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Sample records for submunitions related tests

  1. Neural network for quality control of submunitions produced by injection loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E.; Parkinson, W.J.; Hinde, R.F. Jr.; Wantuck, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Engineering Sciences and Applications Div.; Newman, K.E. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Yorktown, VA (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Injection loading of submunitions for smart weapons is a novel automated processing technique that can benefit from adaptive process control. This paper describes how the quality of submunitions could be controlled by using a neural network code in real time. Future work is planned to demonstrate fewer rejects and pollution reduction during submunition manufacturing.

  2. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what you want to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... Genes: A Guide to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  3. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area (TTR). Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 408 comprises Corrective Action Site TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. Clean closure of CAU 408 will be accomplished by removal of munitions and explosives of concern within seven target areas and potential disposal pits. The target areas were used to perform submunitions related tests for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The scope of CAU 408 is limited to submunitions released from DOE activities. However, it is recognized that the presence of other types of unexploded ordnance and munitions may be present within the target areas due to the activities of other government organizations. The CAU 408 closure activities consist of: • Clearing bomblet target areas within the study area. • Identifying and remediating disposal pits. • Collecting verification samples. • Performing radiological screening of soil. • Removing soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include unexploded submunitions, explosives, Resource Conservation Recovery Act metals, and depleted uranium. Contaminants are not expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results.

  4. Spacecraft Tests of General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Current spacecraft tests of general relativity depend on coherent radio tracking referred to atomic frequency standards at the ground stations. This paper addresses the possibility of improved tests using essentially the current system, but with the added possibility of a space-borne atomic clock. Outside of the obvious measurement of the gravitational frequency shift of the spacecraft clock, a successor to the suborbital flight of a Scout D rocket in 1976 (GP-A Project), other metric tests would benefit most directly by a possible improved sensitivity for the reduced coherent data. For purposes of illustration, two possible missions are discussed. The first is a highly eccentric Earth orbiter, and the second a solar-conjunction experiment to measure the Shapiro time delay using coherent Doppler data instead of the conventional ranging modulation.

  5. Moisture related test protocols for HVS testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide guidance on the possible methodologies for evaluating specifically moisture related pavement response using the Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS), this paper describes the objectives, potential effects and available methods...

  6. Test Performance Related Dysfunctional Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep TÜTÜNCÜ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Examinations by using tests are very frequently used in educational settings and successful studying before the examinations is a complex matter to deal with. In order to understand the determinants of success in exams better, we need to take into account not only emotional and motivational, but also cognitive aspects of the participants such as dysfunctional beliefs. Our aim is to present the relationship between candidates’ characteristics and distorted beliefs/schemata just before an examination. Method: The subjects of the study were 30 female and 30 male physicians who were about to take the medical specialization exam (MSE in Turkey. Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS and Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form (YSQ-SF were applied to the subjects. The statistical analysis was done using the F test, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square test and spearman’s correlation test. Results: It was shown that some of the DAS and YSQ-SF scores were significantly higher in female gender, in the group who could not pass the exam, who had repetitive examinations, who had their first try taking an examination and who were unemployed at the time of the examination. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that candidates seeking help before MSE examination could be referred for cognitive therapy or counseling even they do not have any psychiatric diagnosis due to clinically significant cognitive distortion. Measurement and treatment of cognitive distortions that have negative impact on MSE performance may improve the cost-effectiveness and mental well being of the young doctors.

  7. Testing general relativity on accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigran Kalaydzhyan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the general theory of relativity, the curvature of spacetime is related to the energy and momentum of the present matter and radiation. One of the more specific predictions of general relativity is the deflection of light and particle trajectories in the gravitational field of massive objects. Bending angles for electromagnetic waves and light in particular were measured with a high precision. However, the effect of gravity on relativistic massive particles was never studied experimentally. Here we propose and analyze experiments devoted to that purpose. We demonstrate a high sensitivity of the laser Compton scattering at high energy accelerators to the effects of gravity. The main observable – maximal energy of the scattered photons – would experience a significant shift in the ambient gravitational field even for otherwise negligible violation of the equivalence principle. We confirm predictions of general relativity for ultrarelativistic electrons of energy of tens of GeV at a current level of resolution and expect our work to be a starting point of further high-precision studies on current and future accelerators, such as PETRA, European XFEL and ILC.

  8. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measures the level of a hormone in the blood, called parathyroid hormone-related protein. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  9. Testing General Relativity with Pulsar Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stairs Ingrid H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulsars of very different types, including isolated objects and binaries (with short- and long-period orbits, and white-dwarf and neutron-star companions provide the means to test both the predictions of general relativity and the viability of alternate theories of gravity. This article presents an overview of pulsars, then discusses the current status of and future prospects for tests of equivalence-principle violations and strong-field gravitational experiments.

  10. Testing Asteroseismic Scaling Relations with Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White T. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The asteroseismic scaling relations for the frequency of maximum oscillation power, vmax, and the large frequency separation, Δν, provide an easy way to directly determine the masses and radii of stars with detected solar-like oscillations. With the vast amount of data available from the CoRoT and Kepler missions, the convenience of the scaling relations has resulted in their wide-spread use. But how valid are the scaling relations when applied to red giants, which have a substantially different structure than the Sun? Verifying the scaling relations empirically requires independent measurements. We report on the current state and future prospects of interferometric tests of the scaling relations.

  11. Experimental testing of constructivism and related theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidelman, U

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to show that experimental scientific methods can be applied to explain how the analytic mechanism of the left cerebral hemisphere and the synthetic mechanism of the right one create complex cognitive constructions like ontology and mathematics. Nominalism and ordinal mathematical concepts are related to the analytic left hemisphere while Platonism and cardinal mathematical concepts are related to the synthetic right one. Thus persons with a dominant left hemisphere tend to prefer nominalist ontology and have more aptitude for ordinal mathematics than for cardinal mathematics, while persons with a dominant right hemisphere tend to prefer platonist ontology and have more aptitude for cardinal mathematics than for ordinal mathematics. It is further explained how the Kantism temporal mode of perceiving experience can be related to the left hemisphere while the Kantian spatial mode of perceiving experience can be related to the right hemisphere. This relation can be tested experimentally, thus the Kantian source of constructivism, and through it constructivism itself, can be tested experimentally.

  12. Einstein's Jury The Race to Test Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Crelinsten, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    Einstein's Jury is the dramatic story of how astronomers in Germany, England, and America competed to test Einstein's developing theory of relativity. Weaving a rich narrative based on extensive archival research, Jeffrey Crelinsten shows how these early scientific debates shaped cultural attitudes we hold today. The book examines Einstein's theory of general relativity through the eyes of astronomers, many of whom were not convinced of the legitimacy of Einstein's startling breakthrough. These were individuals with international reputations to uphold and benefactors and shareholders to p

  13. Tests of General Relativity with GW150914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; 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Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, D; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J; Boyle, M; Campanelli, M; Hemberger, D A; Kidder, L E; Ossokine, S; Scheel, M A; Szilagyi, B; Teukolsky, S; Zlochower, Y

    2016-06-03

    The LIGO detection of GW150914 provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the two-body motion of a compact-object binary in the large-velocity, highly nonlinear regime, and to witness the final merger of the binary and the excitation of uniquely relativistic modes of the gravitational field. We carry out several investigations to determine whether GW150914 is consistent with a binary black-hole merger in general relativity. We find that the final remnant's mass and spin, as determined from the low-frequency (inspiral) and high-frequency (postinspiral) phases of the signal, are mutually consistent with the binary black-hole solution in general relativity. Furthermore, the data following the peak of GW150914 are consistent with the least-damped quasinormal mode inferred from the mass and spin of the remnant black hole. By using waveform models that allow for parametrized general-relativity violations during the inspiral and merger phases, we perform quantitative tests on the gravitational-wave phase in the dynamical regime and we determine the first empirical bounds on several high-order post-Newtonian coefficients. We constrain the graviton Compton wavelength, assuming that gravitons are dispersed in vacuum in the same way as particles with mass, obtaining a 90%-confidence lower bound of 10^{13}  km. In conclusion, within our statistical uncertainties, we find no evidence for violations of general relativity in the genuinely strong-field regime of gravity.

  14. Standard Penetration Test and Relative Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-02-01

    La Prueba Normal de Penetraciocn y la Densidad Relativa K.-J. Melzer PhD, Research Engineer U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station Vicksburg...en la prueba normal de penetraci’n (Standard Penetration Test) de una arena bajo el nivel freatico y el correspond- iente numero en una arena seca (ie...de laboratorio ejecutados con un penetr6metro est’tico pequeno. INTRODUCTION One of the main problems encountered in subsoil e’xploration is in situ

  15. Confidence intervals for test information and relative efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterloo, Sebe J.

    1984-01-01

    In latent theory the measurement properties of a mental test can be expressed in the test information function. The relative merits of two tests for the same latent trait can be described by the relative efficiency function, i.e. the ratio of the test information functions. It is argued that these

  16. Test-Retest Changes on Scholastic Aptitude Tests Are Not Related to "g"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This research examined the relation between test-retest changes on scholastic aptitude tests and g-loaded cognitive measures (viz., college grade-point average, Wonderlic Personnel Test, and word recall). University students who had twice taken a scholastic aptitude test (viz., Scholastic Assessment Test or American College Testing Program…

  17. Testing the relation between percentage change and baseline value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yu-Kang

    2016-03-16

    Testing the relation between percentage change and baseline value has been controversial, but it is not clear why this practice may yield spurious results. In this paper, we first explained why the usual testing of the relation between percentage change and baseline value is inappropriate and then demonstrated how the appropriate null hypothesis could be formulated. We also proposed a simple procedure for testing the appropriate null hypothesis based on the assumption that when there is no relation between percentage change and baseline value, the coefficients of variation for repeated measurements of a random variable should remain unchanged. Two examples were used to demonstrate how the usual testing gave rise to misleading results, whilst results from our simple test were in general consistent with those from simulations. We also undertook simulations to investigate the impact of measurement errors on the performance of the proposed test. Results suggested the type-I error rates increased with the magnitude of measurement errors, whilst the statistical power to detect a genuine relation decreased. The usual approach to testing the relation between percentage change and baseline value tended to yield misleading results and should be avoided.

  18. FORTRAN implementation of Friedman's test for several related samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    The FRIEDMAN program is a FORTRAN-coded implementation of Friedman's nonparametric test for several related samples with one observation per treatment/-block combination, or as it is sometimes called, the two-way analysis of variance by ranks. The FRIEDMAN program is described and a test data set and its results are presented to aid potential users of this program.

  19. Transfer of function and prior derived-relations testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Adam H; Best, Lauren

    2017-10-01

    This experiment assessed transfer of function through equivalence relations with and without prior derived-stimulus-relations (DSR) testing. In a DSR-Testing Group, eight college students learned A-B and A-C discriminations in baseline. They then derived the B-C and C-B equivalence relations before being exposed to a transfer-of-function manipulation and test. Eight participants in a No-DSR Testing Group were exposed to the transfer-of-function manipulation and test immediately after learning the baseline discriminations (i.e., B-C and C-B testing were omitted). In the transfer-of-function manipulation, participants learned to respond differently in the presence of B1 and B2 to avoid money loss. In the transfer-of-function test, responding in the presence of C1 and C2 was measured in the absence of differential consequences. Transfer of function occurred reliably only in the DSR-Testing Group (i.e., participants responding to C1 and C2 in the manner they learned to respond to B1 and B2, respectively). These findings support the notion that prior DSR testing can be critical to observing transfer of function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Relative Deprivation and Adolescent Outcomes in Iceland: A Multilevel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2009-01-01

    The theory of relative deprivation emphasizes that social comparisons contextualize how people experience impoverishment. An important application of this theory argues that relative deprivation that stems from unfavorable social comparisons can result in anger, normlessness and an increased likelihood of deviant behavior. We test this theory in a…

  1. A crosscultural validation of a test of science related attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Khalil Y.

    A test for measuring science attitudes, named Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), was initially developed in Australia by Fraser (1977, 1978). This study investigated the crosscultural validity of this instrument when used with American high school students. Three hundred and thirty-six students (12th and 11th graders) in three high schools in suburban Chicago took the test. The results of the study, confirming previous validation of the test, revealed that the seven subscales of TOSRA were, in general, highly reliable. The discriminant validity of each of these scales, however, was found to be generally low. The item/scale correlation for all but four items of the test met Shrigley's (Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 20(1), 87-89, 1983) criterion of being more than 0.30. The results of the principal components with varimax rotation did not support the distinctiveness of the subscale structure of the test.

  2. Approach/avoidance motives, test emotions, and emotional regulation related to testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Paul A; Benson, Jeri; Decuir-Gunby, Jessica T

    2008-07-01

    This research stems from our program of work that focuses on understanding how students regulated their emotions related to testing. The primary goal for this study was to incorporate the approach/ avoidance motives into a model of emotional regulation related to testing. In addition, a secondary goal was to report on efforts at construct validation of the scores obtained during the refinement of the Emotional Regulation Related to Testing (ERT) Scale. Our results suggest that underlying beliefs, such as approach/avoid motives and the cognitive-appraisal process, of the ERT had both direct and indirect effects to both pleasant and unpleasant emotions related to testing. In addition, the ERT accounted for 56% of the variance in Pleasant and 87% of Unpleasant Test Emotions.

  3. How to test for a relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD)

    OpenAIRE

    David C Broadway

    2016-01-01

    The 'swinging light test' is used to detect a relative afferent pupil defect (RAPD): a means of detecting differences between the two eyes in how they respond to a light shone in one eye at a time. The test can be very useful for detecting unilateral or asymmetrical disease of the retina or optic nerve (but only optic nerve disease that occurs in front of the optic chiasm).

  4. How to test for a relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Broadway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 'swinging light test' is used to detect a relative afferent pupil defect (RAPD: a means of detecting differences between the two eyes in how they respond to a light shone in one eye at a time. The test can be very useful for detecting unilateral or asymmetrical disease of the retina or optic nerve (but only optic nerve disease that occurs in front of the optic chiasm.

  5. Vocabulary test format and differential relations to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ryan P; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2008-06-01

    Although vocabulary tests are generally considered interchangeable, regardless of format, different tests can have different relations to age and to other cognitive abilities. In this study, 4 vocabulary test formats were examined: multiple-choice synonyms, multiple-choice antonyms, produce the definition, and picture identification. Results indicated that, although they form a single coherent vocabulary knowledge factor, the formats have different relations to age. In earlier adulthood, picture identification had the strongest growth, and produce the definition had the weakest. In later adulthood, picture identification had the strongest decline, and multiple-choice synonyms had the least. The formats differed in their relation to other cognitive variables, including reasoning, spatial visualization, memory, and speed. After accounting for the differential relations to other cognitive variables, differences in relation to age were eliminated with the exception of differences for the picture identification test. No theory of the aging of vocabulary knowledge fully explains these findings. These results suggest that using a single indicator of vocabulary may yield incomplete and somewhat misleading results about the aging of vocabulary knowledge.

  6. GRAMMATICAL MISTAKES IN RELATION TO ENGLISH COMPETENCY TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Gde Sosiowati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aims at finding out the freshmen’s ability on English grammar. This is very important activity so that the English department knows their level of ability so that the teaching materials can be determined. The test is about structure, taken from TOEFL. The theory used is the theory English Language Teaching, especially Testing by Harmer (2001, in which the test is used as diagnostic test. The result of the test will provide the information about three crucial points on grammar that must be developed. This will help the related teacher to decide what items should be taught so that by the end of the semester, at least most of the students can reach the level of Intermediate, that is the level in which the students are capable of doing conversations on routines, u nderstanding lectures, understanding English TV programs (http://www.embassyenglish.com/student-life/yourlevel-of-english cited on 19 January 2015.

  7. HIV Testing among Adolescents in Ndola, Zambia: How Individual, Relational, and Environmental Factors Relate to Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, Julie A.; McCauley, Ann P.; Dunnett-Dagg, Wendy A.; Lungu, Nalakwanji; Sweat, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how individual, relational and environmental factors related to adolescent demand for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected 16-19-year-olds in Ndola, Zambia, covered individual (e.g., HIV knowledge), environmental (e.g., distance), and relational factors (e.g., discussed…

  8. Testing General Relativity Using Gravitational-Wave Observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Testing General Relativity Using Gravitational-Wave. Observations. Parameswaran Ajith ICTS-TIFR, Bangalore. On behalf of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and. Virgo Collaboration. 27th Mid-Year Meeting of the Indian Academy of Sciences. 1 July 2016, IISc Bangalore. LIGO-G1601410-v2 indig ...

  9. Does the Fizeau Experiment Really Test Special Relativity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Gerard

    1980-01-01

    The motivation and interpretation of the Fizeau experiment are reviewed, and its status as a test of special relativity is discussed. It is shown, with the aid of a simplified, purely mechanical model of the propagation of light in matter, that the experiment actually cannot discriminate between Galilean and relativistic kinematics. (Author/SK)

  10. Testing General Relativity with Present and Future Astrophysical Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Pani, Paolo; Sperhake, Ulrich; Stein, Leo C; Wex, Norbert; Yagi, Kent; Baker, Tessa; Burgess, C P; Coelho, Flávio S; Doneva, Daniela; De Felice, Antonio; Ferreira, Pedro G; Freire, Paulo C C; Healy, James; Herdeiro, Carlos; Horbatsch, Michael; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Klein, Antoine; Kokkotas, Kostas; Kunz, Jutta; Laguna, Pablo; Lang, Ryan N; Li, Tjonnie G F; Littenberg, Tyson; Matas, Andrew; Mirshekari, Saeed; Okawa, Hirotada; Radu, Eugen; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Sathyaprakash, Bangalore S; Broeck, Chris Van Den; Winther, Hans A; Witek, Helvi; Aghili, Mir Emad; Alsing, Justin; Bolen, Brett; Bombelli, Luca; Caudill, Sarah; Chen, Liang; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Fujita, Ryuichi; Gao, Caixia; Gerosa, Davide; Kamali, Saeed; Silva, Hector O; Rosa, João G; Sadeghian, Laleh; Sampaio, Marco; Sotani, Hajime; Zilhao, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    One century after its formulation, Einstein's general relativity has made remarkable predictions and turned out to be compatible with all experimental tests. Most (if not all) of these tests probe the theory in the weak-field regime, and there are theoretical and experimental reasons to believe that general relativity should be modified when gravitational fields are strong and spacetime curvature is large. The best astrophysical laboratories to probe strong-field gravity are black holes and neutron stars, whether isolated or in binary systems. We review the motivations to consider extensions of general relativity. We present a (necessarily incomplete) catalog of modified theories of gravity for which strong-field predictions have been computed and contrasted to Einstein's theory, and we summarize our current understanding of the structure and dynamics of compact objects in these theories. We discuss current bounds on modified gravity from binary pulsar and cosmological observations, and we highlight the poten...

  11. Aspects of the Italian legislation related to HIV testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania D'Amato

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Italy has adhered to international declarations regarding the prevention, care, and treatment of HIV/AIDS and has adopted the fundamental interventions for surveillance and control; access to testing is defined by Law 135 of 5 June 1990. At the time, the Ministry of Health issued decrees to define national epidemiological surveillance systems for new HIV infections. The decree provides indications on the data to be collected, data flow, the modes of data transmission respecting security measures and some recommendations regarding access to HIV testing. It is thus necessary to develop national recommendations on appropriate methods for considering the diverse phases of access to testing in relation to the level of awareness of the minor, the outcome and divulging of the test.

  12. Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2003-04-01

    The National Academy of Sciences recently published a detailed study of technical factors related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), with emphasis on those issues that arose when the Senate declined to ratify the Treaty in 1999. The study considered (1) the capacity of the United States to maintain confidence in the safety and reliability of its nuclear weapons without nuclear testing; (2) the capabilities of the international nuclear-test monitoring system; and (3) the advances in nuclear weapons capabilities that other countries might make through low-yield testing that might escape detection. Excluding political factors, the committee considered three possible future worlds: (1) a world without a CTBT; (2) a world in which the signatories comply with a CTBT; and (3) a world in the signatories evade its strictures within the limits set by the detection system. The talk and ensuing discussion will elaborate on the study. The principal conclusion of the report, based solely on technical reasons, is that the national security of the United States is better served with a CTBT in force than without it, whether or not other signatories conduct low level but undetected tests in violation of the treaty. Moreover, the study finds that nuclear testing would not add substantially to the US Stockpile Stewardship Program in allowing the United States to maintain confidence in the assessment of its existing nuclear weapons.

  13. Modeling the Impact of Test Anxiety and Test Familiarity on the Criterion-Related Validity of Cognitive Ability Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Heggestad, Eric D.; Lievens, Filip

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of cognitive abilities, whether it is for purposes of basic research or applied decision making, is potentially susceptible to both facilitating and debilitating influences. However, relatively little research has examined the degree to which these factors might moderate the criterion-related validity of cognitive ability tests. To…

  14. Relational Constraint Driven Test Case Synthesis for Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Fu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a relational constraint driven technique that synthesizes test cases automatically for web applications. Using a static analysis, servlets can be modeled as relational transducers, which manipulate backend databases. We present a synthesis algorithm that generates a sequence of HTTP requests for simulating a user session. The algorithm relies on backward symbolic image computation for reaching a certain database state, given a code coverage objective. With a slight adaptation, the technique can be used for discovering workflow attacks on web applications.

  15. Preservation of FFTF Data Related to Passive Safety Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.

    2010-10-01

    One of the goals of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR). A key area deserving special attention for preservation is the data relating to passive safety testing that was conducted in FFTF and EBR-II during the 1980’s. Accidents at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Station and Unit 2 at Three Mile Island changed the safety paradigm of the nuclear power industry. New emphasis was placed on assured safety based on intrinsic plant characteristics that protect not only the public, but the significant investment in the plant as well. Plants designated to perform in this manner are considered to be passively safe since no active sensor/alarm system or human intervention is required to bring the reactor to a safe shutdown condition. The liquid metal reactor (LMR) has several key characteristics needed for a passively safe reactor: reactor coolant with superior heat transfer capability and very high boiling point, low (atmospheric) system pressures, and reliable negative reactivity feedback. The credibility of the design for a passively safe LMR rests on two issues: the validity of analytic methods used to predict passive safety performance and the availability of relevant test data to calibrate design tools. Safety analysis methods used to analyze LMRs under the old safety paradigm were focused on calculating the source term for the Core Disruptive Accident. Passive safety design requires refined analysis methods for transient events because treatment of the detailed reactivity feedbacks is important in predicting the response of the reactor. Similarly, analytic tools should be calibrated against actual test experience in existing LMR facilities. The principal objectives of the combined FFTF natural circulation and Passive Safety Testing program were: 1) to verify natural circulation as a reliable means to safely remove decay heat, 2) to extend passive safety

  16. Criterion Related Validity of Karate Specific Aerobic Test (KSAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabene, Helmi; Hachana, Younes; Franchini, Emerson; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Chamari, Karim

    2015-09-01

    Karate is one the most popular combat sports in the world. Physical fitness assessment on a regular manner is important for monitoring the effectiveness of the training program and the readiness of karatekas to compete. The aim of this research was to examine the criterion related to validity of the karate specific aerobic test (KSAT) as an indicator of aerobic level of karate practitioners. Cardiorespiratory responses, aerobic performance level through both treadmill laboratory test and YoYo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYoIRTL1) as well as time to exhaustion in the KSAT test (TE'KSAT) were determined in a total of fifteen healthy international karatekas (i.e. karate practitioners) (means ± SD: age: 22.2 ± 4.3 years; height: 176.4 ± 7.5 cm; body mass: 70.3 ± 9.7 kg and body fat: 13.2 ± 6%). Peak heart rate obtained from KSAT represented ~99% of maximal heart rate registered during the treadmill test showing that KSAT imposes high physiological demands. There was no significant correlation between KSAT's TE and relative (mL/min kg) treadmill maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.14; P = 0.69; [small]). On the other hand, there was a significant relationship between KSAT's TE and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max) (r = 0.67; P = 0.03; [large]) as well as the velocity at VO2 corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold (vVO2 VAT) (r = 0.64; P = 0.04; [large]). Moreover, significant relationship was found between TE's KSAT and both the total distance covered and parameters of intermittent endurance measured through YoYoIRTL1. The KSAT has not proved to have indirect criterion related validity as no significant correlations have been found between TE's KSAT and treadmill VO2max. Nevertheless, as correlated to other aerobic fitness variables, KSAT can be considered as an indicator of karate specific endurance. The establishment of the criterion related validity of the KSAT requires further investigation.

  17. Criterion Related Validity of Karate Specific Aerobic Test (KSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabene, Helmi; Hachana, Younes; Franchini, Emerson; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Chamari, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Karate is one the most popular combat sports in the world. Physical fitness assessment on a regular manner is important for monitoring the effectiveness of the training program and the readiness of karatekas to compete. Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the criterion related to validity of the karate specific aerobic test (KSAT) as an indicator of aerobic level of karate practitioners. Patients and Methods: Cardiorespiratory responses, aerobic performance level through both treadmill laboratory test and YoYo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYoIRTL1) as well as time to exhaustion in the KSAT test (TE’KSAT) were determined in a total of fifteen healthy international karatekas (i.e. karate practitioners) (means ± SD: age: 22.2 ± 4.3 years; height: 176.4 ± 7.5 cm; body mass: 70.3 ± 9.7 kg and body fat: 13.2 ± 6%). Results: Peak heart rate obtained from KSAT represented ~99% of maximal heart rate registered during the treadmill test showing that KSAT imposes high physiological demands. There was no significant correlation between KSAT’s TE and relative (mL/min kg) treadmill maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.14; P = 0.69; [small]). On the other hand, there was a significant relationship between KSAT’s TE and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max) (r = 0.67; P = 0.03; [large]) as well as the velocity at VO2 corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold (vVO2 VAT) (r = 0.64; P = 0.04; [large]). Moreover, significant relationship was found between TE’s KSAT and both the total distance covered and parameters of intermittent endurance measured through YoYoIRTL1. Conclusions: The KSAT has not proved to have indirect criterion related validity as no significant correlations have been found between TE’s KSAT and treadmill VO2max. Nevertheless, as correlated to other aerobic fitness variables, KSAT can be considered as an indicator of karate specific endurance. The establishment of the criterion related validity of the KSAT

  18. A superconducting gyroscope to test Einstein's general theory of relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, C. W. F.

    1978-01-01

    Schiff (1960) proposed a new test of general relativity based on measuring the precessions of the spin axes of gyroscopes in earth orbit. Since 1963 a Stanford research team has been developing an experiment to measure the two effects calculated by Schiff. The gyroscope consists of a uniform sphere of fused quartz 38 mm in diameter, coated with superconductor, electrically suspended and spinning at about 170 Hz in vacuum. The paper describes the proposed flight apparatus and the current state of development of the gyroscope, including techniques for manufacturing and measuring the gyro rotor and housing, generating ultralow magnetic fields, and mechanizing the readout.

  19. Improved test of time dilation in special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saathoff, G; Karpuk, S; Eisenbarth, U; Huber, G; Krohn, S; Muñoz Horta, R; Reinhardt, S; Schwalm, D; Wolf, A; Gwinner, G

    2003-11-07

    An improved test of time dilation in special relativity has been performed using laser spectroscopy on fast ions at the heavy-ion storage-ring TSR in Heidelberg. The Doppler-shifted frequencies of a two-level transition in 7Li+ ions at v=0.064c have been measured in the forward and backward direction to an accuracy of Deltanu/nu=1 x 10(-9) using collinear saturation spectroscopy. The result confirms the relativistic Doppler formula and sets a new limit of 2.2 x 10(-7) for deviations from the time dilation factor gamma(SR)=(1-v2/c2)(-1/2).

