and algorithms, image processing, frame buffer techniques, and ray tracing techniques. The radiosity approach, matrix techniques, and numerical and programming techniques are likewise discussed.Graphics artists and comput

  12. Characterizations of GEM detector prototype

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00522505; Rudra, Sharmili; Bhattacharya, P.; Sahoo, Sumanya Sekhar; Biswas, S.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, T.K.; Sahu, P.K.; Sahu, S.

    2016-01-01

    At NISER-IoP detector laboratory an initiative is taken to build and test Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors for ALICE experiment. The optimisation of the gas flow rate and the long-term stability test of the GEM detector are performed. The method and test results are presented.

  13. Characterisations of GEM detector prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Rajendra Nath [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, West Bengal (India); Nanda, Amit [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Rudra, Sharmili [Department of Applied Physics, CU, 92, APC Road, Kolkata 700009, West Bengal (India); Bhattacharya, P.; Sahoo, Sumanya Sekhar [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Biswas, S., E-mail: saikat.ino@gmail.com [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Mohanty, B. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Nayak, T.K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, West Bengal (India); Sahu, P.K.; Sahu, S. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, P.O.: Sainik School, Bhubaneswar 751005, Odisha (India)

    2016-07-11

    At NISER-IoP detector laboratory an initiative is taken to build and test Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors for ALICE experiment. The optimisation of the gas flow rate and the long-term stability test of the GEM detector are performed. The method and test results are presented.

  14. Game programming gems

    CERN Document Server

    DeLoura, Mark

    2000-01-01

    For the countless tasks involved in creating a game engine there are an equal number of possible solutions. But instead of spending hours and hours trying to develop your own answers, now you can find out how the pros do it! Game Programming Gems is a hands-on, comprehensive resource packed with a variety of game programming algorithms written by experts from the game industry and edited by Mark DeLoura, former software engineering lead for Nintendo of America, Inc. and now the newly appointed editor-in-chief of Game Developer magazine. From animation and artificial intelligence to Z-buffering, lighting calculations, weather effects, curved surfaces, mutliple layer Internet gaming, to music and sound effects, all of the major techniques needed to develop a competitive game engine are covered. Game Programming Gems is written in a style accessible to individuals with a range of expertise levels. All of the source code for each algorithm is included and can be used by advanced programmers immediately. For aspir...

  15. Progress on large area GEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Pinto, S.; Villa, M.; Alfonsi, M.; Brock, I.; Croci, G.; David, E.; de Oliveira, R.; Ropelewski, L.; van Stenis, M.

    2009-12-01

    In 2008, a triple GEM detector prototype with an area of ~ 2000 cm2 has been constructed, based on foils of 66 × 66 cm. GEMs of such dimensions had not been made before, and innovations to the existing technology were introduced to build this detector. This paper discusses these innovations and presents further work on large area GEM development. A single-mask technique overcomes the cumbersome practice of alignment of two masks, which limits the achievable lateral size. The holes obtained with this technique are conical, and have a so-called rim, a small insulating clearance around the hole in the substrate. Further refinements of this technique allow greater control over the shape of holes and the size of rims. Also, an improvement in homogeneity over large areas is expected. Simulation studies have been done to examine the effect of hole shape on the behavior of GEMs. Such studies can help understanding how to use new enhancements of the technique to optimize performance. Many potential applications for large area GEMs foresee large production volumes. Production issues have been studied, and single-mask GEMs turn out to be much more suitable for large scale production than standard GEMs.

  16. A large area GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, Serge; Brock, Ian; Croci, Gabriele; David, Eric; de Oliveira, Rui; Pinchasik, Bat-El; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; van Stenis, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    A prototype triple GEM detector has been constructed with an area of similar to 2000 cm(2), based on foils of 66 cm x 66 cm. GEMS of such dimensions have not been made before, and innovations to the existing technology were made to build this detector. A single-mask technique overcomes the cumbersome practice of alignment of two masks, which limits the achievable lateral size. Refinement of this technique results in foils with performance similar to traditional GEMS, while lowering cost and complexity of production. In a splicing procedure, foils are glued over a narrow seam, thus obtaining a larger foil. This procedure was shown not to affect the performance of the GEMS. The seam can be as narrow as 2 mm, mechanically strong enough to withstand the necessary stretching tension, and sufficiently flat to maintain homogeneous electric fields in the gas volumes above and below the foil. These innovations should make the manufacture Of GEM foils of 1 m(2) and beyond possible. With the planned high luminosity upgr...

  17. Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanvo, Kondo

    2017-09-01

    Gaseous detectors have played a pivotal role as tracking devices in the field of particle physics experiments for the last fifty years. Recent advances in photolithography and micro processing techniques have enabled the transition from Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) and Drift Chambers to a new family of gaseous detectors refer to as Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). MPGDs combine the basic gas amplification principle with micro-structure printed circuits to provide detectors with excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability, low material budget and high radiation tolerance. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEMs) is a well-established MPGD technology invented by F. Sauli at CERN in 1997 and deployed various high energy physics (HEP) and nuclear NP experiment for tracking systems of current and future NP experiments. GEM detector combines an exceptional high rate capability (1 MHz / mm2) and robustness against harsh radiation environment with excellent position and timing resolution performances. Recent breakthroughs over the past decade have allowed the possibility for large area GEMs, making them cost effective and high-performance detector candidates to play pivotal role in current and future particle physics experiments. After a brief introduction of the basic principle of GEM technology, I will give a brief overview of the GEM detectors used in particle physics experiments over the past decades and especially in the NP community at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). I will follow by a review of state of the art of the new GEM development for the next generation of colliders such as Electron Ion Collider (EIC) or High Luminosity LHC and future Nuclear Physics experiments. I will conclude with a presentation of the CERN-based RD51 collaboration established in 2008 and its major achievements regarding technological developments and applications of MPGDs.

  18. The PANDA GEM-based TPC prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbietti, L., E-mail: laura.fabbietti@ph.tum.d [Excellence Cluster ' Universe' , Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltztmannstr. 2, Garching bei Muenchen 85748 (Germany); Angerer, H. [Physik Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Muenchen (Germany); Arora, R. [Detektor Labor des GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Beck, R. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Berger, M. [Excellence Cluster ' Universe' , Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltztmannstr. 2, Garching bei Muenchen 85748 (Germany); Buehler, P.; Cargnelli, M. [Stefan-Meyer Institute fuer subatomare Physik, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Doerheim, S. [Physik Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Muenchen (Germany); Hehner, J. [Detektor Labor des GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Herrmann, N. [FOPI Collaboration, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Hoeppner, C. [Physik Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Muenchen (Germany); Kaiser, D. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Ketzer, B. [Physik Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Muenchen (Germany); Mladen, K. [FOPI Collaboration, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kleipa, V. [Detektor Labor des GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Konorov, I. [Physik Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Muenchen (Germany); Kunkel, J. [Detektor Labor des GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lalik, R. [Excellence Cluster ' Universe' , Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltztmannstr. 2, Garching bei Muenchen 85748 (Germany); Lang, M. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    We report on the development of a GEM-based TPC detector prototype for the PANDA experiment. The design and requirements of this device will be illustrated, with particular emphasis on the properties of the recently tested GEM-detector, the characterization of the read-out electronics and the development of the tracking software that allows to evaluate the GEM-TPC data.

  19. The PANDA GEM-based TPC Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbietti, L; Beck, R; Berger, M; Böhmer, F; Brinkmann, K T; Bühler, P; Danner, M; D\\orheim, S; Funke, C; Cusanno, F; Hehner, J; Heinz, A; Henske, M; Höppner, C; Kaiser, D; Ketzer, B; Konorov, I; Kunkel, J; Lang, M; Marton, J; Neubert, S; Paul, S; Schmah, A; Schmidt, C; Schmitz, R; Schwab, S; Soyk, D; Suzuki, K; Thoma, U; Vandenbroucke, M; Voss, B; Walter, D; Weitzel, Q; Widmann, E; Winnebeck, A; Wörner, L; Zaunick, H G; Zhang, X; Zmeskal, J

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of a GEM-based TPC prototype for the PANDA experiment. The design and requirements of this device will be illustrated, with particular emphasis on the properties of the recently tested GEM-detector, the characterization of the read-out electronics and the development of the tracking software that allows to evaluate the GEM-TPC data.

  20. The gas electron multiplier (GEM)

    CERN Document Server

    Bouclier, Roger; Dominik, Wojciech; Hoch, M; Labbé, J C; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1996-01-01

    We describe operating priciples and results obtained with a new detector component: the Gas Electrons Multiplier (GEM). Consisting of a thin composite sheet with two metal layers separated by a thin insulator, and pierced by a regular matrix of open channels, the GEM electrode, inserted on the path of electrons in a gas detector, allows to transfer the charge with an amplification factor approaching ten. Uniform response and high rate capability are demonstrated. Coupled to another device, multiwire or micro-strip chamber, the GEM electrode permit to obtain higher gains or less critical operation; separation of the sensitive (conversion) volume and the detection volume has other advantages, as a built-in delay (useful for triggering purposes) and the possibility of applying high fields on the photo-cathode of ring imaging detectors to improve efficiency. Multiple GEM grids in the same gas volume allow to obtain large amplification factors in a succession of steps, leading to the realization of an effective ga...

  1. First results of spherical GEMs

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Serge Duarte; Brock, Ian; Croci, Gabriele; David, Eric; de Oliveira, Rui; Ropelewski, Leszek; van Stenis, Miranda; Taureg, Hans; Villa, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We developed a method to make GEM foils with a spherical geometry. Tests of this procedure and with the resulting spherical GEMs are presented. Together with a spherical drift electrode, a spherical conversion gap can be formed. This eliminates the parallax error for detection of x-rays, neutrons or UV photons when a gaseous converter is used. This parallax error limits the spatial resolution at wide scattering angles. Besides spherical GEMs, we have developed curved spacers to maintain accurate spacing, and a conical field cage to prevent edge distortion of the radial drift field up to the limit of the angular acceptance of the detector. With these components first tests are done in a setup with a spherical entrance window but a planar readout structure; results will be presented and discussed. A flat readout structure poses difficulties, however. Therefore we will show advanced plans to make a prototype of an entirely spherical double-GEM detector, including a spherical 2D readout structure. This detector w...

  2. Progress on large area GEMs

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Serge Duarte; Alfonsi, Matteo; Brock, Ian; Croci, Gabriele; David, Eric; De Oliveira, Rui; Ropelewski, Leszek; van Stenis, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, a triple GEM detector prototype with an area of ~2000 cm2 has been constructed, based on foils of 66*66 cm. GEMs of such dimensions had not been made before, and innovations to the existing technology were introduced to build this detector. This paper discusses these innovations and presents further work on large area GEM development. A single-mask technique overcomes the cumbersome practice of alignment of two masks, which limits the achievable lateral size. The holes obtained with this technique are conical, and have a so-called rim, a small insulating clearance around the hole in the substrate. Further refinements of this technique allow greater control over the shape of holes and the size of rims. Also, an improvement in homogeneity over large areas is expected. Simulation studies have been done to examine the effect of hole shape on the behavior of GEMs. Such studies can help understanding how to use new enhancements of the technique to optimize performance. Many potential applications for large...

  3. GEM - The Global Earthquake Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, A.

    2009-04-01

    Over 500,000 people died in the last decade due to earthquakes and tsunamis, mostly in the developing world, where the risk is increasing due to rapid population growth. In many seismic regions, no hazard and risk models exist, and even where models do exist, they are intelligible only by experts, or available only for commercial purposes. The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) answers the need for an openly accessible risk management tool. GEM is an internationally sanctioned public private partnership initiated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) which will establish an authoritative standard for calculating and communicating earthquake hazard and risk, and will be designed to serve as the critical instrument to support decisions and actions that reduce earthquake losses worldwide. GEM will integrate developments on the forefront of scientific and engineering knowledge of earthquakes, at global, regional and local scale. The work is organized in three modules: hazard, risk, and socio-economic impact. The hazard module calculates probabilities of earthquake occurrence and resulting shaking at any given location. The risk module calculates fatalities, injuries, and damage based on expected shaking, building vulnerability, and the distribution of population and of exposed values and facilities. The socio-economic impact module delivers tools for making educated decisions to mitigate and manage risk. GEM will be a versatile online tool, with open source code and a map-based graphical interface. The underlying data will be open wherever possible, and its modular input and output will be adapted to multiple user groups: scientists and engineers, risk managers and decision makers in the public and private sectors, and the public-at- large. GEM will be the first global model for seismic risk assessment at a national and regional scale, and aims to achieve broad scientific participation and independence. Its development will occur in a

  4. Performance of GEM Detectors in the DarkLight Experiment at LERF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Prem Nazeer, Sahara Jesmin; DarkLight Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The DarkLight experiment has been proposed to search for a heavy photon A' in the mass range of 10-100 MeV/c2 produced in electron-proton collisions. Phase-I of DarkLight has started to take place in 2016 at the Low Energy Recirculator Facility (LERF) at Jefferson Lab. LERF delivered a 100 MeV electron beam onto a windowless hydrogen gas target. The phase-I detector tracks leptons inside the DarkLight solenoid with a set of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, combined with segmented scintillators for triggering. The GEM telescope consists of four 10 × 10 cm2 triple layer GEM chambers with 2D readout strips, mounted in a slightly angled fixed frame about 12 cm tall. The GEM data are read out with analog pipeline front-end cards (APV-25) each of which can process 128 readout channels. Each GEM chamber has 250 channels for each coordinate axis, read out with two APVs on each side, resulting in 2000 readout channels for the GEM stack, processed by 16 APVs. One Multi Purpose Digitizer (MPD) module is used to read out all of the 16 APV-25 cards. The current run status of DarkLight experiment and the performance of GEMs in the experiment will be discussed. This work has been supported by NSF PHY-1436680 and PHY-1505934.

  5. Progress on large area GEMs (VCI 2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Marco; Alfonsi, Matteo; Brock, Ian; Croci, Gabriele; David, Eric; de Oliveira, Rui; Ropelewski, Leszek; Taureg, Hans; van Stenis, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) manufacturing technique has recently evolved to allow the production of large area GEMs. A novel approach based on single mask photolithography eliminates the mask alignment issue, which limits the dimensions in the traditional double mask process. Moreover, a splicing technique overcomes the limited width of the raw material. Stretching and handling issues in large area GEMs have also been addressed. Using the new improvements it was possible to build a prototype triple-GEM detector of ~ 2000 cm2 active area, aimed at an application for the TOTEM T1 upgrade. Further refinements of the single mask technique give great control over the shape of the GEM holes and the size of the rims, which can be tuned as needed. In this framework, simulation studies can help to understand the GEM behavior depending on the hole shape.

  6. The status of the GEM project for CMS high-$\\eta$ muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Armagnaud, C; Aspell, P; Assran, Y; Bally, S; Ban, Y; Barria, P; Benussi, L; Berzano, U; Bianco, S; Bos, J; Bunkowski, K; Cai, J; Chatelain, J.P; Christiansen, J; Colafranceschi, S; Colaleo, A; Conde Garcia, A; David, E; De Lentdecker, G; De Oliveira, R; De Robertis, G; Duarte Pinto, S; Ferry, S; Formenti, F; Franconi, L; Fruboes, T; Gutierrez, A; Hohlmann, M; Kamel, A.E; Karchin, P.E; Loddo, F; Maerschalk, T; Magazzù, G; Maggi, M; Marchioro, A; Marinov, A; Mehta, K; Merlin, J; Mohapatra, A; Moulik, T; Nemallapudi, M.V; Nuzzo, S; Oliveri, E; Piccolo, D; Postema, H; Radi, A; Raffone, G; Rodrigues, A; Ropelewski, L; Saviano, G; Sharma, A; Smilkjovic, N; Staib, M.J; Teng, H; Tupputi, S.A; Turini, N; Tytgat, M; Villa, M; Yang, Y; Zaganidis, N; Zenoni, F; Zientek, M

    2013-01-01

    The dedicated CMS R&D program was intended to study the feasibility of using micropattern detectors for the instrumentation of the vacant j η j 4 1 : 6 region in the present Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) endcap system. The proposed detector for CMS is a Triple-Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) trapezoidal chamber, equipped with 1D readout. While during 2010 – 2011 the Collaboration worked on the prototyping of the detector, during the fi rst part of 2012 a newly developed assembly technique to be used for the mass production was adopted. GEMs can provide precision tracking and fast trigger information, contributing on one hand to the improvement of the CMS muon Trigger and on the other hand to provide the missing redundancy in the high η region. In the view of the next LHC long shutdown (LS1) the CMS GEM Collaboration designed and built four full-size Triple GEM-based muon detectors

  7. GPU Computing Gems Emerald Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Wen-mei W

    2011-01-01

    ".the perfect companion to Programming Massively Parallel Processors by Hwu & Kirk." -Nicolas Pinto, Research Scientist at Harvard & MIT, NVIDIA Fellow 2009-2010 Graphics processing units (GPUs) can do much more than render graphics. Scientists and researchers increasingly look to GPUs to improve the efficiency and performance of computationally-intensive experiments across a range of disciplines. GPU Computing Gems: Emerald Edition brings their techniques to you, showcasing GPU-based solutions including: Black hole simulations with CUDA GPU-accelerated computation and interactive display of

  8. Design approach for granular emulsion mixes (GEMS)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, JE

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Granular Emulsion Mixes (GEMS) are used in a wide range or road applications, ranging from low volume roads in developing areas to freeways in developing urban areas. In this paper a dual design approach for granular emulsion mixes (GEMS...

  9. GEM scintillation readout with avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Conceição, A S; Fernandes, L M P; Monteiro, C M B; Coelho, L C C; Azevedo, C D R; Veloso, J F C A; Lopesac, J A M; dos Santosa, J M F

    2007-01-01

    The use of the scintillation produced in the charge avalanches in GEM holes as signal amplification and readout is investigated for xenon. A VUV-sensitive avalanche photodiode has been used as photosensor. Detector gains of about 4 × 104 are achieved in scintillation readout mode, for GEM voltages of 490 V and for a photosensor gain of 150. Those gains are more than one order of magnitude larger than what is obtained using charge readout. In addition, the energy resolutions achieved with the scintillation readout are lower than those achieved with charge readout. The GEM scintillation yield in xenon was measured as a function of GEM voltage, presenting values that are about a half of those achieved for the charge yield, and reach about 730 photons per primary electron at GEM voltages of 490 V.

  10. Progress in GEM-based gaseous photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Chechik, R; Breskin, Amos; Buzulutskov, A F; Guedes, G P; Mörmann, D; Singh, B K

    2003-01-01

    We discuss recent progress in gaseous photomultipliers (GPMTs) comprising UV-to-visible spectral range photocathodes (PCs) coupled to multiple Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM). The PCs may be either semitransparent or reflective ones directly deposited on the first-GEM surface. These detectors provide high gain, even in noble gases, are sensitive to single photons, have nanosecond time resolution, and offer good localization. The operation of CsI-based GPMTs in CF sub 4 opens new applications in Cherenkov detectors, where both the radiator and the photosensor operate in the same gas. The latest results on sealed visible-light detectors, combining bialkali PCs and Kapton-made GEMs are presented.

  11. Fast drift CRID with GEM

    CERN Document Server

    Vavra, J; McCulloch, M; Stiles, P; Sauli, Fabio

    1999-01-01

    The only available technique at the present time, to perform particle identification up to 40-50 GeV/c in a 4 pi solenoidal geometry using the Cherenkov ring imaging method is the use of gaseous detectors filled with either TMAE or TEA photocathodes, and a combination of the gaseous, and solid or liquid radiators. If one would consider building such a device, one may want to investigate alternative methods of building a single-electron detector. This paper investigates the feasibility of using the GEM together with a simple MWPC detector employing 33 mu m diameter carbon wires to obtain a second coordinate. The results are compared to the CRID single-electron detector.

  12. Genetics Education Materials (GEM) Database and Website

    OpenAIRE

    Silvey, Kerry; Livingston, Judith; Boyd, Patricia; Therrell, Bradford; Mann, Marie

    2002-01-01

    The Genetics Education Materials (GEM) database, accessible through http://genes-r-us.uthscsa.edu, provides a searchable listing of genetics public policy documents, clinical genetics education materials, and other peer-reviewed genetics publications. This new online database is designed to aid public health policy-makers, state genetics program planners, and health care professionals in locating relevant genetics materials. The GEM database is a project of the National Newborn Screening and ...

  13. GEM Building Taxonomy (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzev, S.; Scawthorn, C.; Charleson, A.W.; Allen, L.; Greene, M.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Silva, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the development and applications of the Building Taxonomy for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The purpose of the GEM Building Taxonomy is to describe and classify buildings in a uniform manner as a key step towards assessing their seismic risk, Criteria for development of the GEM Building Taxonomy were that the Taxonomy be relevant to seismic performance of different construction types; be comprehensive yet simple; be collapsible; adhere to principles that are familiar to the range of users; and ultimately be extensible to non-buildings and other hazards. The taxonomy was developed in conjunction with other GEM researchers and builds on the knowledge base from other taxonomies, including the EERI and IAEE World Housing Encyclopedia, PAGER-STR, and HAZUS. The taxonomy is organized as a series of expandable tables, which contain information pertaining to various building attributes. Each attribute describes a specific characteristic of an individual building or a class of buildings that could potentially affect their seismic performance. The following 13 attributes have been included in the GEM Building Taxonomy Version 2.0 (v2.0): 1.) direction, 2.)material of the lateral load-resisting system, 3.) lateral load-resisting system, 4.) height, 5.) date of construction of retrofit, 6.) occupancy, 7.) building position within a block, 8.) shape of the building plan, 9.) structural irregularity, 10.) exterior walls, 11.) roof, 12.) floor, 13.) foundation system. The report illustrates the pratical use of the GEM Building Taxonomy by discussing example case studies, in which the building-specific characteristics are mapped directly using GEM taxonomic attributes and the corresponding taxonomic string is constructed for that building, with "/" slash marks separating attributes. For example, for the building shown to the right, the GEM Taxonomy string is: DX1/MUR+CLBRS+MOCL2/LWAL3/

  14. DNA Sequencing Research Group (DSRG): Evaluation of RNA Amplification Kits at Subnanogram Input Amounts of Total RNA for RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet, Charles; Paulson, Ariel; Shanker, Savita; Beckloff, N.; Bintzler, D.; Bivens, N. J.; Davis, R. R.; Donnelly, R. J.; Edenberg, H. J.; Gillaspy, A. F.; Grove, D.; Jafari, N.; Kerley-Hamilton, J. S.; Lashley, K.; Lyons, R. H.; Peak, A.; Perera, A.; Thimmapuram, J.; Wang, L.; Wright, C. L.; Alekseyev, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple recent publications on RNA-Seq have demonstrated the power of next generation sequencing technologies in whole transcriptome analysis. The vendor specific protocols used for RNA library construction typically require at least 100ng of total RNA. However, under certain conditions such as single cells, stem cells, difficult to isolate cell types, or fractionated cancer cells, only a small amount of material is available. In these cases, effective transcriptome profiling requires amplification of subnanogram amounts of RNA. Several RNA amplification kits are available for amplification prior to library construction and next generation sequencing but these kits have not been comprehensively field evaluated for accuracy and performance of RNA-Seq for picogram amounts of RNA. This study conducted by the DNA Sequencing Research Group (DSRG) focuses on the evaluation of amplification kits for RNA-Seq. Four commercial amplification kits were chosen: Ovation v2 (NuGEN Technologies), SMARTer (Clontech), Seqplex (Sigma Aldrich), and Super-AMP (Miltenyi Biotech). Starting material was 5ng, 500pg and 50pg of human total reference RNA (Clontech) spiked with Ambion ERCC control mix (Life Technologies) following the manufacturer's protocol. Each kit was tested at 3 different sites to assess reproducibility. Total RNA and ERCC RNA spike-in control mixes from the same lots were sent to 12 ABRF lab sites for amplification and cDNA generation. Ideally, this would have resulted in 36 different amplified samples, 3 from each input RNA. Libraries were constructed at one site from the amplified cDNAs using the TruSeq RNA library preparation kit on the Tecan Freedom EVO Liquid Handling Robot. As an unamplified control, ribosomal depletion and PolyA selection were performed separately using 5ng, 100ng and 1ug of total RNA prior to library construction. All libraries were pooled and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq platform. An overview of the study and the results will be

  15. Simulation of the CMS GEM System

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Archie

    2015-01-01

    The new GE1/1 system of Gas Electron Multipiers (GEM) is going to be installed in the CMS detector in the forward region with $\\eta$ between 1.6 and 2.2 after the second long LHC shutdown. 36 super-chambers are planned to be installed in order to ensure the redundancy and robustness of the muon system in high-luminosity conditions at the LHC. A further extension to the GEM system is also considered. The simulation of the entire GEM system integrated in the common CMS reconstruction chain is a necessary part of the performed Monte Carlo studies. A dedicated parametric model based on the exhaustive standalone MC studies and experimental test beam results has been developed in order to simulate the response of the GEM system. The simulated digital readout signals are used to build the reconstructed hits in the detector planes. They have been included in the common CMS muon reconstruction algorithms. This contribution will present the developed simulation model and the importance of the gem system for the improve...

  16. Neutron beam imaging with GEM detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, G.; Croci, G.; Cazzaniga, C.; Cavenago, M.; Claps, G.; Muraro, A.; Murtas, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Rebai, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.

    2015-04-01

    Neutron GEM-based detectors represent a new frontier of devices in neutron physics applications where a very high neutron flux must be measured such as future fusion experiments (e.g. ITER Neutral beam Injector) and spallation sources (e.g. the European Spallation source). This kind of detectors can be properly adapted to be used both as beam monitors but also as neutron diffraction detectors that could represent a valid alternative for the 3He detectors replacement. Fast neutron GEM detectors (nGEM) feature a cathode composed by one layer of polyethylene and one of aluminium (neutron scattering on hydrogen generates protons that are detected in the gas) while thermal neutron GEM detectors (bGEM) are equipped with a borated aluminium cathode (charged particles are generated through the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction). GEM detectors can be realized in large area (1 m2) and their readout can be pixelated. Three different prototypes of nGEM and one prototype of bGEM detectors of different areas and equipped with different types of readout have been built and tested. All the detectors have been used to measure the fast and thermal neutron 2D beam image at the ISIS-VESUVIO beamline. The different kinds of readout patterns (different areas of the pixels) have been compared in similar conditions. All the detectors measured a width of the beam profile consitent with the expected one. The imaging property of each detector was then tested by inserting samples of different material and shape in the beam. All the samples were correctly reconstructed and the definition of the reconstruction depends on the type of readout anode. The fast neutron beam profile reconstruction was then compared to the one obtained by diamond detectors positioned on the same beamline while the thermal neutron one was compared to the imaged obtained by cadmium-coupled x-rays films. Also efficiency and the gamma background rejection have been determined. These prototypes represent the first step towards the

  17. GEM applications outside high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, Serge

    2013-01-01

    From its invention in 1997, the Gas Electron Multiplier has been applied in nuclear and high energy physics experiments. Over time however, other applications have also exploited the favorable properties of GEMs. The use of GEMs in these applications will be explained in principle and practice. This paper reviews applications in research, beam instrumentation and homeland security. The detectors described measure neutral radiations such as photons, x-rays, gamma rays and neutrons, as well as all kinds of charged radiation. This paper provides an overview of the still expanding range of possibilities of this versatile detector concept.

  18. GEM in the marine atmosphere and air-sea exchange of Hg during late autumn and winter cruise campaigns over the marginal seas of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Ruhai; Li, Yanping; Cui, Xueqing; Zhou, Jianping; Liu, Shixuan; Zhang, Yuqing

    2017-07-01

    East Asia is one of the primary sources of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) among the world. In this study, GEM concentrations were measured during two cruises in late autumn and winter of 2012 and 2013 which passed through the marginal seas of China. The results show that the mean GEM concentration was 1.65 ng/m3 from the South China Sea to the Yellow Sea during the 2012 cruise. While the mean GEM concentration was 2.38 ng/m3 in the South Yellow Sea, and 1.75 ng/m3 in the North Yellow and Bohai Seas during the 2013 cruise. High GEM contents were detected when the steering wind was offshore. There is a significant positive relationship between GEM and air temperature for these two cruises. Low GEM content was presented when the cold northerly monsoon prevailed while air masses mainly came from the clean northern oceanic region. Dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) concentration in the surface water of the south Yellow and Bohai seas were 74.4 ± 28 pg/L. DGM concentrations were correlated with water temperature (r = 0.244, p polluted air and low wind speed. High flux values were caused by the northerly monsoon which carried remote clean air to the sea, with large wind speeds. The northerly monsoon is an important factor affecting the GEM transport offshore to marginal sea and the cycle of mercury in the sea in late autumn and winter.

  19. Gas amplification properties of GEM foils; Gasverstaerkungseigenschaften von GEM-Folien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Jeannine

    2009-01-15

    In the framework of the detector concept International Linear Detector for the future accelerator project International Linear Collider, in which electrons and positrons at c. m. energies of 500 GeV are brought to collision, a time projection chamber shall be applied as central track detector. By the application of such a chamber as track detector a three-dimensional reconstruction of the track points is possible. If a particle passes the gas volume within the chamber it ionizises single gas atoms and the arising electrons move after the amplification in the GEM arrangement to the anode, so that a two-dimensional projection of the particle track is possible. The third dimension is calculated from the drift time of the electrons. The advances of this readout system consist therein that a better position resolution than by a multiwire proportional chamber is reached and the back-drifting ions can be strongly suppressed. Aim of this thesis are studies for a GEM module, which shall be used in a large TPC prototype. Concerning different requirements it is valid to compare different GEMs in order to can meet an optimal choice. In a small prototype present at DESY measurements for the acquisition of GEM-describing parameters were performed. The taking into operation of the test TPC was part of this thesis. Tracks were generated by a radioactive source, by means of which the gas amplification was determined. With the measurement arrangement gas-amplifier foils of different kind were compared in view of their amplification properties and their energy resolution power and systematically studied. Five different GEM performances were studied in the test TPC. These foils differ in their geometrical classification parameters, the fabrication process, or the materials. The GEMs produced at CERN possess in comparison with GEMs of the Japanese firm SciEnergy and a GEM of the US-American firm Tech-Etch the best amplification and resolution properties. Furthermore a new GEM framing

  20. Europa Imaging Highlights during GEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    During the two year Galileo Europa Mission (GEM), NASA's Galileo spacecraft will focus intensively on Jupiter's intriguing moon, Europa. This montage shows samples of some of the features that will be imaged during eight successive orbits. The images in this montage are in order of increasing orbit from the upper left (orbit 11) to the lower right (orbit 19).DESCRIPTIONS AND APPROXIMATE RESOLUTIONSTriple bands and dark spots1.6 kilometers/pixelConamara Chaos1.6 kilometers/pixelMannan'an Crater1.6 kilometers/ pixelCilix1.6 kilometers/pixelAgenor Linea and Thrace Macula2 kilometers/pixelSouth polar terrain2 kilometers/pixelRhadamanthys Linea1.6 kilometers/pixelEuropa plume search7 kilometers/pixel1. Triple bands and dark spots were the focus of some images from Galileo's eleventh orbit of Jupiter. Triple bands are multiple ridges with dark deposits along the outer margins. Some extend for thousands of kilometers across Europa's icy surface. They are cracks in the ice sheet and indicate the great stresses imposed on Europa by tides raised by Jupiter, as well as Europa's neighboring moons, Ganymede and Io. The dark spots or 'lenticulae' are spots of localized disruption.2. The Conamara Chaos region reveals icy plates which have broken up, moved, and rafted into new positions. This terrain suggests that liquid water or ductile ice was present near the surface. On Galileo's twelfth orbit of Jupiter, sections of this region with resolutions as high as 10 meters per picture element will be obtained.3. Mannann'an Crater is a feature newly discovered by Galileo in June 1996. Color and high resolution images (to 40 meters per picture element) from Galileo's fourteenth orbit of Jupiter will offer a close look at the crater and help characterize how impacts affect the icy surface of this moon.4. Cilix, a large mound about 1.5 kilometers high, is the center of Europa's coordinate system. Its concave top and what may be flow like features to the southwest of the mound are

  1. Temperature-programmed desorption for membrane inlet mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketola, R.A.; Grøn, C.; Lauritsen, F.R.

    1998-01-01

    We present a novel technique for analyzing volatile organic compounds in air samples using a solid adsorbent together with temperature-programmed desorption and subsequent detection by membrane inlet mass spectrometry (TPD-MIMS). The new system has the advantage of a fast separation of compounds...... to diffuse through the membrane into the mass spectrometer in a few seconds. In this fashion we could completely separate many similar volatile compounds, for example toluene from xylene and trichloroethene from tetrachloroethene. Typical detection limits were at low or sub-nanogram levels, the dynamic range...

  2. Gas electron multipliers. Development of large area GEMS and spherical GEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Serge Duarte

    2011-08-15

    Gaseous radiation detectors have been a crucial part of high-energy physics instrumentation since the 1960s, when the first multiwire proportional counters were built. In the 1990s the first micropattern gas detectors (MPGDS) saw the light; with sub-millimeter feature sizes these novel detectors were faster and more accurate than their predecessors. The gas electron multiplier (GEM) is one of the most successful of these technologies. It is a charge multiplication structure made from a copper clad polymer foil, pierced with a regular and dense pattern of holes. I describe the properties and the application of GEMs and GEM. detectors, and the research and development I have done on this technology. Two of the main objectives were the development of large area GEMs ({proportional_to}m{sup 2}) for particle physics experiments and GEMs with a spherical shape for X-ray or neutron diffraction detectors. Both have been realized, and the new techniques involved are finding their way to applications in research and industry. (orig.)

  3. X-Ray Polarimetry with GEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2011-01-01

    The polarization properties of cosmic X-ray sources are still largely unexplored. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) will carry out the first sensitive X-ray polarization survey of a wide range of sources including; accreting compact objects (black holes and neutron stars), AGN, supernova remnants, magnetars and rotation-powered pulsars. GEMS employs grazing-incidence foil mirrors and novel time-projection chamber (TPC) polarimeters leveraging the photoelectric effect to achieve high polarization sensitivity in the 2 - 10 keV band. I will provide an update of the project status, illustrate the expected performance with several science examples, and provide a brief overview of the data analysis challenges

  4. GEM photomultiplier operation in CF sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Breskin, Amos; Chechik, R

    2002-01-01

    The properties of a 3-GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) element photomultiplier, with a semitransparent CsI photocathode and CF sub 4 gas filling, are presented. Compared to other gas mixtures, such as CH sub 4 , Ar/CH sub 4 , Ar/N sub 2 and He/Ar/N sub 2 , CF sub 4 has superior performance: the highest gain, approaching 10 sup 7 , the fastest, 8 ns wide signal and the lowest photoelectron backscattering; the latter allows to reach photocathode quantum efficiency values approaching that in vacuum. The time resolution of the multi-GEM photomultiplier for single photoelectrons was measured to be 2 ns. These properties are of high relevance for applications in Cherenkov detectors and in tracking devices.

  5. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thrustor Concept and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the design of a new type of two-stage pulsed electromagnetic accelerator, the gallium electromagnetic (GEM) thruster. A schematic illustration of the GEM thruster concept is given in Fig. 1. In this concept, liquid gallium propellant is pumped into the first stage through a porous metal electrode using an electromagneticpump[l]. At a designated time, a pulsed discharge (approx.10-50 J) is initiated in the first stage, ablating the liquid gallium from the porous electrode surface and ejecting a dense thermal gallium plasma into the second state. The presence of the gallium plasma in the second stage serves to trigger the high-energy (approx.500 I), send-stage puke which provides the primary electromagnetic (j x B) acceleration.

  6. Development of high gain GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, A; Sauli, Fabio; Mörmann, D

    2000-01-01

    We describe systematic measurements carried out with single and double GEM detectors with printed circuit readout. The maximum safe operating gain has been measured at increasing radiation flux and under exposure to heavily ionizing tracks. Detection efficiency, localization accuracy and cluster size have been measured in a minimum ionizing particle beam. With a suitably configured readout electrode, fast, two-dimensional localization of radiation is demonstrated. (15 refs).

  7. GEM - A novel gaseous particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Meinschad, T

    2005-01-01

    The work carried out within the framework of this Ph.D. deals with the construction of gaseous prototype detectors using Gas Electron Multiplier electrodes for the amplification of charges released by ionizing particles. The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a thin metal-clad polymer foil, etched with a high density of narrow holes, typically 50-100mm-2. On the application of a potential difference between the conductive top and bottom sides each hole acts as independent proportional counter. This new fast device permits to reach large amplification factors at high rates with a strong photon and ion-mediated feedback suppression due to the avalanche confinement in the GEM-holes. Here, in particular studies have been performed, which should prove, that the GEM-technology is applicable for an efficient measurement of single Cherenkov photons. These UV-photons can be detected in different ways. An elegant solution to develop large area RICH-detectors is to evaporate a pad-segmented readout-cathode of a multi-wire...

  8. Single electron multiplication distribution in GEM avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, András; Hamar, Gergő; Kiss, Gábor; Varga, Dezső

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, measurement results and experimental methodology are presented on the determination of multiplication distributions of avalanches initiated by single electron in GEM foils. The measurement relies on the amplification of photoelectrons by the GEM under study, which is subsequently amplified in an MWPC for signal enhancement and readout. The intrinsic detector resolution, namely the sigma-over-mean ratio of the multiplication distribution is also elaborated. Small gain dependence of the shape of the avalanche response distribution is observed in the range of net effective gain of 15 to 100. The distribution has an exponentially decaying tail at large amplitudes. At small amplitudes, the applied working gas is seen to have a well visible effect on the shape of the multiplication distribution. Equivalently, the working gas has an influence on the intrinsic detector resolution of GEMs via suppression of the low amplitude responses. A sigma-over-mean ratio of 0.75 was reached using a neon based mixture, whereas other gases provided an intrinsic detector resolution closer to 1, meaning a multiplication distribution closer to the low-field limit exponential case.

  9. Study of etching processes in the GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Zavazieva, Darina

    2016-01-01

    Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors are known to operate stably at high gains and high particle fluxes. Though, at very high gains and fluxes it was observed that the insulating polyimide layer between the GEM electrodes gets etched, changing the original shape of the hole, and therefore varying the gain and the energy resolution of the detector. The idea of the project to observe degradation effect of the GEM foils during the Triple GEM detector operation in extreme conditions under X-ray radiation.

  10. The GEM-Mars general circulation model for Mars: Description and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, L.; Daerden, F.

    2018-01-01

    GEM-Mars is a gridpoint-based three-dimensional general circulation model (GCM) of the Mars atmosphere extending from the surface to approximately 150 km based on the GEM (Global Environmental Multiscale) model, part of the operational weather forecasting and data assimilation system for Canada. After the initial modification for Mars, the model has undergone considerable changes. GEM-Mars is now based on GEM 4.2.0 and many physical parameterizations have been added for Mars-specific atmospheric processes and surface-atmosphere exchange. The model simulates interactive carbon dioxide-, dust-, water- and atmospheric chemistry cycles. Dust and water ice clouds are radiatively active. Size distributed dust is lifted by saltation and dust devils. The model includes 16 chemical species (CO2, Argon, N2, O2, CO, H2O, CH4, O3, O(1D), O, H, H2, OH, HO2, H2O2 and O2(a1Δg)) and has fully interactive photochemistry (15 reactions) and gas-phase chemistry (31 reactions). GEM-Mars provides a good simulation of the water and ozone cycles. A variety of other passive tracers can be included for dedicated studies, such as the emission of methane. The model has both a hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic formulation, and together with a flexible grid definition provides a single platform for simulations on a variety of horizontal scales. The model code is fully parallelized using OMP and MPI. Model results are evaluated by comparison to a selection of observations from instruments on the surface and in orbit, relating to atmosphere and surface temperature and pressure, dust and ice content, polar ice mass, polar argon, and global water and ozone vertical columns. GEM-Mars will play an integral part in the analysis and interpretation of data that is received by the NOMAD spectrometer on the ESA-Roskosmos ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. The present paper provides an overview of the current status and capabilities of the GEM-Mars model and lays the foundations for more in-depth studies in support

  11. Analysis of Mechanical Properties for GEM Foil

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Yuk Ming

    2016-01-01

    In view of new assembly technique of the GEM detector; in which three foils stack is stretched to get the uniform gaps among the foils. We studied the mechanical properties of the foil material. We conditioned the samples in different environments to make them extra dry and wet. As holes are the major source of the charge amplification their deformation can effect the detector performance. Therefore in our studies we also studied at which level of the stress the holes deformation is seen. These tensile and holes deformation studies can help to optimize the stress during detector assembly.

  12. Some Interesting Mathematical Gems -R-ES-ONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE. Some Interesting Mathematical Gems. V G Tikekar. As the title of the article indicates, I am going to point out certain bright and beautiful pieces of mathematical work which can be treated as gems. Of course, choice of these pearl-like items is subjective depending on my understanding and.

  13. Development of lactococcal GEM-based pneumococcal vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audouy, Sandrine A. L.; van Selm, Saskia; van Roosmalen, Maarten L.; Post, Eduard; Kanninga, Rolf; Neef, Jolanda; Estevao, Silvia; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.; Adrian, Peter V.; Leenhouts, Kees; Hermans, Peter W. M.

    2007-01-01

    We report the development of a novel protein-based nasal vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which three pneumococcal proteins were displayed on the surface of a non-recombinant, killed Lactococcus lactis-derived delivery system, called Gram-positive Enhancer Matrix (GEM). The GEM particles

  14. The Grief Evaluation Measure (GEM): An Initial Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, John R.; Baker, John; Matteis, Margherite; Rosenthal, Saul; Ware, Eugenia S.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Grief Evaluation Measure (GEM), a new instrument designed to screen for the development of a complicated mourning response in a bereaved adult. The GEM provides a quantitative and qualitative assessment of risk factors, including the mourner's loss and medical history, coping resources before and after…

  15. Operational experience with the GEM detector assembly lines for the CMS forward muon upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Vai, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Collaboration has been developing large-area Triple-GEM detectors to be installed in the muon endcap regions of the CMS experiment in 2019 to maintain forward muon trigger and tracking performance at the HL-LHC. Ten pre-production detectors were built at CERN to commission the first assembly line and the quality controls. These were installed in the CMS detector in early 2017 and are currently participating in the 2017 LHC run. The collaboration has prepared several additional assembly and quality control lines for distributed mass production of 160 GEM detectors at various sites worldwide. During 2017, these additional production sites have been optimizing construction techniques and quality control procedures and validating them against common specifications by constructing additional pre-production detectors. Using the specific experience from one production site as an example, we discuss how the quality controls make use of independent hardware and trained personnel to ensure fast and reliable pro...

  16. Studies on GEM modules for a Large Prototype TPC for the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsionou, Dimitra, E-mail: dimitra.tsionou@desy.de

    2017-02-11

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future electron–positron collider with centre of mass energy of 500–1000 GeV. The International Large Detector (ILD) is one of two detector concepts at the ILC. Its high precision tracking system consists of Silicon sub-detectors and a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) equipped with micro-pattern gas detectors (MPGDs). Within the framework of the LCTPC collaboration, a Large Prototype (LP) TPC has been built as a demonstrator. This prototype has been equipped with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) modules and studied with electron beams of energies 1–6 GeV at the DESY test beam facility. The performance of the prototype detector and the extrapolation to the ILD TPC is presented here. In addition, ongoing optimisation studies and R&D activities in order to prepare the next GEM module iteration are discussed.

  17. Studies on GEM modules for a large prototype TPC for the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsionou, Dimitra; Collaboration: LCTPC collaboration

    2016-12-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future electron-positron collider with centre of mass energy of 500-1000 GeV. The International Large Detector (ILD) is one of two detector concepts at the ILC. Its high precision tracking system consists of Silicon sub-detectors and a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) equipped with micro-pattern gas detectors (MPGDs). Within the framework of the LCTPC collaboration, a Large Prototype (LP) TPC has been built as a demonstrator. This prototype has been equipped with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) modules and studied with electron beams of energies 1-6 GeV at the DESY test beam facility. The performance of the prototype detector and the extrapolation to the ILD TPC is presented here. In addition, ongoing optimisation studies and R and D; activities in order to prepare the next GEM module iteration are discussed.

  18. Complete Tem-Tomography: 3D Structure of Gems Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, J.; Miyake, A.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.

    2015-01-01

    GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfide) grains in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are considered to be one of the ubiquitous and fundamental building blocks of solids in the Solar System. They have been considered to be interstellar silicate dust that survived various metamorphism or alteration processes in the protoplanetary disk but the elemental and isotopic composition measurements suggest that most of them have been formed in the protoplanetary disk as condensates from high temperature gas. This formation model is also supported by the formation of GEMS-like grains with respect to the size, mineral assemblage, texture and infrared spectrum by condensation experiments from mean GEMS composition materials. Previous GEMS studies were performed only with 2D observation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or scanning TEM (STEM). However, the 3D shape and structure of GEMS grains and the spatial distribution of Fe/FeS's has critical information about their formation and origin. Recently, the 3D structure of GEMS grains in ultrathin sections of cluster IDPs was revealed by electron tomography using a TEM/STEM (JEM-2100F, JEOL). However, CT images of thin sections mounted on Cu grids acquired by conventional TEM-tomography are limited to low tilt angles (e. g., less than absolute value of 75 deg. In fact, previous 3D TEM observations of GEMS were affected by some artifacts related to the limited tilt range in the TEM used. Complete tomographic images should be acquired by rotating the sample tilt angle over a range of more than absolute value of 80 deg otherwise the CT images lose their correct structures. In order to constrain the origin and formation process of GEMS grains more clearly, we performed complete electron tomography for GEMS grains. Here we report the sample preparation method we have developed for this study, and the preliminary results.

  19. Netzwerk im Ökologischen Gemüsebau

    OpenAIRE

    Billmann, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    Im Jahr 2004 wurde im Rahmen des Bundesprogramms Ökologischer Landbau das Projekt "Netzwerk im Ökologischen Gemüsebau" initiiert. Ziel war es, die Kommunikation zwischen Versuchswesen, Wissenschaft und Beratung im ökologischen Gemüsebau zu verbessern und dadurch der Praxis uneingeschränkten Zugang zu Versuchsergebnissen zu ermöglichen. Ergebnisse Im Teilprojekt 'Leitlinien' entstand das 260-seitige Handbuch 'Planung, Anlage und Auswertung von Versuchen im Ökologischen Gemüsebau', das al...

  20. Gems of combinatorial optimization and graph algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Skutella, Martin; Stiller, Sebastian; Wagner, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Are you looking for new lectures for your course on algorithms, combinatorial optimization, or algorithmic game theory?  Maybe you need a convenient source of relevant, current topics for a graduate student or advanced undergraduate student seminar?  Or perhaps you just want an enjoyable look at some beautiful mathematical and algorithmic results, ideas, proofs, concepts, and techniques in discrete mathematics and theoretical computer science?   Gems of Combinatorial Optimization and Graph Algorithms is a handpicked collection of up-to-date articles, carefully prepared by a select group of international experts, who have contributed some of their most mathematically or algorithmically elegant ideas.  Topics include longest tours and Steiner trees in geometric spaces, cartograms, resource buying games, congestion games, selfish routing, revenue equivalence and shortest paths, scheduling, linear structures in graphs, contraction hierarchies, budgeted matching problems, and motifs in networks.   This ...

  1. Development and performance of large-scale triple GEM detectors for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bouhali, Othmane; Abi Akl, M.; Argamaingaud, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Barria, P.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Cai, J.; Calabria, C.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Celik, A.; Christiansen, J.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; De Lentdecker, G.; De Oliveira, R.; de Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Ferry, S.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Gutierrez, A.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.E.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, S.; Loddo, F.; Maerschalk, T.; Magazzu, G.; Maggi, M.; Maghrbi, Y.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Merlin, J.A.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Philipps, B.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ranieri, A.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Safonov, A.; Sakharov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Teng, H.; Turini, N.; Twigger, J.; Tytgat, M.; van Stenis, M.; Verhagen, E.; Yang, Y.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.

    2013-01-01

    The international CMS GEM collaboration is studying the feasibility of upgrading the CMS forward muon system by adding layers of triple GEM based detectors. After successful tests of small size tripe-GEM chambers in the period of 2010-2011, the collaboration has designed, built and tested full size GEM chambers for the upgrade purpose. We report on results from test beam and simulation that were conducted to study the performance of the GEM chambers.

  2. Caylus, Winckelmann, and the art of “Persian” gems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Eppihimer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although early modern European travellers and antiquarians frequently engaged with the ruins of Persepolis when contemplating Persian antiquity, the pioneering art historians of the eighteenth century turned to engraved gems for their studies of ancient Persian art. In the major published works of Anne-Claude-Phillipe, comte de Caylus and Johann Joachim Winckelmann, the so-called ‘Persian’ gems provided empirical evidence of the art of this lesser known corner of the ancient world. Unlike the Persepolis reliefs, which were known only through engravings, the gems were accessible in European collections, and hence they appealed to the working methods of these two men. The results of Caylus’ and Winckelmann’s studies of ‘Persian’ gems established Persia’s place in art history’s fundamental cultural hierarchy.

  3. Wits Post Graduate Symposium Poster - iGEM

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Millroy, L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This document is a poster providing details of the 2010 International Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM) competition. The origins of the competition, as well as criteria, judging, sponsors, topic and team, are briefly described....

  4. Investigation of the Ageing of a Double GEM Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Sann, H; CERN. Geneva; Schmidt, H R

    2000-01-01

    Abstract A double GEM structure was irradiated with a strong 55Fe-source. An integrated charge corresponding to about 102 years of ALICE heavy-ion operation was accumulated. Within the accuracy of the measurement, no significant drop in gain was observed. Inspection of the GEM foils under an electron microscope shows no deposits from polymerization; the occurrence of Newton rings, however, indicates the build up of a thin (=µm) polymer film.

  5. CCD readout of GEM-based neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, F A F; Fetal, S T G; Fraga, M; Guérard, B; Manzini, G; Margato, L M S; Oed, A; Policarpo, Armando; Vuure, T V

    2002-01-01

    We report on the optical readout of the gas electron multiplier (GEM) operated with a gaseous mixture suitable for the detection of thermal neutrons: sup 3 He-CF sub 4. A CCD system operating in the 400-1000 nm band was used to collect the light. Spectroscopic data on the visible and NIR scintillation of He-CF sub 4 are presented. Images of the tracks of the proton and triton recorded with a triple GEM detector are also shown.

  6. GEM*STAR: Time for an Alternative Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelaar, R. Bruce

    2011-10-01

    The presumption that nuclear reactors will retain their role in global energy production is constantly being challenged - even more so following recent events at Fukushima. Nuclear energy, despite being ``green,'' has inexorably been coupled in the public mind with three paramount concerns: safety, weapons proliferation, and waste (and then ultimately cost). Over the past four decades, the safety of deployed fleets has greatly improved, yet the capital and political costs of a ``nuclear energy option'' appear insurmountable in several countries. The US approach to civilian nuclear energy has become deeply entrenched, first through choices made by the military, and then by the deployed nuclear reactor fleet. This extends to the research agencies as well, to the point where basic sciences and nuclear energy operate in separate spheres. But technologies and priorities have changed, and the time has arrived where a transformative re-think of nuclear energy is not only possible, but urgent. And nuclear physicists are uniquely positioned to accomplish this. This talk will show that by asking, and answering,``what would an accelerator-driven civilian nuclear energy program look like,'' ADNA Corporation's GEM*STAR design directly addresses all three fundamental concerns: safety, proliferation, and waste - and also the final hurdle: cost. GEM*STAR is not an ``add-on'' (to either Project-X, or GEN III+), but rather a base-line energy production capacity, for either electricity or transport fuel production. It integrates and advances the molten-salt reactor technology developed at ORNL, the MW beam accelerator technologies developed by basic sciences, and a reactor/target design optimized for accelerator driven-systems. The results include: the ability to use LWR spent fuel without reprocessing or additional waste; the ability to use natural uranium; no critical mass ever present; orders-of-magnitude less volatile radioactivity in the core; more efficient use of, and deeper

  7. 2-D imaging with cascaded GEM/MHSP multipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Maia, J M; Breskin, Amos; Chechik, R; Veloso, J F C A; Dos Santos, J M F

    2007-01-01

    The imaging properties of cascaded-GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) and cascaded-GEM/MHSP (Micro-Hole and Strip Plate) gaseous electron multipliers, equipped with 2-D Wedge & Strip (W&S) readout electrodes, are presented. The W&S electrode was capacitively coupled to the electron multiplier through a resistive electrode, to adapt the charge-cloud size to the 1.6 mm readout pitch. The studies were carried out with soft X-rays and single UV-photons in Ar/5%CH4 gas mixture at atmospheric pressure. Spatial resolutions of ~225μm and ~250μm (FWHM) were reached, with 5.9 keV X-rays, in 3-GEM and 2-GEM/MHSP based detectors, respectively. Single photoelectrons, emitted from a CsI photocathode deposited on the top electrode of the first GEM in the cascade, were localized with resolution of ~ 170μm (FWHM) in a 4-GEM gaseous photomultiplier.

  8. Design and Construction of a First Prototype Muon Tomography System with GEM Detectors for the Detection of Nuclear Contraband

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074269; Grasso, L; Locke, J B; Quintero, A; Mitra, D

    2009-01-01

    Current radiation portal monitors at sea ports and international borders that employ standard radiation detection techniques are not very sensitive to nuclear contraband that is well shielded to absorb emanating radiation. Muon Tomography (MT) based on the measurement of multiple scattering of atmospheric cosmic ray muons traversing cargo or vehicles that contain high-Z material is a promising passive interrogation technique for solving this problem. We report on the design and construction of compact Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors for a small prototype MT station. This station will employ 10 tracking stations based on 30cm x 30cm low-mass triple-GEM detectors with 2D readout. Due to the excellent spatial resolution of GEMs it is sufficient to use a gap of only a few cm between tracking stations. Together with the compact size of the GEM detectors this allows the GEM MT station to be an order of magnitude more compact than MT stations using traditional drift tubes. We present details of the production and assemb...

  9. 3D Observation of GEMS by Electron Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Junya; Miyake, Akira; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Messenger, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous silicates in chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) coming from comets are dominated by glass with embedded metal and sulfides (GEMS). GEMS grains are submicron-sized rounded objects (typically 100-500) nm in diameter) with anaometer-sized (10-50 nm) Fe-Ni metal and sulfide grains embedded in an amorphous silicate matrix. Several formation processes for GEMS grains have been proposed so far, but these models are still being debated [2-5]. Bradley et al. proposed that GEMS grains are interstellar silicate dust that survived various metamorphism or alteration processes in the protoplanetary disk and that they are amorphiation products of crystalline silicates in the interstellar medium by sputter-deposition of cosmic ray irradiation, similar to space weathering [2,4]. This consideration is based on the observation of nano-sized crystals (approximately 10 nm) called relict grains in GEMS grains and their shapes are pseudomorphs to the host GEMS grains. On the other hand, Keller and Messenger proposed that most GEMS formed in the protoplanetary disk as condensates from high temperature gas [3,5]. This model is based on the fact that most GEMS grains have solar isotopic compositions and have extremely heterogeneous and non-solar elemental compositions. Keller and Messenger (2011) also reported that amorphous silicates in GEMS grains are surrounded by sulfide grains, which formed as sulfidization of metallic iron grains located on the GEMS surface. The previous studies were performed with 2D observation by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or scanning TEM (STEM). In order to understand the structure of GEMS grains described above more clearly, we observed 3D structure of GEMS grains by electron tomography using a TEM/STEM (JEM-2100F, JEOL) at Kyoto University. Electron tomography gives not only 3D structures but also gives higher spatial resolution (approximately a few nm) than that in conventional 2D image, which is restricted by

  10. Geothermal elastometric materials (GEM) program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasuna, A.R.; Bilyeu, G.D.; Davis, D.L.; Sedwick, R.A.; Stephens, C.A.; Veal, G.R.

    1979-07-01

    The primary program objective, to develop a geothermal packer elastomer to withstand 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) geothermal brine with 300 ppM H/sub 2/S, 1000 ppM CO/sub 2/, 25,000 ppM NaCl in aqueous solution for 24 hours, was successfully accomplished. In fact the requirement for one elastomer was exceeded, compounds from four elastomeric polymer systems were successfully developed to meet the GEM requirements providing good flexibility for various situations. Several secondary spin-offs also resulted. The compounds were developed for the casing packer seal application and it was demonstrated that these compounds are directly applicable to the static O-ring and other elastomer applications in similarly unusually severe environments. There is also indication based on drill bits seal tests that the basic compounds will be adaptable to high-temperature dynamic seal applications. Another secondary spin-off is a different conceptual approach to the thermal casing packer problem. This approach concentrates on minimizing the stresses subjected on the sealing element. Since it is fundamentally different, it has a good chance of advancing thermal packer capability in a revolutionary manner as opposed to an evolutionary manner.

  11. Testbeam results for full-size triple GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Ram Krishna

    2015-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will provide exceptional instantaneous and integrated luminosities. The forward region $\\mid \\eta \\mid \\ge 1.5$ of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector will face extremely high particle rates in tens of $KHz/cm^2$ and hence it will affect the momentum resolution and longevity of the muon detectors. To overcome these issues the CMS-GEM collaboration has proposed to install new large size rate capable Triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors in the forward region of CMS muon system. The first set of Triple GEM detectors will be installed in the GE1/1 region $(1.5 \\le \\eta \\le 2.2)$ of muon endcap during the long shutdown 2 of the LHC. Towards this goal, full size CMS Triple GEM prototype chambers have been fabricated and put under the test beam at the CERN SPS test beam facility. The GEM detectors were operated with two gas mixtures $Ar/CO_2$ (70/30) and $Ar/CO_2/CF_4$ (40/15/45). In 2014, good quality data was collected during test beam campaigns. In this paper, th...

  12. Data Management and Other Logistical Challenges for the GEMS: The Data Coordinating Center Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Kousick; Carty, Christina; Horney, Rebecca; Nasrin, Dilruba; Farag, Tamer H.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.

    2012-01-01

    The Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center provided the data management, administrative, and statistical support to the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS). The GEMS study, the largest epidemiological study in the diarrheal disease area among children

  13. The GEMS X-Ray Polarlimeter: Instrument Concpet and Calibration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The instrument and detector concepts for the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) X-ray polarimetry mission will be presented. The calibration requirements for astrophysical X-ray polarimeters in general and GEMS in particular will be discussed.

  14. Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM), foil holes deformation studies

    CERN Document Server

    Suhaj, Adam; CERN. Geneva. PH Department

    2015-01-01

    GEM detectors play an important role in the upcoming high-luminosity LHC upgrade in 2018 where they will be exposed to high doses of radiation in the muon endcap region. A series of tensile tests were performed on neutron irradiated and non-irradiated GEM foils where the shape of the holes was thoroughly examined. It was found that the GEM foil does not deform much at lower loads but the deformation gets exponentially bigger after applying more than a 60 N force. Both sets of samples behaved similarly at lower loads up to 40 N after which the holes of the irradiated samples started to deform more rapidly than the non-irradiated ones. The failure point of the non-irradiated samples occurred consistently at around 135 N while the irradiated samples experienced failure at around 85 N with two outliers failing at 120 and 135 N.

  15. GEMs with Double Layred Micropattern Electrodes and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mauro, A; Nappi, E; Oliveira, R; Peskov, V; Pietropaolo, F; Picchi, P

    2009-01-01

    We have developed and tested several new designs of GEM detectors with micropattern electrodes manufactured by microelectronic technology. In one design, the inner layer of the detector electrode consists of thin metallic strips and the outer layer is made of a resistive grid manufactured by a screen printing technology. In other designs, the electrodes were made of metallic strips fed by HV via micro-resistors manufactured by a screen printing technology. Due to these features, the new detectors have several important advantages over conventional GEMs or ordinary thick GEMs. For example, the resistive grid (in the first design) and the screen printed resistors (in other designs) limited the current in case of discharges, making these detectors intrinsically spark-protected. We will here describe our tests with the photosensitive versions of these detectors (coated with CsI layers) and the efforts of implementing them in several applications. In particular, we will focus on our activity towards the ALICE RICH...

  16. CMS GEM detector material study for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Muhammad, Saleh

    2017-01-01

    A study on the Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) foil material is performed to determine the moisture diffusion rate and saturation level and the moisture effects on its mechanical properties. The study is focused on the foil contact with ambient air and moisture to determine the value of the diffusion coefficient of water in the detector polyimide. The presence of water inside the detector foil can determine the changes in its mechanical and electrical properties. A simulated model is developed by taking into account the real GEM foil (hole dimensions, shapes and material), which describes the adsorption on a sample. This work describes the model, its experimental verification, the water diffusion within the entire sheet geometry of the GEM foil, thus gaining concentration profiles and the time required to saturate the system and the effects on the mechanical properties.

  17. Readout of TPC Tracking Chambers with GEMs and Pixel Chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadyk, John; Kim, T.; Freytsis, M.; Button-Shafer, J.; Kadyk, J.; Vahsen, S.E.; Wenzel, W.A.

    2007-12-21

    Two layers of GEMs and the ATLAS Pixel Chip, FEI3, have been combined and tested as a prototype for Time Projection Chamber (TPC) readout at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The double-layer GEM system amplifies charge with gain sufficient to detect all track ionization. The suitability of three gas mixtures for this application was investigated, and gain measurements are presented. A large sample of cosmic ray tracks was reconstructed in 3D by using the simultaneous timing and 2D spatial information from the pixel chip. The chip provides pixel charge measurement as well as timing. These results demonstrate that a double GEM and pixel combination, with a suitably modified pixel ASIC, could meet the stringent readout requirements of the ILC.

  18. GEM operation in pure noble gases and the avalanche confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Buzulutskov, A F; Bressan, A; Mauro, A D; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Biagi, S F

    1999-01-01

    We study the operation of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) in pure Ar and almost pure Xe. Rather high gas gains obtained in pure Ar, of the order of 1000, are explained by the effect of the avalanche confinement to a GEM micro-hole. Applications to the development of non-ageing sealed photon detector filled with pure noble gases are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the photoelectron collection efficiency deteriorated in pure Ar due to electron backscattering, can be recovered by operation at a higher electric field.