  20. Gravitational wave astronomy, relativity tests, and massive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Peter L.; Bender

    2010-01-01

    The gravitational wave detectors that are operating now are looking for several kinds of gravitational wave signals at frequencies of tens of Hertz to kilohertz. One of these is mergers of roughly 10 M⊙ BH binaries. Sometime between now and about 8 years from now, it is likely that signals of this kind will be observed. The result will be strong tests of the dynamical predictions of general relativity in the high field regime. However, observations at frequencies below 1 Hz will have to wait until the launch of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), hopefully only a few years later. LISA will have 3 main objectives, all involving massive BHs. The first is observations of mergers of pairs of intermediate mass (100 to 105 M⊙) and higher mass BHs at redshifts out to roughly z=10. This will provide new information on the initial formation and growth of BHs such as those found in most galaxies, and the relation between BH growth and the evolution of galactic structure. The second objective is observations of roughly 10 M⊙ BHs, neutron stars, and white dwarfs spiraling into much more massive BHs in galactic nuclei. Such events will provide detailed information on the populations of such compact objects in the regions around galactic centers. And the third objective is the use of the first two types of observations for testing general relativity even more strongly than ground based detectors will. As an example, an extreme mass ratio event such as a 10 M⊙ BH spiraling into a galactic center BH can give roughly 105 observable cycles during about the last year before merger, with a mean relative velocity of 1/3 to 1/2 the speed of light, and the frequencies of periapsis precession and Lense-Thirring precession will be high. The LISA Pathfinder mission to prepare for LISA is scheduled for launch in 2011.

  1. Emotion perception and empathy: An individual differences test of relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olderbak, Sally; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    Numerous theories posit a positive relation between perceiving emotion expressed in the face of a stranger (emotion perception) and feeling or cognitively understanding the emotion of that person (affective and cognitive empathy, respectively). However, when relating individual differences in emotion perception with individual differences in affective or cognitive empathy, effect sizes are contradictory, but often not significantly different from zero. Based on 4 studies (study ns range from 97 to 486 persons; n total = 958) that differ from one another on many design and sample characteristics, applying advanced modeling techniques to control for measurement error, we estimate relations between affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and emotion perception. Relations are tested separately for each of the 6 basic emotions (an emotion-specific model) as well as across all emotions (an emotion-general model). Reflecting the literature, effect sizes and statistical significance with an emotion-general model vary across the individual studies (rs range from -.001 to .24 for emotion perception with affective empathy and -.01 to .39 for emotion perception with cognitive empathy), with a meta-analysis of these results indicating emotion perception is weakly related with affective (r = .13, p = .003) and cognitive empathy (r = .13, p = .05). Relations are not strengthened in an emotion-specific model. We argue that the weak effect sizes and inconsistency across studies reflects a neglected distinction of measurement approach-specifically, empathy is assessed as typical behavior and emotion perception is assessed as maximal effort-and conclude with considerations regarding the measurement of each construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Cloze tests and word reading tests: Enabling teachers to measure learners' reading-related abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klapwijk, Nanda M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘How can I measure my learners’ reading ability in order to manage my instruction more effectively?’ This seems to be the refrain of many teachers these days. However, while teachers are taught new methods of instruction and new reading methods, they do not seem to be taught about reliable ways to measure their learners’ reading-related ability independently. In this article, a recommendation is made for the use of two measurements by teachers: a word reading test (which measures word recognition and Cloze tests (which measure a reader’s ability to comprehend at more than word level. While acknowledging the difficulties related to measuring reading ability, in particular comprehension, the author of this article provides evidence that, when combined, a word reading test and a Cloze test can provide teachers with a reliable indicator of their learners’ reading-related abilities. The article concludes with a list of benefits that can be gained from obtaining such measurements.

  3. Classical tests of General Relativity in thick branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahia, F.; de Albuquerque Silva, Alex

    2015-02-01

    Classical tests of General Relativity in braneworld scenarios have been investigated recently with the purpose of posing observational constraints on the parameters of some models of infinitely thin brane. Here we consider the motion of test particles in a thick brane scenario that corresponds to a regularized version of the Garriga-Tanaka solution, which describes a black hole solution in RSII model, in the weak field regime. By adapting a mechanism previously formulated in order to describe the confinement of massive tests particles in a domain wall (which simulates classically the trapping of the Dirac field in a domain wall), we study the influence of the brane thickness on the four-dimensional (4D) path of massless particles. Although the geometry is not warped and, therefore, the bound motion in the transverse direction is not decoupled from the movement in the 4D-world, we can find an explicit solution for the light deflection and the time delay, if the motion in the fifth direction is a high frequency oscillation. We verify that, owing to the transverse motion, the light deflection and the time delay depend on the energy of the light rays. This feature may lead to the phenomenon of gravitational rainbow. We also consider the problem from a semi-classical perspective, investigating the effects of the brane thickness on the motion of the zero-mode in the 4D-world.

  4. Global income-related inequalities in HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, Auburn; Moore, Spencer; Harper, Sam; Lynch, John

    2011-09-01

    Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is an important prevention initiative in reducing HIV/AIDS transmission. Despite current global prevention efforts, many low- and middle-income countries continue reporting low VCT levels. Little is known about the association of within- and between-country socioeconomic inequalities and VCT. Based on the 'inverse equity hypothesis,' this study examines the degree to which low socioeconomic groups in developing countries are disadvantaged in VCT. Using recently released data from the 2002 to 2003 World Health Survey (WHS) for 106 705 individuals in 49 countries, this study used multilevel logistic regression to examine the association of individual- and national-level factors with VCT, and whether national economic development moderated the association between individual income and VCT. Individual income was based on country-specific income quintiles. National economic development was based on national gross domestic product per capita (GDP/c). Effect modification was evaluated with the likelihood ratio test (G(2)). Individuals eligible for the VCT question of the WHS were adults between the ages of 18-49 years; women who had given birth in the last 2 years were excluded from this question. VCT was more likely among higher income quintiles and in countries with higher GDP/c. GDP/c moderated the association between individual income and VCT whereby relative income differences in VCT were greater in countries with lower GDP/c (G(2)= 9.21; P= 0.002). Individual socio-demographic characteristics were also associated with the likelihood of a person having VCT. Relative socioeconomic inequalities in VCT coverage appear to decline when higher SES groups reach a certain level of coverage. These findings suggest that changes to international VCT programs may be necessary to moderate the relative VCT differences between high- and low-income individuals in lower GDP/c nations.

  5. Adolescents Occupational and Educational Goals: A Test of Reciprocal Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Sarah J; Crockett, Lisa J

    2013-09-01

    During adolescence, young people's future aspirations and expectations begin to crystallize, especially in the domains of education and occupation. Much of the research in this area has emphasized development within a particular domain (e.g., education) and relations between aspirations and expectations across domains remain largely unexplored, resulting in a lack of information on how goals develop in tandem and affect each other. It is also unclear whether these developmental processes differ by gender and socioeconomic status. We tested reciprocal effects between occupational and educational goals using a longitudinal sample of 636 adolescents (52% boys). Results from dynamic systems models indicated change in occupational and educational goals across high school. For all youth, occupational aspirations predicted change in occupational expectations. Educational expectations predicted change in occupational aspirations for youth in high but not low parent education groups, and occupational expectations predicted change in educational expectations for girls but not boys.

  6. Astrometric tests of General Relativity in the Solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Riva, A.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Sozzetti, A.; Crosta, M. T.; Busonero, D.

    2014-03-01

    Micro-arcsec astronomy is able to verify the predictions of theoretical models of gravitation at a level adequate to constraint relevant parameters and select among different formulations. In particular, this concerns the weak field limit applicable to the Sun neighborhood, where competing models can be expressed in a common framework as the Parametrised Post-Newtonian and Parametrised Post-Post-Newtonian formulations. The mission Gaia is going to provide an unprecedented determination of the γ PPN parameter at the 10-6 level. Other recently proposed concepts, as GAME, may improve the precision on γ by one or two orders of magnitude and provide constraints on other crucial phenomenological aspects. We review the key concepts of astrometric tests of General Relativity and discuss a possible development scenario.

  7. Factors Related to the Validity of Reproduction Tonal Memory Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Charles E.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the validity of reproduction tonal memory tests by examining the relationships among performances on an existing reproduction tonal memory test and several recognition tonal memory tests. Tested 210 fifth through twelfth grade students. Concludes that there is a moderate relationship among performances on the tests. Includes references.…

  8. Is Test Taker Perception of Assessment Related to Construct Validity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined test takers' perception of assessment demand and its impact on the measurement of intended constructs. More than 800 test takers took a pre- and a posttest of College English Test Band 4 and filled in a perception questionnaire to report the skills they perceive as necessary for answering the test. The study found test takers…

  9. Testing general relativity with present and future astrophysical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Emanuele; Barausse, Enrico; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Pani, Paolo; Sperhake, Ulrich; Stein, Leo C.; Wex, Norbert; Yagi, Kent; Baker, Tessa; Burgess, C. P.; Coelho, Flávio S.; Doneva, Daniela; De Felice, Antonio; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Freire, Paulo C. C.; Healy, James; Herdeiro, Carlos; Horbatsch, Michael; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Klein, Antoine; Kokkotas, Kostas; Kunz, Jutta; Laguna, Pablo; Lang, Ryan N.; Li, Tjonnie G. F.; Littenberg, Tyson; Matas, Andrew; Mirshekari, Saeed; Okawa, Hirotada; Radu, Eugen; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Sathyaprakash, Bangalore S.; Van Den Broeck, Chris; Winther, Hans A.; Witek, Helvi; Emad Aghili, Mir; Alsing, Justin; Bolen, Brett; Bombelli, Luca; Caudill, Sarah; Chen, Liang; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Fujita, Ryuichi; Gao, Caixia; Gerosa, Davide; Kamali, Saeed; Silva, Hector O.; Rosa, João G.; Sadeghian, Laleh; Sampaio, Marco; Sotani, Hajime; Zilhao, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    One century after its formulation, Einstein's general relativity (GR) has made remarkable predictions and turned out to be compatible with all experimental tests. Most of these tests probe the theory in the weak-field regime, and there are theoretical and experimental reasons to believe that GR should be modified when gravitational fields are strong and spacetime curvature is large. The best astrophysical laboratories to probe strong-field gravity are black holes and neutron stars, whether isolated or in binary systems. We review the motivations to consider extensions of GR. We present a (necessarily incomplete) catalog of modified theories of gravity for which strong-field predictions have been computed and contrasted to Einstein's theory, and we summarize our current understanding of the structure and dynamics of compact objects in these theories. We discuss current bounds on modified gravity from binary pulsar and cosmological observations, and we highlight the potential of future gravitational wave measurements to inform us on the behavior of gravity in the strong-field regime.

  10. Testing general relativity using golden black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Abhirup; Johnson-McDaniel, Nathan K; Mishra, Chandra Kant; Ajith, Parameswaran; Del Pozzo, Walter; Nichols, David A; Chen, Yanbei; Nielsen, Alex B; Berry, Christopher P L; London, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    The coalescences of stellar-mass black-hole binaries through their inspiral, merger, and ringdown are among the most promising sources for ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. If a GW signal is observed with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio, the masses and spins of the black holes can be estimated from just the inspiral part of the signal. Using these estimates of the initial parameters of the binary, the mass and spin of the final black hole can be uniquely predicted making use of general-relativistic numerical simulations. In addition, the mass and spin of the final black hole can be independently estimated from the merger-ringdown part of the signal. If the binary black hole dynamics is correctly described by general relativity, these independent estimates have to be consistent with each other. We present a Bayesian implementation of such a test of general relativity, and outline the expected constraints from upcoming GW observations using the second-generation of ground-based GW detectors.

  11. Status report on ESF-related prototype testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, R.D.; Kalia, H.N. [comps.

    1992-12-01

    This report provides information on the Prototype Testing performed in the G-Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site by the Yucca Mountain Project form April 1988 to November 1989. The Testing Program was implemented to ensure that the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) tests can be completed in the time available and to develop instruments, equipment, and procedures so the ESF tests can collect reliable and representative site characterization data. This report summarizes the ESF prototype tests and presents preliminary results.

  12. BOOK REVIEW: Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Jürgen

    2007-10-01

    'I know very well that my theory rests on a shaky foundation. What attracts me to it is that it leads to consequences that seem to be accessible to experiment, and it provides a starting point for the theoretical understanding of gravitation', wrote Einstein in 1911. Einstein's Jury by Jeffrey Crelinsten—well documented, well written, and fascinating to read—describes how, from 1909 on, Einstein's two theories of relativity became known to astronomers, and how the predictions made between 1907 and 1915 were received as challenges to observers. The author gives a non-technical account of the efforts made until 1930 to test these predictions; he focuses on two of the three classical tests, namely gravitational redshift and bending of light; the 'jury' consists mainly of American observers—Adams, Campbell, Curtis, Hale, Perrin, St John, Trumpler and others—working with newly built large telescopes, and the Britons Eddington and Evershed. The major steps which, after a long struggle, convinced the majority of astronomers that Einstein was right, are narrated chronologically in rather great detail, especially the work at Lick Observatory, before and after the famous British observation of 1919, on solar eclipses, and the work at Mount Wilson and the Indian Kodaikanal Observatories to extract the gravitational redshift from the complicated spectrum of the sun. The account of the eclipse work which was carried out between 1918 and 1923 by Lick astronomers corrects the impression suggested by many historical accounts that the British expedition alone settled the light-bending question. Apart from these main topics, the anomalous perihelion advance of Mercury and the ether problem are covered. By concentrating on astronomy rather than on physics this book complements the rich but repetitive literature on Einstein and relativity which appeared in connection with the commemoration of Einstein's annus mirabilis, 2005. The well told stories include curiosities such as

  13. Computerized Adaptive Testing of Music-Related Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vispoel, Walter P.; Coffman, Don D.

    1992-01-01

    Reports the findings of a study of university marching band members' tonal memory skills and their preferences between adaptive and paper-and-pencil testing. Concludes that adaptive testing yielded greater reliability and validity scores. Indicates that students preferred adaptive tests over paper-and-pencil music tests. (SG)

  14. ASTROD I - Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Hanns; Ni, Wei-Tou; Laemmerzahl, Claus

    In 2011 ASTROD I has been selected as one of the final 14 candidates for the Cosmic Vision M3 mission. ASTROD I is a planned interplanetary space mission with multiple goals. The primary aims are: to test general relativity with an improvement in sensitivity of over three orders of magnitude, improving our understanding of gravity and aiding the development of a new quantum gravity theory; to measure key solar system parameters with increased accuracy, advancing solar physics and our knowledge of the solar system; and to measure the time rate of change of the gravitational constant with an order of magnitude improvement and probing dark matter and dark energy gravitationally. It is an international project, and is envisaged as the first in a series of ASTROD missions. ASTROD I will consist of one spacecraft carrying a telescope, four lasers, two event timers and a clock. Two-way, two-wavelength laser pulse ranging will be used between the spacecraft in a solar orbit and deep space laser stations on Earth, to achieve the ASTROD I goals. Finally the mission was not selected for the final 4 candidates for CV M3 in 2011. Nevertheless, ASTROD is a very promising concept for a fundamental physics space mission and shares some key technologies with other popular space missions like LISA and Jason 2 (T2L2). We have also considered possibilities (i) to add an ASTROD I laser ranging package to other fundamental missions for testing the dynamics of relativistic gravity; (ii) to fully combine ASTROD I with another fundamental mission using basic technology of the LISA Pathfiner (this could also be good for a LISA-type mission scheduled to launch 20 years later). In this paper, we present various possibilities of our study.

  15. Criterion Related Validity of Karate Specific Aerobic Test (KSAT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaabene, Helmi; Hachana, Younes; Franchini, Emerson; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Chamari, Karim

    2015-01-01

    ...) as an indicator of aerobic level of karate practitioners. Cardiorespiratory responses, aerobic performance level through both treadmill laboratory test and YoYo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYoIRTL1...

  16. Revisiting test stability: further evidence relating to the measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In several earlier analyses of two tests of academic literacy – the Test of Academic Literacy Levels (TALL) and its Afrikaans counterpart, the Toets vir Akademiese Geletterdheidsvlakke (TAG) – we have adopted an approach to the problem that tests may be abused (and therefore used to harm people) by discussing various ...

  17. Test Code Quality and Its Relation to Issue Handling Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Athanasiou, D.; Nugroho, A.; Visser, J.; Zaidman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Automated testing is a basic principle of agile development. Its benefits include early defect detection, defect cause localization and removal of fear to apply changes to the code. Therefore, maintaining high quality test code is essential. This study introduces a model that assesses test code

  18. Scientific issues related to the cytology proficiency testing regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The member organizations of the CETC feel strongly that there are significant flaws associated with the proposed proficiency test and its implementation. The most immediate modifications include lengthening the required testing interval, utilizing stringently validated and continuously monitored slides, changing the grading scheme and changing the focus of the test from individuals to laboratory level testing, as described above. Integration of new computer-assisted and location-guided screening technologies into the testing protocol is necessary for the testing program to be compliant with the current CLIA law. The regulation also needs to be flexible enough to accommodate new technologies that are implemented in laboratory practice, education and administration of the test. The changes recommended in this document address the most immediate technical and scientific concerns with the current implementation of PT for gynecologic cytology. The CETC will be submitting a subsequent document, following full review of the current regulations, with recommendations for changes, justifications and impact.

  19. Relative Power of the Wilcoxon Test, the Friedman Test, and Repeated-Measures ANOVA on Ranks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Donald W.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    1993-01-01

    Comparisons of the Wilcoxon test, Friedman test, and repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) on ranks in a computer simulation show that the Friedman test performs like the sign test whereas the ANOVA performs like the Wilcoxon test. Classification of these tests in introductory statistics textbooks should be revised. (SLD)

  20. [ALPHA-fitness test battery: health-related field-based fitness tests assessment in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J R; España Romero, V; Castro Piñero, J; Artero, E G; Ortega, F B; Cuenca García, M; Jiménez Pavón, D; Chillón, P; Girela Rejón, Ma J; Mora, J; Gutiérrez, A; Suni, J; Sjöstrom, M; Castillo, M J

    2011-01-01

    Hereby we summarize the work developed by the ALPHA (Assessing Levels of Physical Activity) Study and describe the tests included in the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents. The evidence-based ALPHA-Fitness test battery include the following tests: 1) the 20 m shuttle run test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness; 2) the handgrip strength and 3) standing broad jump to assess musculoskeletal fitness, and 4) body mass index, 5) waist circumference; and 6) skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) to assess body composition. Furthermore, we include two versions: 1) the high priority ALPHA health-related fitness test battery, which comprises all the evidence-based fitness tests except the measurement of the skinfold thickness; and 2) the extended ALPHA health-related fitness tests battery for children and adolescents, which includes all the evidence-based fitness tests plus the 4 x 10 m shuttle run test to assess motor fitness.

  1. 49 CFR 40.13 - How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non-DOT tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... respects. (b) DOT tests must take priority and must be conducted and completed before a non-DOT test is... a blood or urine specimen collected by the employee's physician or a DNA test result purporting to... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non...

  2. Some Measurement and Instruction Related Considerations Regarding Computer Assisted Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhof, Albert C.; Salisbury, David F.

    The Assessment Resource Center (ARC) at Florida State University provides computer assisted testing (CAT) for approximately 4,000 students each term. Computer capabilities permit a small proctoring staff to administer tests simultaneously to large numbers of students. Programs provide immediate feedback for students and generate a variety of…

  3. A test battery related to ergonomics of protective clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Heus, R.

    2004-01-01

    Specialised protective clothing, such as that worn by firefighters, is usually tested only to standards which give requirements for the materials used (e.g. EN469). However,this testing often neglects the effect the manufacturing process of the garment has on the material properties,the effects of

  4. SEU mitigation exploratory tests in a ITER related FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Antonio J.N., E-mail: toquim@ipfn.tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Leong, Carlos [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores – Investigação e Desenvolvimento (INESC-ID), 1000-029 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Bruno; Fernandes, Ana [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ramos, Ana Rita; Santos, Joana P.; Marques, José G. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa - UL, 2695-066 Bobadela (Portugal); Teixeira, Isabel C.; Teixeira, João P. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores – Investigação e Desenvolvimento (INESC-ID), 1000-029 Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, Jorge; Gonçalves, Bruno [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2017-05-15

    Data acquisition hardware of ITER diagnostics if located in the port cells of the tokamak, as an example, will be irradiated with neutrons during the fusion reactor operation. Due to this reason the majority of the hardware containing Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) will be placed after the ITER bio-shield, such as the cubicles instrumentation room. Nevertheless, it is worth to explore real-time mitigation of soft-errors caused by neutrons radiation in ITER related FPGAs. A Virtex-6 FPGA from Xilinx (XC6VLX365T-1FFG1156C) is used on the ATCA-IO-PROCESSOR board, included in the ITER Catalog of Instrumentation & Control (I & C) products – Fast Controllers. The Virtex-6 is a re-programmable logic device where the configuration is stored in Static RAM (SRAM), the functional data is stored in dedicated Block RAM (BRAM) and the functional state logic in Flip-Flops. Single Event Upsets (SEU) due to the ionizing radiation of neutrons cause soft errors, unintended changes (bit-flips) of the logic values stored in the state elements of the FPGA. Real-time SEU monitoring and soft errors repairing, when possible, were explored in this work. An FPGA built-in Soft Error Mitigation (SEM) controller detects and corrects soft errors in the FPGA Configuration Memory (CM). BRAM based SEU sensors with Error Correction Code (ECC) detect and repair the respective BRAM contents. Real-time mitigation of SEU can increase reliability and availability of data acquisition hardware for nuclear applications. The results of the tests performed using the SEM controller and the SEU sensors are presented for a Virtex-6 FPGA (XC6VLX240T-1FFG1156C) when irradiated with neutrons from the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI), a 1 MW nuclear fission reactor, operated by IST in the neighborhood of Lisbon. Results show that the proposed SEU mitigation technique is able to repair the majority of the detected SEU soft-errors in the FPGA memory.

  5. Pulmonary Function Tests and Work-Related Respiratory and Allergic

    OpenAIRE

    Boskabady Mohammad Hosein; Taheri Ehsan; Ahmadi Sina; Ebrahimi Kolsoumeh; Soudaneh Malihe; Mohammadi Fatemeh; Sabourhasanzadeh Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Bakers are frequently exposed to various irritant chemicals during work which can induce respiratory problems. In this study, pulmonary function tests and self-reported respiratory and allergic symptoms in bakers were compared with matched control subjects. The frequency of respiratory and allergic symptoms was evaluated in a sample of 58 Iranian bakers and 58 control subjects using a questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were also measured in all participants. All respiratory symptom...

  6. Collaborative Testing: Cognitive and Interpersonal Processes Related to Enhanced Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitanoff, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that collaborative testing, working on tests in groups, leads to improved test scores but the mechanism by which this occurs has not been specified. Three factors were proposed as mediators: cognitive processes, interpersonal interactions and reduced test-anxiety. Thirty-three students completed a multiple-choice exam…

  7. Job Satisfaction Related to Tested Congruence and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, James D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Studied personality-environment congruence and differentiation, singly and in combination, as measured by the Vocational Preference Inventory. Results indicated that these variables predicted reported job satisfaction for 247 teachers employed in five subject matter areas. Time-related variables and sex were not significantly related to job…

  8. Incremental Validity of the Subscales of the Emotional Regulation Related to Testing Scale for Predicting Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldt, Ronald; Lindley, Kyla; Louison, Rebecca; Roe, Allison; Timm, Megan; Utinkova, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    The Emotional Regulation Related to Testing Scale (ERT Scale) assesses strategies students use to regulate emotion related to academic testing. It has four dimensions: Cognitive Appraising Processes (CAP), Emotion-Focusing Processes (EFP), Task-Focusing Processes (TFP), and Regaining Task-Focusing Processes (RTFP). The study examined the factor…

  9. Preliminary Test for Nonlinear Input Output Relations in SISO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses and develops preliminary statistical tests for detecting nonlinearities in the deterministic part of SISO systems with noise. The most referenced method is unreliable for common noise processes as e.g.\\ colored. Therefore two new methods based on superposition and sinus input...... are developed. They are much more robust, especially the sinus method which is reliable also for colored, heavy tailed or skew distributed noise....

  10. Hearing Aid–Related Standards and Test Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn, Gert; Preves, David

    2015-01-01

    Many documents describe standardized methods and standard equipment requirements in the field of audiology and hearing aids. These standards will ensure a uniform level and a high quality of both the methods and equipment used in audiological work. The standards create the basis for measuring performance in a reproducible manner and independent from how and when and by whom parameters have been measured. This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available. PMID:27516709

  11. Assessment of Biochemical Liver Function Tests in Relation to Age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-27

    Jun 27, 2017 ... of liver disease in SCD are those related to repeated blood transfusion such as hemosiderosis and viral hepatitis. These authors reported hemosiderosis and erythrophagocytosis in the liver biopsies of all sickle cell participants with chronically elevated LFTs in their study. A similar finding was reported by ...

  12. Testing relationships between values and food-related lifestyle:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2004-01-01

    The value survey developed by Shalom Schwartz (1992) has been applied in many countries with different purposes. In this study we present a new way of analysing the theoretically assumed circumplex structure of Schwartz value survey and its relationships to other constructs, here the instrument f......-related lifestyle in Germany and Spain, and the results validate both the Schwartz value survey and the food-related lifestyle instrument in a nomological sense, since significant and meaningful relationships were found between the two constructs.......The value survey developed by Shalom Schwartz (1992) has been applied in many countries with different purposes. In this study we present a new way of analysing the theoretically assumed circumplex structure of Schwartz value survey and its relationships to other constructs, here the instrument...... food-related lifestyle. In two countries; Germany and Spain, data were collected. In each country 1000 interviews were carried out where consumers were asked about their value priorities and about their food-related lifestyle. The study provides new insights into the way values influence peoples' food...

  13. A new golden age: testing general relativity with cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Rachel; Ferreira, Pedro G; Taylor, Andy

    2011-12-28

    Gravity drives the evolution of the Universe and is at the heart of its complexity. Einstein's field equations can be used to work out the detailed dynamics of space and time and to calculate the emergence of large-scale structure in the distribution of galaxies and radiation. Over the past few years, it has become clear that cosmological observations can be used not only to constrain different world models within the context of Einstein gravity but also to constrain the theory of gravity itself. In this article, we look at different aspects of this new field in which cosmology is used to test theories of gravity with a wide range of observations.

  14. Standard terminology relating to fatigue and fracture testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This terminology contains definitions, definitions of terms specific to certain standards, symbols, and abbreviations approved for use in standards on fatigue and fracture testing. The definitions are preceded by two lists. The first is an alphabetical listing of symbols used. (Greek symbols are listed in accordance with their spelling in English.) The second is an alphabetical listing of relevant abbreviations. 1.2 This terminology includes Annex A1 on Units and Annex A2 on Designation Codes for Specimen Configuration, Applied Loading, and Crack or Notch Orientation.

  15. Testing General Relativity with the Shadow Size of Sgr A(*).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Tim; Broderick, Avery E; Plewa, Philipp M; Chatzopoulos, Sotiris; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Eisenhauer, Frank; Fish, Vincent L; Genzel, Reinhard; Gerhard, Ortwin; Johnson, Michael D

    2016-01-22

    In general relativity, the angular radius of the shadow of a black hole is primarily determined by its mass-to-distance ratio and depends only weakly on its spin and inclination. If general relativity is violated, however, the shadow size may also depend strongly on parametric deviations from the Kerr metric. Based on a reconstructed image of Sagittarius A^{*} (Sgr A^{*}) from a simulated one-day observing run of a seven-station Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) array, we employ a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to demonstrate that such an observation can measure the angular radius of the shadow of Sgr A^{*} with an uncertainty of ∼1.5  μas (6%). We show that existing mass and distance measurements can be improved significantly when combined with upcoming EHT measurements of the shadow size and that tight constraints on potential deviations from the Kerr metric can be obtained.

  16. The testing effect for mediator final test cues and related final test cues in online and laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Leonora C.; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The testing effect is the finding that information that is retrieved during learning is more often correctly retrieved on a final test than information that is restudied. According to the semantic mediator hypothesis the testing effect arises because retrieval practice of cue-target pairs

  17. The testing effect for mediator final test cues and related final test cues in online and laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Coppens; R.M.J.P. Rikers; P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen; S. Bouwmeester

    2016-01-01

    Background The testing effect is the finding that information that is retrieved during learning is more often correctly retrieved on a final test than information that is restudied. According to the semantic mediator hypothesis the testing effect arises because retrieval practice of cue-target

  18. Transfer Relation between the Compression Test Rig and the Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) Lower Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Compression Test Rig (CTR) that is capable of evaluating the effectiveness of the blast-mitigating floor mat against assessed lower leg injury. The CTR...blast-mitigating floor mat, Evaluation methodology, Drop test 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18...mitigating floor mats are effective means for reducing the severity of lower leg injury.5–7 Until now, it has been necessary to conduct the loading test with

  19. Multi-laboratory precision of Marshall design related tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available components using the 75 blow Marshall compaction effort. The precision has been relatively stable over the years, Cassidy et al (1994) reported that the multi-laboratory CV for air voids range from 20 to 35 per cent for nine years of AMRL proficiency... by one laboratory. The major differences between the hammers were the number of blows per minute, type of release mechanism of hammer, size of counter weight on top of hammer, total weight of hammer as well as the way the hammers were bolted...

  20. Models of political public relations: Testing the situation in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Jordi Xifra Triadú

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea that political communication strategies are an application of marketing strategies to political field is today commonly shared by specialists. For them public relations is viewed like a set of techniques that serves political parties and other actors of the political scene, concentrated on media relations. This instrumental perspective is not in keeping with structural dimension of public relations in political activity and communication of his actors: political parties, pressure groups and political leaders. In this point of view, during managing periods of governance or opposition and during electoral campaigns, the most applied communication form by political parties is structured in accordance with the major public relations models: press agent model, public information model, two way asymmetrical model, and two way symmetrical model. This research prove hypothesis in Catalonia according the results of a quantitative survey focused on inside professionals who provide services for the seven main political parties in this Spanish Autonomous Community.RESUMEN:La idea de que las estrategias de comunicación política constituyen una aplicación de las estrategias del marketing al ámbito político es hoy comúnmente compartida por los analistas. Para éstos, las relaciones públicas son percibidas como un conjunto de técnicas al servicio de los partidos políticos y de otros actores de la escena política concentradas en las relaciones con la prensa. Esta perspectiva instrumental no concuerda con la dimensión estructural de las relaciones públicas en la actividad política y comunicativa de sus actores: partidos políticos, grupos de presión y líderes. Desde este punto de vista, tanto en los periodos de gestión u oposición como en los electorales, la forma comunicativa más aplicada por los partidos políticos se estructura de acuerdo con los modelos tradicionales de las relaciones públicas: agente de prensa, información p

  1. Further Experiments with Lok-Test and Ultrasonic Test in Relation to Fresh and Hardened Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Kristian Jehrbo

    Lok-test is mainly a non-destructive pull-out test for determination of concrete strength. The method is deseribed in (l) and it is detailed discussed in theory (2). The method is welknown in practice. Ultrasonic is commonly used for investigations of several materials, especially concrete...

  2. Testing Verlinde's emergent gravity with the radial acceleration relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, Federico; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Schombert, James M.

    2017-06-01

    It has recently been proposed that space-time and gravity may emerge from an underlying microscopic theory. In a de Sitter space-time, such emergent gravity (EG) contains an additional gravitational force due to dark energy, which may explain the mass discrepancies observed in galactic systems without the need of dark matter. For a point mass, EG is equivalent to Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). We show that this equivalence does not hold for finite-size galaxies: There are significant differences between EG and MOND in the inner regions of galaxies. We confront theoretical predictions with the empirical radial acceleration relation (RAR). We find that (I) EG is consistent with the observed RAR only if we substantially decrease the fiducial stellar mass-to-light ratios; the resulting values are in tension with other astronomical estimates; (II) EG predicts that the residuals around the RAR should correlate with radius; such residual correlation is not observed.

  3. Comparison of Einstein-Boltzmann solvers for testing general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, E.; Barreira, A.; Frusciante, N.; Hu, B.; Peirone, S.; Raveri, M.; Zumalacárregui, M.; Avilez-Lopez, A.; Ballardini, M.; Battye, R. A.; Bolliet, B.; Calabrese, E.; Dirian, Y.; Ferreira, P. G.; Finelli, F.; Huang, Z.; Ivanov, M. M.; Lesgourgues, J.; Li, B.; Lima, N. A.; Pace, F.; Paoletti, D.; Sawicki, I.; Silvestri, A.; Skordis, C.; Umiltà, C.; Vernizzi, F.

    2018-01-01

    We compare Einstein-Boltzmann solvers that include modifications to general relativity and find that, for a wide range of models and parameters, they agree to a high level of precision. We look at three general purpose codes that primarily model general scalar-tensor theories, three codes that model Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) gravity, a code that models f (R ) gravity, a code that models covariant Galileons, a code that models Hořava-Lifschitz gravity, and two codes that model nonlocal models of gravity. Comparing predictions of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background and the power spectrum of dark matter for a suite of different models, we find agreement at the subpercent level. This means that this suite of Einstein-Boltzmann solvers is now sufficiently accurate for precision constraints on cosmological and gravitational parameters.

  4. CRYOGLOBULIN TEST AND CRYOGLOBULINEMIA HEPATITIS C-VIRUS RELATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Basile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins that precipitate in serum at temperatures below 37°C and resolubilize upon warming. The clinical syndrome of cryoglobulinemia usually includes purpura, weakness, and arthralgia, but the underlying disease may also contribute other symptoms. Blood samples for cryoglobulin are collected, transported, clotted and spun at 37°C, before the precipitate is allowed to form when serum is stored at 4°C in a Wintrobe tube for at least seven days. The most critical and confounding factor affecting the cryoglobulin test is when the preanalytical phase is not fully completed at 37°C. The easiest way to quantify cryoglobulins is the cryocrit estimate. However, this approach has low accuracy and sensitivity. Furthermore, the precipitate should be resolubilized by warming to confirm that it is truly formed of cryoglobulins. The characterization of cryoglobulins requires the precipitate is several times washed, before performing immunofixation, a technique by which cryoglobulins can be classified depending on the characteristics of the detected immunoglobulins. These features imply a pathogenic role of these molecules which are consequently associated with a wide range of symptoms and manifestations. According to the Brouet classification, Cryoglobulins are grouped into three types by the immunochemical properties of immunoglobulins in the cryoprecipitate. The aim of this paper is to review the major aspects of cryoglobulinemia and the laboratory techniques used to detect and characterize cryoglobulins, taking into consideration the presence and consequences of cryoglobulinemia in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection.

  5. A possible new test of general relativity with Juno

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, L

    2013-01-01

    The expansion in multipoles of the gravitational potential of a rotating body affects the orbital motion of a test particle orbiting it with long-term perturbations both at a classical and at a relativistic level. In this preliminary sensitivity analysis, we show that, for the first time, the J2 c^-2 effects could be measured by the ongoing Juno mission in the gravitational field of Jupiter during its yearlong science phase (10 November 2016-5 October 2017) thanks to its high eccentricity (e=0.947) and to the huge oblateness of Jupiter (J2=1.47 10^-2). The semi-major axis a and the perijove \\omega\\ of Juno are expected to be shifted by \\Delta a =700-900 m and \\Delta\\omega = 50-60 milliarcseconds, respectively, over 1-2 yr. A numerical analysis shows also that the expected J2c^-2 range-rate signal for Juno should be as large as 280 microns per second during a typical 6 h pass at its closest approach. Independent analyses previously performed by other researchers about the measurability of the Lense-Thirring ef...

  6. Three Chronometric Indices of Relational Responding as Predictors of Performance on a Brief Intelligence Test: The Importance of Relational Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Catriona; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    Participants completed a before/after and a similar/different relational task, using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), and subsequently took the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT). For each relational task, response latencies were measured first on consistent trials, where participants responded in accordance with…

  7. A further test of the inverted-U hypothesis relating achievement anxiety and academic test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, S C; Costello, C T; Korabik, K

    1975-01-01

    The assumption that the inverted-U hypothesis, which shows performance as a function of activation level, mediates the relationship between achievement anxiety and academic test performance was tested by comparing Achievement Anxiety Test scores of 75 male and female college students with a self-report measure of activation taken prior to a classroom examination. Results supported the predicted relationship between achievement anxiety reaction type and academic performance (rho less than .05), but only partially supported the inverted-U hypothesis posited to account for this relationship. Results were further interpreted as suggesting that examinees experience two general types of arousal in the testing situationōne type that enhances performance and one that impedes performance. Further implications of the results were discussed.

  8. Relation of field independence and test-item format to student performance on written piagetian tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ló; Pez-Rupérez, F.; Palacios, C.; Sanchez, J.

    In this study we have investigated the relationship between the field-dependence-independence (FDI) dimension as measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) and subject performance on the Longeot test, a pencil-and-paper Piagetian test, through the open or closed format of its items. The sample consisted of 141 high school students. Correlation and variance analysis show that the FDI dimension and GEFT correlate significantly on only those items on the Longeot test that require formal reasoning. The effect of open- or closed-item format is found exclusively for formal items; only the open format discriminates significantly (at the 0.01 level) between the field-dependent and -independent subjects performing on this type of item. Some implications of these results for science education are discussed.

  9. Decision-Making about Healthcare Related Tests and Diagnostic Strategies: User Testing of GRADE Evidence Tables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem A Mustafa

    Full Text Available To develop guidance on what information to include and how to present it in tables summarizing the evidence from systematic reviews of test accuracy following the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach.To design and refine the evidence tables, we used an iterative process based on the analysis of data from four rounds of discussions, feedback and user testing. During the final round, we conducted one-on-one user testing with target end users. We presented a number of alternative formats of evidence tables to participants and obtained information about users' understanding and preferences.More than 150 users participated in initial discussions and provided their formal and informal feedback. 20 users completed one-on-one user testing interviews. Almost all participants preferred summarizing the results of systematic reviews of test accuracy in tabular format rather than plain text. Users generally preferred less complex tables but found presenting sensitivity and specificity estimates only as too simplistic. Users found the presentation of test accuracy for several values of prevalence initially confusing but modifying table layout and adding sample clinical scenarios for each prevalence reduced this confusion. Providing information about clinical consequences of testing result was viewed as not feasible for authors of systematic reviews.We present the current formats for tables presenting test accuracy following the GRADE approach. These tables can be developed using GRADEpro guidelines development tool (www.guidelinedevelopment.org or www.gradepro.org and are being further developed into electronic interactive tables that will suit the needs of different end users. The formatting of these tables, and how they influence result interpretation and decision-making will be further evaluated in a randomized trial.

  10. PLANCK, the Satellite: a New Experimental Test of General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available If the origin of a microwave background (EMB is the Earth, what would be its density and associated dipole anisotropy measured at different altitudes from the surface of the Earth? The mathematical methods of the General Theory of Relativity are applied herein to answer these questions. The density of the EMB is answered by means of Einstein's equations for the electromagnetic field of the Earth. The dipole anisotropy, which is due to the rapid motion of the source (the Earth in the weak intergalactic field, is analysed by using the geodesic equations for light-like particles (photons, which are mediators for electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the EMB decreases with altitude so that the density of its energy at the altitude of the COBE orbit (900km is 0.68 times less than that at the altitude of a U2 aeroplane (25km. Furthermore, the density at the 2nd Lagrange point (1.5 million km, the position of the WMAP and PLANCK satellites should be only 10$^{-7}$ of the value detected by a U2 aeroplane or at the COBE orbit. The dipole anisotropy of the EMB doesn't depend on altitude from the surface of the Earth, it should be the same irrespective of the altitude at which measurements are taken. This result is in support to the experimental and observational analysis conducted by P.-M.Robitaille, according to which the 2.7K microwave background, first observed by Penzias and Wilson, is not of cosmic origin, but of the Earth, and is generated by the oceans. WMAP indicated the same anisotropy of the microwave background at the 2nd Lagrange point that near the Earth. Therefore when PLANCK, which is planned on July, 2008, will manifest the 2.7K monopole microwave signal deceased at the 2nd Langrange point, it will be a new experimental verification of Einstein's theory.

  11. PLANCK, the Satellite: a New Experimental Test of General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available If the origin of a microwave background (EMB is the Earth, what would be its density and associated dipole anisotropy measured at different altitudes from the surface of the Earth? The mathematical methods of the General Theory of Relativity are applied herein to answer these questions. The density of the EMB is answered by means of Einstein’s equations for the electromagnetic field of the Earth. The dipole anisotropy, which is due to the rapid motion of the source (the Earth in the weak intergalactic field, is analysed by using the geodesic equations for light-like particles (photons, which are mediators for electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the EMB decreases with altitude so that the density of its energy at the altitude of the COBE orbit (900km is 0.68 times less than that at the altitude of a U2 aeroplane (25 km. Furthermore, the density at the 2nd Lagrange point (1.5 million km, the position of the WMAP and PLANCK satellites should be only 1E-7 of the value detected by a U2 aeroplane or at the COBE orbit. The dipole anisotropy of the EMB doesn’t depend on altitude from the surface of the Earth, it should be the same irrespective of the altitude at which measurements are taken. This result is in support to the experimental and observational analysis conducted by P.-M. Robitaille, according to which the 2.7 K microwave background, first observed by Penzias and Wilson, is not of cosmic origin, but of the Earth, and is generated by the oceans. WMAP indicated the same anisotropy of the microwave background at the 2nd Lagrange point that near the Earth. Therefore when PLANCK, which is planned on July, 2008, will manifest the 2.7 K monopole microwave signal deceased at the 2nd Langrange point, it will be a new experimental verification of Einstein’s theory.

  12. Testing Special Relativity at High Energies with Astrophysical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    2007-01-01

    Since the group of Lorentz boosts is unbounded, there is a question as to whether Lorentz invariance (LI) holds to infinitely short distances. However, special and general relativity may break down at the Planck scale. Various quantum gravity scenarios such as loop quantum gravity, as well as some forms of string theory and extra dimension models may imply Lorentz violation (LV) at ultrahigh energies. The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), to be launched in mid-December, will measure the spectra of distant extragalactic sources of high energy gamma-rays, particularly active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. GLAST can look for energy-dependent gamma-ray propagation effects from such sources as a signal of Lorentz invariance violation. These sources may also exhibit the high energy cutoffs predicted to be the result of intergalactic annihilation interactions with low energy photons having a flux level as determined by various astronomical observations. With LV the threshold for such interactions can be significantly raised, changing the predicted absorption turnover in the observed spectrum of the sources. Stecker and Glashow have shown that the existence such absorption features in the spectra of extragalactic sources puts constraints on LV. Such constraints have important implications for some quantum gravity and large extra dimension models. Future spaceborne detectors dedicated to measuring gamma-ray polarization can look for birefringence effects as a possible signal of loop quantum gravity. A very small LV may also result in the modification or elimination of the GZK effect, thus modifying the spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. This possibility can be explored with ground-based arrays such as Auger or with a space based detector system such as the proposed OWL satellite mission.

  13. A Test of General Relativity with MESSENGER Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, A.; Mazarico, E.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Nicholas, J. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Solomon, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft initiated collection of scientific data from the innermost planet during its first flyby of Mercury in January 2008. After two additional Mercury flybys, MESSENGER was inserted into orbit around Mercury on 18 March 2011 and operated for more than four Earth years through 30 April 2015. Data acquired during the flyby and orbital phases have provided crucial information on the formation and evolution of Mercury. The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and the radio science system, for example, obtained geodetic observations of the topography, gravity field, orientation, and tides of Mercury, which helped constrain its surface and deep interior structure. X-band radio tracking data collected by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) allowed the determination of Mercury's gravity field to spherical harmonic degree and order 100, as well as refinement of the planet's obliquity and estimation of the tidal Love number k2. These geophysical parameters are derived from the range-rate observables that measure precisely the motion of the spacecraft in orbit around the planet. However, the DSN stations acquired two other kinds of radio tracking data, range and delta-differential one-way ranging, which also provided precise measurements of Mercury's ephemeris. The proximity of Mercury's orbit to the Sun leads to a significant perihelion precession, which was used by Einstein as confirmation of general relativity (GR) because of its inconsistency with the effects predicted from classical Newtonian theory. MESSENGER data allow the estimation of the GR parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) coefficients γ and β. Furthermore, determination of Mercury's orbit also allows estimation of the gravitational parameter (GM) and the flattening (J2) of the Sun. We modified our orbit determination software, NASA GSFC's GEODYN II, to enable simultaneous orbit integration of both MESSENGER and the planet Mercury. The

  14. On Wasserstein Two-Sample Testing and Related Families of Nonparametric Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaditya Ramdas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonparametric two-sample or homogeneity testing is a decision theoretic problem that involves identifying differences between two random variables without making parametric assumptions about their underlying distributions. The literature is old and rich, with a wide variety of statistics having being designed and analyzed, both for the unidimensional and the multivariate setting. Inthisshortsurvey,wefocusonteststatisticsthatinvolvetheWassersteindistance. Usingan entropic smoothing of the Wasserstein distance, we connect these to very different tests including multivariate methods involving energy statistics and kernel based maximum mean discrepancy and univariate methods like the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, probability or quantile (PP/QQ plots and receiver operating characteristic or ordinal dominance (ROC/ODC curves. Some observations are implicit in the literature, while others seem to have not been noticed thus far. Given nonparametric two-sample testing’s classical and continued importance, we aim to provide useful connections for theorists and practitioners familiar with one subset of methods but not others.

  15. Testes asymmetry of Bufo gargarizans in relation to body condition and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Lei Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Testes asymmetry theory predicts that males in good condition or mature age may be able to develop larger degrees of directional asymmetry than males in poor condition or younger age. In this study, we tested the testes asymmetry theory in the Bufo gargarizans. We found that B. gargarizans has a significant directional asymmetry in testes mass, with left testis being significantly larger than right testis. Male body condition was correlated with relative testes mass and absolute testes asymmetry, but not correlated with relative testes asymmetry. Therefore, we suggested that males in good body condition have the higher ability of sperm competition than males in poor body condition. Additionally, male age was correlated with absolute testes asymmetry, but not correlated with relative testes mass and testes asymmetry, thus not supporting the hypothesis that males with a higher degree of directional asymmetry survive better.

  16. Investigating Transactions among Motives, Emotional Regulation Related to Testing, and Test Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Aultman, Lori Price; Schutz, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships among achievement motives, emotional regulation, and emotions. They collected data from 425 college undergraduates (110 men, 315 women) and used several scales, including the Achievement Motives Scales (K. Hagtvet & L. Zou, 2000), the Emotional Regulation During Testing Scale (P. A. Schutz, C. DiStefano,…

  17. Decision-Making about Healthcare Related Tests and Diagnostic Strategies: User Testing of GRADE Evidence Tables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustafa, Reem A.; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Santesso, Nancy; Cheung, Adrienne; Prediger, Barbara; Baldeh, Tejan; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Neumann, Ignacio; Bossuyt, Patrick; Garg, Amit X.; Lelgemann, Monika; Bühler, Diedrich; Brozek, Jan; Schünemann, Holger J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop guidance on what information to include and how to present it in tables summarizing the evidence from systematic reviews of test accuracy following the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Methods To design and refine the evidence

  18. 78 FR 67206 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This RG is being revised to provide applicants and licensees with the most current information on testing safety-related actuators in nuclear power plants. This RG...

  19. 78 FR 25488 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear..., ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' DG-1235 is proposed Revision 1 of RG... practices for qualifying safety-related actuators, and actuator components, in Nuclear Power Generating...

  20. Existing and Past Methods of Test and Rating Standards Related to Integrated Heat Pump Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, Wayne R. [Sentech, Inc.

    2010-07-01

    This report evaluates existing and past US methods of test and rating standards related to electrically operated air, water, and ground source air conditioners and heat pumps, 65,000 Btu/hr and under in capacity, that potentiality incorporate a potable water heating function. Two AHRI (formerly ARI) standards and three DOE waivers were identified as directly related. Six other AHRI standards related to the test and rating of base units were identified as of interest, as they would form the basis of any new comprehensive test procedure. Numerous other AHRI and ASHRAE component test standards were also identified as perhaps being of help in developing a comprehensive test procedure.

  1. Reliability of the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery in adolescents with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero-Gonzalez, Carlos M; Martinez-Gomez, David; Bayon-Serna, Jorge; Izquierdo-Gomez, Rocio; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Veiga, Oscar L

    2013-11-01

    The Assessing Levels of Physical Activity (ALPHA) health-related fitness test battery is a set of reliable, valid, and feasible tests to assess health-related physical fitness in children and in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of this battery in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). The extended ALPHA health-related fitness test battery was performed twice within 1 month in 17 apparently healthy adolescents, aged 12-18 years, with DS who had an intelligence quotient ≥ 35. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determinate test-retest reliability, and nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare mean differences between measurements. With the exception of subscapular skinfold test, which obtained a moderate agreement (ICC = 0.64), all tests had a very high reliability: the 20-m shuttle-run test (ICC = 0.86), the right handgrip strength test (ICC = 0.86), the left handgrip strength test (ICC = 0.86), the standing broad jump test (ICC = 0.85), body mass index (ICC = 0.95), waist circumference (ICC = 0.98), triceps skinfold (ICC = 0.85), and the 4 × 10-m shuttle-run test (ICC = 0.92). There were no significant differences (all p > 0.05) in any of the tests. The ALPHA health-related fitness battery is reliable for measuring health-related components of fitness in adolescents with DS.

  2. Relative age effects in fitness testing in a general school sample: how relative are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Scott; Cairney, John; Hay, John; Faught, Brent

    2015-01-01

    When children or adolescents are grouped by age or year of birth, older individuals tend to outperform younger ones. These phenomena are known as relative age effects (RAEs). RAEs may result directly from differences in maturation, but may also be associated with psychological, pedagogic or other factors. In this article, we attempt to quantify RAEs in a simple fitness task and to identify the mechanisms operating. Data come from a 5-year study of 2278 individuals that included repeated administrations of the 20 m shuttle run. We use mixed-effect modelling to characterise change over time and then examine residuals from these models for evidence of an effect for age relative to peers or for season of birth. Age alone appears to account for RAEs in our sample, with no effects for age relative to peers or month of birth. Age grouping produces large disparities for girls under 12, moderate ones for boys of all ages and negligible ones for girls between 12 and 15. RAEs for this task and population appear to arise from simple age differences. Similar methods may be useful in determining whether other explanations of RAEs are necessary in other contexts. Evaluation processes that take age into account have the potential to mitigate RAEs in general settings.

  3. Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base.

  4. Decision making about healthcare-related tests and diagnostic test strategies. Paper 2: a review of methodological and practical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Reem A; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Cheung, Adrienne; Prediger, Barbara; Brozek, Jan; Bossuyt, Patrick; Garg, Amit X; Lelgemann, Monika; Büehler, Diedrich; Schünemann, Holger J

    2017-12-01

    In this first of a series of five articles, we provide an overview of how and why healthcare-related tests and diagnostic strategies are currently applied. We also describe how our findings can be integrated with existing frameworks for making decisions that guide the use of healthcare-related tests and diagnostic strategies. We searched MEDLINE, references of identified articles, chapters in relevant textbooks, and identified articles citing classic literature on this topic. We provide updated frameworks for the potential roles and applications of tests with suggested definitions and practical examples. We also discuss study designs that are commonly used to assess tests' performance and the effects of tests on people's health. These designs include diagnostic randomized controlled trials and retrospective validation. We describe the utility of these and other currently suggested designs, which questions they can answer and which ones they cannot. In addition, we summarize the challenges unique to decision-making resulting from the use of tests. This overview highlights current challenges in the application of tests in decision-making in healthcare, provides clarifications, and informs the proposed solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Does Testing Increase Spontaneous Mediation in Learning Semantically Related Paired Associates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kit W.; Neely, James H.; Brennan, Michael K.; Vitrano, Deana; Crocco, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Carpenter (2011) argued that the testing effect she observed for semantically related but associatively unrelated paired associates supports the mediator effectiveness hypothesis. This hypothesis asserts that after the cue-target pair "mother-child" is learned, relative to restudying mother-child, a review test in which…

  6. Do candidate reactions relate to job performance or affect criterion-related validity? A multistudy investigation of relations among reactions, selection test scores, and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Julie M; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Lievens, Filip; Kung, Mei-Chuan; Sinar, Evan F; Campion, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that how candidates react to selection procedures can affect their test performance and their attitudes toward the hiring organization (e.g., recommending the firm to others). However, very few studies of candidate reactions have examined one of the outcomes organizations care most about: job performance. We attempt to address this gap by developing and testing a conceptual framework that delineates whether and how candidate reactions might influence job performance. We accomplish this objective using data from 4 studies (total N = 6,480), 6 selection procedures (personality tests, job knowledge tests, cognitive ability tests, work samples, situational judgment tests, and a selection inventory), 5 key candidate reactions (anxiety, motivation, belief in tests, self-efficacy, and procedural justice), 2 contexts (industry and education), 3 continents (North America, South America, and Europe), 2 study designs (predictive and concurrent), and 4 occupational areas (medical, sales, customer service, and technological). Consistent with previous research, candidate reactions were related to test scores, and test scores were related to job performance. Further, there was some evidence that reactions affected performance indirectly through their influence on test scores. Finally, in no cases did candidate reactions affect the prediction of job performance by increasing or decreasing the criterion-related validity of test scores. Implications of these findings and avenues for future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J. M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players'

  8. The Relation between Test Formats and Kindergarteners' Expressions of Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming; Currie, Ashelin; Cipielewski, James

    2014-01-01

    This study tested how 53 kindergarteners' expressions of depth of vocabulary knowledge and use in novel contexts were related to in-context and out-of-context test formats for 16 target words. Applying multilevel, multi-categorical Logit to all 1,696 test item responses, the authors found that kindergarteners were more likely to express deep…

  9. Relation between subjective and objective scores on the active straight leg raising test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Mens, Jan M A; Beekmans, RE; Tijhuis, MT

    2010-01-01

    DESIGN: Cross sectional. OBJECTIVE: To fill a gap in the validation of the active straight leg raising (ASLR) test concerning the relation between a patient's subjective score on the ASLR test and the objective measured force. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The ASLR test is used to classify patients

  10. GMAT and GRE Aptitude Test Performance in Relation to Primary Language and Scores on TOEFL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kenneth M.