  19. Simulation of the GEM detector for BM@N experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov Dmitriy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM detector is one of the basic parts of the BM@N experiment included in the NICA project. The simulation model that takes into account features of signal generation process in an ionization GEM chamber is presented in this article. Proper parameters for the simulation were extracted from data retrieved with the help of Garfield++ (a toolkit for the detailed simulation of particle detectors. Due to this, we are able to generate clusters in layers of the micro-strip readout that correspond to clusters retrieved from a real physics experiment.

  20. Simulation of the GEM detector for BM@N experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov Dmitriy; Rogachevsky Oleg

    2017-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is one of the basic parts of the BM@N experiment included in the NICA project. The simulation model that takes into account features of signal generation process in an ionization GEM chamber is presented in this article. Proper parameters for the simulation were extracted from data retrieved with the help of Garfield++ (a toolkit for the detailed simulation of particle detectors). Due to this, we are able to generate clusters in layers of the micro-s...

  1. Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS): principles and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwynne, M.D.; Sella, F.; Wallen, C.C.

    1980-01-01

    The place occupied by GEMS in the United Nations Environment Program is defined. A distinction is made between activities falling under GEMS by virtue of their international nature and those supported by the Environment Fund. The monitoring activities currently supported include climate related monitoring, monitoring of long range transport of pollutants, health related monitoring, terrestrial renewable resources monitoring, and ocean monitoring. Most activities have integral evaluation, review and training mechanisms. The programs are summarized, outlining operational goals and progress realized to date. The World Glacier Inventory and the Mediterranean pollution monitoring and research program are mentioned.

  2. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Glycosidase Inhibitors: gem-Difluoromethylenated Nojirimycin Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bols, Mikael; Wang, Ruo-Wen; Qiu, Xiao-Long

    2006-01-01

    In our ongoing program aimed at the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel gem-difluoromethylenated glycosidase inhibitors, gem-4,4-difluoromethylenated iminosugars (5-9) were synthesized. The biological evaluation of these synthetic iminosugars showed that the gem...

  3. Atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) over a coastal/rural site downwind of East China: Temporal variation and long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei; Niu, Zhenchuan

    2011-05-01

    Although much attention has been paid to the mercury pollution in China, limited field studies have been conducted to explore the atmospheric behavior of mercury. To investigate the temporal variation and long-range transport of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM or Hg(0)), the GEM measurements covering four different seasons were performed at a coastal/rural site of the Yellow Sea downwind of East China. Hourly mean concentrations of GEM measured by RA-915+ mercury analyzer over the entire study (four different time periods between July 2007 and May 2009) were 2.31 ± 0.74 ng m -3 with a range of 1.12-7.01 ng m -3. The results showed moderate seasonal variations with high levels in cold seasons (winter: 2.53 ± 0.77 ng m -3 and spring: 2.34 ± 0.54 ng m -3) and low levels in warm seasons (summer: 2.28 ± 0.82 ng m -3 and fall: 2.16 ± 0.84 ng m -3). Over the each campaign a diurnal variation of GEM was observed consistently with peak levels in daytime and low levels in late night and early morning. The pollution rose and NOAA-HYSPLIT back-trajectory model analyses indicated that the elevated GEM was transported to the sampling site from the regional sources of East China and Korea peninsula-Japan. Air masses originated from the East China Sea and the regions of Continental East Asia with low emission strengths of atmospheric mercury (e.g., the east Russia, the north Inner Mongolia and the Bohai Sea) showed the decreased GEM levels.

  4. Gems: Obiects of Aesthetic Beauty and Scientific Curiosity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Gems: Obiects of Aesthetic Beauty and Scientific Curiosity. A K Ramdas. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 39-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/12/0039-0041 ...

  5. CMS Technical Design Report for the Muon Endcap GEM Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108476; Safonov, A; Sharma, A; Tytgat, M; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2015-01-01

    This report describes both the technical design and the expected performance of the Phase-II upgrade, using Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, of the first endcap station of the CMS muon system. The upgrade is targeted for the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC and is designed to improve the muon trigger and tracking performance at high luminosity. The GEM detectors will add redundancy to the muon system in the 1.6 < |η| < 2.2 pseudorapidity region, where the amount of detection layers is lowest while the background rates are highest and the bending of the muon trajectories due to the CMS magnetic field is small. GEM detectors have been identified as a suitable technology to operate in the high radiation environment present in that region. The first muon endcap station will be instrumented with a double layer of triple-GEM chambers in the 1.6 < |η| < 2.2 region. The detector front-end electronics uses the custom designed VFAT3 chip to provide both fast input for the level-1 muon trigger ...

  6. First results from the ALICE GEM TPC prototype test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasik, Piotr [TU Muenchen, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE TPC-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    A large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device for tracking and charged particle identification in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. After the second long shutdown in 2018, the LHC will deliver Pb beams colliding at an interaction rate of about 50 kHz, which is about a factor of 100 above the present readout rate of the TPC. In order to make full use of this luminosity, a major upgrade of the TPC is required. It is foreseen to replace the existing MWPC-based readout with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils. A GEM TPC can exploit the intrinsic suppression of back-drifting ions from the amplification stage to reduce the problem of drift-field distortions in an ungated operation. The latter is essential for a continuous readout required for all central detectors of ALICE after the upgrade. A prototype of an ALICE Inner Read-Out Chamber (IROC) was equipped with three large-size GEM foils as amplification stage to demonstrate the feasibility of this solution. The GEM IROC was installed within a test field cage with a drift length of 115 mm and commissioned with radioactive sources. The dE/dx resolution of the prototype was evaluated in a test beam campaign using protons, pions and electrons (1 to 6 GeV/c) at the CERN PS. Preliminary results from these measurements are discussed in this contribution.

  7. Quality of the spare triple-GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lenci, Rosario; Paoletti, Emiliano; Pasquali, Luigi; Pinci, Davide; Piscitelli, Carmelo; Poli Lener, Marco; Sciubba, Adalberto; Tskhadadze, Edisher

    2017-01-01

    Triple-GEM chambers equip the inner region of the M1 muon station. In order to provide spare detectors in case of problems in the operating ones, new chambers have been assembled at the Frascati National Laboratories of the INFN. This note summarizes the results of the quality tests performed at the end of the production procedure.

  8. Some G Pólya Gems from Complex Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Some G Polya Gems from Complex Analysis. Shobha Madan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 323-337 ... Author Affiliations. Shobha Madan1. Department of Mathematics Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur 208 016, India.

  9. The Greenhouse Gases. UNEP/GEMS Environment Library No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    Since the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) was created, more than a dozen years ago, public understanding of the environmental issues confronting our planet has increased enormously. The Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) has provided several environmental assessments including urban air pollution, climate modification,…

  10. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, T. R.

    2011-01-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) was selected by NASA for flight in 2014 to make a sensitive search for X-ray polarization from a wide set of source classes, including stellar black holes, Seyfert galaxies and quasars, blazars, rotation and accretion-powered pulsars, magnetars, shell supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae. Among the primary scientific objectives are determining the effects of the spin of black holes and the geometry of supermassive black hole accretion, determining the configurations of the magnetic fields and the X-ray emission of magnetars, and determining the magnetic structure of the supernova shocks in which cosmic rays are accelerated. GEMS will observe 23 targets during a 16 month prime mission, in observations that will be able to reach predicted levels of polarization. The mission can be extended to provide a guest observer phase. The GEMS instrument has time projection chamber polarimeters with high 2-10 keV efficiency at the focus of thin foil mirrors. The 4.5 m focal length mirrors will be deployed on an extended boom. The spacecraft with the instrument is rotated with a period of about 10 minutes to enable measurement and correction of systematic errors. A small Bragg reflection soft X-ray experiment takes advantage of this rotation to obtain a measurement at 0.5 keV. The design of the GEMS instrument and the mission, the expected performance and the planned science program will be discussed.

  11. Dijk- en oeverval aan den cal. Willem Annapolder (Gem. Kapelle)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    1936-01-01

    Foto's van de aanleg van de dijk- en oeverval aan den cal. Willem Annapolder (Gem. Kapelle) 3. Linkerhelft dijkval Willem Annapolder. 30 Dec. 1936 4. Rechtehelft dijkval Willem Annapolder. 30 Dec. 1936 5. Overzicht dijkval Willem Annaolder. 30 Dec. 1936 6. Kleikisting binnendijks aangebacht. 14/15

  12. Hard assets : The return of rare diamonds and gems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, Luc; Spaenjers, Christophe; Grynberg, Roman; Mbayi, Letsema

    This note examines the investment performance of diamonds and other gems (sapphires, rubies, and emeralds) over the period 1999–2010, using a novel data set of auction transactions. Over our time frame, the annualized real USD returns for white and colored diamonds equaled 6.4% and 2.9%,

  13. Photometric techniques, performance and PSF characterization of GeMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turri, Paolo; McConnachie, Alan W.; Stetson, Peter B.; Andersen, David R.; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Massari, Davide

    2016-01-01

    GeMS is the multi-conjugate adaptive optics instrument at the Gemini South telescope in Chile, the first facility-class MCAO system and the first to use laser guide stars. During its science verification period we have observed the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 and here we discuss the

  14. Hard Assets : The Returns on Rare Diamonds and Gems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the investment performance of diamonds and other gems (sapphires, rubies, and emeralds) over the period 1999-2010, using a novel data set of auction transactions. Between 1999 and 2010, the annualized real USD returns for white and colored diamonds equaled 6.4% and 2.9%,

  15. Continuous health monitoring of Graphite Epoxy Motorcases (GEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Richard D.; Schaafsma, David T.; Shen, H. Warren; Carlos, Mark F.; Miller, Ronnie K.; Shepherd, Brent

    2001-07-01

    Following the explosion of Delta 241 (IIR-1) on January 17th, 1997, the failure investigation board concluded that the Graphite Epoxy Motorcases (GEM's) should be inspected for damage just prior to launch. Subsequent investigations and feedback from industry led to an Aerospace Corporation proposal to instrument the entire fleet of GEM's with a continuous health monitoring system. The period of monitoring would extend from the initial acceptance testing through final erection on the launch pad. As this proposal demonstrates, (along with the increasing use of advanced composite materials in aircraft, automobiles, military hardware, and aerospace components such as rocket motorcases) a sizable need for composite health assessment measures exist. Particularly where continuous monitoring is required for the detection of damage from impacts and other sources of high mechanical and thermal stresses. Even low-momentum impacts can lead to barely visible impact damage (BVID), corresponding to a significant weakening of the composite. This damage, undetectable by visual inspection, can in turn lead to sudden and catastrophic failure when the material is subjected to a normal operating load. There is perhaps no system with as much potential for truly catastrophic failure as a rocket motor. We will present an update on our ongoing efforts with the United States Air Force Delta II Program Office, and The Aerospace Corporation. This will cover the development of a local, portable, surface-mounted, fiberoptic sensor based impact damage monitor designed to operate on a Delta II GEM during transport, storage, and handling. This system is designed to continuously monitor the GEMs, to communicate wirelessly with base stations and maintenance personnel, to operate autonomously for extended periods, and to fit unobtrusively on the GEM itself.

  16. Analysis of GEM properties and development of a GEM support structure for the ILD time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallermann, Lea

    2010-04-15

    In the concept of the International Large Detector (ILD), developed for the International Linear Collider (ILC) a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is envisaged as main tracking detector. Such gaseous detectors have to be equipped with amplification devices in order to enlarge the amount of charge, which is set free by ionization caused by traversing charged particles. Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs) will be used in the ILD TPC as amplification stage. In this thesis, Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) - one specific MPGD species - are analyzed concerning various properties. Effective gains and energy resolutions are compared for GEM foils produced by different manufacturers. A good understanding of these observables is obtained by interpretation of the results with the help of geometrical parameters. Height profile measurements of GEM foils have been performed for the first time and the impact of non perfect flat GEMs is analyzed, especially on dE/dx determination and drift field quality. The results emphasize the need of a flat installation of GEMs in TPCs. As a consequence, a new mounting device has been developed to ensure flatness and to provide a method to cover large readout areas, as in the ILD TPC, by introducing the least possible amount of dead material into the detector. The developed structure has been tested in a TPC protoype, taking cosmic muon data. The influence of the mounting on track reconstruction, single point resolution, tracking efficiency and dE/dx measurements is quantified. The developed mounting is applicable in a large scale TPC, if some design considerations are taken into account. (orig.)

  17. Optimization of the gas flow in a GEM chamber and development of the GEM foil stretcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noto Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The gas electron multiplier technology has been proven to tolerate rat e larger than 50 MHz/cm2 without noticeable aging and to provide sub resolution on working chambers up to 45 cm x 45 cm. A new gas electron multiplier-based tracker is under development for the Hall A upgrade at Jefferson Lab. The chambers of the tracker have been designed in a modular way: each chamber consists of 3 adjacent gas electron multiplier modules, with an active area of 40 cm x 50 cm each. We optimized the gas flow inside the gas electron multiplier module volume, using the COMSOL physics simulator framework; the COMSOL-based analysis includes the design of the inlet and outlet pipes and the maximization of the uniformity of the gas flow. We have defined the procedures for the assembling of the gas electron multiplier modules and designed a mechanical system (TENDIGEM that will be used to stretch the GEM foils at the proper tension (few kg/cm; the TENDIGEM is based on the original design developed at LNF.

  18. GEM1: First-year modeling and IT activities for the Global Earthquake Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G.; Giardini, D.; Wiemer, S.

    2009-04-01

    GEM is a public-private partnership initiated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to build an independent standard for modeling and communicating earthquake risk worldwide. GEM is aimed at providing authoritative, open information about seismic risk and decision tools to support mitigation. GEM will also raise risk awareness and help post-disaster economic development, with the ultimate goal of reducing the toll of future earthquakes. GEM will provide a unified set of seismic hazard, risk, and loss modeling tools based on a common global IT infrastructure and consensus standards. These tools, systems, and standards will be developed in partnership with organizations around the world, with coordination by the GEM Secretariat and its Secretary General. GEM partners will develop a variety of global components, including a unified earthquake catalog, fault database, and ground motion prediction equations. To ensure broad representation and community acceptance, GEM will include local knowledge in all modeling activities, incorporate existing detailed models where possible, and independently test all resulting tools and models. When completed in five years, GEM will have a versatile, penly accessible modeling environment that can be updated as necessary, and will provide the global standard for seismic hazard, risk, and loss models to government ministers, scientists and engineers, financial institutions, and the public worldwide. GEM is now underway with key support provided by private sponsors (Munich Reinsurance Company, Zurich Financial Services, AIR Worldwide Corporation, and Willis Group Holdings); countries including Belgium, Germany, Italy, Singapore, Switzerland, and Turkey; and groups such as the European Commission. The GEM Secretariat has been selected by the OECD and will be hosted at the Eucentre at the University of Pavia in Italy; the Secretariat is now formalizing the creation of the GEM Foundation. Some of GEM's global

  19. GEM-based beam profile monitors for the antiproton decelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Pinto, S.; Jones, R.; Ropelewski, L.; Spanggaard, J.; Tranquille, G.

    2012-03-01

    The new beam profile measurement for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN is based on a single Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) with a 2D readout structure. This detector is very light, ~ 0.4% X0, as required by the low energy of the antiprotons, 5.3 MeV. This overcomes the problems previously encountered with multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC) for the same purpose, where beam interactions with the detector severely affect the obtained profiles. A prototype was installed and successfully tested in late 2010, with another five detectors now installed in the ASACUSA and AEGIS beam lines. We will provide a detailed description of the detector and discuss the results obtained. The success of these detectors in the AD makes GEM-based detectors likely candidates for upgrade of the beam profile monitors in all experimental areas at CERN. The various types of MWPC currently in use are aging and becoming increasingly difficult to maintain.

  20. GEM-based beam profile monitors for the antiproton decelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, S.; Ropelewski, L.; Spanggaard, J.; Tranquille, G.

    2012-01-01

    The new beam profile measurement for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN is based on a single Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) with a 2D readout structure. This detector is very light, ~0.4% X0, as required by the low energy of the antiprotons, 5.3 MeV. This overcomes the problems previously encountered with multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC) for the same purpose, where beam interactions with the detector severely affect the obtained profiles. A prototype was installed and successfully tested in late 2010, with another five detectors now installed in the ASACUSA and AEGIS beam lines. We will provide a detailed description of the detector and discuss the results obtained. The success of these detectors in the AD makes GEM-based detectors likely candidates for upgrade of the beam profile monitors in all experimental areas at CERN. The various types of MWPC currently in use are aging and becoming increasingly difficult to maintain.

  1. Effects of High Charge Densities in Multi-GEM Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Franchino, S.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Muller, H.; Oliveri, E.; Pfeiffer, D.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Van Stenis, M.; Streli, C.; Thuiner, P.; Veenhof, R.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive study, supported by systematic measurements and numerical computations, of the intrinsic limits of multi-GEM detectors when exposed to very high particle fluxes or operated at very large gains is presented. The observed variations of the gain, of the ion back-flow, and of the pulse height spectra are explained in terms of the effects of the spatial distribution of positive ions and their movement throughout the amplification structure. The intrinsic dynamic character of the processes involved imposes the use of a non-standard simulation tool for the interpretation of the measurements. Computations done with a Finite Element Analysis software reproduce the observed behaviour of the detector. The impact of this detailed description of the detector in extreme conditions is multiple: it clarifies some detector behaviours already observed, it helps in defining intrinsic limits of the GEM technology, and it suggests ways to extend them.

  2. Photometric techniques, performance and PSF characterization of GeMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, Paolo; McConnachie, Alan W.; Stetson, Peter B.; Andersen, David R.; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Massari, Davide

    2016-07-01

    GeMS is the multi-conjugate adaptive optics instrument at the Gemini South telescope in Chile, the first facility-class MCAO system and the first to use laser guide stars. During its science verification period we have observed the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 and here we discuss the optimization of the analysis techniques that we adopt to extract science-ready photometric measurements. We use the large number of stars in the field of view to determine with high accuracy the PSF model for the profile fitting photometry. Understanding the correct techniques not only has proven useful with GeMS data but will be valuable on the next generation of Extremely Large Telescopes, where MCAO will be a central technology.

  3. Reactions of gem-Difluorinated Phosphonium Salts Induced by Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panferova, Liubov I; Tsymbal, Artem V; Levin, Vitalij V; Struchkova, Marina I; Dilman, Alexander D

    2016-03-04

    gem-Difluorinated phosphonium salts, which are readily obtained from aldehydes and difluoromethylene phosphobetaine, can serve as a source of radicals under reductive conditions. An iridium complex or Hantzsch ester was used as a one-electron reducing agent when irradiated with visible light. The fluorinated radicals were trapped with various alkenes, leading to products either via a photoredox cycle (for the iridium catalyst) or via a hydrogen atom transfer (for the Hantzsch ester).

  4. Development of near infrared spectrometer for gem materials study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindata, W.; Meesiri, W.; Wongkokua, W.

    2015-07-01

    Most of gem materials can be characterized by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Normally, mid infrared absorption technique has been applied for investigating fundamental vibrational modes. However, for some gem materials, such as tourmaline, NIR is a better choice due to differentiation. Most commercial NIR spectrometers employ complicated dispersive grating or Fourier transform techniques. In this work, we developed a filter type NIR spectrometer with the availability of high efficiency and low-cost narrow bandpass NIR interference filters to be taught in a physics laboratory. The instrument was designed for transmission-mode configuration. A 50W halogen lamp was used as NIR source. There were fourteen NIR filters mounted on a rotatory wheel for wavelength selection ranging from 1000-1650 nm with steps of 50 nm. A 1.0 mm diameter of InGaAs photodiode was used as the detector for the spectrometer. Hence, transparent gem materials can be used as samples for experiment. Student can learn vibrational absorption spectroscopy as well as Beer-Lambert law from the development of this instrument.

  5. High-resolution tracking in a GEM-emulsion detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertani, M.; Buonaura, A.; Capoccia, C.; Cibinetto, G.; De Lellis, G.; De Lucia, E.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Domenici, D.; Farinelli, R.; Felici, G.; Kitagawa, N.; Komatsu, M.; Morello, G.; Morishima, K.; Poli Lener, M.; Tioukov, V.

    2017-09-01

    SHiP (Search for Hidden Particles) is a beam dump experiment proposed at the CERN SPS aiming at the observation of long-lived particles very weakly coupled with ordinary matter mostly produced in the decay of charmed hadrons. The beam dump facility of SHiP is also a copious factory of neutrinos of all three kinds and therefore a dedicated neutrino detector is foreseen in the SHiP apparatus. The neutrino detector exploits the Emulsion Cloud Chamber technique with a modular structure, alternating walls of target units and planes of electronic detectors providing the time stamp to the event. GEM detectors are one of the possible choices for this task. This paper reports the results of the first exposure to a muon beam at CERN of a new hybrid chamber, obtained by coupling a GEM chamber and an emulsion detector. Thanks to a position accuracy of the emulsion detector of the order of the micrometer, the position resolution of the GEM chamber as a function of the particle inclination was evaluated in two configurations, with and without the magnetic field. It ranges from a minimum of 54 μm for normal incident tracks up to (320±40) μm for incoming tracks with θ = 45o and magnetic field strength of 1 T.

  6. Study of relevant parameters of GEM-based detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Croci, Gabriele; Sauli, Fabio; Ragazzi, S

    2007-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier consist of a thin Kapton insulating (50 $\\mu$m) foil copper-clad on both sides and perforated by a high density, regular matrix of holes (around 100 per square millimeter). Typically the distance between holes (pitch) is 140 $\\mu$m and diameters of about 70 $\\mu$m. The mesh is realised by conventional photolitographic methods as used for the fabrication of multi-layer board. Upon application of a potential difference between the GEM electrodes, a high dipole field develops in the holes focusing the field lines between the drift electrode and the readout element. Electron drift along the channel and the charge is amplified by a factor that depends on the field density and the length of the channel. Owing to their excellent position resolution and rate capability GEM-based detector are very suitable to be used in different applications: from the high energy physics to the medical field. The GEM temporal and rate gain stability was studied and it was discovered that the gain variation...

  7. High-rate particle triggering with triple-GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, M; De Simone, P; Murtas, F; Poli-Lener, M; Bonivento, W; Cardini, A; Deplano, C; Raspino, D; Pinci, D

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of a systematic study of the time performance of triple-GEM detectors operated with Ar/CO//2/CF//4 and Ar/CF//4 /iso-C//4H//1//0 gas mixtures. This study and the detector development has been performed in the framework of an R&D activity on detectors for the innermost part (region R1) of the first muon station (M1) of the LHCb experiment. The use of fast gas mixtures allows to achieve a time resolution better than 5 ns (r.m.s.) and a single detector efficiency up to similar to 99% in a 20 ns time window. Discharge studies have been performed at the piM1 hadron beam facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute. Local aging properties were investigated exposing the detector to a collimated 5.9 keV X-rays beam. The whole R&D activity with different gas mixtures has been performed with small 10 multiplied by 10 cm**2 triple-GEM detector prototypes. A full size prototype (module-0) constituted by two 20 multiplied by 24 cm**2 triple-GEM detectors, equipped with front-end electronics based ...

  8. Study of the GEM detector for the LHCb experiment upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Santimaria, Marco

    Triple-GEM chambers, so far used in the inner region of the M1 muon station, are the ideal candidates to replace the MWPCs in the regions where, after the upgrade, the particle rate will be as high as 2 MHz/cm$^2$. Testing the triple-GEM efficiency and time resolution with different gaseous mixtures is therefore a significant step in evaluating the expected performance of the muon system after the upgrade scheduled in 2018, when the luminosity in LHCb will reach $2\\times10^{33} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$. In this thesis, a study of the GEM efficiency and time performance is conducted using a cosmic rays station at the Emilio Segrè laboratory, in the Sapienza university of Rome. Two gas mixtures are used for the measurements: Ar/CO$_2$/CF$_4$ 40:55:5 and 45:15:40. A preliminar simulation of the gas mixtures properties is performed using the software GARFIELD, focusing on electron drift velocity and specific ionization. Using 2 plastic scintillator as a muon trigger system, several measurements of efficiency and time perf...

  9. GEMs With Double Layered Micropattern Electrodes and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, Antonio; Martinengo, Paolo; Nappi, Eugenio; Oliveira, R.; Peskov, V.; Pietropaolo, F.; Picchi, P.

    2009-06-01

    We have developed and tested several new designs of GEM detectors with micropattern electrodes manufactured by microelectronic technology. In one design, the inner layer of the detector's electrode consists of thin metallic strips and the outer layer is made of a resistive grid manufactured by a screen printing technology. In other designs, the electrodes were made of metallic strips fed by HV via micro-resistors manufactured by a screen printing technology. Due to these features, the new detectors have several important advantages over conventional GEMs or ordinary thick GEMs. For example, the resistive grid (in the first design) and the screen printed resistors (in other designs) limited the current in case of discharges thus making these detectors intrinsically spark- protected. We will here describe our tests with the photosensitive versions of these detectors (coated with Csl layers) and the efforts of implementing them in several applications. In particular, we will focus on our activity towards the ALICE RICH detector upgrade and on tests of simplified prototypes of cryogenic dark matter detectors.

  10. Advances in Trace Element “Fingerprinting” of Gem Corundum, Ruby and Sapphire, Mogok Area, Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, F.; Zaw, Khin; Meffre, Sebastien; Yui, Tzen-Fui; Thu, Kyaw

    2014-01-01

    Mogok gem corundum samples from twelve localities were analyzed for trace element signatures (LA-ICP-MS method) and oxygen isotope values (δ18O, by laser fluorination). The study augmented earlier findings on Mogok gem suites that suggested the Mogok tract forms a high vanadium gem corundum area and also identified rare alluvial ruby and sapphire grains characterised by unusually high silicon, calcium and gallium, presence of noticeable boron, tin and niobium and very low iron, titanium and ...

  11. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster Performance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Discharge current, terminal voltage, and mass bit measurements are performed on a coaxial gallium electromagnetic thruster at discharge currents in the range of 7-23 kA. It is found that the mass bit varies quadratically with the discharge current which yields a constant exhaust velocity of 20 km/s. Increasing the electrode radius ratio of the thruster from to 2.6 to 3.4 increases the thruster efficiency from 21% to 30%. When operating with a central gallium anode, macroparticles are ejected at all energy levels tested. A central gallium cathode ejects macroparticles when the current density exceeds 3.7 10(exp 8) A/square m . A spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range is used to determine which species are present in the plasma. The spectra show that neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium species are present in the discharge, as well as annular electrode species at higher energy levels. Axial Langmuir triple probe measurements yield electron temperatures in the range of 0.8-3.8 eV and electron densities in the range of 8 x 10(exp )20 to 1.6 x 10(exp 21) m(exp -3) . Triple probe measurements suggest an exhaust plume with a divergence angle of 9 , and a completely doubly ionized plasma at the ablating thruster cathode.

  12. The current status of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) research at Kasetsart University, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiranon, P.; Kulasri, K.; Rittirong, A.; Saenboonruang, K.

    2017-06-01

    During the past decade, Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors have been greatly developed and utilized in numbers of applications including advanced nuclear and particle researches, medical imaging, astrophysics, and neutron detection for national security. Our GEM research group at the Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Thailand, realized in its excellent properties/potentials and started extensive researches on GEM detectors. To build a strong foundation on our research group, two 10 cm × 10 cm triple GEM detectors were characterized on their important properties including absolute gains and detection uniformity. Moreover, to widen applications of the GEM detector, our group had modified the GEM detector by introducing either solid or gaseous neutron converters to the detector so that the detector could effectively detect neutrons. These modifications included coating a thin film of 10B and natB to the GEM drift cathode for thermal neutron detection and flowing a gas mixture of He/CO2 (80:20 and 70:30) and C4H10/He/CO2 (7:70:23) for fast neutron detection. Results showed that the modified GEM-based neutron detector could detect both types of neutrons with different relative efficiencies and gains depending on thicknesses and types of neutron converters. This article discusses basic knowledge of the GEM detector, construction and testing procedures, results, and discussion.

  13. Resolution studies of a GEM-based TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killenberg, M.

    2006-12-15

    Currently there are four different concept studies trying to optimise the detector for the requirements at the ILC. In three of these detector concepts a time projection chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking device. To achieve the intended spatial resolution of 100 {mu}m, micro pattern gas detectors (MPGD) are considered for gas amplification. The two different MPGDs discussed for the ILC TPC are Micro-Mesh Gaseous Detectors (Micromegas) and Gas Electron Multiplier foils (GEMs). The current thesis shows resolution studies with a TPC prototype equipped with a triple GEM readout structure. A hodoscope made up of silicon strip sensors gives a precision reference track, allowing an unbiased measurement of the spatial resolution. High statistics measurements have been conducted at the DESY test beam facility, which provides positrons with a tunable energy between 1 GeV and 6 GeV. Using the independent measurement of the hodoscope allows systematic studies of the homogeneity of the TPC's electric field. The fluctuations of the field in the chamber's central region were found to be {delta}E/E=8.10{sup -3}. Field distortions have been determined and corrected, reducing the remaining deviations to a level well below the spatial resolution of the TPC. One important task is to reduce the number of ions drifting back into the sensitive volume. Special GEM settings with minimised ion backdrift have been examined with respect to their influence on the spatial resolution and it was found that the spatial resolution is not degraded using these special settings. The TPC prototype has been operated in a 4 T magnetic field, provided by a superconducting solenoid located at DESY Hamburg. Again the spatial resolution measured with the ion backdrift optimised settings is compared to that achieved with nonoptimised settings. In both cases the measured resolution is approximately 130 {mu}m. (orig.)

  14. Life with quintuplets: transitioning GeMS into regular operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrel, Vincent; Van Dam, Marcos A.; Neichel, Benoît; Vidal, Fabrice; Sivo, Gaetano; Marin, Eduardo; Montes, Vanessa; Serio, Andrew; Arriagada, Gustavo; Trujillo, Chadwick; Rambold, William N.; Gigoux, Pedro; Galvez, Ramon; Moreno, Cristian; Araujo Hauck, Constanza; Vucina Parga, Tomislav; Donahue, Jeff; Marchant, Claudio; Gausachs, Gaston; Collao, Fabian; Carrasco Damele, Eleazar R.; Pessev, Peter; Lopez, Ariel

    2014-08-01

    The Gemini Multi-conjugate adaptive optics System (GeMS) at the Gemini South telescope in Cerro Pachon is the first sodium Laser Guide Star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO) system with multiple guide stars. It uses five LGSs and two deformable mirrors (DMs) to measure and compensate for distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence. After its 2012 commissioning phase, it is now transitioning into regular operations. Although GeMS has unique scientific capabilities, it remains a challenging instrument to maintain, operate and upgrade. In this paper, we summarize the latest news and results. First, we describe the engineering work done this past year, mostly during our last instrument shutdown in 2013 austral winter, covering many subsystems: an erroneous reconjugation of the Laser guide star wavefront sensor, the correction of focus field distortion for the natural guide star wavefront sensor and engineering changes dealing with our laser and its beam transfer optics. We also describe our revamped software, developed to integrate the instrument into the Gemini operational model, and the new optimization procedures aiming to reduce GeMS time overheads. Significant software improvements were achieved on the acquisition of natural guide stars by our natural guide star wavefront sensor, on the automation of tip-tilt and higher-order loop optimization, and on the tomographic non-common path aberration compensation. We then go through the current operational scheme and present the plan for the next years. We offered 38 nights in our last semester. We review the current system efficiency in term of raw performance, completed programs and time overheads. We also present our current efforts to merge GeMS into the Gemini base facility project, where night operations are all reliably driven from our La Serena headquarter, without the need for any spotter. Finally we present the plan for the future upgrades, mostly dedicated toward improving the performance and reliability of the

  15. A time projection chamber with GEM-based readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attié, David; Behnke, Ties; Bellerive, Alain; Bezshyyko, Oleg; Bhattacharya, Deb Sankar; Bhattacharya, Purba; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Caiazza, Stefano; Colas, Paul; Lentdecker, Gilles De; Dehmelt, Klaus; Desch, Klaus; Diener, Ralf; Dixit, Madhu; Fleck, Ivor; Fujii, Keisuke; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Ganjour, Serguei; Gao, Yuanning; Gros, Philippe; Hayman, Peter; Hedberg, Vincent; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Jönsson, Leif; Kaminski, Jochen; Kato, Yukihiro; Kawada, Shin-ichi; Killenberg, Martin; Kleinwort, Claus; Kobayashi, Makoto; Krylov, Vladyslav; Li, Bo; Li, Yulan; Lundberg, Björn; Lupberger, Michael; Majumdar, Nayana; Matsuda, Takeshi; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mjörnmark, Ulf; Müller, Felix; Münnich, Astrid; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Oskarsson, Anders; Österman, Lennart; Peterson, Daniel; Riallot, Marc; Rosemann, Christoph; Roth, Stefan; Schade, Peter; Schäfer, Oliver; Settles, Ronald Dean; Shirazi, Amir Noori; Smirnova, Oxana; Sugiyama, Akira; Takahashi, Tohru; Tian, Junping; Timmermans, Jan; Titov, Maksym; Tsionou, Dimitra; Vauth, Annika; Wang, Wenxin; Watanabe, Takashi; Werthenbach, Ulrich; Yang, Yifan; Yang, Zhenwei; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenker, Klaus; Zhang, Fan

    2017-06-01

    For the International Large Detector concept at the planned International Linear Collider, the use of time projection chambers (TPC) with micro-pattern gas detector readout as the main tracking detector is investigated. In this paper, results from a prototype TPC, placed in a 1 T solenoidal field and read out with three independent Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based readout modules, are reported. The TPC was exposed to a 6 GeV electron beam at the DESY II synchrotron. The efficiency for reconstructing hits, the measurement of the drift velocity, the space point resolution and the control of field inhomogeneities are presented.

  16. GEMS Project: A Platform to Investigate Multiple Sclerosis Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zongqi; White, Charles C.; Owen, Emily K.; Von Korff, Alina; Clarkson, Sarah R.; McCabe, Cristin A.; Cimpean, Maria; Winn, Phoebe A.; Hoesing, Ashley; Steele, Sonya U.; Cortese, Irene C. M.; Chitnis, Tanuja; Weiner, Howard L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Chibnik, Lori B.; De Jager, Philip L.

    2015-01-01

    The Genes and Environment in Multiple Sclerosis (GEMS) project establishes a platform to investigate the events leading to MS in at-risk individuals. It has recruited 2,632 first-degree relatives from across the USA. Using an integrated genetic and environmental risk score, we identified subjects with twice the MS risk when compared to the average family member, and we report an initial incidence rate in these subjects that is 30 times greater than that of sporadic MS. We discuss the feasibility of large-scale studies of asymptomatic at-risk subjects that leverage modern tools of subject recruitment to execute collaborative projects. PMID:26583565

  17. Gem Detectors For the Transverse Profile Measurement of Low Energy Antiprotons and High Energy Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Spanggaard, J; Duarte Pinto, S; Tranquille, G

    2013-01-01

    Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) are finding more and more applications in beam instrumentation. Gas Electron Multiplication is a very similar physical phenomenon to that which occurs in Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC), but for small profile monitors GEMs are much more cost effective to produce and maintain. \

  18. The GEMS X-Ray Polarimeter: Instrument Concept and Calibration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The instrument and detector concepts for the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) X-ray polarimetry mission will be presente d. The calibration requirements for astrophysical X-ray polarimeters in general and GEMS in particular will be discussed.

  19. Gas electron multiplier (GEM) operation with tissue-equivalent gases at various pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahmand, M. E-mail: m.farahmand@iri.tudelft.nl; Bos, A.J.J.; Eijk, C.W.E. van

    2003-06-21

    We have studied the operation of two different Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) structures in both methane and propane based Tissue-Equivalent (TE) gases at different pressures varying from 0.1 to 1 atm. This work was motivated to explore the possibility of using a GEM for a new type of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter. In methane based TE gas, a maximum safe GEM gain of 1.5x10{sup 3} has been reached while in propane based TE gas this is 6x10{sup 3}. These maxima have been reached at different gas pressures depending on GEM structure and TE gas. Furthermore, we observed a decrease of the GEM gain in time before it becomes stable. Charge up/polarisation effects can explain this.

  20. Characterization of GEM foils and materials simulation, measurements and interferometric monitoring tools

    CERN Document Server

    Benussi, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The GE1/1 CMS project consists of 144 GEM chambers of about 0.5 qm active area each, based on the triple GEMs technology, to be installed in the very forward region of the CMS endcap during the long shutdown of LHC in 2108-2019. GE1/1 chambers will be operated for decades in harsh environment, and are expected to perform consistently providing good space and time resolution and excellent rate capabilities. An extensive material science simulation and measurement campaign is in progress to characterize GEM materials, with main focus on the GEM foils. Results are presented on full Finite Element Analysis simulations, measurement of tensile properties and humidity absorption coefficients, both for unused and irradiated samples. Preliminary results are shown on interferometric methods based on Moirè fringes for the monitoring of GEM foils mechanical properties during chamber construction.

  1. Investigations on Important Properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Kulasri, Kittipong; Ritthirong, Anawat

    2015-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is one of promising particle and radiation detectors that has been improved greatly from previous gas detectors. The improvement includes better spatial resolutions, higher detection rate capabilities, and flexibilities in designs. In particular, the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM prototype is designed and provided by the Gas Detectors Development group (GDD) at CERN, Switzerland. With its simplicity in operations and designs, while still maintaining high qualities, the GEM prototype is suitable for both start-up and advanced researches. This article aims to report the investigations on some important properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM detector using current measurement and signal counting. Results have shown that gains of the GEM prototype exponentially increase as voltage supplied to the detector increases, while the detector reaches full efficiency (plateau region) when the voltage is greater than 4100 V. In terms of signal sharing between X and Y strips of the readout, X str...

  2. Great Explorations in Math and Science[R] (GEMS[R]) Space Science. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Great Explorations in Math and Science[R] (GEMS[R]) Space Science" is an instructional sequence for grades 3-5 that covers fundamental concepts, including planetary sizes and distance, the Earth's shape and movement, gravity, and moon phases and eclipses. Part of the "GEMS"[R] core curriculum, "GEMS[R] Space Science"…

  3. Study of the gem residue (sludge) addition in bulk red ceramics; Estudo da adicao de residuo (lodo) de gemas na massa ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruxel, F.R.; Oliveira, E.C.; Stulp, S.; Muller, C.S.; Etchepare, H.D., E-mail: eniz@univates.br [Univates - Centro Universitario, Lajeado, RS (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    This work aims to incorporate gems waste (sludge saw cutting of gems), produced in an amethyst and agate firm cut, in the red ceramic body used for the production of solid bricks. The raw materials were tested by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and granulometric distribution analysis, for characterize the mineralogy and physical chemistry of materials. Samples were prepared with 0%, 5%, 9%, 13% and 17% waste added to the ceramic body by mass. The physical properties studied were compressive strength, linear shrinkage, water absorption and density in accordance with current technical standard. The results showed that it is possible to incorporate up to 5% of waste in bulk ceramics. (author)

  4. PREFACE: Science's gem: diamond science 2009 Science's gem: diamond science 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwood, Alison; Newton, Mark E.; Stoneham, Marshall

    2009-09-01

    Natural diamond has been valued for its appearance and mechanical properties for at least two thousand years. As a gem stone diamond is unsurpassed. However, scientific work, especially in the last 20 years, has demonstrated that diamond has numerous surprising properties and many unique ones. Some of the extreme properties have been known for many years, but the true scale of diamond's other highly desirable features is still only coming to light as control in the synthesis of diamond, and hence material perfection, improves. The ultimate prize for man-made diamond is surely not in the synthesis of gem stones, but in delivering technological solutions enabled by diamond to the challenges facing our society today. If the special properties are to be exploited to their full potential, at least four crucial factors must be considered. First, there must be sufficient scientific understanding of diamond to make applications effective, efficient and economical. Secondly, the means of fabrication and control of properties have to be achieved so that diamond's role can be optimised. Thirdly, it is not enough that its properties are superior to existing materials: they must be so much better that it is worth initiating new technologies to exploit them. Finally, any substantial applications will have to address the society's major needs worldwide. The clear technology drivers for the 21st century come from the biomedical technologies, the demand for energy subject to global constraints, and the information technologies, where perhaps diamond will provide the major enabling technology [1]. The papers in this volume concern the solid state physics of diamond, and primarily concern the first two factors: understanding, and control of properties. They address many of the outstanding basic problems, such as the identification of existing defects, which affect the material's properties, both desirable and less so. Regarding future substantial applications, one paper discusses

  5. Impaired clinical utility of sequential patient GEM blood gas measurements associated with calibration schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembrowski, George S; Xu, Qian; Cembrowski, Adam R; Mei, Junyi; Sadrzadeh, Hossein

    2017-11-01

    Within- and/or between-instrument variation may falsely indicate patient trends or obscure real trends. We employ a methodology that transforms sequential intra-patient results into estimates of biologic and analytic variation. We previously derived realistic biologic variation (sb) of blood gas (BG) and hematology analytes. We extend this methodology to derive the imprecision of two GEM 4000 BG analyzers. A laboratory data repository provided arterial BG, electrolyte and metabolite results generated by two GEM 4000s on ICU patients in 2012-2013. We tabulated consecutive pairs of intra-patient results separated by increasing time interval between consecutive tests. The average between pair variations were regressed against time with the y-intercept representing the sum of the biologic variation and short term analytic variation: yo(2)=sb(2)+sa(2). Using an equivalent equation for the Radiometer ABL, the imprecision of the two GEMs was calculated: saGEM=(yoGEM(2)-yoABL(2)+saABL(2))(1/2). This analysis was performed for nearly all measurements, regardless of time as well for values obtained over two 12h mutually exclusive periods, starting either at 2am or 2pm. Regression graphs were derived from 1800 patients' blood gas results with least 10,000 data pairs grouped into 2h intervals. The calculated saGEM exceed the directly measured saABL with many GEM sigma ratios of biologic variation/analytic variation being close to unity. All of the afternoon saGEM exceeded their morning counterparts with pH, pCO2, K and bicarbonate being statistically significant. For many analytes, the average analytical variation of tandem GEMs approximates the biologic variation, indicating impaired clinical usefulness of tandem sequential measurements. A significant component of this variation is due to increased variation of the GEMs between 2pm and 2am. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes over canopy of two typical subtropical forests in south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Luo, Yao; Wang, Shuxiao; Wang, Zhiqi; Hao, Jiming; Duan, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) exchange between forests and the atmosphere plays an important role in global Hg cycling. The present estimate of global emission of Hg from natural source has large uncertainty, partly due to the lack of chronical and valid field data, particularly for terrestrial surfaces in China, the most important contributor to global atmospheric Hg. In this study, the micrometeorological method (MM) was used to continuously observe gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes over forest canopy at a mildly polluted site (Qianyanzhou, QYZ) and a moderately polluted site (Huitong, HT, near a large Hg mine) in subtropical south China for a full year from January to December in 2014. The GEM flux measurements over forest canopy in QYZ and HT showed net emission with annual average values of 6.67 and 0.30 ng m-2 h-1, respectively. Daily variations of GEM fluxes showed an increasing emission with the increasing air temperature and solar radiation in the daytime to a peak at 13:00, and decreasing emission thereafter, even as a GEM sink or balance at night. High temperature and low air Hg concentration resulted in the high Hg emission in summer. Low temperature in winter and Hg absorption by plant in spring resulted in low Hg emission, or even adsorption in the two seasons. GEM fluxes were positively correlated with air temperature, soil temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation, while it is negatively correlated with air humidity and atmospheric GEM concentration. The lower emission fluxes of GEM at the moderately polluted site (HT) when compared with that in the mildly polluted site (QYZ) may result from a much higher adsorption fluxes at night in spite of a similar or higher emission fluxes during daytime. This shows that the higher atmospheric GEM concentration at HT restricted the forest GEM emission. Great attention should be paid to forests as a crucial increasing Hg emission source with the decreasing atmospheric GEM concentration in polluted areas because of Hg

  7. J-GEM observations of an electromagnetic counterpart to the neutron star merger GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Yousuke; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Barway, Sudhanshu; Nagayama, Takahiro; Zenko, Tetsuya; Aoki, Kentaro; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Furusawa, Hisanori; Kawabata, Koji S.; Koshida, Shintaro; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Morokuma, Tomoki; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakata, Fumiaki; Ohsawa, Ryou; Ohta, Kouji; Okita, Hirofumi; Tajitsu, Akito; Tanaka, Ichi; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Yasuda, Naoki; Abe, Fumio; Asakura, Yuichiro; Bond, Ian A.; Miyazaki, Shota; Sumi, Takahiro; Tristram, Paul J.; Honda, Satoshi; Itoh, Ryosuke; Itoh, Yoichi; Kawabata, Miho; Morihana, Kumiko; Nagashima, Hiroki; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Ohshima, Tomohito; Takahashi, Jun; Takayama, Masaki; Aoki, Wako; Baar, Stefan; Doi, Mamoru; Finet, Francois; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kuroda, Daisuke; Liu, Wei; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Murata, Katsuhiro L.; Nagai, Hiroshi; Saito, Tomoki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Sako, Shigeyuki; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Tamura, Yoichi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Uemura, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Masaki S.

    2017-12-01

    GW170817 is the first detected gravitational wave source from a neutron star merger. We present the Japanese collaboration for gravitational-wave electro-magnetic (J-GEM) follow-up observations of SSS17a, an electromagnetic counterpart of GW170817. SSS17a shows a 2.5 mag decline in the z band during the period between 1.7 and 7.7 d after the merger. Such a rapid decline is not comparable with supernovae light curves at any epoch. The color of SSS17a also evolves rapidly and becomes redder during later epochs: the z - H color has changed by approximately 2.5 mag during the period between 0.7 and 7.7 d. The rapid evolutions of both the color and the optical brightness are consistent with the expected properties of a kilonova that is powered by the radioactive decay of newly synthesized r-process nuclei. Kilonova models with Lanthanide elements can reproduce the aforementioned observed properties well, which suggests that r-process nucleosynthesis beyond the second peak takes place in SSS17a. However, the absolute magnitude of SSS17a is brighter than the expected brightness of the kilonova models with an ejecta mass of 0.01 M⊙, which suggests a more intense mass ejection (˜0.03 M⊙) or possibly an additional energy source.

  8. Bedeutung des Gemüsebaus für die Landwirtschaft von Wielkopolska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jąder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In dem Artikel wurde die Bedeutung des Gemüsebaus für die Landwirtschaft der Region Wielkopolska präsentiert. Diese Bedeutung wurde mit Hilfe von einigen Kriterien bestimmt. Es wurden dargestellt: der Anteil der Gemüsefläche an der gesamten landwirtschaftlichen Nutzfläche von Wielkopolska und der Gemüseanteil in der Brutto- und Warenproduktion der regionalen Landwirtschaft und der Pflanzenabteilung. Der Anteil der Freilandgemüsefläche an der landwirtschaftlichen Nutzfläche lag bei 1,36 bis 1,56 Prozent und der Anteil der Gewächshausgemüsefläche an der landwirtschaftlichen Nutzfläche oszillierte von 0,017 bis 0,050 Prozent. Die Gemüseproduktion lag bei 4,67 Prozent der Bruttoproduktion der Landwirtschaft von Wielkopolska, und der Anteil der Gemüseproduktion an der Warenproduktion der Landwirtschaft war in der Zeit auf einem ähnlichen Niveau – 4,66 Prozent. In der Pflanzenabteilung war die Bedeutung des Gemüsebaus noch größer als in der ganzen Landwirtschaft. Der Anteil von Gemüse an der Warenproduktion der Pflanzenabteilung lag durchschnittlich in den untersuchten Jahren bei 28, 54 Prozent.

  9. Large size GEM for Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) polarimeter for Hall A 12 GeV program at JLab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanvo, Kondo; Liyanage, Nilanga; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Sacher, Seth; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan

    2015-05-01

    We report on the R&D effort in the design and construction of a large size Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for the Proton Polarimeter Back Tracker (BT) of the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) in Hall A at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab). The SBS BT GEM trackers consist of two sets of five large GEM chambers of size 60×200 cm2. The GEM chamber is a vertical stack of four GEM modules, each with an active area of 60×50 cm2. We have built and tested several prototypes and the construction of GEM modules for SBS BT is ongoing. We describe in this paper the design and construction of the GEM module prototype as well as the preliminary results on performance from tests carried out in our detector lab and during test beam at Fermi National Laboratory (Fermilab).

  10. Large size GEM for Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) polarimeter for Hall A 12 GeV program at JLab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanvo, Kondo, E-mail: kgnanvo@virginia.edu [University of Virginia, Department of Physics, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Liyanage, Nilanga; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Sacher, Seth [University of Virginia, Department of Physics, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2015-05-11

    We report on the R&D effort in the design and construction of a large size Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for the Proton Polarimeter Back Tracker (BT) of the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) in Hall A at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab). The SBS BT GEM trackers consist of two sets of five large GEM chambers of size 60×200 cm{sup 2}. The GEM chamber is a vertical stack of four GEM modules, each with an active area of 60×50 cm{sup 2}. We have built and tested several prototypes and the construction of GEM modules for SBS BT is ongoing. We describe in this paper the design and construction of the GEM module prototype as well as the preliminary results on performance from tests carried out in our detector lab and during test beam at Fermi National Laboratory (Fermilab)

  11. Combined liquid chromatograph/mass spectrometer for involatile biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, C R; Carmody, J C; Vestal, M L

    1980-09-01

    A new liquid chromatograph/mass spectrometer has been developed in our laboratory for application to analysis of biological molecules of extremely low volatility. Oxyhydrogen flames rapidly vaporize the total liquid-chromatographic effluent, and molecular and particle beam techniques are used to efficiently transfer the sample to the ionization source of the mass spectrometer. This new instrument is comparable in cost and complexity to a combined gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, but extends the capabilities of combined chromatography/mass spectrometry to a broad range of compounds not previously accessible. We are currently testing biologically significant samples with this instrument, using reversed-phase liquid-chromatographic separation and both positive and negative ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. Results have been obtained from mixtures of nucleic acid components--bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides--and from amino acids, peptides, saccharides, fatty acids, vitamins, and antibiotics. In all cases investigated to date, ions indicative of molecular mass are obtained in at least one of the operating modes available. Detection limits are typically in the 1-10 ng range for full mass scans (about 80-600 amu); sub-nanogram quantities are usually detectable with single-ion monitoring.

  12. Design and creating model and interactive presentation of GEM for Microcosm Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Lakdee, Natthaphop

    2017-01-01

    GEM or Gas Electron Multiplier is the newer and easier way to amplify electron signal than conventional CSS. It was first created by Fabio Sauli at CERN in 1997 and was developed to get better efficiency over time. Right now, it was brought to use in many detector stations at CERN. To make GEM more publicly known, one of the ways is show in Microcosm Exhibition which is always visited by people from around the world everyday, so my main project as summer student is to design and create the model and interactive presentation which make GEM interesting and easy to understand by ordinary people.

  13. Design and characterization of the GEM detector for a digital radiographic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyo Sung; Kang, Sang Muk; Hong, Dae Kee [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-01-01

    DR(digital radiography) system which makes the inner structure of an interesting object visible in two-dimensional digital image is a technology-intensive and high value-added device with a variety of applications. The GEM detector which is being developed in the mother project has advantages of low fabrication-cost, compared with semiconductor or scintillation detectors, and of radiation protection, compared with conventional film/screen system. In this study, simulation codes such MAXWELL, SHOWFIELD, and IMAGEQUAL were developed to analyze the GEM characteristics, and the optimal GEM design was discussed using the codes. 14 refs., 25 figs. (Author)

  14. Operation of a GEM-TPC with pixel readout

    CERN Document Server

    Brezina, C; Kaminski, J; Killenberg, M; Krautscheid, T

    2012-01-01

    A prototype time projection chamber with 26 cm drift length was operated with a short-spaced triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) stack in a setup triggering on cosmic muon tracks. A small part of the anode plane is read out with a CMOS pixel application-specified integrated circuit (ASIC) named Timepix, which provides ultimate readout granularity. Pixel clusters of charge depositions corresponding to single primary electrons are observed and analyzed to reconstruct charged particle tracks. A dataset of several weeks of cosmic ray data is analyzed. The number of clusters per track length is well described by simulation. The obtained single point resolution approaches 50 m at short drift distances and is well reproduced by a simple model of single-electron diffusion.

  15. Performance simulation studies for the ALICE TPC GEM upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljunggren, M.; Alice Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    To be able to exploit the anticipated interaction rate of 50 kHz in Pb-Pb collisions during run 3 of the LHC (beyond 2019), the ALICE TPC will be upgraded to allow continuous readout. As this is not possible with the current Multi Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) based amplification, the readout will be replaced with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) readout chambers that can suppress 99% of the ion back flow. The space charge of the remaining 1% ion back flow, however, will cause significant distortions to the measured tracks of order cm. Simulation studies to characterize the distortions and test correction strategies have been performed, which show that the intrinsic momentum resolution, without these distortions, can be recovered.

  16. Discriminating cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time using a GEM detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Yin; Zhao, Sheng-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Qi, Hui-Rong; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Ke-Yan; Hu, Bi-Tao; Zhang, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors have been used in cosmic muon scattering tomography and neutron imaging over the last decade. In this work, a triple GEM device with an effective readout area of 10 cm × 10 cm is developed, and a method of discriminating between cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time is tested. The energy resolution of the GEM detector is tested by 55Fe ray source to prove the GEM detector has a good performance. Analysis of the complete signal-cycles allows us to get the rise time and pulse heights. The experiment result indicates that cosmic muons and X-rays can be discriminated with an appropriate rise time threshold. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11135002, 11275235, 11405077, 11575073)

  17. Quality control for the first large areas of triple GEM chambers for the CMS endcaps

    CERN Document Server

    Tytgat, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The CMS GEM collaboration plans to equip the very forward muon system with triple GEM detectors that can withstand the environment of the high-luminosity LHC. This project is at the final stages of R and D and moving to production. An unprecedented large area of several 100m2 are to be instrumented with GEM detectors which will be produced in six different sites around the world. A common construction and quality control procedure is required to ensure the performance of each detector. The quality control steps will include optical inspection, cleaning and baking of all materials and parts used to build the detector, leakage current tests of the GEM foils, high voltage tests, gas leak tests of the chambers and monitoring pressure drop vs. time, gain calibration to know the optimal operation region of the detector, gain uniformity tests, and studying the efficiency, noise and tracking performance of the detectors in a cosmic stand using scintillators.

  18. Measurement of spark probability of GEM detector for CBM muon chamber (MUCH)

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, S.; Frankenfeld, U.; Garabatos, C.; Hehner, J.; Kleipa, V.; Morhardt, T.; Schmidt, C.J.; Schmidt, H.R.; Wiechula, J.

    2015-11-11

    The stability of triple GEM detector setups in an environment of high energetic showers is studied. To this end the spark probability in a shower environment is compared to the spark probability in a pion beam.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) is a free, desktop computer application that estimates the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel efficiency performance of specific aspects of heavy-duty vehicles.

  20. The gain in Thick GEM multipliers and its time-evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, M; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Buechele, M; Chiosso, M; Ciliberti, P; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O; Duic, V; Finger, M; Finger Jr, M; Fischer, H; Gobbo, B; Gregori, M; Herrmann, F; Koenigsmann, K; Levorato, S; Maggiora, A; Makke, N; Martin, A; Menon, G; Novakova, K; Novy, J; Panzieri, D; Pereira, F A; Santos, C A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schopferer, S; Slunecka, M; Sozzi, F; Steiger, L; Sulc, M; Takekawa, S; Tessarotto, F; Veloso, J F C A

    2016-01-01

    In the context of a project to upgrade the gas photon detectors of COMPASS RICH-1, we have performed an R&D programme aimed to develop photon detectors based on multi-layer arrangements of thick GEM electron multipliers coupled to a CsI photoconverter. For this purpose, thick GEMs have been characterised in detail including the gain performance, its dependance on the geometrical parameters and its time-evolution, a feature exhibited by the gas detectors with open insulator surfaces. The variation due to this evolution drammatically depends on the parameters themselves. In the present article we summarise the outcomes of the studies dedicated to the thick GEM gain and its evolution versus time. We also include a qualitative model which accounts for the peculiar details of the observed thick GEM gain time-evolution.

  1. Study of the GEM chamber for the upgrade of the LHCb muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Pinci, D

    2016-01-01

    Triple-GEM chambers, so far used in the inner region of the first muon station at LHCb, are the ideal candidates to replace the MWPCs in the regions where, after the upgrade in 2018, the particle rate will be as high as 2MHz/cm2. In this work, the results of a study on the GEM efficiency and time performances are shown.

  2. Public release of the ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storchak, Dmitry A.; Di Giacomo, Domenico; Bondára, István; Engdahl, E. Robert; Harris, James; Lee, William H.K.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Bormann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The International Seismological Centre–Global Earthquake Model (ISC–GEM) Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900–2009) is the result of a special effort to substantially extend and improve currently existing global catalogs to serve the requirements of specific user groups who assess and model seismic hazard and risk. The data from the ISC–GEM Catalogue would be used worldwide yet will prove absolutely essential in those regions where a high seismicity level strongly correlates with a high population density.

  3. Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (gems) Over the Korea Peninsula and Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasnik, J.; Stephens, M.; Baker, B.; Randall, C.; Ko, D. H.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, E. S.; Chang, S.; Park, J. M.; SEO, S. B.; Youk, Y.; Kong, J. P.; Lee, D.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction: The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) is one of two instruments manifested aboard the South Korean Geostationary Earth Orbit KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-2B (GEO-KOMPSAT-2B or GK2B), which is scheduled to launch in 2018. Jointly developed/built by KARI and Ball Aerospace, GEMS is a geostationary UV-Vis hyperspectral imager designed to monitor trans-boundary tropospheric pollution events over the Korean peninsula and Asia-Pacific region. The spectrometer provides high temporal and spatial resolution (3.5 km N/S by 7.2 km E/W) measurements of ozone, its precursors, and aerosols. Over the short-term, hourly measurements by GEMS will improve early warnings for potentially dangerous pollution events and monitor population exposure. Over the 10-year mission-life, GEMS will serve to enhance our understanding of long-term climate change and broader air quality issues on both a regional and global scale. The GEMS sensor design and performance are discussed, which includes an overview of measurement capabilities and the on-orbit concept of operations. GEMS Sensor Overview: The GEMS hyperspectral imaging system consists of a telescope and Offner grating spectrometer that feeds a single CCD detector array. A spectral range of 300-500 nm and sampling of 0.2 nm enables NO2, SO2, HCHO, O3, and aerosol retrieval. The GEMS field of regard (FOR), which extends from 5°S to 45°N in latitude and 75°E to 145°E in longitude, is operationally achieved using an onboard two-axis scan mirror. On-orbit, the radiometric calibration is maintained using solar measurements, which are performed using two onboard diffusers: a working diffuser that is deployed routinely for the purpose of solar calibration, and a reference diffuser that is deployed sparingly for the purpose of monitoring working diffuser performance degradation.

  4. BoNuS: Development and Use of a Radial TPC using Cylindrical GEMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard Fenker; Nathan Baillie; Peter Bradshaw; S. Bultmann; Stephen Bueltmann; Volker Burkert; Michael Christy; Gail Dodge; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Josh Evans; Robert Fersch; Kevin Giovanetti; Keith Griffioen; Mikayel Ispiryan; Chandana Jayalath; Narbe Kalantarians; Cynthia Keppel; Sebastian Kuhn; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Svyatoslav Tkachenko; Vladas Tvaskis; Jixie Zhang

    2007-11-28

    To provide new access to information about nucleon structure from electron-neutron interactions, a specialized aystem of target and detector was developed at Jefferson Lab. It allows identification and measurement of spectator protons produced in e X scattering events. The detector is a radial time-projection chamber optimized for the acceptance of low-momentum protons. Gas gain is provided by three cascaded curved Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs), the first application of GEMs in any configuration other than flat.

  5. Optimal Estimation-Based Algorithm to Retrieve Aerosol Optical Properties for GEMS Measurements over Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS is scheduled to be in orbit in 2019 onboard the GEO-KOMPSAT 2B satellite and will continuously monitor air quality over Asia. The GEMS will make measurements in the UV spectrum (300–500 nm with 0.6 nm resolution. In this study, an algorithm is developed to retrieve aerosol optical properties from UV-visible measurements for the future satellite instrument and is tested using 3 years of existing OMI L1B data. This algorithm provides aerosol optical depth (AOD, single scattering albedo (SSA and aerosol layer height (ALH using an optimized estimation method. The retrieved AOD shows good correlation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET AOD with correlation coefficients of 0.83, 0.73 and 0.80 for heavy-absorbing fine (HAF particles, dust and non-absorbing (NA particles, respectively. However, regression tests indicate underestimation and overestimation of HAF and NA AOD, respectively. In comparison with AOD from the OMI/Aura Near-UV Aerosol Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo 1-orbit L2 Swath 13 km × 24 km V003 (OMAERUV algorithm, the retrieved AOD has a correlation coefficient of 0.86 and linear regression equation, AODGEMS = 1.18AODOMAERUV + 0.09. An uncertainty test based on a reference method, which estimates retrieval error by applying the algorithm to simulated radiance data, revealed that assumptions in the spectral dependency of aerosol absorptivity in the UV cause significant errors in aerosol property retrieval, particularly the SSA retrieval. Consequently, retrieved SSAs did not show good correlation with AERONET values. The ALH results were qualitatively compared with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP products and were found to be well correlated for highly absorbing aerosols. The difference between the attenuated-backscatter-weighted height from CALIOP and retrieved ALH were mostly closed to zero when the retrieved AOD is higher than 0.8 and

  6. Kepler Observations of V447 Lyr: an Eclipsing U Gem Cataclysmic Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Gavin; Cannizzo, John K.; Howell, Steve B.; Wood, Matt A.; Still, Martin; Barclay, Thomas; Smale, Alan

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of an analysis of Kepler data covering 1.5 yr of the dwarf nova V447 Lyr. We detect eclipses of the accretion disc by the mass donating secondary star every 3.74 h which is the binary orbital period. V447 Lyr is therefore the first dwarf nova in the Kepler field to show eclipses.We also detect five long outbursts and six short outbursts showing V447 Lyr is a U Gem-type dwarf nova. We show that the orbital phase of the mid-eclipse occurs earlier during outbursts compared to quiescence and that the width of the eclipse is greater during outburst. This suggests that the bright spot is more prominent during quiescence and that the disc is larger during outburst than quiescence. This is consistent with an expansion of the outer disc radius due to the presence of high viscosity material associated with the outburst, followed by a contraction in quiescence due to the accretion of low angular momentum material. We note that the long outbursts appear to be triggered by a short outburst, which is also observed in the super-outbursts of SU UMa dwarf novae as observed using Kepler.