    This study was designed to describe and analyze (1) the performance of foreign candidates taking the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) or the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) Aptitude Test in relation to self-reported primary language (English vs. other), and (2) relationships between performance on the respective admissions tests and…

  11. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J.M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W.J.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players'

  12. Testing of the line element of special relativity with rotating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Jose G.; Torr, Douglas G.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with rotating systems are examined from the point of view of a test theory of the Lorentz transformations (LTs), permitting, in principle, the verification of the simultaneity relation. The significance of the experiments involved in the testing of the LTs can be determined using Robertson's test theory (RTT). A revised RTT is discussed, and attention is given to the Ehrenfest paradox in connection with the testing of the LTs.

  13. HIV and STI Testing and Related Factors Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüütel, Kristi; Parker, R David; Lõhmus, Liilia; Valk, Anti; Aavik, Toivo

    2016-10-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia are low. We collected data from 265 MSM in a national, online survey. Lifetime HIV testing was related to risky sexual behaviors and contacts with health care services, while lifetime STI testing was related only to contacts with health care services. In addition, some personal values were significant predictors of testing. For example, high achievement (personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards) had a negative impact on lifetime HIV testing, and high interpersonal conformity (avoiding upsetting others) had a negative impact on lifetime STI testing. The results demonstrate the need to develop gay-friendly health services and to recognize the role of personal values and individual differences in values when designing attractive interventions to increase HIV/STI testing rates among MSM.

  14. Decision making about healthcare-related tests and diagnostic test strategies. Paper 4: International guidelines show variability in their approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Reem A; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Arevalo-Rodriguez, Ingrid; Cheung, Adrienne; Prediger, Barbara; Ivanova, Liudmila; Ventresca, Matthew; Brozek, Jan; Santesso, Nancy; Bossuyt, Patrick; Garg, Amit X; Lloyd, Nancy; Lelgemann, Monika; Bühler, Diedrich; Schünemann, Holger J

    2017-12-01

    The objective of the study was to describe and compare current practices in developing guidelines about the use of healthcare-related tests and diagnostic strategies (HCTDS). We sampled 37 public health and clinical practice guidelines about HCTDS from various sources without language restrictions. Detailed descriptions of the systems used to assess the quality of evidence and develop recommendations were challenging to find within guidelines. We observed much variability among and within organizations with respect to how they develop recommendations about HCTDS. Twenty-four percent of the guidelines did not consider health benefits and harms but based decisions solely on test accuracy. We did not identify guidelines that described the main potential care pathways involving tests for a healthcare problem. In addition, we did not identify guidelines that systematically assessed, described, and referenced the evidence that linked test accuracy and patient-important outcomes. There is considerable variability among the processes used and factors considered in developing recommendations about the use of tests. This variability may be the cause for the disagreement we observed in recommendations about testing for the same condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reliability of health-related physical fitness tests in adolescents: the MOVE Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Béghin, Laurent; Fardy, Paul S; Ulmer, Zekya; Czaplicki, Grégory

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in a French health promotion program 'Move…A priority for your health'. Participants were 174 French youth (88 children and 86 adolescents) aged 8·2-16·2 years. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, speed and flexibility were tested using 20-m shuttle run test, ½ mile run test, basketball throw, standing long jump, shoulder stretch and 20/30/50-m sprint tests. Reliability was calculated for the basketball throw, standing long jump, shoulder stretch and sprint tests. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week. Reliability was examined with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman analysis. With the exception of the ½ mile run test, which resulted in moderate agreement (0·66), all tests had high reliability. ICCs were 0·97, 0·93, 0·91 and 0·93 for the sprint test, basketball throw, shoulder stretch and the standing long jump, respectively. The differences obtained between the first and the second trial were non-significant. Results from this study indicate that the BOUGE health-related physical fitness battery, administrated by physical education teachers, was reliable for measuring health-related components of fitness in children and adolescents in a school setting. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Risk Assessment, Genetic Counseling, and Genetic Testing for BRCA-Related Cancer in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Risk Assessment, Genetic Counseling, and Genetic Testing for BRCA-related Cancer in Women The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final ...

  17. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J M; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M; Janssen, Thomas W J

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players' classification and competition standard, and rating of coach and player. Six field tests' test-retest showed good reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.80-0.97), while the pass-for-accuracy, free throws, lay-up and spot shot showed weak to moderate reliability (ICC = 0.26-0.67). Most tests showed moderate to good validity (r > 0.60). The results suggest that wheelchair basketball field tests are reliable and valid with the exception of the shooting and passing items, which should be interpreted carefully.

  18. Relation between dream content and eye movements tested by lucid dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholey, P

    1983-06-01

    This experiment illustrates that systematic observations in lucid dreams can be used to test hypotheses concerning the relation between dream content and eye movements. The observations were carried out by 5 students who had learned to induce lucid dreams by using the reflection technique developed by the author. Several hypotheses concerning the relation in question could be rejected.

  19. Objective vestibular testing of children with dizziness and balance complaints following sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangwei; Brodsky, Jacob R

    2015-06-01

    To conduct objective assessment of children with balance and vestibular complaints following sports-related concussions and identify the underlying deficits by analyzing laboratory test outcomes. Case series with chart review. Pediatric tertiary care facility. Medical records were reviewed of 42 pediatric patients with balance and/or vestibular complaints following sports-related concussions who underwent comprehensive laboratory testing on their balance and vestibular function. Patients' characteristics were summarized and results analyzed. More than 90% of the children with protracted dizziness or imbalance following sports-related concussion had at least 1 abnormal finding from the comprehensive balance and vestibular evaluation. The most frequent deficit was found in dynamic visual acuity test, followed by Sensory Organization Test and rotational test. Patient's balance problem associated with concussion seemed to be primarily instigated by vestibular dysfunction. Furthermore, semicircular canal dysfunction was involved more often than dysfunction of otolith organs. Yet, children experienced a hearing loss following sports-related concussion. Vestibular impairment is common among children with protracted dizziness or imbalance following sports-related concussion. Our study demonstrated that proper and thorough evaluation is imperative to identify these underlying deficits and laboratory tests were helpful in the diagnosis and recommendation of following rehabilitations. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  20. Balance Assessment in Sports-Related Concussion: Evaluating Test-Retest Reliability of the Equilibrate System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Mitchell J; Lee, Young M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Apple, Rachel P; Germanos, Theodore; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of a novel computer-based, portable balance assessment tool, the Equilibrate System (ES), used to diagnose sports-related concussion. Twenty-seven students participated in ES testing consisting of three sessions over 4 weeks. The modified Balance Error Scoring System was performed. For each participant, test-retest reliability was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ES test-retest reliability from baseline to week 2 produced an ICC value of 0.495 (95% CI, 0.123-0.745). Week 2 testing produced ICC values of 0.602 (95% CI, 0.279-0.803) and 0.610 (95% CI, 0.299-0.804), respectively. All other single measures test-retest reliability values produced poor ICC values. Same-day ES testing showed fair to good test-retest reliability while interweek measures displayed poor to fair test-retest reliability. Testing conditions should be controlled when using computerized balance assessment methods. ES testing should only be used as a part of a comprehensive assessment.

  1. Relatives' view on collaboration with nurses in acute wards: development and testing of a new measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Tove; Nyberg, Per; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Collaboration between relatives and nurses in acute care settings is sparsely investigated, and that mostly from nurses' point of view. Feasible and valid instruments are needed for assessing collaboration, its prerequisites and outcome. OBJECTIVES: To develop and test an instrument...... to assess, from the relatives' perspective, collaboration between relatives of frail elderly patients and nurses in acute hospital wards, as well as prerequisites for, and outcome of, collaboration. DESIGN: Instrument development and psychometric testing. SETTING: Acute medical and geriatric wards....... PARTICIPANTS: One hundred fifty-six relatives. Women constituted 74.8%, offspring 63.9% and spouses 20%, respectively. METHODS: A model for collaboration was developed and underpinned the development and construction of the instrument. Face and content validity was examined by relatives and an expert panel...

  2. Construction Of Critical Thinking Skills Test Instrument Related The Concept On Sound Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabruroh, F.; Suhandi, A.

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to construct test instrument of critical thinking skills of high school students related the concept on sound wave. This research using a mixed methods with sequential exploratory design, consists of: 1) a preliminary study; 2) design and review of test instruments. The form of test instruments in essay questions, consist of 18 questions that was divided into 5 indicators and 8 sub-indicators of the critical thinking skills expressed by Ennis, with questions that are qualitative and contextual. Phases of preliminary study include: a) policy studies; b) survey to the school; c) and literature studies. Phases of the design and review of test instruments consist of two steps, namely a draft design of test instruments include: a) analysis of the depth of teaching materials; b) the selection of indicators and sub-indicators of critical thinking skills; c) analysis of indicators and sub-indicators of critical thinking skills; d) implementation of indicators and sub-indicators of critical thinking skills; and e) making the descriptions about the test instrument. In the next phase of the review test instruments, consist of: a) writing about the test instrument; b) validity test by experts; and c) revision of test instruments based on the validator.

  3. Evaluating conditioning of related and unrelated stimuli using a compound test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Robert A

    2008-05-01

    Three experiments used a compound test procedure to evaluate whether superior conditioning results from the pairing of stimuli that are related to each other. In each case, a stimulus compound was tested after its component conditioned stimuli (CSs) had been conditioned by the same unconditioned stimuli (USs) arranged such that either related or unrelated CSs and USs were paired. Experiment 1 explored auditory and gustatory stimuli conditioned by LiCl or shock, using rats. Experiments 2 and 3 used second-order conditioning in pigeons to pair stimuli that were similar by virtue either of qualitative features or of shared physical location. In each case, the compound test provided clear evidence that pairing related stimuli produces superior associative learning.

  4. A study of the relation between sports activity and sports test in NNCT male Students

    OpenAIRE

    内山, 了治; 塚田, 修三; 加藤, 俊也

    1996-01-01

    Purposes of this study were to clarify the relation between sports activity and sports test (physical fitness and motor performance) in N National College of Technology (NNCT) male students. Their sports activity were gathered information by questionnaires developed by Taisyuukann-tairyokukagakukennkyukai. Physical fitness and motor performance were measured by a sports test developed by Ministry of Education. The main results were as follows: 1) All year students; Average of physical fitness...

  5. Classic tests of General Relativity described by brane-based spherically symmetric solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cuzinatto, R R; de Montigny, M; Khanna, F C; da Silva, J M Hoff

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a way to obtain information about higher dimensions from observations by studying a brane-based spherically symmetric solution. The three classic tests of General Relativity are analyzed in details: the perihelion shift of the planet Mercury, the deflection of light by the Sun, and the gravitational redshift of atomic spectral lines. The braneworld version of these tests exhibits an additional parameter $b$ related to the fifth-coordinate. This constant $b$ can be constrained by comparison with observational data for massive and massless particles.

  6. Classic tests of General Relativity described by brane-based spherically symmetric solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzinatto, R.R. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Pompeia, P.J. [Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Instituto de Fomento e Coordenacao Industrial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); De Montigny, M. [University of Alberta, Theoretical Physics Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); University of Alberta, Campus Saint-Jean, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Khanna, F.C. [University of Alberta, Theoretical Physics Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of Victoria, Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO box 1700, Victoria, BC (Canada); Silva, J.M.H. da [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    We discuss a way to obtain information about higher dimensions from observations by studying a brane-based spherically symmetric solution. The three classic tests of General Relativity are analyzed in detail: the perihelion shift of the planet Mercury, the deflection of light by the Sun, and the gravitational redshift of atomic spectral lines. The braneworld version of these tests exhibits an additional parameter b related to the fifth-coordinate. This constant b can be constrained by comparison with observational data for massive and massless particles. (orig.)

  7. Relation of Elite Rifle Shooters' Technique-Test Measures to Competition Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, Simo; Linnamo, Vesa; Mononen, Kaisu; Kuitunen, Sami

    2016-07-01

    To describe the long-term changes in shooting technique in relation to competition performances in elite air-rifle shooters. Seventeen elite shooters completed simulated air-rifle shooting-competition series in 3 consecutive seasons, participating on 15 ± 7 testing occasions. Shooting score and aiming-point-trajectory variables were obtained with an optoelectronic shooting device, and postural-balance variables were measured with force platform. Shooters' competition results were collected from all international and national competitions during the 3-y period. Mean test score, stability of hold, aiming accuracy, cleanness of triggering, and postural balance improved during the 3-y period (ANOVA, time, P < .05-.01). Seasonal mean test results in stability of hold (R = -.70, P = .000) and cleanness of triggering (R = -.75, P = .000) were related to competition performances. Changes in stability of hold (R = -.61, P = .000) and cleanness of triggering (R = -.39, P = .022) were also related to the changes in competition performances. Postural balance in shooting direction was more related to cleanness of triggering (R = .57, P = .000), whereas balance in cross-shooting direction was more related to stability of hold (R = .70, P = .000). The shooting-technique testing used in the current study seems to be a valid and useful tool for long-term performance assessment. Stability of hold, cleanness of triggering, and postural balance can be further developed even at the elite level, resulting in improved competition performances.

  8. Results of data base management system parameterized performance testing related to GSFC scientific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carchedi, C. H.; Gough, T. L.; Huston, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a variety of tests designed to demonstrate and evaluate the performance of several commercially available data base management system (DBMS) products compatible with the Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 11/780 computer system are summarized. The tests were performed on the INGRES, ORACLE, and SEED DBMS products employing applications that were similar to scientific applications under development by NASA. The objectives of this testing included determining the strength and weaknesses of the candidate systems, performance trade-offs of various design alternatives and the impact of some installation and environmental (computer related) influences.

  9. Does testing with feedback improve adult spelling skills relative to copying and reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Steven C; Rubin, Benjamin R; Rickard, Timothy C

    2015-12-01

    We examined testing's ability to enhance adult spelling acquisition, relative to copying and reading. Across 3 experiments in which testing with feedback was compared with copying, the spelling improvement after testing matched that following the same amount of time spent copying. A potent testing advantage, however, was observed for spelling words free-recalled. In the fourth experiment, a large testing advantage for both word free recall and spelling was observed, versus reading. Subjects also generally preferred testing and rated it as more effective than copying or reading. The equivalent performance of testing and copying for spelling contrasts with prior work involving children and suggests that retrieval practice may not be the only effective mechanism for spelling skill acquisition. Rather, we suggest that the critical learning event for spelling is focused study on phoneme-to-grapheme mappings for previously unlearned letter sequences. For adults with extensive spelling expertise, focused study is more automatic during both copying and testing with feedback than for individuals with beginning spelling skills. Reading, however, would not be expected to produce efficient focused study of phoneme-to-grapheme mappings, regardless of expertise level. Overall, adult spelling skill acquisition benefits both from testing and copying, and substantially less from reading. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Publishing nutrition research: validity, reliability, and diagnostic test assessment in nutrition-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Philip M; Harris, Jeffrey; Sheean, Patricia M; Boushey, Carol J; Bruemmer, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    This is the sixth in a series of monographs on research design and analysis. The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss several concepts related to the measurement of nutrition-related characteristics and outcomes, including validity, reliability, and diagnostic tests. The article reviews the methodologic issues related to capturing the various aspects of a given nutrition measure's reliability, including test-retest, inter-item, and interobserver or inter-rater reliability. Similarly, it covers content validity, indicators of absolute vs relative validity, and internal vs external validity. With respect to diagnostic assessment, the article summarizes the concepts of sensitivity and specificity. The hope is that dietetics practitioners will be able to both use high-quality measures of nutrition concepts in their research and recognize these measures in research completed by others. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A validity generalization procedure to test relations between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and influence tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuto, John E; Moss, Jennifer A

    2006-08-01

    The relations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with use of consultative, legitimating, and pressure influence tactics were examined using validity generalization procedures. 5 to 7 field studies with cumulative samples exceeding 800 were used to test each relationship. Significance was found for relation between agents' intrinsic motivation and their use of consultative influence tactics and agents' extrinsic motivation and their use of legitimating influence tactics.

  12. Classical tests of general relativity: Brane-world Sun from minimal geometric deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, R.; Ovalle, J.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2015-05-01

    We consider a solution of the effective four-dimensional brane-world equations, obtained from the general relativistic Schwarzschild metric via the principle of minimal geometric deformation, and investigate the corresponding signatures stemming from the possible existence of a warped extra-dimension. In particular, we derive bounds on an extra-dimensional parameter, closely related with the fundamental gravitational length, from the experimental results of the classical tests of general relativity in the Solar system.

  13. Evaluation of drug provocation test-related anxiety in patients with drug hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyyiğit, Şadan; Aydın, Ömür; Yılmaz, İnsu; Özdemir, Seçil Kepil; Cankorur, Vesile Şentürk; Atbaşoğlu, Cem; Çelik, Gülfem Elif

    2016-09-01

    Drug provocation tests (DPTs) are important in the treatment of patients with drug hypersensitivity (DH), but they carry certain hypersensitivity reaction risks, which lead to procedure-related concerns in patients. To investigate DPT-related anxiety and its effect on long-term use of tested drugs. The study included patients who underwent DPT from July 1, 2009, to July 1, 2012. After recording the patients' history and characteristics, a variety of psychiatric (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, and the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory) and quality-of-life (36-item Short Form Health Survey) tests were performed. DPT-related anxiety was also evaluated using a visual analog scale. The patients were requestioned about whether they had used the tested drug within 1 year. A total of 126 patients were included in the study. According to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, 23.4% and 30.6% of the patients had depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The mean (SD) visual analog scale anxiety scores after a negative DPT result were lower than those before DPTs (2 [2.5] after vs 5.2 [3.4] before; P anxiety related to drug reactions, despite negative DPT results and symptoms indicated for use of the drug. Our findings suggest that DPTs in themselves cause significant anxiety in patients with DH. Importantly, anxiety levels decreased after a negative test result. However, our results also suggested that a negative DPT result is not convincing enough for some patients to use the tested drug when needed in the future. Therefore, supporting strategies appear to be the most effective way to eliminate DH-related anxiety of patients. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Test-retest reliability of infant event related potentials evoked by faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, N M; van Ravenswaaij, H; van den Boomen, C; Kemner, C

    2017-04-05

    Reliable measures are required to draw meaningful conclusions regarding developmental changes in longitudinal studies. Little is known, however, about the test-retest reliability of face-sensitive event related potentials (ERPs), a frequently used neural measure in infants. The aim of the current study is to investigate the test-retest reliability of ERPs typically evoked by faces in 9-10 month-old infants. The infants (N=31) were presented with neutral, fearful and happy faces that contained only the lower or higher spatial frequency information. They were tested twice within two weeks. The present results show that the test-retest reliability of the face-sensitive ERP components is moderate (P400 and Nc) to substantial (N290). However, there is low test-retest reliability for the effects of the specific experimental manipulations (i.e. emotion and spatial frequency) on the face-sensitive ERPs. To conclude, in infants the face-sensitive ERP components (i.e. N290, P400 and Nc) show adequate test-retest reliability, but not the effects of emotion and spatial frequency on these ERP components. We propose that further research focuses on investigating elements that might increase the test-retest reliability, as adequate test-retest reliability is necessary to draw meaningful conclusions on individual developmental trajectories of the face-sensitive ERPs in infants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors Related to Regular Undergoing Pap-smear Test: Application of Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Farzad; Emdadi, Shohreh

    2011-11-04

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the world and the most common cancer in developing countries. Pap smear is and effective tool that can prevent death due to cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to doing regular Pap-smear test based on the theory of planned behavior. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Hamadan County, the west of Iran, during 2009, a total of 400 women's aged 20 to 70 years old, were ran-domly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire including the expanded theory of planned behavior components. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13 using chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. Almost 63.8% of the participants had already done Pap-smear test at least once. About 28.3% of volunteers had followed a regular Pap-smear pro-gram. There was a significant correlation (PPap-smear test. In addition, there was a significant correlation (PPap-smear test. The best predictor for regular Pap-smear testing was subjective norms with odds ratio estimate of 1.14 [95% CI: 1.04, 1.23]. Based on our findings, subjective norms may be one of the most effective factors among women for doing regular Pap-smear test.

  16. Criterion-related validity of field-based fitness tests in youth: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Piñero, J; Artero, E G; España-Romero, V; Ortega, F B; Sjöström, M; Suni, J; Ruiz, J R

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to comprehensively study the criterion-related validity of the existing field-based fitness tests used in children and adolescents. The studies were scored according to the number of subjects, description of the study population and statistical analysis. Each study was classified as high, low and very low quality. Three levels of evidence were constructed: strong evidence, when consistent findings were observed in three or more high quality studies; moderate evidence, when consistent findings were observed in two high quality studies; and limited evidence when consistency of findings and/or the number of studies did not achieve the criteria for moderate. The results of 73 studies (50 of high quality) addressing the criterion-related validity of field-based fitness tests in children and adolescents indicate the following: that there is strong evidence indicating that the 20 m shuttle run test is a valid test to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness, that the hand-grip strength test is a valid measure of musculoskeletal fitness, that skin fold thickness and body mass index are good estimates of body composition, and that waist circumference is a valid measure to estimate central body fat. Moderate evidence was found that the 1-mile run/walk test is a valid test to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness. A large number of other field-based fitness tests presented limited evidence, mainly due to a limited number of studies (one for each test). The results of the present systematic review should be interpreted with caution due to the substantial lack of consistency in reporting and designing the existing validity studies.

  17. Reliability and criterion-related validity of a new repeated agility test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessi, M S; Makni, E; Jemni, M; Elloumi, M; Chamari, K; Nabli, M A; Padulo, J; Moalla, W

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to assess the reliability and the criterion-related validity of a new repeated sprint T-test (RSTT) that includes intense multidirectional intermittent efforts. The RSTT consisted of 7 maximal repeated executions of the agility T-test with 25 s of passive recovery rest in between. Forty-five team sports players performed two RSTTs separated by 3 days to assess the reliability of best time (BT) and total time (TT) of the RSTT. The intra-class correlation coefficient analysis revealed a high relative reliability between test and retest for BT and TT (>0.90). The standard error of measurement (related to the RSTT were 0.09 s and 0.58 s, respectively. To check the criterion-related validity of the RSTT, players performed a repeated linear sprint (RLS) and a repeated sprint with changes of direction (RSCD). Significant correlations between the BT and TT of the RLS, RSCD and RSTT were observed (pvalid measure of the intermittent repeated sprint agility performance. As this ability is required in all team sports, it is suggested that team sports coaches, fitness coaches and sports scientists consider this test in their training follow-up.

  18. Role of Academic Self-Efficacy in Moderating the Relation between Task Importance and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Youyan; Lau, Shun; Liau, Albert K.

    2011-01-01

    Emphasizing task importance, which is regarded as a way of motivating engaged behavior, may increase an individual's anxiety. The present research investigated whether academic self-efficacy could moderate the maladaptive relation between task importance and test anxiety. 1978 and 1670 Grade 9 Singaporean students participated in a survey related…

  19. Behavioural testing based breeding policy reduces the prevalence of fear and aggression related behaviour in Rottweilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, van der Joanne A.M.; Graat, Lisette; Beerda, Bonne

    2017-01-01

    Behavioural testing allows to exclude dogs that are fearful and aggressive from the breeding population, but relatively little is known about the effectiveness of such strategies in practice. From 2001 till 2009 parent purebred Dutch Rottweilers had to pass the Socially Acceptable Behaviour

  20. Identification of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention during an interlaboratory proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijschuur, E.W.J.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Reuver, L.P. de; Krimpen, S.H. van; Baar, B.L.M. van; Wils, E.R.J.; Kientz, C.E.; Brinkman, U.A.Th

    2002-01-01

    In order to test the ability of laboratories to detect and identify chemicals related to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons, and to designate laboratories for this task, the Technical Secretariat of the

  1. Who, When, and Where? Age-Related Differences on a New Memory Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Catherine A.; Holden, Heather M.; Van Etten, Emily J.; Wagner, Gabrielle M.; Hileman, Jacob D.; Gilbert, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Our study examined age-related differences on a new memory test assessing memory for "who," "when," and "where," and associations among these elements. Participants were required to remember a sequence of pictures of different faces paired with different places. Older adults remembered significantly fewer correct…

  2. Testing Reciprocal Longitudinal Relations between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cong V.; Cole, David A.; Weiss, Bahr

    2012-01-01

    A 2-wave longitudinal study of young adolescents was used to test whether peer victimization predicts depressive symptoms, depressive symptoms predict peer victimization, or the 2 constructs show reciprocal relations. Participants were 598 youths in Grades 3 through 6, ages 8 to 14 (M = 10.9, SD = 1.2) at Wave 1. The sample was 50.7% female and…

  3. I drink therefore I am: validating alcohol-related implicit association tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgren, K.P.; Neighbors, C.; Teachman, B.A.; Wiers, R.W.; Westgate, E.; Greenwald, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    There is an imperative to predict hazardous drinking among college students. Implicit measures have been useful in predicting unique variance in drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, they have been developed to test different theories of drinking and have rarely been directly compared with

  4. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  5. Food-related life styles in Singapore: Testing a Western European research instrument in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Brunsø, Karen; Crippen, Kaye

    The food-related life style instrument developed by the MAPP research group has, up til now, been applied mainly in the context of European cultures. The purpose of the present study is to apply the food-related life style instrument in a new and very different cultural setting, to compare results......, and to interpret similarities and differences found. For this purpose, data have been collected in Singaporean families using the food-related life style instrument. A total of 89 questionnaires form the basis of the analysis. First, the cross-cultural validity of the instrument is tested, and secondly...

  6. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire scales and paper-and-pencil tests related to creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldberg, David

    2005-08-01

    Pearson correlations for scores on scales of the 1975 version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire with measures of schizotypy, hypomania, and creative traits are reported for 625 undergraduates. The Psychoticism scores are correlated .30 with Hypomanic traits, .25 with Perceptual Aberration, and .20 with the How Do You Think, a test of attitudes and activities related to creativity. Extraversion is also related to creativity-relevant scores. Results support a broad and nonspecific role for the Psychoticism scale in relation to both creativity and subclinical symptomatology.

  7. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal...... incline in plasma creatine kinase or myoglobin could be observed days after the test was studied also. Fifteen female fibromyalgia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls performed a stepwise incremental maximal bicycle-ergometer test. Blood samples were collected from a catheter in a cubital vein......-1 was reached at a heart rate of 124 min-1 in the patients with fibromyalgia as compared to 140 min-1 in the controls (P = 0.02). In relation to workload, the patients scored higher on a Borg scale for perceived exertion during exercise, but if the Borg score was related to lactate no significant...

  8. A study of relative permeability parameters on rock cores using a two-phase flow test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hui Chiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure sequestration safety, confirming the injectivity of the reservoir rock formation is of critical importance, requiring studies of the rock permeability to uncover the fluid migration scenarios within the porous reservoir rock. Two-phase (super-critical CO2-brine flow behavior following the post CO2 injection is believed to be a dominating factor; its flooding behavior within the porous rock media needs to be further clarified prior to confirming the feasibility of domestic CO2 geo-sequestration. This study aims to determine the relative permeability of rock cores obtained from field outcropping. A test facility was established to determine the relative permeability during drainage and imbibition processes using a core-flooding test characterized by displacement method. The test facility was assembled locally and is regarded as a pioneering attempt. By relevant data interpretation, the parameters of relative permeability for predicting the movement of super-critical CO2 after injection can be modeled. More reliable parameters can be obtained using history matching processes wherein time-elapsed data calibration is used in conjunction with a computer code, TOUGH2. The test results were iteratively calibrated using numerical simulation by conducting a history matching process. The K-S curves derived from best-fit parameters are believed to be the most relevant relative permeability for the reservoir rock. Through this preliminary study, a better understanding of some of the problems and limitations associated with the determination of the rock relative permeability using two-phase flow test is achieved, but more advanced research is required.

  9. Reliability and Criterion-Related Validity Testing (construct) of the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool (ESAT©).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K; Bulsara, M; Ramelet, A S; Monteroso, L

    2018-01-18

    To establish criterion-related construct validity and test-retest reliability for the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool© (ESAT©). Endotracheal tube suction performed in children can significantly affect clinical stability. Previously identified clinical indicators for endotracheal tube suction were used as criteria when designing the ESAT©. Content validity was reported previously. The final stages of psychometric testing are presented. Observational testing was used to measure construct validity and determine whether the ESAT© could guide 'inexperienced' paediatric intensive care nurses' decision-making regarding endotracheal tube suction. Test-retest reliability of the ESAT© was performed at two time points. The researchers and paediatric intensive care nurse 'experts' developed 10 hypothetical clinical scenarios with predetermined endotracheal tube suction outcomes. 'Experienced' (n=12) and 'inexperienced' (n=14) paediatric intensive care nurses were presented with the scenarios and the ESAT© guiding decision-making about whether to perform endotracheal tube suction for each scenario. Outcomes were compared with those predetermined by the 'experts' (n=9). Test-retest reliability of the ESAT© was measured at two consecutive time points (4 weeks apart) with 'experienced' and 'inexperienced' PIC nurses using the same scenarios and tool to guide decision-making. No differences were observed between endotracheal tube suction decisions made by 'experts' (n=9), 'inexperienced' (n=14) and 'experienced' (n=12) nurses confirming the tool's construct validity. No differences were observed between groups for endotracheal tube suction decisions at T1 and T2. Criterion-related construct validity and test-retest reliability of the ESAT© were demonstrated. Further testing is recommended to confirm reliability in the clinical setting with the 'inexperienced' nurse to guide decision-making related to endotracheal tube suction. This article is protected by copyright

  10. The Relation Between Adult Dark Spermatogonia and Other Parameters of Fertility Potential in Cryptorchid Testes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Kvist, Kolja; Clasen-Linde, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The fertility potential of boys with cryptorchidism may be related to the number of adult dark spermatogonia per tubular transverse section in testicular biopsies taken at orchiopexy. Placental-like alkaline phosphatase positive gonocytes in testes within year 1 of life indicate preserved ability...... for germ cell transformation. We related these parameters to the total number of tubular germ cells and other factors associated with fertility potential.......The fertility potential of boys with cryptorchidism may be related to the number of adult dark spermatogonia per tubular transverse section in testicular biopsies taken at orchiopexy. Placental-like alkaline phosphatase positive gonocytes in testes within year 1 of life indicate preserved ability...

  11. The core mass-radius relation for giants - A new test of stellar evolution theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joss, P. C.; Rappaport, S.; Lewis, W.

    1987-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that the measurable properties of systems containing degenerate dwarfs can be used as a direct test of the core mass-radius relation for moderate-mass giants if the final stages of the loss of the envelope of the progenitor giant occurred via stable critical lobe overflow. This relation directly probes the internal structure of stars at a relatively advanced evolutionary state and is only modestly influenced by adjustable parameters. The measured properties of six binary systems, including such diverse systems as Sirius and Procyon and two millisecond pulsars, are utilized to derive constraints on the empirical core mass-radius relation, and the constraints are compared to the theoretical relation. The possibility that the final stages of envelope ejection of the giant progenitor of Sirius B occurred via critical lobe overflow in historical times is considered.

  12. Concurrent criterion-related validity of physical examination tests for hip labral lesions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibold, M Rebecca; Huijbregts, Peter A; Jensen, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Hip injuries are prevalent, especially within the athletic population. Of the hip injuries in this population, some 18-55% are lesions to the labrum of the hip. Clinical diagnosis of hip labral lesions is difficult because data on prevalence are varied. In addition, data on the prevalence of internal and external risk factors are absent as are data on the correlation of these risk factors with labral lesions, making it difficult to gauge the diagnostic utility. The mechanism of injury is often unknown or not specific to labral lesions. Internal risk factors may remain hidden to physical therapists because in most jurisdictions, ordering imaging tests is not within their scope of practice. Anterior inguinal pain seems highly sensitive for the diagnosis of patients with labral lesions but can hardly be considered specific; data on other pain-related and mechanical symptoms clearly have little diagnostic utility, making these data collected during the patient history almost irrelevant to diagnosis. By way of a comprehensive literature review and narrative and systematic analysis of the methodological quality of the retrieved diagnostic utility studies, this paper aimed to determine a diagnostic physical examination test or test cluster based on current best evidence for the diagnosis of hip labral lesions. Current best evidence indicates that a negative finding for the flexion-adduction-internal rotation test, the flexion-internal rotation test, the impingement provocation test, the flexion-adduction-axial compression test, the Fitzgerald test, or a combination of these tests provides the clinician with the greatest evidence-based confidence that a hip labral lesion is absent. Currently, research has produced no tests with sufficient specificity to help confidently rule in a diagnosis of hip labral lesion. Suggestions for future research are provided.

  13. Reliability of health-related physical fitness tests in European adolescents. The HELENA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, F B; Artero, E G; Ruiz, J R; Vicente-Rodriguez, G; Bergman, P; Hagströmer, M; Ottevaere, C; Nagy, E; Konsta, O; Rey-López, J P; Polito, A; Dietrich, S; Plada, M; Béghin, L; Manios, Y; Sjöström, M; Castillo, M J

    2008-11-01

    To examine the reliability of a set of health-related physical fitness tests used in the European Union-funded Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study on lifestyle and nutrition among adolescents. A set of physical fitness tests was performed twice in a study sample, 2 weeks apart, by the same researchers. A total of 123 adolescents (69 males and 54 females, aged 13.6+/-0.8 years) from 10 European cities participated in the study. Flexibility, muscular fitness, speed/agility and aerobic capacity were tested using the back-saver sit and reach, handgrip, standing broad jump, Bosco jumps (squat jump, counter movement jump and Abalakov jump), bent arm hang, 4 x 10 m shuttle run, and 20-m shuttle run tests. The ANOVA analysis showed that neither systematic bias nor sex differences were found for any of the studied tests, except for the back-saver sit and reach test, in which a borderline significant sex difference was observed (P=0.044). The Bland-Altman plots graphically showed the reliability patterns, in terms of systematic errors (bias) and random error (95% limits of agreement), of the physical fitness tests studied. The observed systematic error for all the fitness assessment tests was nearly 0. Neither a learning nor a fatigue effect was found for any of the physical fitness tests when repeated. The results also suggest that reliability did not differ between male and female adolescents. Collectively, it can be stated that the reliability of the set of physical fitness tests examined in this study is acceptable. The data provided contribute to a better understanding of physical fitness assessment in young people.

  14. Direct-to-consumer personal genome testing for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Amin, Najaf; Hofman, Albert; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vingerling, Johannes R; Klaver, Caroline C W

    2014-08-21

    Genetic testing may be the next step in clinical medicine for a more personalized approach in determining risk of disease. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) personal genome tests may fulfill this role. We explored the practicability and predictive value of DTC tests from four companies (23andMe, deCODEme, Easy DNA, Genetic Testing Laboratories) for AMD. Body specimens of three individuals were collected and sent to four companies for DNA genotyping and disease risk estimation. In addition, DNA was also genotyped using Illumina HumanOmniExpress 12v1 array in the Rotterdam Study laboratory, and risk estimates of AMD were calculated using the validated prediction model from the population-based Three Continent AMD Consortium. Genotyped results of the four DTC tests matched genotyping performed by the Rotterdam Study laboratory. The estimated risks provided by the companies varied considerably in the tested individuals, from a 1.6-fold difference for overall relative risk to an up to 12-fold difference for lifetime risk. The lifetime risks for the individuals ranged from 1.4% to 16.1% in the DTC tests, while they varied from 0.5% to 4.2% in the validated prediction model. Most important reasons for the differences in risks were the testing of only a limited set of genetic markers, the choice of the reference population, and the methodology applied for risk calculation. Direct-to-consumer personal genome tests are not suitable for clinical application as yet. More comprehensive genetic testing and inclusion of environmental risk factors may improve risk prediction of AMD. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  15. Reliability of Health-Related Physical Fitness Tests among Colombian Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence indicates that youth physical fitness levels are an important marker of lifestyle and cardio-metabolic health profiles and predict future risk of chronic diseases. The reliability physical fitness tests have not been explored in Latino-American youth population. This study's aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in the Colombian health promotion "Fuprecol study". Participants were 229 Colombian youth (boys n = 124 and girls n = 105 aged 9 to 17.9 years old. Five components of health-related physical fitness were measured: 1 morphological component: height, weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, and body fat (% via impedance; 2 musculoskeletal component: handgrip and standing long jump test; 3 motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run; 4 flexibility component (hamstring and lumbar extensibility, sit-and-reach test; 5 cardiorespiratory component: 20-meter shuttle-run test (SRT to estimate maximal oxygen consumption. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week, except for the SRT which was performed only once. Intra-observer technical errors of measurement (TEMs and inter-rater (reliability were assessed in the morphological component. Reliability for the Musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness components was examined using Bland-Altman tests. For the morphological component, TEMs were small and reliability was greater than 95% of all cases. For the musculoskeletal, motor, flexibility and cardiorespiratory components, we found adequate reliability patterns in terms of systematic errors (bias and random error (95% limits of agreement. When the fitness assessments were performed twice, the systematic error was nearly 0 for all tests, except for the sit and reach (mean difference: -1.03% [95% CI = -4.35% to -2.28%]. The results from this study indicate that the

  16. Feasibility and validity of mobile cognitive testing in the investigation of age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Pierre; Husky, Mathilde; Allard, Michèle; Amieva, Hélène; Pérès, Karine; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Dartigues, Jean-François; Swendsen, Joel

    2017-09-01

    Mobile cognitive testing may be used to help characterize subtle deficits at the earliest stages of cognitive decline. Despite growing interest in this approach, comprehensive information concerning its feasibility and validity has been lacking in elderly samples. Over a one-week period, this study applied mobile cognitive tests of semantic memory, episodic memory and executive functioning in a cohort of 114 elderly non-demented community residents. While the study acceptance rate was moderate (66%), the majority of recruited individuals met minimal compliance thresholds and responded to an average of 82% of the repeated daily assessments. Missing data did not increase over the course of the study, but practice effects were observed for several test scores. However, even when controlling for practice effects, traditional neuropsychological tests were significantly associated with mobile cognitive test scores. In particular, the Isaacs Set Test was associated with mobile assessments of semantic memory (γ = 0.084, t = 5.598, p mobile assessments of episodic memory (γ = 0.069, t = 3.156, p mobile assessments of executive functioning (γ = 0.168, t = 4.562, p Mobile cognitive testing in the elderly may provide complementary and potentially more sensitive data relative to traditional neuropsychological assessment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. An evaluation of methods for testing hypotheses relating to two endpoints in a single clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ting-Li; Glimm, Ekkehard; Whitehead, John; Branson, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The issues and dangers involved in testing multiple hypotheses are well recognised within the pharmaceutical industry. In reporting clinical trials, strenuous efforts are taken to avoid the inflation of type I error, with procedures such as the Bonferroni adjustment and its many elaborations and refinements being widely employed. Typically, such methods are conservative. They tend to be accurate if the multiple test statistics involved are mutually independent and achieve less than the type I error rate specified if these statistics are positively correlated. An alternative approach is to estimate the correlations between the test statistics and to perform a test that is conditional on those estimates being the true correlations. In this paper, we begin by assuming that test statistics are normally distributed and that their correlations are known. Under these circumstances, we explore several approaches to multiple testing, adapt them so that type I error is preserved exactly and then compare their powers over a range of true parameter values. For simplicity, the explorations are confined to the bivariate case. Having described the relative strengths and weaknesses of the approaches under study, we use simulation to assess the accuracy of the approximate theory developed when the correlations are estimated from the study data rather than being known in advance and when data are binary so that test statistics are only approximately normally distributed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Computerized neurocognitive testing in the management of sport-related concussion: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Jacob E; McCrea, Michael A; Cullum, C Munro

    2013-12-01

    Since the late nineties, computerized neurocognitive testing has become a central component of sport-related concussion (SRC) management at all levels of sport. In 2005, a review of the available evidence on the psychometric properties of four computerized neuropsychological test batteries concluded that the tests did not possess the necessary criteria to warrant clinical application. Since the publication of that review, several more computerized neurocognitive tests have entered the market place. The purpose of this review is to summarize the body of published studies on psychometric properties and clinical utility of computerized neurocognitive tests available for use in the assessment of SRC. A review of the literature from 2005 to 2013 was conducted to gather evidence of test-retest reliability and clinical validity of these instruments. Reviewed articles included both prospective and retrospective studies of primarily sport-based adult and pediatric samples. Summaries are provided regarding the available evidence of reliability and validity for the most commonly used computerized neurocognitive tests in sports settings.

  19. Testing and Improving the Luminosity Relations for Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazzi, Andrew

    2011-08-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) have several luminosity relations where a measurable property of a burst light curve or spectrum is correlated with the burst luminosity. These luminosity relations are calibrated for the fraction of bursts with spectroscopic redshifts and hence the known luminosities. GRBs have thus become known as a type of 'standard candle'; where standard candle is meant in the usual sense that their luminosities can be derived from measurable properties of the bursts. GRBs can therefore be used for the same cosmology applications as Type Ia supernovae, including the construction of the Hubble Diagram and measuring massive star formation rate. The greatest disadvantage of using GRBs as standard candles is that their accuracy is lower than desired. With the recent advent of GRBs as a new standard candle, every effort must be made to test and improve the distance measures. Here, several methods are employed to do just that. First, generalized forms of two tests are performed on all of the luminosity relations. All the luminosity relations pass the second of these tests, and all but two pass the first. Even with this failure, the redundancy in using multiple luminosity relations allows all the luminosity relations to retain value. Next, the 'Firmani relation' is shown to have poorer accuracy than first advertised. In addition, it is shown to be exactly derivable from two other luminosity relations. For these reasons, the Firmani relation is useless for cosmology. The Amati relation is then revisited and shown to be an artifact of a combination of selection effects. Therefore, the Amati relation is also not good for cosmology. Fourthly, the systematic errors involved in measuring a popular luminosity indicator (Epeak ) are measured. The result is that an irreducible systematic error of 28% exists. After that, a preliminary investigation into the usefulness of breaking GRBs into individual pulses is conducted. The results of an 'ideal' set of data do not

  20. How to deal with double partial verification when evaluating two index tests in relation to a reference test?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geloven, Nan; Brooze, Kimiko A.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Mol, Ben Willem; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2012-01-01

    Research into the diagnostic accuracy of clinical tests is often hampered by single or double partial verification mechanisms, that is, not all patients have their disease status verified by a reference test, neither do all patients receive all tests under evaluation (index tests). We show methods

  1. Neural correlates of derived relational responding on tests of stimulus equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cataldo Michael F

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An essential component of cognition and language involves the formation of new conditional relations between stimuli based upon prior experiences. Results of investigations on transitive inference (TI highlight a prominent role for the medial temporal lobe in maintaining associative relations among sequentially arranged stimuli (A > B > C > D > E. In this investigation, medial temporal lobe activity was assessed while subjects completed "Stimulus Equivalence" (SE tests that required deriving conditional relations among stimuli within a class (A ≡ B ≡ C. Methods Stimuli consisted of six consonant-vowel-consonant triads divided into two classes (A1, B1, C1; A2, B2, C2. A simultaneous matching-to-sample task and differential reinforcement were employed during pretraining to establish the conditional relations A1:B1 and B1:C1 in class 1 and A2:B2 and B2:C2 in class 2. During functional neuroimaging, recombined stimulus pairs were presented and subjects judged (yes/no whether stimuli were related. SE tests involved presenting three different types of within-class pairs: Symmetrical (B1 A1; C1 B1; B2 A2; C2 B2, and Transitive (A1 C1; A2 C2 and Equivalence (C1 A1; C2 A2 relations separated by a nodal stimulus. Cross-class 'Foils' consisting of unrelated stimuli (e.g., A1 C2 were also presented. Results Relative to cross-class Foils, Transitive and Equivalence relations requiring inferential judgments elicited bilateral activation in the anterior hippocampus while Symmetrical relations elicited activation in the parahippocampus. Relative to each derived relation, Foils generally elicited bilateral activation in the parahippocampus, as well as in frontal and parietal lobe regions. Conclusion Activation observed in the hippocampus to nodal-dependent derived conditional relations (Transitive and Equivalence relations highlights its involvement in maintaining relational structure and flexible memory expression among stimuli within a

  2. [The characteristics of Alzheimer's Disease Units in relation to neuropsychological tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Giacoma C; Caffari, Bruno; Vanacore, Nicola; Maggini, Marina; Raschetti, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The Cronos Project is a post-marketing surveillance study implemented by the Italian Ministry of Health and the National Institute of Health whose main objectives are to characterise the population of Alzheimer's disease patients treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and monitor effectiveness and drug safety in the field practice. In this project 503 Alzheimer's disease units were activated located throughout the country. The characteristics of these Alzheimer's disease units are presented for setting (territorial, university, hospital, extra-hospital), health personnel employed, examinations offered (CT and MRI scans and laboratory tests), counselling activities and relationship with caregiver associations in relation to neuropsychological tests.

  3. The criterion-related validity of integrity tests: an updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Roth, Philip L; Raymark, Patrick H; Odle-Dusseau, Heather N

    2012-05-01

    Integrity tests have become a prominent predictor within the selection literature over the past few decades. However, some researchers have expressed concerns about the criterion-related validity evidence for such tests because of a perceived lack of methodological rigor within this literature, as well as a heavy reliance on unpublished data from test publishers. In response to these concerns, we meta-analyzed 104 studies (representing 134 independent samples), which were authored by a similar proportion of test publishers and non-publishers, whose conduct was consistent with professional standards for test validation, and whose results were relevant to the validity of integrity-specific scales for predicting individual work behavior. Overall mean observed validity estimates and validity estimates corrected for unreliability in the criterion (respectively) were .12 and .15 for job performance, .13 and .16 for training performance, .26 and .32 for counterproductive work behavior, and .07 and .09 for turnover. Although data on restriction of range were sparse, illustrative corrections for indirect range restriction did increase validities slightly (e.g., from .15 to .18 for job performance). Several variables appeared to moderate relations between integrity tests and the criteria. For example, corrected validities for job performance criteria were larger when based on studies authored by integrity test publishers (.27) than when based on studies from non-publishers (.12). In addition, corrected validities for counterproductive work behavior criteria were larger when based on self-reports (.42) than when based on other-reports (.11) or employee records (.15). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Test anxiety levels and related factors: students preparing for university exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Ayse Sonay; Balci, Serap; Kose, Dilek

    2014-11-01

    To assess test anxiety levels and related factors among students preparing for university exams. The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at Istanbul University, Turkey, and comprised students preparing for exams in two private courses for the 2010-11 academic year. Data was collected via an original questionnaire and the Test Anxiety Inventory. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analyses. Of the 1250 students who qualified for the study, the final sample size was 376 (30%). Of them, 210 (55.9%) were females, and 154 (41%) were 18 years old. Students' mean Test Anxiety Inventory scores were 39.44±11.34. Female students' overall test anxiety scores and mean emotionality subscale score were significantly higher than those of their male counterparts. Students whose mothers had an educational attainment between primary school n=170 (45.2%) and a high school diploma n=184 (48.9%), as well as those with four or more siblings n=49 (15%), had significantly higher mean overall Test Anxiety Inventory scores. Among other things, test anxiety is influenced by maternal educational level, type of high school, number of exams, and number of siblings. Preparing a relaxed study environment for students, providing the family monetary or social support, and encouraging participation in social activities are recommendedto decreajb anxiety in students preparing for university exams.

  5. Testing the Distance-Duality Relation with Galaxy Clusters and Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Lima, J. A. S.; Ribeiro, M. B.

    2010-10-01

    In this Letter, we propose a new and model-independent cosmological test for the distance-duality (DD) relation, η = DL (z)(1 + z)-2/DA (z) = 1, where DL and DA are, respectively, the luminosity and angular diameter distances. For DL we consider two sub-samples of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) taken from Constitution data whereas DA distances are provided by two samples of galaxy clusters compiled by De Filippis et al. and Bonamente et al. by combining Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and X-ray surface brightness. The SNe Ia redshifts of each sub-sample were carefully chosen to coincide with the ones of the associated galaxy cluster sample (Δz test of the DD relation. Since for very low redshifts, DA (z) ape DL (z), we have tested the DD relation by assuming that η is a function of the redshift parameterized by two different expressions: η(z) = 1 + η0 z and η(z) = 1 + η0 z/(1 + z), where η0 is a constant parameter quantifying a possible departure from the strict validity of the reciprocity relation (η0 = 0). In the best scenario (linear parameterization), we obtain η0 = -0.28+0.44 -0.44 (2σ, statistical + systematic errors) for the De Filippis et al. sample (elliptical geometry), a result only marginally compatible with the DD relation. However, for the Bonamente et al. sample (spherical geometry) the constraint is η0 = -0.42+0.34 -0.34 (3σ, statistical + systematic errors), which is clearly incompatible with the duality-distance relation.

  6. Using the Digits-In-Noise Test to Estimate Age-Related Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Arne; Nagtegaal, A Paul; Homans, Nienke C; Hofman, Albert; Baatenburg de Jong, Rob J; Goedegebure, André

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss is common in the elderly population. Timely detection and targeted counseling can lead to adequate treatment with hearing aids. The Digits-In-Noise (DIN) test was developed as a relatively simple test to assess hearing acuity. It is a potentially powerful test for the screening of large populations, including the elderly. However, until to date, no sensitivity or specificity rates for detecting hearing loss were reported in a general elderly population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the DIN test to screen for mild and moderate hearing loss in the elderly. Data of pure-tone audiometry and the DIN test were collected from 3327 adults ages above 50 (mean: 65), as part of the Rotterdam Study, a large population-based cohort study. Sensitivity and specificity of the DIN test for detecting hearing loss were calculated by comparing speech reception threshold (SRT) with pure-tone average threshold at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz (PTA0.5,1,2,4). Receiver operating characteristics were calculated for detecting >20 and >35 dB HL average hearing loss at the best ear. Hearing loss varied greatly between subjects and, as expected, increased with age. High frequencies and men were more severely affected. A strong correlation (R = 0.80, p < 0.001) was found between SRTs and PTA0.5,1,2,4. Moreover, 65% of variance in SRT could be explained by pure-tone thresholds. For detecting mild or moderate hearing loss, receiver operating characteristics showed areas under the curve of 0.86 and 0.98, respectively. This study demonstrates that the DIN test has excellent test characteristics when screening for moderate hearing loss (or more) in an elderly population. It is less suited to screen for mild hearing loss. The test is easy to complete and should be suitable for implementation as an automated self-test in hearing screening programs. Ultimately, when combined with active counseling, hearing screening could lead to higher hearing aid coverage

  7. A modified Lorentz theory as a test theory of special relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T.; Torr, D. G.; Gagnon, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Attention has been given recently to a modified Lorentz theory (MLT) that is based on the generalized Galilean transformation. Some explicit formulas within the framework of MLT, dealing with the one-way velocity of light, slow-clock transport, and the Doppler effect are derived. A number of typical experiments are analyzed on this basis. Results indicate that the empirical equivalence between MLT and special relativity is still maintained to second order terms. The results of previous works that predict that the MLT might be distinguished from special relativity at the third order by Doppler centrifuge tests capable of a fractional frequency detection threshold of 10 to the -15th are confirmed.

  8. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Sibério Pinho Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. Method: a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. Results: although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000. A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000. Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852. Conclusion: the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test.

  9. Development and Validation of the Computerized Family Relations Test for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczń, Ilona; Cieciuch, Jan; Oud, Johan H L; Welzen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Computerized Family Relations Test (CFRT) for children. This test assesses the quality of family relationships with the mother and father from a child's perspective. The CFRT consists of six scales relating to control (Restrictiveness and Justice), and support (Affection, Vulnerability, Acknowledgment, and Trust) within the family relationships. CFRT is an innovative approach to the Dutch Nijmegen Family Relations Test (NFRT) developed by Oud and Welzen (1989). The administration of the test has been computerized and graphical representations of female and male silhouettes were included to facilitate the child's parental identification. In total, 404 primary school children, aged 8 to 13 years (M = 11.0; SD = 1.17), took part in this study. The CFRT's reliability was assessed by McDonald's omega coefficients, and ranged from 0.71 to 0.86, except for Vulnerability which achieved the lowest reliability 0.57 for mothers' ratings and 0.56 for fathers' ratings. The test-retest procedure revealed higher stability for the ratings on father-child relationships of 0.71 compared to mother-child relationships of 0.67. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a six-factor model provided an adequate fit. Measurement invariance across the children's assessments of the quality of family relationships was achieved. The construct validity of CFRT was assessed by examining differences in the child's ratings of the relationships with the mother and father, the child's gender, and associations of CFRT scales with other variables such as depression, anxiety symptoms, and prosocial behavior.

  10. Interferences on microbial inhibitor tests related to ivermectin treatment in lactating dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Tamara; Moya, Vicente Javier; Fernández, Nemesio; Althaus, Rafael; Reybroeck, Wim; Molina, María Pilar

    2016-08-01

    This Research Communication reports interferences related to the administration of ivermectin in lactating dairy goats on the response of microbial tests for screening antibiotics in milk. Twenty-eight Murciano-Granadina goats, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. caprae, were treated with a subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (200 µg/kg b.w.). To prevent re-infestation, a second dose was applied 7 d later. Individual milk samples were collected, daily, up to 15 d post-treatment. Milk samples were analysed by microbial inhibitor tests (BRT MRL, Delvotest SP-NT MCS and Eclipse 100) and ivermectin residues were quantified by HPLC. A large number of positive results were obtained for all microbial tests, especially on the first day after treatment (BRT MRL = 46·4%; Delvotest SP-NT MCS = 14·3%; and Eclipse 100 = 17·8%). However, the highest concentration of drug residues in milk (24·3 ng/ml) was detected on the tenth day after treatment, when positive outcomes were relatively lower (BRT MRL = 17·8%; Delvotest SP-NT MCS = 10·7%; and Eclipse 100 = 7·4%). Results herein suggest that factors related to the ivermectin treatment other than drug residues in milk, or alterations produced by the parasitic disease itself affecting the immune response of animals, could be the cause of false-positive results in microbial tests. It can be concluded that the application of ivermectin in dairy goats infested with sarcoptes mange during lactation produces persistent drug residues in milk, and could also cause false-positive results in microbial inhibitor tests for screening antibiotics.

  11. Concurrent criterion-related validity and reliability of a clinical test to measure femoral anteversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Richard B; Powers, Christopher M

    2009-08-01

    Clinical measurement, criterion standard. To determine if the clinical measure of femoral anteversion is comparable to measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An additional purpose of this study was to assess the intertester and intratester reliability of the clinical test. Femoral anteversion is commonly assessed as part of the physical examination; however, limited and inconsistent data exist on the validity and reliability of the clinical test. Eighteen healthy adults (9 males, 9 females; mean +/- SD age, 25.4 +/- 3.3 years; body mass index, 22.9 +/- 3.4 kg/m2) participated. Each underwent 3 data collection sessions: (1) MRI to measure femoral anteversion, (2) clinical testing of femoral anteversion, measured independently by 2 physical therapists, and (3) repeated clinical testing. Validity and reliability were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,3) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Moderate agreement was found between the clinical test and MRI measures of femoral anteversion (ICCs of 0.69 and 0.67 for examiners 1 and 2, respectively). The SEM was similar for both examiners (5.8 degrees and 6.0 degrees ). Both intra tester (ICCs of 0.88 and 0.90 for examiners 1 and 2, respectively) and intertester (ICC = 0.83) reliability was found to be substantial. In persons with a low body mass index, the clinical test to assess femoral anteversion was shown to exhibit substantial reliability, but only moderate agreement with MRI measurements. When performing the clinical test, one can be 95% confident that the true value of femoral anteversion will fall within 11.8 degrees of the clinically measured value. This relatively wide confidence interval calls into question the clinical utility of the clinical test for assessing femoral anteversion.