  7. Characterization of the allergen Sol gem 2 from the fire ant venom, Solenopsis geminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sukprasert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sol i 2 is a potent allergen in Solenopsis invicta venom, and most humans exhibit reactivity to it. The Sol gem 2 allergen found in the venom of the Thai tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata was analysed in the present study. The protein was present in higher amounts than other proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, and presumably has allergenic properties similar to those of Sol i 2. Sol gem 2 molecular weight is 28 and 15 kDa, respectively, under non-reducing and reducing conditions, indicating that its native form is a dimer. LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed its similarity to Sol i 2. The mono/dimeric form of Sol gem 2 was determined to be relevant by proteomic approach and immunoblotting. An anti-Sol gem 2 antibody was produced in mice, with a titer greater than 1:800 according to the Western blotting analysis. The Sol gem 2-neutralising activity of this antibody was determined in crickets. The paralytic dose 50 (PD50 of crude S. geminata venom was elevated from 0.18 mg/g of body weight to more than 0.90 mg/g of body weight after preincubation with antibody at a ratio of 1:1. These results suggest that Sol gem 2 plays an important role in mediating the effects of the piperidine derivatives in the venom.

  8. Properties of the Flight Model Gas Electron Multiplier for the GEMS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoko; Kitaguchi, Takao; Hayato, Asami; Tamagawa, Toru; Iwakiri, Wataru; Asami, Fumi; Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Kaneko, Kenta; Enoto, Teruaki; Black, Kevin; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present the gain properties of the gas electron multiplier (GEM) foil in pure dimethyl ether (DME) at 190 Torr. The GEM is one of the micro pattern gas detectors and it is adopted as a key part of the X-ray polarimeter for the GEMS mission. The X-ray polarimeter is a time projection chamber operating in pure DME gas at 190 Torr. We describe experimental results of (1) the maximum gain the GEM can achieve without any discharges, (2) the linearity of the energy scale for the GEM operation, and (3) the two-dimensional gain variation of the active area. First, our experiment with 6.4 keV X-ray irradiation of the whole GEM area demonstrates that the maximum effective gain is 2 x 10(exp 4) with the applied voltage of 580 V. Second, the measured energy scale is linear among three energies of 4.5, 6.4, and 8.0 keV. Third, the two-dimensional gain mapping test derives the standard deviation of the gain variability of 7% across the active area.

  9. Evaluation of ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from GEMS and OMI spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available South Korea is planning to launch the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer instrument into the GeoKOMPSAT (Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose SATellite platform in 2018 to monitor tropospheric air pollutants on an hourly basis over East Asia. GEMS will measure backscattered UV radiances covering the 300–500 nm wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 0.6 nm. The main objective of this study is to evaluate ozone profiles and stratospheric column ozone amounts retrieved from simulated GEMS measurements. Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI Level 1B radiances, which have the spectral range 270–500 nm at spectral resolution of 0.42–0.63 nm, are used to simulate the GEMS radiances. An optimal estimation-based ozone profile algorithm is used to retrieve ozone profiles from simulated GEMS radiances. Firstly, we compare the retrieval characteristics (including averaging kernels, degrees of freedom for signal, and retrieval error derived from the 270–330 nm (OMI and 300–330 nm (GEMS wavelength ranges. This comparison shows that the effect of not using measurements below 300 nm on retrieval characteristics in the troposphere is insignificant. However, the stratospheric ozone information in terms of DFS decreases greatly from OMI to GEMS, by a factor of ∼2. The number of the independent pieces of information available from GEMS measurements is estimated to 3 on average in the stratosphere, with associated retrieval errors of ~1% in stratospheric column ozone. The difference between OMI and GEMS retrieval characteristics is apparent for retrieving ozone layers above ~20 km, with a reduction in the sensitivity and an increase in the retrieval errors for GEMS. We further investigate whether GEMS can resolve the stratospheric ozone variation observed from high vertical resolution Earth Observing System (EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS. The differences in stratospheric ozone profiles between GEMS and MLS are comparable to those

  10. Performance simulation studies for the ALICE TPC GEM upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljunggren, M., E-mail: martin.ljunggren@hep.lu.se

    2016-07-11

    To be able to exploit the anticipated interaction rate of 50 kHz in Pb–Pb collisions during run 3 of the LHC (beyond 2019), the ALICE TPC will be upgraded to allow continuous readout. As this is not possible with the current Multi Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) based amplification, the readout will be replaced with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) readout chambers that can suppress ~ 99% of the ion back flow. The space charge of the remaining 1% ion back flow, however, will cause significant distortions to the measured tracks of order cm. Simulation studies to characterize the distortions and test correction strategies have been performed, which show that the intrinsic momentum resolution, without these distortions, can be recovered. - Highlights: • The ALICE experiment is going to upgrade its detectors to accommodate a collision frequency of 50 kHz. • The Time Projection Chamber (TPC), which is the main tracking detector of the experiment, needs to be upgraded to allow continuous readout. • Continuous readout means that a gating grid can no longer be used to prevent positive ions from the amplification stage to reach the drift volume of the TPC (ion back flow). • In this paper, studies are presented that show that it is possible to correct for the space pointdistortions caused by the accumulated space charge from the ion back flow.

  11. Mice deficient in GEM GTPase show abnormal glucose homeostasis due to defects in beta-cell calcium handling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny E Gunton

    Full Text Available Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta-cells is a tightly regulated process that requires calcium flux to trigger exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles. Regulation of calcium handling in beta-cells remains incompletely understood. Gem, a member of the RGK (Rad/Gem/Kir family regulates calcium channel handling in other cell types, and Gem over-expression inhibits insulin release in insulin-secreting Min6 cells. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Gem in insulin secretion. We hypothesised that Gem may regulate insulin secretion and thus affect glucose tolerance in vivo.Gem-deficient mice were generated and their metabolic phenotype characterised by in vivo testing of glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and insulin secretion. Calcium flux was measured in isolated islets.Gem-deficient mice were glucose intolerant and had impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore, the islets of Gem-deficient mice exhibited decreased free calcium responses to glucose and the calcium oscillations seen upon glucose stimulation were smaller in amplitude and had a reduced frequency.These results suggest that Gem plays an important role in normal beta-cell function by regulation of calcium signalling.

  12. An efficient and general route to gem-difluoromethylenated alpha,beta-unsaturated delta-lactones: high enantioselective synthesis of gem-difluoromethylenated goniothalamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zheng-Wei; Jiang, Zhong-Xing; Wang, Bing-Lin; Qing, Feng-Ling

    2006-09-15

    An efficient and general strategy to gem-difluoromethylenated alpha,beta-unsaturated delta-lactones in high yields from various aldehydes (including aliphatic, aromatic, alpha,beta-unsaturated, and sterically hindered aldehydes) has been developed. This methodology was successfully applied for the preparation of two enantiomers of gem-difluoromethylenated goniothalamins (S)-1 and (R)-1. gem-Difluoropropargylation of cinnamaldehyde followed by the resolution of resulting homopropargylic alcohols mediated by lipase from Pseudomonas (AK) gave alcohols (R)-6 and (S)-6. Selective hydrogenation of the triple bond of (S)-6 and (R)-6 to double bond with Lindlar catalyst in the presence of quinoline afforded the expected product (S)-8 and (R)-8, respectively. Deprotection of (S)-8 and (R)-8 followed by oxidation of the resulting 1,5-diols with catalytic 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) and excess bis-acetoxyiodobenzene (BAIB) provided the target molecules gem-difluoromethylenated goniothalamins (S)-1 and (R)-1 in high yields, respectively.

  13. 3D simulation of electron and ion transmission of GEM-based detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Purba; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Majumdar, Nayana; da Luz, Hugo Natal

    2017-10-01

    Time Projection Chamber (TPC) has been chosen as the main tracking system in several high-flux and high repetition rate experiments. These include on-going experiments such as ALICE and future experiments such as PANDA at FAIR and ILC. Different R&D activities were carried out on the adoption of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) as the gas amplification stage of the ALICE-TPC upgrade version. The requirement of low ion feedback has been established through these activities. Low ion feedback minimizes distortions due to space charge and maintains the necessary values of detector gain and energy resolution. In the present work, Garfield simulation framework has been used to study the related physical processes occurring within single, triple and quadruple GEM detectors. Ion backflow and electron transmission of quadruple GEMs, made up of foils with different hole pitch under different electromagnetic field configurations (the projected solutions for the ALICE TPC) have been studied. Finally a new triple GEM detector configuration with low ion backflow fraction and good electron transmission properties has been proposed as a simpler GEM-based alternative suitable for TPCs for future collider experiments.

  14. GEM luminosity monitors for the OLYMPUS experiment to determine the effect of two-photon exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ozgur

    The OLYMPUS experiment at DESY acquired its data in two distinct periods between 2012-2013 to measure the ratio of positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections. In light of those measurements, OLYMPUS will be able to quantify the effect of two-photon exchange, which is widely considered to be responsible for the discrepancy between measurements of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio with the Rosenbluth separation and polarization transfer methods. In order to control the systematic uncertainties to the sub-percent level, the luminosities were monitored redundantly and with high precision. This was done by measuring the rates for symmetric Moller and Bhabha scattering and by measuring the ep-elastic count rates at forward angles and low momentum transfer with tracking telescopes based on GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) and MWPC (Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber technology. A total of nine GEM detectors were constructed for the OLYMPUS experiment. Within the scope of this thesis, every single step of construction, testing and installation of the GEM OLYMPUS luminosity monitors are explained in the hardware part of this thesis. Moreover, based on the analysis of the data taken with the GEM luminosity monitors at the OLYMPUS experiment, individual GEM detector performance and preliminary results on the positron/electron luminosity ratio measured with elastic scattering at forward angles are discussed in the analysis part of the thesis.

  15. A triple GEM detector with pad readout for high rate charged particle triggering

    CERN Document Server

    Bonivento, W; Felici, G; Murtas, F; Valente, P; Cardini, A; Lai, A; Pinci, D; Saitta, B; Bosio, C

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, results of a time performance study of triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors are discussed. This study was driven by an R&D activity on detectors for the Level 0 LHCb muon trigger. However, the results presented in this paper are of more general interest, i.e. for experiments with high rate charged particle triggering. Little interest was given so far to time performance of GEM detectors. Only one group measured double GEM detector time resolution with the Ar/CO//2 (70/30) gas mixture. Our study aimed at triple GEM detector optimisation for good time performance through a detailed investigation of the role played by detector geometry, electric fields and gas mixture. The results reported here, in particular when using the gas mixture Ar/CO//2/CF //4 (60/20/20), considerably improve the time performance discussed in the above-mentioned paper and make the triple GEM detector a promising option for high rate charged particle triggering.

  16. Investigations of the long-term stability of a GEM-TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorchuk, Oleksiy [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: LCTPC-Deutschland-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    For the International Large Detector (ILD) at the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking detector. The gas amplification will be done by Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD). One option is to use Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM).While the applicability of GEMs for the gas amplification in a TPC readout has been shown, the focus of the current research is to improve the high voltage stability and reliability of the readout modules. This is a crucial requirement for the operation in the final ILD TPC. The main focus of the research presented in this talk is on studies of the discharge stability and operational features of large area 22 x 18 cm{sup 2} GEM foils. We present systematic studies of the stability of GEM foils under different operation conditions. These studies include measurements and calculations of the dynamic behavior of charges in the GEM foils after a trip. The results will be used to develop methods to avoid destructive discharges in the final readout module.

  17. Applications of Mapping and Tomographic Techniques in Gem Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Gem Sciences are scientific studies of gemstones - their genesis, provenance, synthesis, enhancement, treatment and identification. As high quality forms of specific minerals, the gemstones exhibit unusual physical properties that are usually unseen in the regular counterparts. Most gemstones are colored by trace elements incorporated in the crystal lattice during various growth stages; forming coloration zones of various scales. Studying the spectral and chemical contrast across color zones helps elucidating the origins of colors. These are done by UV-visible spectrometers with microscope and LA-ICPMS in modern gemological laboratories. In the case of diamonds, their colored zones arise from various structural defects incorporated in different growth zones and are studied with FTIR spectrometers with IR microscope and laser photoluminescence spectrometers. Advancement in modern synthetic techniques such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has created some problem for identification. Some exploratory experiments in carbon isotope mapping were done on diamonds using SIMS. The most important issue in pearls is to identify one particular pearl being a cultured one or a natural pearl. The price difference can be enormous. Classical way of such identification is done by x-ray radiographs, which clearly show the bead and the nacre. Modern cultured pearl advancement has eliminated the need for an artificial bead, but a small piece of tissue instead. Nowadays, computer x-ray tomography (CT) scanning devices are used to depict the clear image of the interior of a pearl. In the Chinese jade market, filling fissures with epoxy and/or wax are very commonly seen. We are currently exploring Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique to map the distribution of artificial resin within a polycrystalline aggregates.

  18. Review of GEM Radiation Belt Dropout and Buildup Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Weichao; Li, Wen; Morley, Steve; Albert, Jay

    2017-04-01

    In Summer 2015 the US NSF GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) focus group named "Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling" started the "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges, focused on quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts. This is a community effort which includes selecting challenge events, gathering model inputs that are required to model the radiation belt dynamics during these events (e.g., various magnetospheric waves, plasmapause and density models, electron phase space density data), simulating the challenge events using different types of radiation belt models, and validating the model results by comparison to in situ observations of radiation belt electrons (from Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, LANL/GEO, etc). The goal is to quantitatively assess the relative importance of various acceleration, transport, and loss processes in the observed radiation belt dropouts and buildups. Since 2015, the community has selected four "challenge" events under four different categories: "storm-time enhancements", "non-storm enhancements", "storm-time dropouts", and "non-storm dropouts". Model inputs and data for each selected event have been coordinated and shared within the community to establish a common basis for simulations and testing. Modelers within and outside US with different types of radiation belt models (diffusion-type, diffusion-convection-type, test particle codes, etc.) have participated in our challenge and shared their simulation results and comparison with spacecraft measurements. Significant progress has been made in quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts as well as accessing the modeling with new measures of model performance. In this presentation, I will review the activities from our "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges and the progresses achieved in understanding radiation belt physics and improving model validation and verification.

  19. Developments and the preliminary tests of Resistive GEMs manufactured by a screen printing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Agócs, G; Oliveira, R; Martinego, P; Peskov, Vladimir; Pietropaolo, P; Picchi, P

    2008-01-01

    We report promising initial results obtained with new resistive-electrode GEM (RETGEM) detectors manufactured, for the first time, using screen printing technology. These new detectors allow one to reach gas gains nearly as high as with ordinary GEM-like detectors with metallic electrodes; however, due to the high resistivity of its electrodes the RETGEM, in contrast to ordinary hole-type detectors, has the advantage of being fully spark protected. We discovered that RETGEMs can operate stably and at high gains in noble gases and in other badly quenched gases, such as mixtures of noble gases with air and in pure air; therefore, a wide range of practical applications, including dosimetry and detection of dangerous gases, is foreseeable. To promote a better understanding of RETGEM technology some comparative studies were completed with metallic-electrode thick GEMs. A primary benefit of these new RETGEMs is that the screen printing technology is easily accessible to many research laboratories. This accessibilit...

  20. Study of gain variation as a function of physical parameters of GEM foil

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC has planned to upgrade the TPC by replacing the MWPC with GEM based detecting elements to restrict the IBF to a tolerable value. However the variation of the gain as a function of physical parameters of industrially produced large size GEM foils is needed to be studied as a part of the QA procedure for the detector. The size of the electron avalanche and consequently the gain for GEM based detectors depend on the electric field distribution inside the holes. Geometry of a hole plays an important role in defining the electric field inside it. In this work we have studied the variation of the gain as a function of the hole diameters using Garfield++ simulation package.

  1. Study of gain variation as a function of physical parameters of GEM foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Supriya, E-mail: Supriya.Das@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    The ALICE experiment at LHC has planned to upgrade the TPC by replacing the MWPC with GEM based detecting elements to restrict the IBF to a tolerable value. However the variation of the gain as a function of physical parameters of industrially produced large size GEM foils is needed to be studied as a part of the QA procedure for the detector. The size of the electron avalanche and consequently the gain for GEM based detectors depend on the electric field distribution inside the holes. Geometry of a hole plays an important role in defining the electric field inside it. In this work we have studied the variation of the gain as a function of the hole diameters using Garfield++ simulation package.

  2. Study of gain variation as a function of physical parameters of GEM foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Supriya; Alice Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC has planned to upgrade the TPC by replacing the MWPC with GEM based detecting elements to restrict the IBF to a tolerable value. However the variation of the gain as a function of physical parameters of industrially produced large size GEM foils is needed to be studied as a part of the QA procedure for the detector. The size of the electron avalanche and consequently the gain for GEM based detectors depend on the electric field distribution inside the holes. Geometry of a hole plays an important role in defining the electric field inside it. In this work we have studied the variation of the gain as a function of the hole diameters using Garfield++ simulation package.

  3. OSG-GEM: Gene Expression Matrix Construction Using the Open Science Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlman, William L; Rynge, Mats; Branton, Chris; Balamurugan, D; Feltus, Frank A

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing technology has revolutionized the study of gene expression while introducing significant computational challenges for biologists. These computational challenges include access to sufficient computer hardware and functional data processing workflows. Both these challenges are addressed with our scalable, open-source Pegasus workflow for processing high-throughput DNA sequence datasets into a gene expression matrix (GEM) using computational resources available to U.S.-based researchers on the Open Science Grid (OSG). We describe the usage of the workflow (OSG-GEM), discuss workflow design, inspect performance data, and assess accuracy in mapping paired-end sequencing reads to a reference genome. A target OSG-GEM user is proficient with the Linux command line and possesses basic bioinformatics experience. The user may run this workflow directly on the OSG or adapt it to novel computing environments.

  4. An aging study of triple GEMs in Ar-CO sub 2

    CERN Document Server

    Guirl, L; May, J; Miyamoto, J; Shipsey, I

    2002-01-01

    An aging study was performed using triple GEMs and a print circuit board (PCB) with an intense X-ray radiation source. The GEM chamber consists of three identical GEMs and a large gas gain (6000) was shared by them. The chamber and its gas circulation line was carefully cleaned and constructed with stainless steel materials. The detector was irradiated continuously about 750 h without interruption until a large amount of charge was accumulated. A single-wire counter served as a monitoring device to check the beam and ambient conditions. The quality of the Ar-CO sub 2 gas was checked by gas chromatography and no measurable amount of hydrocarbons were found. 27 mC/mm sup 2 was accumulated with no noticeable degradation and no deposit or discoloration was found in an optical check.

  5. A new design using GEM-based technology for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ressegotti, Martina

    2017-01-01

    The muon system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the LHC is currently not instrumented for pseudorapidity higher than abs(${\\eta}$)${ > 2.4}$. The main challenges to the installation of a detector in that position are the high particle flux to be sustained, a high level of radiation, and the ability to accomodate a multilevel detector into the small available space (less than 30 cm). A new back-to-back configuration of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is presented with the aim of developing a compact, multi-layer GEM detector. It is composed of two independent stacked triple-GEM detectors, positioned with the anodes toward the outside and sharing the same cathode plane, which is located at the center of the chamber, to reduce the total detector's thickness. A first prototype has been produced and tested with an X-Ray source and muon beam. First results on its performance are presented.

  6. GEM System: automatic prototyping of cell-wide metabolic pathway models from genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Yoichi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful realization of a "systems biology" approach to analyzing cells is a grand challenge for our understanding of life. However, current modeling approaches to cell simulation are labor-intensive, manual affairs, and therefore constitute a major bottleneck in the evolution of computational cell biology. Results We developed the Genome-based Modeling (GEM System for the purpose of automatically prototyping simulation models of cell-wide metabolic pathways from genome sequences and other public biological information. Models generated by the GEM System include an entire Escherichia coli metabolism model comprising 968 reactions of 1195 metabolites, achieving 100% coverage when compared with the KEGG database, 92.38% with the EcoCyc database, and 95.06% with iJR904 genome-scale model. Conclusion The GEM System prototypes qualitative models to reduce the labor-intensive tasks required for systems biology research. Models of over 90 bacterial genomes are available at our web site.

  7. La Gemäldegalerie di Dresda. Evoluzione dal Settecento a fine Ottocento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisia Marzotto Caotorta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its foundation, the Gemäldegalerie (Old Masters Picture Gallery in Dresden has been considered one of the most magnificent picture galleries in Europe. Not only during the Augustan Age there was a keen interest in the arts, but also a strong understanding of the arts as a means of political power claims. In this context, the Gemäldegalerie was the most representative display of this phenomenon. This article aims to explore the complex role played by the galleries of royal and aristocratic residences in Saxony, concentrating on the Gemäldegalerie between the 18th and 19th centuries as a case study, as well as focusing on its impact on contemporary German literature.

  8. GEM Detectors in the Experiments at e+e- Colliders in BINP

    CERN Document Server

    Maltsev, T V

    2017-01-01

    Micro-pattern gaseous detectors possess a high spatial resolution in tens micron scale together with high rate capability up to 107 cm-2s-1. In addition, they have all advantages of gaseous detectors, such as relatively low costs per unit area, the possibility to equip a large area as well as a high uniformity. Cascaded Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based detectors are used in the collider experiments at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), and they are being developed for a number of new projects. In this article the review of GEM based detectors for the tagging system of the KEDR experiment at the VEPP-4M collider and for the DEUTERON facility at the VEPP-3 storage ring is presented. The GEM detector application of the CMD-3 detector upgrade at the VEPP-2000 collider and the Super τ Factory detector are discussed.

  9. The game-based learning evaluation model (GEM): measuring the effectiveness of serious games using a standardised method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Visschedijk, G.C.; Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.M.C.; Dankbaar, M.; Trooster, W.; Schuit, S.C.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the background, design, and practical application of the game-based evaluation model (GEM). The aim of this evaluation model is to measure the effectiveness of serious games in a practical way. GEM contains the methodology and indicators to be measured in validation research.

  10. Advances in Trace Element “Fingerprinting” of Gem Corundum, Ruby and Sapphire, Mogok Area, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lin Sutherland

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mogok gem corundum samples from twelve localities were analyzed for trace element signatures (LA-ICP-MS method and oxygen isotope values (δ18O, by laser fluorination. The study augmented earlier findings on Mogok gem suites that suggested the Mogok tract forms a high vanadium gem corundum area and also identified rare alluvial ruby and sapphire grains characterised by unusually high silicon, calcium and gallium, presence of noticeable boron, tin and niobium and very low iron, titanium and magnesium contents. Oxygen isotope values (δ18O for the ruby and high Si-Ca-Ga corundum (20‰–25‰ and for sapphire (10‰–20‰ indicate typical crustal values, with values >20‰ being typical of carbonate genesis. The high Si-Ca-Ga ruby has high chromium (up to 3.2 wt % Cr and gallium (up to 0. 08 wt % Ga compared to most Mogok ruby (<2 wt % Cr; <0.02 wt % Ga. In trace element ratio plots the Si-Ca-Ga-rich corundum falls into separate fields from the typical Mogok metamorphic fields. The high Ga/Mg ratios (46–521 lie well within the magmatic range (>6, and with other features suggest a potential skarn-like, carbonate-related genesis with a high degree of magmatic fluid input The overall trace element results widen the range of different signatures identified within Mogok gem corundum suites and indicate complex genesis. The expanded geochemical platform, related to a variety of metamorphic, metasomatic and magmatic sources, now provides a wider base for geographic typing of Mogok gem corundum suites. It allows more detailed comparisons with suites from other deposits and will assist identification of Mogok gem corundum sources used in jewelry.

  11. Formation of GEMS from shock-accelerated crystalline dust in Superbubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, A; Bradley, J P

    2004-12-08

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) contain enigmatic sub-micron components called GEMS (Glass with Embedded Metal and Sulfides). The compositions and structures of GEMS indicate that they have been processed by exposure to ionizing radiation but details of the actual irradiation environment(s) have remained elusive. Here we propose a mechanism and astrophysical site for GEMS formation that explains for the first time the following key properties of GEMS; they are stoichiometrically enriched in oxygen and systematically depleted in S, Mg, Ca and Fe (relative to solar abundances), most have normal (solar) oxygen isotopic compositions, they exhibit a strikingly narrow size distribution (0.1-0.5 {micro}m diameter), and some of them contain ''relict'' crystals within their silicate glass matrices. We show that the compositions, size distribution, and survival of relict crystals are inconsistent with amorphization by particles accelerated by diffusive shock acceleration. Instead, we propose that GEMS are formed from crystalline grains that condense in stellar outflows from massive stars in OB associations, are accelerated in encounters with frequent supernova shocks inside the associated superbubble, and are implanted with atoms from the hot gas in the SB interior. We thus reverse the usual roles of target and projectile. Rather than being bombarded at rest by energetic ions, grains are accelerated and bombarded by a nearly monovelocity beam of atoms as viewed in their rest frame. Meyer, Drury and Ellison have proposed that galactic cosmic rays originate from ions sputtered from such accelerated dust grains. We suggest that GEMS are surviving members of a population of fast grains that constitute the long-sought source material for galactic cosmic rays. Thus, representatives of the GCR source material may have been awaiting discovery in cosmic dust labs for the last thirty years.

  12. Optics in the Great Exploration in Math and Science (GEMS) program: a summary of effective pedagogical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Gek, Tan K.

    2002-05-01

    This paper examines how optics is treated in instructional materials developed for the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) Program at the Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley. The GEMS program is a prominent resource for teachers in the United States and in many other countries. It represents a widely acknowledged, innovative approach to science and mathematics education. GEMS teacher's guides and handbooks offer a wide range of supplementary learning experiences for preschool through 8th grade (about age 13). Two guides already developed (Color Analyzers and More than Magnifiers) and one under development (working title: Invisible Universe) have a strong emphasis on fundamentals of optics. The organization and approaches of the guides will be described, with particular emphasis on the pedagogical approach represented. GEMS activities engage students in direct experience and experimentation in order to introduce essential, standards- based principles and concepts. Overwhelming educational evidence that students learn best by doing is the basis for the GEMS approach.

  13. A novel High-Voltage System for a triple GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Corradi, Giovanni; Tagnani, Diego; 10.1016/j.nima.2006.10.166

    2007-01-01

    A novel High-Voltage System for a triple GEM detector has been designed and realized in Frascati within the LHCb muon detector framework. The system is built with seven floating power supply, with a maximum of 1200 V each, and controlled via CANbus, for voltage settings and monitoring. Several HV modules can be installed in a nano-ammeter mainframe already developed in Frascati, realizing a HV crate able to supply up to 24 triple GEM chambers with a 1 nA resolution monitoring system.

  14. Experimental and simulation study of the behaviour and operation modes of MSGC+GEM detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, M.; Albert, A.; Barvich, T.; Beaumont, W.; Beckers, T.; Bernier, K.; Bluem, P.; Boulogne, I.; Bouvet, D.; Brom, J.M.; Charles, F.; Coffin, J.; Contardo, D.; Daubie, E.; Didierjean, F.; De Lentdecker, G. E-mail: delentdecker@hep.iihe.ac.be; De Troy, J.; Devroede, O.; Erdmann, M.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Fahrer, M.; Fluegge, G.; Fontaine, J.C.; Geist, W.; Goerlach, U.; Gottschalk, M.; Helleboid, J.M.; Huss, D.; Iacopi, F.; Juillot, P.; Kaercher, K.; Kuehn, F.; Lounis, A.; Maazouzi, C.; Macke, D.; Martin, C.; Mirabito, L.; Moreau, S.; Mueller, T.; Neuberger, D.; Nowack, A.; Perries, S.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Roederer, F.; Schulte, R.; Shekhtman, L.; Simonis, H.J.; Struczinski, W.; Tatarinov, A.; Thuemmel, W.H.; Udo, F.; Vander Velde, C.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Dyck, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Van Lancker, L.; Weiler, T.; Zander, A.; Zghiche, A.; Zhukov, V

    2002-08-21

    A small series production of detector modules made of MicroStrip Gas Counters (MSGC) and a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foil has been exposed to a high-intensity hadron beam. We report about the reproductibility and stability of the detector responses and about the occurrence and consequences of discharges in the detector. The interdependence of the four voltage differences used in the detector has been studied by simulation and with X-ray measurements. Rate dependence of the signal amplitude is observed. The behaviour of the MSGC+GEM is compared to that of a state-of-the-art MSGC. Influence of various parameters on the detector response is investigated.

  15. Study of gem materials by neutron irradiation: characterization of impurities and color centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Alexandre S.; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Brito, Walter de; D' Urco, Ana F.A.; Felix, Marcia C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: asleal@cdtn.br; Krambrock, Klaus [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: klaus@fisica.ufmg.br; Ferreira, Ana F. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: lapislazulli@uol.com.br

    2005-07-01

    Since one-century laboratory irradiation techniques are applied to the color enhancement of gem minerals. Its actual status and applications are discussed. Many different colors in a variety of gem minerals can be produced by gamma, electron and neutron irradiation combined with thermal treatments, however, many color centers and coloration processes are not known in detail. In this work we present examples of neutron irradiation applied to colorless topaz, spodumene and diamond. Topaz and diamond turned blue, spodumene orange. All color centers produced by neutron irradiation are stable to elevated temperatures and can be considered as color enhancing processes. (author)

  16. Simulation of space-charge effects in an ungated GEM-based TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böhmer, F.V., E-mail: felix.boehmer@tum.de; Ball, M.; Dørheim, S.; Höppner, C.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Rauch, J.; Vandenbroucke, M.

    2013-08-11

    A fundamental limit to the application of Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) in high-rate experiments is the accumulation of slowly drifting ions in the active gas volume, which compromises the homogeneity of the drift field and hence the detector resolution. Conventionally, this problem is overcome by the use of ion-gating structures. This method, however, introduces large dead times and restricts trigger rates to a few hundred per second. The ion gate can be eliminated from the setup by the use of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils for gas amplification, which intrinsically suppress the backflow of ions. This makes the continuous operation of a TPC at high rates feasible. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations of the buildup of ion space charge in a GEM-based TPC and the correction of the resulting drift distortions are discussed, based on realistic numbers for the ion backflow in a triple-GEM amplification stack. A TPC in the future P{sup ¯}ANDA experiment at FAIR serves as an example for the experimental environment. The simulations show that space charge densities up to 65 fC cm{sup −3} are reached, leading to electron drift distortions of up to 10 mm. The application of a laser calibration system to correct these distortions is investigated. Based on full simulations of the detector physics and response, we show that it is possible to correct for the drift distortions and to maintain the good momentum resolution of the GEM-TPC.

  17. Detection and Imaging of High-Z Materials with a Muon Tomography Station Using GEM Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gnanvo, K; Bittner, W; Costa, F; Grasso, L; Hohlmann, M; Locke, J B; Martoiu, S; Muller, H; Staib, M; Tarazona, A; Toledo, J

    2010-01-01

    Muon tomography based on the measurement of multiple scattering of atmospheric cosmic ray muons is a promising technique for detecting and imaging heavily shielded high-Z nuclear materials such as enriched uranium. This technique could complement standard radiation detection portals currently deployed at international borders and ports, which are not very sensitive to heavily shielded nuclear materials. We image small targets in 3D using $2\\times 2 \\times 2$ mm^3 voxels with a minimal muon tomography station prototype that tracks muons with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors read out in 2D with x-y microstrips of 400 micron pitch. With preliminary electronics, the GEM detectors achieve a spatial resolution of 130 microns in both dimensions. With the next GEM-based prototype station we plan to probe an active volume of ~27 liters. We present first results on reading out all 1536 microstrips of a $30 \\times 30$ cm^2 GEM detector for the next muon tomography prototype with final frontend electronics and DAQ...

  18. CMS Muon System Phase 2 Upgrade with triple-GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Salva Diblen, Sinem

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector installed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has an extensive muon system which provides information simultaneously for identification, track reconstruction and triggering of muons. As a consequence of the extreme particle rate and high integrated charge, the essentiality to upgrade the LHC has given rise to the High Luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) project so that the CMS muon system will be upgraded with superior technological challenges. The CMS GEM collaboration offers a solution to equip the high-eta region of the muon system for Phase 2 (after the year 2017) with large-area triple-layer Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, since GEMs have the ability to provide robust and redundant tracking and triggering functions with an excellent spatial resolution of order 100 micron and a high particle rate capability, with a close to 100pct detection efficiency. In this contribution, the present status of the triple-GEM project will be reviewed, and the signifi...

  19. LHCb: A fast triple-GEM detector for high-rate charged-particle triggering

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    - GEM: Principle of Operation - Time Performances - Detector Prototypes and Test Setup - Gas Mixtures - Fields Optimisation - Vgem Optimisation Ar/CO2 (70/30) - Vgem Optimisation Ar/CO2/CF4 (60/20/20) - Time Distributions - Future Tests and Developments

  20. Analysis of the performance of GEM chambers for the upgrade of the LHCb muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Pinci, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Triple-GEM chambers, so far used in the inner region of the M1 muon station, are the ideal candidates to replace the MWPCs in the regions where, after the upgrade, the particle rate will be as high as 2 MHz/cm$^2$. Testing the triple-GEM efficiency and time resolution with different gaseous mixtures is therefore a significant step in evaluating the expected performance of the muon system after the upgrade scheduled in 2018, when the luminosity in LHCb will reach $2 \\times 10^{33}$ cm$^2$ s$^{-1}$. In this note, the study of the GEM efficiency and time performance is presented. Two gas mixtures are used for the measurements: Ar/CO$_2$/CF$_4$ 40:55:5 and 45:15:40. A preliminar simulation of the gas mixture properties is performed by means of the software GARFIELD, focusing on the electron drift velocity and the specific ionization. Several measurements of efficiency and time performance of the triple GEM were thus made by means of cosmic rays by changing the detector electric fields and the voltages across the ...

  1. Elsevier Overview of large area triple-GEM detectors for the CMS forward muon upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Abbrescia, M; Abi Akl, M; Aboamer, O; Acosta, D; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, W; Aleksandrov, A; Altieri, P; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Aspell, P; Assran, Y; Awan, I; Bally, S; Ban, Y; Banerjee, S; Barashko, V; Barria, P; Bencze, G; Beni, N; Benussi, L; Bhopatkar, V; Bianco, S; Bos, J; Bouhali, O; Braghieri, A; Braibant, S; Buontempo, S; Calabria, C; Caponero, M; Caputo, C; Cassese, F; Castaneda, A; Cauwenbergh, S; Cavallo, F R; Celik, A; Choi, M; Choi, S; Christiansen, J; Cimmino, A; Colafranceschi, S; Colaleo, A; Conde Garcia, A; Czellar, S; Dabrowski, M M; De Lentdecker, G; De Oliveira, R; de Robertis, G; Dildick, S; Dorney, B; Endroczi, G; Errico, F; Fenyvesi, A; Ferry, S; Furic, I; Giacomelli, P; Gilmore, J; Golovtsov, V; Guiducci, L; Guilloux, F; Gutierrez, A; Hadjiiska, R M; Hauser, J; Hoepfner, K; Hohlmann, M; Hoorani, H; Iaydjiev, P; Jeng, Y G; Kamon, T; Karchin, P; Korytov, A; Krutelyov, S; Kumar, A; Kim, H; Lee, J; Lenzi, T; Litov, L; Loddo, F; Madorsky, A; Maerschalk, T; Maggi, M; Magnani, A; Mal, P K; Mandal, K; Marchioro, A; Marinov, A; Majumdar, N; Merlin, J A; Mitselmakher, G; Mohanty, A K; Mohapatra, A; Molnar, J; Muhammad, S; Mukhopadhyay, S; Naimuddin, M; Nuzzo, S; Oliveri, E; Pant, L M; Paolucci, P; Park, I; Passeggio, G; Pavlov, B; Philipps, B; Piccolo, D; Postema, H; Puig Baranac, A; Radi, A; Radogna, R; Raffone, G; Ranieri, A; Rashevski, G; Riccardi, C; Rodozov, M; Rodrigues, A; Ropelewski, L; RoyChowdhury, S; Ryu, G; Ryu, M S; Safonov, A; Salva, S; Saviano, G; Sharma, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, R; Shah, A H; Shopova, M; Sturdy, J; Sultanov, G; Swain, S K; Szillasi, Z; Talvitie, J; Tatarinov, A; Tuuva, T; Tytgat, M; Vai, I; Van Stenis, M; Venditti, R; Verhagen, E; Verwilligen, P; Vitulo, P; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Wang, D; Wang, M; Yang, U; Yang, Y; Yonamine, R; Zaganidis, N; Zenoni, F; Zhang, A

    2017-01-01

    We report on the status of the project to install large-area triple-foil gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors in the end-cap muon system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the LHC operating at the high luminosity planned after the current period of data-taking (run 2). In the pseudo-rapidity region $1.6 < \\lvert\\eta\\rvert < 2.4$, the GEM detectors will suppress the rate of background triggers while maintaining high trigger efficiency for low transverse momentum muons, and enhancing the robustness of muon detection in the high-flux environment of the end-cap region. GEM detectors will also be used to extend the range of muon identification up to about $\\lvert\\eta\\rvert = 3.0$. We describe the design of the GEM chambers, readout electronics, and data acquisition system for the three stations in each endcap, located at increasing distances from the interaction point. For the intermediate station, the design is fixed and we describe plans to install several of the intermediate station dete...

  2. MeerLICHT and BlackGEM: custom-built telescopes to detect faint optical transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemen, Steven; Groot, Paul; Woudt, Patrick; Klein Wolt, Marc; McBride, Vanessa; Nelemans, Gijs; Körding, Elmar; Pretorius, Margaretha L.; Roelfsema, Ronald; Bettonvil, Felix; Balster, Harry; Bakker, Roy; Dolron, Peter; van Elteren, Arjen; Elswijk, Eddy; Engels, Arno; Fender, Rob; Fokker, Marc; de Haan, Menno; Hagoort, Klaas; de Hoog, Jasper; ter Horst, Rik; van der Kevie, Giel; Kozłowski, Stanisław; Kragt, Jan; Lech, Grzegorz; Le Poole, Rudolf; Lesman, Dirk; Morren, Johan; Navarro, Ramon; Paalberends, Willem-Jelle; Paterson, Kerry; Pawłaszek, Rafal; Pessemier, Wim; Raskin, Gert; Rutten, Harrie; Scheers, Bart; Schuil, Menno; Sybilski, Piotr W.

    2016-07-01

    We present the MeerLICHT and BlackGEM telescopes, which are wide-field optical telescopes that are currently being built to study transient phenomena, gravitational wave counterparts and variable stars. The telescopes have 65 cm primary mirrors and a 2.7 square degree field-of-view. The MeerLICHT and BlackGEM projects have different science goals, but will use identical telescopes. The first telescope, MeerLICHT, will be commissioned at Sutherland (South Africa) in the first quarter of 2017. It will co-point with MeerKAT to collect optical data commensurate with the radio observations. After careful analysis of MeerLICHT's performance, three telescopes of the same type will be commissioned in La Silla (Chile) in 2018 to form phase I of the BlackGEM array. BlackGEM aims at detecting and characterizing optical counterparts of gravitational wave events detected by Advanced LIGO and Virgo. In this contribution we present an overview of the science goals, the design and the status of the two projects.

  3. Status of the Triple-GEM Project for the Upgrade of the CMS Muon System

    CERN Document Server

    Tytgat, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The GEMs for CMS collaboration is performing a feasibility study to install triple-GEM detectors in the forward region of the muon system ($1.6<\\eta<2.4$) of the CMS detector at the LHC. Such micro-pattern gas detectors are able to cope with the extreme particle rates that are expected in that region during the High Luminosity phase of the LHC. With their spatial resolution of order 100 micron GEMs would not only provide additional benefits in the CMS muon High Level Trigger, but also in the muon identification and track reconstruction, effectively combining tracking and triggering capabilities in one single device. The present status of the full project will be reviewed, highlighting all importants steps and achievements since the start of the R and D in 2009. Several small and full-size prototypes were constructed with different geometries and techniques. The baseline design of the triple-GEM detectorfor CMS will be described, along with the results from extensive test measurements of all prototypes ...

  4. Development of GEM-based readout chambers for the upgrade of the ALICE TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deisting, Alexander [Universitaet Heidelberg/Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The ALICE experiment at the LHC is designed to examine lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions in order to probe genuine multi-particle aspects of QCD. Its main tracking detector is a time projection chamber (TPC), being equipped with a multi wire proportional chamber (MWPC) based readout. Since the rate in Pb-Pb collisions will increase to up to 50 kHz in LHC Run3 it is necessary to adapt the TPC to this new environment. A change from the current measurement mode with a gating grid and MWPCs to a continuous readout with new readout chambers is hence foreseen. To match the requirements for Run3 the new chambers should be able to cope with the higher rates and thereby preserve the momentum and dE/dx resolution of the current chambers. In addition the ion back flow (IBF) from the amplification stage into the drift volume should be less then 1%. A solution has been found based on 4 gas electron multiplier foils (GEMs) stacked onto each other. Extensive R and D studies of 4 GEM stacks were performed. In this talk different experimental setups to examine the performance of quadruple GEM stacks in terms of IBF, energy resolution and dE/dx are presented. Emphasis is put on the simultaneous optimisation of the energy resolution and the IBF while studying different kinds of GEM foils in a stack.

  5. Discharge probability studies in GEM structures for the ALICE TPC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasik, Piotr [TU Muenchen, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    A large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device for tracking and charged particle identification in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. After the second long shutdown in 2018, the LHC will deliver Pb beams colliding at an interaction rate of about 50 kHz, which is about a factor of 100 above the present readout rate of the TPC. In order to make full use of this luminosity, a major upgrade of the TPC is required. It is foreseen to replace the existing MWPC-based readout with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils. The GEM foils are commonly known structures used as proportional counters, which permits to obtain high gains at very high radiation rates. However, highly ionizing particles, which may be produced during heavy ion collisions, may trigger an electrical breakdown which may result in damage of the foils or readout electronics. The key parameter for a long-term operation of the GEM-based TPC is the stability against electrical discharges. We performed discharge probability studies in triple and quadruple GEM structures in Ne- and Ar-based gas mixtures to find operational conditions for the upgraded ALICE TPC. Preliminary results from these measurements are discussed in this contribution.

  6. Energy resolution studies of an IROC GEM prototype for the ALICE TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathis, Andreas [TU Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Excellence Cluster ' ' Universe' ' , D-85748, Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The ALICE collaboration (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is planning an upgrade of its central barrel detectors, to be able to cope with the increased LHC luminosity beyond 2018. In order to fully exploit the increase in collision rate to about 50 kHz in Pb-Pb, the TPC is foreseen to be operated in an ungated mode with continuous readout. This demands for a replacement of the currently used, gated MWPC by GEM-based readout chambers, while retaining the present tracking and particle identification capabilities of the TPC via measurement of the specific energy loss (dE/dx). The present baseline solution for the TPC upgrade consists of a stack of four large-sized GEM foils as amplification stage, containing both Standard (S, 140 μm) and Large Pitch (LP, 280 μm) GEM foils arranged in the order S-LP-LP-S. This arrangement has been proven as advantageous in terms of ion backflow and energy resolution. A prototype of an ALICE IROC (Inner Readout Chamber) was equipped with such a quadruple GEM stack, installed inside a field cage and exposed to a beam of electrons and pions from the CERN PS. The performance of the prototype in terms of energy resolution has been evaluated and is presented.

  7. GEM detector performance and efficiency in Proton Charge Radius (PRad) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xinzhan; PRad Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The PRad experiment (E12-11-106) was performed in 2016 at Jefferson Lab in Hall B. It aims to investigate the proton charge radius puzzle through electron proton elastic scattering process. The experiment used a non-magnetic spectrometer method, and reached a very small ep scattering angle and thus an unprecedented small four-momentum transfer squared region, Q2 from 2 ×10-4 to 0.06(GeV / c) 2 . PRad experiment was designed to measure the proton charge radius within a sub-percent precision. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors have contributed to reach the experimental goal. A pair of large area GEM detectors, and a large acceptance, high resolution calorimeter(HyCal) were utilized in the experiment to detect the scattered electrons. The precision requirements of the experiment demands a highly accurate understanding of efficiency and stability of GEM detectors. In this talk, we will present the preliminary results on the performance and efficiency of GEM detectors. This work is supported in part by NSF MRI award PHY-1229153, the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-07ER41528, No. DE-FG02-03ER41240 and Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory.

  8. Development and Test of a GEM-Based TEPC System for In-Phantom Dose Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C-K Chris Wang

    2007-03-13

    The objectives of this project include: (1) to construct a minature tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) using a gas-electron-multiplier (GEM) foil, and (2) to conduct neutron and gamma-ray dose measurements with the detector embedded in a phantom

  9. Physics motivations and expected performance of the CMS muon system upgrade with triple-GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbrescia, Marcello; Aleksandrov, Andrey B; Benussi, Luigi; Beni, Noemi; Bianco, Stefano; Calabria, Cesare; Caponero, Michele; Hernandez, Alfredo Martin Castaneda; Cavallo, Francesca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Lentdecker, Gilles De; Oliveira, R; Guiducci, Luigi; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Iaydjiev, P S; Korytov, Andrey; Krutelyov, Slava; Kumar, A; Lee, Jason; Litov, L; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Marchioro, Alessandro; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Molnar, J; Naimuddin, Md; Nuzzo, S; Pant, Lalit; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Pavlov, Borislav; Piccolo, Davide; Postema, Hans; Raffaella, Radogna; Ranieri, A; Riccardi, C; Rodozov, Mircho; Safonov, Alexei; Saviano, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Tytgat, Michael; Vitulo, Paolo; Colaleo, Anna; Caputo, Claudio; Errico, Filippo; Dildick, Sven; Vai, Ilaria; Magnani, Alice; Verwilligen, Piet; Altieri, Palma; Aspell, Paul; Giacomelli, Paolo; Braibant, Sylvie; Buontempo, S; Kamon, Teruki; Tatarinov, A; Celik, Ali; Gilmore, Jason; Flanagan, Will; Khotilovich, Vadim; Czellar, S; Fenyvesi, A; Jozsef Molnar@Cern Ch, Jozsef; Barria, P; Korntheuer, Michael; Lenzi, T; Maerschalk, T; Verhagen, E; Yang, Yifan; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Merlin, J; Dorney, B; Garcia, A Conde; Dabrowski, M; Marinov, A; Oliveri, E; Baranac, A Puig; Ropelewski, Leszek; Bos, J; Bally, S; Stenis, M Van; Ferry, S; Rodrigues, A; Robertis, G De; Christiansen, J; Hohlmann, M; Bhopatkar, V; Mohapatra, A; Zhang, A; Hauser, J; Tuuva, Tuure; Talvitie, J; Passeggio, G; Cassese, F; Banerjee, S; Majumdar, N; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roychowdhur, S; Salva, S; Zaganidis, N; Cimmino, A; Cauwenbergh, S; Bouhali, O; Akl, M Abi; Sturdy, J; Karchin, P; Gutierrez, A; Hadjiiska, R; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Rashevski, G; Rodozov, M; Shopova, M; Sultanov, G; Acosta, D; Barashko, V; Furic, I; Madorsky, A; Korytov, A; Mitselmakher, G; Raffone, G; Radi, A; Assran, Y; Aboamer, O; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, W; Awan, I; Hoorani, H; Muhammad, S; Sharma, R; Geonmo, R; Ryu, M S; Park, I; Jeng, Y C; Choi, M; Golovtsov, V; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Choi, S; Guilloux, F; Philipps, B

    2015-01-01

    For the LHC High Luminosity phase (HL-LHC) the CMS GEM Collaboration is planning to in- stall new large size triple-GEM detectors in the forward region of the muon system (1.5< j h |<2.2) of the CMS detector. The muon reconstruction with triple-GEM chambers information included have been successfully integrated in the official CMS software, allowing physics studies to be carried out. The new sub-detector will be able to cope the extreme particle rates expected in this region along with a high spatial resolution. The resulting benefit in terms of triggering and tracking capabilities has been studied: the expected improvement in the performance of the muon identification and track reconstruction as well as the expected improvement coming from the low- ering of the muon p T trigger tresholds will be presented. The contribution will review the status of the CMS upgrade project with the usage of GEM detector, discussing the trigger, the muon reconstruction performance and the impact on the physics analyses.

  10. Modeling radiation belt electron dynamics during GEM challenge intervals with the DREAM3D diffusion model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Tu (Weichao); G.S. Cunningham; Y. Chen; M.G. Henderson; E. Camporeale (Enrico); G.D. Reeves (Geoffrey)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAs a response to the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) “Global Radiation Belt Modeling Challenge,” a 3D diffusion model is used to simulate the radiation belt electron dynamics during two intervals of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) mission, 15 August to 15

  11. 16 CFR 23.25 - Misuse of the word “gem.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other industry product that does not possess the beauty, symmetry, rarity, and value necessary for... JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.25 Misuse of the word “gem.” (a) It is unfair or... industry product unless the product meets the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section and unless such...

  12. The triple GEM detector as beam monitor for relativistic hadron beams

    CERN Document Server

    Aza, E; Murtas, F; Puddu, S; Silari, M

    2014-01-01

    triple GEM detector was tested at the CERF facility at CERN as an on-line beam imaging monitor and as a counting reference device. It was exposed to a 120 GeV/c positively charged hadron beam (approximately 2/3 pions and 1/3 protons), which hits a copper target gen- erating a wide spectrum of different kinds of particles used for various experiments. The flux of beam particles ranged over three orders of magnitude, from 8 10 4 s 1 to 8 10 7 s 1 . The profile of the beam acquired with the GEM was compared to the one measured with a MWPC and no satu- ration was observed. In addition, the count rate measured with the GEM was compared to the one measured with an Ionization Chamber, which is routinely used for monitoring the beam intensity. Another way of monitoring the intensity of the beam was also explored, which is based on the total current driven from the GEM foils. The digital readout allows making a 2D online image of the beam for the alignment with the copper target in the CERF facility. A low residual ac...

  13. The triple GEM detector as beam monitor for relativistic hadron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aza, E.; Magistris, M.; Murtas, F.; Puddu, S.; Silari, M.

    2014-06-01

    A triple GEM detector was tested at the CERF facility at CERN as an on-line beam imaging monitor and as a counting reference device. It was exposed to a 120 GeV/c positively charged hadron beam (approximately 2/3 pions and 1/3 protons), which hits a copper target generating a wide spectrum of different kinds of particles used for various experiments. The flux of beam particles ranged over three orders of magnitude, from 8·104 s-1 to 8·107 s-1. The profile of the beam acquired with the GEM was compared to the one measured with a MWPC and no saturation was observed. In addition, the count rate measured with the GEM was compared to the one measured with an Ionization Chamber, which is routinely used for monitoring the beam intensity. Another way of monitoring the intensity of the beam was also explored, which is based on the total current driven from the GEM foils. The digital readout allows making a 2D online image of the beam for the alignment with the copper target in the CERF facility. A low residual activation of the detector was observed shortly after irradiation.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVRI differential photometry of GW Gem (Lee+, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. W.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Kim, H.-I.; Park, J.-H.; Park, S.-R.; Koch, R. H.

    2009-04-01

    Our CCD photometry of GW Gem was performed on 13 nights during the period 2007 December 20-2008 March 1 in order to obtain multicolor light curves. The observations were taken with a SITe 2K CCD camera and a BVRI filter set attached to the 61-cm reflector at Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO) in Korea. (1 data file).

  15. Extending the GEM model to support knowledge extraction from textual guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg, Gersende; Séroussi, Brigitte; Bouaud, Jacques

    2005-03-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) are being developed as a tool to promote best practice in medicine. However, the diffusion of paper guidelines has been shown to only have a limited impact. This is why computerization of CPGs has recently been suggested as a means to improve their dissemination as well as physicians' compliance. The Guideline Elements Model (GEM) has been proposed to facilitate the encoding of CPGs and support the automatic processing of marked-up documents. In this paper, we explore the automatic generation of a rule base from a textual guideline using GEM. In this study, we propose an extension of the GEM model that introduces additional levels of structuring centered on decision variables. This allows a more efficient representation of the decision processes, which supports the automatic generation of decision rules from textual guidelines. The 1999 Canadian recommendations for the management of hypertension have been marked-up as a GEM-encoded instance of our extended DTD. We derived a rule base using an XML parser to extract the relevant elements to instantiate the IF and THEN clauses of decision rules. The rule base automatically generated compares favourably with the manual generation of decision rules in the ASTI project. This approach is an interesting case study in the computerization of CPGs, as it illustrates processing steps that are relevant to the various aspects of CPGs life-cycle, from production to consultation and use.

  16. Detection of structural varieties of red gem spinels from Ratnapura, Sabaragamuwa province of Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerwey, A.A.F.

    1974-01-01

    A new instrumental method for spectrographical detection of particularities of crystal fields around optically active ions, such as the trivalent chromium ion, was applied to an investigation of red magnesium-spinels from the Ratnapura gem gravels; also from Kangaiyam in India and some other sources

  17. Promoting microbiology education through the iGEM synthetic biology competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelwick, Richard; Bowater, Laura; Yeoman, Kay H; Bowater, Richard P

    2015-08-01

    Synthetic biology has developed rapidly in the 21st century. It covers a range of scientific disciplines that incorporate principles from engineering to take advantage of and improve biological systems, often applied to specific problems. Methods important in this subject area include the systematic design and testing of biological systems and, here, we describe how synthetic biology projects frequently develop microbiology skills and education. Synthetic biology research has huge potential in biotechnology and medicine, which brings important ethical and moral issues to address, offering learning opportunities about the wider impact of microbiological research. Synthetic biology projects have developed into wide-ranging training and educational experiences through iGEM, the International Genetically Engineered Machines competition. Elements of the competition are judged against specific criteria and teams can win medals and prizes across several categories. Collaboration is an important element of iGEM, and all DNA constructs synthesized by iGEM teams are made available to all researchers through the Registry for Standard Biological Parts. An overview of microbiological developments in the iGEM competition is provided. This review is targeted at educators that focus on microbiology and synthetic biology, but will also be of value to undergraduate and postgraduate students with an interest in this exciting subject area. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Trace elements in Gem-Quality Diamonds - Origin and evolution of diamond-forming fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Graham; Krebs, Mandy; Stachel, Thomas; Woodland, Sarah; Chinn, Ingrid; Kong, Julie

    2017-04-01

    In the same way that melt inclusions in phenocrysts have expanded our idea of melt formation and evolution in basalts, studying fluids trapped in diamonds is providing important new constraints on the nature of diamond-forming fluids. Fibrous and cloudy diamonds trap a high but variable density of fluid inclusions and so have been extensively studied using major and trace element compositions. In contrast, constraining the nature of the diamond-forming fluid for high purity gem-quality diamonds has been restricted by the rarity of available high quality trace element data. This is due to the extremely low concentrations of impurities that gem diamonds contain - often in the ppt range. The recent discovery of fluids in gem diamonds showing similar major element chemistry to fluid-rich diamonds suggest that many diamonds may share a common spectrum of parental fluids. Here we test this idea further. Recent advances in analytical techniques, in particular the development of the "off-line" laser ablation pre-concentration approach, have allowed fully quantitative trace element data to be recovered from "fluid-poor", high quality gem diamonds. We present trace element data for gem diamonds from a variety of locations from Canada, S. Africa and Russia, containing either silicate or sulphide inclusions to examine possible paragenetic or genetic differences between fluids. REE abundance in the "gem" diamonds vary from 0.1 to 0.0001 x chondrite. To a first order, we observe the same spectrum of trace element compositions in the gem diamonds as that seen in fluid-rich "fibrous" diamonds, supporting a common origin for the fluids. REE patterns range from extremely flat (Ce/Yb)n 2.5 to 5 (commonly in sulphide-bearing diamonds) to >70, the latter having significantly greater inter-element HFSE/LILE fractionation. In general, the fluids from the sulphide-bearing diamonds are less REE-enriched than the silicate-bearing diamonds, but the ranges overlap significantly. The very

  19. Open source large-scale high-resolution environmental modelling with GEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarsma, Rein; Alberti, Koko; Marra, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Many environmental, topographic and climate data sets are freely available at a global scale, creating the opportunities to run environmental models for every location on Earth. Collection of the data necessary to do this and the consequent conversion into a useful format is very demanding however, not to mention the computational demand of a model itself. We developed GEMS (Global Environmental Modelling System), an online application to run environmental models on various scales directly in your browser and share the results with other researchers. GEMS is open-source and uses open-source platforms including Flask, Leaflet, GDAL, MapServer and the PCRaster-Python modelling framework to process spatio-temporal models in real time. With GEMS, users can write, run, and visualize the results of dynamic PCRaster-Python models in a browser. GEMS uses freely available global data to feed the models, and automatically converts the data to the relevant model extent and data format. Currently available data includes the SRTM elevation model, a selection of monthly vegetation data from MODIS, land use classifications from GlobCover, historical climate data from WorldClim, HWSD soil information from WorldGrids, population density from SEDAC and near real-time weather forecasts, most with a ±100m resolution. Furthermore, users can add other or their own datasets using a web coverage service or a custom data provider script. With easy access to a wide range of base datasets and without the data preparation that is usually necessary to run environmental models, building and running a model becomes a matter hours. Furthermore, it is easy to share the resulting maps, timeseries data or model scenarios with other researchers through a web mapping service (WMS). GEMS can be used to provide open access to model results. Additionally, environmental models in GEMS can be employed by users with no extensive experience with writing code, which is for example valuable for using models

  20. Commercial and cost effective production of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crary, David

    2010-05-05

    The nuclear and high energy physics research community is constantly searching for new and improved tracking and radiation detectors. The introduction of micropattern detectors has opened new opportunities for improving the rate capabilities, as well as the spatial and time resolution of particle detectors in these applications. GEM detectors in particular have received enormous interest for use in detectors planned for a number of new and upgraded experiments at many different research facilities. These include both the STAR and PHENIX experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, experiments at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and at the future electron-positron Linear Collider. At the present time, CERN is not able to supply foils in sufficient quantities to accommodate the needs of these experiments. Compounding this problem, there is a strong interest in GEM foils for numerous other applications, such as in astrophysics, medical imaging and detectors for homeland security. It would therefore be of significant benefit to the research community to develop a commercial source of GEM foils for all of these applications. Tech-Etch is in a unique position to develop this technology for commercial use. Tech-Etch has not only experience in numerous related high precision etched Kapton® products, but it also has strong ties with several research institutions (namely Brookhaven, Yale and MIT) that can help develop and evaluate the performance of the GEM foils produced at Tech-Etch. Additionally, since Tech-Etch is a small company, it also has the capability to produce a large variety of part configurations, as well as the flexibility to shift production methods, equipment, and chemistry to optimize the GEM foil manufacturing process without being constrained by existing work running on high volume continuous coil equipment.

  1. Modelling present and future African climate using CMIP5scenarios in HadGEM2-ES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M. H.; Diallo, M.; Dike, V. N.

    2014-12-01

    The present precipitation and temperature patterns and expected future changes (2073-2098) in Africa are investigated using the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 2-Earth System (HadGEM2-ES) under the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) protocols for historical and future emission scenarios simulations.In a CMIP5 multimodel analysis, the annual cycles of temperature and precipitation simulated by HadGEM2-ES were very close to the multimodel ensemble mean. HadGEM2-ES temperature simulation compares well with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis over the 1979-2004 periods, except for a summer overestimation in Central Africa, and a winter underestimation in tropical West Africa. The precipitation simulation compared well with the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data from 1979 to 2004 over the entire Africa, except in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), where the model fails to capture adequately the transition phase of the monsoon circulation. The dry regimes over Northern Africa as well as the wetter regime occurring over Central Africa, which is mainly regulated by the ITCZ displacement, and during the austral summer of Southern Africa, are also fairly reproduced by the HadGEM2-ES model. The model projects for the end of the 21st century a rainy South Africa, a change of the flood/drought cycle in the Tropics and a warming over the whole continent, varying from 3 to 7 ∘ C. HadGEM2-ES performance for Nigeria shows good reproduction of precipitation seasonal cycles for some locations, outside the ITCZ. However, the comparison with in situ measurement in Ilorin and Lagos shows the model is not being able to reproduce the precipitation annual cycle. Future projections for Nigeria exhibit warming everywhere and an enhancement of precipitation, especially in the northern part of the country.

  2. Commercial and Cost Effective Production of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, Craig

    2009-03-31

    The nuclear and high energy physics research community is constantly searching for new and improved tracking and radiation detectors. The introduction of micropattern detectors has opened new opportunities for improving the rate capabilities, as well as the spatial and time resolution of particle detectors in these applications. GEM detectors in particular have received enormous interest for use in detectors planned for a number of new and upgraded experiments at many different research facilities. These include both the STAR and PHENIX experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, experiments at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and at the future electron-positron Linear Collider. At the present time, CERN is not able to supply foils in sufficient quantities to accommodate the needs of these experiments. Compounding this problem, there is a strong interest in GEM foils for numerous other applications, such as in astrophysics, medical imaging and detectors for homeland security. It would therefore be of significant benefit to the research community to develop a commercial source of GEM foils for all of these applications. Tech-Etch is in a unique position to develop this technology for commercial use. Tech-Etch has not only experience in numerous related high precision etched Kapton® products, but it also has strong ties with several research institutions (namely Brookhaven, Yale and MIT) that can help develop and evaluate the performance of the GEM foils produced at Tech-Etch. Additionally, since Tech-Etch is a small company, it also has the capability to produce a large variety of part configurations, as well as the flexibility to shift production methods, equipment, and chemistry to optimize the GEM foil manufacturing process without being constrained by existing work running on high volume continuous coil equipment.