  12. Sensitivity of the immunochromatographic card test relative to detection of adult Wuchereria bancrofti worms by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Gerusa; Lins, Renato; Norões, Joaquim; Rizzo, José Angelo; Figueredo-Silva, José

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of active infection in bancroftian filariasis continues to pose an important and continuously evolving challenge to filariasis-endemic countries and to health personnel. Sensitivity of the immunochromatographic card test (ICT) relative to detection of adult Wuchereria bancrofti worms by ultrasound was evaluated in a retrospective study conducted in the Center for Teaching, Research and Tertiary Referral Hospital for bancroftian filariasis (Federal University of Pernambuco) in Recife, Brazil. The results showed that among 408 persons tested, the overall sensitivity of the ICT was 84.5% and varied from 52% to 100% when patients were grouped by different criteria (age, sex, presence or absence of living adult worms by ultrasound, microfilaremia status/density). The present study provides evidence that a negative antigen result should be interpreted cautiously and may help to explain the different sensitivities of the antigen test found by different investigators in settings with different transmission intensities.

  13. Field of Genes: An Investigation of Sports-Related Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer K.; Royal, Charmaine D.

    2012-01-01

    Sports-related genetic testing is a sector of the diverse direct-to-consumer (DTC) industry that has not yet been examined thoroughly by academic scholars. A systematic search was used to identify companies in this sector and content analysis of online information was performed. More than a dozen companies were identified. Marketing practices observed generally did not target parents for child testing, and marketing images were mild compared to images used in popular media. Information was provided at a high reading level (industry-wide Flesh-Kincaid Grade Levels > 11). While ~75% of companies provide privacy policies and terms of service prior to purchase and ~40% provide scientific citations for their tests, e-commerce generally may adequately protect DTC genetics consumers without new federal legislation or regulation. PMID:25562204

  14. Field of Genes: An Investigation of Sports-Related Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Wagner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sports-related genetic testing is a sector of the diverse direct-to-consumer (DTC industry that has not yet been examined thoroughly by academic scholars. A systematic search was used to identify companies in this sector and content analysis of online information was performed. More than a dozen companies were identified. Marketing practices observed generally did not target parents for child testing, and marketing images were mild compared to images used in popular media. Information was provided at a high reading level (industry-wide Flesh-Kincaid Grade Levels > 11. While ~75% of companies provide privacy policies and terms of service prior to purchase and ~40% provide scientific citations for their tests,

  15. How the Laser Helped to Improve the Test of Special Theory of Relativity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satya Pal

    2013-01-01

    In this paper of I have reviewed the test done for validating the special theory of relativity using masers and lasers in last one century. Michelson-Morley did the first experimental verification for the isotropy of space for the propagation of light in 1887. It has an accuracy of 1/100th of a fringe shift. The predicted fringe shift on the basis…

  16. Assessment of Dentally Related Function in Individuals with Cognitive Impairment: The Dental Activities Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Potter, Guy G; Sloane, Philip D; Cohen, Lauren W; Reed, David

    2017-03-01

    To develop and validate the Dental Activities Test (DAT), a clinical tool for measuring dentally related function in cognitively impaired older adults. Cross-sectional study design. Three assisted living residences in North Carolina. Assisted living residents with normal to impaired cognition aged 50 and older; not blind, deaf, or severely physically disabled; and English speaking (N = 90). Items for the DAT were developed based on focus group discussions, literature review, and clinical relevance. Cronbach alpha, interrater reliability, and test-retest reliability were examined, and construct validity was assessed in relation to correlations with cognitive and functional assessments. Correlations between the DAT and oral health measures were also analyzed to evaluate the concurrent validity of the DAT. The DAT has excellent internal consistency reliability (Cronbach alpha 0.90), test-retest reliability (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.84), and interrater reliability (r = 0.90). In terms of construct validity, higher DAT scores were significantly associated with better cognitive function, as well as better activity of daily living and instrumental activity of daily living function. Finally, the DAT was significantly associated with oral hygiene and gingival health. The DAT is a reliable and valid instrument to measure dentally-related function in older adults with cognitive impairment. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Role of atopy patch test for diagnosis of food allergy-related gastrointestinal symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyaviwat, Onsuree; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Vichyanond, Pakit; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong

    2015-12-01

    Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge is the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy. However, it is a time-consuming procedure and requires onsite medical supervision and resuscitating medicines and devices on hand. The objective of this study was to compare the atopy patch test (APT) with the oral food challenge test (OFC) in children with suspected food allergy-related gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. A prospective self-controlled study enrolled children with a history of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms. Skin prick test (SPT) and APT using lyophilized and commercial allergen extracts for cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, and shrimp were evaluated, and OFC was performed. Thirty-nine patients (25 boys, median age 2.4 yrs) with 76 events of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms were enrolled. SPT was positive in 11/76 events (14.5%). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratio were calculated related to the food challenge outcome. Of 41 OFC, 30 (73.2%) were positive. APT using lyophilized allergen extracts yielded high sensitivity (80%) and high positive predictive value (85.7%). APT using commercial allergen extracts yielded low sensitivity (30%) but high specificity (90%). The negative predictive value of APT using lyophilized and commercial allergen extracts was 53.8% and 32.2%, respectively. All cases with positive APT using lyophilized allergen extracts together with positive SPT also had positive OFC. In contrast to commercial extracts, APT with lyophilized allergen extracts is reliable, safe, and maybe useful for the diagnosis of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms in children. OFC is still needed in most of the cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Understanding the High School Proficiency Test and the Early Warning Test in Relation to HCCC Enrollment Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffy, Fred

    The Grade 11 High School Proficiency Test (HSPT) and the New Jersey Early Warning Test (EWT) are two key standardized tests that indicate academic ability of county high school graduates which colleges will need to address. While HSPT scores for county high school districts reflect a range of competency in reading, math, and writing, the majority…

  19. Results of Testing the Relative Oxidizing Hazard of Wipes and KMI Zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ams, Bridget Elaine [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-05-09

    This report includes the results from testing performed on the relative oxidizing hazard of a number of organic sorbing wipe materials, as well as KMI zeolite. These studies were undertaken to address a need by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hazardous Materials Management group, which requires a material that can sorb small spills in a glovebox without creating a disposal hazard due to the potential for oxidation reactions, as requested in Request for Testing of Wipes and Zeolite for Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Materials Group (NPl-7) (NPl-7-17-002) and Request for Testing of Chamois Material for Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Materials Group (NPl-7) (NPl-7-17-005). This set oftests is a continuation of previous testing described in Results from Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with (DWT-RPT-003), which provided data for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Basis of Knowledge. The Basis of Knowledge establishes criteria for evaluating transuranic (TRU) waste that contains oxidizing chemicals.

  20. Effect of test duration and feeding on relative sensitivity of genetically distinct clades of Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Major, Kaley M; McEwen, Abigail R

    2013-11-01

    The amphipod Hyalella azteca is widely used in ecotoxicology laboratories for the assessment of chemical risks to aquatic environments, and it is a cryptic species complex with a number of genetically distinct strains found in wild populations. While it would be valuable to note differences in contaminant sensitivity among different strains collected from various field sites, those findings would be influenced by acclimation of the populations to local conditions. In addition, potential differences in metabolism or lipid storage among different strains may confound assessment of sensitivity in unfed acute toxicity tests. In the present study, our aim was to assess whether there are genetic differences in contaminant sensitivity among three cryptic provisional species of H. azteca. Therefore, we used organisms cultured under the same conditions, assessed their ability to survive for extended periods without food, and conducted fed and unfed acute toxicity tests with two anions (nitrate and chloride) whose toxicities are not expected to be altered by the addition of food. We found that the three genetically distinct clades of H. azteca had substantially different responses to starvation, and the presence/absence of food during acute toxicity tests had a strong role in determining the relative sensitivity of the three clades. In fed tests, where starvation was no longer a potential stressor, significant differences in sensitivity were still observed among the three clades. In light of these differences in sensitivity, we suggest that ecotoxicology laboratories consider using a provisional species in toxicity tests that is a regionally appropriate surrogate.

  1. Testing the effects of adolescent alcohol use on adult conflict-related theta dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jeremy; Malone, Stephen M; Iacono, William G

    2017-11-01

    Adolescent alcohol use (AAU) is associated with brain anomalies, but less is known about long-term neurocognitive effects. Despite theoretical models linking AAU to diminished cognitive control, empirical work testing this relationship with specific cognitive control neural correlates (e.g., prefrontal theta-band EEG dynamics) remains scarce. A longitudinal twin design was used to test the hypothesis that greater AAU is associated with reduced conflict-related EEG theta-band dynamics in adulthood, and to examine the genetic/environmental etiology of this association. In a large (N=718) population-based prospective twin sample, AAU was assessed at ages 11/14/17. Twins completed a flanker task at age 29 to elicit EEG theta-band medial frontal cortex (MFC) power and medial-dorsal prefrontal cortex (MFC-dPFC) connectivity. Two complementary analytic methods (cotwin control analysis; biometric modeling) were used to disentangle the genetic/shared environmental risk towards AAU from possible alcohol exposure effects on theta dynamics. AAU was negatively associated with adult cognitive control-related theta-band MFC power and MFC-dPFC functional connectivity. Genetic influences primarily underlie these associations. Findings provide strong evidence that genetic factors underlie the comorbidity between AAU and diminished cognitive control-related theta dynamics in adulthood. Conflict-related theta-band dynamics appear to be candidate brain-based endophenotypes/mechanisms for AAU. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Relation between achievements on Acadia test of developmental abilities and intelligence in younger school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buha Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic success depends on numerous factors: intelligence, motivation, developmental level of basic and more complex cognitive functions, personality traits, etc. In special education, Acadia test of developmental abilities is most frequently used to assess the abilities necessary for acquiring academic knowledge and skills, with the aim to detect the children who have, or might have, learning disabilities. In Serbia, psychometric characteristics of the test have not been determined so far. Thus, the aim of this paper is to determine the relation between the achievements on this test and intelligence in a sample of younger school children who attend regular schools in Belgrade. The sample consisted of 784 children of both genders (51% of girls and 49% of boys, aged between 8 and 12 (AM=9.71; SD=0.65. Acadia test, which consists of 13 subtests for assessing attention and short-term memory, perceptive, visual-constructive, conceptual, and speech-language abilities, was used in this research. Intelligence was assessed by means of the standard version of Raven’s progressive matrices (AM=37.03; SD=10.51, and the examinees were organized in four groups on the basis of percentile ranks of the raw score (3 sections. By analyzing the results, statistically significant positive correlation was determined between all the subtests of Acadia test and intelligence, which ranges from 0.27 to 0.63. Age has a low (r=0.08-0.26, but also statistically significant correlation with the achievements on the subtests of Acadia test (p0.05. By applying multivariate analysis of covariance, with controlling the influence of age, it was determined that intelligence is a significant factor of achievement on Acadia test (Wilks’ λ=0.502; F(39=14.926; p≤0.000, ηp2 =0.205, and on all the subtests separately (p≤0.000, accounting for 7 to 35% of the results variability.

  3. Hand grip endurance test relates to clinical state and prognosis in COPD patients better than 6-minute walk test distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovarik M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Miroslav Kovarik,1,2 Vera Joskova,1,2 Anna Patkova,1,2 Vladimir Koblizek,3 Zdenek Zadak,2 Miloslav Hronek1,2 1Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; 2Department of Research and Development, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Purpose: Patients with COPD present peripheral muscle dysfunction and atrophy, expressed as muscle strength and endurance reduction. The goal of this study was direct dynamometric assessment of hand grip endurance and strength in relation to the stage of disease, multidimensional predictors of mortality, and 6-minute walk test (6MWT. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous study determining these parameters.Patients and methods: In this observational study, 58 consecutive outpatients with stable COPD and 25 volunteers without respiratory problems were compared. All COPD subjects underwent a comprehensive examination to determine COPD severity, prognostic scales, and 6MWT. Body composition, basic spirometric parameters, and hand grip strength and endurance were determined in all study participants.Results: Patients in the COPD group had a 15% decrease in maximum strength (P=0.012 and a 28% decrease in area under the force/time curve (AUC of the endurance test (P<0.001 compared to the control group. Dynamometric parameters were significantly negatively associated with the stage of disease and values of multivariable prediction indexes, and positively associated with the results of 6MWT. In most cases, closer associations were found with AUC than with 6MWT and in the gender-specific groups.Conclusion: Both hand grip strength and endurance are impaired in COPD patients in comparison with the control group. In particular, AUC could be considered as an attractive option not only to

  4. Testing Models Relating Rejection, Depression, Interpersonal Needs, and Psychache to Suicide Risk in Nonclinical Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Rui C; Holden, Ronald R

    2015-10-01

    Using structural equation modeling, we tested a primary model of suicide risk and 3 competing, alternative models based on 4 psychological variables deemed important in the literature (perception of parental rejection, depression, interpersonal needs comprising perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, and psychache), in a nonclinical sample of Portuguese adults. A convenience sample of 203 adults (100 men, 103 women; aged 18-65 years) participated in this study. Analyses demonstrated that the proposed primary model had the best fit to the observed data. The differences in fit indexes for this model and one of the alternative models, however, were not substantial. Perceived parental rejection related directly to suicide risk and indirectly via depression and interpersonal needs. Depression linked indirectly to suicide risk via interpersonal needs and psychache. Interpersonal needs related directly to suicide risk and indirectly via psychache, which related directly to suicide risk. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Genetic testing for inherited heart diseases: longitudinal impact on health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Jodie; Yeates, Laura; O'Brien, Lisa; McGaughran, Julie; Scuffham, Paul A; Atherton, John; Semsarian, Christopher

    2012-05-03

    Purpose:A genetic diagnosis is an extremely useful tool in the management and care of families with inherited heart diseases, particularly in allowing clarification of risk status of asymptomatic family members. The psychosocial consequences of genetic testing in this group are poorly understood. This longitudinal pilot study sought to determine changes in health-related quality of life in patients and asymptomatic family members undergoing genetic testing for inherited heart diseases.Methods:Individuals attending two specialized multidisciplinary cardiac genetic clinics in Australia were invited to participate. Patients undergoing proband or predictive genetic testing for an inherited cardiomyopathy or primary arrhythmogenic disorder were eligible. The Medical Outcomes Short Form-36 (version 2) was administered before the genetic result was given, and follow-up surveys were completed 1-3, 6, and 12 months after the result was given.Results:A total of 54 individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, familial dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and long QT syndrome completed baseline and at least one follow-up survey, including 33 probands and 21 asymptomatic relatives. Physical and mental component scores analyzed at baseline and 1-3 months were found to be unchanged in all groups. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed up to 12 months after result.Conclusion:In this longitudinal pilot study, no change in health-related quality of life was observed up to 12 months after the result was given in patients and their asymptomatic family members undergoing genetic testing for an inherited heart disease.Genet Med 2012 advance online publication 3 May 2012.

  6. Absolute and Relative Reliability of the Timed 'Up & Go' Test and '30second Chair-Stand' Test in Hospitalised Patients with Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyders Johansen, Katrine; Derby Stistrup, Rikke; Skibdal Schjøtt, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The timed 'Up & Go' test and '30second Chair-Stand' test are simple clinical outcome measures widely used to assess functional performance. The reliability of both tests in hospitalised stroke patients is unknown. The purpose was to investigate the relative and absolute reliability...... of both tests in patients admitted to an acute stroke unit. METHODS: Sixty-two patients (men, n = 41) attended two test sessions separated by a one hours rest. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1) were calculated to assess relative reliability. Absolute reliability was expressed as Standard Error...... with corresponding SRD values of 3. CONCLUSION: Excellent reliability was observed for the timed 'Up & Go' test and the '30second Chair-Stand' test in hospitalised stroke patients. The thresholds to detect a real change in performance were 18.7% for the timed 'Up & Go' test and 2.0 repetitions for the '30second...

  7. Why does Income Relate to Depressive Symptoms? Testing the Income Rank Hypothesis Longitudinally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafo Hounkpatin, Hilda; Wood, Alex M; Brown, Gordon D A; Dunn, Graham

    This paper reports a test of the relative income rank hypothesis of depression, according to which it is the rank position of an individual's income amongst a comparison group, rather than the individual's absolute income, that will be associated with depressive symptoms. A new methodology is developed to test between psychosocial and material explanations of why income relates to well-being. This method was used to test the income rank hypothesis as applied to depressive symptoms. We used data from a cohort of 10,317 individuals living in Wisconsin who completed surveys in 1992 and 2003. The utility assumed to arise from income was represented with a constant relative risk aversion function to overcome limitations of previous work in which inadequate specification of the relationship between absolute income and well-being may have inappropriately favoured relative income specifications. We compared models in which current and future depressive symptoms were predicted from: (a) income utility alone, (b) income rank alone, (c) the transformed difference between the individual's income and the mean income of a comparison group and (d) income utility, income rank and distance from the mean jointly. Model comparison overcomes problems involving multi-collinearity amongst the predictors. A rank-only model was consistently supported. Similar results were obtained for the association between depressive symptoms and wealth and rank of wealth in a cohort of 32,900 British individuals who completed surveys in 2002 and 2008. We conclude that it is the rank of a person's income or wealth within a social comparison group, rather than income or wealth themselves or their deviations from the mean within a reference group, that is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms.

  8. Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices I (ASTROD I) - Mission Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Selig, Hanns; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2012-01-01

    ASTROD I is the first planned space mission in a series of ASTROD missions for testing relativity in space using optical devices. The main aims are: (i) to test General Relativity with an improvement of three orders of magnitude compared to current results, (ii) to measure solar and solar system parameters with improved accuracy, (iii) to test the constancy of the gravitational constant and in general to get a deeper understanding of gravity. The first ideas for the ASTROD missions go back to the last century when new technologies in the area of laser physics and time measurement began to appear on the horizon. ASTROD is a mission concept that is supported by a broad international community covering the areas of space technology, fundamental physics, high performance laser and clock technology and drag free control. While ASTROD I is a single-spacecraft concept that performes measurements with pulsed laser ranging between the spacecraft and earthbound laser ranging stations, ASTROD-GW is planned to be a three...

  9. An experimental test of the fluctuation relation in an active camphor boat system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroor, H. M.; Nambiar, N.; Bandi, M. M.

    The Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation relation (FR) posits a specific symmetry between positive and negative fluctuations in entropy production, or a related quantity (e.g power) for systems in non-equilibrium stationary state. Successful tests in a variety of systems suggest the FR may be more generally applicable than the conditions under which it was originally derived. Systems where the FR fails are therefore valuable for the insight they provide into the FR's general success. It has recently been suggested that ``active matter'' should not satisfy the fluctuation-dissipation theorem or FR. We experimentally test this possibility in a system of active camphor boats, self-propelled by surface tension gradients at air-water interfaces. The boats interact via short-range capillary attraction which competes with long-range surface tension mediated repulsion. Tuning interaction strength with number density, we test the FR through the statistics of power as one goes from a free non-interacting camphor boat, through a few weakly interacting boats to several, strongly interacting boats. We present preliminary results of our experiments and data analysis.

  10. Updating the Trainability Tests Literature on Black-White Subgroup Differences and Reconsidering Criterion-Related Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Philip L.; Buster, Maury A.; Bobko, Philip

    2011-01-01

    A number of applied psychologists have suggested that trainability test Black-White ethnic group differences are low or relatively low (e.g., Siegel & Bergman, 1975), though data are scarce. Likewise, there are relatively few estimates of criterion-related validity for trainability tests predicting job performance (cf. Robertson & Downs,…

  11. The Relation of Arm Exercise Peak Heart Rate to Stress Test Results and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Hong; Liu, Weijian; Marshall, Cynthia; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Martin, Wade H

    2016-09-01

    Arm exercise is an alternative to pharmacologic stress testing for >50% of patients unable to perform treadmill exercise, but no data exist regarding the effect of attained peak arm exercise heart rate on test sensitivity. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to characterize the relationship of peak arm exercise heart rate responses to abnormal stress test findings, coronary revascularization, and mortality in patients unable to perform leg exercise. From 1997 until 2002, arm cycle ergometer stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans age 64.1 yr (11.0 yr) (mean (SD)), of whom 253 also underwent myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Patients were categorized by frequency distributions of quartiles of percentage age-predicted peak heart rate (APPHR), heart rate reserve (HRR), and peak heart rate-systolic blood pressure product (PRPP). Exercise-induced ST-segment depression, abnormal MPI findings, coronary revascularization, and 12.0-yr (1.3 yr) Kaplan-Meier all-cause and cardiovascular mortality plots were then characterized by quartiles of APPHR, HRR, and PRPP. A reduced frequency of abnormal arm exercise ECG results was associated only with the lowest quartile of APPHR (≤69%) and HRR (≤43%), whereas higher frequency of abnormal MPI findings exhibited an inverse relationship trend with lower APPHR (P = 0.10) and HRR (P = 0.12). There was a strong inverse association of APPHR, HRR, and PRPP with all-cause (all P ≤ 0.01) and cardiovascular (P Arm exercise ECG stress test sensitivity is only reduced at ≤69% APPHR or ≤43% HRR, whereas arm exercise MPI sensitivity and referral for coronary revascularization after arm exercise stress testing are not adversely affected by even a severely blunted peak heart rate. However, both all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality are strongly and inversely related to APPHR and HRR.

  12. Higher emotional intelligence is related to lower test anxiety among students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Keshavarz, Mohammadreza; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Bajoghli, Hafez; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background For students attending university courses, experiencing test anxiety (TA) dramatically impairs cognitive performance and success at exams. Whereas TA is a specific case of social phobia, emotional intelligence (EI) is an umbrella term covering interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, along with positive stress management, adaptability, and mood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that higher EI and lower TA are associated. Further, sex differences were explored. Method During an exam week, a total of 200 university students completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, TA, and EI. Results Higher scores on EI traits were associated with lower TA scores. Relative to male participants, female participants reported higher TA scores, but not EI scores. Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and mood predicted low TA, while sex, stress management, and adaptability were excluded from the equation. Conclusion The pattern of results suggests that efforts to improve intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, and mood might benefit students with high TA. Specifically, social commitment might counteract TA. PMID:26834474

  13. Seasonal changes in the tests of fish Puntius ticto, and their relation to heavy metal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pundir, R. (Holkar Science College, Indore (India)); Saxena, A.B. (Vikram Univ., Ujjain (India))

    1990-08-01

    An integrated hypothesis explaining the implications of environmental influence on the reproductive process has not emerged owing to paucity of data. Nevertheless, evidence is at hand to show that favorable physiological disposition for reproduction is brought about with external and internal factors through the mediation of the neuroendocrine mechanisms. It is now clear that the environmental factors impinge on the exteroreceptors and through them affect the central nervous system, the hypothalamus, the pituitary and finally the gonad. Another endogenous factor is the internal rhythm, which is known to regulate at least in part the seasonal reproductive activity. A review of literature reveals that comparatively much work has been done on the structure and seasonal changes of the testes of fishes. The aim of the present study is to observe seasonal changes in the testes of fish Puntius ticto and their relation to heavy metal toxicity.

  14. Pulmonary function tests and work-related respiratory and allergic symptoms in Iranian bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hosein; Taheri, Ehsan; Ahmadi, Sina; Ebrahimi, Kolsoumeh; Soudaneh, Malihe; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Sabourhasanzadeh, Alireza

    2009-06-01

    Bakers are frequently exposed to various irritant chemicals during work which can induce respiratory problems. In this study, pulmonary function tests and self-reported respiratory and allergic symptoms in bakers were compared with matched control subjects. The frequency of respiratory and allergic symptoms was evaluated in a sample of 58 Iranian bakers and 58 control subjects using a questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were also measured in all participants. All respiratory symptoms were significantly higher in bakers than control croup (pbakers were also significantly greater than control group (pbakers compared to rest period (pbakers than control subjects (pbakers have a higher frequency of work related respiratory symptoms and to a lesser extend allergic symptoms particularly during the work period. PFT values were also significantly reduced among bakers.

  15. Testing General Relativity with Low-Frequency, Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gair, Jonathan R; Vallisneri, Michele; Larson, Shane L; Baker, John G

    2013-01-01

    We review the tests of general relativity that will become possible with space-based gravitational-wave detectors operating in the ∼ 10-5 - 1 Hz low-frequency band. The fundamental aspects of gravitation that can be tested include the presence of additional gravitational fields other than the metric; the number and tensorial nature of gravitational-wave polarization states; the velocity of propagation of gravitational waves; the binding energy and gravitational-wave radiation of binaries, and therefore the time evolution of binary inspirals; the strength and shape of the waves emitted from binary mergers and ringdowns; the true nature of astrophysical black holes; and much more. The strength of this science alone calls for the swift implementation of a space-based detector; the remarkable richness of astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band make the case even stronger.

  16. Testing General Relativity with Low-Frequency, Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Baker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the tests of general relativity that will become possible with space-based gravitational-wave detectors operating in the ∼ 10^{-5} – 1 Hz low-frequency band. The fundamental aspects of gravitation that can be tested include the presence of additional gravitational fields other than the metric; the number and tensorial nature of gravitational-wave polarization states; the velocity of propagation of gravitational waves; the binding energy and gravitational-wave radiation of binaries, and therefore the time evolution of binary inspirals; the strength and shape of the waves emitted from binary mergers and ringdowns; the true nature of astrophysical black holes; and much more. The strength of this science alone calls for the swift implementation of a space-based detector; the remarkable richness of astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band make the case even stronger.

  17. AIDS-related stigma, HIV testing, and transmission risk among patrons of informal drinking places in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree

    2012-06-01

    AIDS-related stigma as a barrier to HIV testing has not been examined within the context of high at risk environments such as drinking venues. Of particular importance is whether AIDS-related stigma is associated with HIV transmission risks among people who have never been tested for HIV. We examined: (1) AIDS-related stigma as a barrier to testing, controlling for other potential barriers, and (2) whether stigma is associated with HIV risks among HIV-untested individuals. We surveyed 2,572 individuals attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess HIV testing status, AIDS-related stigma endorsement, and HIV transmission sexual risk behavior. Endorsement of AIDS-related stigma was negatively associated with HIV lifetime testing. In addition, stigma endorsement was associated with higher HIV transmission risks. AIDS-related stigma must be addressed in HIV prevention campaigns across South Africa. Antistigma messages should be integrated with risk reduction counseling and testing.

  18. Validity of the relative-dose-response test and the modified-relative-dose-response test as indicators of vitamin A stores in liver 1-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, H.; West, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Our group and many others have used the relativedose- response (RDR) test and the modified-RDR (MRDR) test as proxy indicators of liver stores of vitamin A. However, we have become concerned about the validity of these indicators. Objective: Simulation models were used to assess effects

  19. Food-related lifestyles in Singapore: Testing a Western European research instrument in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Brunsø, Karen; Crippen, Kaye

    The food-realaed life style instrument developed by the MAPP research group has, up till now, been applied mainly in the context of European cultures. The purpose of the present study is to apply the food-related life style instrument in a new and different cultural setting, to compare results......, and to interpret similarities and differences found. For this purpose, data have been collected in Singaporean families using the food-related life style insrurment. A total of 89 questionnaires form the basis of the analysis. First, the cross-cultural validity of the instrument is tested, and secondly......, in the light of those results, we interpret the results in relationship to local food cultures....