  3. Faster Than Light (FTL) Travel and Causality in the Context of the Gravity-Electro-Magnetism (GEM) Theory of Field Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    In The GEM (Brandenburg, 2006) theory, direct manipulation of space-time geometry is possible leading to the possibility of transformation of a starship into a tachyon moving Faster Than Light (FTL). The GEM theory is reviewed and Causality in terms of the time ordering of experienced events is considered as well as examining the space-time curvature signature of such FTL particles. Time ordering and time flow is found to be determined by the 2nd law of thermodynamics and is used to derive a Cosmic time flow in terms of the expansion of the universe. The rate of increase of cosmic entropy is approximately dS/dt = c3/(Gmp), the rate that light transits from a proton-mass Black Hole, reminiscent of the Dirac Larger Number Hypothesis relating Cosmic and subatomic quantities. It is found that the tachyon FTL method, rather than allowing reversal of time ordering of experienced events, actually makes the cosmos age faster by contributing to an increase in ``Dark Energy'' and thus FTL travel via tachyons irreversibly changes the cosmos. Therefore, it appears that FTL travel can be accomplished without violation of Causality.

  4. Evaluation of biomass burning aerosols in the HadGEM3 climate model with observations from the SAMBBA field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Johnson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of biomass burning aerosol from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA and other measurement campaigns, and use these to evaluate the representation of biomass burning aerosol properties and processes in a state-of-the-art climate model. The evaluation includes detailed comparisons with aircraft and ground data, along with remote sensing observations from MODIS and AERONET. We demonstrate several improvements to aerosol properties following the implementation of the Global Model for Aerosol Processes (GLOMAP-mode modal aerosol scheme in the HadGEM3 climate model. This predicts the particle size distribution, composition, and optical properties, giving increased accuracy in the representation of aerosol properties and physical–chemical processes over the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Scheme for Simulations in Climate Models (CLASSIC bulk aerosol scheme previously used in HadGEM2. Although both models give similar regional distributions of carbonaceous aerosol mass and aerosol optical depth (AOD, GLOMAP-mode is better able to capture the observed size distribution, single scattering albedo, and Ångström exponent across different tropical biomass burning source regions. Both aerosol schemes overestimate the uptake of water compared to recent observations, CLASSIC more so than GLOMAP-mode, leading to a likely overestimation of aerosol scattering, AOD, and single scattering albedo at high relative humidity. Observed aerosol vertical distributions were well captured when biomass burning aerosol emissions were injected uniformly from the surface to 3 km. Finally, good agreement between observed and modelled AOD was gained only after scaling up GFED3 emissions by a factor of 1.6 for CLASSIC and 2.0 for GLOMAP-mode. We attribute this difference in scaling factor mainly to different assumptions for the water uptake and growth of aerosol mass during ageing via oxidation and condensation of organics. We also note

  5. PLC-controlled cryostats for the BlackGEM and MeerLICHT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Gert; Morren, Johan; Pessemier, Wim; Bloemen, Steven; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Roelfsema, Ronald; Groot, Paul; Aerts, Conny

    2016-08-01

    BlackGEM is an array of telescopes, currently under development at the Radboud University Nijmegen and at NOVA (Netherlands Research School for Astronomy). It targets the detection of the optical counterparts of gravitational waves. The first three BlackGEM telescopes are planned to be installed in 2018 at the La Silla observatory (Chile). A single prototype telescope, named MeerLICHT, will already be commissioned early 2017 in Sutherland (South Africa) to provide an optical complement for the MeerKAT radio array. The BlackGEM array consists of, initially, a set of three robotic 65-cm wide-field telescopes. Each telescope is equipped with a single STA1600 CCD detector with 10.5k x 10.5k 9-micron pixels that covers a 2.7 square degrees field of view. The cryostats for housing these detectors are developed and built at the KU Leuven University (Belgium). The operational model of BlackGEM requires long periods of reliable hands-off operation. Therefore, we designed the cryostats for long vacuum hold time and we make use of a closed-cycle cooling system, based on Polycold PCC Joule-Thomson coolers. A single programmable logic controller (PLC) controls the cryogenic systems of several BlackGEM telescopes simultaneously, resulting in a highly reliable, cost-efficient and maintenance-friendly system. PLC-based cryostat control offers some distinct advantages, especially for a robotic facility. Apart of temperature monitoring and control, the PLC also monitors the vacuum quality, the power supply and the status of the PCC coolers (compressor power consumption and temperature, pressure in the gas lines, etc.). Furthermore, it provides an alarming system and safe and reproducible procedures for automatic cool down and warm up. The communication between PLC and higher-level software takes place via the OPC-UA protocol, offering a simple to implement, yet very powerful interface. Finally, a touch-panel display on the PLC provides the operator with a user-friendly and robust

  6. Progress on the realization of a new GEM based neutron diagnostic concept for high flux neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, G.; Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano, Italy and INFN, Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Rebai, M.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy and INFN, Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Cazzaniga, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Palma, M. Dalla; Pasqualotto, R.; Tollin, M. [Consorzio RFX - Associazione Euratom-Enea sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy); Grosso, G.; Muraro, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy); Murtas, F.; Claps, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy)

    2014-08-21

    Fusion reactors will need high flux neutron detectors to diagnose the deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium. A candidate detection technique is the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). New GEM based detectors are being developed for application to a neutral deuterium beam test facility. The proposed detection system is called Close-contact Neutron Emission Surface Mapping (CNESM). The diagnostic aims at providing the map of the neutron emission due to interaction of the deuterium beam with the deuterons implanted in the beam dump surface. This is done by placing a detector in close contact, right behind the dump. CNESM uses nGEM detectors, i.e. GEM detectors equipped with a cathode that also serves as neutron-proton converter foil. After the realization and test of several small area prototypes, a full size prototype has been realized and tested with laboratory sources. Test on neutron beams are foreseen for the next months.

  7. Methods and results for calibration and track separation of a GEM based TPC using an UV-laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Markus

    2008-12-15

    In the last 30 years high energy physics could write an impressive story of success. Since the introduction of the Standard Model (SM), it has met every experimental test. However the final confirmation has to prove the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, which could not be confirmed yet. The most favored theory, which includes the introduction of a Higgs field, could not be verified experimentally. Furthermore there is clear evidence, that the SM is only a low energy description of nature and its principles, as the SM describes only 4 % of the known matter in the universe. There are two different approaches in accelerator driven high energy physics to clarify the open questions. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have a good opportunity to measure some of the missing pieces with its high center of mass energy. The International Linear Collider (ILC) will then measure their parameters with high precision. To guarantee this high precision the detectors have to be able to identify every single particle and determine its properties with high accuracy. These high requirements to the single detectors as well as the interconnectivity between all detectors are summarised by the concept of particle flow (PFLOW). This means that all particles must be separable, which includes in particular the main tracking device. A possible candidate for the central tracking device is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC). In this work a TPC with Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) as gas amplification system was used. The GEMs replace the conventional wire amplification system of the TPC. In this PhD work a method to determine the drift velocity of a TPC was developed and tested using an ultraviolet laser. To ensure a high accuracy of the method all relevant gas parameters were measured with a slow control system. Furthermore the laser was used to investigate the separation capability of nearby tracks. Therefore an existing TPC prototype, which was developed to operate in a 5 T magnet facility

  8. The development and evaluation of mini-GEMs - short, focused, online e-learning videos in geriatric medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garside, Mark J; Fisher, James M; Blundell, Adrian G; Gordon, Adam L

    2016-04-06

    Mini Geriatric E-Learning Modules (Mini-GEMs) are short, focused, e-learning videos on geriatric medicine topics, hosted on YouTube, which are targeted at junior doctors working with older people. This study aimed to explore how these resources are accessed and used. The authors analyzed the viewing data from 22 videos published over the first 18 months of the Mini-GEM project. We conducted a focus group of U.K. junior doctors considering their experiences with Mini-GEMS. The Mini-GEMs were viewed 10,291 times over 18 months, equating to 38,435 minutes of total viewing time. The average viewing time for each video was 3.85 minutes. Learners valued the brevity and focused nature of the Mini-GEMs and reported that they watched them in a variety of settings to supplement clinical experiences and consolidate learning. Watching the videos led to an increase in self-reported confidence in managing older patients. Mini-GEMs can effectively disseminate clinical teaching material to a wide audience. The videos are valued by junior doctors due to their accessibility and ease of use.

  9. Data management and other logistical challenges for the GEMS: the data coordinating center perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kousick; Carty, Christina; Horney, Rebecca; Nasrin, Dilruba; Farag, Tamer H; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Myron M

    2012-12-01

    The Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center provided the data management, administrative, and statistical support to the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS). The GEMS study, the largest epidemiological study in the diarrheal disease area among children <5 years of age, was carried out in 4 African countries and 3 Asian countries. Given the geographical and geopolitical differences among the countries, the administration of a centralized data management operation was a major challenge. The sheer volume of the data that were collected, regular transfer of the data to a centralized database, and the cleaning of the same also posed some challenges. This paper outlines the details of the support that the data coordinating center provided and the challenges faced during the course of the study.

  10. Estimating the outer scale in altitude - L0(h) - using the GeMS profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesalaga, A.; Neichel, B.; Fusco, T.; Oberti, S.; Valenzuela, J.; Masciadri, E.; Correia, C.; Sauvage, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze the altitude distribution of the turbulence outer scale - L0(h) - at Cerro Pachon from Gemini South MCAO (GeMS) loop data. GeMS turbulence profiler is fed with telemetry from their 5 WFSs and from the voltages applied to the deformable mirrors, providing estimations of r0, Cn2(h), wind profile (speed and direction for every layer), isoplanatic angle and the outer scale distribution L0(h). It is shown that this last parameter ranges from less than 1 meter at the ground to more than 50m (the telescope is insensitive to larger cannot detect differences above this value). The technique is based on cross correlations of the pseudo-open-loop slopes that allow to disentangle the multiple constituents of L0.

  11. Effects of high count rates on the signals from GEM-based detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenning, Konstantin; Ketzer, Bernhard; Ball, Markus [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Lippmann, Christian [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Future upgrades of accelerator-based particle physics experiments aim at drastically increased event rates and challenge both detector and readout performance. At high count rates in particle detectors effects like signal pileup, baseline shift and fluctuations become important. Large size GEM detectors as envisaged e.g. for the ongoing ALICE TPC upgrade have the advantage of delivering a fast signal without ion tail in comparison to wire chambers but the large capacitive coupling between channels via the GEM electrode facing the readout pads leads to significant baseline shift and fluctuations (common mode effect). The poster is presenting the work on quantifying the common mode effect as a function of rate and the result of application of different filters in the digital data path. The results are needed for the design finalization of the read out electronics to be used at ALICE and other experiments.

  12. Development of GEM-based Read-Out Chambers for the upgrade of the ALICE TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasik, P.

    2014-04-01

    ALICE at the LHC at CERN is planning a major upgrade of the central barrel detectors, including the TPC, to cope with an increase of the LHC luminosity after 2018. A prototype of an ALICE TPC Inner Read-Out Chamber (IROC) was equipped with three large-size Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils as amplification stage to demonstrate the feasibility of replacing the current readout by Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) with such technology. The GEM IROC was installed within a test field cage with a drift length of 115 mm and commissioned with radioactive sources. The dE/dx resolution of the prototype was evaluated in a test beam campaign at the CERN PS and is comparable to the resolution of the MWPC IROC. Stability under LHC conditions was tested during the ALICE p-Pb beam time, when the prototype was mounted underneath LHC beam pipe, close to the interaction point.

  13. Optical readout of a triple-GEM detector by means of a CMOS sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafini, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); Patera, V. [INFN Sezione di Roma (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Pinci, D., E-mail: davide.pinci@roma1.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Roma (Italy); Sarti, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per Ingegneria, Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy); Sciubba, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per Ingegneria, Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy); Spiriti, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    In last years, the development of optical sensors has produced objects able to provide very interesting performance. Large granularity is offered along with a very high sensitivity. CMOS sensors with millions of pixels able to detect as few as two or three photons per pixel are commercially available and can be used to read-out the optical signals provided by tracking particle detectors. In this work the results obtained by optically reading-out a triple-GEM detector by a commercial CMOS sensor will be presented. A standard detector was assembled with a transparent window below the third GEM allowing the light to get out. The detector is supplied with an Ar/CF{sub 4} based gas mixture producing 650 nm wavelength photons matching the maximum quantum efficiency of the sensor.

  14. R\\&D results on a CsI-coated triple thick GEM-based photodetector

    CERN Document Server

    Martinengo, P; Paic, G; Paras, D M; Di Mauro, A; van Hoorne, J; Molnar, L; Peskov, V; Breskin, A

    2011-01-01

    The very high momentum particle identification detector proposed for the ALICE upgrade is a focusing RICH using a C(4)F(10) gaseous radiator. For the detection of Cherenkov photons, one of the options currently under investigation is to use a CsI-coated triple thick GEM with metallic or resistive electrodes. We will present results from the laboratory studies as well as preliminary results of beam tests of a RICH detector prototype consisting of a CaF(2) radiator coupled to a 10 x 10 cm(2) CsI-coated triple thick GEM equipped with a pad readout and GASSIPLEX-based front-end electronics. With such a prototype the detection of Cherenkov photons simultaneously with minimum ionizing particles has been achieved for the first time in a stable operation mode. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Data Management and Other Logistical Challenges for the GEMS: The Data Coordinating Center Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kousick; Carty, Christina; Horney, Rebecca; Nasrin, Dilruba; Farag, Tamer H.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.

    2012-01-01

    The Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center provided the data management, administrative, and statistical support to the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS). The GEMS study, the largest epidemiological study in the diarrheal disease area among children <5 years of age, was carried out in 4 African countries and 3 Asian countries. Given the geographical and geopolitical differences among the countries, the administration of a centralized data management operation was a major challenge. The sheer volume of the data that were collected, regular transfer of the data to a centralized database, and the cleaning of the same also posed some challenges. This paper outlines the details of the support that the data coordinating center provided and the challenges faced during the course of the study. PMID:23169938

  16. Report from the II Melanoma Translational Meeting of the Spanish Melanoma Group (GEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, Alfonso; Puig, Susana; Karachaliou, Niki; De Matos-Arruda, Leticia; Seoane, Joan; Escors, David; Alvarez, Carmen; Vaque, Jose Pedro; Prat, Aleix; Wellbrock, Claudia; Arozarena, Imanol; Marquez-Rodas, Ivan; Espinosa, Enrique; Molina, Migue Angel; Puertolas, Teresa; Juan-Otero, Manuel; Malagrida, Rosina; Jantus-Lewintre, Eloisa; Soriano, Virtudes; Arance, Ana; Manzano, Jose Luis; Lorigan, Paul; Gajewski, Thomas F.; Rosell, Rafael; Martin-Algarra, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    The II Melanoma Translational Meeting of the Spanish Melanoma Group (GEM) was held in Barcelona, Spain, at the Hospital Universitari Quiron-Dexeus on November 3rd, 2016. The conference featured leaders in the fields of oncology, immunology and dermatology, all working at both national and international levels on basic research with direct applications to the clinical setting. The objective was to present cutting edge research on melanoma, mainly from Spanish research groups, but also from some international groups, with the aim of generating a network for future national and international collaborations. During a single day, fifteen speakers, seven biologists and eight clinicians, with a special focus on translational research, outlined the main findings of their ongoing studies. The moderators in every session were recognized GEM oncologists who guided discussion from the clinical point of view regarding the preclinical data presented. Herein, we summarize the main topics discussed during the meeting.

  17. First measurements with new high-resolution gadolinium-GEM neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Birch, Jens; Etxegarai, Maddi; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Höglund, Carina; Hultman, Lars; Llamas-Jansa, Isabel; Oliveri, Eraldo; Oksanen, Esko; Robinson, Linda; Ropelewski, Leszek; Schmidt, Susann; Streli, Christina; Thuiner, Patrik

    2016-05-17

    European Spallation Source instruments like the macromolecular diffractometer, NMX, require an excellent neutron detection efficiency, high-rate capabilities, time resolution, and an unprecedented spatial resolution in the order of a few hundred micrometers over a wide angular range of the incoming neutrons. For these instruments solid converters in combination with Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) are a promising option. A GEM detector with gadolinium converter was tested on a cold neutron beam at the IFE research reactor in Norway. The {\\mu}TPC analysis, proven to improve the spatial resolution in the case of $^{10}$B converters, is extended to gadolinium based detectors. For the first time, a Gd-GEM was successfully operated to detect neutrons with an estimated efficiency of 10% at a wavelength of 2 {\\AA} and a position resolution better than 350 {\\mu}m.

  18. Study of GEM-like detectors with resistive electrodes for RICH applications

    CERN Document Server

    Agocs, A G; David, A Ben; Clark, B; Martinengo, P; Nappi, E; Peskov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    We have developed prototypes of GEM-like detectors with resistive electrodes to be used as RICH photodetectors equipped with CsI photocathodes. The main advantages of these detectors are their intrinsic spark protection and possibility to operate at high gain (~10E5) in many gases including poorly quenched ones, allowing for the adoption of windowless configurations in which the radiator gas is also used in the chamber. Results of systematic studies of the resistive GEMs combined with CsI photocathodes are presented: its quantum efficiency, rate characteristics, long-term stability, etc. On the basis of the obtained results, we believe that the new detector will be a promising candidate for upgrading the ALICE RICH detector

  19. Commissioning and integration testing of the DAQ system for the CMS GEM upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin

    2017-01-01

    The CMS muon system will undergo a series of upgrades in the coming years to preserve and extend its muon detection capabilities during the High Luminosity LHC.The first of these will be the installation of triple-foil GEM detectors in the CMS forward region with the goal of maintaining trigger rates and preserving good muon reconstruction, even in the expected harsh environment.In 2017 the CMS GEM project is looking to achieve a major milestone in the project with the installation of 5 super-chambers in CMS; this exercise will allow for the study of services installation and commissioning, and integration with the rest of the subsystems for the first time. An overview of the DAQ system will be given with emphasis on the usage during chamber quality control testing, commissioning in CMS, and integration with the central CMS system.

  20. Performance of the full size nGEM detector for the SPIDER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraro, A., E-mail: muraro@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola” – CNR, Milan (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Croci, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola” – CNR, Milan (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Sez. INFN Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Albani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Claps, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati – INFN, Frascati (Italy); Cavenago, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro – INFN, Legnaro (Italy); Cazzaniga, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Dalla Palma, M. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Grosso, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola” – CNR, Milan (Italy); Murtas, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati – INFN, Frascati (Italy); Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Perelli Cippo, E. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola” – CNR, Milan (Italy); Rebai, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Tardocchi, M.; Tollin, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola” – CNR, Milan (Italy); Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Sez. INFN Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2016-03-21

    The ITER neutral beam test facility under construction in Padova will host two experimental devices: SPIDER, a 100 kV negative H/D RF beam source, and MITICA, a full scale, 1 MeV deuterium beam injector. SPIDER will start operations in 2016 while MITICA is expected to start during 2019. Both devices feature a beam dump used to stop the produced deuteron beam. Detection of fusion neutrons produced between beam-deuterons and dump-implanted deuterons will be used as a means to resolve the horizontal beam intensity profile. The neutron detection system will be placed right behind the beam dump, as close to the neutron emitting surface as possible thus providing the map of the neutron emission on the beam dump surface. The system uses nGEM neutron detectors. These are Gas Electron Multiplier detectors equipped with a cathode that also serves as neutron–proton converter foil. The cathode is designed to ensure that most of the detected neutrons at a point of the nGEM surface are emitted from the corresponding beamlet footprint (with dimensions of about 40×22 mm{sup 2}) on the dump front surface. The size of the nGEM detector for SPIDER is 352 mm×200 mm. Several smaller size prototypes have been successfully made in the last years and the experience gained on these detectors has led to the production of the full size detector for SPIDER during 2014. This nGEM has a read-out board made of 256 pads (arranged in a 16×16 matrix) each with a dimension of 22 mm×13 mm. This paper describes the production of this detector and its tests (in terms of beam profile reconstruction capability, uniformity over the active area, gamma rejection capability and time stability) performed on the ROTAX beam-line at the ISIS spallation source (Didcot-UK).

  1. Modelling the effects of gravity waves in the GEM-Mars GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, L.; Daerden, F.; Viscardy, S.

    2017-09-01

    Parameterizations for orographic and non-orographic gravity waves are included in the GEM-Mars general circulation model (GCM) for low-resolution simulations. The impacts of these parameterizations on the temperature and winds in the upper atmosphere are examined and sensitivity studies are discussed. Initial tests indicate that the largest effects of the gravity wave parameterizations on temperature occur during the solstice periods in the upper atmosphere of the winter polar regions, improving the agreement with observations.

  2. Optically read out GEM-based TPC operation and preliminary scintillation studies

    CERN Document Server

    Galgoczi, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this project was to realise the reconstruction of tracks in an optically read out GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) based Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Secondary goal was to initialise a series of systematic studies on the scintillation of particles in Ar/CF4 (80-20%) mixture. Track reconstruction is needed for primary scintillation studies as only tracks fully contained can be considered. A vetoing and trigerring logic was built for the TPC from NIM modules.

  3. Construction, test and commissioning of the triple-GEM tracking detector for COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Altunbas, M C; Dehmelt, K; Ehlers, J; Konorov, I; Gandi, A; Kappler, S; Ketzer, B; De Oliveira, R; Paul, S; Placci, Alfredo; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Simon, F; Van Stenis, M

    2002-01-01

    The Small Area Tracking system of the COMPASS experiment at CERN includes a set of 20 large area, fast position-sensitive Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, designed to reliably operate in the harsh radiation environment of the experiment. We describe in detail the design, choice of materials, assembly procedures and quality controls used to manufacture the devices. The test procedure in the laboratory, the performance in test beams and in the initial commissioning phase in the experiment are presented and discussed.

  4. Performance of the full size nGEM detector for the SPIDER experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, A.; Croci, G.; Albani, G.; Claps, G.; Cavenago, M.; Cazzaniga, C.; Dalla Palma, M.; Grosso, G.; Murtas, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Rebai, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Tollin, M.; Gorini, G.

    2016-03-01

    The ITER neutral beam test facility under construction in Padova will host two experimental devices: SPIDER, a 100 kV negative H/D RF beam source, and MITICA, a full scale, 1 MeV deuterium beam injector. SPIDER will start operations in 2016 while MITICA is expected to start during 2019. Both devices feature a beam dump used to stop the produced deuteron beam. Detection of fusion neutrons produced between beam-deuterons and dump-implanted deuterons will be used as a means to resolve the horizontal beam intensity profile. The neutron detection system will be placed right behind the beam dump, as close to the neutron emitting surface as possible thus providing the map of the neutron emission on the beam dump surface. The system uses nGEM neutron detectors. These are Gas Electron Multiplier detectors equipped with a cathode that also serves as neutron-proton converter foil. The cathode is designed to ensure that most of the detected neutrons at a point of the nGEM surface are emitted from the corresponding beamlet footprint (with dimensions of about 40×22 mm2) on the dump front surface. The size of the nGEM detector for SPIDER is 352 mm×200 mm. Several smaller size prototypes have been successfully made in the last years and the experience gained on these detectors has led to the production of the full size detector for SPIDER during 2014. This nGEM has a read-out board made of 256 pads (arranged in a 16×16 matrix) each with a dimension of 22 mm×13 mm. This paper describes the production of this detector and its tests (in terms of beam profile reconstruction capability, uniformity over the active area, gamma rejection capability and time stability) performed on the ROTAX beam-line at the ISIS spallation source (Didcot-UK).

  5. Fast data transmission from serial data acquisition for the GEM detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, Piotr; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Czarski, Tomasz; Byszuk, Adrian; Chernyshova, Maryna; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Krawczyk, Rafal D.; Wojenski, Andrzej; Zabolotny, Wojciech

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes new method of storing data and transferring it to PC in the X-ray GEM detector system. The whole process is performed by FPGA chips (Spartan-6 series from Xilinx). Comparing to previous methods, new approach allows to store much more data in the system. New, improved implementation of the communication algorithm significantly increases transfer rate between system and PC. In PC data is merged and processed by MATLAB. The structure of firmware implemented in the FPGAs is described.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of hydroxylactone obtained by biotransformation of bromo- and iodolactone with gem-dimethylcyclohexane ring

    OpenAIRE

    Grabarczyk,Malgorzata; Mączka,Wanda; Wińska,Katarzyna; Żarowska,Barbara; Anioł,Mirosław

    2013-01-01

    Two bicyclic lactones with gem-dimethylcyclohexane rings (δ-bromo-γ-lactone and δ-iodo-γ-lactone) were used as substrates for biotransformation by whole cells of several fungal strains (five cepas Fusarium, Nigrospora oryzae, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Stemphylium botryosum, Cunninghamella japonica and Acremonium sp). Some of the selected microorganisms (mainly Fusarium strains) transformed these lactones by hydrolytic dehalogenation into cis-(-)-2-hydroxy-4,4-dimethyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nona...

  7. Synthesis of fluorinated δ-lactams via cycloisomerization of gem-difluoropropargyl amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Arimitsu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available gem-Difluoro-1,7-enyne amides are suitable building blocks for the synthesis of difluorodihydropyridinones via a ring-closing metathesis reaction, and of 4,4-difluoro-3-oxoisoquinolines through a ring-closing metathesis–enyne metathesis tandem reaction. These products, in turn, undergo a Diels–Alder reaction to yield heterotricyclic systems in moderate to good yields.

  8. GEM detector performance with innovative micro-TPC readout in high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzia, I.; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bianchi, F.; Calcaterra, A.; Canale, N.; Capodiferro, M.; Cassariti, V.; Cerioni, S.; Chai, J. Y.; Chiozzi, S.; Cibinetto, G.; Cossio, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Dong, J.; Evangelisti, F.; Evangelisti, F.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Felici, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Gatta, M.; Greco, M.; Lavezzi, L.; Leng, C. Y.; Li, H.; Maggiora, M.; Malaguti, R.; Marcello, S.; Melchiorri, M.; Mezzadri, G.; Mignone, M.; Morello, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pellegrino, J.; Pelosi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Savrié, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Soldani, E.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Tskhadadze, E.; Verma, S.; Wheadon, R.; Yan, L.

    2018-01-01

    Gas detector development is one of the pillars of the research in fundamental physics. Since several years, a new concept of detectors, called Micro Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD), allowed to overcome several problems related to other types of commonly used detectors, like drift chamber and micro strips detectors, reducing the rate of discharges and providing better radiation tolerance. Among the most used MPGDs are the Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). Invented by Sauli in 1997, nowadays GEMs have become an important reality for particle detectors in high energy physics. Commonly deployed as fast timing detectors and triggers, their fast response, high rate capability and high radiation hardness make them also suitable as tracking detectors. The readout scheme is one of the most important features in tracking technology. Analog readout based on the calculation of the center of gravity technique allows to overcome the limit imposed by digital pads, whose spatial resolution is limited by the pitch dimensions. However, the presence of high external magnetic fields can distort the electronic cloud and affect the performance. The development of the micro-TPC reconstruction method brings GEM detectors into a new prospective, improving significantly the spatial resolutionin presence of high magnetic fields. This innovative technique allows to reconstruct the 3-dimensional particle position, as Time Projection Chamber, but within a drift gap of a few millimeters. In these report, the charge centroid and micro-TPC methods are described in details. We discuss the results of several test beams performed with planar chambers in magnetic field. These results are one of the first developments of micro-TPC technique for GEM detectors, which allows to reach unprecedented performance in a high magnetic field of 1 T.

  9. The Triple-GEM Project for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the CMS Muon System

    CERN Document Server

    Tytgat, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In view of the high-luminosity phase of the LHC, the CMS Collaboration is considering the use of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector technology for the upgrade of its muon system in the forward region. With their ability to handle the extreme particle rates expected in that area, such micro-pattern gas detectors can sustain a high performance and redundant muon trigger system. At the same time, with their excellent spatial resolution, they can improve the muon track reconstruction and identification capabilities of the forward detector, effectively combining tracking and triggering functions in one single device. The present status of the CMS GEM project will be reviewed, highlighting importants steps and achievements since the start of the R and D activities in 2009. The baseline design of the triple-GEM detectors proposed for installation in different stations of the CMS muon endcap system will be described, along with the associated frontend electronics and data-acquisition system. The expected impact o...

  10. A simulation study on angular and micro pattern effects in GEM detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H G; Jamil, M; Rhee, J T; Ahmad, Farzana; Jeon, Y J

    2016-04-01

    A useful approach for the enhancement of thermal neutrons detection has been reported here. This technique, based on the angular and micro pattern effects, has been developed and applied to the boron-coated ((10)B) Gas Electron multiplier (GEM) detector. In the angular effect case, as a general rule, the detector device is turned at an angle which improves the device response per unit area of the detector. While for the latter case, a regular pattern in the form of micrometer deep grooves is fabricated onto the converter coating, consequently it enhances the capture probability of the detector. For the current study, both of these techniques using a (10)B-coated GEM detector have been simulated for low energy neutrons. For the evaluation of detector response thermal neutrons in the energy ranges from 25meV to 100meV were transported onto the detector surface. For this work, FLUKA MC code has been utilized. The output in both cases has been estimated as a function of incident thermal neutron energies. By employing both techniques, the angle and the micro pattern dependent efficiencies for (10)B-coated GEM detectors are presented, which indicate an improved efficiency response of the device. We anticipate that by using these modifications can lead a further forward step in the development and improvement of thermal neutron detection technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of space-charge dependence on IBF for GEM and Micromegas detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Kentaro; Hamagaki, Hideki; Gunji, Taku; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Terasaki, Kohei

    2014-09-01

    The MWPC is widely used in a Time Projection Chamber (TPC). To prevent ions created around amplification region from back drifting into the drift space, gating grid system is widely used in the TPC. However, the data taking rate is limited by the operation of the gating grid and the TPC with gating grid system cannot be suitable for the high rate experiments. Micor-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) are the possible solutions to overcome the high rate limitations. GEM and Micromegas can absorb positive ions on its electrode or mesh and can reduce the ion backflow into the drift space. In this study, we aim to evaluate performance of ion back flow suppression of GEM and Micromegas detector as a function of space-charge density. We also did the simulation studies using Garfield + + to assess the reproducibility of the space-charge density dependence of the ion back flow obtained in the measurement. In this talk, we will report the overall performances (space-charge density and field dependences of the ion backflow) of GEM and micromegas detectors studied in the measurements and simulations.

  12. The HadGEM2-ES implementation of CMIP5 centennial simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Jones

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The scientific understanding of the Earth's climate system, including the central question of how the climate system is likely to respond to human-induced perturbations, is comprehensively captured in GCMs and Earth System Models (ESM. Diagnosing the simulated climate response, and comparing responses across different models, is crucially dependent on transparent assumptions of how the GCM/ESM has been driven – especially because the implementation can involve subjective decisions and may differ between modelling groups performing the same experiment. This paper outlines the climate forcings and setup of the Met Office Hadley Centre ESM, HadGEM2-ES for the CMIP5 set of centennial experiments. We document the prescribed greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol precursors, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone assumptions, as well as implementation of land-use change and natural forcings for the HadGEM2-ES historical and future experiments following the Representative Concentration Pathways. In addition, we provide details of how HadGEM2-ES ensemble members were initialised from the control run and how the palaeoclimate and AMIP experiments, as well as the "emission-driven" RCP experiments were performed.

  13. Impact of aviation emissions on the Arctic environment - GEM-AC model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, J. W.; Porebska, M.; Semeniuk, K.; Lupu, A.

    2013-12-01

    The continuing decrease of ice cover over the Artic allows for the increase in shipping and industrial activities in the region. These activities lead to the increase of anthropogenic emissions from shipping, prospecting, exploration, and smelting. Emissions from shipping are dominant and their magnitude and impact on the Arctic environment have been addressed in recent publications. The objective of this study is investigate the impact of the increased demand for commercial aviation transport to the Arctic on the air quality near the ground as well as the impact of aviation emissions injected at cruise altitudes (9-11 km ) which in many cases will be above the tropopause. We will present results from the GEM-AC model simulations for several aviation emissions scenarios. GEM-AC (Global Environmental Multiscale model for Atmospheric Chemistry) is a chemical weather model based on the GEM model developed by the Meteorological Service of Canada for operational weather forecasting where air quality, free tropospheric, and stratospheric chemistry process are on-line and interactive. In vertical, the model domain is defined on hybrid levels from the surface to ~60km. The gas-phase chemistry includes detailed reactions of Ox, NOx, HOx, CO, CH4, NMVOCs, halocarbons, ClOx and BrO. Also, the model can address aerosol microphysics and gas-aerosol partitioning. The model will be run on a global variable grid with ~30 km uniform horizontal resolution over the Arctic.

  14. A fast multi-GEM-based detector for high-rate charged-particle triggering

    CERN Document Server

    Bencivenni, G; Cardini, A; Deplano, C; De Simone, P; Felici, G; Marras, D; Murtas, F; Pinci, D; Poli-Lener, M; Raspino, D

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, results of a time performance study of gas electron multiplier (GEM)-based detectors are discussed. This study was driven by an R & D activity on detectors for the Level 0 LHCb muon trigger. Results presented in this paper are of more general interest, i.e., for experiments in which high-rate charged-particle triggering is needed. Little interest was given so far to time performance of GEM- based detectors, with the exception of one paper reporting the measurement of a double-GEM detector time resolution with an Ar/CO//2 (70/30) gas mixture where the authors quoted a time resolution such that high-efficiency muon triggering at LHCb would be impossible. The results reported here, obtained with the addition of CF//4 and isobutane to the Ar/CO//2 standard mixture, considerably improve the time performance discussed in the above-mentioned paper, allowing one to reach a time distribution root mean square of 5 ns with an isobutane-based mixture. In these conditions, a spark probability per incomi...

  15. A TPC-like readout method for high precision muon-tracking using GEM-detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flierl, Bernhard; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Hertenberger, Ralf; Klitzner, Felix; Loesel, Philipp; Mueller, Ralph [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Zibell, Andre [Julius-Maximilians-Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors are well suited for tracking of charged particles. Three dimensional tracking in a single layer can be achieved by application of a time-projection-chamber like readout mode (μTPC), if the drift time of the electrons is measured and the position dependence of the arrival time is used to calculate the inclination angle of the track. To optimize the tracking capabilities for ion tracks drift gas mixtures with low drift velocity have been investigated by measuring tracks of cosmic muons in a compact setup of four GEM-detectors of 100 x 100 x 6 mm{sup 3} active volume each and an angular acceptance of -25 to 25 . The setup consists of three detectors with two-dimensional strip readout layers of 0.4 mm pitch and one detector with a single strip readout layer of 0.25 mm pitch. All strips are readout by APV25 frontend boards and the amplification stage in the detectors consists of three GEM-foils. Tracks are reconstructed by the μTPC-method in one of the detectors and are then compared to the prediction from the other three detectors defined by the center of charge in every detector. We report our study of Argon and Helium based noble gas mixtures with carbon-dioxide as quencher.

  16. Performance Verification of the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer GEMS X-Ray Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Black, J. Kevin; Kitaguchi, Takao; Hayato, Asami; Hill, Joanne E.; Jahoda, Keith; Tamagawa, Toru; Kanako, Kenta; Takeuchi, Yoko; Yoshikawa, Akifumi; hide

    2014-01-01

    olarimetry is a powerful tool for astrophysical observations that has yet to be exploited in the X-ray band. For satellite-borne and sounding rocket experiments, we have developed a photoelectric gas polarimeter to measure X-ray polarization in the 2-10 keV range utilizing a time projection chamber (TPC) and advanced micro-pattern gas electron multiplier (GEM) techniques. We carried out performance verification of a flight equivalent unit (1/4 model) which was planned to be launched on the NASA Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) satellite. The test was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) facility in April 2013. The polarimeter was irradiated with linearly-polarized monochromatic X-rays between 2.3 and 10.0 keV and scanned with a collimated beam at 5 different detector positions. After a systematic investigation of the detector response, a modulation factor greater than or equal to 35% above 4 keV was obtained with the expected polarization angle. At energies below 4 keV where the photoelectron track becomes short, diffusion in the region between the GEM and readout strips leaves an asymmetric photoelectron image. A correction method retrieves an expected modulation angle, and the expected modulation factor, approximately 20% at 2.7 keV. Folding the measured values of modulation through an instrument model gives sensitivity, parameterized by minimum detectable polarization (MDP), nearly identical to that assumed at the preliminary design review (PDR).

  17. Synthetic SXR diagnostic using GEM detectors on WEST: development in the prospect of tungsten monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Jardin, A; O'Mullane, M; Chernyshova, M; Czarski, T; Malinowski, K; Kasprowicz, G; Wojenski, A; Pozniak, K; Malard, P; Bourdelle, C

    2016-01-01

    WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady-State Tokamak) will be operating by the end of 2016 as a test bed for the ITER divertor components in long pulse operation. In this context, radiative cooling of highly ionized impurities like tungsten (W) sputtered from Plasma Facing Components (PFC) into the plasma core is a critical issue since even small impurity concentrations below 10-4 degrade significantly plasma performances and can lead to radiative collapse. In the plasma core, tungsten emission is dominant in the Soft X-ray (SXR) range 0.1 keV -- 15 keV with complex contributions from line transition, radiative recombination and Bremsstrahlung emission.This paper presents the recent development of a synthetic SXR diagnostic using GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detectors. This diagnostic will be used on WEST for W transport studies and will be equipped with two new GEM based poloidal cameras allowing 2D tomographic reconstructions with spectral resolution in energy bands. Thus once GEM response to plasma emissivi...

  18. Performance of a Large-Area Triple-GEM Detector in a Particle Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Karchin, Paul E

    2012-01-01

    A multi-institutional collaboration is investigating the possibility of enhancing muon tracking and triggering capabilities in the small-angle region $1.6 < \\rm{abs}(\\eta) < 2.1$ of the CMS experiment at the LHC by instrumenting the end-cap muon system with large-area gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors. A first trapezoidal prototype triple-GEM detector of size 1 m by 0.5 m was built and operated successfully in a test beam at CERN in October 2010. Front-end readout boards utilizing the ``VFAT" chip are mounted in a regular array directly on the chambers. High voltage is provided by a compact divider board implemented with surface mount components. A tracker equipped with small GEM detectors was used to precisely measure the hit position in the large-area detector. A spatial resolution of 0.29 mm was measured in a region with average strip pitch of 1.1 mm, and $\\sim$98\\% hit efficiency was achieved at full operating voltage. An additional prototype chamber is constructed and will undergo beam tests...

  19. Unusual ruby-sapphire transition in alluvial megacrysts, Cenozoic basaltic gem field, New England, New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Frederick L.; Graham, Ian T.; Harris, Stephen J.; Coldham, Terry; Powell, William; Belousova, Elena A.; Martin, Laure

    2017-05-01

    Rare ruby crystals appear among prevailing sapphire crystals mined from placers within basaltic areas in the New England gem-field, New South Wales, Australia. New England ruby (NER) has distinctive trace element features compared to those from ruby elsewhere in Australia and indeed most ruby from across the world. The NER suite includes ruby (up to 3370 ppm Cr), pink sapphire (up to 1520 ppm Cr), white sapphire (up to 910 ppm) and violet, mauve, purple, or bluish sapphire (up to 1410 ppm Cr). Some crystals show outward growth banding in this respective colour sequence. All four colour zones are notably high in Ga (up to 310 ppm) and Si (up to 1820 ppm). High Ga and Ga/Mg values are unusual in ruby and its trace element plots (laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) and suggests that magmatic-metasomatic inputs were involved in the NER suite genesis. In situ oxygen isotope analyses (secondary ion mass spectrometry) across the NER suite colour range showed little variation (n = 22; δ18O = 4.4 ± 0.4, 2σ error), and are values typical for corundum associated with ultramafic/mafic rocks. The isolated NER xenocryst suite, corroded by basalt transport and with few internal inclusions, presents a challenge in deciphering its exact origin. Detailed consideration of its high Ga chemistry in relation to the known geology of the surrounding region was used to narrow down potential sources. These include Late Palaeozoic-Triassic fractionated I-type granitoid magmas or Mesozoic-Cenozoic felsic fractionates from basaltic magmas that interacted with early Palaeozoic Cr-bearing ophiolite bodies in the New England Orogen. Other potential sources may lie deeper within lower crust-mantle metamorphic assemblages, but need to match the anomalous high-Ga geochemistry of the New England ruby suite.

  20. Sub-Nanogram Detection of RDX Explosive by Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaeto, David O; Hutchinson, Alistair P; Nicklin, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised to protein carrier molecules haptenized with RDX, a major component of many plastic explosives including Semtex. Sera from immunized mice detected RDX protein conjugates in standard ELISA. Clonally purified monoclonal antibodies had detection limits in the sub-ng/mL range for underivatized RDX in competition ELISA. The monoclonal antibodies are not dependent on the presence of taggants added during the manufacturing process, and are likely to have utility in the detection of any explosive containing RDX, or RDX contamination of environmental sites.

  1. GEM-E3: A computable general equilibrium model applied for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Frei, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Paul Scherrer Inst. (Switzerland)

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the European Research Project GEM-E3-ELITE, funded by the European Commission and coordinated by the Centre for European Economic Research (Germany), were to further develop the general equilibrium model GEM-E3 (Capros et al., 1995, 1997) and to conduct policy analysis through case studies. GEM-E3 is an applied general equilibrium model that analyses the macro-economy and its interaction with the energy system and the environment through the balancing of energy supply and demand, atmospheric emissions and pollution control, together with the fulfillment of overall equilibrium conditions. PSI's research objectives within GEM-E3-ELITE were to implement and apply GEM-E3 for Switzerland. The first objective required in particular the development of a Swiss database for each of GEM-E3 modules (economic module and environmental module). For the second objective, strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated for Switzerland. In order to develop the economic, PSI collaborated with the Laboratory of Applied Economics (LEA) of the University of Geneva and the Laboratory of Energy Systems (LASEN) of the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). The Swiss Federal Statistical Office (SFSO) and the Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) contributed also data. The Swiss environmental database consists mainly of an Energy Balance Table and of an Emission Coefficients Table. Both were designed using national and international official statistics. The Emission Coefficients Table is furthermore based on know-how of the PSI GaBE Project. Using GEM-E3 Switzerland, two strategies to reduce the Swiss CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated: a carbon tax ('tax only' strategy), and the combination of a carbon tax with the buying of CO{sub 2} emission permits ('permits and tax' strategy). In the first strategy, Switzerland would impose the necessary carbon tax to achieve

  2. Precision meson spectroscopy. Diffractive production at COMPASS and development of a GEM-based TPC for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, Quirin

    2008-09-24

    Meson spectroscopy is a unique way to access Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and learn about its properties. Due to the non-Abelian structure, QCD predicts new states of matter with gluonic degrees of freedom. In particular q anti qg hybrids, which can have spin-exotic quantum numbers forbidden for conventional q anti q mesons, are expected to exist. Such states were searched for in the past, mostly in the light-quark sector. However, the experimental situation is still ambiguous and needs to be clarified. Further insights will certainly also come from the heavy-quark spectroscopy. Several new charmonium-like resonances were for example discovered during the last years, which have to be studied in more detail by future experiments to reveal their nature. Diffractive dissociation reactions at COMPASS provide clean access to meson resonances with masses below 2.5 GeV/c{sup 2}. During a pilot run in 2004 using pion beams on lead targets, a competitive number of {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} final state events were recorded within a few days of data taking. A full partial wave analysis (PWA) of these data has been performed for this dissertation, concentrating on the kinematic domain of large momentum transfer (t' element of [0.1, 1.0] GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}). While well-known mesons are resolved with high quality, also a strong signal consistent with the much disputed hybrid candidate {pi}{sub 1}(1600) is observed in the spin-exotic J{sup PC} = 1{sup -+} partial wave. A Breit-Wigner parameterization yields a mass and width of 1.660{sup +0.010}{sub -0.074} and 0.269{sup +0.063}{sub -0.085} GeV/c{sup 2}, respectively. In addition, a first PWA of events with small momentum transfer (t' element of [10{sup -3},10{sup -2}] GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}) has been carried out, yielding several high-mass radial-excitation states. In the future, the PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility will perform highprecision spectroscopy in the charm-sector employing anti pp annihilations

  3. The Mitochondrial GTPase Gem1 Contributes to the Cell Wall Stress Response and Invasive Growth of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Koch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of mitochondria with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER are crucial for maintaining proper mitochondrial morphology, function and dynamics. This enables cells to utilize their mitochondria optimally for energy production and anabolism, and it further provides for metabolic control over developmental decisions. In fungi, a key mechanism by which ER and mitochondria interact is via a membrane tether, the protein complex ERMES (ER-Mitochondria Encounter Structure. In the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mitochondrial GTPase Gem1 interacts with ERMES, and it has been proposed to regulate its activity. Here we report on the first characterization of Gem1 in a human fungal pathogen. We show that in Candida albicans Gem1 has a dominant role in ensuring proper mitochondrial morphology, and our data is consistent with Gem1 working with ERMES in this role. Mitochondrial respiration and steady state cellular phospholipid homeostasis are not impacted by inactivation of GEM1 in C. albicans. There are two major virulence-related consequences of disrupting mitochondrial morphology by GEM1 inactivation: C. albicans becomes hypersusceptible to cell wall stress, and is unable to grow invasively. In the gem1Δ/Δ mutant, it is specifically the invasive capacity of hyphae that is compromised, not the ability to transition from yeast to hyphal morphology, and this phenotype is shared with ERMES mutants. As a consequence of the hyphal invasion defect, the gem1Δ/Δ mutant is drastically hypovirulent in the worm infection model. Activation of the mitogen activated protein (MAP kinase Cek1 is reduced in the gem1Δ/Δ mutant, and this function could explain both the susceptibility to cell wall stress and lack of invasive growth. This result establishes a new, respiration-independent mechanism of mitochondrial control over stress signaling and hyphal functions in C. albicans. We propose that ER-mitochondria interactions and the ER

  4. Pulse height distribution of signals produced by exposing a thin GEM chamber to beta rays from an Sr-90 source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, B. J.; Ha, Y. J.; Hahn, C. H. [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, S. T. [University of Texas at Arlington, Texas (United States); Yi, C. Y. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, R. [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Researchers at Changwon National University's Radiation Detector Development Laboratory(RDD) fabricated a single-channel double-GEM (gas electron multiplier) chamber and measured the pulse height distribution of signals produced by exposing the chamber to an Sr-90 source provided by the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science(KRISS). A beta-ray electron incident on the GEM chamber ionizes gaseous molecules in the drift region of the chamber by means of electromagnetic interactions. After the leased electrons are amplified by electron avalanches in the GEM stages, the multiplied electrons go from the lowest GEM foil toward the anode of the chamber and induce one signal pulse, corresponding to the incident electron, on the readout pad. The charge signal distribution measured during Sr-90 radioactive source irradiation was compared with the simulation done by using a Landau probability distribution. The energy loss distribution of beta-ray electrons, which deposited part of their energy in a thin GEM chamber while traversing gases within the drift region of that chamber, was in good agreement with the calculation of the Landau probability distribution. The pulse height distributions for energy losses of beta-ray electrons incident on the chamber due to Sr-90 disintegrations were observed in order to select a suitable gas mixture for the chamber. The ratios of the Ar/CO{sub 2} gas were 75/25, 80/20, 85/15, and 90/10.

  5. Ambient water quality in aquifers used for drinking-water supplies, Gem County, southwestern Idaho, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Hopkins, Candice B.

    2016-12-20

    In recent years, the rapid population growth in Gem County, Idaho, has been similar to other counties in southwestern Idaho, increasing about 54 percent from 1990 to 2015. Because the entire population of the study area depends on groundwater for drinking water supply (either from self-supplied domestic, community, or municipal-supply wells), this population growth, along with changes in land use (including potential petroleum exploration and development), indicated to the public and local officials the need to assess the quality of groundwater used for human consumption. To this end, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gem County and the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, assessed the quality of groundwater from freshwater aquifers used for domestic supply in Gem County. A total of 47 domestic or municipal wells, 1 spring, and 2 surface-water sites on the Payette River were sampled during September 8–November 19, 2015. The sampled water was analyzed for a variety of constituents, including major ions, trace elements, nutrients, bacteria, radionuclides, dissolved gasses, stable isotopes of water and methane, and either volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or pesticides.To better understand analytical results, a conceptual hydrogeologic framework was developed in which three hydrogeologic units were described: Quaternary-Tertiary deposits (QTd), Tertiary Idaho Group rocks (Tig), and Tertiary-Cretaceous igneous rocks (TKi). Water levels were measured in 30 wells during sampling, and a groundwater-level altitude map was constructed for the QTd and Tig units showing groundwater flow toward the Emmett Valley and Payette River.Analytical results indicate that groundwater in Gem County is generally of good quality. Samples collected from two wells contained water with fluoride concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 4 milligrams per liter (mg/L), six wells contained arsenic at

  6. Application of GEM-based detectors in full-field XRF imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, W.; Fiutowski, T.; Frączek, P.; Koperny, S.; Lankosz, M.; Mendys, A.; Mindur, B.; Świentek, K.; Wiącek, P.; Wróbel, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) is a commonly used technique for non-destructive elemental analysis of cultural heritage objects. It can be applied to investigations of provenance of historical objects as well as to studies of art techniques. While the XRF analysis can be easily performed locally using standard available equipment there is a growing interest in imaging of spatial distribution of specific elements. Spatial imaging of elemental distrbutions is usually realised by scanning an object with a narrow focused X-ray excitation beam and measuring characteristic fluorescence radiation using a high energy resolution detector, usually a silicon drift detector. Such a technique, called macro-XRF imaging, is suitable for investigation of flat surfaces but it is time consuming because the spatial resolution is basically determined by the spot size of the beam. Another approach is the full-field XRF, which is based on simultaneous irradiation and imaging of large area of an object. The image of the investigated area is projected by a pinhole camera on a position-sensitive and energy dispersive detector. The infinite depth of field of the pinhole camera allows one, in principle, investigation of non-flat surfaces. One of possible detectors to be employed in full-field XRF imaging is a GEM based detector with 2-dimensional readout. In the paper we report on development of an imaging system equipped with a standard 3-stage GEM detector of 10 × 10 cm2 equipped with readout electronics based on dedicated full-custom ASICs and DAQ system. With a demonstrator system we have obtained 2-D spatial resolution of the order of 100 μm and energy resolution at a level of 20% FWHM for 5.9 keV . Limitations of such a detector due to copper fluorescence radiation excited in the copper-clad drift electrode and GEM foils is discussed and performance of the detector using chromium-clad electrodes is reported.

  7. SXR measurement and W transport survey using GEM tomographic system on WEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazon, D.; Jardin, A.; Malard, P.; Chernyshova, M.; Coston, C.; Malard, P.; O'Mullane, M.; Czarski, T.; Malinowski, K.; Faisse, F.; Ferlay, F.; Verger, J. M.; Bec, A.; Larroque, S.; Kasprowicz, G.; Wojenski, A.; Pozniak, K.

    2017-11-01

    Measuring Soft X-Ray (SXR) radiation (0.1–20 keV) of fusion plasmas is a standard way of accessing valuable information on particle transport. Since heavy impurities like tungsten (W) could degrade plasma core performances and cause radiative collapses, it is necessary to develop new diagnostics to be able to monitor the impurity distribution in harsh fusion environments like ITER. A gaseous detector with energy discrimination would be a very good candidate for this purpose. The design and implementation of a new SXR diagnostic developed for the WEST project, based on a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is presented. This detector works in photon counting mode and presents energy discrimination capabilities. The SXR system is composed of two 1D cameras (vertical and horizontal views respectively), located in the same poloidal cross-section to allow for tomographic reconstruction. An array (20 cm × 2 cm) consists of up to 128 detectors in front of a beryllium pinhole (equipped with a 1 mm diameter diaphragm) inserted at about 50 cm depth inside a cooled thimble in order to retrieve a wide plasma view. Acquisition of low energy spectrum is insured by a helium buffer installed between the pinhole and the detector. Complementary cooling systems (water) are used to maintain a constant temperature (25oC) inside the thimble. Finally a real-time automatic extraction system has been developed to protect the diagnostic during baking phases or any overheating unwanted events. Preliminary simulations of plasma emissivity and W distribution have been performed for WEST using a recently developed synthetic diagnostic coupled to a tomographic algorithm based on the minimum Fisher information (MFI) inversion method. First GEM acquisitions are presented as well as estimation of transport effect in presence of ICRH on W density reconstruction capabilities of the GEM.

  8. Depth of Response in Multiple Myeloma: A Pooled Analysis of Three PETHEMA/GEM Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuerta, Juan-Jose; Paiva, Bruno; Vidriales, Maria-Belen; Cordón, Lourdes; Cedena, Maria-Teresa; Puig, Noemi; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Rosiñol, Laura; Gutierrez, Norma C; Martín-Ramos, María-Luisa; Oriol, Albert; Teruel, Ana-Isabel; Echeveste, María-Asunción; de Paz, Raquel; de Arriba, Felipe; Hernandez, Miguel T; Palomera, Luis; Martinez, Rafael; Martin, Alejandro; Alegre, Adrian; De la Rubia, Javier; Orfao, Alberto; Mateos, María-Victoria; Blade, Joan; San-Miguel, Jesus F

    2017-09-01

    Purpose To perform a critical analysis on the impact of depth of response in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). Patients and Methods Data were analyzed from 609 patients who were enrolled in the GEM (Grupo Español de Mieloma) 2000 and GEM2005MENOS65 studies for transplant-eligible MM and the GEM2010MAS65 clinical trial for elderly patients with MM who had minimal residual disease (MRD) assessments 9 months after study enrollment. Median follow-up of the series was 71 months. Results Achievement of complete remission (CR) in the absence of MRD negativity was not associated with prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with near-CR or partial response (median PFS, 27, 27, and 29 months, respectively; median OS, 59, 64, and 65 months, respectively). MRD-negative status was strongly associated with prolonged PFS (median, 63 months; P < .001) and OS (median not reached; P < .001) overall and in subgroups defined by prior transplantation, disease stage, and cytogenetics, with prognostic superiority of MRD negativity versus CR particularly evident in patients with high-risk cytogenetics. Accordingly, Harrell C statistics showed higher discrimination for both PFS and OS in Cox models that included MRD (as opposed to CR) for response assessment. Superior MRD-negative rates after different induction regimens anticipated prolonged PFS. Among 34 MRD-negative patients with MM and a phenotypic pattern of bone marrow involvement similar to monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance at diagnosis, the probability of "operational cure" was high; median PFS was 12 years, and the 10-year OS rate was 94%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that MRD-negative status surpasses the prognostic value of CR achievement for PFS and OS across the disease spectrum, regardless of the type of treatment or patient risk group. MRD negativity should be considered as one of the most relevant end points for transplant-eligible and elderly fit patients

  9. Design of soft-X-ray tomographic system in WEST using GEM detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon, Didier, E-mail: Didier.Mazon@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chernyshova, Maryna [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery Street, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Jiolat, Guillaume [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Czarski, Tomasz [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery Street, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Malard, Philippe [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, Ewa; Jablonski, Slawomir; Figacz, Waldemar; Zagorski, Roman; Kubkowska, Monika [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery Street, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Zabolotny, Wojciech [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Larroque, Sébastien; Verger, Jean-Marc [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); O’Mullane, Martin [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom); Mlynar, Jan [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Association EURATOM-IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Byszuk, Adrian; Wojenski, Andrzej [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Interplay between particle transport and MHD in tokamaks might lead to disruption. • Studying such phenomena is essential to achieve stationary discharges. • SXR measurement provides valuable information on particle transport and MHD. • New SXR GEM diagnostic design for the WEST project is presented. • Preliminary simulations performed to size and position the detector are presented. - Abstract: In metallic tokamaks, the interplay between particle transport and MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) activity might lead to impurities accumulation and finally to disruption. Studying such phenomena is thus essential if stationary discharges are to be achieved. Measuring the soft X-ray (SXR) radiation ([0.1 keV; 20 keV]) of magnetic fusion plasmas is a standard way of accessing valuable information on particle transport and MHD. Generally, like at Tore Supra (TS), the analysis is performed with a 2D tomographic system composed of several cameras equipped with silicon barrier diodes (SBD). On WEST the installation of an upper divertor masks many of the actual TS vertical diodes so that no proper tomography is possible. This paper presents the design of a new SXR diagnostic for the WEST project developed in collaboration with IPPLM (Poland) and the Warsaw University of Technology, based on a triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector. Preliminary simulations performed to size and position the detector and its electronics inside the vertical thimble are also presented, in particular estimation of magnetic field and temperature variation affecting GEM spatial resolution and signal quality. As a conclusion, perspectives about tomographic capabilities of the new system for studying impurity transport are given.

  10. A Continuously Running High-Rate GEM-TPC for P¯ANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmer, F. V.; Angerer, H.; Dørheim, S.; Höppner, C.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Zhang, X.; Berger, M.; Cusanno, F.; Fabbietti, L.; Lalik, R.; Beck, R.; Kaiser, D.; Lang, M.; Schmitz, R.; Walther, D.; Winnebeck, A.; Zenke, F.; Arora, R.; Averbeckt, R.; Hehner, J.; Herrmannt, N.; Kleipa, V.; Kunkel, J.; Leifelst, Y.; Mladen, K.; Schmidt, C.; Schwab, S.; Soyk, D.; Voss, B.; Voss, J.; Weinert, J.; Zmeskal, J.

    2011-06-01

    The P¯ANDA fixed target experiment planned at FAIR will investigate fundamental questions of non-perturbative QCD. It makes use of a cooled antiproton beam (momentum: 1.5 to 15 GeV/c) and will reach luminosities of up to 2ṡ10 cm s, yielding a p¯p-annihilation rate of 2ṡ10 s. One option for the central tracker of P¯ANDA is a cylindrical, ungated, continuously running TPC with GEM-based gas amplification stage.

  11. Ultrasonic assisted synthesis of gem-dichloroaziridine derivatives using Mg/CCl4 under neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Khadijeh; Naeimi, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    A novel and convenient method for synthesis of gem-dichloroaziridine derivatives was reported in that was utilized Mg powder with CCl4 for dichlorocarbene generation under ultrasonic irradiation. In this clean and efficient reaction procedure, the desired products were purely obtained in excellent yields. The other advantages of this method are availability of reagents, very short reaction times, simplicity of the method, easily work up, neutral reaction medium and high purity of products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An X-ray imaging device based on a GEM detector with delay-line readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Li, Cheng; Sun, Yong-Jie; Shao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    An X-ray imaging device based on a triple-GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detector, a fast delay-line circuit with 700 MHz cut-off frequency and two dimensional readout strips with 150 μm width on the top and 250 μm width on the bottom, is designed and tested. The localization information is derived from the propagation time of the induced signals on the readout strips. This device has a good spatial resolution of 150 μm and works stably at an intensity of 105 Hz/mm2 with 8 keV X-rays.

  13. An Entrepreneurial Well-being Model based on GEM Data for Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sáiz-Álvarez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Economics of Happiness is one of the research areas of greatest growth in recent years. Throughout this work, a venture based model in which satisfaction of Spanish entrepreneurs with their professional life is performed. We analyze the responses of 9,989 entrepreneurs using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, and six hypothesis are discussed. The results show that, for the Spanish case, there is a strong consistency in the results the opportunity entrepreneurs present greater satisfaction than necessity entrepreneurs.

  14. Operation of gas electron multiplier (GEM) with propane gas at low pressure and comparison with tissue-equivalent gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nardo, L., E-mail: laura.denardo@unipd.it [University of Padova, Physics and Astronomy Department and PD-INFN, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Farahmand, M., E-mail: majid.farahmand@rivm.nl [Centre for Environmental Safety and Security, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, NL-3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2016-05-21

    A Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), based on a single GEM foil of standard geometry, has been tested with pure propane gas at low pressure, in order to simulate a tissue site of about 1 µm equivalent size. In this work, the performance of GEM with propane gas at a pressure of 21 and 28 kPa will be presented. The effective gas gain was measured in various conditions using a {sup 244}Cm alpha source. The dependence of effective gain on the electric field strength along the GEM channel and in the drift and induction region was investigated. A maximum effective gain of about 5×10{sup 3} has been reached. Results obtained in pure propane gas are compared with gas gain measurements in gas mixtures commonly employed in microdosimetry, that is propane and methane based Tissue-Equivalent gas mixtures.

  15. Planck's dusty GEMS. IV. Star formation and feedback in a maximum starburst at z = 3 seen at 60-pc resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañameras, R.; Nesvadba, N.; Kneissl, R.; Frye, B.; Gavazzi, R.; Koenig, S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Limousin, M.; Oteo, I.; Scott, D.

    2017-08-01

    We present an analysis of high-resolution ALMA interferometry of CO(4-3) line emission and dust continuum in the "Ruby" (PLCK_G244.8+54.9), a bright, gravitationally lensed galaxy at z = 3.0 discovered with the Planck all-sky survey. The Ruby is the brightest of Planck's dusty GEMS, a sample of 11 of the brightest gravitationally lensed high-redshift galaxies on the extragalactic sub-mm sky. We resolve the high-surface-brightness continuum and CO line emission of the Ruby in several extended clumps along a partial, nearly circular Einstein ring with 1.4'' diameter around a massive galaxy at z = 1.5. Local star-formation intensities are up to 2000 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, amongst the highest observed at high redshift, and clearly in the range of maximal starbursts. Gas-mass surface densities are a few × 104M⊙ pc-2. The Ruby lies at, and in part even above, the starburst sequence in the Schmidt-Kennicutt diagram, and at the limit expected for star formation that is self-regulated through the kinetic energy injection from radiation pressure, stellar winds, and supernovae. We show that these processes can also inject sufficient kinetic energy and momentum into the gas to explain the turbulent line widths, which are consistent with marginally gravitationally bound molecular clouds embedded in a critically Toomre-stable disk. The star-formation efficiency is in the range 1-10% per free-fall time, consistent with the notion that the pressure balance that sets the local star-formation law in the Milky Way may well be universal out to the highest star-formation intensities. AGN feedback is not necessary to regulate the star formation in the Ruby, in agreement with the absence of a bright AGN component in the infrared and radio regimes. Based on ALMA data obtained with program 2015.1.01518.S.