  20. Validation of a computer-adaptive test to evaluate generic health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zardaín Pilar C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is a relevant variable in the evaluation of health outcomes. Questionnaires based on Classical Test Theory typically require a large number of items to evaluate HRQoL. Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT can be used to reduce tests length while maintaining and, in some cases, improving accuracy. This study aimed at validating a CAT based on Item Response Theory (IRT for evaluation of generic HRQoL: the CAT-Health instrument. Methods Cross-sectional study of subjects aged over 18 attending Primary Care Centres for any reason. CAT-Health was administered along with the SF-12 Health Survey. Age, gender and a checklist of chronic conditions were also collected. CAT-Health was evaluated considering: 1 feasibility: completion time and test length; 2 content range coverage, Item Exposure Rate (IER and test precision; and 3 construct validity: differences in the CAT-Health scores according to clinical variables and correlations between both questionnaires. Results 396 subjects answered CAT-Health and SF-12, 67.2% females, mean age (SD 48.6 (17.7 years. 36.9% did not report any chronic condition. Median completion time for CAT-Health was 81 seconds (IQ range = 59-118 and it increased with age (p Conclusions Although domain-specific CATs exist for various areas of HRQoL, CAT-Health is one of the first IRT-based CATs designed to evaluate generic HRQoL and it has proven feasible, valid and efficient, when administered to a broad sample of individuals attending primary care settings.

  1. A comprehensive longitudinal test of the acquired preparedness model for alcohol use and related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, William R; Iwamoto, Derek K; Fromme, Kim

    2011-07-01

    According to the acquired preparedness model (APM), personality traits related to disinhibition (i.e., impulsivity and sensation seeking) may influence the learning process, contributing to individual differences in cognitions (e.g., expectations about outcomes) that may contribute to engagement in and consequences of risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Although there is strong support for the APM, longitudinal studies have involved short-term follow-ups, and the relevance of the APM for alcohol-related consequences has not been clearly established. Participants were 2,245 (59.9% female) incoming freshmen who completed the first of eight web-based surveys during the summer before college matriculation. Structural equation modeling was used to test a comprehensive longitudinal APM for both alcohol use and related consequences. Multigroup models were used to examine measurement and structural invariance by gender. Positive (but not negative) alcohol expectancies during freshman year of college partially mediated the relation between senior year of high school disinhibition and both alcohol use and related problems during the fourth year of college, and multigroup models suggested that the relationships proposed in the APM operated similarly for women and men. This study demonstrates the temporal relations proposed in the APM across a longer period (4 years) than in previous studies among a large sample of ethnically diverse students. Further, the results are the first to validate the APM with respect to drinking consequences while controlling for levels of alcohol use. The results lend support for brief interventions targeting positive alcohol expectancies, particularly for individuals high in trait disinhibition.

  2. Age-related differences in Fukuda stepping and Babinski-Weil tests, within-day variability and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Nicole; Jehu, Deborah A; Lajoie, Yves

    2017-04-01

    The Fukuda stepping and Babinski-Weil tests are associated with unperceived body rotation and linear displacements in young adults, but performance in older adults on these two tests has yet to be determined. The main purpose was to compare the performance and reliability of the Fukuda stepping and Babinski-Weil tests in young and older adults. Fifty older and 50 young adults executed three trials of each test on day 1 (test) and day 2 (retest). Lateral and longitudinal displacements and body rotation relative to the starting position were measured. Means and standard deviations (SD) were compared between the two groups with Mann-Whitney tests. Test-retest reliability was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Foot preference was determined from the score on the Waterloo Footedness Questionnaire and correlated with test scores. Lateral and longitudinal displacements were significantly larger in older than young participants on the Fukuda stepping test (p Babinski-Weil test (p Babinski-Weil test trials (p  .05). Linear displacements, but not body rotation, were different between older and young adults. There was no clear age-related differences in test-retest reliability, but the moderate reliability indicates that performance can vary from day to day in both age groups.

  3. Relating past occupation patterns to (paleo)environmental properties - hypothesis testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeden, Christian; Duwe, Anja; Bösken, Janina; Pipaud, Isabel; Chu, Wei; Hauck, Thomas; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Current archaeological discussions suggest that early human settlement distribution patterns, as preserved by the geological record, may be related to geospatial properties such as altitude, vicinity to water and habitat variability. However, to date, no quantitative analyses have been undertaken to either verify or falsify these hypotheses. In this study, data-driven methods were applied to test these hypotheses, specifically correlation and comparison of dataset variabilities. We compare the standard deviation and range from site altitude (as one example geospatial property) to random draws from an area comprising these sites to make a statement whether settlement distribution is random in altitude or linked to a specific altitudinal belt. This set of methods was applied to a dataset of mid-Upper Paleolithic (Gravettian) settlements from the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands and the Western Carpathians. It was possible to quantitatively and reproducibly demonstrate that settlements are related to a specific altitudinal belt around 200-300 m, as suggested earlier in a qualitative way. The discussed set of methods can be extended by incorporating additional geospatial parameters, potentially allowing comprehensive statements on the influence of these parameters on the distribution of early human settlements. Selecting a reference area used for testing and its (paleo)environmental properties is an important input, and several options are compared.

  4. Emotional Intelligence Relates to Well-Being: Evidence from the Situational Judgment Test of Emotional Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrus, Jeremy; Betancourt, Anthony; Holtzman, Steven; Minsky, Jennifer; MacCann, Carolyn; Roberts, Richard D

    2012-07-01

    This research was conducted to examine whether people high in emotional intelligence (EI) have greater well-being than people low in EI. The Situational Test of Emotion Management, Scales of Psychological Well-being, and Day Reconstruction Method were completed by 131 college students. Responses to the Situational Test of Emotion Management were strongly related to eudaimonic well-being as measured by responses on the Scales of Psychological Well-being (r=.54). Furthermore, the ability to manage emotions was related to hedonic well-being, correlating with both the frequency of experienced positive affect and the frequency of experienced negative affect, as measured by the Day Reconstruction Method. Two aspects of these results suggest a relationship between EI and well-being. First, the observed relationship between ability EI and psychological well-being is the largest reported in the literature to date. Second, this study is the first use of the Day Reconstruction Method to examine the relationship between well-being and EI. Results are discussed in terms of the potential for training emotion management to enhance well-being. Methodological advances for future research are also suggested. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  5. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    . The changes in heart rate, potassium levels, and haematocrit during the exercise test were similar in the two groups. The maximal obtained lactate concentration was 4.2 mmol l-1 (3.5-5.6) in the patients as compared to 4.9 mmol l-1 (3.9-5.9) in the controls (NS). The estimated anaerobic threshold of 2 mmol l......Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal......-1 was reached at a heart rate of 124 min-1 in the patients with fibromyalgia as compared to 140 min-1 in the controls (P = 0.02). In relation to workload, the patients scored higher on a Borg scale for perceived exertion during exercise, but if the Borg score was related to lactate no significant...

  6. Word Memory Test Predicts Recovery in Claimants With Work-Related Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Annette; Abada, Abigail; Haws, Calvin; Park, Joanne; Niemeläinen, Riikka; Gross, Douglas P

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the predictive validity of the Word Memory Test (WMT), a verbal memory neuropsychological test developed as a performance validity measure to assess memory, effort, and performance consistency. Cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Workers' compensation rehabilitation facility. Participants included workers' compensation claimants with work-related head injury (N=188; mean age, 44y; 161 men [85.6%]). Not applicable. Outcome measures for determining predictive validity included days to suspension of wage replacement benefits during the 1-year follow-up and work status at discharge in claimants undergoing rehabilitation. Analysis included multivariable Cox and logistic regression. Better WMT performance was significantly but weakly correlated with younger age (r=-.30), documented brain abnormality (r=.28), and loss of consciousness at the time of injury (r=.25). Claimants with documented brain abnormalities on diagnostic imaging scans performed better (∼9%) on the WMT than those without brain abnormalities. The WMT predicted days receiving benefits (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.24) and work status outcome at program discharge (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.34). Our results provide evidence for the predictive validity of the WMT in workers' compensation claimants. Younger claimants and those with more severe brain injuries performed better on the WMT. It may be that financial incentives or other factors related to the compensation claim affected the performance. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. RELATIVE AND ABSOLUTE RELIABILITY OF KARATE SPECIFIC AEROBIC TEST (KSAT IN EXPERIENCED MALE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Chaabane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the relative and absolute reliability and the minimal detectable change (MDC95% of the karate specific aerobic test (KSAT in male karate athletes. Sixteen subjects (age: 22.2±3.7 years, height: 175.7±6.7 cm, body mass: 72.7±7.2 kg and karate experience: 9.2±4.5 years participated in this study and performed the KSAT twice (test-retest. Reliability of time to exhaustion (TE was very good, with intraclass correlation coefficient ICC(3.1>0.90, standard errors of measurement SEM0.05. Effect size for all variables was dz≤0.2, rated as trivial. Thus, when using the present test as a measure of aerobic fitness, a change greater than 9.4%(81.42 s is necessary to be confident (at the 95% level that the change in time to exhaustion reflects improvement and exceeds the measurement error. The KSAT is a reliable tool that can be used by practitioners for assessing aerobic fitness in experienced karate athletes.

  8. Test of Special Relativity Using a Fiber Network of Optical Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, P.; Lodewyck, J.; Bilicki, S.; Bookjans, E.; Vallet, G.; Le Targat, R.; Pottie, P.-E.; Guerlin, C.; Meynadier, F.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lopez, O.; Amy-Klein, A.; Lee, W.-K.; Quintin, N.; Lisdat, C.; Al-Masoudi, A.; Dörscher, S.; Grebing, C.; Grosche, G.; Kuhl, A.; Raupach, S.; Sterr, U.; Hill, I. R.; Hobson, R.; Bowden, W.; Kronjäger, J.; Marra, G.; Rolland, A.; Baynes, F. N.; Margolis, H. S.; Gill, P.

    2017-06-01

    Phase compensated optical fiber links enable high accuracy atomic clocks separated by thousands of kilometers to be compared with unprecedented statistical resolution. By searching for a daily variation of the frequency difference between four strontium optical lattice clocks in different locations throughout Europe connected by such links, we improve upon previous tests of time dilation predicted by special relativity. We obtain a constraint on the Robertson-Mansouri-Sexl parameter |α |≲1.1 ×10-8, quantifying a violation of time dilation, thus improving by a factor of around 2 the best known constraint obtained with Ives-Stilwell type experiments, and by 2 orders of magnitude the best constraint obtained by comparing atomic clocks. This work is the first of a new generation of tests of fundamental physics using optical clocks and fiber links. As clocks improve, and as fiber links are routinely operated, we expect that the tests initiated in this Letter will improve by orders of magnitude in the near future.

  9. Test of Special Relativity Using a Fiber Network of Optical Clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, P; Lodewyck, J; Bilicki, S; Bookjans, E; Vallet, G; Le Targat, R; Pottie, P-E; Guerlin, C; Meynadier, F; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C; Lopez, O; Amy-Klein, A; Lee, W-K; Quintin, N; Lisdat, C; Al-Masoudi, A; Dörscher, S; Grebing, C; Grosche, G; Kuhl, A; Raupach, S; Sterr, U; Hill, I R; Hobson, R; Bowden, W; Kronjäger, J; Marra, G; Rolland, A; Baynes, F N; Margolis, H S; Gill, P

    2017-06-02

    Phase compensated optical fiber links enable high accuracy atomic clocks separated by thousands of kilometers to be compared with unprecedented statistical resolution. By searching for a daily variation of the frequency difference between four strontium optical lattice clocks in different locations throughout Europe connected by such links, we improve upon previous tests of time dilation predicted by special relativity. We obtain a constraint on the Robertson-Mansouri-Sexl parameter |α|≲1.1×10^{-8}, quantifying a violation of time dilation, thus improving by a factor of around 2 the best known constraint obtained with Ives-Stilwell type experiments, and by 2 orders of magnitude the best constraint obtained by comparing atomic clocks. This work is the first of a new generation of tests of fundamental physics using optical clocks and fiber links. As clocks improve, and as fiber links are routinely operated, we expect that the tests initiated in this Letter will improve by orders of magnitude in the near future.

  10. Comparison of Marketed Cosmetic Products Constituents with the Antigens Included in Cosmetic-related Patch Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Seung Hyun; Choi, You Won; Myung, Ki Bum

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently, cosmetic series (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden) is the most widely used cosmetic-related patch test in Korea. However, no studies have been conducted on how accurately it reflects the constituents of the cosmetics in Korea. Objective We surveyed the constituents of various cosmetics and compare with the cosmetic series, to investigate whether it is accurate in determining allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics sold in Korea. Methods Cosmetics were classified into 11 categories and the survey was conducted on the constituents of 55 cosmetics, with 5 cosmetics in each category. The surveyed constituents were classified by chemical function and compared with the antigens of cosmetic series. Results 155 constituents were found in 55 cosmetics, and 74 (47.7%) of constituents were included as antigen. Among them, only 20 constituents (27.0%) were included in cosmetic series. A significant number of constituents, such as fragrance, vehicle and surfactant were not included. Only 41.7% of antigens in cosmetic series were found to be in the cosmetics sampled. Conclusion The constituents not included in the patch test but possess antigenicity are widely used in cosmetics. Therefore, the patch test should be modified to reflect ingredients in the marketed products that may stimulate allergies. PMID:20711261

  11. Reproducibility and criterion-related validity of the sit and reach test and toe touch test for estimating hamstring flexibility in recreationally active young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, F; Sainz de Baranda, P; De Ste Croix, M; Santonja, F

    2012-11-01

    1) to examine the test-retest reproducibility and criterion-related validity of the sit and reach test (SRT) and the toe touch test (TT) for estimating hamstring flexibility measured through the passive straight leg raise test (PSLR); and 2) to determine whether the SRT cut-off scores may be used for the TT test to identify participants in this sample of young healthy adults as having short hamstring flexibility. Test-retest design. Controlled laboratory environment. 243 active recreationally young adults. Participants performed the SRT, the TT test and PSLR twice in a randomized order with a 4-week interval between trials. Reproducibility was examined using typical percentage error (coefficient of variation [CV]) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as well as their respective confidence limits. Regression and Kappa correlation statistical analyses were performed to study the association of the SRT and TT test with the PSLR test and the 95% limits of agreement (LoA) between SRT and TT test were calculated to explore differences in the mean differences between these measurements. The finding showed acceptable reproducibility measures for SRT (8.74% CV; 0.92 ICC), TT test (9.86% CV; 0.89 ICC) and PSLR (5.46% CV; 0.85 ICC). The SRT (R² = 0.63) and TT test (R² = 0.49) were significantly associated with PSLR. The 95% LoA between SRT and TT test reported systematic bias (2.84 cm) and wide 95% random error (±9.72 cm). Reproducibility of SRT, TT test and PSLR is acceptable and the criterion-related validity of SRT and TT test is moderate. Furthermore, the SRT cut-off scores should not be used for TT test for the detection of short hamstring muscles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Testing the Implicit and Explicit Cognitions Underlying Behavioral Inhibition System-Related Drinking in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Matthew T; O'Connor, Roisin M; Colder, Craig R

    2016-05-01

    There is great interest in the role of the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and the behavioral approach system (BAS) in the etiology of alcohol use because of the strong links of these systems to neuroscience and cognitive models of addiction. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory suggests that the strength of the BIS and BAS jointly influences behavior, so-called the joint systems hypothesis. Yet, relatively little work has examined this hypothesis, particularly with respect to alcohol information processing. Grounded in dual-process theories of alcohol information processing, this study aimed to clarify the roles of implicit (i.e., automatic processes) and explicit (i.e., controlled processes) cognitions in BIS-related drinking. When anxious and presented with an alcohol (vs. neutral) cue, we expected those with an elevated BIS to have increased implicit and explicit alcohol cognitions related to tension reduction, but only at elevated BAS. Shifts in cognitions following cue exposure were expected to positively correlate with alcohol misuse. Students (N = 110) completed baseline measures followed by the Trier Social Stress Test. This was followed by a cue exposure (random assignment to alcohol or water cue), during which participants completed postmood assessments of implicit/explicit alcohol cognitions. Overall, participants' implicit alcohol cognition was negative. The effect of BIS on implicit and explicit cognitions was moderated by BAS; however, results were not as hypothesized. In the alcohol condition only (when controlling for baseline implicit cognition), BIS predicted relatively weak implicit negative alcohol cognition, but only at low BAS. Interestingly, in the alcohol condition only, BIS predicted increased explicit reward (but not relief) expectancies, but only at high BAS. Changes in explicit reward expectancies positively correlated with alcohol misuse. Our results suggest that explicit cognitions may be relevant to drinking among

  13. Assessment of Alcohol-related Memory Deficits: A Comparison between the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test and the California Verbal Learning Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, A.J.; Roelofs, R.L.; Egger, J.I.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Neuropsychological assessment of memory disorders is an important prerequisite in the treatment of patients with alcohol-related cognitive disorders. Although many memory tests are available in clinical practice, a question remains regarding which test is most appropriate for this

  14. Testing the Validity of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure and the Implicit Association Test: Measuring Attitudes toward Dublin and Country Life in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Waldron, Deirdre; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Stewart, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The current study aimed to test the validity of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), as compared to the Implicit Association Test (IAT), by assessing the attitudes of Dublin dwellers and rural dwellers toward Dublin and country life. Discrimination between the two groups for the IAT was marginally significant. The IRAP…

  15. How are lung cancer risk perceptions and cigarette smoking related?-testing an accuracy hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei-Shih; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Tseng, Tung-Sung; Zhao, Shixi

    2016-10-01

    Subjective risk perception is an important theoretical construct in the field of cancer prevention and control. Although the relationship between subjective risk perception and health behaviors has been widely studied in many health contexts, the causalities and associations between the risk perception of developing lung cancer and cigarette smoking have been inconsistently reported among studies. Such inconsistency may be from discrepancies between study designs (cross-sectional versus longitudinal designs) and the three hypotheses (i.e., the behavior motivation hypothesis, the risk reappraisals hypothesis, and the accuracy hypothesis) testing different underlying associations between risk perception and cigarette-smoking behaviors. To clarify this issue, as an initial step, we examined the association between absolute and relative risk perceptions of developing lung cancer and cigarette-smoking behaviors among a large, national representative sample of 1,680 U.S. adults by testing an accuracy hypothesis (i.e., people who smoke accurately perceived a higher risk of developing lung cancer). Data from the U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed using logistic regression and multivariate linear regression to examine the associations between risk perception and cigarette-smoking behaviors among 1,680 U.S. adults. Findings from this cross-sectional survey suggest that absolute and relative risk perceptions were positively and significantly correlated with having smoked >100 cigarettes during lifetime and the frequency of cigarette smoking. Only absolute risk perception was significantly associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day among current smokers. Because both absolute and relative risk perceptions are positively related to most cigarette-smoking behaviors, this study supports the accuracy hypothesis. Moreover, absolute risk perception might be a more sensitive measurement than relative risk perception for perceived lung

  16. Testing General Relativity with the Radio Science Experiment of the BepiColombo mission to Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Giulia; Tommei, Giacomo

    2016-09-01

    The relativity experiment is part of the Mercury Orbiter Radio science Experiment (MORE) on-board the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury. Thanks to very precise radio tracking from the Earth and accelerometer, it will be possible to perform an accurate test of General Relativity, by constraining a number of post-Newtonian and related parameters with an unprecedented level of accuracy. The Celestial Mechanics Group of the University of Pisa developed a new dedicated software, ORBIT14, to perform the simulations and to determine simultaneously all the parameters of interest within a global least squares fit. After highlighting some critical issues, we report on the results of a full set of simulations, carried out in the most up-to-date mission scenario. For each parameter we discuss the achievable accuracy, in terms of a formal analysis through the covariance matrix and, furthermore, by the introduction of an alternative, more representative, estimation of the errors. We show that, for example, an accuracy of some parts in 10^-6 for the Eddington parameter β and of 10^-5 for the Nordtvedt parameter η can be attained, while accuracies at the level of 5×10^-7 and 1×10^-7 can be achieved for the preferred frames parameters α1 and α2, respectively.

  17. Testing General Relativity with the Radio Science Experiment of the BepiColombo mission to Mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Schettino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relativity experiment is part of the Mercury Orbiter Radio science Experiment (MORE on-board the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury. Thanks to very precise radio tracking from the Earth and accelerometer, it will be possible to perform an accurate test of General Relativity, by constraining a number of post-Newtonian and related parameters with an unprecedented level of accuracy. The Celestial Mechanics Group of the University of Pisa developed a new dedicated software, ORBIT14, to perform the simulations and to determine simultaneously all the parameters of interest within a global least squares fit. After highlighting some critical issues, we report on the results of a full set of simulations, carried out in the most up-to-date mission scenario. For each parameter we discuss the achievable accuracy, in terms of a formal analysis through the covariance matrix and, furthermore, by the introduction of an alternative, more representative, estimation of the errors. We show that, for example, an accuracy of some parts in 10 − 6 for the Eddington parameter β and of 10 − 5 for the Nordtvedt parameter η can be attained, while accuracies at the level of 5 × 10 − 7 and 1 × 10 − 7 can be achieved for the preferred frames parameters α 1 and α 2 , respectively.

  18. Measurements of Physical Parameters of White Dwarfs: A Test of the Mass-Radius Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, A.; Bergeron, P.; Fontaine, G.

    2017-10-01

    We present a detailed spectroscopic and photometric analysis of 219 DA and DB white dwarfs for which trigonometric parallax measurements are available. Our aim is to compare the physical parameters derived from the spectroscopic and photometric techniques, and then to test the theoretical mass-radius relation for white dwarfs using these results. The agreement between spectroscopic and photometric parameters is found to be excellent, especially for effective temperatures, showing that our model atmospheres and fitting procedures provide an accurate, internally consistent analysis. The values of surface gravity and solid angle obtained, respectively, from spectroscopy and photometry, are combined with parallax measurements in various ways to study the validity of the mass-radius relation from an empirical point of view. After a thorough examination of our results, we find that 73% and 92% of the white dwarfs are consistent within 1σ and 2σ confidence levels, respectively, with the predictions of the mass-radius relation, thus providing strong support to the theory of stellar degeneracy. Our analysis also allows us to identify 15 stars that are better interpreted in terms of unresolved double degenerate binaries. Atmospheric parameters for both components in these binary systems are obtained using a novel approach. We further identify a few white dwarfs that are possibly composed of an iron core rather than a carbon/oxygen core, since they are consistent with Fe-core evolutionary models.

  19. The Moon as a Laser-ranged Test Body for General Relativity and New Gravitational Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agnello, Simone; Currie, Douglas

    Since the 1970s Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to the Apollo/Lunokhod Cube Corner Retroreflector (CCR) Arrays supplied some of the best tests of General Relativity (GR): possible changes in the gravitational constant, gravitational self-energy (PPN parameter beta), weak equivalence principle, geodetic precession, inverse-square force-law. Secondly, LLR has provided significant information on the composition of the deep interior of the Moon. LLR physics analysis also allows to set constraints on extensions of GR (like spacetime torsion) and, possibly, on new gravitational physics which may explain the gravitational universe without Dark Matter and Dark Energy (like, for example, Non-Minimally Coupled gravity, NMC). LLR is the only Apollo/Lunokhod experiment still in operation, since 45 years. In the 1970s Apollo/Lunokohd LLR Arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the ranging error budget. Since the ranging capabilities of ground stations improved by more than two orders of magnitude, now, because of the lunar librations, Apollo/Lunokhod CCR arrays dominate the error budget. With the US/Italy project "LLRRA21/MoonLIGHT (Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector Array for the 21st century / Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity High accuracy Tests)", University of Maryland and INFN-LNF developed and tested a next-generation LLR payload made by a single, large CCR (100 mm diameter), unaffected by the effect of librations. In fact, we will show that MoonLIGHT reflectors will improve the LLR accuracy by a factor of ten to one hundred in a few years. INFN-LNF also developed a laser retroreflector micropayload to be deployed on the lunar surface to be laser-ranged by lunar orbiters. The latter micropayload will further extend the physics reach of Apollo, Lunokhod and MoonLIGHT CCRs to improve all precision tests of GR and new gravitational physics using LLR data. As an added value for the LRR and SLR (Satellite Laser ranging) disciplines INFN-LNF built and is

  20. Is low IQ related to risk of death by homicide? Testing an hypothesis using data from a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, George David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Gale, Catharine R

    2008-01-01

    Lower IQ test scores are related to an increased risk of violent assault. We tested the relation between IQ and death by homicide. In a prospective cohort study of 14,537 men (21 homicides), the association between lower IQ and an increased risk of homicide was lost after multiple adjustment....