  16. Atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM concentrations and mercury depositions at a high-altitude mountain peak in south China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Fu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available China is regarded as the largest contributor of mercury (Hg to the global atmospheric Hg budget. However, concentration levels and depositions of atmospheric Hg in China are poorly known. Continuous measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM were carried out from May 2008 to May 2009 at the summit of Mt. Leigong in south China. Simultaneously, deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg in precipitation, throughfall and litterfall were also studied. Atmospheric GEM concentrations averaged 2.80±1.51 ng m−3, which was highly elevated compared to global background values but much lower than semi-rural and industrial/urban areas in China. Sources identification indicates that both regional industrial emissions and long range transport of Hg from central, south and southwest China were corresponded to the elevated GEM level. Seasonal and diurnal variations of GEM were observed, which reflected variations in source intensity, deposition processes and meteorological factors. Precipitation and throughfall deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg in Mt. Leigong were comparable or lower compared to those reported in Europe and North America, whereas litterfall deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg were higher compared to Europe and North America. This highlights the importance of vegetation to Hg atmospheric cycling. In th remote forest ecosystem of China, deposition of GEM via uptake of foliage followed by litterfall was very important for the depletion of atmospheric Hg. Elevated GEM level in ambient air may accelerate the foliar uptake of Hg through air which may partly explain the elevated litterfall deposition fluxes of Hg observed in Mt. Leigong.

  17. GeMS: from the on-sky experimental system to science operation. The AO point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Fabrice; Neichel, Benoit; Rigaut, François; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Winge, Claudia; Pessev, Peter; Serio, Andrew; Arriagada, Gustavo; Moreno, Cristian; Rambold, William; Luhrs, Javier; Boccas, Maxime; D'Orgeville, Celine; Fesquet, Vincent; Trujillo, Chadwick; Galvez, Ramon; Gausachs, Gaston; Vucina, Tomislav; Montes, Vanessa; Urrutia, Cristian; Marchant, Claudio; Diggs, Sarah

    2013-12-01

    Two years after its first light in 2011, GeMS, the Gemini Multi conjugate adaptive optics System achieved the science verification process and started queue observations. From the Adaptive Optics (AO) point of view it is time to summarize the performance provided by the system after more than 6 months of science on very different observing conditions. We present a statistical study of the overall performance from the AO data recorded by the GeMS telemetry. In particular we study the seeing and LGS photon return performance dependency and conclude on the current limitations of the system

  18. Design of a Constant Fraction Discriminator for the VFAT3 front-end ASIC of the CMS GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069646; Abbas, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abi Akl, M.; Aboamer, O.; Acosta, D.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Aly, R.; Altieri, P.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Awan, I.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Banerjee, S.; Barashko, V.; Barria, P.; Bencze, G.; Beni, N.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Braghieri, A.; Braibant, S.; Buontempo, S.; Calabria, C.; Caponero, M.; Caputo, C.; Cassese, F.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Cavallo, F.R.; Celik, A.; Choi, M.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Cimmino, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; Czellar, S.; Dabrowski, M.M.; De Lentdecker, G.; De Oliveira, R.; de Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Dorney, B.; Elmetenawee, W.; Endroczi, G.; Errico, F.; Fenyvesi, A.; Ferry, S.; Furic, I.; Giacomelli, P.; Gilmore, J.; Golovtsov, V.; Guiducci, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gutierrez, A.; Hadjiiska, R.M.; Hassan, A.; Hauser, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Hoorani, H.; Iaydjiev, P.; Jeng, Y.G.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.; Korytov, A.; Krutelyov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Lenzi, T.; Litov, L.; Madorsky, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Maggi, M.; Magnani, A.; Mal, P.K.; Mandal, K.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Masod, R.; Majumdar, N.; Merlin, J.A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mohanty, A.K.; Mohamed, S.; Mohapatra, A.; Molnar, J.; Muhammad, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Pant, L.M.; Paolucci, P.; Park, I.; Passeggio,G.; Pavlov, B.; Philipps, B.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Puig Baranac, A.; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ranieri, A.; Rashevski, G.; Riccardi, C.; Rodozov, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; RoyChowdhury, S.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M.S.; Safonov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, R.; Shah, A.H.; Shopova, M.; Sturdy, J.; Sultanov, G.; Swain, S.K.; Szillasi, Z.; Talvitie, J.; Tamma, C.; Tatarinov, A.; Tuuva, T.; Tytgat, M.; Vai, I.; Van Stenis, M.; Venditti, R.; Verhagen, E.; Verwilligen, P.; Vitulo, P.; Volkov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Yang, U.; Yang, Y.; Yonamine, R.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work the design of a Constant Fraction Discriminator (CFD) to be used in the VFAT3 chip, currently under design for the read-out of the Triple-Gem detectors of the CMS experiment, is described. Simulations show that it is possible to extend the front-end shaping time in order to fully integrate the GEM detector signal charge whilst maintaining optimal timing resolution using the CFD technique. A prototype chip containing 8 CFDs was implemented in 130 nm CMOS technology to prove the effectiveness of the proposed architecture before its integration in the VFAT3 chip. The CFD design and test results will be shown.

  19. Characterization of a glass GEM for sealed detectors application and reduction of charging-up effects

    CERN Document Server

    Erdal, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Apart from high energy physics experiments, there has been a great effort in recent years to incorporate MPGDs in many other applications i.e. medical treatments and imaging and home land security. However, MPGDs (as most gaseous detectors) are normally operated under a constant flushing of the gas. Their use thus turns them expensive since they rely on a constant gas supply and a suitable infrastructure, but most important is the loss of their portability. These reasons have pushed the community to search for other solutions, aiming for the development of sealed detectors. The demands for such is to be made out of low outgassing rate materials and possibly the use of only noble gas to avoid aging due to chemical activity of the ionized gas of the avalanche. The default material for GEM detectors - Polyimide (Kapton), is not suitable for a sealed detector because of its high outgassing rate, thus calling for new solutions. Moreover, GEMs, being essentially made out of an insulating material, pose a problem in...

  20. The Shape of Long Outbursts in U Gem Type Dwarf Novae from AAVSO Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzo, John K.

    2012-01-01

    We search the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) archives of the two best studied dwarf novae in an attempt to find light curves for long out bursts that are extremely well-characterized. The systems are U Gem and S8 Cyg. Our goal is to search for embedded precursors such as those that have been found recently in the high fidelity Kepler data for superoutbursts of some members of the 8U UMa subclass of dwarf novae. For the vast majority of AAV80 data, the combination of low data cadence and large errors associated with individual measurements precludes one from making any strong statement about the shape of the long outbursts. However, for a small number of outbursts, extensive long term monitoring with digital photometry yields high fidelity light curves. We report the finding of embedded precursors in two of three candidate long outbursts. This reinforces van Paradijs' finding that long outbursts in dwarf novae above the period gap and superoutbursts in systems below the period gap constitute a unified class. The thermal-tidal instability to account for superoutbursts in the SU UMa stars predicts embedded precursors only for short orbital period dwarf novae, therefore the presence of embedded precursors in long orbital period systems - U Gem and SS Cyg - argues for a more general mechanism to explain long outbursts.

  1. Development of entrepreneurship in Brazil based on indicators of the global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Cozza Josende da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is very important in a society due to its influence with the growth and development of a country. The importance of studying and knowing the entrepreneurial activity and the entrepreneur's profile contributes positively to identify estimates of this activity and to clarify the future of this process. In this sense, this article presents the evolution of entrepreneurship in Brazil over the past 13 years, using for the study secondary data obtained from the GEM and IBGE researches, in which the search was conducted in documentary basis from 2001 to 2013. The results present a descriptive analysis of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor entrepreneurship indicators (GEM concerning to the new entrepreneur rate and the rate of nascent entrepreneurs, growth of the Brazilian GDP related to entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship rate according to the entrepreneur stages (initial and established, initial entrepreneurs according to their motivation (by chance and necessity, by gender entrepreneurs, age, level of education. It was also carried out statistical analysis where the trend of the variables over time was verified by simple linear regression at the significance level of 5%. The study concludes that Brazil tends to present significant growth towards entrepreneurship, an advancement of the female contribution to the economy, increase of entrepreneurs because of more opportunities and stability in the existing businesses.

  2. Reconstituindo arquivos escolares: A experiência do GEM/MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Madureira Siqueira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rocking of the essays developed for the Group of Research “Education and Memory”, tied with the Instituto de Educação (IE, Program of Post-Graduation in Education, to the long of the last ten years. It incorporates one brief analysis of the regional and national bibliographical contribution, followed with the documentary surveys together to the main quantities of Mato Grosso: Public Archive of Mato Grosso, Archive of the House Barão de Melgaço and also in the interior of the pertaining to school archives - Escola Normal “Pedro Celestino” e Liceu Cuiabano “Maria de Arruda Müller”. To the side of the organization of the written sources, the GEM also invested in the constitution of a bank of voices of professors and on employees to the main pertaining to school institutions of the state. To the end, the article presents the production of research instruments, as well as presents a panorama of the generated scientific production in the interior of the GEM, as much published how much the ones found in “prelo”.

  3. A Study of a GEM Tracking Detector for Imaging Positrons from PET Radioisotopes in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, T.; Azmoun, B.; Babst, B.; Blatnik, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Stoll, S.; Vaska, P.; Woody, C.

    2014-10-01

    Positron Emission Tomography is a powerful imaging technique used for humans and animals that can also be used to study plant biology. However, since many of the structures found on plants (e.g., leaves) are very thin, a large portion of the positrons emitted from PET isotopes escape before annihilation, leading to low efficiency and quantification inaccuracies. In this study, a gas tracking detector was used to measure escaping positrons from PET radiotracer isotopes which has the ability to reconstruct three dimensional tracks that can be used to form an image of the emitting object. This device uses a triple GEM detector with a short drift region and an XY strip readout plane to measure a vector for positrons passing through a drift gap. By projecting each particle track back to the object surface, a 2-D image of the spatial distribution of the positrons that escaped from that surface can be reconstructed. In this paper, we will describe the basic principle of the GEM detector and present results on its performance using various types of phantoms and actual plant specimens. Monte Carlo simulations are also used to better understand the detector performance and compare to actual measurements.

  4. Development studies for the ILC: Measurements and simulations for a time projection chamber with GEM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Bernhard; Kaminski, Jochen; Kappler, Steffen; Müller, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology is well suited for usage as central tracker at the International Linear Collider (ILC). To study the high potential of this detector type a small prototype of 25 cm length was built in Karlsruhe and used in several experimental setups. In this publication the results of these measurements and of additional Monte Carlo simulations are presented. By introducing the so-called equivalent drift distance a combination of all results was possible leading to a recommended configuration of the multi-GEM tower for the ILC-TPC. It will be shown that for conditions considered in the TESLA-TDR the transverse spatial resolution will be able to reach 65 μm for 10 cm and 190 μm for 200 cm drift at the ILC. This as well as the expectations for longitudinal spatial resolution, for energy resolutions of the specific ionization, and for single pad row efficiency should be able to meet the requirements of a future ILC-TPC.

  5. Fast triggering of high-rate charged particles with a triple-GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, M; Bonivento, W; Cardini, A; De Simone, P; Murtas, F; Pinci, D; Poli-Lener, M; Raspino, D

    2004-01-01

    A 3 year long R&D activity on triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors is reported. This activity was made in the framework of the LHCb experiment in order to find the technology to instrument the central region of the first muon station (M1R1) where a high particle rate is expected. Detector geometry, gas mixture and electric field configuration have been optimized in order to achieve the performance required by the experiment. The use of a very fast, CF//4 based, gas mixture provides a time resolution of about 4.5 ns (r.m.s.) with a single chamber with gain less than 10**4. In addition, an optimized gain sharing between the three GEMs allows to keep the discharge probability per incident hadron below $10^{-12}$. The average number of firing pads per crossing particle have been found to be lower than 1.2. In a global aging test two detectors were exposed to a dose rate of 16 Gy/h. Each detector integrated about 2 C/cm**2 equivalent to more than 10 years of operation at LHCb. Good aging properties w...

  6. What Controls the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol? Relationships Between Process Sensitivity in HadGEM3-UKCA and Inter-Model Variation from AeroCom Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipling, Zak; Stier, Philip; Johnson, Colin E.; Mann, Graham W.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bergman, Tommi; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ghan, Steven J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The vertical profile of aerosol is important for its radiative effects, but weakly constrained by observations on the global scale, and highly variable among different models. To investigate the controlling factors in one particular model, we investigate the effects of individual processes in HadGEM3-UKCA and compare the resulting diversity of aerosol vertical profiles with the inter-model diversity from the AeroCom Phase II control experiment. In this way we show that (in this model at least) the vertical profile is controlled by a relatively small number of processes, although these vary among aerosol components and particle sizes. We also show that sufficiently coarse variations in these processes can produce a similar diversity to that among different models in terms of the global-mean profile and, to a lesser extent, the zonal-mean vertical position. However, there are features of certain models' profiles that cannot be reproduced, suggesting the influence of further structural differences between models. In HadGEM3-UKCA, convective transport is found to be very important in controlling the vertical profile of all aerosol components by mass. In-cloud scavenging is very important for all except mineral dust. Growth by condensation is important for sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol (along with aqueous oxidation for the former and ageing by soluble material for the latter). The vertical extent of biomass-burning emissions into the free troposphere is also important for the profile of carbonaceous aerosol. Boundary-layer mixing plays a dominant role for sea salt and mineral dust, which are emitted only from the surface. Dry deposition and below-cloud scavenging are important for the profile of mineral dust only. In this model, the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation and coagulation dominate the vertical profile of the smallest particles by number (e.g. total CN >3 nm), while the profiles of larger particles (e.g. CN>100 nm) are controlled by the

  7. Nanogram-scale preparation and NMR analysis for mass-limited small volatile compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nojima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Semiochemicals are often produced in infinitesimally small quantities, so their isolation requires large amounts of starting material, not only requiring significant effort in sample preparation, but also resulting in a complex mixture of compounds from which the bioactive compound needs to be purified and identified. Often, compounds cannot be unambiguously identified by their mass spectra alone, and NMR analysis is required for absolute chemical identification, further exacerbating the situation because NMR is relatively insensitive and requires large amounts of pure analyte, generally more than several micrograms. We developed an integrated approach for purification and NMR analysis of <1 µg of material. Collections from high performance preparative gas-chromatography are directly eluted with minimal NMR solvent into capillary NMR tubes. With this technique, (1H-NMR spectra were obtained on 50 ng of geranyl acetate, which served as a model compound, and reasonable H-H COSY NMR spectra were obtained from 250 ng of geranyl acetate. This simple off-line integration of preparative GC and NMR will facilitate the purification and chemical identification of novel volatile compounds, such as insect pheromones and other semiochemicals, which occur in minute (sub-nanogram, and often limited, quantities.

  8. Favourite Gems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, John

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics is full of surprises and beauty. In this article, the author discusses three favourite topics that he finds both amazing and amusing: (1) the problem of the possibility of subdividing a rectangle into a number of different squares; (2) the arrangement formed when several soap bubbles meet; and (3) circles and spheres.

  9. Tapping the Source: A Listing of Groundwater Education Materials Available through the Groundwater Education in Michigan (GEM) Program. Updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Inst. of Water Research.

    Established in 1988 through the cooperative efforts of the Institute of Water Research at Michigan State University and the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, the Groundwater Education in Michigan (GEM) program helps people understand the relationship between their actions and the quality of their environment, particularly groundwater. The program has a…

  10. GEnomes Management Application (GEM.app): a new software tool for large-scale collaborative genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Michael A; Lebrigio, Rafael F Acosta; Van Booven, Derek; Ulloa, Rick H; Powell, Eric; Speziani, Fiorella; Tekin, Mustafa; Schüle, Rebecca; Züchner, Stephan

    2013-06-01

    Novel genes are now identified at a rapid pace for many Mendelian disorders, and increasingly, for genetically complex phenotypes. However, new challenges have also become evident: (1) effectively managing larger exome and/or genome datasets, especially for smaller labs; (2) direct hands-on analysis and contextual interpretation of variant data in large genomic datasets; and (3) many small and medium-sized clinical and research-based investigative teams around the world are generating data that, if combined and shared, will significantly increase the opportunities for the entire community to identify new genes. To address these challenges, we have developed GEnomes Management Application (GEM.app), a software tool to annotate, manage, visualize, and analyze large genomic datasets (https://genomics.med.miami.edu/). GEM.app currently contains ∼1,600 whole exomes from 50 different phenotypes studied by 40 principal investigators from 15 different countries. The focus of GEM.app is on user-friendly analysis for nonbioinformaticians to make next-generation sequencing data directly accessible. Yet, GEM.app provides powerful and flexible filter options, including single family filtering, across family/phenotype queries, nested filtering, and evaluation of segregation in families. In addition, the system is fast, obtaining results within 4 sec across ∼1,200 exomes. We believe that this system will further enhance identification of genetic causes of human disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Gastro-intestinal delivery of influenza subunit vaccine formulation adjuvanted with Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, V.; Visser, M.R.; van Roosmalen, M.L.; Leenhouts, K.; Huckriede, A.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Frijlink, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a liquid formulation of influenza subunit vaccine admixed with Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles as adjuvant was delivered to upper and lower parts of intestinal tract. The aim was to determine the most effective immunization site in the intestines. Mice were vaccinated

  12. Chloride ion-catalyzed generation of difluorocarbene for efficient preparation of gem-difluorinated cyclopropenes and cyclopropanes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Fei

    2011-01-01

    A chloride ion-catalyzed generation of difluorocarbene from a relatively non-toxic and inexpensive precursor, Me3SiCF2Cl (1), under mild and neutral conditions leads to an efficient preparation of gem-difluorocyclopropenes and difluorocyclopropanes through [2 + 1] cycloaddition reactions with alkynes and alkenes, respectively. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Performance of a Large-Area GEM Detector Prototype for the Upgrade of the CMS Muon Endcap System

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00317764; Abbas, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abi Akl, M.; Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, W.; Altieri, P.; Aly, R.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ashfaq, A.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Awan, I.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Banerjee, S.; Barria, P.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Braibant, S.; Buontempo, S.; Calabria, C.; Caponero, M.; Caputo, C.; Cassese, F.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Cavallo, F.R.; Celik, A.; Choi, M.; Choi, K.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Cimmino, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; Dabrowski, M.M.; De Lentdecker, G.; de Oliveira, R.; De Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Dorney, B.; Elmetenawee, W.; Fabrice, G.; Ferrini, M.; Ferry, S.; Giacomelli, P.; Gilmore, J.; Guiducci, L.; Gutierrez, A.; Hadjiiska, R.M.; Hassan, A.; Hauser, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Hoorani, H.; Jeng, Y.G.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.E.; Kim, H.S.; Krutelyov, S.; Kumar, A.; Lee, J.; Lenzi, T.; Litov, L.; Loddo, F.; Maerschalk, T.; Magazzu, G.; Maggi, M.; Maghrbi, Y.; Magnani, A.; Majumdar, N.; Mal, P.K.; Mandal, K.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Merlin, J.A.; Mohanty, A.K.; Mohapatra, A.; Muhammad, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Pant, L.M.; Paolucci, P.; Park, I.; Passeggio, G.; Pavlov, B.; Philipps, B.; Phipps, M.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Pugliese, G.; Baranac, A.Puig; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ramkrishna, S.; Ranieri, A.; Riccardi, C.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; RoyChowdhury, S.; Ryu, M.S.; Ryu, G.; Safonov, A.; Sakharov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Swain, S.K.; Talvitie, J.P.; Tamma, C.; Tatarinov, A.; Turini, N.; Tuuva, T.; Twigger, J.; Tytgat, M.; Vai, I.; van Stenis, M.; Venditi, R.; Verhagen, E.; Verwilligen, P.; Vitulo, P.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Yang, U.; Yang, Y.; Yonamine, R.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, A.

    2016-03-14

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology is being considered for the forward muon upgrade of the CMS experiment in Phase 2 of the CERN LHC. Its first implementation is planned for the GE1/1 system in the $1.5 < \\mid\\eta\\mid < 2.2$ region of the muon endcap mainly to control muon level-1 trigger rates after the second long LHC shutdown. A GE1/1 triple-GEM detector is read out by 3,072 radial strips with 455 $\\mu$rad pitch arranged in eight $\\eta$-sectors. We assembled a full-size GE1/1 prototype of 1m length at Florida Tech and tested it in 20-120 GeV hadron beams at Fermilab using Ar/CO$_{2}$ 70:30 and the RD51 scalable readout system. Four small GEM detectors with 2-D readout and an average measured azimuthal resolution of 36 $\\mu$rad provided precise reference tracks. Construction of this largest GEM detector built to-date is described. Strip cluster parameters, detection efficiency, and spatial resolution are studied with position and high voltage scans. The plateau detection efficiency is [97.1 $\\pm...

  14. Study on the Development of Industry of Internet of Things Based on Competitive GEM Model in Fujian Province

    OpenAIRE

    Di Jun An; Li Hao

    2016-01-01

    Firstly, the basic theories of internet of things, competitive GEM model and industrial development in Fujian Province were studied in this paper. Then, the factors influencing the cultivation of industrial competitiveness of the internet of things was observed and finally the suggestions on enhancing the competitiveness of internet of things and strengthening the cultivation of talents of internet of things were put forward.

  15. Development of the DAQ System of Triple-GEM Detectors for the CMS Muon Spectrometer Upgrade at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00387583

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) upgrade project aims at improving the performance of the muon spectrometer of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment which will suffer from the increase in luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). After a long technical stop in 2019-2020, the LHC will restart and run at a luminosity of 2 × 1034 cm−2 s−1, twice its nominal value. This will in turn increase the rate of particles to which detectors in CMS will be exposed and affect their performance. The muon spectrometer in particular will suffer from a degraded detection efficiency due to the lack of redundancy in its most forward region. To solve this issue, the GEM collaboration proposes to instrument the first muon station with Triple-GEM detectors, a technology which has proven to be resistant to high fluxes of particles. Within the GEM collaboration, the Data Acquisition (DAQ) subgroup is in charge of the development of the electronics and software of the DAQ system of the detectors. This thesis presents th...

  16. Building a large-area GEM-based readout chamber for the upgrade of the ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Gasik, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    A large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device for tracking and charged-particle identification in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. After the second long shutdown in 2019-2020, the LHC will deliver Pb beams colliding at an interaction rate up to 50 kHz, which is about a factor of 100 above the present read-out rate of the TPC. To fully exploit the LHC potential the TPC will be upgraded based on the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology. A prototype of an ALICE TPC Outer Read-Out Chamber (OROC) was equipped with twelve large-size GEM foils as amplification stage to demonstrate the feasibility of replacing the current Multi Wire Proportional Chambers with the new technology. With a total area of $\\sim$0.76 m$^2$ it is the largest GEM-based detector built to date. The GEM OROC was installed within a test field cage and commissioned with radioactive sources.

  17. Test beam studies of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors for the upgrade of CMS endcap muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Ram Krishna

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will provide exceptional high instantaneous and integrated luminosity. The forward region $\\mid \\eta \\mid \\geq 1.5$ of the CMS detector will face extremely high particle rates in tens of $KHz/cm^{2}$ and hence it will affect the momentum resolution and longevity of the muon detectors. To overcome these issues the CMS collaboration has decided to install new large size rate capable Triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors in the forward region of CMS muon system. The first set of Triple GEM detectors will be installed in the GE1/1 region $(1.5 \\leq \\eta \\leq 2.2)$ of muon endcap during the LS2 of the LHC and the next one will be installed in the GE2/1 region $(1.6 \\leq \\eta \\leq 2.5)$, during the LS3. Towards this goal, full-size CMS Triple GEM prototype chambers have been fabricated and put under the test beam at the CERN SPS test beam facility. The GEM detectors were operated with two gas mixtures $Ar/CO_{2}$ (70/30) and $Ar/CO_{2}/CF_{4}$ (40/15/45). In 2014 and 2016, ...

  18. Synthesis and applications of gem-bis-phosphonates, powerful complexing agents of metals; Synthese et applications de composes gem-bisphosphonates, de puissants complexants de metaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecercle, D

    2007-12-15

    This thesis was devoted to the development of new ways to prepare gem-bis-phosphonates compounds (BPs), and was carried out under the Program of Nuclear and Environmental Toxicology (ToxNuc-E). Two applications of these compounds have been investigated, the preparation of potent ligands of the uranyl ion for a target of decorporation, and the preparation of new anticancer compounds. The first of these applications was the consequence of work done in the laboratory, that have shown the strong uranium-binding properties of bis-phosphonic ligands. The in vivo tests performed on these compounds have shown the tendency of these ligands to cause liver accumulation of uranium, we wanted to address this problem by modifying the method of anchoring of the bis-phosphonates functions. To this end we have developed a new way to access to these compounds using a metal-carbenoid mediated poly-ols and poly-amines insertion, the metal-carbenoid species bearing the bis-phosphonate function. Regarding the preparation of BPs as anticancer agents, we have developed a new synthetic pathway using a phosphine catalyzed {alpha}-P addition of phosphorated pro-nucleophiles to alkynyl-phosphonates as a key step. This enabled us to prepare thirty compound whose activity was evaluated on two cell lines (A431 and HuH7). Five of these compounds possess an activity equivalent to that of the compound described as the most active, the Zoledronate. (author)

  19. C4GEM, a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model to Study C4 Plant Metabolism1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Dal’Molin, Cristiana Gomes; Quek, Lake-Ee; Palfreyman, Robin William; Brumbley, Stevens Michael; Nielsen, Lars Keld

    2010-01-01

    Leaves of C4 grasses (such as maize [Zea mays], sugarcane [Saccharum officinarum], and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor]) form a classical Kranz leaf anatomy. Unlike C3 plants, where photosynthetic CO2 fixation proceeds in the mesophyll (M), the fixation process in C4 plants is distributed between two cell types, the M cell and the bundle sheath (BS) cell. Here, we develop a C4 genome-scale model (C4GEM) for the investigation of flux distribution in M and BS cells during C4 photosynthesis. C4GEM, to our knowledge, is the first large-scale metabolic model that encapsulates metabolic interactions between two different cell types. C4GEM is based on the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) model (AraGEM) but has been extended by adding reactions and transporters responsible to represent three different C4 subtypes (NADP-ME [for malic enzyme], NAD-ME, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase). C4GEM has been validated for its ability to synthesize 47 biomass components and consists of 1,588 unique reactions, 1,755 metabolites, 83 interorganelle transporters, and 29 external transporters (including transport through plasmodesmata). Reactions in the common C4 model have been associated with well-annotated C4 species (NADP-ME subtypes): 3,557 genes in sorghum, 11,623 genes in maize, and 3,881 genes in sugarcane. The number of essential reactions not assigned to genes is 131, 135, and 156 in sorghum, maize, and sugarcane, respectively. Flux balance analysis was used to assess the metabolic activity in M and BS cells during C4 photosynthesis. Our simulations were consistent with chloroplast proteomic studies, and C4GEM predicted the classical C4 photosynthesis pathway and its major effect in organelle function in M and BS. The model also highlights differences in metabolic activities around photosystem I and photosystem II for three different C4 subtypes. Effects of CO2 leakage were also explored. C4GEM is a viable framework for in silico analysis of cell cooperation between M and BS

  20. AlgaGEM--a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of algae based on the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal'Molin, Cristiana Gomes de Oliveira; Quek, Lake-Ee; Palfreyman, Robin W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2011-12-22

    Microalgae have the potential to deliver biofuels without the associated competition for land resources. In order to realise the rates and titres necessary for commercial production, however, system-level metabolic engineering will be required. Genome scale metabolic reconstructions have revolutionized microbial metabolic engineering and are used routinely for in silico analysis and design. While genome scale metabolic reconstructions have been developed for many prokaryotes and model eukaryotes, the application to less well characterized eukaryotes such as algae is challenging not at least due to a lack of compartmentalization data. We have developed a genome-scale metabolic network model (named AlgaGEM) covering the metabolism for a compartmentalized algae cell based on the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome. AlgaGEM is a comprehensive literature-based genome scale metabolic reconstruction that accounts for the functions of 866 unique ORFs, 1862 metabolites, 2249 gene-enzyme-reaction-association entries, and 1725 unique reactions. The reconstruction was compartmentalized into the cytoplasm, mitochondrion, plastid and microbody using available data for algae complemented with compartmentalisation data for Arabidopsis thaliana. AlgaGEM describes a functional primary metabolism of Chlamydomonas and significantly predicts distinct algal behaviours such as the catabolism or secretion rather than recycling of phosphoglycolate in photorespiration. AlgaGEM was validated through the simulation of growth and algae metabolic functions inferred from literature. Using efficient resource utilisation as the optimality criterion, AlgaGEM predicted observed metabolic effects under autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. AlgaGEM predicts increased hydrogen production when cyclic electron flow is disrupted as seen in a high producing mutant derived from mutational studies. The model also predicted the physiological pathway for H2 production and identified new targets

  1. {sup 188}Re-labelled gemcitabine/bisphosphonate (Gem/BP): a multi-functional, bone-specific agent as a potential treatment for bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Mabhouh, Amal A. [University of Alberta, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Mercer, John R. [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    This study investigated the bone-binding affinity and biodistribution of a {sup 188}Re-labelled gemcitabine/bisphosphonate (Gem/BP) conjugate, a multi-functional drug designed to deliver tumour-specific combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy to the bone using the high bone-binding affinity of the bisphosphonate group. The Gem/BP conjugate was labelled at high radiochemical purity with {sup 188}Re. The bone-binding affinity of the {sup 188}Re-Gem/BP was studied in vitro in purified hydroxyapatite emulsion and powdered bovine bone. In vivo biodistribution studies were carried out in normal BALB/c mice. {sup 188}Re-Gem/BP demonstrated strong and stable binding in both in vitro systems. In vivo {sup 188}Re-Gem/BP showed bone uptake, rapid blood clearance and rapid elimination of unbound activity. The bone tissue demonstrated the highest concentration of bound radioactivity exempting the kidneys. Approximately 67% of retained whole-body activity was bound to the bone at 8 h after {sup 188}Re-Gem/BP administration. {sup 188}Re-Gem/BP demonstrated high, selective and persistent bone binding and can be considered as a model compound for multi-functional bone-specific therapy for bone metastases. (orig.)

  2. Stability studies on GEM prototypes for the upgrade of the ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Cortinas Rodriguo Gaston, CRG

    2013-01-01

    In this work we show results of experiments aiming to understand the stability of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector. While operating the detector, we monitor temperature, pressure and humidity in order to understand the contribution of each of these parameters to the behaviour of the devise. We also use a Single Wire proportional counter as a reference detector so to keep track of the gain fluctuations given by external influences (pressure, temperature, gas composition, etc.). In this way it is possible to spot fluctuation due to the intrinsic properties of these new detectors. A special effort is devoted to explaining and discussing different experimental drawbacks that appeared on the way in order to set a precedent, and as far as possible to avoid them in future experiences.

  3. The optimisation of a water distribution system using Bentley WaterGEMS software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świtnicka Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proper maintenance of water distribution systems (WDSs requires from operators multiple actions in order to ensure optimal functioning. Usually, all requirements should be adjusted simultaneously. Therefore, the decision-making process is often supported by multi-criteria optimisation methods. Significant improvements of exploitation conditions of WDSs functioning can be achieved by connecting small water supply networks into group systems. Among many potential tools supporting advanced maintenance and management of WDSs, significant improvements have tools that can find the optimal solution by the implemented mechanism of metaheuristic methods, such as the genetic algorithm. In this paper, an exemplary WDS functioning optimisation is presented, in relevance to a group water supply system. The action range of optimised parameters included: maximisation of water flow velocity, regulation of pressure head, minimisation of water retention time in a network (water age and minimisation of pump energy consumption. All simulations were performed in Bentley WaterGEMS software.

  4. Estimating Fallout Building Attributes from Architectural Features and Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Building Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Staci R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands (or more) of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing fallout radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and individuals indoors. Prior efforts have determined an initial set of building attributes suitable to reasonably assess a given building’s protection against fallout radiation. The current work provides methods to determine the quantitative values for these attributes from (a) common architectural features and data and (b) buildings described using the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) taxonomy. These methods will be used to improve estimates of fallout protection for operational US Department of Defense (DoD) and US Department of Energy (DOE) consequence assessment models.

  5. Raman spectroscopy on gem-quality microcrystalline and amorphous silica varieties from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Pop

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous micro-Raman investigations on a wide range of types of microcrystalline silica samples have evidenced the presence of a new silica polymorph, i.e. moganite, in virtually every sample. In order to test the ubiquity of moganite in such geological materials in Romania, micro-Raman measurements were performed on gem-quality microcrystalline quartz (chalcedony, including agate and jasper and additionally on quasi-amorphous silica (opal, silicified wood samples from different occurrences. All the studied materials, including the quasi-amorphous varieties contain moganite in variable amounts (from traces up to local concentrations of 75 wt. %. Establishing correlations between colour and texture of the chemically-“pure” micro-crystalline silica samples and their mineralogical composition - as traced by micro-Raman measurements, requires further research.

  6. Gas scintillation glass GEM detector for high-resolution X-ray imaging and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, T., E-mail: fujiwara-t@aist.go.jp [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Mitsuya, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Fushie, T. [Radiment Lab. Inc., Setagaya, Tokyo 156-0044 (Japan); Murata, K.; Kawamura, A.; Koishikawa, A. [XIT Co., Naruse, Machida, Tokyo 194-0045 (Japan); Toyokawa, H. [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    A high-spatial-resolution X-ray-imaging gaseous detector has been developed with a single high-gas-gain glass gas electron multiplier (G-GEM), scintillation gas, and optical camera. High-resolution X-ray imaging of soft elements is performed with a spatial resolution of 281 µm rms and an effective area of 100×100 mm. In addition, high-resolution X-ray 3D computed tomography (CT) is successfully demonstrated with the gaseous detector. It shows high sensitivity to low-energy X-rays, which results in high-contrast radiographs of objects containing elements with low atomic numbers. In addition, the high yield of scintillation light enables fast X-ray imaging, which is an advantage for constructing CT images with low-energy X-rays.

  7. Analysis of data recorded by the LCTPC equipped with a two layer GEM-system

    CERN Document Server

    Ljunggren, M

    2012-01-01

    wire based readout. The prototype TPC is placed in a 1 Tesla magnet at DESY and tested using an electron beam. Analyses of data taken during two different measurement series, in 2009 and 2010, are presented here. The TPC was instrumented with a two layer GEM system and read out using modified electronics from the ALICE experiment, including the programmable charge sensitive preamp-shaper PCA16. The PCA16 chip has a number of programmable parameters which allows studies to determine the settings optimal to the final TPC. Here, the impact of the shaping time on the space resolution in the drift direction was studied. It was found that a shaping time of 60 ns is the b...

  8. Fiber Bragg Grating sensors for deformation monitoring of GEM foils in HEP detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071648; Bianco, S; Caponero, M; Muhammad, S; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Raffone, G; Russo, A; Saviano, G

    2015-01-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have been so far mainly used in high energy physics (HEP) as high precision positioning and re-positioning sensors and as low cost, easy to mount, radiation hard and low space- consuming temperature and humidity devices. FBGs are also commonly used for very precise strain measurements. In this work we present a novel use of FBGs as flatness and mechanical tensioning sensors applied to the wide Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils of the GE1/1 chambers of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN. A network of FBG sensors has been used to determine the optimal mechanical tension applied and to characterize the mechanical stress applied to the foils. The preliminary results of the test performed on a full size GE1/1 final prototype and possible future developments will be discussed.

  9. 3D field calculation of the GEM prototype magnet and comparison with measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lari, R.J.

    1983-10-28

    The proposed 4 GeV Electron Microtron (GEM) is designed to fill the existing buildings left vacant by the demise of the Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) accelerator. One of the six large dipole magnets is shown as well as the first 10 electron orbits. A 3-orbit prototype magnet has been built. The stepped edge of the magnet is to keep the beam exiting perpendicular to the pole. The end guards that wrap around the main coils are joined together by the 3 shield plates. The auxiliary coils are needed to keep the end guards and shield plates from saturating. A 0.3 cm Purcell filter air gap exists between the pole and the yoke. Can anyone question this being a truly three-dimensional magnetostatic problem. The computer program TOSCA, developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory by the Computing Applications Group, was used to calculate this magnet and the results have been compared with measurements.

  10. C-4 Gem-Dimethylated Oleanes of Gymnema sylvestre and Their Pharmacological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Di Fabio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., one of the most important medicinal plants of the Asclepiadaceae family, is a herb distributed throughout the World, predominantly in tropical countries. The plant, widely used for the treatment of diabetes and as a diuretic in Indian proprietary medicines, possesses beneficial digestive, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and anti-helmentic effects. Furthermore, it is believed to be useful in the treatment of dyspepsia, constipation, jaundice, hemorrhoids, cardiopathy, asthma, bronchitis and leucoderma. A literature survey revealed that some other notable pharmacological activities of the plant such as anti-obesity, hypolipidemic, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties have been proven too. This paper aims to summarize the chemical and pharmacological reports on a large group of C-4 gem-dimethylated pentacyclic triterpenoids from Gymnema sylvestre.

  11. Conceptual design and development of GEM based detecting system for tomographic tungsten focused transport monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Malinowski, K.; Kowalska-Strzęciwilk, E.; Poźniak, K.; Kasprowicz, G.; Zabołotny, W.; Wojeński, A.; Kolasiński, P.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P.

    2015-10-01

    Implementing tungsten as a plasma facing material in ITER and future fusion reactors will require effective monitoring of not just its level in the plasma but also its distribution. That can be successfully achieved using detectors based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology. This work presents the conceptual design of the detecting unit for poloidal tomography to be tested at the WEST project tokamak. The current stage of the development is discussed covering aspects which include detector's spatial dimensions, gas mixtures, window materials and arrangements inside and outside the tokamak ports, details of detector's structure itself and details of the detecting module electronics. It is expected that the detecting unit under development, when implemented, will add to the safe operation of tokamak bringing the creation of sustainable nuclear fusion reactors a step closer. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  12. Spatial resolution measurement of triple-GEM detector and diffraction imaging test at synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Qi, H. R.; Wen, Z. W.; Wang, H. Y.; Ouyang, Q.; Chen, Y. B.; Zhang, J.; Hu, B. T.

    2017-04-01

    A triple-GEM detector with two-dimensional readout is developed. The detector provides high position resolution for powder diffraction experiments at synchrotron radiation. Spatial resolution of the detector is measured in the lab using a 55Fe X-ray source. A resolution of about 110 μm FWHM is achieved. The energy resolution is better than 27% for 5.9 keV X-rays. The detector's validity under illumination of photons in particular energy range is verified using a Cu X-ray tube. Imaging of the head of a wire stripper with X-ray tube demonstrates its imaging ability. A diffraction imaging experiment using the sample of powder SiO2 is successfully carried out at 1W2B laboratory of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). Different diffraction rings are clearly seen under various X-ray energies.

  13. Two-dimensional GEM imaging detector with delay-line readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, G. P.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Vartsky, D.; Bar, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Marinho, P. R. B.

    2003-11-01

    A 100×100 mm 2 2D imaging detector, based on a triple-GEM gaseous multiplier, striped x- y readout anode and discrete delay-line readout, is presented. The fast (2.1 ns tap -1) delay-line circuit was designed to match the anode-charge signal profile, namely its rise-time and length. The detector's imaging capability was systematically studied in Ar/CO 2 (70/30) with 5.9 keV X-rays; x- y resolution of σ=0.05 and 0.1 mm for top and bottom anode strips, respectively, and integral non-linearity of ˜0.15% are demonstrated.

  14. Progress in the development of photosensitive GEMs with resistive electrodes manufactured by a screen printing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, V; Nappi, E; Oliveira, R; Paic, G; Pietropaolo, F; Picchi, P

    2009-01-01

    An innovative photosensitive gaseous detector, consisting of a GEM-like amplification structure with double-layered electrodes (instead of commonly used metallic ones) coated with a CsI reflective photocathode, is described. In one of our latest designs, the inner electrode consists of a metallic grid and the outer one is made of resistive strips; the latter are manufactured by a screen-printing technology on the top of the metallic strips's grid The inner metallic grid is used for 2-D position measurements whereas the resistive layer provides an efficient spark-protected operation at high gains close to the breakdown limit. Detectors with active areas of 10×10 and 10×20 cm2 were tested under various conditions including the operation in photosensitive gas mixtures containing ethylferrocene or TMAE vapors. The new technique could have many applications requiring robust and reliable large-area detectors for UV visualization, as for example, in Cherenkov imaging devices.

  15. Development and first tests of GEM-like detectors with resistive electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir; Centro, Sandro; Di Mauro, A; Lund-Jensen, B; Martinengo, P; Nappi, E; Oliveira, R; Pietropaolo, F; Picchi, P; Periale, L; Rodionov, I; Ventura, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    We have developed and tested several prototypes of GEM-like detectors with electrodes coated with resistive layers or completely made of resistive materials. These detectors can operate stably at gains close to 105. The resistive layers limit the energy of discharges appearing at higher gains thus making the detectors very robust. We demonstrated that the cathodes of some of these detectors could be coated by CsI or SbCs layers to enhance the detection efficiency for the UV and visible photons. We also discovered that such detectors can operate stably in the cascade mode and high overall gains ($~10^{6}$) are reachable. Applications in several areas, for example in RICH or in noble liquid TPCs are therefore possible. The first results from the detection of UV photons at room and cryogenic temperatures will be given.

  16. The Australian bush fires of February 2009: MIPAS observations and GEM-AQ model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatthor, N.; Höpfner, M.; Semeniuk, K.; Lupu, A.; Palmer, P. I.; McConnell, J. C.; Kaminski, J. W.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Kellmann, S.; Linden, A.; Wiegele, A.

    2012-06-01

    On 7 February 2009, and the following days Southeast Australia was devastated by large bush fires, which burned an area of about 3000 km2. This event was extraordinary, because a large number of combustion products was transported into the uppermost troposphere and lower stratosphere within a few days. Various biomass burning products released by the fire were observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on the ENVISAT satellite. We track the plume using MIPAS C2H2, HCN and HCOOH single-scan measurements on a day-to-day basis. The measurements are compared with a high-resolution model run of the Global Environmental Multiscale-Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model. Generally there is very good agreement between the spatial distribution of measured and modelled pollutants during the first two weeks after the outbreak of the fire even over intercontinental distances. Both MIPAS and GEM-AQ show a fast south-eastward transport of the pollutants to New Zealand within one day. During the following 3-4 days the plume was located north and eastward of New Zealand and centered at altitudes of 15 to 18 km. Thereafter its eastern part was transported eastward at altitudes of 15-16 km, followed by westward transport of its western part at somewhat higher altitudes. On 17 February the eastern part had reached Southern South America and on 20 February the South African west coast. On the latter day a second relic of the plume was observed moving eastward above the Southern Pacific, whereas the westward transported pollutants were located above Australia at altitudes of 18-20 km. First evidence for entry of the pollutants into the stratosphere was found in MIPAS data of 11 February, followed by larger amounts on 17 February and the days thereafter. Between 20 February and the first week of March the stratospheric pollutants above Australia were transported further westward over the Indian Ocean towards Southern Africa.

  17. Application of model output statistics to the GEM-AQ high resolution air quality forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzewska, J.; Kaminski, J. W.; Jefimow, M.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the presented work was to analyse the impact of data stratification on the efficiency of the Model Output Statistics (MOS) methodology as applied to a high-resolution deterministic air quality forecast carried out with the GEM-AQ model. The following parameters forecasted by the GEM-AQ model were selected as predictors for the MOS equation: pollutant concentration, air temperature in the lowest model layer, wind speed in the lowest model layer, temperature inversion and the precipitation rate. A representative 2-year series were used to construct regression functions. Data series were divided into two subsets. Approximately 75% of the data (first 3 weeks of each month) were used to estimate the regression function parameters. Remaining 25% (last week of each month) were used to test the method (control period). The subsequent 12 months were used for method verification (verification period). A linear model fitted the function based on forecasted parameters to the observations. We have assumed four different temperature-based data stratification methods (for each method, separate equations were constructed). For PM10 and PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 the best correction results were obtained with the application of temperature thresholds in the cold season and seasonal distribution combined with temperature thresholds in the warm season. For the PM10, PM2.5 and SO2 the best results were obtained using a combination of two stratification methods separately for cold and warm seasons. For CO, the systematic bias of the forecasted concentrations was partly corrected. For ozone more sophisticated methods of data stratification did not bring a significant improvement.

  18. Gadget for epilithic microalgal sampling (GEMS Dispositivo para amostragem de microalgas epilíticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LGC. Canani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Benthic microalgae sampling in lotic systems is carried out using either artificial or natural substrate. Natural substrate is more suitable for biomass and productivity estimates as well as biodiversity assessment because it contains the communities that are typical of the environment. We present a new gadget for epilithic microalgae sampling (GEMS that allows sampling in situ when it is impossible to remove the substrate from the river bed. The sampler consists of an acrylic box with a 25 cm diameter opening on its base that allows access to the substrate. This gadget can be used in shallow plan bedrock streams and it keeps the sample area isolated as much as possible minimising losses and contamination. It is also easy to construct and handle.As amostragens de microalgas bênticas em sistemas lóticos são realizadas através do uso de substrato natural ou artificial. Substratos naturais são mais adequados para a estimativa de biomassa e produtividade, assim como, para a avaliação de biodiversidade, porque eles contêm as comunidades que são típicas de um determinado ambiente. Nós apresentamos um novo dispositivo para amostragem de microalgas epilíticas (GEMS que permite a amostragem in situ, quando é impossível remover o substrato do leito do rio. O amostrador consiste em uma caixa de acrílico com uma abertura de 25 cm de diâmetro em sua base que permite acesso ao substrato. O amostrador pode ser usado em riachos rasos e de leito rochoso e plano, e mantém a área amostral o mais isolada possível, minimizando perdas e contaminação, além de ser fácil de construir e manusear.

  19. ARTROC—a readout ASIC for GEM-based full-field XRF imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiutowski, T.; Koperny, S.; Łach, B.; Mindur, B.; Świentek, K.; Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2017-12-01

    In the paper we report on development of an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), called ARTROC, being part of a full-field X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) imaging system equipped with a standard three stage Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector of 10×10 cm2 area. The ARTROC consists of 64 independent channels, allowing for simultaneous recording of the amplitudes (energy sub-channel) and time stamps (timing sub-channel) of incoming signals. Thanks to the implemented token-based read out of derandomizing buffers, the ASIC also provides data sparsification and full zero suppression. Reconstruction of the hit positions is performed in an external data acquisition system by matching the time stamps of signals recorded in X- and Y-strips. The amplitude information is used for centre of gravity finding in clusters of signals on neighbouring strips belonging to the same detection events. The ASIC could work in one of six gain modes and one of two speed modes. In a slower mode the maximum count rate per channel is 105/s while in a faster mode it is three times higher. The ARTROC comprises also input protection circuits against possible random discharges inside active detector volume, so it can be used without any additional input components. The ASIC has been designed in 350 nm CMOS process. The basic functionality and parameters have been evaluated using the testability functions implemented in the ASIC design. The ASIC has been also tested in a fully equipped GEM detector set-up with X-rays source.

  20. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luong, Elise [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-05-10

    This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 ± 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 ± 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 ± 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 ± 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and β-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of 13C+ with 12C 1H+ comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or β-cyclodextrin.

  1. A pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial of diabetes prevention strategies for women with gestational diabetes: design and rationale of the Gestational Diabetes' Effects on Moms (GEM) study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrara, Assiamira; Hedderson, Monique M; Albright, Cheryl L; Brown, Susan D; Ehrlich, Samantha F; Caan, Bette J; Sternfeld, Barbara; Gordon, Nancy P; Schmittdiel, Julie A; Gunderson, Erica P; Mevi, Ashley A; Tsai, Ai-Lin; Ching, Jenny; Crites, Yvonne; Quesenberry, Jr, Charles P

    2014-01-01

    .... In the Gestational Diabetes' Effects on Moms (GEM) study, we are evaluating the comparative effectiveness of diabetes prevention strategies for weight management designed for pregnant/postpartum women with GDM and delivered at the health system level...

  2. Synthesis of gem-disubstituted ethylene and acetylene derivatives of the cyclopropane series based on 1,1-diacylcyclopropanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zefirov, N.S.; Kozhushkov, S.I.; Kuznetsova, T.S.; Gleiter, R.; Eckert-Maksic, M.

    1986-06-10

    Methods for the conversion of 1,1-diacylcyclopropanes into gem-disubstituted dienes and acetylenes of the cyclopropene series were investigated: (a) reduction followed by dehydration of the diols; (b) conversion of the diketones into bistosylhydrazones and treatment of the latter with methyllithium; (c) dehydrohalogenation of gem-di(1-halogenoalkyl)cyclopropanes by the action of bases. Dehydration leads to intramolecular nucleophilic opening of the three-membered ring. 1,1-Divinylcyclopropanes and stereoisomeric 1,1-di(1-propenyl)cyclopropanes were obtained by two different methods, and the corresponding diynes and enynes were synthesized from them by bromination followed by dehydrobromination. 1,1-Di(1-propynyl)cyclopropane can be obtained by alkylation of 1,1-diethynyl-cyclopropane and also directly from 1,1-divinylcyclopropane without isolation of the intermediate 1,1-diethynylcyclopropane.

  3. A how-to approach for a 3D simulation of charge transfer characteristics in a gas electron multiplier (GEM)

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a detailed description of how to simulate charge transfer processes in a gaseous device is presented, taking the gas electron multiplier (GEM) as an example. A 3-dimensional simulation of the electric field and avalanche is performed. Results on charge transport are compared to experiment and agree within experimental errors; the avalanche mechanism and positive ion feedback are studied. The procedures used in the simulation are described in detail, and program scripts are appended. (15 refs).

  4. Perceived financial barriers and the start-up decision: An econometric analysis of gender differences using GEM data

    OpenAIRE

    Roper, Stephen; Scott, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Although accessing finance is key to the foundation of any business, particular concerns have been expressed about the ability of UK women-owned firms to obtain external finance. In this paper we use an econometric approach to explore the effect of perceptions of financial barriers to start-up on the start-up decision itself. Our analysis is based on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) UK 2004 database. Standardising for a range of individual characteristics, we find that women are arou...

  5. Study on the Development of Industry of Internet of Things Based on Competitive GEM Model in Fujian Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Jun An

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, the basic theories of internet of things, competitive GEM model and industrial development in Fujian Province were studied in this paper. Then, the factors influencing the cultivation of industrial competitiveness of the internet of things was observed and finally the suggestions on enhancing the competitiveness of internet of things and strengthening the cultivation of talents of internet of things were put forward.

  6. The Australian bushfires of February 2009: MIPAS observations and GEM-AQ model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Glatthor

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Starting on 7 February 2009, southeast Australia was devastated by large bushfires, which burned an area of about 3000 km2 on this day alone. This event was extraordinary, because a large number of combustion products were transported into the uppermost troposphere and lower stratosphere within a few days. Various biomass burning products released by the fire were observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on the Envisat satellite. We tracked the plume using MIPAS C2H2, HCN and HCOOH single-scan measurements on a day-to-day basis. The measurements were compared with a high-resolution model run of the Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality (GEM-AQ model. Generally there is good agreement between the spatial distribution of measured and modelled pollutants. Both MIPAS and GEM-AQ show a fast southeastward transport of the pollutants to New Zealand within one day. During the following 3–4 days, the plume remained northeastward of New Zealand and was located at altitudes of 15 to 18 km. Thereafter its lower part was transported eastward, followed by westward transport of its upper part. On 17 February the eastern part had reached southern South America and on 20 February the central South Atlantic. On the latter day a second relic of the plume was observed moving eastward above the South Pacific. Between 20 February and the first week of March, the upper part of the plume was transported westward over Australia and the Indian Ocean towards southern Africa. First evidence for entry of the pollutants into the stratosphere was found in MIPAS data of 11 February, followed by larger amounts on 17 February and the days thereafter. From MIPAS data, C2H2/HCN and HCOOH/HCN enhancement ratios of 0.76 and 2.16 were calculated for the first days after the outbreak of the fires, which are considerably higher than the emission ratios assumed for the model run and at

  7. Construction and Performance of Large-Area Triple-GEM Prototypes for Future Upgrades of the CMS Forward Muon System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068936; Marinov, A.; Zaganidis, N.; Ban, Y.; Cai, J.; Teng, H.; Mohapatra, A.; Moulik, T.; Abbrescia, M.; Colaleo, A.; de Robertis, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Tupputi, S.A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Piccolo, D.; Raffone, G.; Saviano, G.; Bagliesi, M.G.; Cecchi, R.; Magazzu, G.; Oliveri, E.; Turini, N.; Fruboes, T.; Abbaneo, D.; Armagnaud, C.; Aspell, P.; Bally, S.; Berzano, U.; Bos, J.; Bunkowski, K.; Chatelain, J.P.; Christiansen, J.; Conde Garcia, A.; David, E.; De Oliveira, R.; Duarte Pinto, S.; Ferry, S.; Formenti, F.; Franconi, L.; Marchioro, A.; Mehta, K.; Merlin, J.; Nemallapudi, M.V.; Postema, H.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Sharma, A.; Smilkjovic, N.; Villa, M.; Zientek, M.; Gutierrez, A.; Karchin, P.E.; Gnanvo, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Staib, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    At present, part of the forward RPC muon system of the CMS detector at the CERN LHC remains uninstrumented in the high-\\eta region. An international collaboration is investigating the possibility of covering the 1.6 < |\\eta| < 2.4 region of the muon endcaps with large-area triple-GEM detectors. Given their good spatial resolution, high rate capability, and radiation hardness, these micro-pattern gas detectors are an appealing option for simultaneously enhancing muon tracking and triggering capabilities in a future upgrade of the CMS detector. A general overview of this feasibility study will be presented. The design and construction of small (10\\times10 cm2) and full-size trapezoidal (1\\times0.5 m2) triple-GEM prototypes will be described. During detector assembly, different techniques for stretching the GEM foils were tested. Results from measurements with x-rays and from test beam campaigns at the CERN SPS will be shown for the small and large prototypes. Preliminary simulation studies on the expected...

  8. Performance of a large size triple GEM detector at high particle rate for the CBM Experiment at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Rama Prasad; Kumar, Ajit; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Das, Supriya; Raha, Sibaji; Samanta, Subhasis; Saini, Jogender

    2017-02-01

    In CBM Experiment at FAIR, dimuons will be detected by a Muon Chamber (MUCH) consisting of segmented absorbers of varying widths and tracking chambers sandwiched between the absorber-pairs. In this fixed target heavy-ion collision experiment, operating at highest interaction rate of 10 MHz for Au+Au collision, the inner region of the 1st detector will face a particle rate of 1 MHz/cm2. To operate at such a high particle density, GEM technology based detectors have been selected for the first two stations of MUCH. We have reported earlier the performance of several small-size GEM detector prototypes built at VECC for use in MUCH. In this work, we report on a large GEM prototype tested with proton beam of momentum 2.36 GeV/c at COSY-Jülich Germany. The detector was read out using nXYTER operated in self-triggering mode. An efficiency higher than 96% at ΔVGEM = 375.2 V was achieved. The variation of efficiency with the rate of incoming protons has been found to vary within 2% when tested up to a maximum rate of 2.8 MHz/cm2. The gain was found to be stable at high particle rate with a maximum variation of ∼9%.

  9. Glycemic load, exercise, and monitoring blood glucose (GEM): A paradigm shift in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel J; Taylor, Ann G; Singh, Harsimran; Moncrief, Matthew; Diamond, Anne; Yancy, William S; Hegde, Shefali; McCall, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary RCT investigated whether an integrated lifestyle modification program that focuses on reducing postprandial blood glucose through replacing high with low glycemic load foods and increasing routine physical activities guided by systematic self-monitoring of blood glucose (GEM) could improve metabolic control of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, without compromising other physiological parameters. Forty-seven adults (mean age 55.3 years) who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus for less than 5 years (mean 2.1 years), had HbA1c ≥ 7% (mean 8.4%) and were not taking blood glucose lowering medications, were randomized to routine care or five 1-h instructional sessions of GEM. Assessments at baseline and 6 months included a physical exam, metabolic and lipid panels, and psychological questionnaires. The GEM intervention led to significant improvements in HbA1c (decreasing from 8.4 to 7.4% [69-57 mmol/mol] compared with 8.3 to 8.3% [68-68 mmol/mol] for routine care; Interaction ptype 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Frailty on Functional Gain, Resource Utilisation, and Discharge Destination: An Observational Prospective Study in a GEM Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Kawryshanker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A geriatric evaluation and management unit (GEM manages elderly inpatients with functional impairments. There is a paucity of literature on frailty and whether this impacts on rehabilitation outcomes. Objectives. To examine frailty score (FS as a predictor of functional gain, resource utilisation, and destinations for GEM patients. Methods. A single centre prospective case study design. Participants (n=136 were ≥65 years old and admitted to a tertiary hospital GEM. Five patients were excluded by the preset exclusion criteria, that is, medically unstable, severe dementia or communication difficulties after stroke. Core data included demographics, frailty score (FS, and functional independence. Results. The mean functional improvement (FIM from admission to discharge was 11.26 (95% CI 8.87, 13.66; P<0.001. Discharge FIM was positively correlated with admission FIM (β=0.748; P<0.001 and negatively correlated with frailty score (β=−1.151; P=0.014. The majority of the patients were in the “frail” group. “Frail” and “severely frail” subgroups improved more on mean FIM scores at discharge, relative to that experienced by the “pre-frail” group. Conclusion. All patients experienced functional improvement. Frailer patients improved more on their FIM and improved relatively more than their prefrail counterparts. Higher frailty correlated with reduced independence and greater resource utilisation. This study demonstrates that FS could be a prognostic indicator of physical independence and resource utilisation.

  11. ENED-GEM: A Conceptual Framework Model for Psychological Enjoyment Factors and Learning Mechanisms in Educational Games about the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjællingsdal, Kristoffer S; Klöckner, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    Based on a thorough review of psychological literature, this article seeks to develop a model of game enjoyment and environmental learning (ENvironmental EDucational Game Enjoyment Model, ENED-GEM) and delineate psychological processes that might facilitate learning and inspire behavioral change from educational games about the environment. A critically acclaimed digital educational game about environmental issues (Fate of the World by Red Redemption/Soothsayer Games) was used as a case study. Two hundred forty-nine reviews of the game from the popular gaming and reviewing platform known as Steam were analyzed by means of a thematic content analysis in order to identify key player enjoyment factors believed to be relevant to the process of learning from games, as well as to gain an understanding of positive and negative impressions about the game's general content. The end results of the thematic analysis were measured up to the suggested ENED-GEM framework. Initial results generally support the main elements of the ENED-GEM, and future research into the importance of these individual core factors is outlined.

  12. ENED-GEM: A Conceptual Framework Model for Psychological Enjoyment Factors and Learning Mechanisms in Educational Games about the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjællingsdal, Kristoffer S.; Klöckner, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on a thorough review of psychological literature, this article seeks to develop a model of game enjoyment and environmental learning (ENvironmental EDucational Game Enjoyment Model, ENED-GEM) and delineate psychological processes that might facilitate learning and inspire behavioral change from educational games about the environment. A critically acclaimed digital educational game about environmental issues (Fate of the World by Red Redemption/Soothsayer Games) was used as a case study. Two hundred forty-nine reviews of the game from the popular gaming and reviewing platform known as Steam were analyzed by means of a thematic content analysis in order to identify key player enjoyment factors believed to be relevant to the process of learning from games, as well as to gain an understanding of positive and negative impressions about the game’s general content. The end results of the thematic analysis were measured up to the suggested ENED-GEM framework. Initial results generally support the main elements of the ENED-GEM, and future research into the importance of these individual core factors is outlined. PMID:28701988

  13. Ion space-charge effects in multi-GEM detectors: challenges and possible solutions for future applications

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079251; Streli, Christina

    Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors are well known both for stable operation under irradiation with high particle fluxes and high achievable effective gains. The aim of this thesis is two-fold: to investigate the limits of GEM detector operation due to space-charge effects, and to develop a means to reduce the magnitude of the observed effects and thus extend those limitations. The first part of the thesis presents a comprehensive study of the intrinsic limits of triple-GEM detectors under exposure to very high fluxes of soft X-rays or operation at very large effective gains. The behaviour of the effective gain, ion back-flow and the pulse-height spectra is explained in terms of the movement and accumulation of positive ions throughout the detector volume, resulting in distortions of the transfer and amplification fields. Numerical computations, and measurements on double-stage and single-stage detectors confirm the model describing the observed effects. Discussions on ways to extend the limits of gas...

  14. The GEM detectors for the innermost region of the forward muon station of the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, M

    The LHCb experiment will take place at the LHC accelerator at CERN and will start in 2008. It is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays in the b quark sec- tor. The apparatus is a single arm spectrometer and it is designed with a robust and flexible trigger in order to extensively gain access to a wide spread of differ ent physical processes involving beauty particles. This will allow to over-constrain the Standard M odel predictions about CP violation, and to discover any possible inconsistency, whi ch would reveal the presence of “New Physics” beyond the Standard Model. This thesis reports the work performed on two aspects of the L HCb experiment: the main contribution is the development and the construction of a de tector based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology for the instrumentation of the high irradiated region around the beam pipe of the forward Muon Station; in the second part t he possibility of the search of the rare D 0 → + − decay at the LHCb exper...

  15. Vanadium-rich ruby and sapphire within Mogok Gemfield, Myanmar: implications for gem color and genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Khin; Sutherland, Lin; Yui, Tzen-Fu; Meffre, Sebastien; Thu, Kyaw

    2015-01-01

    Rubies and sapphires are of both scientific and commercial interest. These gemstones are corundum colored by transition elements within the alumina crystal lattice: Cr3+ yields red in ruby and Fe2+, Fe3+, and Ti4+ ionic interactions color sapphires. A minor ion, V3+ induces slate to purple colors and color change in some sapphires, but its role in coloring rubies remains enigmatic. Trace element and oxygen isotope composition provide genetic signatures for natural corundum and assist geographic typing. Here, we show that V can dominate chromophore contents in Mogok ruby suites. This raises implications for their color quality, enhancement treatments, geographic origin, exploration and exploitation and their comparison with rubies elsewhere. Precise LA-ICP-MS analysis of ruby and sapphire from Mogok placer and in situ deposits reveal that V can exceed 5,000 ppm, giving V/Cr, V/Fe and V/Ti ratios up to 26, 78, and 97 respectively. Such values significantly exceed those found elsewhere suggesting a localized geological control on V-rich ruby distribution. Our results demonstrate that detailed geochemical studies of ruby suites reveal that V is a potential ruby tracer, encourage comparisons of V/Cr-variation between ruby suites and widen the scope for geographic typing and genesis of ruby. This will allow more precise comparison of Asian and other ruby fields and assist confirmation of Mogok sources for rubies in historical and contemporary gems and jewelry.

  16. Statistics of atmospheric turbulence at Cerro Pachon using the GeMS profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Neichel, Benoit; Béchet, Clémentine; Guzmán, Dani; Guesalaga, Andrés.

    2014-08-01

    The knowledge of the atmospheric turbulence profile directly above the telescope using the telemetry from wide-field Adaptive Optics (AO) measurements can be extremely useful for the optimization of the correction in the new generation of AO systems. For this purpose, two techniques have been recently implemented at the Gemini South MCAO System (GeMS); both based on the SLODAR method. The first technique uses a matrix inversion approach of the slopes covariance matrices and the second deconvolves the cross-correlation functions between all combinations of slopes using the auto-correlation responses. The deconvolution approach has proved to be more reliable that the one based on matrices inversion, so we use it for estimating the profiles from on-sky telemetry gathered over three years (2012 - 2014), obtaining statistical parameters of the turbulence at Cerro Pachón. These results are summarized in this article. Particular attention is paid to the occurrence of turbulence in the dome of the Gemini South telescope.

  17. Emissions from Petrol Engine Fueled Gasoline–Ethanol–Methanol (GEM Ternary mixture as Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavelu Saravana Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demands of petroleum fuels due to the rapid development automotive society coupled with the environmental pollution issues have inspired the efforts on exploring alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Bioethanol obtained from biomass and bioenergy crops has been proclaimed as one of the feasible alternative to gasoline. In this study, the effect of gasoline–ethanol–methanol (GEM ternary blend on the emission characteristics of petrol engine was studied. Three different fuel blends, namely, E0 (gasoline, G75E21M4 (75% gasoline, 21% hydrous ethanol and 4% methanol and E25 (25% anhydrous ethanol and 75% gasoline were tested in a 1.3-l K3-VE spark-ignition engine. The results indicate that, when G75E21M4 fuel blend was used, a significant drop in CO, CO2, NOx and HC emissions by about 42%, 15%, 7% and 5.2% compared to E0, respectively. Moreover, the emission results for G75E21M4 are marginally lower than E25 whereas; HC emission was slightly higher than E25.

  18. A 32-channel front-end ASIC for GEM detectors used in beam monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciriello, F.; Altieri, P. R.; Corsi, F.; De Robertis, G.; Felici, G.; Loddo, F.; Lorusso, L.; Marzocca, C.; Matarrese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Stamerra, A.

    2017-11-01

    A multichannel, mixed-signal, front-end ASIC for GEM detectors, intended for beam monitoring in hadron therapy applications, has been designed and prototyped in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The analog channels are based on the classic CSA + shaper processing chain, followed by a peak detector which can work as an analog memory, to simplifiy the analog-to-digital conversion of the peak voltage of the output pulse, proportional to the energy of the detected event. The available hardware resources include an 8-bit A/D converter and a standard-cell digital part, which manages the read-out procedure, in sparse or serial mode. The ASIC is self-triggered and transfers energy and address data to the external DAQ via a fast 100 MHz LVDS link. Preliminary characterization results show that the non-linearity error is limited to 5% for a maximum input charge of about 70 fC, the measured ENC is about 1400e‑ and the time jitter of the trigger signal generated in response to an injected charge of 60 fC is close to 200 ps.

  19. ENTREPRENEURIAL STRATEGIC INNOVATION MODEL FOR ATTAINING PREMIUM VALUE FOR THE SRI LANKAN GEM AND JEWELLERY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamalie Ekanayake

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial innovative action is a four-pronged strategic integration; it mitigates financial risk in knowledge transfer and technology transfer, it integrates manufacturing and business strategy, and it provides policy remedy to transform the assets and capabilities of the value system. The innovation process utilises market innovations to establish a competitive advantage, gathers intellectual assets, attains proprietary rights and fosters the ability to implement appropriate strategies and sustain a competitive advantage, thus generating premium value. The entrepreneur's commitment uncovers market opportunities and exploits the inventiveness of value-system technologies to result in market innovation. The integration of the above-mentioned four forces with changing market needs transforms the capabilities of the value system to allow it to sustain business value regeneration and thus generate premium value. The failure of either one or all four forces of entrepreneurs' innovative strategies will lead to a reduction in the market value of the products and disintegrate the industry value system. This phenomena was observed in the gem and jewellery industry in Sri Lanka, where the industry has been capable enough to develop a competitive product base but has been positioned to experience a reduction in market value. This reduction has resulted in the disintegration of the industry value system, forcing firms to work in isolation.

  20. First performance of the GeMS + GMOS system - 1. Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibon, Pascale; Garrel, Vincent; Neichel, Benoit; Prout, Benjamin; Rigaut, Francois; Koning, Alice; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Gimeno, German; Pessev, Peter

    2016-09-01

    During the commissioning of the Gemini MCAO System (GeMS), we had the opportunity to obtain data with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS), the most utilized instrument at Gemini South Observatory, in 2012 March and May. Several globular clusters were observed in imaging mode that allowed us to study the performance of this new and untested combination. GMOS is a visible instrument, hence pushing MCAO towards the visible. We report here on the results with the GMOS instruments, derive photometric performance in term of full width at half-maximum (FWHM) and throughput. In most of the cases, we obtained an improvement factor of at least 2 against the natural seeing. This result also depends on the natural guide star constellation selected for the observations and we then study the impact of the guide star selection on the FWHM performance. We also derive a first astrometric analysis showing that the GeMS+GMOS system provide an absolute astrometric precision better than 8 mas and a relative astrometric precision lower than 50 mas.

  1. Spectroscopic study of inclusions in gem corundum from Mercaderes, Cauca, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeug, Manuela; Rodríguez Vargas, Andrés Ignacio; Nasdala, Lutz

    2017-03-01

    Mineral inclusions in gem corundum from Mercaderes, Cauca, Colombia, were investigated non-destructively using Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy, with special focus lying on phases containing radioactive elements. Besides abundant rutile, the minerals zircon, apatite, feldspar, and an epidote-group species, most probably allanite-(Ce), were found. The latter is detected easily from its characteristic Nd3+ emission pattern, which may prove useful in future provenance studies. Zircon inclusions range from well crystalline to moderately radiation damaged [FWHM (full width at half band maximum) of the ν 3(SiO4) Raman band 1.8-10.9 cm-1]. Both the zircon inclusions and their neighbouring host corundum are affected by compressive stress, which is assigned to (1) heterogeneous volume expansion of the host-inclusion couple upon pressure release during the uplift following primary growth and (2) volume expansion of the zircon inclusion due to the accumulation of self-irradiation damage. Internal stress of zircon inclusions averages 1.1 GPa. Heat treatment of corundum leads to structural reconstitution of zircon (narrowed zircon Raman bands with FWHMs in the range 1.8-2.7 cm-1) and accompanying stress release in the adjacent corundum (indicated by downshifts of the R 1 emission of Cr3+). The observation of broadened Raman band of zircon inclusions therefore allows one to exclude high-temperature enhancement of the host corundum.

  2. A new front-end ASIC for GEM detectors with time and charge measurement capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciciriello, F., E-mail: fabio.ciciriello@poliba.it [DEI-Politecnico di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Corsi, F. [DEI-Politecnico di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); De Robertis, G. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Felici, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Loddo, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Marzocca, C.; Matarrese, G. [DEI-Politecnico di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Ranieri, A. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    A 32 channel CMOS front-end ASIC has been designed to read out the GEM detectors intended to be used for beam monitoring in a new proton-therapy facility currently under construction. In order to improve the spatial resolution by exploiting charge centroid algorithms, the analog channels, based on the classic CSA+shaper architecture, are equipped with a peak detector (PD) which works as an analog memory during the read-out phase. The outputs of the PDs are multiplexed towards an integrated 8-bit subranging ADC. An accurate trigger signal marks the arrival of a valid event and is generated by fast-ORing the outputs of 32 voltage discriminators which compare the shaper outputs with a programmable threshold. The digital part of the ASIC manages the read-out of the channels, the A/D conversion and the configuration of the ASIC. A 100 Mbit/s LVDS serial link is used for data communication. The sensitivity of the analog channel is 15 mV/fC and the dynamic range is 80 fC. The simulated ENC is about 650 e{sup −} for a detector capacitance of 10 pF. © 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Hydroxylactone obtained by Biotransformation of Bromo- and Iodolactone with Gem-Dimethylcyclohexane Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabarczyk, Malgorzata; Maczka, Wanda; Winska, Katarzyna; Aniol, Miroslaw, E-mail: magrab@onet.pl [Department of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland); Zarowska, Barbara [Department of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2013-12-01

    Two bicyclic lactones with gem-dimethylcyclohexane rings ({delta}-bromo-{gamma}-lactone and {delta}-iodo-{gamma}-lactone) were used as substrates for biotransformation by whole cells of several fungal strains (five cepas Fusarium, Nigrospora oryzae, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Stemphylium botryosum, Cunninghamella japonica and Acremonium sp). Some of the selected microorganisms (mainly Fusarium strains) transformed these lactones by hydrolytic dehalogenation into cis-(-)-2-hydroxy-4,4-dimethyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-one. The conversion of the substrate was equal or close to 100%, showing that this method allows for the complete removal of the halogen atom from the molecule, replacing it by a hydroxy group. The structures of all substrates and products were established on the basis of their spectral data. Hydroxylactone obtained as http://jbcs.sbq.org.br/audiencia{sub p}df.asp?aid2=3794&nomeArquivo=v24n12a05.pdf a result of biotransformation was examined for its biological activity against bacteria, yeasts and fungi. This compound inhibits the growth of some tested microorganisms. (author)

  4. Study of reconstruction methods for a time projection chamber with GEM gas amplification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diener, R.

    2006-12-15

    A new e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with an energy range up to 1TeV is planned in an international collaboration: the International Linear Collider (ILC). This collider will be able to do precision measurements of the Higgs particle and of physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) - which is one proposal for a detector at the ILC - a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking device. To meet the requirements on the resolution and to be able to work in the environment at the ILC, the application of new gas amplification technologies in the TPC is necessary. One option is an amplification system based on Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). Due to the - in comparison with older technologies - small spatial width of the signals, this technology poses new requirements on the readout structures and the reconstruction methods. In this work, the performance and the systematics of different reconstruction methods have been studied, based on data measured with a TPC prototype in high magnetic fields of up to 4T and data from a Monte Carlo simulation. The latest results of the achievable point resolution are presented and their limitations have been investigated. (orig.)

  5. The structure of the GemC1 coiled coil and its interaction with the Geminin family of coiled-coil proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, Christophe; Fish, Alexander [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pefani, Dafni-Eleftheria; Taraviras, Stavros; Lygerou, Zoi [University of Patras, 26505 Rio, Patras (Greece); Perrakis, Anastassis, E-mail: a.perrakis@nki.nl [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-10-31

    The GemC1 coiled-coil structure has subtle differences compared with its homologues Geminin and Idas. Co-expression experiments in cells and biophysical stability analysis of the Geminin-family coiled coils suggest that the GemC1 coiled coil alone is unstable. GemC1, together with Idas and Geminin, an important regulator of DNA-replication licensing and differentiation decisions, constitute a superfamily sharing a homologous central coiled-coil domain. To better understand this family of proteins, the crystal structure of a GemC1 coiled-coil domain variant engineered for better solubility was determined to 2.2 Å resolution. GemC1 shows a less typical coiled coil compared with the Geminin homodimer and the Geminin–Idas heterodimer structures. It is also shown that both in vitro and in cells GemC1 interacts with Geminin through its coiled-coil domain, forming a heterodimer that is more stable that the GemC1 homodimer. Comparative analysis of the thermal stability of all of the possible superfamily complexes, using circular dichroism to follow the unfolding of the entire helix of the coiled coil, or intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of a unique conserved N-terminal tryptophan, shows that the unfolding of the coiled coil is likely to take place from the C-terminus towards the N-terminus. It is also shown that homodimers show a single-state unfolding, while heterodimers show a two-state unfolding, suggesting that the dimer first falls apart and the helices then unfold according to the stability of each protein. The findings argue that Geminin-family members form homodimers and heterodimers between them, and this ability is likely to be important for modulating their function in cycling and differentiating cells.

  6. Studies of aging and HV break down problems during development and operation of MSGC and GEM detectors for the Inner Tracking System of HERA-B

    CERN Document Server

    Bagaturia, Yu S; Dreis, H B; Eisele, Franz; Gorbunov, I V; Gradl, S; Gradl, W; Hausmann, S A; Hildebrandt, M; Hott, T; Keller, S; Krauss, C; Lomonosov, B N; Negodaev, M A; Richter, C; Robmann, P; Schmidt, B; Straumann, U; Truöl, P; Visbeck, S; Walter, T; Werner, C; Werthenbach, U; Zech, G; Zeuner, T; Ziegler, M

    2002-01-01

    The results of five years of development of the inner tracking system of the HERA-B experiment and first experience from the data taking period of the year 2000 are reported. The system contains 184 chambers, covering a sensitive area of about 20 * 20 cm2 each. The detector is based on microstrip gas counters (MSGCs) with diamond like coated (DLC) glass wafers and gas electron multipliers (GEMs). The main problems in the development phase were gas discharges in intense hadron beams and aging in a high radiation dose environment. The observation of gas discharges which damage the electrode structure of the MSGC led to the addition of the GEM as a first amplification step. Spurious sparking at the GEM cannot be avoided completely. It does not affect the GEM itself but can produce secondary damage of the MSGC if the electric field between the GEM and the MSGC is above a threshold depending on operation conditions. We observed that aging does not only depend on the dose but also on the spot size of the irradiated...

  7. Frequency and characteristics of familial melanoma in Spain: the FAM-GEM-1 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Rodas, Iván; Martín González, Manuel; Nagore, Eduardo; Gómez-Fernández, Cristina; Avilés-Izquierdo, Jose Antonio; Maldonado-Seral, Cayetana; Soriano, Virtudes; Majem-Tarruella, Margarita; Palomar, Virginia; Maseda, Rocio; Martín-Carnicero, Alfonso; Puertolas, Teresa; Godoy, Elena; Cerezuela, Pablo; Ochoa de Olza, Maria; Campos, Begoña; Perez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Soria, Ainara; Gil-Arnaiz, Irene; Gonzalez-Cao, Maria; Galvez, Elisa; Arance, Ana; Belon, Joaquin; de la Cruz-Merino, Luis; Martín-Algarra, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Familial history of melanoma is a well-known risk factor for the disease, and 7% melanoma patients were reported to have a family history of melanoma. Data relating to the frequency and clinical and pathological characteristics of both familial and non-familial melanoma in Spain have been published, but these only include patients from specific areas of Spain and do not represent the data for the whole of Spain. An observational study conducted by the Spanish Group of Melanoma (GEM) analyzed the family history of patients diagnosed with melanoma between 2011 and 2013 in the dermatology and oncology departments. In all, 1047 patients were analyzed, and 69 (6.6%) fulfilled criteria for classical familial melanoma (two or more first-degree relatives diagnosed with melanoma). Taking into account other risk factors for familial melanoma, such as multiple melanoma, pancreatic cancer in the family or second-degree relatives with melanoma, the number of patients fulfilling the criteria increased to 165 (15.8%). Using a univariate analysis, we determined that a Breslow index of less than 1 mm, negative mitosis, multiple melanoma, and a history of sunburns in childhood were more frequent in familial melanoma patients, but a multivariate analysis revealed no differences in any pathological or clinical factor between the two groups. Similar to that observed in other countries, familial melanoma accounts for 6.6% of melanoma diagnoses in Spain. Although no differences in the multivariate analysis were found, some better prognosis factors, such as Breslow index, seem more frequent in familial melanoma, which reflect a better early detection marker and/or a different biological behavior.

  8. Chromium speciation in oxide-type compounds: application to minerals, gems, aqueous solutions and silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, François

    2009-09-01

    Cr K-edge XANES spectra were obtained for a variety of Cr-bearing model compounds containing Cr(II), Cr(III), Cr(IV), Cr(V) and Cr(VI), in which the Cr-site symmetry is D4h, Oh and Td. The centroid position of the pre-edge feature is a better indicator of the Cr valence than the edge position. In Cr-rich oxides, higher-energy transitions must be excluded in order to refine a robust valence for Cr. The pre-edge for chromates is not unique and varies as a function of the CrO4 2- moiety distortion, which is often related to Cr-polymerization (monochromate vs. dichromate). Both the analogy with the Mn K-pre-edge information and ab initio FEFF calculations of the pre-edge feature for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) confirm the experimental trends. This methodology is applied to the Cr K-edge pre-edge feature collected in gems (emerald, spinel and ruby), the layered minerals fuchsite and kämmererite, two Cr-bearing aqueous solutions and a set of sodo-calcic silicate glasses used for bottling sparkling white wine. In emerald and fuchsite, the Cr-site is differently distorted than its ruby or spinel counterpart. In a Cr(III)-bearing aqueous solution and sodo-calcic glass, no evidence for Cr(III) with Td and C3v symmetry is detected. However, minor amounts of chromate moieties (most likely monomeric) are detected in a glass synthesized in air. Preliminary spectra for the wine bottle glass suggest that only trace amounts of chromates might possibly be present in these glasses.

  9. Space weather effects on radio propagation: study of the CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Blagoveshchensky

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 14 geomagnetic storms from a list of CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storms, that occurred during 1997–1999, on radio propagation conditions has been investigated. The propagation conditions were estimated through variations of the MOF and LOF (the maximum and lowest operation frequencies on three high-latitude HF radio paths in north-west Russia. Geophysical data of Dst, Bz, AE as well as some riometer data from Sodankyla observatory, Finland, were used for the analysis. It was shown that the storm impact on the ionosphere and radio propagation for each storm has an individual character. Nevertheless, there are common patterns in variation of the propagation parameters for all storms. Thus, the frequency range Δ=MOF−LOF increases several hours before a storm, then it narrows sharply during the storm, and expands again several hours after the end of the storm. This regular behaviour should be useful for the HF radio propagation predictions and frequency management at high latitudes. On the trans-auroral radio path, the time interval when the signal is lost through a storm (tdes depends on the local time. For the day-time storms an average value tdes is 6 h, but for night storms tdes is only 2 h. The ionization increase in the F2 layer before storm onset is 3.5 h during the day-time and 2.4 h at night. Mechanisms to explain the observed variations are discussed including some novel possibilities involving energy input through the cusp.

  10. Space weather effects on radio propagation: study of the CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Blagoveshchensky

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 14 geomagnetic storms from a list of CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storms, that occurred during 1997–1999, on radio propagation conditions has been investigated. The propagation conditions were estimated through variations of the MOF and LOF (the maximum and lowest operation frequencies on three high-latitude HF radio paths in north-west Russia. Geophysical data of Dst, Bz, AE as well as some riometer data from Sodankyla observatory, Finland, were used for the analysis. It was shown that the storm impact on the ionosphere and radio propagation for each storm has an individual character. Nevertheless, there are common patterns in variation of the propagation parameters for all storms. Thus, the frequency range Δ=MOF−LOF increases several hours before a storm, then it narrows sharply during the storm, and expands again several hours after the end of the storm. This regular behaviour should be useful for the HF radio propagation predictions and frequency management at high latitudes. On the trans-auroral radio path, the time interval when the signal is lost through a storm (tdes depends on the local time. For the day-time storms an average value tdes is 6 h, but for night storms tdes is only 2 h. The ionization increase in the F2 layer before storm onset is 3.5 h during the day-time and 2.4 h at night. Mechanisms to explain the observed variations are discussed including some novel possibilities involving energy input through the cusp.

  11. Bortezomib and thalidomide maintenance after stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: a PETHEMA/GEM trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiñol, L; Oriol, A; Teruel, A I; de la Guía, A L; Blanchard, MaJ; de la Rubia, J; Granell, M; Sampol, MaA; Palomera, L; González, Y; Etxebeste, MaA; Martínez-Martínez, R; Hernández, M T; de Arriba, F; Alegre, A; Cibeira, MaT; Mateos, MaV; Martínez-López, J; Lahuerta, J J; San Miguel, J; Bladé, J

    2017-09-01

    The phase III trial GEM05MENOS65 randomized 390 patients 65 years old or younger with newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) to receive induction with thalidomide/dexamethasone, bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone and Vincristine, BCNU, melphalan, cyclophosphamide, prednisone/vincristine, BCNU, doxorubicin, dexamethasone bortezomib (VBMCP/VBAD/B) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) with MEL-200. After ASCT, a second randomization was performed to compare thalidomide/bortezomib (TV), thalidomide (T) and alfa-2b interferon (alfa2-IFN). Maintenance treatment consisted of TV (thalidomide 100 mg daily plus one cycle of intravenous bortezomib at 1.3 mg/m2 on days 1, 4, 8 and 11 every 3 months) versus T (100 mg daily) versus alfa2-IFN (3 MU three times per week) for up to 3 years. A total of 271 patients were randomized (TV: 91; T: 88; alfa2-IFN: 92). The complete response (CR) rate with maintenance was improved by 21% with TV, 11% with T and 17% with alfa2-IFN (P, not significant). After a median follow-up of 58.6 months, the progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly longer with TV compared with T and alfa2-IFN (50.6 vs 40.3 vs 32.5 months, P=0.03). Overall survival was not significantly different among the three arms. Grade 2-3 peripheral neuropathy was observed in 48.8%, 34.4% and 1% of patients treated with TV, T and alfa2-IFN, respectively. In conclusion, bortezomib and thalidomide maintenance resulted in a significantly longer PFS when compared with thalidomide or alfa2-IFN. (no. EUDRA 2005-001110-41).

  12. Frequency and characteristics of familial melanoma in Spain: the FAM-GEM-1 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Márquez-Rodas

    Full Text Available Familial history of melanoma is a well-known risk factor for the disease, and 7% melanoma patients were reported to have a family history of melanoma. Data relating to the frequency and clinical and pathological characteristics of both familial and non-familial melanoma in Spain have been published, but these only include patients from specific areas of Spain and do not represent the data for the whole of Spain.An observational study conducted by the Spanish Group of Melanoma (GEM analyzed the family history of patients diagnosed with melanoma between 2011 and 2013 in the dermatology and oncology departments.In all, 1047 patients were analyzed, and 69 (6.6% fulfilled criteria for classical familial melanoma (two or more first-degree relatives diagnosed with melanoma. Taking into account other risk factors for familial melanoma, such as multiple melanoma, pancreatic cancer in the family or second-degree relatives with melanoma, the number of patients fulfilling the criteria increased to 165 (15.8%. Using a univariate analysis, we determined that a Breslow index of less than 1 mm, negative mitosis, multiple melanoma, and a history of sunburns in childhood were more frequent in familial melanoma patients, but a multivariate analysis revealed no differences in any pathological or clinical factor between the two groups.Similar to that observed in other countries, familial melanoma accounts for 6.6% of melanoma diagnoses in Spain. Although no differences in the multivariate analysis were found, some better prognosis factors, such as Breslow index, seem more frequent in familial melanoma, which reflect a better early detection marker and/or a different biological behavior.

  13. Impact of urban parameterization on high resolution air quality forecast with the GEM – AQ model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Struzewska

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the impact of urban cover on high-resolution air quality forecast simulations with the GEM-AQ (Global Environmental Multiscale and Air Quality model. The impact of urban area on the ambient atmosphere is non-stationary, and short-term variability of meteorological conditions may result in significant changes of the observed intensity of urban heat island and pollutant concentrations. In this study we used the Town Energy Balance (TEB parameterization to represent urban effects on modelled meteorological and air quality parameters at the final nesting level with horizontal resolution of ~5 km over Southern Poland. Three one-day cases representing different meteorological conditions were selected and the model was run with and without the TEB parameterization. Three urban cover categories were used in the TEB parameterization: mid-high buildings, very low buildings and low density suburbs. Urban cover layers were constructed based on an area fraction of towns in a grid cell. To analyze the impact of urban parameterization on modelled meteorological and air quality parameters, anomalies in the lowest model layer for the air temperature, wind speed and pollutant concentrations were calculated. Anomalies of the specific humidity fields indicate that the use of the TEB parameterization leads to a systematic reduction of moisture content in the air. Comparison with temperature and wind speed measurements taken at urban background monitoring stations shows that application of urban parameterization improves model results. For primary pollutants the impact of urban areas is most significant in regions characterized with high emissions. In most cases the anomalies of NO2 and CO concentrations were negative. This reduction is most likely caused by an enhanced vertical mixing due to elevated surface temperature and modified vertical stability.

  14. GeMS MCAO observations of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808: the absolute age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, D.; Fiorentino, G.; McConnachie, A.; Bono, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Turri, P.; Tolstoy, E.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Globular clusters are the oldest stellar systems in the Milky Way, and they probe the early epoch of the Galaxy formation. However, the uncertainties on their absolute age are still too large to soundly constrain how the Galactic structures have assembled. Aims: The aim of this work is to obtain an accurate estimate of the absolute age of the globular cluster NGC 2808 using deep IR data obtained with the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system operating at the Gemini South telescope (GeMS). Methods: This exquisite photometry, combined with that obtained in V and I-bands with HST, allowed us to detect the faint Main Sequence Knee feature in NGC 2808 colour magnitude diagram. The difference between this point and the main sequence turn-off is a good age estimator that provides ages with unprecedented accuracy. Results: We find that NGC 2808 has an age of t = 10.9 ± 0.7 (intrinsic) ±0.45 (metallicity term) Gyr. A possible contamination by He-enhanced population could make the cluster up to 0.25 Gyr older. Although this age estimate agrees with the age coming from the classical turn-off method (t = 11.0 Gyr), its uncertainty is a factor ~3 better, since it avoids systematics in reddening, distance assumptions, and photometric zero point determination. The final absolute age indicates that NGC 2808 is slightly younger than other Galactic globular clusters with similar metallicity. Tables of the photometry are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A51

  15. Analysis of the state of the art in the GEM project on gender and entrepreneur ship, period 1999-2009; Analisis del estdo del arte en el proyecto GEM sobre genero y actividad emprendedora perio 1999-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Escobedo, M. C.; Postigo Jimenez, M. V.; Hernandez Mogollon, R.

    2012-11-01

    This paper fundamental aims to analyse the situation and evolution of research on gender in creation of business that has used the Global Entrepreneur ship Monitor (GEM) data, since the inception of the project until the end of 2009. To do this, the authors carries out analysis methods biblio metric about research both nationally and internationally. The results of the study show the fundamental documents and their types, primary scientific articles, main journals of dissemination, authors, institutions and most productive countries as well as techniques of analysis and data sources used. (Author) 47 refs.

  16. Comparison of the HadGEM2 climate-chemistry model against in situ and SCIAMACHY atmospheric methane data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Hayman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are a major emission source of methane (CH4 globally. In this study, we evaluate wetland emission estimates derived using the UK community land surface model (JULES, the Joint UK Land Earth Simulator against atmospheric observations of methane, including, for the first time, total methane columns derived from the SCIAMACHY instrument on board the ENVISAT satellite. Two JULES wetland emission estimates are investigated: (a from an offline run driven with Climatic Research Unit–National Centers for Environmental Prediction (CRU-NCEP meteorological data and (b from the same offline run in which the modelled wetland fractions are replaced with those derived from the Global Inundation Extent from Multi-Satellites (GIEMS remote sensing product. The mean annual emission assumed for each inventory (181 Tg CH4 per annum over the period 1999–2007 is in line with other recently published estimates. There are regional differences as the unconstrained JULES inventory gives significantly higher emissions in the Amazon (by ~36 Tg CH4 yr−1 and lower emissions in other regions (by up to 10 Tg CH4 yr−1 compared to the JULES estimates constrained with the GIEMS product. Using the UK Hadley Centre's Earth System model with atmospheric chemistry (HadGEM2, we evaluate these JULES wetland emissions against atmospheric observations of methane. We obtain improved agreement with the surface concentration measurements, especially at high northern latitudes, compared to previous HadGEM2 runs using the wetland emission data set of Fung et al. (1991. Although the modelled monthly atmospheric methane columns reproduce the large-scale patterns in the SCIAMACHY observations, they are biased low by 50 part per billion by volume (ppb. Replacing the HadGEM2 modelled concentrations above 300 hPa with HALOE–ACE assimilated TOMCAT output results in a significantly better agreement with the SCIAMACHY observations. The use of the GIEMS product to constrain the JULES

  17. Liquid chromatography-particle beam electron ionization mass spectrometry method for analysis of botanical extracts: evaluation of ephedrine alkaloids in standard reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Joaudimir; Krishna, M V Balarama; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The preliminary validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography particle beam mass spectrometry method (HPLC-PB/MS) with electron impact ionization source for analysis of botanical extracts is presented. The LC-PB/MS system was evaluated for the analysis of ephedrine alkaloids using ephedra-containing National Institute of Standards and Technology dietary supplement standard reference materials (SRMs) 3241 Ephedra Sinica Stapf Native Extract and 3242 Ephedra Sinica Stapf Commercial Extract. The ephedrine alkaloids were separated by reversed-phase chromatography using a phenyl column at room temperature. A linear gradient method with a mobile phase composition varying from 5:95 [MeOH:0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water] to 20:80 (MeOH:0.1% TFA in water) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, with an analysis time of less than 20 min, was used. The source block temperature was evaluated to determine the optimal operating conditions by monitoring the intensities and fragmentation patterns of the ephedrine alkaloids. Ephedrine and N-methylephedrine were taken as a representative of the test alkaloids. The LODs on the sub-nanogram level were achieved, with ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and methylephedrine in the SRMs quantified by a standard addition method with recoveries of > or = 86% and RSDs of < or = 14% (n = 3).

  18. The separation of natural from synthetic gem-quality diamonds on the basis of crystal growth criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, E. (GIA Research, Gemological Inst. of America, Santa Monica, CA (United States)); Shigley, J.E. (GIA Research, Gemological Inst. of America, Santa Monica, CA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The commercial availability of gem-quality synthetic diamond products, and the renewed research interest in large crystals produced by high-pressure diamond synthesis, have made it necessry for the tem diamond trade to find simple ways to identify faceted synthetic diamonds. Using magnification, and various more sophisticated spectroscopic and ultraviolet or cathodoluminescence techniques, a number of gemological properties that are characteristic of synthetic diamonds have been found. These distinctive properties result from difference in growth processes between natural and synthetic diamonds. In particular, the presence of cubic growth sectors and absence of nitrogen aggregation in synthetic diamonds provide for some of their most characteristic features. (orig.)

  19. Using simulated maps to interpret the geochemistry, formation and quality of the Blue Gem Coal Bed, Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Engle, Mark A.; Martin-Fernandez, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This study presents geostatistical simulations of coal-quality parameters, major oxides and trace metals for an area covering roughly 812 km2 of the Blue Gem coal bed in southeastern Kentucky, USA. The Blue Gem, characterized by low ash yield and low sulfur content, is an important economic resource. Past studies have characterized the Blue Gem's geochemistry, palynology and petrography and inferred a depositional setting of a planar peat deposit that transitioned to slightly domed later in its development. These studies have focused primarily on vertical geochemical trends within the coal bed. Simulated maps of chemical elements derived from 45 measured sample locations across the study area provide an opportunity to observe changes in the horizontal direction within the coal bed. As the Blue Gem coal bed shows significant vertical chemical trends, care was taken in this study to try to select samples from a single, middle portion of the coal. By revealing spatial distribution patterns of elements across the middle of the bed, associations between different components of the coal can be seen. The maps therefore help to provide a picture of the coal-forming peat bog at an instant in geologic time and allow interpretation of a depositional setting in the horizontal direction. Results from this middle portion of the coal suggest an association of SiO2 with both K2O and TiO2 in different parts of the study area. Further, a pocket in the southeast of the study area shows elevated concentrations of elements attributable to observed carbonate-phase minerals (MgO, CaO, Ba and Sr) as well as elements commonly associated with sulfide-phase minerals (Cu, Mo and Ni). Areas of relatively high ash yield are observed in the north and south of the mapped area, in contrast to the low ash yields seen towards the east. Additionally, we present joint probability maps where multiple coal-quality parameters are plotted simultaneously on one figure. This application allows researchers

  20. Cesium nitrate: As an efficient catalyst for synthesis of gem-dihydroperoxides from aldehydes and ketones using aqueous 30% H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Khosravi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gem-dihydroperoxides (DHPs, as key intermediates of aldehydes and ketones, are important precursors in synthesis of anti-malaria drugs and have been used as a solid and powerful oxidant in many oxidation organic reactions. For the importance of gem-DHPs, in this work, cesium nitrate has been used as an efficient and commercially available solid catalyst for catalysis peroxidation of aldehydes and ketones to corresponding gem-DHPs by 30% aqueous hydrogen peroxide at room temperature. The reactions carry on with short time and the products were obtained in excellent yields and high purity. In all reaction, no by-product was observed. This methodology is new, easy, effective, and usable.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of the GEMS soil organic carbon model to land cover land use classification uncertainties under different climate scenarios in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieye, A.M.; Roy, David P.; Hanan, N.P.; Liu, S.; Hansen, M.; Toure, A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially explicit land cover land use (LCLU) change information is needed to drive biogeochemical models that simulate soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Such information is increasingly being mapped using remotely sensed satellite data with classification schemes and uncertainties constrained by the sensing system, classification algorithms and land cover schemes. In this study, automated LCLU classification of multi-temporal Landsat satellite data were used to assess the sensitivity of SOC modeled by the Global Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS). The GEMS was run for an area of 1560 km2 in Senegal under three climate change scenarios with LCLU maps generated using different Landsat classification approaches. This research provides a method to estimate the variability of SOC, specifically the SOC uncertainty due to satellite classification errors, which we show is dependent not only on the LCLU classification errors but also on where the LCLU classes occur relative to the other GEMS model inputs.

  2. Conjugate observations of the day-side reconnection electric field: A GEM boundary layer campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pinnock

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Data from HF-radars are used to make the first simultaneous conjugate measurements of the day-side reconnection electric field. A period of 4 h around local magnetic noon are studied during a geospace environment modeling (GEM boundary layer campaign. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF was southward whilst the eastward component (By was variable. The flow patterns derived from the radar data show the expected conjugate asymmetries associated with  IMF |By| > 0. High-time resolution data (50 and 100 s enable the flow of plasma across the open/closed field line boundary (the separatrix to be studied in greater detail than in previous work. The latitude of the separatrix follows the same general trend in both hemispheres but shows a hemispherical difference of 4°, with the summer cusp at higher latitude, as expected from dipole tilt considerations. However, the short-time scale motion of the separatrix cannot be satisfactorily resolved within the best resolution (300 m s-1 of the experiment. The orientation of the separatrix with respect to magnetic latitude is found to follow the same trend in both hemispheres and qualitatively fits that predicted by a model auroral oval. It shows no correlation with IMF By. However, the degree of tilt in the Northern (summer Hemisphere is found to be significantly greater than that given by the model oval. The convection pattern data show that the meridian at which throat flow occurs is different in the two hemispheres and is controlled by IMF By, in agreement with empirically derived convection patterns and theoretical models. The day-side reconnection electric field values are largest when the radar's meridian is in the throat flow or early afternoon flow regions. In the morning or afternoon convection cells, the reconnection electric field tends to zero away from the throat flow region. The reconnection electric field observed in the throat flow region is bursty in nature.Key words. Ionosphere (plasma

  3. Conjugate observations of the day-side reconnection electric field: A GEM boundary layer campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pinnock

    Full Text Available Data from HF-radars are used to make the first simultaneous conjugate measurements of the day-side reconnection electric field. A period of 4 h around local magnetic noon are studied during a geospace environment modeling (GEM boundary layer campaign. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF was southward whilst the eastward component (By was variable. The flow patterns derived from the radar data show the expected conjugate asymmetries associated with 
    IMF |By| > 0. High-time resolution data (50 and 100 s enable the flow of plasma across the open/closed field line boundary (the separatrix to be studied in greater detail than in previous work. The latitude of the separatrix follows the same general trend in both hemispheres but shows a hemispherical difference of 4°, with the summer cusp at higher latitude, as expected from dipole tilt considerations. However, the short-time scale motion of the separatrix cannot be satisfactorily resolved within the best resolution (300 m s-1 of the experiment. The orientation of the separatrix with respect to magnetic latitude is found to follow the same trend in both hemispheres and qualitatively fits that predicted by a model auroral oval. It shows no correlation with IMF By. However, the degree of tilt in the Northern (summer Hemisphere is found to be significantly greater than that given by the model oval. The convection pattern data show that the meridian at which throat flow occurs is different in the two hemispheres and is controlled by IMF By, in agreement with empirically derived convection patterns and theoretical models. The day-side reconnection electric field values are largest when the radar's meridian is in the throat flow or early afternoon flow regions. In the morning or afternoon convection cells, the reconnection electric field tends to zero away from the throat flow region. The reconnection electric field observed in the throat flow region is bursty in nature

  4. Future change of water vaiables from HadGEM2-AO simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Hyun; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Johan; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Cho, Chunho

    2013-04-01

    hydrology-atmosphere for water resource planning. Arora et al. (1999) and Oki and Sud (1998) developed a method for routing river flows through GCM grid cells. Accordingly, reliable forecasts are expected to help water managers and users with long lead time decisions, leading to greater water use efficiency and better risk management (Wang, 2012). SO, we analysed hydrological cycle and drought index from precipitation, evaporation, runoff, soil moisture, river outflow, and so on using atmosphere-ocean coupled model which called by HadGEM2-AO. Details and added information by this climate projection system about the future water cycle's change will be presented at the workshop. Acknowledgments: This research has been supported by project NIMR-2013-B-2 of the National Institute of Meteorological Research in Korea Meteorological Administration.

  5. Muon drift chamber physics and engineering R and D activities for the L* and GEM Detectors in FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.; Britt, H.C.; Capell, M.; Chargin, A.K.; Deis, G.A.; Fackler, O.D.; Johnson, C.V. III; Lowry, M.E.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Masquelier, D.A.; McCammon, K.; McConaghy, C.F.; Olson, H.E.; Schmitt, E.H.; Skulina, K.M.; Vital, R.L.; Wenaus, T.; Wuest, C.R.

    1991-09-25

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined the multi- national L* Detector collaboration in early 1990. The L* Detector has been described in great detail in a number of documents submitted to the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory. LLNL's participation in the L* collaboration consisted of a multi- disciplinary effort involving a number of physicists, engineers and technologists from different areas of the laboratory who came together to identify areas of research, development and engineering on the L* Detector where LLNL's expertise and technological capabilities could best be utilized. Among these capabilities, superconducting magnet technology, chemistry and materials science, and design of new types of physics detectors were deemed areas of LLNL expertise best suited to the R D effort needed for L*. This paper will describe the work carried out at LLNL on muon chamber R D for the L* detector in FY 1991. Because of the L* proposal rejection in May 1991, and the subsequent restructuring to form the GEM detector collaboration in July 1991, the work described in this paper will also be seen to the applicable to the envisioned muon chamber subsystem for GEM.

  6. Muon drift chamber physics and engineering R and D activities for the L* and GEM Detectors in FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.; Britt, H.C.; Capell, M.; Chargin, A.K.; Deis, G.A.; Fackler, O.D.; Johnson, C.V. III; Lowry, M.E.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Masquelier, D.A.; McCammon, K.; McConaghy, C.F.; Olson, H.E.; Schmitt, E.H.; Skulina, K.M.; Vital, R.L.; Wenaus, T.; Wuest, C.R.

    1991-09-25

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined the multi- national L* Detector collaboration in early 1990. The L* Detector has been described in great detail in a number of documents submitted to the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory. LLNL`s participation in the L* collaboration consisted of a multi- disciplinary effort involving a number of physicists, engineers and technologists from different areas of the laboratory who came together to identify areas of research, development and engineering on the L* Detector where LLNL`s expertise and technological capabilities could best be utilized. Among these capabilities, superconducting magnet technology, chemistry and materials science, and design of new types of physics detectors were deemed areas of LLNL expertise best suited to the R&D effort needed for L*. This paper will describe the work carried out at LLNL on muon chamber R&D for the L* detector in FY 1991. Because of the L* proposal rejection in May 1991, and the subsequent restructuring to form the GEM detector collaboration in July 1991, the work described in this paper will also be seen to the applicable to the envisioned muon chamber subsystem for GEM.

  7. Muon Chamber Endcap Upgrade of the CMS Experiment with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detectors and their Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gola, Mohit

    2017-01-01

    As the CERN LHC is heading towards a high luminosity phase a very high flux is expected in the endcaps of the CMS Detector. The presence of muons in collision events can be due to rare or new physics so it is important to maintain the high trigger efficiency of the CMS muon system. The CMS Collaboration has proposed to instrument the high-eta region (1.6 lt IetaI lt 2.2) of the muon endcaps with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, referred to as GE1/1 chambers, during the LS2. This technology will help in maintaining optimum trigger performance with maximum selection efficiency of muons even in a high flux environment. We describe plans for a Slice Test to installa few GE1/1 chambers covering 50 degrees in azimuthal angle within the CMS detector in 2017, with subsequent operation during the current Run 2 of the LHC. We show the performance of the GE1/1 chambers to be installed during the slice test, specifically GEM foil leakage currents, chamber gas volume integrity, high voltage circuit performanc...

  8. A micro-TCA based data acquisition system for the Triple-GEM detectors for the upgrade of the CMS forward muon spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, T.

    2017-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) upgrade project aims at improving the performance of the muon spectrometer of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment which will suffer from the increase in luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The GEM collaboration proposes to instrument the first muon station with Triple-GEM detectors, a technology which has proven to be resistant to high fluxes of particles. The architecture of the readout system is based on the use of the microTCA standard hosting FPGA-based Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC) and of the Versatile Link with the GBT chipset to link the on-detector electronics to the micro-TCA boards. For the front-end electronics a new ASIC, called VFAT3, is being developed. On the detector, a Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA mezzanine board, called the OptoHybrid, has to collect the data from 24 VFAT3s and to transmit the data optically to the off-detector micro-TCA electronics, as well as to transmit the trigger data at 40 MHz to the CMS Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) trigger. The microTCA electronics provides the interfaces from the detector (and front-end electronics) to the CMS DAQ, TTC (Timing, Trigger and Control) and Trigger systems. In this paper, we will describe the DAQ system of the Triple-GEM project and provide results from the latest test beam campaigns done at CERN.

  9. Beam Test Results for New Full-scale GEM Prototypes for a Future Upgrade of the CMS High-eta Muon System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067149; Armagnaud, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Ban, Y.; Bally, S.; Benussi, L.; Berzano, U.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bunkowski, K.; Cai, J.; Chatelain, J.P.; Christiansen, J.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; David, E.; de Robertis, G.; De Oliveira, R.; Duarte Pinto, S.; Ferry, S.; Formenti, F.; Franconi, L.; Fruboes, T.; Gutierrez, A.; Hohlmann, M.; Kamel, A.E.; Karchin, P.E.; Loddo, F.; Magazzu, G.; Maggi, M.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Mehta, K.; Merlin, J.; Mohapatra, A.; Moulik, T.; Nemallapudi, M.V.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Radi, A.; Raffone, G.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Staib, M.J.; Teng, H.; Tytgat, M.; Tupputi, S.A.; Turini, N.; Smilkjovic, N.; Villa, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Zientek, M.

    2012-01-01

    The CMS GEM collaboration is considering Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for upgrading the CMS forward muon system in the 1.5<|eta|<2.4 endcap region. GEM detectors can provide precision tracking and fast trigger information. They would improve the CMS muon trigger and muon momentum resolution and provide missing redundancy in the high-eta region. Employing a new faster construction and assembly technique, we built four full-scale Triple-GEM muon detectors for the inner ring of the first muon endcap station. We plan to install these or further improved versions in CMS during the first long LHC shutdown in 2013/14 for continued testing. These detectors are designed for the stringent rate and resolution requirements in the increasingly hostile environments expected at CMS after the second long LHC shutdown in 2018/19. The new prototypes were studied in muon/pion beams at the CERN SPS. We discuss our experience with constructing the new full-scale production prototypes and present preliminary performance r...

  10. A compilation of field surveys on gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from contrasting environmental settings in Europe, South America, South Africa and China: separating fads from facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Pablo; Oyarzun, Roberto; Kotnik, Joze; Esbrí, José María; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Horvat, Milena; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; Llanos, Willians; Vaselli, Orlando; Nisi, Barbara; Mashyanov, Nikolay; Ryzov, Vladimir; Spiric, Zdravko; Panichev, Nikolay; McCrindle, Rob; Feng, Xinbin; Fu, Xuewu; Lillo, Javier; Loredo, Jorge; García, María Eugenia; Alfonso, Pura; Villegas, Karla; Palacios, Silvia; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Contreras, Felicia; Adams, Melitón; Ribeiro-Guevara, Sergio; Niecenski, Luise Felipe; Giammanco, Salvatore; Huremović, Jasna

    2014-08-01

    Mercury is transported globally in the atmosphere mostly in gaseous elemental form (GEM, [Formula: see text]), but still few worldwide studies taking into account different and contrasted environmental settings are available in a single publication. This work presents and discusses data from Argentina, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Finland, Italy, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Slovenia and Venezuela. We classified the information in four groups: (1) mining districts where this contaminant poses or has posed a risk for human populations and/or ecosystems; (2) cities, where the concentration of atmospheric mercury could be higher than normal due to the burning of fossil fuels and industrial activities; (3) areas with natural emissions from volcanoes; and (4) pristine areas where no anthropogenic influence was apparent. All the surveys were performed using portable LUMEX RA-915 series atomic absorption spectrometers. The results for cities fall within a low GEM concentration range that rarely exceeds 30 ng m(-3), that is, 6.6 times lower than the restrictive ATSDR threshold (200 ng m(-3)) for chronic exposure to this pollutant. We also observed this behavior in the former mercury mining districts, where few data were above 200 ng m(-3). We noted that high concentrations of GEM are localized phenomena that fade away in short distances. However, this does not imply that they do not pose a risk for those working in close proximity to the source. This is the case of the artisanal gold miners that heat the Au-Hg amalgam to vaporize mercury. In this respect, while GEM can be truly regarded as a hazard, because of possible physical-chemical transformations into other species, it is only under these localized conditions, implying exposure to high GEM concentrations, which it becomes a direct risk for humans.

  11. Group epitope mapping considering relaxation of the ligand (GEM-CRL): Including longitudinal relaxation rates in the analysis of saturation transfer difference (STD) experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Sebastian; Patel, Mitul K.; Errey, James C.; Davis, Benjamin G.; Jones, Jonathan A.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.

    2010-03-01

    In the application of saturation transfer difference (STD) experiments to the study of protein-ligand interactions, the relaxation of the ligand is one of the major influences on the experimentally observed STD factors, making interpretation of these difficult when attempting to define a group epitope map (GEM). In this paper, we describe a simplification of the relaxation matrix that may be applied under specified experimental conditions, which results in a simplified equation reflecting the directly transferred magnetisation rate from the protein onto the ligand, defined as the summation over the whole protein of the protein-ligand cross-relaxation multiplied by with the fractional saturation of the protein protons. In this, the relaxation of the ligand is accounted for implicitly by inclusion of the experimentally determined longitudinal relaxation rates. The conditions under which this "group epitope mapping considering relaxation of the ligand" (GEM-CRL) can be applied were tested on a theoretical model system, which demonstrated only minor deviations from that predicted by the full relaxation matrix calculations (CORCEMA-ST) [7]. Furthermore, CORCEMA-ST calculations of two protein-saccharide complexes (Jacalin and TreR) with known crystal structures were performed and compared with experimental GEM-CRL data. It could be shown that the GEM-CRL methodology is superior to the classical group epitope mapping approach currently used for defining ligand-protein proximities. GEM-CRL is also useful for the interpretation of CORCEMA-ST results, because the transferred magnetisation rate provides an additional parameter for the comparison between measured and calculated values. The independence of this parameter from the above mentioned factors can thereby enhance the value of CORCEMA-ST calculations.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA and GeMS observations of the OMC1 region (Eisner+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, J. A.; Bally, J. M.; Ginsburg, A.; Sheehan, P. D.

    2016-09-01

    We mapped a region around the OMC1 BN/KL outflow in the ONC with ALMA. The map is comprised of 108 mosaicked pointings in the northwest region of the OMC1 outflow and 39 pointings in the southeast region. The fields were observed at 230GHz frequency (Band 6), corresponding to a wavelength of 1.3mm. Observations were taken between 2014 July 19 and 2015 April 05. The angular resolution of the observations was approximately 1". We observed the OMC1 region in Orion with GeMS at the Gemini South telescope between 2012 December 30 and 2013 February 28 (see Bally et al. 2015, J/A+A/579/A130). We observed in the Ks filter, as well as the narrow Fe[II] and H2 filters, producing images with angular resolutions of ~0.06". (3 data files).

  13. Open Science and eGEMs: Our Role in Supporting a Culture of Collaboration in Learning Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holve, Erin

    2016-01-01

    "Open science" includes a variety of approaches to facilitate greater access to data and the information produced by processes of scientific inquiry. Recently, the health sciences community has been grappling with the issue of potential pathways and models to achieve the goals of open science-namely, to create and rapidly share reproducible health research. eGEMs' continued dedication to and milestones regarding the publication of innovative, useful, and timely research to help contribute to the push towards open science is discussed, as well as the EDM Forum's new data sharing platform, CIELO. Although strides have been made, there is still more work to be done to help health sciences community truly embrace open science.

  14. Robustness test of a system of MSGC+GEM detectors at the cyclotron facility of the Paul Scherrer institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, M.; Albert, A.; Barvich, T.; Beaumont, W.; Beckers, T.; Bernier, K.; Bluem, P.; Bouhali, O.; Boulogne, I.; Bouvet, D.; Brom, J.M.; Charles, F.; Coffin, J.; Contardo, D.; Daubie, E.; Didierjean, F.; Erdmann, M.; De Lentdecker, G.; Devroede, O.; De Troy, J.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Fahrer, M.; Fluegge, G.; Fontaine, J.C.; Geist, W.; Goerlach, U.; Gottschalk, M.; Helleboid, J.M.; Huss, D.; Iacopi, F.; Kaercher, K.; Kuehn, F.; Juillot, P. E-mail: juillot@in2p3.fr; Lounis, A.; Maazouzi, C.; Macke, D.; Martin, C.; Mirabito, L.; Moreau, S.; Mueller, T.; Neuberger, D.; Nowack, A.; Perries, S.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Roederer, F.; Schulte, R.; Shekhtman, L.; Simonis, H.J.; Struczinski, W.; Tatarinov, A.; Thuemmel, W.H.; Udo, F.; Doninck, W. van; Dyck, C. van; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Lancker, L. van; Weiler, T.; Zander, A.; Zghiche, A.; Zhukov, V

    2001-10-01

    A system of detector modules consisting of a large size Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM), coupled to Micro Strip Gas Counters (MSGC), has been exposed to a pion beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute Cyclotron facility. As part of a CMS tracker milestone, the aim of this test was to investigate the robustness of such detectors when exposed to experimental conditions close to what is expected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN. Eighteen detector modules have been operated at voltage settings corresponding to 98% detection efficiency for Minimum Ionizing Particles during a period of 5 weeks. Sparking rates and strip losses have been monitored throughout the exposure. An operation margin of at least a factor of three with respect to the required gas gain has been demonstrated.

  15. Predicting nitrate discharge dynamics in mesoscale catchments using the lumped StreamGEM model and Bayesian parameter inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Simon James Roy; Wöhling, Thomas; Rode, Michael; Stenger, Roland

    2017-09-01

    The common practice of infrequent (e.g., monthly) stream water quality sampling for state of the environment monitoring may, when combined with high resolution stream flow data, provide sufficient information to accurately characterise the dominant nutrient transfer pathways and predict annual catchment yields. In the proposed approach, we use the spatially lumped catchment model StreamGEM to predict daily stream flow and nitrate concentration (mg L-1 NO3-N) in four contrasting mesoscale headwater catchments based on four years of daily rainfall, potential evapotranspiration, and stream flow measurements, and monthly or daily nitrate concentrations. Posterior model parameter distributions were estimated using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling code DREAMZS and a log-likelihood function assuming heteroscedastic, t-distributed residuals. Despite high uncertainty in some model parameters, the flow and nitrate calibration data was well reproduced across all catchments (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency against Log transformed data, NSL, in the range 0.62-0.83 for daily flow and 0.17-0.88 for nitrate concentration). The slight increase in the size of the residuals for a separate validation period was considered acceptable (NSL in the range 0.60-0.89 for daily flow and 0.10-0.74 for nitrate concentration, excluding one data set with limited validation data). Proportions of flow and nitrate discharge attributed to near-surface, fast seasonal groundwater and slow deeper groundwater were consistent with expectations based on catchment geology. The results for the Weida Stream in Thuringia, Germany, using monthly as opposed to daily nitrate data were, for all intents and purposes, identical, suggesting that four years of monthly nitrate sampling provides sufficient information for calibration of the StreamGEM model and prediction of catchment dynamics. This study highlights the remarkable effectiveness of process based, spatially lumped modelling with commonly available monthly

  16. Measurement of Z boson production in association with jets at the LHC and study of a DAQ system for the Triple-GEM detector in view of the CMS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Léonard, Alexandre

    This PhD thesis presents the measurement of the differential cross section for the production of a Z boson in association with jets in proton-proton collisions taking place at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. A development of a data acquisition (DAQ) system for the Triple-Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector in view of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector upgrade is also presented. The events used for the data analysis were collected by the CMS detector during the year 2012 and constitute a sample of 19.6/fb of integrated luminosity. The cross section measurements are performed as a function of the jet multiplicity, the jet transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, and the scalar sum of the jet transverse momenta. The results were obtained by correcting the observed distributions for detector effects. The measured differential cross sections are compared to some state of the art Monte Carlo predictions MadGraph 5, Sherpa 2 and MadGraph5_aMC@NLO. These measureme...

  17. Development of the data acquisition system for the Triple-GEM detectors for the upgrade of the CMS forward muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Akl, M A; Ahmed, W; Armaingaud, C; Aspell, P; Assran, Y; Bally, S; Ban, Y; Banerjee, S; Barria, P; Benussi, L; Bhopatkar, V; Bianco, S; Bos, J; Bouhali, O; Cai, J; Calabria, C; Castaneda, A; Cauwenbergh, S; Celik, A; Christiansen, J; Colafranceschi, S; Colaleo, A; Conde Garcia, A; Dabrowski, M; De Lentdecker, G; De Oliveira, R; De Robertis, G; Dildick, S; Ferry, S; Flanagan, W; Gilmore, J; Guilloux, F; Gutierrez, A; Hoepfner, K; Hohlmann, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Khotilovich, V; Korntheuer, M; Krutelyov, S; Lenzi, T; Loddo, F; Maerschalk, T; Magazzu, G; Maggi, M; Maghrbi, Y; Marchioro, A; Marinov, A; Mazumdar, N; Merlin, J A; Mukhopadhyay, S; Nuzzo, S; Oliveri, E; Philipps, B; Piccolo, D; Postema, H; Radi, A; Radogna, R; Raffone, G; Ranieri, A; Rodrigues, A; Ropelewski, L; Safonov, A; Sakharov, A; Salva, S; Saviano, G; Sharma, A; Talvitie, J; Tatarinov, A; Teng, H; Turini, N; Tuuva, T; Twigger, J; Tytgat, M; van Stenis, M.; Verhagen, E; Yang, Y; Zaganidis, N; Zenoni, F

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we will report on the progress of thedesign of the readout and data acquisition system being developedfor triple-GEM detectors which will be installed in the forwardregion (1.5 < |η| < 2.2) of the CMS muonspectrometer during the 2nd long shutdown of the LHC, expectedin the period 2017–2018. The system will be designed to take fulladvantage of current generic developments introduced for the LHCupgrades. The current design is based on the use of CERN GLIB boardshosted in micro-TCA crates for the off-detector electronics and theVersatile Link with the GBT chipset to link the front-endelectronics to the GLIB boards. In this contribution we willdescribe the physics goals, the hardware architectures and report onthe expected performance of the CMS GEM readout system, includingpreliminary timing resolution simulations.

  18. Prognostic value of antigen expression in multiple myeloma: a PETHEMA/GEM study on 1265 patients enrolled in four consecutive clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, P; Paiva, B; Cedena, M-T; Puig, N; Cordon, L; Vidriales, M-B; Gutierrez, N C; Chiodi, F; Burgos, L; Anglada, L-L; Martinez-Lopez, J; Hernandez, M-T; Teruel, A-I; Gironella, M; Echeveste, M-A; Rosiñol, L; Martinez, R; Oriol, A; De la Rubia, J; Orfao, A; Blade, J; Lahuerta, J-J; Mateos, M-V; San Miguel, J-F

    2017-11-03

    Persistence of minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment for myeloma predicts inferior outcomes, but within MRD-positive patients there is great heterogeneity with both early and very late relapses. Among different MRD techniques, flow cytometry provides additional information about antigen expression on tumor cells, which could potentially contribute to stratify MRD-positive patients. We investigated the prognostic value of those antigens required to monitor MRD in 1265 newly diagnosed patients enrolled in the GEM2000, GEM2005MENOS65, GEM2005MAS65 and GEM2010MAS65 protocols. Overall, CD19pos, CD27neg, CD38lo, CD45pos, CD81pos, CD117neg and CD138lo expression predicted inferior outcomes. Through principal component analysis, we found that simultaneous CD38lowCD81posCD117neg expression emerged as the most powerful combination with independent prognostic value for progression-free survival (HR:1.69; P=0.002). This unique phenotypic profile retained prognostic value among MRD-positive patients. We then used next-generation flow to determine antigen stability throughout the course of the disease, and found that the expression of antigens required to monitor MRD is mostly stable from diagnosis to MRD stages, except for CD81 whose expression progressively increased from baseline to chemoresistant tumor cells (14 vs 28%). Altogether, we showed that the phenotypic profile of tumor cells provides additional prognostic information, and could be used to further predict risk of relapse among MRD-positive patients.Leukemia advance online publication, 19 December 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2017.320.

  19. Nominal Mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attygalle, Athula B.; Pavlov, Julius

    2017-08-01

    The current IUPAC-recommended definition of the term "nominal mass," based on the most abundant naturally occurring stable isotope of an element, is flawed. We propose that Nominal mass should be defined as the sum of integer masses of protons and neutrons in any chemical species. In this way, all isotopes and isotopologues can be assigned a definitive identifier.

  20. Hydrogen Cyanide in the Upper Troposphere: GEM-AQ Simulation and Comparison with ACE-FTS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, A.; Kaminski, J. W.; Neary, L.; McConnell, J. C.; Toyota, K.; Rinsland, C. P.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Nagahama, Y.; hide

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the upper troposphere through numerical simulations and comparison with observations from a space-based instrument. To perform the simulations, we used the Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality model (GEM-AQ), which is based on the threedimensional Gobal multiscale model developed by the Meteorological Service of Canada for operational weather forecasting. The model was run for the period 2004-2006 on a 1.5deg x 1.5deg global grid with 28 hybrid vertical levels from the surface up to 10 hPa. Objective analysis data from the Canadian Meteorological Centre were used to update the meteorological fields every 24 h. Fire emission fluxes of gas species were generated by using year-specific inventories of carbon emissions with 8-day temporal resolution from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) version 2. The model output is compared with HCN profiles measured by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) instrument onboard the Canadian SCISAT-1 satellite. High values of up to a few ppbv are observed in the tropics in the Southern Hemisphere; the enhancement in HCN volume mixing ratios in the upper troposphere is most prominent in October. Low upper-tropospheric mixing ratios of less than 100 pptv are mostly recorded at middle and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere in May-July. Mixing ratios in Northern Hemisphere peak in the boreal summer. The amplitude of the seasonal variation is less pronounced than in the Southern Hemisphere. The comparison with the satellite data shows that in the upper troposphere GEM-AQ perform7s well globally for all seasons, except at northern hi gh and middle latitudes in surnmer, where the model has a large negative bias, and in the tropics in winter and spring, where it exhibits large positive bias. This may reflect inaccurate emissions or possible inaccuracies in the emission profile. The model is able to

  1. ESTADO DE LA EDUCACIÓN Y FORMACIÓN EMPRESARIAL EN LOS PAÍSES Y REGIONES ESPAÑOLAS DEL GEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernández Laviada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Specialised literature presents education and training as a determining factor for entrepreneurship. However, time and time again experts at the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM have stated that it’s one lowest, and sometimes the least, valued elements in this area. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyse the state of entrepreneurship education and training in its different stages within the countries and regions that participated in GEM 2012. Specifically, what is sought is, based on the opinion of the experts, the state of entrepreneurship training and education in each level analysed in GEM, generically as well as by country, while looking at the possible differences (strengths and weaknesses that appear in each one. Furthermore, this is paired with a national analysis that examines the situation of the different participating regions in the study. In order to carry out the analysis, the 2012 NES database is used. In that edition, a total of 69 countries participated and, in the case of Spain, there were 14 regions all with 36 experts in each. The data processing is carried out using the Rasch model for measurement. The preliminary results show that, in general, university level education geared towards entrepreneurship is more highly developed than at the lower levels of education, such as in secondary and primary education. Nevertheless, the individual analysis makes it possible to detect differences between countries and regions.

  2. Auto-Ignition of Iso-Stoichiometric Blends of Gasoline-Ethanol-Methanol (GEM) in SI, HCCI and CI Combustion Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad

    2017-03-28

    Gasoline-ethanol-methanol (GEM) blends, with constant stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio (iso-stoichiometric blending rule) and equivalent to binary gasoline-ethanol blends (E2, E5, E10 and E15 in % vol.), were defined to investigate the effect of methanol and combined mixtures of ethanol and methanol when blended with three FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) Gasolines, I, J and A corresponding to RON 70.2, 73.8 and 83.9, respectively, and their corresponding Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs). A Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine was used under Spark Ignition and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited modes. An ignition quality tester was utilized in the Compression Ignition mode. One of the promising properties of GEM blends, which are derived using the iso-stoichiometric blending rule, is that they maintain a constant octane number, which has led to the introduction of methanol as a drop-in fuel to supplement bio-derived ethanol. A constant RON/HCCI fuel number/derived Research octane number property was observed in all three combustion modes for high RON fuels, but for low RON fuels, the iso-stoichiometric blending rule for constant octane number did not appear to be valid. The chemical composition and octane number of the base fuel also influenced the behavior of the GEM blends under different conditions.

  3. A micro-TCA based data acquisition system for the Triple-GEM detectors for the upgrade of the CMS forward muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Lenzi, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We will present the electronic and DAQ system being developed for TripleGEM detectors which will be installed in the CMS muon spectrometer. The microTCA system uses an Advanced Mezzanine Card equipped with an FPGA and the Versatile Link with the GBT chipset to link the front and back-end. On the detector an FPGA mezzanine board, the OptoHybrid, has to collect the data from the detector readout chips to transmit them optically to the microTCA boards using the GBT protocol. We will describe the hardware architecture, report on the status of the developments, and present results obtained with the system.In this contribution we will report on the progress of the design of the electronic readout and data acquisition (DAQ) system being developed for Triple-GEM detectors which will be installed in the forward region (1.5 < eta < 2.2) of the CMS muon spectrometer during the 2nd long shutdown of the LHC, planed for the period 2018-2019. The architecture of the Triple-GEM readout system is based on the use of the...

  4. GEM2Net: from gene expression modeling to -omics networks, a new CATdb module to investigate Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaag, Rim; Tamby, Jean Philippe; Guichard, Cécile; Tariq, Zakia; Rigaill, Guillem; Delannoy, Etienne; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Balzergue, Sandrine; Mary-Huard, Tristan; Aubourg, Sébastien; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Brunaud, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    CATdb (http://urgv.evry.inra.fr/CATdb) is a database providing a public access to a large collection of transcriptomic data, mainly for Arabidopsis but also for other plants. This resource has the rare advantage to contain several thousands of microarray experiments obtained with the same technical protocol and analyzed by the same statistical pipelines. In this paper, we present GEM2Net, a new module of CATdb that takes advantage of this homogeneous dataset to mine co-expression units and decipher Arabidopsis gene functions. GEM2Net explores 387 stress conditions organized into 18 biotic and abiotic stress categories. For each one, a model-based clustering is applied on expression differences to identify clusters of co-expressed genes. To characterize functions associated with these clusters, various resources are analyzed and integrated: Gene Ontology, subcellular localization of proteins, Hormone Families, Transcription Factor Families and a refined stress-related gene list associated to publications. Exploiting protein-protein interactions and transcription factors-targets interactions enables to display gene networks. GEM2Net presents the analysis of the 18 stress categories, in which 17,264 genes are involved and organized within 681 co-expression clusters. The meta-data analyses were stored and organized to compose a dynamic Web resource. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Use of quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to identify causes of diarrhoea in children: a reanalysis of the GEMS case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Platts-Mills, James A; Juma, Jane; Kabir, Furqan; Nkeze, Joseph; Okoi, Catherine; Operario, Darwin J; Uddin, Jashim; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Alonso, Pedro L; Antonio, Martin; Becker, Stephen M; Blackwelder, William C; Breiman, Robert F; Faruque, Abu S G; Fields, Barry; Gratz, Jean; Haque, Rashidul; Hossain, Anowar; Hossain, M Jahangir; Jarju, Sheikh; Qamar, Farah; Iqbal, Najeeha Talat; Kwambana, Brenda; Mandomando, Inacio; McMurry, Timothy L; Ochieng, Caroline; Ochieng, John B; Ochieng, Melvin; Onyango, Clayton; Panchalingam, Sandra; Kalam, Adil; Aziz, Fatima; Qureshi, Shahida; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Roberts, James H; Saha, Debasish; Sow, Samba O; Stroup, Suzanne E; Sur, Dipika; Tamboura, Boubou; Taniuchi, Mami; Tennant, Sharon M; Toema, Deanna; Wu, Yukun; Zaidi, Anita; Nataro, James P; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Myron M; Houpt, Eric R

    2016-09-24

    Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of mortality in children worldwide, but establishing the cause can be complicated by diverse diagnostic approaches and varying test characteristics. We used quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to reassess causes of diarrhoea in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS). GEMS was a study of moderate to severe diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years in Africa and Asia. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to test for 32 enteropathogens in stool samples from cases and matched asymptomatic controls from GEMS, and compared pathogen-specific attributable incidences with those found with the original GEMS microbiological methods, including culture, EIA, and reverse-transcriptase PCR. We calculated revised pathogen-specific burdens of disease and assessed causes in individual children. We analysed 5304 sample pairs. For most pathogens, incidence was greater with qPCR than with the original methods, particularly for adenovirus 40/41 (around five times), Shigella spp or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and Campylobactor jejuni o C coli (around two times), and heat-stable enterotoxin-producing E coli ([ST-ETEC] around 1·5 times). The six most attributable pathogens became, in descending order, Shigella spp, rotavirus, adenovirus 40/41, ST-ETEC, Cryptosporidium spp, and Campylobacter spp. Pathogen-attributable diarrhoeal burden was 89·3% (95% CI 83·2-96·0) at the population level, compared with 51·5% (48·0-55·0) in the original GEMS analysis. The top six pathogens accounted for 77·8% (74·6-80·9) of all attributable diarrhoea. With use of model-derived quantitative cutoffs to assess individual diarrhoeal cases, 2254 (42·5%) of 5304 cases had one diarrhoea-associated pathogen detected and 2063 (38·9%) had two or more, with Shigella spp and rotavirus being the pathogens most strongly associated with diarrhoea in children with mixed infections. A quantitative molecular diagnostic approach improved population

  6. A hydrological prediction system based on the SVS land-surface scheme: efficient calibration of GEM-Hydro for streamflow simulation over the Lake Ontario basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, Étienne; Fortin, Vincent; Xu, Xiaoyong; Seglenieks, Frank; Tolson, Bryan; Fry, Lauren M.; Hunter, Tim; Anctil, François; Gronewold, Andrew D.

    2017-09-01

    This work explores the potential of the distributed GEM-Hydro runoff modeling platform, developed at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) over the last decade. More precisely, the aim is to develop a robust implementation methodology to perform reliable streamflow simulations with a distributed model over large and partly ungauged basins, in an efficient manner. The latest version of GEM-Hydro combines the SVS (Soil, Vegetation and Snow) land-surface scheme and the WATROUTE routing scheme. SVS has never been evaluated from a hydrological point of view, which is done here for all major rivers flowing into Lake Ontario. Two established hydrological models are confronted to GEM-Hydro, namely MESH and WATFLOOD, which share the same routing scheme (WATROUTE) but rely on different land-surface schemes. All models are calibrated using the same meteorological forcings, objective function, calibration algorithm, and basin delineation. GEM-Hydro is shown to be competitive with MESH and WATFLOOD: the NSE √ (Nash-Sutcliffe criterion computed on the square root of the flows) is for example equal to 0.83 for MESH and GEM-Hydro in validation on the Moira River basin, and to 0.68 for WATFLOOD. A computationally efficient strategy is proposed to calibrate SVS: a simple unit hydrograph is used for routing instead of WATROUTE. Global and local calibration strategies are compared in order to estimate runoff for ungauged portions of the Lake Ontario basin. Overall, streamflow predictions obtained using a global calibration strategy, in which a single parameter set is identified for the whole basin of Lake Ontario, show accuracy comparable to the predictions based on local calibration: the average NSE √ in validation and over seven subbasins is 0.73 and 0.61, respectively for local and global calibrations. Hence, global calibration provides spatially consistent parameter values, robust performance at gauged locations, and reduces the complexity and computation burden of the

  7. A hydrological prediction system based on the SVS land-surface scheme: efficient calibration of GEM-Hydro for streamflow simulation over the Lake Ontario basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    É. Gaborit

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the potential of the distributed GEM-Hydro runoff modeling platform, developed at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC over the last decade. More precisely, the aim is to develop a robust implementation methodology to perform reliable streamflow simulations with a distributed model over large and partly ungauged basins, in an efficient manner. The latest version of GEM-Hydro combines the SVS (Soil, Vegetation and Snow land-surface scheme and the WATROUTE routing scheme. SVS has never been evaluated from a hydrological point of view, which is done here for all major rivers flowing into Lake Ontario. Two established hydrological models are confronted to GEM-Hydro, namely MESH and WATFLOOD, which share the same routing scheme (WATROUTE but rely on different land-surface schemes. All models are calibrated using the same meteorological forcings, objective function, calibration algorithm, and basin delineation. GEM-Hydro is shown to be competitive with MESH and WATFLOOD: the NSE  √  (Nash–Sutcliffe criterion computed on the square root of the flows is for example equal to 0.83 for MESH and GEM-Hydro in validation on the Moira River basin, and to 0.68 for WATFLOOD. A computationally efficient strategy is proposed to calibrate SVS: a simple unit hydrograph is used for routing instead of WATROUTE. Global and local calibration strategies are compared in order to estimate runoff for ungauged portions of the Lake Ontario basin. Overall, streamflow predictions obtained using a global calibration strategy, in which a single parameter set is identified for the whole basin of Lake Ontario, show accuracy comparable to the predictions based on local calibration: the average NSE  √  in validation and over seven subbasins is 0.73 and 0.61, respectively for local and global calibrations. Hence, global calibration provides spatially consistent parameter values, robust performance at gauged locations, and reduces the

  8. Preliminary results of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) as real-time beam monitor in hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aza, E., E-mail: eleni.aza@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); AUTH, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ciocca, M. [Fondazione CNAO, Strada Campeggi 53, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Murtas, F. [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); LNF-INFN, Via Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Puddu, S. [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); AEC-LHEP, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pullia, M. [Fondazione CNAO, Strada Campeggi 53, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Silari, M. [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-01-01

    The use of proton and carbon ion beams in cancer therapy (also known as hadron therapy) is progressively growing worldwide due to their improved dose distributions, sparing of healthy tissues and (for carbon ions) increased radiobiological effectiveness especially for radio-resistant tumours. Strict Quality Assurance (QA) protocols need to be followed for guaranteeing the clinical beam specifications. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a gaseous detector based on the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology for measuring the beam spot dimensions and the homogeneity of the scanned irradiation field, which are daily QA tasks commonly performed using radiochromic films. Measurements performed at the National Centre for Oncological Hadron Therapy (CNAO) in Pavia (Italy) showed that the detector is able to monitor the 2D beam image on-line with a pad granularity of 2 mm and a response proportional to the number of delivered particles. The dose homogeneity was measured with low deviation from the results obtained with radiochromic films.

  9. Meeting the Challenge of Earthquake Risk Globalisation: Towards the Global Earthquake Model GEM (Sergey Soloviev Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschau, J.

    2009-04-01

    Earthquake risk, like natural risks in general, has become a highly dynamic and globally interdependent phenomenon. Due to the "urban explosion" in the Third World, an increasingly complex cross linking of critical infrastructure and lifelines in the industrial nations and a growing globalisation of the world's economies, we are presently facing a dramatic increase of our society's vulnerability to earthquakes in practically all seismic regions on our globe. Such fast and global changes cannot be captured with conventional earthquake risk models anymore. The sciences in this field are, therefore, asked to come up with new solutions that are no longer exclusively aiming at the best possible quantification of the present risks but also keep an eye on their changes with time and allow to project these into the future. This does not apply to the vulnerablity component of earthquake risk alone, but also to its hazard component which has been realized to be time-dependent, too. The challenges of earthquake risk dynamics and -globalisation have recently been accepted by the Global Science Forum of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD - GSF) who initiated the "Global Earthquake Model (GEM)", a public-private partnership for establishing an independent standard to calculate, monitor and communicate earthquake risk globally, raise awareness and promote mitigation.

  10. EDITORIAL: Gems in nanoscience Gems in nanoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-04-01

    In 1902 R M Wood published the paper 'On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum' [1]. As was true of so much of his work, interest in his observations took flight, inspiring extensive research into associated new optical phenomena. What is now known as Wood's anomaly has been described as the result of excitations of oscillations in the conducting electron plasma, or 'plasmons'. These quasiparticles have become increasingly attractive to researchers, perhaps less for the dazzling colours they impart to glitzy gemstones over their potential to facilitate medical imaging, as well as integrated optics [2] and the transfer of information and energy at dimensions below the diffraction limit. Excitation of surface plasmons provides a means of enhancing optical near fields, thus empowering a range of signal detecting applications. A range of innovative techniques have been implemented to probe surface plasmon resonances. The evolution of plasmon resonance energy and mean free path as particle dimensions increase from nanostructures to bulk matter has been monitored through ellipsometry, thus providing an insight into the plasmon polariton coupling [3]. Electron energy loss experiments have also proved a valuable tool for mapping surface plasmons with a spatial resolution an order of magnitude better than can be achieved with scanning near-field optical microscopes [4]. The exploitation of surface plasmons is primed to aid advances in medical imaging, diagnosis and therapy. Researchers in the US have developed a protein-enabled strategy to fabricate quantum dot nanoarrays where an increase in surface-plasmon-enhanced fluorescence of up to a factor of 15 has been achieved [5]. Understanding and dexterity in manipulating these enhancements has reached a high level of sophistication, and researchers in London have demonstrated the ability to increase the fluorescence enhancement by a factor of 4 and the decay rate by a factor of almost 30 by tuning the localised surface plasmon resonance of silver particle arrays to the emission wavelength of a locally situated fluorophore [6]. In the US and Belarus researchers have collaborated to investigate the potential of plasmonic nanobubbles, generated by laser activated nanoparticles, for combined diagnostics, therapy, and therapy guidance. Such nanobubbles can be optically tracked in the body, and their rapid expansion and collapse provides a localised mechanical impact on cells that can disrupt the cell membrane [7]. Surface plasmon polaritons at nanostructures allow highly local control of light, which has a range of uses in electronic devices. Photovoltaics researchers in the US and the Netherlands have demonstrated enhanced short circuit current densities compared to cells having flat or randomly textured back contacts using nanostructured plasmonic back contacts, which maximise the interaction with the light [8]. Progress in optoelectronics is another area where surface plasmon polaritons are playing an increasingly important role [9]. In this issue, researchers at the Institut des Sciences Molé culaire d'Orsay demonstrate that it is possible to excite propagating surface plasmon polaritons with a scanning tunnelling microscope, and detect them [2]. Their work also investigates the nature of the excited plasmons and how the intensities of the propagating surface plasmon polaritons and the localized plasmon emission can be enhanced by factors of 2 and 20 respectively by using a silver tip instead of a tungsten one. Wisdom may be worth more than silver and gold, but a little silver and gold can contribute a lot to unearthing new wisdom at the nanoscale. References [1] Wood R M 1902 Nanotechnology 18 296 [2] Wang T, Boer-Duchemin E, Zhang Y, Comtet G and Dujardin G 2011 Nanotechnology 22 175201 [3] Oates T W H and Mücklich A 2005 Nanotechnology 16 2606 [4] Bosman M, Keast V J, Watanabe M, Maaroof A I and Cortie M B 2007 Nanotechnology 18 165505 [5] Zin M T, Leong K, Wong N-Y, Ma H, Sarikaya M and Jen A K-Y 2009 Nanotechnology 20 015305 [6] Cade N I, Ritman-Meer T, Kwakwa K A and Richards D 2009 Nanotechnology 20 285201 [7] Lukianova-Hleb E Y, Hanna E Y, Hafner J H and Lapotko D O 2010 Nanotechnology 21 085102 [8] Ferry V E, Verschuuren M A, Li H B T, Verhagen E, Walters R J, Schropp R E I, Atwater H A, and Polman A 2010 Optics Express 18 A237-45 [9] Maier S A 2006 IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12 1671-7

  11. Innovations in Mass Spectrometry for Precise and Accurate Isotope Ratio Determination from Very Small Analyte Quantities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, N. S.; Bouman, C.; Horstwood, M. S.; Parrish, R. R.; Schwieters, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation describes progress in mass spectrometry for analysing very small analyte quantities, illustrated by example applications from nuclear forensics. In this challenging application, precise and accurate (‰) uranium isotope ratios are required from 1 - 2 µm diameter uranium oxide particles, which comprise less than 40 pg of uranium. Traditionally these are analysed using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), and more recently using secondary ionisation mass spectrometry (SIMS). Multicollector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) can offer higher productivity compared to these techniques, but is traditionally limited by low efficiency of analyte utilisation (sample through to ion detection). Samples can either be introduced as a solution, or sampled directly from solid using laser ablation. Large multi-isotope ratio datasets can help identify provenance and intended use of anthropogenic uranium and other nuclear materials [1]. The Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus (Bremen, Germany) with ‘Jet Interface’ option offers unparalleled MC-ICP-MS sensitivity. An analyte utilisation of c. 4% has previously been reported for uranium [2]. This high-sensitivity configuration utilises a dry high-capacity (100 m3/h) interface pump, special skimmer and sampler cones and a desolvating nebuliser system. Coupled with new acquisition methodologies, this sensitivity enhancement makes possible the analysis of micro-particles and small sample volumes at higher precision levels than previously achieved. New, high-performance, full-size and compact discrete dynode secondary electron multipliers (SEM) exhibit excellent stability and linearity over a large dynamic range and can be configured to simultaneously measure all of the uranium isotopes. Options for high abundance-sensitivity filters on two ion beams are also available, e.g. for 236U and 234U. Additionally, amplifiers with high ohm (1012 - 1013) feedback resistors have been developed to

  12. Neutrino masses

    CERN Document Server

    Gelmini, Graciela B; Gelmini, Graciela; Roulet, Esteban

    1995-01-01

    This is a review for Reports of Progress in Physics. After an introduction we start by explaining the different neutrino masses corresponding to different types of neutrinos, Dirac or Majorana, in section 2. In section 3 we discuss the main elementary particle models for neutrino masses and their distinctive phenomenological consequences. In section 4 we describe the status of direct mass searches and Majorana mass searches in neutrinoless double beta decays. In section 5 we go over the many cosmological implications of, and constraints on, neutrino properties, mainly masses and lifetimes. Sections 6, 7 and 8 review neutrino oscillations, the solar neutrino problem and the atmospheric neutrino problem, their implications and the current and future experiments. In particular, we explain oscillations in vacuum in section 6 and oscillations in matter in section 7. Section 9 summarizes the main bounds imposed by stars, mainly SN1987A. A few concluding remarks follow.

  13. Mass Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2017-01-01

    the negative features usually ascribed by late nineteenth-century crowd psychology to spontaneous crowds, and attributes these to the entire social fabric. However, in contrast to crowd psychology, theorists of mass society often place greater emphasis on how capitalism, technological advances, or demographic......Mass society is a societal diagnosis that emphasizes – usually in a pejorative, modernity critical manner – a series of traits allegedly associated with modern society, such as the leveling of individuality, moral decay, alienation, and isolation. As such, the notion of mass society generalizes...... developments condition such negative features, and some theorists argue that mass society produces a propensity to totalitarianism. Discussions of mass society culminated in the early and mid-twentieth century....

  14. GEM Performance Studies in CMS Experiment with Four Muons Final State

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00572310; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Assran, Yasser; Yasein, Mohamed Nabil; Yasein, Mohamed Nabil; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Assran, Yasser

    The standard model (SM) of particle physics, although it is a very successful theory and compatible with all experimental results, it has a number of shortcomings, in particular it provides no answer for the three generations of fermions. Compositeness models try to solve this problem by postulating that quarks and leptons might be composite objects of fundamental particles. Due to their substructure, these models predict the existence of excited states of SM particles, in particular excited quarks $q^*$ and excited leptons $l^*$. In the first part of the thesis we present a phenomenological study of excited muons $\\mu^*$ at center of mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 14 TeV and integrated luminosity of $300fb^{-1}$ respectively. These excited muons are produced via contact interactions at an energy scale $\\Lambda$ either singly in conjunction with a SM particle or in pairs. The considered channel here is the single production, in particular the decay channel $pp \\rightarrow \\mu \\mu^* \\rightarrow \\mu \\mu Z$, with the ...

  15. GEM-AQ, an on-line global multiscale chemical weather modelling system: model description and evaluation of gas phase chemistry processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, J. W.; Neary, L.; Struzewska, J.; McConnell, J. C.; Lupu, A.; Jarosz, J.; Toyota, K.; Gong, S. L.; Côté, J.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Richter, A.

    2008-06-01

    Tropospheric chemistry and air quality processes were implemented on-line in the Global Environmental Multiscale weather prediction model. The integrated model, GEM-AQ, was developed as a platform to investigate chemical weather at scales from global to urban. The current chemical mechanism is comprised of 50 gas-phase species, 116 chemical and 19 photolysis reactions, and is complemented by a sectional aerosol module with 5 aerosols types. All tracers are advected using the semi-Lagrangian scheme native to GEM. The vertical transport includes parameterized subgrid-scale turbulence and large scale deep convection. Dry deposition is included as a flux boundary condition in the vertical diffusion equation. Wet deposition of gas-phase species is treated in a simplified way, and only below-cloud scavenging is considered. The emissions used include yearly-averaged anthropogenic, and monthly-averaged biogenic, ocean, soil, and biomass burning emission fluxes, as well as NOx from lightning. In order to evaluate the ability to simulate seasonal variations and regional distributions of trace gases such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide, the model was run for a period of five years (2001 2005) on a global uniform 1.5°×1.5° horizontal resolution domain and 28 hybrid levels extending up to 10 hPa. Model results were compared with observations from satellites, aircraft measurement campaigns and balloon sondes. We find that GEM-AQ is able to capture the spatial details of the chemical fields in the middle and lower troposphere. The modelled ozone consistently shows good agreement with observations, except over tropical oceans. The comparison of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide with satellite measurements emphasizes the need for more accurate, year-specific emissions fluxes for biomass burning and anthropogenic sources. Other species also compare well with available observations.

  16. GEM-AQ, an on-line global multiscale chemical weather modelling system: model description and evaluation of gas phase chemistry processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Kaminski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric chemistry and air quality processes were implemented on-line in the Global Environmental Multiscale weather prediction model. The integrated model, GEM-AQ, was developed as a platform to investigate chemical weather at scales from global to urban. The current chemical mechanism is comprised of 50 gas-phase species, 116 chemical and 19 photolysis reactions, and is complemented by a sectional aerosol module with 5 aerosols types. All tracers are advected using the semi-Lagrangian scheme native to GEM. The vertical transport includes parameterized subgrid-scale turbulence and large scale deep convection. Dry deposition is included as a flux boundary condition in the vertical diffusion equation. Wet deposition of gas-phase species is treated in a simplified way, and only below-cloud scavenging is considered. The emissions used include yearly-averaged anthropogenic, and monthly-averaged biogenic, ocean, soil, and biomass burning emission fluxes, as well as NOx from lightning. In order to evaluate the ability to simulate seasonal variations and regional distributions of trace gases such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide, the model was run for a period of five years (2001–2005 on a global uniform 1.5°×1.5° horizontal resolution domain and 28 hybrid levels extending up to 10 hPa. Model results were compared with observations from satellites, aircraft measurement campaigns and balloon sondes. We find that GEM-AQ is able to capture the spatial details of the chemical fields in the middle and lower troposphere. The modelled ozone consistently shows good agreement with observations, except over tropical oceans. The comparison of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide with satellite measurements emphasizes the need for more accurate, year-specific emissions fluxes for biomass burning and anthropogenic sources. Other species also compare well with available observations.

  17. Top-down/bottom-up description of electricity sector for Switzerland using the GEM-E3 computable general equilibrium model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R. A

    2006-06-15

    Participation of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in the advancement and extension of the multi-region, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model GEM-E3 (CES/KUL, 2002) focused primarily on two top-level facets: a) extension of the model database and model calibration, particularly as related to the second component of this study, which is; b) advancement of the dynamics of innovation and investment, primarily through the incorporation of Exogenous Technical Learning (ETL) into he Bottom-Up (BU, technology-based) part of the dynamic upgrade; this latter activity also included the completion of the dynamic coupling of the BU description of the electricity sector with the 'Top-Down' (TD, econometric) description of the economy inherent to the GEM-E3 CGE model. The results of this two- component study are described in two parts that have been combined in this single summary report: Part I describes the methodology and gives illustrative results from the BUTD integration, as well as describing the approach to and giving preliminary results from incorporating an ETL description into the BU component of the overall model; Part II reports on the calibration component of task in terms of: a) formulating a BU technology database for Switzerland based on previous work; incorporation of that database into the GEM-E3 model; and calibrating the BU database with the TD database embodied in the (Swiss) Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). The BUTD coupling along with the ETL incorporation described in Part I represent the major effort embodied in this investigation, but this effort could not be completed without the calibration preamble reported herein as Part II. A brief summary of the scope of each of these key study components is given. (author)

  18. The gastrointestinal electrical mapping suite (GEMS): software for analyzing and visualizing high-resolution (multi-electrode) recordings in spatiotemporal detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassi, Rita; O'Grady, Gregory; Paskaranandavadivel, Nira; Du, Peng; Angeli, Timothy R; Pullan, Andrew J; Cheng, Leo K; Erickson, Jonathan C

    2012-06-06

    Gastrointestinal contractions are controlled by an underlying bioelectrical activity. High-resolution spatiotemporal electrical mapping has become an important advance for investigating gastrointestinal electrical behaviors in health and motility disorders. However, research progress has been constrained by the low efficiency of the data analysis tasks. This work introduces a new efficient software package: GEMS (Gastrointestinal Electrical Mapping Suite), for analyzing and visualizing high-resolution multi-electrode gastrointestinal mapping data in spatiotemporal detail. GEMS incorporates a number of new and previously validated automated analytical and visualization methods into a coherent framework coupled to an intuitive and user-friendly graphical user interface. GEMS is implemented using MATLAB®, which combines sophisticated mathematical operations and GUI compatibility. Recorded slow wave data can be filtered via a range of inbuilt techniques, efficiently analyzed via automated event-detection and cycle clustering algorithms, and high quality isochronal activation maps, velocity field maps, amplitude maps, frequency (time interval) maps and data animations can be rapidly generated. Normal and dysrhythmic activities can be analyzed, including initiation and conduction abnormalities. The software is distributed free to academics via a community user website and forum (http://sites.google.com/site/gimappingsuite). This software allows for the rapid analysis and generation of critical results from gastrointestinal high-resolution electrical mapping data, including quantitative analysis and graphical outputs for qualitative analysis. The software is designed to be used by non-experts in data and signal processing, and is intended to be used by clinical researchers as well as physiologists and bioengineers. The use and distribution of this software package will greatly accelerate efforts to improve the understanding of the causes and clinical consequences of

  19. The gastrointestinal electrical mapping suite (GEMS: software for analyzing and visualizing high-resolution (multi-electrode recordings in spatiotemporal detail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassi Rita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal contractions are controlled by an underlying bioelectrical activity. High-resolution spatiotemporal electrical mapping has become an important advance for investigating gastrointestinal electrical behaviors in health and motility disorders. However, research progress has been constrained by the low efficiency of the data analysis tasks. This work introduces a new efficient software package: GEMS (Gastrointestinal Electrical Mapping Suite, for analyzing and visualizing high-resolution multi-electrode gastrointestinal mapping data in spatiotemporal detail. Results GEMS incorporates a number of new and previously validated automated analytical and visualization methods into a coherent framework coupled to an intuitive and user-friendly graphical user interface. GEMS is implemented using MATLAB®, which combines sophisticated mathematical operations and GUI compatibility. Recorded slow wave data can be filtered via a range of inbuilt techniques, efficiently analyzed via automated event-detection and cycle clustering algorithms, and high quality isochronal activation maps, velocity field maps, amplitude maps, frequency (time interval maps and data animations can be rapidly generated. Normal and dysrhythmic activities can be analyzed, including initiation and conduction abnormalities. The software is distributed free to academics via a community user website and forum (http://sites.google.com/site/gimappingsuite. Conclusions This software allows for the rapid analysis and generation of critical results from gastrointestinal high-resolution electrical mapping data, including quantitative analysis and graphical outputs for qualitative analysis. The software is designed to be used by non-experts in data and signal processing, and is intended to be used by clinical researchers as well as physiologists and bioengineers. The use and distribution of this software package will greatly accelerate efforts to improve the

  20. Clinical evaluation of GEM 21S® and a collagen membrane with a coronally advanced flap as a root coverage procedure in the treatment of gingival recession defects: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Clinical evaluation of efficacy of rhPDGF-BB plus beta tricalcium phosphate (GEM 21S ® along with a collagen membrane in root coverage using a coronally advanced flap. Materials and Methods: This human case series evaluated the clinical outcome of rhPDGF-BB with beta-tricalcium phosphate (GEM 21S® and a collagen membrane in the treatment of recession defects using a coronally advanced flap. Patients were followed postoperatively, and healing was evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months, with recession depth as the primary outcome measure. Results : This pioneer case series revealed a favorable tissue response to GEM 21S® and collagen membrane from both clinical and esthetic point of view in regenerative periodontal surgery.

  1. Mass metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the practical aspects of mass measurements. Concepts of gravitational, inertial and conventional mass and details of the variation of acceleration of gravity are described. The Metric Convention and International Prototype Kilogram and BIPM standards are described. The effect of change of gravity on the indication of electronic balances is derived with respect of latitude, altitude and earth topography. The classification of weights by OIML is discussed. Maximum permissible errors in different categories of weights prescribed by national and international organizations are p

  2. Der Künstler als homo politicus – Die narrativen Gemälde von Simon Rosenthal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Müller-Kelwing

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Los cuadros narrativos del artista alemán Simon Rosenthal forman una posición excepcional y enérgica de la pintura contemporánea figurativa. Ellos proceden del enfrentamiento intelectual con nuestro tiempo, se originan por los actuales discursos sociales, reflexionan sobre la actualidad. Las obras del artista que vive en Dresde desconciertan al espectador en cuanto a la forma y al contenido. Muy a menudo no son conformes a las espectativas. Las ambivalencias y las ambigüedades están intencionadas. Conscientemente sus obras niegan a una localización espacial y temporal. Imagínan una cierta atemporalidad y son imágenes con un subtexto político. Referiéndose a la historia cultural el artista crea a su propio mundo pictórico en cual los temas europeos y la pregunta por el poder juegan un papel importante. Las obras presentadas muestran a Rosenthal como «homo politicus». The narrative paintings of the young German artist Simon Rosenthal, who lives in Dresden, mark an extraordinary and strong position in the field of contemporary figurative painting. Arising from the intellectual examination of our time, they ignite at contemporary discourses, always reflecting the now. Containing multiple irritations in form and content, they deliberately break with the viewer’s expectations in many ways, evoking all kinds of ambiguities and ambivalence. Negating any regional or temporal classification, Rosenthal’s works conjure up a sphere above time, and may be looked at as a profound sort of political riddles. Referring to cultural history, he creates a unique figurative cosmos, where European themes are raised, closely linked with the question of power. The presented works show the artist Simon Rosenthal as «homo politicus». Eine außergewöhnliche wie kraftvolle Position der zeitgenössischen figurativen Malerei bilden die narrativen Gemälde von Simon Rosenthal. Sie entspringen der intellektuellen Auseinandersetzung mit unserer Zeit, entz

  3. The Operational Experience of the Triple-GEM Detectors of the LHCb Muon System: Summary of 2 Years of Data Taking

    CERN Document Server

    Cardini, Alessandro; De Simone, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb muon system consists of more than a thousand gas detectors, mostly MWPC, located in five different stations. The Muon detector is used to define the muon trigger and to identify muons at the high-level triger and at the recontruction stage. The first station of the muon detector, located in front of the calorimetric system, is made of 274 chambers. The 12 most irradiated chambers, the ones closer to the beam pipe, are double triple-GEM detectors with pad readout. These detectors have an active area of 200x240 mm$^2$ and are routinely operated at rates close to 300 kHz/cm$^2$. With the gas mixture used (Ar/CO$_2$/CF$_4$ at 45/15/40) these detectors have the requested efficiency (>96% in a 20 ns time window for the logical OR of the two sensitive gaps) when operated at gains of about 2300. In this presentation we will report on the performance of these 24 triple-GEM detectors after more than 2 years of operation in the harsh LHCb conditions. We will also show some problems occurred during data taking, ...

  4. A GEM Detector System for an Upgrade of the High-eta Muon Endcap Stations GE1/1 + ME1/1 in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Aspell, P.; Bianco, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Maggi, M.; De Lentdecker, G.; Safonov, A.; Sharma, A.; Tytgat, M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the CMS Upgrade R&D Proposal RD10.02, we describe the motivation and main features of the CMS GEM Project for LS2 and propose the addition of a full GE1/12 detector station comprising Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers to the forward muon system of CMS. The limitations of the currently existing forward muon detector when operating at increasingly high luminosity expected after LS1 are laid out followed by a brief description of the anticipated performance improvements achievable with a GE1/1 station. The second part describes the detector system followed by an overview of electronics and associated services including a discussion of the schedule and cost of the project. Plans for a precursor demonstrator installation in LS1 are presented. This proposal is intended as a concise follow-up of the detailed document CMS-IN-2012-023. If approved, this is to be followed by a detailed Technical Design Report.

  5. Mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang Hartmeyer, Gitte; Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Böcher, Sidsel

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being introduced for the rapid and accurate identification of bacteria. We describe 2 MALDI-TOF MS identification cases - 1 directly on spinal fluid and 1 on grown bacteria. Rapidly obtained r...

  6. Development of a sensitive and robust online dual column liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of natural and synthetic estrogens and their conjugates in river water and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čelić, Mira; Insa, Sara; Škrbić, Biljana; Petrović, Mira

    2017-09-01

    An online ultra-high-performance-liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for detection and quantification of natural and synthetic estrogens and their conjugates in aqueous matrices was developed. Target compounds include the natural estrogen estradiol (E2) and its main metabolites estrone (E1) and estriol (E3), the synthetic estrogens ethinylestradiol (EE2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) and their conjugates estrone 3-sulfate (E1-3S), estriol 3-sulfate (E3-3S), estradiol 17-glucuronide (E2-17G), estrone 3-glucuronide (E1-3G), and estriol 16-glucuronide (E3-16G). After pH adjustment, sample filtration and addition of internal standards (IS), water samples (5 mL) were preconcentrated on a Hypersil GOLD aQ column after which chromatographic separation was achieved on a Kinetex C18 column using methanol and water as a mobile phase. The experimental parameters, such as sample loading flow rate, elution time, the percentage of organic solvent in the aqueous-organic eluent mixture, pH, and volume of analyzed samples, were optimized in detail. The benefits of the method compared to previously published methods include minimum sample manipulation, lower detection limits, reduced total analysis time, and overall increased method accuracy and precision. Method detection limits (MDLs) are in subnanogram per liter, complying with the requirements of the EC Decision 2015/495 (Watch list) for hormones listed therein. Applicability of the developed method was confirmed by analysis of river and raw wastewater samples taken directly from urban sewerage systems before being discharged into the river. Graphical abstract Sheme of online SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS system.

  7. Some Interesting Mathematical Gems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pentagonal numbers; Pik's formula; power triangle; formulae to generate prime numbers; Kaprekar's conjecture; Rogers-Ramanujan identity; hypersphere and hypercube. Author Affiliations. V G Tikekar1. c/o Thakar New Mahadwar Road Near Padmaraje School Kolhapur 416006, India. Resonance – Journal of Science ...

  8. Chem Gems & Joules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Diana S.

    2002-09-01

    Learn about the chemistry (and some physics) of optical discs such as CDs, CD-ROMs, and DVDs from David Birkett (p 1081). Beginning on p 1088, Johnson and Yalkowsky present some neat models (commercial or build-yourself) that assemble of their own accord into appropriate structures for liquid and solid water. Do you need a low-cost, small-scale heating device? How about adapting a soldering iron as described on p 1109? If you are interested in cooperative learning, the comparison with lecturing that begins on p 1131 will provide useful information. The latest in our series commemorating the centenary of the Nobel Prizes begins on p 1055. The many interconnections among the research of prizewinners described in this series provides interesting tidbits to humanize chemical kinetics. Do you have hydrogen peroxide, sulfur, or potassium chromate in your lab or chemical storage area? Learn about hazards of these substances from the letter to the editor on p 1070 and the CLIPs on p 1063, p 1064, and p 1065. Finally, keep up with chemical education news at the ACS and the NSF by reading the statements of candidates for the ACS presidency (p 1036 and p 1037) and the commentary by Ellis on p 1034.

  9. Game engine gems 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lengyel, Eric

    2011-01-01

    GRAPHICS AND RENDERINGFast Computation of Tight-Fitting Oriented Bounding Boxes; Thomas Larsson (Senior Lecturer at Mälardalen University) & Linus Källberg (Lecturer at Mälardalen University)Modeling, Lighting, and Rendering Techniques for Volumetric Clouds; Frank Kane (Founder of Sundog Software, LLC)Simulation of Night-Vision and Infrared Sensors; Frank Kane (Founder of Sundog Software, LLC)Screen-Space Classification for Efficient Deferred Shading; Balor Knight (Senior Principal Programmer at Black Rock Studio), Matthew Ritchie (Principal Programmer at Black Rock Studio), George Parrish (Se

  10. A Comparative Study of Clam and Squid. Biting Flies of the Coastal Region. Diatoms: Nature's Aquatic Gems. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 227, 231, 232. [Project COAST].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are three units related to coastal and oceanic awareness. The units are: (1) A Comparative Study of Clam and Squid; (2) Biting Flies of the Coastal Region; and (3) Diatoms: Nature's Aquatic Gems. All three units were designed for secondary school students. Each unit contains teacher background materials, student activity materials,…

  11. Development of Large-Area GEM Detectors for the Forward Muon Endcap Upgrade of the CMS Experiment and Search for SM Higgs Boson Decay in the $H\\to\\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}\\to\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}\\bar{\

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00366476; Gallo, Elisabetta; Raspereza, Alexei

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology is being considered for the forward muon upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment in \\mbox{Phase II} of the CERN LHC. The first GEM Endcap (GE1/1) is going to be installed in the $1.5 < \\mid\\eta\\mid < 2.2$ region of the muon endcapˆ’ mainly to control muon level-1 trigger rates after the second long LHC shutdown. A GE1/1 triple-GEM detector is read out by 3,072 radial strips with 453 $\\mu$rad pitch arranged in eight $\\eta$-sectors. A meter-long GE1/1 prototype-III was assembled at Florida Tech and tested in 20-120 GeV hadron beams at Fermilab using Ar/CO$_{2}$ 70:30 and the RD51 Scalable Readout System (SRS). Four GEM detectors with 2-D readout and an average measured azimuthal resolution of 36$\\mu$rad provided precise reference tracks. Construction of this GE1/1 prototype-III detector and its performance in the test beam are described. Strip cluster parameters, detection efficiency, and spatial resolution are studied with position and high voltag...

  12. Acid Deposition Simulations for Alberta, Saskatchewan, and the Canadian Oil Sands, using the Global Environmental Multiscale - Modelling Air-quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Paul; Akingunola, Ayodeji; Moran, Michael; Wong, Isaac; Aherne, Julian; Hayden, Katherine; Li, Shao-Meng; Zhang, Junhua; Baratzedah, Pegha; Pabla, Balbir; Cheung, Philip; Cole, Amanda; Kirk, Jane; Scott, Ken

    2017-04-01

    The Global Environmental Multiscale - Modelling Air-quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) system (version 2) was used to carry out simulations of acid deposition for the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. These model predictions include the hourly deposition of four sulphur and eleven nitrogen containing species (SO2(g), HSO3(-)(aq) , SO4(2-)(aq), particulate sulphate, and NH3(g), NO2(g), HNO3(g), NH4(+)(aq), NO3(-)(aq), HONO(g), PAN(g), HNO4(g), particulate nitrate, particulate ammonium, and gaseous organic nitrate, respectively). A two-bin aerosol size distribution configuration of GEM-MACH was used to estimate the annual deposition of these chemicals, for the period August 1, 2013 through July 31, 2014, at two resolutions—a 10km resolution North American domain and a 2.5km resolution Alberta and Saskatchewan domain. The model estimates of acid deposition from both resolutions (version 2), were used to determine the relative contributions of the different species towards total sulphur and nitrogen deposition, and to evaluate the effect of model resolution on estimates of acid deposition. The potential ecosystem impacts of acid deposition were examined via comparison of model-predicted total deposition to different sources of sulphur and nitrogen critical load data, for forest and lake ecosystems in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. The deposition estimates were compared to observations of snowpack sulphur and nitrogen ions, collected during the winter of 2013. The processes underlying acidifying deposition in the vicinity of the Canadian oil sands were examined in more detail using the 12-bin aerosol size distribution configuration of GEM-MACH (version 2), for a period from mid-August to mid-September 2013. This time period corresponds to an aircraft measurement intensive campaign designed to examine emissions, transportation, and deposition associated with air pollution sources in the Canadian oil sands. Multiple model simulation scenarios were

  13. Lingua(gem e identidade: a surdez em questão Language and identity: deafness in question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilda Maria Gesueli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute o papel da língua de sinais na construção da identidade surda. Diferentes autores têm discutido a relação língua(gem na construção da identidade, destacando-se que esta se constitui a partir da significação - ao significar o sujeito se significa (Orlandi, 1998. Dessa forma, buscamos trazer esta discussão para o campo da surdez levando em conta que, o interlocutor privilegiado da criança surda é o próprio surdo e o lugar de contato com essa língua se dá, para a maioria dos alunos, dentro das instituições ou escolas especiais para surdos. Observamos que a inserção do professor surdo na sala de aula contribui para que os alunos não somente encontrem possibilidades de construção da narrativa em língua de sinais, mas também se percebam como surdos, construindo sua identidade já na idade de 5-7 anos, assumindo e diferenciando papéis na interação, principalmente em relação ao professor surdo e ao professor ouvinte. A perspectiva de educação bilíngüe na área da surdez está antecipando a consciência dos próprios surdos sobre o significado da surdez, o que há bem pouco tempo acontecia somente na idade adulta.This paper approaches the role of sign language in the construction of deaf identity. Various authors have discussed how language relates to the construction of identity, pointing out that identity constitutes through meaning - when a subject means they becomes meaningful (Orlandi, 1998. We thus attempt to link this discussionto the field of deaf studies, considering that in the case of deaf children the privileged interaction partner is another deaf person. Most students have their first contact with this language in schools and institutions for the deaf. We have observed advantages when deaf teachers take over classroom teaching: one is that students are able to develop narrative constructions in sign language; another one is that this experience enables them to perceive themselves as

  14. Critical Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070299

    2017-01-01

    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  15. Removal cross sections and total mass attenuation coefficients of fast neutrons and gamma rays for steel

    CERN Document Server

    Elsayed, A A

    2003-01-01

    The present work deals with the study of the attenuation properties and determination of the cross sections of fast neutrons and gamma rays for structure steel used in different applications in nuclear power plants, particle accelerators, research reactors and different radiation attenuation fields. Investigation has been performed by measuring the transmitted fast neutron and gamma ray spectra behind cylindrical samples of steel (rho=7.87 gem sup - sup 3) of different thicknesses. A reactor collimated beam and neutron - gamma spectrometer with stiblbene scintillator were used for measurements. The pluse shape disriminate technique based on zero cross over method was used to discriminate between neutron and gamma ray pulses. Effective removal cross-section (sigma sub R) and total mass attenuation coefficient (mu) of neureons and gamma rays have been achieved using the attenuation relations. Microscopic removal cross sections sigma sup 9 sup 8 and mass removal cross sections sigma sub R sub / subrho of fast ne...

  16. What can we learn from the endogeneization of the technical progress in GEM - E3? The case of the Kyoto protocol; Que pouvons nous apprendre de l'endogeneisation du progres technique dans GEM - E3? le cas du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fougeyrollas, A.; Le Mouel, P.; Zagame, P

    2007-07-01

    This project aims to study how the evaluation of the policies of fight against the greenhouse effect gases emission studied at an european scale, in the framework of the Kyoto agreements, is modified when the applied model, of general equilibrium takes into account the behavior of endogenous growth described by the new theories. More specially, the authors calibrated a production module with endogenous growth properties in the model GEM-E3. The new developed module show the costs reduction of policies of greenhouse effect gases emission limitation for France and Europe. (A.L.B.)

  17. 2008 GEM Modeling Challenge: Metrics Study of the Dst Index in Physics-Based Magnetosphere and Ring Current Models and in Statistical and Analytic Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Hesse, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Glocer, A.; Yu, Y.; Meng, X.; Raeder, J.; Wiltberger, M.; Welling, D.; hide

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the metrics-based results of the Dst part of the 2008-2009 GEM Metrics Challenge are reported. The Metrics Challenge asked modelers to submit results for 4 geomagnetic storm events and 5 different types of observations that can be modeled by statistical or climatological or physics-based (e.g. MHD) models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. We present the results of over 25 model settings that were run at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) and at the institutions of various modelers for these events. To measure the performance of each of the models against the observations we use comparisons of one-hour averaged model data with the Dst index issued by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, Japan, and direct comparison of one-minute model data with the one-minute Dst index calculated by the United States Geologic Survey (USGS).

  18. Results and performances of X-ray imaging GEM cameras on FTU (1-D), KSTAR (2-D) and progresses of future experimental set up on W7-X and EAST Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordella, F.; Choe, W.; Claps, G.; Gabellieri, L.; Jang, J.; Jeon, T.; Lee, S. H.; Li, E.; Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Song, I.

    2017-10-01

    The triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a good candidate for the observation of the plasma volume emitting X-rays photons in the energy band up to 30 keV . The GEM camera system can be simply installed outside the port of a fusion device and it's a micropattern proportional gas detector which consists of an ionization gap, where X-rays photon conversion occurs, three consecutive foils working as amplification stage and finally a dedicated printed circuit board. Its simple experimental setup can be made in different configurations with 1D or 2D imaging possibilities: perpendicular GEM camera allows a 1D emissivity profile reconstruction instead a tangential GEM camera allows a poloidal cross-section image. Moreover, they offer high sensitivity, noise free, optical flexibility (zooming and tilting, magnification 10× up to 30×), high contrast, high dynamic range (6 orders of magnitude) and good time resolution (submillisecond). In this work several experimental results already observed on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) and the Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) devices will be presented. The perpendicular installation on FTU allows a 1D radial profile with 128 lines of sight, while thanks to the 2D tangential view of the plasma, the reconstruction of the cross section has been done on KSTAR. Between them there are dynamic and precursors of sawtooth, effects of Edge Localized Mode (ELM) in the core and possible interplay between core and edge in ELMs (high m modes), effects of plasma rotation in the core, dynamic of injected impurities in the outer part of the plasma or also impurity accumulation and localized effects of additional heating. Installation of GEM systems is planned on Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) also for their robustness and flexibility X-rays detection in presence of high radiative environments (neutrons and gammas). In future applications on the above mentioned

  19. SEARCHING FOR BINARY Y DWARFS WITH THE GEMINI MULTI-CONJUGATE ADAPTIVE OPTICS SYSTEM (GeMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opitz, Daniela; Tinney, C. G. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Sweet, Sarah [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Gelino, Christopher R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy, E-mail: daniela.opitz@student.unsw.edu.au [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has discovered almost all the known members of the new class of Y-type brown dwarfs. Most of these Y dwarfs have been identified as isolated objects in the field. It is known that binaries with L- and T-type brown dwarf primaries are less prevalent than either M-dwarf or solar-type primaries, they tend to have smaller separations and are more frequently detected in near-equal mass configurations. The binary statistics for Y-type brown dwarfs, however, are sparse, and so it is unclear if the same trends that hold for L- and T-type brown dwarfs also hold for Y-type ones. In addition, the detection of binary companions to very cool Y dwarfs may well be the best means available for discovering even colder objects. We present results for binary properties of a sample of five WISE Y dwarfs with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System. We find no evidence for binary companions in these data, which suggests these systems are not equal-luminosity (or equal-mass) binaries with separations larger than ∼0.5–1.9 AU. For equal-mass binaries at an age of 5 Gyr, we find that the binary binding energies ruled out by our observations (i.e., 10{sup 42} erg) are consistent with those observed in previous studies of hotter ultra-cool dwarfs.

  20. Evaluation of the Cloud Fields in the UK Met Office HadGEM3-UKCA Model Using the CCCM Satellite Data Product to Advance Our Understanding of the Influence of Clouds on Tropospheric Composition and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sunil; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Liu, Hongyu; Crawford, James H.; White, James

    2016-01-01

    To determine the role of clouds in driving inter-annual and inter-seasonal variability of trace gases in the troposphere and lower stratosphere with a particular focus on the importance of cloud modification of photolysis. To evaluate the cloud fields and their vertical distribution in the HadGEM3 model utilizing CCCM, a unique 3-D cloud data product merged from multiple A-Train satellites (CERES, CloudSat, CALIPSO, and MODIS) developed at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  1. A pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial of diabetes prevention strategies for women with gestational diabetes: design and rationale of the Gestational Diabetes' Effects on Moms (GEM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Assiamira; Hedderson, Monique M; Albright, Cheryl L; Brown, Susan D; Ehrlich, Samantha F; Caan, Bette J; Sternfeld, Barbara; Gordon, Nancy P; Schmittdiel, Julie A; Gunderson, Erica P; Mevi, Ashley A; Tsai, Ai-Lin; Ching, Jenny; Crites, Yvonne; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2014-01-15

    Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) are at high risk of developing diabetes later in life. After a GDM diagnosis, women receive prenatal care to control their blood glucose levels via diet, physical activity and medications. Continuing such lifestyle skills into early motherhood may reduce the risk of diabetes in this high risk population. In the Gestational Diabetes' Effects on Moms (GEM) study, we are evaluating the comparative effectiveness of diabetes prevention strategies for weight management designed for pregnant/postpartum women with GDM and delivered at the health system level. The GEM study is a pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial of 44 medical facilities at Kaiser Permanente Northern California randomly assigned to either the intervention or usual care conditions, that includes 2,320 women with a GDM diagnosis between March 27, 2011 and March 30, 2012. A Diabetes Prevention Program-derived print/telephone lifestyle intervention of 13 telephonic sessions tailored to pregnant/postpartum women was developed. The effectiveness of this intervention added to usual care is to be compared to usual care practices alone, which includes two pages of printed lifestyle recommendations sent to postpartum women via mail. Primary outcomes include the proportion of women who reach a postpartum weight goal and total weight change. Secondary outcomes include postpartum glycemia, blood pressure, depression, percent of calories from fat, total caloric intake and physical activity levels. Data were collected through electronic medical records and surveys at baseline (soon after GDM diagnosis), 6 weeks (range 2 to 11 weeks), 6 months (range 12 to 34 weeks) and 12 months postpartum (range 35 to 64 weeks). There is a need for evidence regarding the effectiveness of lifestyle modification for the prevention of diabetes in women with GDM, as well as confirmation that a diabetes prevention program delivered at the health system level is able to successfully reach this

  2. Downscaling of the global HadGEM2-ES results to model the future and present-day ocean conditions of the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toste, Raquel; Assad, Luiz Paulo de Freitas; Landau, Luiz

    2017-09-01

    Changes in the regional hydrodynamics of the region of the South Atlantic near the east coast of Brazil were evaluated from the beginning to the end of the century. The analysis was based on the anomalies from two downscaling experiments using the HadGEM2-ES outputs for the historical and RCP4.5 runs from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 5. The anomalies between the experiments were collected in a system of two nested grids, with 1/3° and 1/12° horizontal resolutions. A northward displacement of the Brazil Current (BC), a southward BC transport intensification, and a 1.44 ° C increase of the mean values of sea surface temperatures were observed. The sea level rise (SLR) was projected up until 2100 across the study area, and the spatial variations were shown to have an average on SLR rate of 7.30 mm year^{-1} for those regions close to the coast. These results highlight the importance of studying climate change and applying methods to enable the evaluation of its effects on coastal zones, especially for regions with few existing studies, such as the Brazilian continental shelf area.

  3. The climatology of carbon monoxide and water vapor on Mars as observed by CRISM and modeled by the GEM-Mars general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Daerden, Frank; Neary, Lori; Khayat, Alain

    2018-02-01

    Radiative transfer modeling of near-infrared spectra taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) enables the column-integrated abundance of carbon monoxide (CO) and water vapor (H2O) to be retrieved. These results provide a detailed global description of the seasonal and spatial distribution of CO in the Mars atmosphere and new information about the interannual variability of H2O. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be near 800 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations, especially at high latitudes. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure and shows little variation with topography. At high latitudes, carbon monoxide is depleted in the summer hemisphere by a factor of two or more, while in the winter hemisphere there is relatively higher mixing ratio in regions with low-lying topography. Water vapor shows only modest interannual variations, with the largest observed difference being unusually dry conditions in the wake of the Mars Year 28 global dust storm. Modeling results from the GEM-Mars general circulation model generally reproduce the observed seasonal and spatial trends and provide insight into the underlying physical processes.

  4. Mass Customization Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Gerhard

    Topics of the IMCM’08 & PETO’08 and this book are: Mass customization in service, mass customizing financial services, mass customization in supply networks, implementation issues in logistics, product life cycle and mass customization. The research field of mass customization is more than 15 years...

  5. Precision Meson Spectroscopy: Diffractive Production at COMPASS and Development of a GEM-based TPC for PANDA

    CERN Document Server

    Weitzel, Q

    Meson spectroscopy is a unique way to access Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and learn about its properties. Due to the non-Abelian structure, QCD predicts new states of matter with gluonic degrees of freedom. In particular q ¯ qg hybrids, which can have spin-exotic quantum numbers forbidden for conventional q ¯ q mesons, are expected to exist. Such states were searched for in the past, mostly in the light-quark sector. However, the experimental situation is still ambiguous and needs to be clarified. Further insights will certainly also come from the heavy-quark spectroscopy. Several new charmonium-like resonances were for example discovered during the last years, which have to be studied in more detail by future experiments to reveal their nature. Diffractive dissociation reactions at COMPASS provide clean access to meson resonances with masses below 2.5 GeV/c2. During a pilot run in 2004 using pion beams on lead targets, a competitive number of −−+ final state events were recorded within a few days of d...

  6. Combined alcian blue and silver staining of subnanogram quantities of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Heinegård, D; Poulsen, J H

    1993-01-01

    Proteoglycans stain weakly in polyacrylamide gels by traditional protein stains such as coomassie brilliant blue or silver. In the present work preparations of large aggregating proteoglycan from human articular cartilage were used to evaluate a convenient staining method based on successive stai...

  7. A sensitive and reproducible method for the determination of subnanogram quantities of immunoglobulin E (IgE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Malling, H J; Søndergaard, I

    1986-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay for immunoglobulin E (IgE) using high adsorption polystyrene test tubes as the solid phase (the 'Maxisorp' assay) is described. The sensitivity of the method was found to be 50 pg IgE/ml and the within-assay reproducibility was 3-7%. The accuracy was estimated by means...... of a comparison between the Maxisorp assay and paper radioimmunosorbent test (PRIST) and a correlation coefficient of 0.98 (P less than 0.001) was obtained. We conclude that the Maxisorp assay is a fast and reliable assay for IgE determination in cord blood, cell culture supernatants and other highly diluted Ig...

  8. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in Sub-Saharan Africa: current status of the Global Earthquake model (GEM) initiative in the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayele, Atalay; Midzi, Vunganai; Ateba, Bekoa; Mulabisana, Thifhelimbilu; Marimira, Kwangwari; Hlatywayo, Dumisani J.; Akpan, Ofonime; Amponsah, Paulina; Georges, Tuluka M.; Durrheim, Ray

    2013-04-01

    Large magnitude earthquakes have been observed in Sub-Saharan Africa in the recent past, such as the Machaze event of 2006 (Mw, 7.0) in Mozambique and the 2009 Karonga earthquake (Mw 6.2) in Malawi. The December 13, 1910 earthquake (Ms = 7.3) in the Rukwa rift (Tanzania) is the largest of all instrumentally recorded events known to have occurred in East Africa. The overall earthquake hazard in the region is on the lower side compared to other earthquake prone areas in the globe. However, the risk level is high enough for it to receive attention of the African governments and the donor community. The latest earthquake hazard map for the sub-Saharan Africa was done in 1999 and updating is long overdue as several development activities in the construction industry is booming allover sub-Saharan Africa. To this effect, regional seismologists are working together under the GEM (Global Earthquake Model) framework to improve incomplete, inhomogeneous and uncertain catalogues. The working group is also contributing to the UNESCO-IGCP (SIDA) 601 project and assessing all possible sources of data for the catalogue as well as for the seismotectonic characteristics that will help to develop a reasonable hazard model in the region. In the current progress, it is noted that the region is more seismically active than we thought. This demands the coordinated effort of the regional experts to systematically compile all available information for a better output so as to mitigate earthquake risk in the sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. The Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) study: design and baseline data of a randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract in prevention of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKosky, Steven T; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Ives, Diane G; Saxton, Judith; Williamson, Jeff; Lopez, Oscar L; Burke, Gregory; Fried, Linda; Kuller, Lewis H; Robbins, John; Tracy, Russell; Woolard, Nancy; Dunn, Leslie; Kronmal, Richard; Nahin, Richard; Furberg, Curt

    2006-06-01

    The epidemic of late life dementia, prominence of use of alternative medications and supplements, and initiation of efforts to determine how to prevent dementia have led to efforts to conduct studies aimed at prevention of dementia. The GEM (Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory) study was initially designed as a 5-year, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba, administered in a dose of 120 mg twice per day as EGb761, in the prevention of dementia (and especially Alzheimer's disease) in normal elderly or those with mild cognitive impairment. The study anticipates 8.5 years of participant follow-up. Initial power calculations based on estimates of incidence rates of dementia in the target population (age 75+) led to a 3000-person study, which was successfully recruited at four clinical sites around the United States from September 2000 to June 2002. Primary outcome is incidence of all-cause dementia; secondary outcomes include rate of cognitive and functional decline, the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, and mortality. Following screening to exclude participants with incident dementia at baseline, an extensive neuropsychological assessment was performed and participants were randomly assigned to treatment groups. All participants are required to have a proxy who agreed to provide an independent assessment of the functional and cognitive abilities of the participant. Assessments are repeated every 6 months. Significant decline at any visit, defined by specific changes in cognitive screening scores, leads to a repeat detailed neuropsychological battery, neurological and medical evaluation and MRI scan of the brain. The final diagnosis of dementia is achieved by a consensus panel of experts. Side effects and adverse events are tracked by computer at the central data coordinating center and unblinded data are reviewed by an independent safety monitoring board. Studies such as these are necessary for this and a variety of other

  10. Regional climate change over South Korea projected by the HadGEM2-AO and WRF model chain under RCP emission scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Im, Eun-Soon; Jo, Sera

    2017-04-01

    This study assesses the regional climate projection newly projected within the framework of the national downscaling project in South Korea. The fine-scale climate information (12.5 km) is produced by dynamical downscaling of the HadGEM2-AO global projections forced by the representative concentration pathway (RCP4.5 and 8.5) scenarios using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system. Changes in temperature and precipitation in terms of long-term trends, daily characteristics and extremes are presented by comparing two 30 yr periods (2041-2070 vs. 2071-2100). The temperature increase presents a relevant trend, but the degree of warming varies in different periods and emission scenarios. While the temperature distribution from the RCP8.5 projection is continuously shifted toward warmer conditions by the end of the 21st century, the RCP4.5 projection appears to stabilize warming in accordance with emission forcing. This shift in distribution directly affects the magnitude of extremes, which enhances extreme hot days but reduces extreme cold days. Precipitation changes, however, do not respond monotonically to emission forcing, as they exhibit less sensitivity to different emission scenarios. An enhancement of high intensity precipitation and a reduction of weak intensity precipitation are discernible, implying an intensified hydrologic cycle. Changes in return levels of annual maximum precipitation suggest an increased probability of extreme precipitation with 20 yr and 50 yr return periods. Acknowledgement : This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant KMIPA 2015-2081

  11. Design of gem-difluoro-bis-tetrahydrofuran as P2 ligand for HIV-1 protease inhibitors to improve brain penetration: synthesis, X-ray studies, and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arun K; Yashchuk, Sofiya; Mizuno, Akira; Chakraborty, Nilanjana; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Aoki, Manabu; Gomez, Pedro Miguel Salcedo; Amano, Masayuki; Weber, Irene T; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    The structure-based design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and X-ray structural studies of fluorine-containing HIV-1 protease inhibitors are described. The synthesis of both enantiomers of the gem-difluoro-bis-THF ligands was carried out in a stereoselective manner using a Reformatskii-Claisen reaction as the key step. Optically active ligands were converted into protease inhibitors. Two of these inhibitors, (3R,3aS,6aS)-4,4-difluorohexahydrofuro[2,3-b]furan-3-yl(2S,3R)-3-hydroxy-4-((N-isobutyl-4-methoxyphenyl)sulfonamido)-1-phenylbutan-2-yl) carbamate (3) and (3R,3aS,6aS)-4,4-difluorohexahydrofuro[2,3-b]furan-3-yl(2S,3R)-3-hydroxy-4-((N-isobutyl-4-aminophenyl)sulfonamido)phenylbutan-2-yl) carbamate (4), exhibited HIV-1 protease inhibitory Ki values in the picomolar range. Both 3 and 4 showed very potent antiviral activity, with respective EC50 values of 0.8 and 3.1 nM against the laboratory strain HIV-1LAI . The two inhibitors exhibited better lipophilicity profiles than darunavir, and also showed much improved blood-brain barrier permeability in an in vitro model. A high-resolution X-ray structure of inhibitor 4 in complex with HIV-1 protease was determined, revealing that the fluorinated ligand makes extensive interactions with the S2 subsite of HIV-1 protease, including hydrogen bonding interactions with the protease backbone atoms. Moreover, both fluorine atoms on the bis-THF ligand formed strong interactions with the flap Gly 48 carbonyl oxygen atom. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Heavy quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  13. Alienation, Mass Society and Mass Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Hari N.

    This monograph examines the nature of alienation in mass society and mass culture. Conceptually based on the "Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft" paradigm of sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, discussion traces the concept of alienation as it appears in the philosophies of Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and others. Dwight Macdonald's "A Theory of Mass…

  14. Three new butterfly records for peninsular India: Dusky Yellow-breasted Flat Gerosis phisara (Moore (Hesperiidae, Common Gem Poritia hewitsoni Moore (Lycaenidae and Great Nawab Polyura eudamippus (Doubleday (Nymphalidae from Similipal Hills, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Nair

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Three species of butterflies hitherto known only from the Himalayan region and northeastern India, viz. Dusky Yellow-breasted Flat Gerosis phisara (Moore, Common Gem Poritia hewitsoni Moore and Great Nawab Polyura eudamippus (Doubleday were recorded from Similipal Hills, Odisha, thus constituting significant new locality records and range extensions for peninsular India. This also re-inforces the unique bio-geographic role of Similipal as a hill range harbouring representatives of north-eastern and autochthonous peninsular Indian species and supports its putative function as a possible pathway along the Eastern Ghats for species exchange between bio-geographical zones.

  15. ‘Unable to think in my mother’s tongue’: immigrant daughters in Alice Pung’s 'Unpolished Gem' and Hsu-Ming Teo’s 'Behind the Moon'

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Healy

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores ‘the immigrant’s story in translation’ through the various instances of language spoken between parents and children. It analyses the experience of immigrant daughters in two ‘Asian-Australian’ texts – Alice Pung’s recent memoir Unpolished Gem and Hsu-Ming Teo’s Behind the Moon. I position these texts in the context of the reception of literature labelled ‘Asian-Australian’ in the market, exploring Hsu-Ming Teo’s critique of such positioning. Centrally, the paper examine...

  16. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  17. Evanescent gravitational mass

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, Lluis

    2009-01-01

    A simple and {\\it innocent} modification of Poisson's equation leads to a modified Newtonnian theory of gravitation where a localized and {\\it positive} energy density of the gravitational field contributes to its own source. The result is that the total {\\it active gravitational mass} of a compact object is the sum of its {\\it proper mass} and an {\\it evanescent gravitational mass} which is a mass equivalent to the gravitational energy.

  18. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  19. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  20. evaluation of mediastinal masses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mediastinal masses were the most common (63.8%) fol- lowed by posterior mediastinal masses (22.9%). Middle mediastinal masses made up the remaining (13.3%). The most common primary mediastinal tumour was lymphoma. (21.9%) next to which were thymus gland neoplasia and thymus cysts/hyperplasia (18.1 %).

  1. The Meson Mass System

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzi, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The neglected 35 MeV/c2 particle mass quantization hypothesis has recently been reassessed for all known meson states. The rule is found to be statistically relevant, once the states are grouped by quark composition and JPC, with slightly different mass units for each group. In certain groups the mass unit is spin-dependent. Also the mass units are linearly quantized, with highly structured correlation patterns. The baryon masses are organized along similar lines. These results support an indication that hadrons might be shell-structured.

  2. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the speculation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  3. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  4. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  5. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choic...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization.......A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...

  6. MassAI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A software tool for general analysis and data-mining of mass-spectrometric datasets. The program features a strong emphasis on scan-by-scan identification and results-transparency. MassAI also accommodates residue level analysis of labelled runs, e.g. HDX.......A software tool for general analysis and data-mining of mass-spectrometric datasets. The program features a strong emphasis on scan-by-scan identification and results-transparency. MassAI also accommodates residue level analysis of labelled runs, e.g. HDX....

  7. The Burden of Cryptosporidium Diarrheal Disease among Children < 24 Months of Age in Moderate/High Mortality Regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, Utilizing Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samba O Sow

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Cryptosporidium as a pediatric enteropathogen in developing countries is recognized.Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS, a 3-year, 7-site, case-control study of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD and GEMS-1A (1-year study of MSD and less-severe diarrhea [LSD] were analyzed. Stools from 12,110 MSD and 3,174 LSD cases among children aged <60 months and from 21,527 randomly-selected controls matched by age, sex and community were immunoassay-tested for Cryptosporidium. Species of a subset of Cryptosporidium-positive specimens were identified by PCR; GP60 sequencing identified anthroponotic C. parvum. Combined annual Cryptosporidium-attributable diarrhea incidences among children aged <24 months for African and Asian GEMS sites were extrapolated to sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian regions to estimate region-wide MSD and LSD burdens. Attributable and excess mortality due to Cryptosporidium diarrhea were estimated.Cryptosporidium was significantly associated with MSD and LSD below age 24 months. Among Cryptosporidium-positive MSD cases, C. hominis was detected in 77.8% (95% CI, 73.0%-81.9% and C. parvum in 9.9% (95% CI, 7.1%-13.6%; 92% of C. parvum tested were anthroponotic genotypes. Annual Cryptosporidium-attributable MSD incidence was 3.48 (95% CI, 2.27-4.67 and 3.18 (95% CI, 1.85-4.52 per 100 child-years in African and Asian infants, respectively, and 1.41 (95% CI, 0.73-2.08 and 1.36 (95% CI, 0.66-2.05 per 100 child-years in toddlers. Corresponding Cryptosporidium-attributable LSD incidences per 100 child-years were 2.52 (95% CI, 0.33-5.01 and 4.88 (95% CI, 0.82-8.92 in infants and 4.04 (95% CI, 0.56-7.51 and 4.71 (95% CI, 0.24-9.18 in toddlers. We estimate 2.9 and 4.7 million Cryptosporidium-attributable cases annually in children aged <24 months in the sub-Saharan Africa and India/Pakistan/Bangladesh/Nepal/Afghanistan regions, respectively, and ~202,000 Cryptosporidium-attributable deaths (regions combined. ~59

  8. Analysis of reactive bromine production and ozone depletion in the Arctic boundary layer using 3-D simulations with GEM-AQ: inference from synoptic-scale patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, K.; McConnell, J. C.; Lupu, A.; Neary, L.; McLinden, C. A.; Richter, A.; Kwok, R.; Semeniuk, K.; Kaminski, J. W.; Gong, S.-L.; Jarosz, J.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Sioris, C. E.

    2011-04-01

    Episodes of high bromine levels and surface ozone depletion in the springtime Arctic are simulated by an online air-quality model, GEM-AQ, with gas-phase and heterogeneous reactions of inorganic bromine species and a simple scheme of air-snowpack chemical interactions implemented for this study. Snowpack on sea ice is assumed to be the only source of bromine to the atmosphere and to be capable of converting relatively stable bromine species to photolabile Br2 via air-snowpack interactions. A set of sensitivity model runs are performed for April 2001 at a horizontal resolution of approximately 100 km×100 km in the Arctic, to provide insights into the effects of temperature and the age (first-year, FY, versus multi-year, MY) of sea ice on the release of reactive bromine to the atmosphere. The model simulations capture much of the temporal variations in surface ozone mixing ratios as observed at stations in the high Arctic and the synoptic-scale evolution of areas with enhanced BrO column amount ("BrO clouds") as estimated from satellite observations. The simulated "BrO clouds" are in modestly better agreement with the satellite measurements when the FY sea ice is assumed to be more efficient at releasing reactive bromine to the atmosphere than on the MY sea ice. Surface ozone data from coastal stations used in this study are not sufficient to evaluate unambiguously the difference between the FY sea ice and the MY sea ice as a source of bromine. The results strongly suggest that reactive bromine is released ubiquitously from the snow on the sea ice during the Arctic spring while the timing and location of the bromine release are largely controlled by meteorological factors. It appears that a rapid advection and an enhanced turbulent diffusion associated with strong boundary-layer winds drive transport and dispersion of ozone to the near-surface air over the sea ice, increasing the oxidation rate of bromide (Br-) in the surface snow. Also, if indeed the surface

  9. Analysis of reactive bromine production and ozone depletion in the Arctic boundary layer using 3-D simulations with GEM-AQ: inference from synoptic-scale patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Toyota

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Episodes of high bromine levels and surface ozone depletion in the springtime Arctic are simulated by an online air-quality model, GEM-AQ, with gas-phase and heterogeneous reactions of inorganic bromine species and a simple scheme of air-snowpack chemical interactions implemented for this study. Snowpack on sea ice is assumed to be the only source of bromine to the atmosphere and to be capable of converting relatively stable bromine species to photolabile Br2 via air-snowpack interactions. A set of sensitivity model runs are performed for April 2001 at a horizontal resolution of approximately 100 km×100 km in the Arctic, to provide insights into the effects of temperature and the age (first-year, FY, versus multi-year, MY of sea ice on the release of reactive bromine to the atmosphere. The model simulations capture much of the temporal variations in surface ozone mixing ratios as observed at stations in the high Arctic and the synoptic-scale evolution of areas with enhanced BrO column amount ("BrO clouds" as estimated from satellite observations. The simulated "BrO clouds" are in modestly better agreement with the satellite measurements when the FY sea ice is assumed to be more efficient at releasing reactive bromine to the atmosphere than on the MY sea ice. Surface ozone data from coastal stations used in this study are not sufficient to evaluate unambiguously the difference between the FY sea ice and the MY sea ice as a source of bromine. The results strongly suggest that reactive bromine is released ubiquitously from the snow on the sea ice during the Arctic spring while the timing and location of the bromine release are largely controlled by meteorological factors. It appears that a rapid advection and an enhanced turbulent diffusion associated with strong boundary-layer winds drive transport and dispersion of ozone to the near-surface air over the sea ice, increasing the oxidation rate of bromide (Br in the surface

  10. Determination of the η mass with the Crystal Ball at MAMI-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaev, A.; Beck, R.; Lang, M. [University Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Aguar-Bartolome, P.; Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Dehn, M.; Heid, E.; Jahn, O.; Jankowiak, A.; Kaiser, K.H.; Krambrich, D.; Ludwig-Mertin, U.; Martinez-Fabregate, M.; Rost, M.; Thomas, A.; Walcher, T. [University Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Annand, J.R.M.; Codling, R.; Downie, E.J.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I.J.D.; McGeorge, J.C.; Owens, R.O.; Rosner, G. [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bekrenev, V. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Boillat, B.; Krusche, B.; Zehr, F. [University Basel, Institut fuer Physik, Basel (Switzerland); Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P. [Sezione di Pavia, INFN, Pavia (Italy); Branford, D.; Glazier, D.I.; Tarbert, C.M.; Watts, D.P. [University of Edinburgh, School of Physics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Briscoe, W.J. [The George Washington University, Center for Nuclear Studies, Washington (United States); Brudvik, J.W.; Nefkens, B.M.K.; Prakhov, S.N.; Price, J.W.; Starostin, A. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Cherepnya, S.; Fil' kov, L.V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gregor, R.; Kotulla, M.; Lugert, S.; Metag, V.; Novotny, R. [University Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Hornidge, D. [Mount Allison University, Sackville (Canada); Kashevarov, V.L. [University Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kondratiev, R.; Lisin, V.; Polonski, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Korolija, M.; Mekterovic, D.; Supek, I. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Manley, D.M. [Kent State University, Kent, Ohio (United States); Reiter, A. [University Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Rostomyan, T. [University Basel, Institut fuer Physik, Basel (Switzerland); Sezione di Pavia, INFN, Pavia (Italy); Schumann, S.; Unverzagt, M. [University Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); University Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Sober, D. [The Catholic University of America, Washington (United States); Collaboration: The Crystal Ball at MAMI, TAPS Collaboration; A2 Collaboration

    2014-03-15

    A new precise determination of the η meson mass is presented. It is based on a measurement of the threshold for the γp → pη reaction using the tagger focal-plane microscope detector at the MAMI-B facility in Mainz. The tagger microscope has a higher energy resolution than the standard tagging spectrometer and, hence, allowed an improvement in the accuracy compared to the previous η mass measurement at MAMI-B. Special emphasis was put on a very careful energy calibration of the electron beam and the tagging device, which reduced considerably the systematic uncertainty compared to the previous MAMI experiment. The result m{sub η} = (547.865 ± 0.031{sub stat.} ± 0.062{sub syst.}) MeV agrees very well with the precise values of the NA48, KLOE, CLEO and COSY-ANKE Collaborations and deviates by 6σ from the smaller value obtained by the GEM Collaboration at COSY. (orig.)

  11. evaluation of mediastinal masses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    63,8%) suivi par masses médiastinites postérieures (22,9%). Masses .... (23.8%). CT complemented the role of biplane chest x-rays. Figure 1 shows biplane chest x-ray presentation of poste-. 157. WAJM VOL. 22 NO. 2, APRIL -JUNE, 2003 ...

  12. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  13. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  14. Top Quark Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron collider in 1995 the measurement of its mass has been a high priority. As one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Theory of particle physics, the precise value of the top quark mass together with other inputs provides a test for the self-consistency of the theory, and has consequences for the stability of the Higgs field that permeates the Universe. In this review I will briefly summarize the experimental techniques used at the Tevatron and the LHC experiments throughout the years to measure the top quark mass with ever improving accuracy, and highlight the recent progress in combining all measurements in a single world average combination. As experimental measurements became more precise, the question of their theoretical interpretation has become important. The difficulty of relating the measured quantity to the fundamental top mass parameter has inspired alternative measurement methods that extract the top mass in complementary ways. I wil...

  15. Mass Defect from Nuclear Physics to Mass Spectral Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshahian, Soheil

    2017-09-01

    Mass defect is associated with the binding energy of the nucleus. It is a fundamental property of the nucleus and the principle behind nuclear energy. Mass defect has also entered into the mass spectrometry terminology with the availability of high resolution mass spectrometry and has found application in mass spectral analysis. In this application, isobaric masses are differentiated and identified by their mass defect. What is the relationship between nuclear mass defect and mass defect used in mass spectral analysis, and are they the same? Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  16. Geoengineering by stratospheric SO2 injection: results from the Met Office HadGEM2 climate model and comparison with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kravitz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the response of the Met Office Hadley Centre's HadGEM2-AO climate model to simulated geoengineering by continuous injection of SO2 into the lower stratosphere, and compare the results with those from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. Despite the differences between the models, we find a broadly similar geographic distribution of the response to geoengineering in both models in terms of near-surface air temperature and mean June–August precipitation. The simulations also suggest that significant changes in regional climate would be experienced even if geoengineering was successful in maintaining global-mean temperature near current values, and both models indicate rapid warming if geoengineering is not sustained.

  17. Light Quark Mass Reweighting

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Qi; Jung, Chulwoo

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the effectiveness of light quark mass reweighting. This method allows a single lattice QCD ensemble, generated with a specific value of the dynamical light quark mass, to be used to determine results for other, nearby light dynamical quark masses. We study two gauge field ensembles generated with 2+1 flavors of dynamical domain wall fermions with light quark masses m_l=0.02 (m_\\pi=620 MeV) and m_l=0.01 (m_\\pi=420 MeV). We reweight each ensemble to determine results which could be computed directly from the other and check the consistency of the reweighted results with the direct results. The large difference between the 0.02 and 0.01 light quark masses suggests that this is an aggressive application of reweighting as can be seen from fluctuations in the magnitude of the reweighting factor by four orders of magnitude. Never-the-less, a comparison of the reweighed topological charge, average plaquette, residual mass, pion mass, pion decay constant, and scalar correlator between ...

  18. Mass Separation by Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Being able to manipulate mass flow is critically important in a variety of physical processes in chemical and biomolecular science. For example, separation and catalytic systems, which requires precise control of mass diffusion, are crucial in the manufacturing of chemicals, crystal growth of semiconductors, waste recovery of biological solutes or chemicals, and production of artificial kidneys. Coordinate transformations and metamaterials are powerful methods to achieve precise manipulation of molecular diffusion. Here, we introduce a novel approach to obtain mass separation based on metamaterials that can sort chemical and biomolecular species by cloaking one compound while concentrating the other. A design strategy to realize such metamaterial using homogeneous isotropic materials is proposed. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is manipulated using a metamaterial that cloaks nitrogen and concentrates oxygen. This work lays the foundation for molecular mass separation in biophysical and chemical systems through metamaterial devices.

  19. Arkitektur & Mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryborg Jørgensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Publikationens ambition er at udrede og give indblik i produktindustriens seneste udvikling med forretnings- og produktionsstrategien Mass Customization, og dermed en indgang til de muligheder og problemer der knytter sig til implementering af disse eller tilsvarende strategier i byggebranchen, og...

  20. Mass Psychogenic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, WomenTags: Anxiety, collective mental disorder, epidemic hysteria, group sickness, hypochondriac, hypochondriasis, mass ...

  1. Atrial mass: a myxoma?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chatzis, Andrew C; Kostopanagiotou, Kostas; Kousi, Theofili; Mitropoulos, Fotios

    2016-01-01

    A middle‐aged woman with a history of resected colorectal cancer and receiving chemotherapy presented with a right atrial mass and the provisional diagnosis of myxoma supported by echocardiography, computed...

  2. Neutrino Mass Sum Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Neutrino mass sum rules are an important class of predictions in flavour models relating the Majorana phases to the neutrino masses. This leads, for instance, to enormous restrictions on the effective mass as probed in experiments on neutrinoless double beta decay. While up to now these sum rules have in practically all cases been taken to hold exactly, we will go here beyond that. While the effect of the renormalisation group running can be visible, the qualitative features do not change. This changes somewhat for model dependent corrections which might alter even the qualitative predictions but only for large corrections and a high neutrino mass scale close to the edge of the current limits. This finding backs up the solidity of the predictions derived in the literature apart from some exceptions, and it thus marks a very important step in deriving testable and robust predictions from neutrino flavour models.

  3. Molecular Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovac, S.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging mass spectrometry (IMS is a recently developed method for direct determination of spatial distribution of biopolymers, preferably proteins on cell surface and tissues. Imaging mass spectrometry data are mainly based on Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization- Time of Flight (MALDI TOF. The MALDI TOF based imaging mass spectrometry was applied for determination of changes in kidney tissue of sensitive mice after poisoning with aristolochic acid I. The second application presented here were changes in the gastric tissue in mice after infection with Helicobacter pylori, as a model of gastric cancer in humans caused by this pathogen microorganism. Molecular imaging mass spectrometry can be applied in medicine, mostly for identification of candidate biomarkers for malignant and non-malignant diseases. Furthermore, imaging MS has almost unlimited capacity in agriculture, food technology and biotechnology, e. g. for monitoring, process development and quality control of manufactured tissue of animal, plant and microbial origin.

  4. Ion Mass Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (100) is described for determining the mass of ions, the apparatus configured to hold a plasma (101 ) having a plasma potential. The apparatus (100) comprises an electrode (102) having a surface extending in a surface plane and an insulator (104) interfacing with the electrode (102......, and a processing unit (108) configured to interpret the detected impact locations in terms of the mass of the impacting ions....

  5. Photon mass and electrogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dolgov, Alexander; Pelliccia, Diego N

    2007-01-01

    ... and the vanishing of the photon mass. Attempts to break the electric current conservation theoretically [4,5] or to observe it experimentally [6,7] have a long history. If the photon mass is zero, then the Maxwell equations automatically imply the current conservation. Indeed, from (1) ∇ μ F μ ν = 4 π J ν follows (2) ∇ ν J ν = 1 − g ∂ ν ( − g J ν ) = 0 , bec...

  6. Precision mass measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Koslowsky, V T; Ball, G C; Clifford, E T H; Davies, W G; Hagberg, E; Hardy, J C; Schmeing, H; Schrewe, U J; Sharma, K S

    1981-01-01

    A new technique analogous to the 'peak-matching' method used by mass spectroscopists is being used to measure differences in reaction Q- values to a precision of 100 eV. While at present the method is being applied to the study of charge-dependent corrections in T=1 superallowed 0/sup +/ to 0/sup +/ beta-decay matrix elements, it could easily be extended to measure mass differences of nuclei farther from beta stability. (0 refs).

  7. Masses of Formal Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods...... in philosophy. Including contributions from a wide range of philosophers, Masses of Formal Philosophy contains important new responses to the original five questions....

  8. Geometry of mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, D D

    2015-08-06

    We study the effect of mass on geometric descriptions of gauge field theories. In an approach in which the massless theory resembles general relativity, the introduction of the mass entails non-zero torsion and the generalization to Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theories. The relationships to pure torsion formulations (teleparallel gravity) and to higher gauge theories are also discussed. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Substernal Thyroid Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.H. Regal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A thyroid mass, most often a non toxic colloid goiter or occasionally an adenoma, is not an unusual finding below the level of the thoracic inlet.1 In 1992 Creswell and Wells estimated that these tumors comprise 5.8% of all mediastinal lesions.1 There is no standard definition for thyroid glands extending below the thoracic inlet, but such masses descend from their original cervical location for more than 2 or 3 cm below the thoracic inlet, and are not truly primary tumors of the mediastinum. They preserve the connection between the thoracic and cervical portion and receive their blood supply from the neck.2,3 In 1940, the seminal report of Wakeley and Mulvany divided intrathoracic thyroid masses into 3 types; (1”Small substernal extension” of a mainly cervical mass, (2 “Partial” intrathoracic, in which the major portion of the mass is situated within the thorax, and (3”Complete” in which all of the mass lies within the thoracic cavity.

  10. Tõlkepärl eesti ilukirjanduse algusaegadest – esimene eestikeelne robinsonaad / A Translation Gem from the Beginnings of Estonian Literature - the First Robinsonade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ave Mattheus

    2015-06-01

    with the printed book Lorenzsonn wanted to bring the huge translation work from his early years to the literary market. Although both texts are linguistically clumsy, and the printed text has lost value because of the extirpations, it is still a translation gem dating from the very beginnings of Estonian literature, one that has not received sufficient recognition in Estonian literary history. The translation work of Heinrich Gottlieb Lorenzsonn, carried out at a time when the Estonian language was not yet fully developed is also a fact that has not been acknowledged as it well deserves to be. Further, this article undertakes to rectify two misunderstandings of Estonian literary history. First, Lorenzsonn’s Campe-translation is not a chapbook, although Estonian literary history has always defined it as such. It is demanding reading material which aims to enlarge the horizon of the Estonian-speaking reader in fields such as exotic flora and fauna, morals and ethics, and different methods of work, while simultaneously entertaining the reader and offering aesthetic pleasure. The second misunderstanding concerns the fact that the first Robinsonade of Estonian literature is considered to be Weikisi Hanso luggu tühja sare peal, (1839, Engl. A Story of the Little Hans on an deserted island an adaptation by Johann Thomasson from Gottfried der Einsiedler (1829, Engl. Gottfried, the hermit, a youth story by German Pietist and children’s and youth writer Christoph von Schmid. Even though Thomasson’s Robinsonade, which can without hesitation be defined as a chapbook, was printed a few years earlier than Lorenzsonn’s Campe adaptation, Lorenzsonn accomplished his translation twenty years earlier. Also, in terms of artistic quality and translation techniques, Lorenzsonn’s huge work is on a much higher level than Thomasson’s adaptation.

  11. Pediatric Neck Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Machado de Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction  Neck masses include a wide variety of diagnostic possibilities, with more than 60 etiologies that depend on clinical aspects such as age, location and time of disease progression. The interview and physical examination guide research that cross the neck masses in pediatric patients in 3 groups: infectious / inflammatory, and neoplastic embryonic remnants. The aim of this study was to present a protocol for evaluation of neck masses in the pediatric age group, based on a review of literature on the subject and experience of this service. Materials and Methods Survey of literature data from PubMed / Medline, Google Scholar and Scopus Database without language restriction, since 1980 sources, with the MeSH term "Pediatric neck mass".  Results Prepared flowchart guidelines to be followed according with diagnostic suspicions. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the initial clinical manifestations and according to etiological hypotheses formulated recommend evaluations protocols.  Conclusion The standardization of the evaluation of neck masses in children proves valuable and can help in the differential diagnosis of different etiologies involved.

  12. Keaton and the Masses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    This paper explores conflicts between individual and mass and the process of 'massification' (i.e. the becoming of masses) as comic potential in Buster Keaton’s physical comedies. This comic potential is characterized by a person’s formalized and aestheticized de-individualization when confronted...... with tangible, non-human matter. As already indicated by Henri Bergson, de-individualization plays an important role in modern comedy in general. With his intense focus on massification, Keaton is not only one of the first, but also one of the most dedicated investigators of comic de-individualization by purely...... and thematics of the films and down to the comic details of each individual gag. The paper initiates by considering the complex relations in Keaton between gag and narrative with specific regard to the conflict between the individual and the masses. This leads to an exploration of the basic compositional...

  13. Diffusion and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Vrentas, James S

    2013-01-01

    The book first covers the five elements necessary to formulate and solve mass transfer problems, that is, conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, parameters in constitutive equations, and mathematical methods that can be used to solve the partial differential equations commonly encountered in mass transfer problems. Jump balances, Green’s function solution methods, and the free-volume theory for the prediction of self-diffusion coefficients for polymer–solvent systems are among the topics covered. The authors then use those elements to analyze a wide variety of mass transfer problems, including bubble dissolution, polymer sorption and desorption, dispersion, impurity migration in plastic containers, and utilization of polymers in drug delivery. The text offers detailed solutions, along with some theoretical aspects, for numerous processes including viscoelastic diffusion, moving boundary problems, diffusion and reaction, membrane transport, wave behavior, sedime...

  14. Dynamical quark mass generation

    CERN Document Server

    Frezzotti, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Taking inspiration from lattice QCD results, we argue that a non-perturbative mass term for fermions can be generated as a consequence of the dynamical phenomenon of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, in turn triggered by the explicitly breaking of chiral symmetry induced by the critical Wilson term in the action. In a pure lattice QCD-like theory this mass term cannot be separated from the unavoidably associated linearly divergent contribution. However, if QCD with a Wilson term is enlarged to a theory where also a scalar field is present, coupled to a doublet of SU(2) fermions via a Yukawa interaction, then in the phase where the scalar field takes a non-vanishing (large) expectation value, a dynamically generated and ``naturally'' light fermion mass (numerically unrelated to the expectation value of the scalar field) is seen to emerge, at a critical value of the Yukawa coupling where the symmetry of the model is maximally enhanced.

  15. The Cosmic Causal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simen Braeck

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide a better understanding of rotating universe models, and in particular the Gödel universe, we discuss the relationship between cosmic rotation and perfect inertial dragging. In this connection, the concept of causal mass is defined in a cosmological context, and discussed in relation to the cosmic inertial dragging effect. Then, we calculate the mass inside the particle horizon of the flat ΛCDM-model integrated along the past light cone. The calculation shows that the Schwarzschild radius of this mass is around three times the radius of the particle horizon. This indicates that there is close to perfect inertial dragging in our universe. Hence, the calculation provides an explanation for the observation that the swinging plane of a Foucault pendulum follows the stars.

  16. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Baehr, Hans Dieter

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook provides a solid foundation of knowledge on the principles of heat and mass transfer and shows how to solve problems by applying modern methods. The basic theory is developed systematically, exploring in detail the solution methods to all important problems.   The thoroughly revised 3rd edition includes an introduction to the numerical solution of Finite Elements. A new section on heat and mass transfer in porous media has also been added.   The book will be useful not only to upper-level and graduate students, but also to practicing scientists and engineers, offering a firm understanding of the principles of heat and mass transfer, and showing how to solve problems by applying modern methods. Many completed examples and numerous exercises with solutions facilitate learning and understanding, and an appendix includes data on key properties of important substances.

  17. Bioreactor Mass Transport Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleis, Stanley J.; Begley, Cynthia M.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the proposed research efforts were to develop both a simulation tool and a series of experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of mass transport in the NASA rotating wall perfused vessel (RWPV) bioreactor to be flown on EDU#2. This effort consisted of a literature review of bioreactor mass transport studies, the extension of an existing scalar transport computer simulation to include production and utilization of the scalar, and the evaluation of experimental techniques for determining mass transport in these vessels. Since mass transport at the cell surface is determined primarily by the relative motion of the cell assemblage and the surrounding fluid, a detailed assessment of the relative motion was conducted. Results of the simulations of the motion of spheres in the RWPV under microgravity conditions are compared with flight data from EDU#1 flown on STS-70. The mass transport across the cell membrane depends upon the environment, the cell type, and the biological state of the cell. Results from a literature review of cell requirements of several scalars are presented. As a first approximation, a model with a uniform spatial distribution of utilization or production was developed and results from these simulations are presented. There were two candidate processes considered for the experimental mass transport evaluations. The first was to measure the dissolution rate of solid or gel beads. The second was to measure the induced fluorescence of beads as a stimulant (for example hydrogen peroxide) is infused into the vessel. Either technique would use video taped images of the process for recording the quantitative results. Results of preliminary tests of these techniques are discussed.

  18. Mass gap without confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pravos, David; Subils, Javier G.

    2017-06-01

    We revisit a one-parameter family of three-dimensional gauge theories with known supergravity duals. We show that three infrared behaviors are possible. For generic values of the parameter, the theories exhibit a mass gap but no confinement, meaning no linear quark-antiquark potential; for one limiting value of the parameter the theory flows to an infrared fixed point; and for another limiting value it exhibits both a mass gap and confinement. Theories close to these limiting values exhibit quasi-conformal and quasi-confining dynamics, respectively. Eleven-dimensional supergravity provides a simple, geometric explanation of these features.

  19. Mass preserving image registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...... scores: lung boundary alignment, major fissure lignment, landmark alignment and transform singularity scores. The registration algorithm achieved an average landmark alignment score of 2.20 } 2.05 mm and the median of 1.29 mm. In 19 out of 20 image pairs, the method produced invertible deformations....... Overall, the masspreserving image registration method was ranked 20th out of 34 participants...

  20. Ultrasonography of pelvic masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chu Wan; Lee, Kyung Hi; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Choo, Dong Woon; Rha, Keun Yung; Kim, Syng Wook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-06-15

    56 cases of ultrasonography in patient with proven pelvic mass were reviewed. Ultrasonography is a very useful noninvasive diagnostic modality in the patient with clinically suspected pelvic masses giving accurate assessment of the size, location, internal structure and origin as well as its existence. A specific diagnosis was possible in selected patients with ovarian cystadenoma, dermoids, uterine myoma, and H-mode. Nonspecific pattern was common in pelvic abscess and ectopic pregnancy. Diagnostic errors were primarily due to small lesions (2 cm or less in diameter) or misinterpretation of the lesion.

  1. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, A. T.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references.

  2. Mass and Energy Audit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recorded higher annual average energy efficiency of 63% at continuous casting sections compared with either of the furnaces affirms energy conservation in the tundish (a closed system). High particulate mass loading was recorded at the two electric arc furnaces in comparison with the remaining sections. The high.

  3. Media, Minds, and Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggot, James; Vino, Faith

    This booklet describes the language arts course "Media, Minds, and Masses," written for the Dade County, Fla., public schools. Topics for the course include the workings of contemporary radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and movies; the present status and power of media; the history and development of media; and the influences of…

  4. ivermectin mass treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus frequent insecticide treatment was sustained for a long time. With the introduction of ivennectin (Mectizan R), the chance for reducing the parasite reservoir in the communities while vector control was implemented became available, in the 1980s. The combined vector control and ivermectin mass treatment successfully.

  5. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  6. Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Gac, S.; le Gac, Severine; van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.; Unknown, [Unknown

    2009-01-01

    With this book we want to illustrate how two quickly growing fields of instrumentation and technology, both applied to life sciences, mass spectrometry and microfluidics (or microfabrication) naturally came to meet at the end of the last century and how this marriage impacts on several types of

  7. Mass Digitization of Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Mass digitization of the bound volumes that we generally call "books" has begun, and, thanks to the interest in Google and all that it does, it is getting widespread media attention. The Open Content Alliance (OCA), a library initiative formed after Google announced its library book digitization project, has brought library digitization projects…

  8. A female mass murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsavdakis, Kostas A; Meloy, J Reid; White, Stephen G

    2011-05-01

    A case study of a 44-year-old woman who committed a mass murder is presented. Following a chronic course of psychotic deterioration, and a likely diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia that remained untreated, she returned to her workplace after 3 years from her termination and killed seven people and herself. Her history is reconstructed through investigation of primary and secondary source materials. Although there are very few female mass murderers in recorded criminal history, this case is quite similar to the known research on mass murderers in general. Such individuals often have a psychotic disorder evident in violent and paranoid delusions, show a deteriorating life course before the mass murder, intentionally plan and prepare for their assault, and methodically kill as many individuals as possible before taking their own lives. They typically do not directly threaten the target beforehand, but do leak their intent to third parties--however, in this case, leakage and other obvious warning behaviors did not occur. Such acts are impossible to predict but depend on threat management and target security for risk mitigation. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Pondering Parotid Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Miller

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A49-year-old, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV- infected, Haitian-born woman presented with a left facial mass that she had noticed for the previous eight weeks. She was known to have been HIV-seropositive for the previous 11 years and had been on multiple antiretroviral therapies. Her past medical history was also significant for hypertension, disseminated varicella zoster virus and recurrent oral and buttock Herpes simplex episodes. She was taking the following medications at the time of her presentation with the facial mass: stavudine, lamivudine, didanosine, nelfinavir mesylate, famciclovir, hydrochlorothiazide and cotrimoxazole. She had no complaints of fever, chills, sweats, weight loss or anorexia. She denied any pain, redness or warmth at the site of the facial swelling. Her most recent CD4 lymphocyte count was 336 cells/µL, with an HIV viral load of log102.6 copies/mL. Physical examination revealed a 4 cm fluid-filled mass in the left parotid gland. There was no detectable induration, redness, warmth or tenderness, and no associated adenopathy. The rest of the examination was unremarkable. An aspirate of the mass was performed under sterile conditions and yielded 30 mL of turbid, yellow liquid. A Gram stain revealed no neutrophils, scant mononuclear cells and no visible organisms. An acid-fast stain was negative as well. Routine, mycobacterial and fungal cultures showed no growth. Cytological analysis showed scant reactive lymphocytes and no malignant cells. The patient was not given therapy and was observed for another two months. The fluid reaccumulated in the left parotid gland, and the patient?s only complaint concerned the unsightly appearance of the mass. The lesion was again aspirated for 30 mL of fluid and this time, the fluid had a turbid, brown appearance. All laboratory results were identical to the results from the first aspirate. What is your diagnosis, and how would you treat this patient?

  10. The DiGEM trial protocol – a randomised controlled trial to determine the effect on glycaemic control of different strategies of blood glucose self-monitoring in people with type 2 diabetes [ISRCTN47464659

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyder Elizabeth

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We do not yet know how to use blood glucose self-monitoring (BGSM most effectively in the self-management of type 2 diabetes treated with oral medication. Training in monitoring may be most effective in improving glycaemic control and well being when results are linked to behavioural change. Methods/design DiGEM is a three arm randomised parallel group trial set in UK general practices. A total of 450 patients with type 2 diabetes managed with lifestyle or oral glucose lowering medication are included. The trial compares effectiveness of three strategies for monitoring glycaemic control over 12 months (1 a control group with three monthly HbA1c measurements; interpreted with nurse-practitioner; (2 A self-testing of blood glucose group; interpreted with nurse- practitioner to inform adjustment of medication in addition to 1; (3 A self-monitoring of blood glucose group with personal use of results to interpret results in relation to lifestyle changes in addition to 1 and 2. The trial has an 80% power at a 5% level of significance to detect a difference in change in the primary outcome, HbA1c of 0.5% between groups, allowing for an attrition rate of 10%. Secondary outcome measures include health service costs, well-being, and the intervention effect in sub-groups defined by duration of diabetes, current management, health status at baseline and co-morbidity. A mediation analysis will explore the extent to which changes in beliefs about self-management of diabetes between experimental groups leads to changes in outcomes in accordance with the Common Sense Model of illness. The study is open and has recruited more than half the target sample. The trial is expected to report in 2007. Discussion The DiGEM intervention and trial design address weaknesses of previous research by use of a sample size with power to detect a clinically significant change in HbA1c, recruitment from a well-characterised primary care population, definition

  11. Epidemiology, Seasonality and Factors Associated with Rotavirus Infection among Children with Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Rural Western Kenya, 2008-2012: The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omore, Richard; Tate, Jacqueline E; O'Reilly, Ciara E; Ayers, Tracy; Williamson, John; Moke, Feny; Schilling, Katie A; Awuor, Alex O; Jaron, Peter; Ochieng, John B; Oundo, Joseph; Parashar, Umesh D; Parsons, Michele B; Bopp, Cheryl C; Nasrin, Dilruba; Farag, Tamer H; Kotloff, Karen L; Nataro, James P; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M; Laserson, Kayla F; Nuorti, J Pekka; Mintz, Eric D; Breiman, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate factors associated with rotavirus diarrhea and to describe severity of illness among children <5 years old with non-dysenteric, moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in rural western Kenya. We analyzed data from children <5 years old with non-dysenteric MSD enrolled as cases in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in Kenya. A non-dysenteric MSD case was defined as a child with ≥3 loose stools in 24 hrs. and one or more of the following: sunken eyes, skin tenting, intravenous rehydration, or hospitalization, who sought care at a sentinel health center within 7 days of illness onset. Rotavirus antigens in stool samples were detected by ELISA. Demographic and clinical information was collected at enrollment and during a single follow-up home visit at approximately 60 days. We analyzed diarrhea severity using a GEMS 17 point numerical scoring system adapted from the Vesikari score. We used logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with rotavirus infection. From January 31, 2008 to September 30, 2012, among 1,637 (92%) non-dysenteric MSD cases, rotavirus was detected in stools of 245 (15.0%). Rotavirus-positive compared with negative cases were: younger (median age, 8 vs. 13 months; p<0.0001), had more severe illness (median severity score, 9 vs 8; p<0.0001) and had to be hospitalized more frequently (37/245 [15.1%] vs. 134/1,392 [9.6%]), p <0.013). Independent factors associated with rotavirus infection included age 0-11 months old (aOR = 5.29, 95% CI 3.14-8.89) and presenting with vomiting ≥3 times/24hrs (aOR = 2.58, 95% CI [1.91-3.48]). Rotavirus was detected more commonly in warm and dry months than in the cool and rainy months (142/691 [20%] vs 70/673 [10%]) p<0.0001). Diarrhea caused by rotavirus is associated with severe symptoms leading to hospitalization. Consistent with other settings, infants had the greatest burden of disease.

  12. Epidemiology, Seasonality and Factors Associated with Rotavirus Infection among Children with Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Rural Western Kenya, 2008-2012: The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Omore

    Full Text Available To evaluate factors associated with rotavirus diarrhea and to describe severity of illness among children <5 years old with non-dysenteric, moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD in rural western Kenya.We analyzed data from children <5 years old with non-dysenteric MSD enrolled as cases in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS in Kenya. A non-dysenteric MSD case was defined as a child with ≥3 loose stools in 24 hrs. and one or more of the following: sunken eyes, skin tenting, intravenous rehydration, or hospitalization, who sought care at a sentinel health center within 7 days of illness onset. Rotavirus antigens in stool samples were detected by ELISA. Demographic and clinical information was collected at enrollment and during a single follow-up home visit at approximately 60 days. We analyzed diarrhea severity using a GEMS 17 point numerical scoring system adapted from the Vesikari score. We used logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with rotavirus infection.From January 31, 2008 to September 30, 2012, among 1,637 (92% non-dysenteric MSD cases, rotavirus was detected in stools of 245 (15.0%. Rotavirus-positive compared with negative cases were: younger (median age, 8 vs. 13 months; p<0.0001, had more severe illness (median severity score, 9 vs 8; p<0.0001 and had to be hospitalized more frequently (37/245 [15.1%] vs. 134/1,392 [9.6%], p <0.013. Independent factors associated with rotavirus infection included age 0-11 months old (aOR = 5.29, 95% CI 3.14-8.89 and presenting with vomiting ≥3 times/24hrs (aOR = 2.58, 95% CI [1.91-3.48]. Rotavirus was detected more commonly in warm and dry months than in the cool and rainy months (142/691 [20%] vs 70/673 [10%] p<0.0001.Diarrhea caused by rotavirus is associated with severe symptoms leading to hospitalization. Consistent with other settings, infants had the greatest burden of disease.

  13. Epidemiology, Seasonality and Factors Associated with Rotavirus Infection among Children with Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Rural Western Kenya, 2008–2012: The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omore, Richard; Tate, Jacqueline E.; O’Reilly, Ciara E.; Ayers, Tracy; Williamson, John; Moke, Feny; Schilling, Katie A.; Awuor, Alex O.; Jaron, Peter; Ochieng, John B.; Oundo, Joseph; Parashar, Umesh D.; Parsons, Michele B.; Bopp, Cheryl C.; Nasrin, Dilruba; Farag, Tamer H.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Nataro, James P.; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M.; Laserson, Kayla F.; Nuorti, J. Pekka; Mintz, Eric D.; Breiman, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate factors associated with rotavirus diarrhea and to describe severity of illness among children <5 years old with non-dysenteric, moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in rural western Kenya. Methods We analyzed data from children <5 years old with non-dysenteric MSD enrolled as cases in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in Kenya. A non-dysenteric MSD case was defined as a child with ≥3 loose stools in 24 hrs. and one or more of the following: sunken eyes, skin tenting, intravenous rehydration, or hospitalization, who sought care at a sentinel health center within 7 days of illness onset. Rotavirus antigens in stool samples were detected by ELISA. Demographic and clinical information was collected at enrollment and during a single follow-up home visit at approximately 60 days. We analyzed diarrhea severity using a GEMS 17 point numerical scoring system adapted from the Vesikari score. We used logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with rotavirus infection. Results From January 31, 2008 to September 30, 2012, among 1,637 (92%) non-dysenteric MSD cases, rotavirus was detected in stools of 245 (15.0%). Rotavirus-positive compared with negative cases were: younger (median age, 8 vs. 13 months; p<0.0001), had more severe illness (median severity score, 9 vs 8; p<0.0001) and had to be hospitalized more frequently (37/245 [15.1%] vs. 134/1,392 [9.6%]), p <0.013). Independent factors associated with rotavirus infection included age 0–11 months old (aOR = 5.29, 95% CI 3.14–8.89) and presenting with vomiting ≥3 times/24hrs (aOR = 2.58, 95% CI [1.91–3.48]). Rotavirus was detected more commonly in warm and dry months than in the cool and rainy months (142/691 [20%] vs 70/673 [10%]) p<0.0001). Conclusions Diarrhea caused by rotavirus is associated with severe symptoms leading to hospitalization. Consistent with other settings, infants had the greatest burden of disease. PMID:27494517

  14. The W Boson Mass Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Kotwal, Ashutosh V

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the W boson mass has been growing in importance as its precision has improved, along with the precision of other electroweak observables and the top quark mass. Over the last decade, the measurement of the W boson mass has been led at hadron colliders. Combined with the precise measurement of the top quark mass at hadron colliders, the W boson mass helped to pin down the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson through its induced radiative correction on the W boson mass. With the discovery of the Higgs boson and the measurement of its mass, the electroweak sector of the Standard Model is over-constrained. Increasing the precision of the W boson mass probes new physics at the TeV-scale. We summarize an extensive Tevatron (1984–2011) program to measure the W boson mass at the CDF and Dø experiments. We highlight the recent Tevatron measurements and prospects for the final Tevatron measurements.

  15. Isotopic Composition of Gaseous Elemental Mercury in the Free Troposphere of the Pic du Midi Observatory, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xuewu; Marusczak, Nicolas; Wang, Xun; Gheusi, François; Sonke, Jeroen E

    2016-06-07

    Understanding the sources and transformations of mercury (Hg) in the free troposphere is a critical aspect of global Hg research. Here we present one year of observations of atmospheric Hg speciation and gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) isotopic composition at the high-altitude Pic du Midi Observatory (2860 m above sea level) in France. Biweekly integrated GEM from February 2012 to January 2013 revealed significant variations in δ(202)HgGEM (-0.04‰ to 0.52‰) but not in Δ(199)HgGEM (-0.17‰ to -0.27‰) or Δ(200)HgGEM (-0.10‰ to 0.05‰). δ(202)HgGEM was negatively correlated with CO and reflected air mass origins from Europe (high CO, low δ(202)HgGEM) and from the Atlantic Ocean (low CO, high δ(202)HgGEM). We suggest that the δ(202)HgGEM variations represent mixing of recent low δ(202)HgGEM European anthropogenic emissions with high δ(202)HgGEM northern hemispheric background GEM. In addition, Atlantic Ocean free troposphere air masses showed a positive correlation between δ(202)HgGEM and gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) concentrations, indicative of mass-dependent Hg isotope fractionation during GEM oxidation. On the basis of atmospheric δ(202)HgGEM and speciated Hg observations, we suggest that the oceanic free troposphere is a reservoir within which GEM is readily oxidized to GOM.

  16. Mass limit on Nemesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalerao, Varun; Vahia, M. N.

    2005-03-01

    We assume that if the sun has a companion, it has a period of 27 Myr corresponding to the periodicity seen in cometary impacts on earth. Based on this assumption, it is seen that the inner Lagrangian point of the interaction between the Sun and its companion is in the Oort cloud. From this we calculate the mass-distance relation for the companion. We then compute the expected apparent magnitude (visible and J band) for the companion using the models of Burrows (1993). We then compare this with the catalogue completeness of optical and infrared catalogues to show that the sun cannot have a companion of mass greater than 44 Mjup (0.042 MO dot ).

  17. Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Kunow, H; Linker, J. A; Schwenn, R; Steiger, R

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the Sun gravitationally controls the orbits of planets and minor bodies. Much less known, however, is the domain of plasma fields and charged particles in which the Sun governs a heliosphere out to a distance of about 15 billion kilometers. What forces activates the Sun to maintain this power? Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants are the troops serving the Sun during high solar activity periods. This volume offers a comprehensive and integrated overview of our present knowledge and understanding of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants, Interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). It results from a series of workshops held between 2000 and 2004. An international team of about sixty experimenters involved e.g. in the SOHO, ULYSSES, VOYAGER, PIONEER, HELIOS, WIND, IMP, and ACE missions, ground observers, and theoreticians worked jointly on interpreting the observations and developing new models for CME initiations, development, and interplanetary propagation. The book provides...

  18. Nanoscale mass conveyors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Brian C [Oakland, CA; Aloni, Shaul [Albany, CA; Zettl, Alexander K [Kensington, CA

    2008-03-11

    A mass transport method and device for individually delivering chargeable atoms or molecules from source particles is disclosed. It comprises a channel; at least one source particle of chargeable material fixed to the surface of the channel at a position along its length; a means of heating the channel; and a means for applying an controllable electric field along the channel, whereby the device transports the atoms or molecules along the channel in response to applied electric field. In a preferred embodiment, the mass transport device will comprise a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT), although other one dimensional structures may also be used. The MWNT or other structure acts as a channel for individual or small collections of atoms due to the atomic smoothness of the material. Also preferred is a source particle of a metal such as indium. The particles move by dissociation into small units, in some cases, individual atoms. The particles are preferably less than 100 nm in size.

  19. Neutrino Masses and Oscillations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Treille, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    This course will not cover its subject in the customary way. The emphasis will be on the simple theoretical concepts (helicity, handedness, chirality, Majorana masses) which are obscure in most of the literature, and on the quantum mechanics of oscillations, that ALL books get wrong. Which, hopefully, will not deter me from discussing some of the most interesting results from the labs and from the cosmos.

  20. Handbook of mass measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Frank E

    2002-01-01

    "How much does it weigh?" seems a simple question. To scientists and engineers, however, the answer is far from simple, and determining the answer demands consideration of an almost overwhelming number of factors.With an intriguing blend of history, fundamentals, and technical details, the Handbook of Mass Measurement sets forth the details of achieving the highest precision in mass measurements. It covers the whole field, from the development, calibration, and maintenance of mass standards to detailed accounts of weighing designs, balances, and uncertainty. It addresses the entire measurement process and provides in-depth examinations of the various factors that introduce error.Much of the material is the authors'' own work and some of it is published here for the first time. Jones and Schoonover are both highly regarded veterans of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. With this handbook, they have provided a service and resource vital to anyone involved not only in the determination of m...

  1. Masses of noble gases

    CERN Multimedia

    Marx, G H; Herfurth, F; Stora, T; Blaum, K; Beck, D; Audi, G; Rosenbusch, M

    The so-called magic numbers, cornerstones of the quantum nuclear ensemble, are now known to lose their supernatural powers far from the protected valley of stability. To complement the well-established (but not yet well-understood) case of N = 20, we propose to examine the erstwhile N = 28 shell closure via a measurement of the important (but unknown) mass of the nuclide $^{48}$Ar. The quenching of a shell closure, a mechanism as mysterious as the reason for magic numbers themselves, also has important consequences in nucleosynthesis. While $^{48}$Ar is not part of the region concerned by the canonical rapid neutro-capture r-process, the question of shell strength is of great importance for heavier nuclides. The location of the r-process path would benefit from extending the succesful ISOTRAP krypton mass measurements beyond the N = 58 sub-shell to $^{96-98}$Kr. Modeling the complementary rapid proton-capture rp- process, putative source of some proton-rich species, requires the mass of $^{70}$Kr, near the e...

  2. ‘Unable to think in my mother’s tongue’: immigrant daughters in Alice Pung’s 'Unpolished Gem' and Hsu-Ming Teo’s 'Behind the Moon'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Healy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores ‘the immigrant’s story in translation’ through the various instances of language spoken between parents and children. It analyses the experience of immigrant daughters in two ‘Asian-Australian’ texts – Alice Pung’s recent memoir Unpolished Gem and Hsu-Ming Teo’s Behind the Moon. I position these texts in the context of the reception of literature labelled ‘Asian-Australian’ in the market, exploring Hsu-Ming Teo’s critique of such positioning. Centrally, the paper examines language in all the traditions and moral understandings that language applies, the transformative speech acts between parent and child, and the creative exploration of English as a spectre re-enforcing ‘white nationalism’.The experience of first generation Chinese Australians, in particular Chinese-Singaporeans, Chinese-Malaysians and Chinese-Cambodians, are explored in a reading of this novel and memoir. The point of connection between them is the very different languages between the generations, to the extent that the daughters think in different languages to their mothers, hence a shift in perceiving the world (and society around them.

  3. Body mass in comparative primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R J; Jungers, W L

    1997-06-01

    Data are presented on adult body mass for 230 of 249 primate species, based on a review of the literature and previously unpublished data. The issues involved in collecting data on adult body mass are discussed, including the definition of adults, the effects of habitat and pregnancy, the strategy for pooling data on single species from multiple studies, and use of an appropriate number of significant figures. An analysis of variability in body mass indicates that the coefficient of variation for body mass increases with increasing species mean mass. Evaluation of several previous body mass reviews reveals a number of shortcomings with data that have been used often in comparative studies.

  4. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindler, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-07-15

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  5. The Cepheid mass discrepancy and pulsation-driven mass loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neilson, H.R.; Cantiello, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304840866; Langer, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829498

    2011-01-01

    Context. A longstanding challenge for understanding classical Cepheids is the Cepheid mass discrepancy, where theoretical mass estimates using stellar evolution and stellar pulsation calculations have been found to differ by approximately 10−20%. Aims. We study the role of pulsation-driven mass loss

  6. Mass dependence of vacuum energy

    OpenAIRE

    Fulling, S. A.

    2005-01-01

    The regularized vacuum energy (or energy density) of a quantum field subjected to static external conditions is shown to satisfy a certain partial differential equation with respect to two variables, the mass and the "time" (ultraviolet cutoff parameter). The equation is solved to provide integral expressions for the regularized energy (more precisely, the cylinder kernel) at positive mass in terms of that for zero mass. Alternatively, for fixed positive mass all coefficients in the short-tim...

  7. Determining the Exact Mass of Neutrino through Logical Mass Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Andrew

    2003-03-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that a neutrino has a definite mass. Secondly, the purpose of this paper is to show through reaction equation the genesis of neutrino from nuclear reactions induced by electricity. The author used a method called logical mass analysis to determine the exact mass of neutrino which eluded scientists since 1930. The author determined the exact mass of three types of neutrinos as follows: a. neutrino-p has rest mass of 0.2395 MeV, b. neutrino-d has a rest mass of 0.059 MeV, c. the neutrino-t has a rest mass of 0.444 MeV. The author formally defines a neutrino as a leptonic particle with a mass ranging from 1/10 to 9/10 of an electron mass. The importance of this paper lies in the fact that exact mass of neutrinos have eluded scientists for more than 60 years since its postulated existence in 1930 as a massless particle. This paper is also important because this paper will give experimental scientists a basis of identifying different types of neutrinos and its definite masses during experimentation.

  8. Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoursey, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the organization of a graduate course dealing with mass transfer, particularly as it relates to chemical reactions. Discusses the course outline, including mathematics models of mass transfer, enhancement of mass transfer rates by homogeneous chemical reaction, and gas-liquid systems with chemical reaction. (TW)

  9. Partitioning recent Greenland mass loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Ettema, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831913; Rignot, Eric; Schrama, Ernst; van de Berg, W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831611; Velicogna, I.; Wouters, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304120146

    2009-01-01

    Mass budget calculations, validated with satellite gravity observations [from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites], enable us to quantify the individual components of recent Greenland mass loss. The total 2000–2008 mass loss of ~1500 gigatons, equivalent to 0.46

  10. Bondi Mass in Scalar Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Yuan

    2003-07-01

    The asymptotically flat space-time with scalar fields is studied. It shows that the concepts of Bondi mass, Bondi mass loss, etc., are also applicable to other fields, although they were originally defined by gravity. The generating formulae of Bondi mass loss and angular momentum loss by a dynamics Hamiltonian over a hyperb oloid are given by the linearised theory.

  11. Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

  12. Mass Transport within Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated

  13. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Karwa, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the classical treatment of the problems of heat transfer in an exhaustive manner with due emphasis on understanding of the physics of the problems. This emphasis is especially visible in the chapters on convective heat transfer. Emphasis is laid on the solution of steady and unsteady two-dimensional heat conduction problems. Another special feature of the book is a chapter on introduction to design of heat exchangers and their illustrative design problems. A simple and understandable treatment of gaseous radiation has been presented. A special chapter on flat plate solar air heater has been incorporated that covers thermo-hydraulic modeling and simulation. The chapter on mass transfer has been written looking specifically at the needs of the students of mechanical engineering. The book includes a large number and variety of solved problems with supporting line diagrams. The author has avoided duplicating similar problems, while incorporating more application-based examples. All the end-...

  14. The Mass Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Laursen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with the EU institutions’ external communication and how it relates to the European public sphere(s). We argue that one of the preconditions for establishing a well-functioning European public sphere is that the EU institutions’ decision-making and political debates around...... policies and issues are organised in such a way that the European citizens 1) are informed of the actions of European political leaders and top executives in ways that appeal to a wide range of publics, and 2) are encouraged to discuss and enter in a dialogue about these issues in appropriate communicative...... spaces. We postulate that citizens’ levels of awareness and knowledge of EU matters depend on the EU institutions’ ability to reach European citizens directly or indirectly through a wide range of channels, including the mass media. Citizens’ participation in political debates, however, requires more...

  15. Production of Aerated Foamed Concrete with Industrial Waste from the Gems and Jewels Sector of Rio Grande do Sul-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudimar Pedro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of solid waste for the development of new building materials has been an alternative to reduce environmental impacts through the preservation of natural resources. In this context, this paper evaluates the possibility of using agate gemstone waste, called rolled powder, which basically consists of silica (SiO2, in the manufacture of aerated foamed concrete blocks completely replacing the natural sand. Preformed foam was used as the air entrained by mechanical stirring with a mixture of natural foaming agents derived from coconut. To produce test specimens, the water/cement ratio and foam concentrations were varied, with three and four levels, respectively. The specimens were left for 28 days at room temperature to be cured, and then underwent analysis to determine their compressive strength, density, and the distribution of air-voids. The experiments demonstrated that the best water/cement ratio was 1.28 for 18% (of total solid mass addition of foam, which generated a sample with a density of 430 kg/m3, and a compressive strength of 1.07 MPa. The result for compressive strength is 11% smaller than the requirements of the Brazilian standard (NBR 13438 for autoclaved aerated concrete blocks, but the results are promising.

  16. Determination of Effective Thoracic Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H. Marcus

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective thoracic mass is an important parameter in specifying mathematical and mechanical models (such as crash dummies of humans exposed to impact conditions. A method is developed using a numerical optimizer to determine effective thoracic mass (and mass distribution given a number of acceleration signals and a force signal response. Utilizing previously reported lateral and frontal impact tests with human cadaveric test specimens in a number of different conditions, the effective thoracic mass is computed. The effective thoracic masses are then computed for a variety of crash dummies exposed to identical test conditions.

  17. Sustainability Evaluation of Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld; Taps, Stig B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Some factors indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however...... other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass...

  18. Mass properties measurement for drag-free test masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, John W.; Swank, Aaron; Sun, Ke-Xun; DeBra, Dan B.

    2009-03-01

    Space-borne gravitational wave observatories like the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and those beyond, which may utilize a Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (MGRS), greatly benefit from precise knowledge of the mass center location and moment of inertia tensor of the test mass prior to launch. The motion of the mass center of a drag-free test mass, which follows a pure geodesic, must be inferred from measurements of the surface. Therefore, knowledge of the mass center is critical for calibration of the cross-coupling between rotational and translational degrees of freedom. Together with the moment of inertia tensor, the mass center can also provide an estimate of the material density inhomogeneity to quadratic order, and the gravitational potential to second order, which improves modeling of self gravitation forces. These benefits, which are independent of the test mass shape, motivate the development of three new techniques for improving mass center and moment of inertia measurements beyond the current state of the art. A static pendulum is proposed to determine the mass center of a cubic test mass to ~ 1 μm by measuring the equilibrium position with the cube in up to 24 different orientations relative to the pendulum platform. Measuring the natural frequency of a dynamic torsion pendulum can determine both the mass center and moment of inertia tensor of arbitrarily shaped objects to ~ 5 μm and 1 part in ~ 104 respectively. The velocity modulation technique for measuring the mass center of a sphere has raised the bar in precision to ~ 150 nm, a factor of 20 improvement over the work presented at the LISA 6th symposium. This new technique involves rolling the sphere down a set of parallel rails to spectrally shift the mass center offset information to the rolling rate frequency, in order to avoid the 1/f noise that typically prevents other techniques from achieving precision below 1 μm.

  19. Coronal Mass Ejections: Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Webb

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar eruptive phenomena embrace a variety of eruptions, including flares, solar energetic particles, and radio bursts. Since the vast majority of these are associated with the eruption, development, and evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, we focus on CME observations in this review. CMEs are a key aspect of coronal and interplanetary dynamics. They inject large quantities of mass and magnetic flux into the heliosphere, causing major transient disturbances. CMEs can drive interplanetary shocks, a key source of solar energetic particles and are known to be the major contributor to severe space weather at the Earth. Studies over the past decade using the data sets from (among others the SOHO, TRACE, Wind, ACE, STEREO, and SDO spacecraft, along with ground-based instruments, have improved our knowledge of the origins and development of CMEs at the Sun and how they contribute to space weather at Earth. SOHO, launched in 1995, has provided us with almost continuous coverage of the solar corona over more than a complete solar cycle, and the heliospheric imagers SMEI (2003 – 2011 and the HIs (operating since early 2007 have provided us with the capability to image and track CMEs continually across the inner heliosphere. We review some key coronal properties of CMEs, their source regions and their propagation through the solar wind. The LASCO coronagraphs routinely observe CMEs launched along the Sun-Earth line as halo-like brightenings. STEREO also permits observing Earth-directed CMEs from three different viewpoints of increasing azimuthal separation, thereby enabling the estimation of their three-dimensional properties. These are important not only for space weather prediction purposes, but also for understanding the development and internal structure of CMEs since we view their source regions on the solar disk and can measure their in-situ characteristics along their axes. Included in our discussion of the recent developments in CME

  20. ON THE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND BIRTH MASSES OF NEUTRON STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Santos Villarreal, Antonio [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Narayan, Ramesh [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138,USA (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We investigate the distribution of neutron star masses in different populations of binaries, employing Bayesian statistical techniques. In particular, we explore the differences in neutron star masses between sources that have experienced distinct evolutionary paths and accretion episodes. We find that the distribution of neutron star masses in non-recycled eclipsing high-mass binaries as well as of slow pulsars, which are all believed to be near their birth masses, has a mean of 1.28 M{sub Sun} and a dispersion of 0.24 M{sub Sun }. These values are consistent with expectations for neutron star formation in core-collapse supernovae. On the other hand, double neutron stars, which are also believed to be near their birth masses, have a much narrower mass distribution, peaking at 1.33 M{sub Sun }, but with a dispersion of only 0.05 M{sub Sun }. Such a small dispersion cannot easily be understood and perhaps points to a particular and rare formation channel. The mass distribution of neutron stars that have been recycled has a mean of 1.48 M{sub Sun} and a dispersion of 0.2 M{sub Sun }, consistent with the expectation that they have experienced extended mass accretion episodes. The fact that only a very small fraction of recycled neutron stars in the inferred distribution have masses that exceed {approx}2 M{sub Sun} suggests that only a few of these neutron stars cross the mass threshold to form low-mass black holes.