  1. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  2. Disentangling the Attention Network Test: Behavioral, Event Related Potentials and neural source analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro eGalvao-Carmona

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study of the attentional system remains a challenge for current neuroscience. The Attention Network Test (ANT was designed to study simultaneously three different attentional networks (alerting, orienting and executive based in subtraction of different experimental conditions. However, some studies recommend caution with these calculations due to the interactions between the attentional networks. In particular, it is highly relevant that several interpretations about attentional impairment have arisen from these calculations in diverse pathologies. Event Related Potentials (ERPs and neural source analysis can be applied to disentangle the relationships between these attentional networks not specifically shown by behavioural measures. Results. This study shows that there is a basic level of alerting (tonic alerting in the no cue condition, represented by a slow negative trend in the ERP trace prior to the onset of the target stimuli. A progressive increase in the CNV amplitude related to the amount of information provided by the cue conditions is also shown. Neural source analysis reveals specific modulations of the CNV related to a task-related expectancy presented in the no cue condition; a late modulation triggered by the central cue condition and probably representing a generic motor preparation; and an early and late modulation for spatial cue condition suggesting specific motor and sensory preactivation. Finally, the first component in the information processing of the target stimuli modulated by the interaction between orienting network and the executive system can be represented by N1. Conclusions. The ANT is useful as a paradigm to study specific attentional mechanisms and their interactions. However, calculation of network effects is based in subtractions with non-comparable experimental conditions, as evidenced by the present data, which can induce misinterpretations in the study of the attentional capacity in human

  3. Internal quality control practice of thyroid disease related tests and imprecision analysis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Tao; Wang, Zhi-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Internal quality control (IQC) has a long and well-established role in clinical laboratories and the quality of laboratories has achieved great improvement in China. However, the practice of IQC varies significantly between institutions and many problems still exists. Consequently, the Chinese National Center for Clinical Laboratories has been undertaking monthly nation-wide surveys of current IQC practice of tests since 2010 to monitor laboratory quality. Thyroid disease related tests were chosen for this research. Different numbers of laboratories in China participating national external quality assessment (EQA) schemes of Total Thyroxine (TT4), Total Triiodothyronine (TT3), Free Thyroxine (FT4) and Free Triiodothyronine (FT3) tests, and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) measurements, were required to report the IQC information though the national external quality assessment (EQA) network platform. Survey data showed significant variability in all aspects of IQC practice. More than half of the laboratories are using a single concentration level of IQC material and up to 28.6% of the laboratories only use 1(2s) or 1(3s) to monitor IQC results for FT3, TT3, FT4, TT4, and TSH. The medians of the average time intervals of two control tests for FT3, TT3, FT4, TT4, and TSH are 33.6, 35.4, 33.6, 35.4, and 33.6 hours, respectively, more or less 1.4 days. When quality specifications based on biological variation are applied to imprecision evaluation, only 46.3%, 52.1%, 31.3%, 12.8%, and 5.86% laboratories meet the minimum performance for FT3, TT3, FT4, and TT4, 24.5%, 23.6%, 12.8%, and 5.86% of the all meet the desirable performance, and 4.4%, 3.9%, 2.5% and 3.0% of the all meet the optimal performance. While it shows a higher percentage of acceptable laboratories (98.1%, 87.9% and 39.0% meeting the minimum, desirable and optimal performance, respectively) for TSH. Not-well-designed IQC practices may affect the effectiveness of laboratory IQC and, thus, the adequacy of a

  4. Baseline neurocognitive testing in sports-related concussions: the importance of a prior night's sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, D Jake; Zuckerman, Scott L; Kutscher, Scott J; Gregory, Andrew J; Solomon, Gary S

    2014-02-01

    The management of sports-related concussions (SRCs) utilizes serial neurocognitive assessments and self-reported symptom inventories to assess recovery and safety for return to play (RTP). Because postconcussive RTP goals include symptom resolution and a return to neurocognitive baseline levels, clinical decisions rest in part on understanding modifiers of this baseline. Several studies have reported age and sex to influence baseline neurocognitive performance, but few have assessed the potential effect of sleep. We chose to investigate the effect of reported sleep duration on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) performance and the number of patient-reported symptoms. We hypothesized that athletes receiving less sleep before baseline testing would perform worse on neurocognitive metrics and report more symptoms. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. We retrospectively reviewed 3686 nonconcussed athletes (2371 male, 1315 female; 3305 high school, 381 college) with baseline symptom and ImPACT neurocognitive scores. Patients were stratified into 3 groups based on self-reported sleep duration the night before testing: (1) short, MANCOVA) with an α level of .05 was used to assess the influence of sleep duration on baseline ImPACT performance. A univariate ANCOVA was performed to investigate the influence of sleep on total self-reported symptoms. When controlling for age and sex as covariates, the MANCOVA revealed significant group differences on ImPACT reaction time, verbal memory, and visual memory scores but not visual-motor (processing) speed scores. An ANCOVA also revealed significant group differences in total reported symptoms. For baseline symptoms and ImPACT scores, subsequent pairwise comparisons revealed these associations to be most significant when comparing the short and intermediate sleep groups. Our results indicate that athletes sleeping fewer than 7 hours before baseline testing perform worse on 3 of 4 Im

  5. Comparing Test Scores Using Information From Criterion-Related Validity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujean, A Alexander; McGlaughlin, Sean M

    2016-01-01

    There is frequently a need to compare a client's test scores from different instruments. If the scores come from instruments that use the same scale, it is tempting to compare the scores directly. Unfortunately, this method can lead clinicians to believe that there is a large difference between scores when the difference is minimal. As an alternative, we outline a method for score comparison that uses information from criterion-related validity studies. Using three examples, we show why this method is more psychometrically sound, produces more accurate comparison scores, and requires little extra work for clinicians than the direct comparison approach. To make the score comparison process easy for clinicians to use, we include an appendix that demonstrates how to implement this method in Microsoft Excel and the free R program.

  6. Testing General Relativity with Stellar Orbits around the Supermassive Black Hole in Our Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hees, A.; Do, T.; Ghez, A. M.; Martinez, G. D.; Naoz, S.; Becklin, E. E.; Boehle, A.; Chappell, S.; Chu, D.; Dehghanfar, A.; Kosmo, K.; Lu, J. R.; Matthews, K.; Morris, M. R.; Sakai, S.; Schödel, R.; Witzel, G.

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate that short-period stars orbiting around the supermassive black hole in our Galactic center can successfully be used to probe the gravitational theory in a strong regime. We use 19 years of observations of the two best measured short-period stars orbiting our Galactic center to constrain a hypothetical fifth force that arises in various scenarios motivated by the development of a unification theory or in some models of dark matter and dark energy. No deviation from general relativity is reported and the fifth force strength is restricted to an upper 95% confidence limit of |α | confidence upper limit on a linear drift of the argument of periastron of the short-period star S0-2 of |ω˙ S0-2| self-consistent test of the gravitational theory using orbital dynamic in a strong gravitational regime, that of a supermassive black hole. A sensitivity analysis for future measurements is also presented.

  7. Internal consistency of the object relations and social cognition scales for the Thematic Apperception Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, S; Mitchell, D; Porcerelli, J

    2001-12-01

    We examined 8 data sets to determine whether it is possible to attain acceptable levels of internal consistency (coefficient alpha) reliability for the 4 Object Relations and Social Cognition scales (ORSC; Westen, Lohr, Silk, Kerber, & Goodrich, 1989) for the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) when cards are considered as items in a scale. Number of cards used in the data sets ranged from 4 to 10, and the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula was applied to estimate the number of cards that would be required to attain alpha levels of different magnitudes. The two more structural subscales (Complexity of Representations and Understanding of Social Causality) have somewhat higher consistencies than the two more affective ones (Affect Tone and Capacity for Emotional Investment and Moral Standards). The results suggest that the use of 10 to 12 cards provides internal consistencies of alpha > or = .70 across each of the 4 ORSC scales.

  8. Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Gravity Probe B: final results of a space experiment to test general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, C W F; DeBra, D B; Parkinson, B W; Turneaure, J P; Conklin, J W; Heifetz, M I; Keiser, G M; Silbergleit, A S; Holmes, T; Kolodziejczak, J; Al-Meshari, M; Mester, J C; Muhlfelder, B; Solomonik, V G; Stahl, K; Worden, P W; Bencze, W; Buchman, S; Clarke, B; Al-Jadaan, A; Al-Jibreen, H; Li, J; Lipa, J A; Lockhart, J M; Al-Suwaidan, B; Taber, M; Wang, S

    2011-06-03

    Gravity Probe B, launched 20 April 2004, is a space experiment testing two fundamental predictions of Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR), the geodetic and frame-dragging effects, by means of cryogenic gyroscopes in Earth orbit. Data collection started 28 August 2004 and ended 14 August 2005. Analysis of the data from all four gyroscopes results in a geodetic drift rate of -6601.8±18.3  mas/yr and a frame-dragging drift rate of -37.2±7.2  mas/yr, to be compared with the GR predictions of -6606.1  mas/yr and -39.2  mas/yr, respectively ("mas" is milliarcsecond; 1  mas=4.848×10(-9)  rad).

  10. Reliability and criterion-related validity of the 20-yard shuttle test in competitive junior tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Anna; Johansson, Fredrik R; Bäck, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study adds to the previous work in the field of sport-specific fitness testing by evaluating a tennis-specific agility test called "the 20-yard shuttle test". The aim of the study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability, the inter-rater reliability, and the criterion-related validity of the 20-yard shuttle test on competitive junior tennis players. Totally, 34 Swedish tennis players (13 girls), mean age 14±1.6 years, participated in the study. To examine test-retest reliability, the subjects performed the 20-yard shuttle test three times on the same day and then the same procedure was repeated after 3 days. To test the inter-rater reliability, the time was measured with a stopwatch simultaneously by two different raters. The time recorded manually was compared to the gold standard of digital timing to evaluate the criterion-related validity. Excellent test-retest reliability was found both within the same day (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.95) and between days (ICC 0.91). Furthermore, the results showed excellent inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.99) and criterion-related validity on both test occasions (ICC 0.99). We have provided introductory support for the 20-yard shuttle test as a reliable and valid test for use in competitive junior tennis players. The ease of administration makes this test a practical alternative to evaluate physical fitness in order to optimally train the athletes.

  11. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-10-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

  12. Higher emotional intelligence is related to lower test anxiety among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadpanah M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Ahmadpanah,1 Mohammadreza Keshavarz,1 Mohammad Haghighi,1 Leila Jahangard,1 Hafez Bajoghli,2 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,4 1Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 2Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 4Department of Sport, Exercise and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: For students attending university courses, experiencing test anxiety (TA dramatically impairs cognitive performance and success at exams. Whereas TA is a specific case of social phobia, emotional intelligence (EI is an umbrella term covering interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, along with positive stress management, adaptability, and mood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that higher EI and lower TA are associated. Further, sex differences were explored.Method: During an exam week, a total of 200 university students completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, TA, and EI.Results: Higher scores on EI traits were associated with lower TA scores. Relative to male participants, female participants reported higher TA scores, but not EI scores. Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and mood predicted low TA, while sex, stress management, and adaptability were excluded from the equation.Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that efforts to improve intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, and mood might benefit students with high TA. Specifically, social commitment might counteract TA. Keywords: test anxiety, emotional intelligence, students, interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills

  13. Feedback-related brain activity predicts learning from feedback in multiple-choice testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Benjamin; Steinhauser, Marco

    2012-06-01

    Different event-related potentials (ERPs) have been shown to correlate with learning from feedback in decision-making tasks and with learning in explicit memory tasks. In the present study, we investigated which ERPs predict learning from corrective feedback in a multiple-choice test, which combines elements from both paradigms. Participants worked through sets of multiple-choice items of a Swahili-German vocabulary task. Whereas the initial presentation of an item required the participants to guess the answer, corrective feedback could be used to learn the correct response. Initial analyses revealed that corrective feedback elicited components related to reinforcement learning (FRN), as well as to explicit memory processing (P300) and attention (early frontal positivity). However, only the P300 and early frontal positivity were positively correlated with successful learning from corrective feedback, whereas the FRN was even larger when learning failed. These results suggest that learning from corrective feedback crucially relies on explicit memory processing and attentional orienting to corrective feedback, rather than on reinforcement learning.

  14. Testing the distance duality relation using Type Ia supernovae and ultracompact radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Lin, Hai-Nan

    2018-02-01

    We test the possible deviation of the cosmic distance duality relation $D_A(z)(1+z)^2/D_L(z)\\equiv 1$ using the standard candles/rulers in a fully model-independent manner. Type-Ia supernovae are used as the standard candles to derive the luminosity distance $D_L(z)$, and ultra-compact radio sources are used as the standard rulers to obtain the angular diameter distance $D_A(z)$. We write the deviation of distance duality relation as $D_A(z)(1+z)^2/D_L(z)=\\eta(z)$. Specifically, we use two parameterizations of $\\eta(z)$, i.e. $\\eta_1(z)=1+\\eta_0 z$ and $\\eta_2(z)=1+\\eta_0 z/(1+z)$. The parameter $\\eta_0$ is obtained using the Markov chain Monte Carlo methods by comparing $D_L(z)$ and $D_A(z)$ at the same redshift. The best-fitting results are $\\eta_0=-0.06\\pm 0.05$ and $-0.18\\pm 0.16$ for the first and second parameterizations, respectively. Our results depend on neither the cosmological models, nor the matter contents or the curvature of the universe.

  15. Testing and ground calibration of DREAMS-H relative humidity device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzer, Maria; Hieta, Maria; Nikkanen, Timo; Schmidt, Walter; Kemppinen, Osku; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    DREAMS (Dust Characterization, Risk Assessment and Environmental Analyzer on the Martian Surface) instrument suite is to be launched as part of the ESA ExoMars 2016/Schiaparelli lander. DREAMS consists of an environmental package for monitoring temperature, pressure, relative humidity, winds and dust opacity, as well as atmospheric electricity of Martian atmosphere. The DREAMS instruments and scientific goals are described in [1]. Here we describe testing and ground calibration of the relative humidity device, DREAMS-H, provided to the DREAMS payload by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and based on proprietary technology of Vaisala, Inc. The same kind of device is part of the REMS instrument package onboard MSL Curiosity Rover [2][3]. DREAMS-H is based on Vaisala Humicap® technology adapted for use in Martian environment by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The device is very small and lightweighed, with total mass less than 20 g and consuming only 15 mW of power. The Humicap® sensor heads contain an active polymer film that changes its capacitance as function of relative humidity, with 0% to 100% RH measurement range. The dynamic range of the device gets smaller with sensor temperature, being in -70°C approximately 30% of the dynamic range in 0°C [3]. Good-quality relative humidity measurements require knowing the temperature of the environment in which relative humidity is measured. An important part of DREAMS-H calibration was temperature calibration of Vaisala Thermocap® temperature sensors used for housekeeping temperature measurements of the DREAMS-H device. For this, several temperature points in the desired operational range were measured with 0.1°C accuracy traceable to national standards. The main part of humidity calibration of DREAMS-H flight models was done in subzero temperatures in a humidity generator of the Finnish Center of Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES). Several relative humidity points ranging from almost dry to almost wet

  16. Testing the Adaptation to Poverty-Related Stress Model: Predicting Psychopathology Symptoms in Families Facing Economic Hardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Raviv, Tali; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Etter, Erica M.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the Adaptation to Poverty-related Stress Model and its proposed relations between poverty-related stress, effortful and involuntary stress responses, and symptoms of psychopathology in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income children and their parents. Prospective Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses conducted with 98…

  17. [Comparison of Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter (PHP) test and Amsler grid test in the diagnosis of different stages of age-related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeier, J; Zorn, M M; Lang, G K; Botros, Y T; Lang, G E

    2006-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years of age. A rapid loss of vision occurs especially in cases with choroidal neovascularisation. Early detection of ARMD and timely treatment are mandatory. We have prospectively studied the results of two diagnostic self tests for the early detection of metamorphopsia and scotoma, the PHP test and the Amsler grid test, in different stages of ARMD. Patients with ARMD and best corrected visual acuity of 6/30 or better (Snellen charts) were examined with a standardised protocol, including supervised Amsler grid examination and PHP, a new device for metamorphopsia or scotoma measurement, based on the hyperacuity phenomenon in the central 14 degrees of the visual field. The stages of ARMD were independently graded in a masked fashion by stereoscopic ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic fundus colour photographs, fluorescein angiography, and OCT. The patients were subdivided into 3 non-neovascular groups [early, late (RPE atrophy > 175 microm) and geographic atrophy], a neovascular group (classic and occult CNV) and an age-matched control group (healthy volunteers). 140 patients, with ages ranging from 50 to 90 years (median 68 years), were included in the study. Best corrected visual acuity ranged from 6/30 to 6/6 with a median of 6/12. 95 patients were diagnosed as non-neovascular ARMD. Thirty eyes had early ARMD (9 were tested positive by the PHP test and 9 by the Amsler grid test), and 50 late ARMD (positive: PHP test 23, Amsler grid test 26). The group with geographic atrophy consisted of 15 eyes (positive: PHP test 13, Amsler grid test 10). Forty-five patients presented with neovascular ARMD (positive: PHP test 38, Amsler grid test 36), 34 volunteers served as control group (positive: PHP test 1, Amsler grid test 5). The PHP and Amsler grid tests revealed comparable results detecting metamorphopsia and scotoma in early ARMD (30 vs. 30 %) and late ARMD (46 vs. 52 %). However, the

  18. A Computational Tool for Testing Dose-related Trend Using an Age-adjusted Bootstrap-based Poly-k Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin Moon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A computational tool for testing for a dose-related trend and/or a pairwise difference in the incidence of an occult tumor via an age-adjusted bootstrap-based poly-k test and the original poly-k test is presented in this paper. The poly-k test (Bailer and Portier 1988 is a survival-adjusted Cochran-Armitage test, which achieves robustness to effects of differential mortality across dose groups. The original poly-k test is asymptotically standard normal under the null hypothesis. However, the asymptotic normality is not valid if there is a deviation from the tumor onset distribution that is assumed in this test. Our age-adjusted bootstrap-based poly-k test assesses the significance of assumed asymptotic normal tests and investigates an empirical distribution of the original poly-k test statistic using an age-adjusted bootstrap method. A tumor of interest is an occult tumor for which the time to onset is not directly observable. Since most of the animal carcinogenicity studies are designed with a single terminal sacrifice, the present tool is applicable to rodent tumorigenicity assays that have a single terminal sacrifice. The present tool takes input information simply from a user screen and reports testing results back to the screen through a user-interface. The computational tool is implemented in C/C++ and is applied to analyze a real data set as an example. Our tool enables the FDA and the pharmaceutical industry to implement a statistical analysis of tumorigenicity data from animal bioassays via our age-adjusted bootstrap-based poly-k test and the original poly-k test which has been adopted by the National Toxicology Program as its standard statistical test.

  19. When is Genomic Testing Cost-Effective? Testing for Lynch Syndrome in Patients with Newly-Diagnosed Colorectal Cancer and Their Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Grosse

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Varying estimates of the cost-effectiveness of genomic testing applications can reflect differences in study questions, settings, methods and assumptions. This review compares recently published cost-effectiveness analyses of testing strategies for Lynch Syndrome (LS in tumors from patients newly diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC for either all adult patients or patients up to age 70 along with cascade testing of relatives of probands. Seven studies published from 2010 through 2015 were identified and summarized. Five studies analyzed the universal offer of testing to adult patients with CRC and two others analyzed testing patients up to age 70; all except one reported incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs < $ 100,000 per life-year or quality-adjusted life-year gained. Three studies found lower ICERs for selective testing strategies using family history-based predictive models compared with universal testing. However, those calculations were based on estimates of sensitivity of predictive models derived from research studies, and it is unclear how sensitive such models are in routine clinical practice. Key model parameters that are influential in ICER estimates included 1 the number of first-degree relatives tested per proband identified with LS and 2 the cost of gene sequencing. Others include the frequency of intensive colonoscopic surveillance, the cost of colonoscopy, and the inclusion of extracolonic surveillance and prevention options.

  20. Proportion of adults fasting for lipid testing relative to guideline changes in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Irene; Viczko, Jeannine; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Guidelines have historically recommended measuring lipid profile tests in a fasting state. However, in April 2011 and 2014, the Canadian city of Calgary and its province of Alberta, respectively, have changed their lipid guidelines to allow testing for individuals in any fasting state; several years prior to the release of the 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society and Hypertension Canada guidelines. The purpose of this study was to document the proportion of individuals in Calgary who fasted for a lipid encounter in relation to the change in various guidelines and policies. Counts were collected each month per gender from January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2016 for community-based adults ≥18years old who fasted (≥8h) or did not fast (fasting state. The proportion of adults who fasted declined from 98.59%±0.379% (mean±SD) in 2010 to 41.65%±1.295% (mean±SD) in 2016. However, a marked decline in the proportion of adults fasting for a lipid encounter was not observed until February 2015, which coincided with the release of Alberta's Toward Optimized Practice Clinical Practice Guidelines. This documentation of individuals fasting for a lipid encounter may assist other jurisdictions in Canada with the new nonfasting lipid guideline changes. We recommend releasing provincial clinical practice guidelines, in addition to laboratory bulletins and continuing medical education presentations, regarding the new nonfasting lipid recommendations in other jurisdictions to ensure community patients are aware of this change. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devine Amy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematics anxiety (MA, a state of discomfort associated with performing mathematical tasks, is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population. Some research has indicated that MA negatively affects mathematics performance and that girls may report higher levels of MA than boys. On the other hand some research has indicated that boys’ mathematics performance is more negatively affected by MA than girls’ performance is. The aim of the current study was to measure girls’ and boys’ mathematics performance as well as their levels of MA while controlling for test anxiety (TA a construct related to MA but which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Methods Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires. Results No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys. Girls and boys showed a positive correlation between MA and TA and a negative correlation between MA and mathematics performance. TA was also negatively correlated with mathematics performance, but this relationship was stronger for girls than for boys. When controlling for TA, the negative correlation between MA and performance remained for girls only. Regression analyses revealed that MA was a significant predictor of performance for girls but not for boys. Conclusions Our study has revealed that secondary school children experience MA. Importantly, we controlled for TA which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Girls showed higher levels of MA than boys and high levels of MA were related to poorer levels of mathematics performance. As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on ‘online’ mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education

  2. Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Mathematics anxiety (MA), a state of discomfort associated with performing mathematical tasks, is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population. Some research has indicated that MA negatively affects mathematics performance and that girls may report higher levels of MA than boys. On the other hand some research has indicated that boys’ mathematics performance is more negatively affected by MA than girls’ performance is. The aim of the current study was to measure girls’ and boys’ mathematics performance as well as their levels of MA while controlling for test anxiety (TA) a construct related to MA but which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Methods Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires. Results No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys. Girls and boys showed a positive correlation between MA and TA and a negative correlation between MA and mathematics performance. TA was also negatively correlated with mathematics performance, but this relationship was stronger for girls than for boys. When controlling for TA, the negative correlation between MA and performance remained for girls only. Regression analyses revealed that MA was a significant predictor of performance for girls but not for boys. Conclusions Our study has revealed that secondary school children experience MA. Importantly, we controlled for TA which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Girls showed higher levels of MA than boys and high levels of MA were related to poorer levels of mathematics performance. As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on ‘online’ mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education. Therefore MA warrants attention in

  3. Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Amy; Fawcett, Kayleigh; Szűcs, Dénes; Dowker, Ann

    2012-07-09

    Mathematics anxiety (MA), a state of discomfort associated with performing mathematical tasks, is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population. Some research has indicated that MA negatively affects mathematics performance and that girls may report higher levels of MA than boys. On the other hand some research has indicated that boys' mathematics performance is more negatively affected by MA than girls' performance is. The aim of the current study was to measure girls' and boys' mathematics performance as well as their levels of MA while controlling for test anxiety (TA) a construct related to MA but which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires. No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys. Girls and boys showed a positive correlation between MA and TA and a negative correlation between MA and mathematics performance. TA was also negatively correlated with mathematics performance, but this relationship was stronger for girls than for boys. When controlling for TA, the negative correlation between MA and performance remained for girls only. Regression analyses revealed that MA was a significant predictor of performance for girls but not for boys. Our study has revealed that secondary school children experience MA. Importantly, we controlled for TA which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Girls showed higher levels of MA than boys and high levels of MA were related to poorer levels of mathematics performance. As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on 'online' mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education. Therefore MA warrants attention in the mathematics classroom, particularly because

  4. Testing and comparing two self-care-related instruments among older Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Guo

    Full Text Available The study aimed to test and compare the reliability and validity, including sensitivity and specificity of the two self-care-related instruments, the Self-care Ability Scale for the Elderly (SASE, and the Appraisal of Self-care Agency Scale-Revised (ASAS-R, among older adults in the Chinese context.A cross-sectional design was used to conduct this study. The sample consisted of 1152 older adults. Data were collected by a questionnaire including the Chinese version of SASE (SASE-CHI, the Chinese version of ASAS-R (ASAS-R-CHI and the Exercise of Self-Care Agency scale (ESCA. Homogeneity and stability, content, construct and concurrent validity, and sensitivity and specificity were assessed.The Cronbach's alpha (α of SASE-CHI was 0.89, the item-to-total correlations ranged from r = 0.15 to r = 0.81, and the test-retest correlation coefficient (intra-class correlation coefficient, ICC was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.99-1.00; P<0.001. The Cronbach's α of ASAS-R-CHI was 0.78, the item-to-total correlations ranged from r = 0.20 to r = 0.65, and the test-retest ICC was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.92-0.96; P<0.001. The content validity index (CVI of SASE-CHI and ASAS-R-CHI was 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. The findings of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA confirmed a good construct validity of SASE-CHI and ASAS-R-CHI. The Pearson's rank correlation coefficients, as a measure of concurrent validity, between total score of SASE-CHI and ESCA and ASAS-R-CHI and ESCA were assessed to 0.65 (P<0.001 and 0.62 (P<0.001, respectively. Regarding ESCA as the criterion, the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve for the cut-point of SASE-CHI and ASAS-R-CHI were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.91-0.94 and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80-0.86, respectively.There is no significant difference between the two instruments. Each has its own characteristics, but SASE-CHI is more suitable for older adults. The key point is that the users can choose the most appropriate scale

  5. Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r) between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measures. Then, from the included studies, the Hunter- Schmidt´s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate population criterion- related validity of sit-and-reach tests. Firstly, the corrected correlation mean (rp), unaffected by statistical artefacts (i.e., sampling error and measurement error), was calculated separately for each sit-and-reach test. Subsequently, the three potential moderator variables (sex of participants, age of participants, and level of hamstring extensibility) were examined by a partially hierarchical analysis. Of the 34 studies included in the present meta-analysis, 99 correlations values across eight sit-and-reach tests and 51 across seven sit-and-reach tests were retrieved for hamstring and lumbar extensibility, respectively. The overall results showed that all sit-and-reach tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (rp = 0.46-0.67), but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility (rp = 0. 16-0.35). Generally, females, adults and participants with high levels of hamstring extensibility tended to have greater mean values of criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility. When the use of angular tests is limited such as in a school setting or in large scale studies, scientists and practitioners could use the sit-and-reach tests as a useful alternative for hamstring extensibility estimation, but not for estimating lumbar extensibility. Key PointsOverall sit

  6. Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r) between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measures. Then, from the included studies, the Hunter- Schmidt´s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate population criterion- related validity of sit-and-reach tests. Firstly, the corrected correlation mean (rp), unaffected by statistical artefacts (i.e., sampling error and measurement error), was calculated separately for each sit-and-reach test. Subsequently, the three potential moderator variables (sex of participants, age of participants, and level of hamstring extensibility) were examined by a partially hierarchical analysis. Of the 34 studies included in the present meta-analysis, 99 correlations values across eight sit-and-reach tests and 51 across seven sit-and-reach tests were retrieved for hamstring and lumbar extensibility, respectively. The overall results showed that all sit-and-reach tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (rp = 0.46-0.67), but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility (rp = 0. 16-0.35). Generally, females, adults and participants with high levels of hamstring extensibility tended to have greater mean values of criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility. When the use of angular tests is limited such as in a school setting or in large scale studies, scientists and practitioners could use the sit-and-reach tests as a useful alternative for hamstring extensibility estimation, but not for estimating lumbar extensibility. Key Points Overall sit

  7. Testing the validity of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure and the Implicit Association Test: Measuring attitudes toward Dublin and country life in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Waldron, Deirdre; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    The current study aimed to test the validity of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), as compared to the Implicit Association Test (IAT), by assessing the attitudes of Dublin dwellers and rural dwellers toward Dublin and country life. Discrimination between the two groups for the IAT was marginally significant. The IRAP discriminated significantly between the two groups based on an interaction effect, which showed that rural dwellers had a strong bias toward country life but Du...

  8. Dynamic hyporheic exchange at intermediate timescales: Testing the relative importance of evapotranspiration and flood pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson W.; Maglio, Morgan M.

    2014-01-01

    Hyporheic fluxes influence ecological processes across a continuum of timescales. However, few studies have been able to characterize hyporheic fluxes and residence time distributions (RTDs) over timescales of days to years, during which evapotranspiration (ET) and seasonal flood pulses create unsteady forcing. Here we present a data-driven, particle-tracking piston model that characterizes hyporheic fluxes and RTDs based on measured vertical head differences. We used the model to test the relative influence of ET and seasonal flood pulses in the Everglades (FL, USA), in a manner applicable to other low-energy floodplains or broad, shallow streams. We found that over the multiyear timescale, flood pulses that drive relatively deep (˜1 m) flow paths had the dominant influence on hyporheic fluxes and residence times but that ET effects were discernible at shorter timescales (weeks to months) as a break in RTDs. Cumulative RTDs on either side of the break were generally well represented by lognormal functions, except for when ET was strong and none of the standard distributions applied to the shorter timescale. At the monthly timescale, ET increased hyporheic fluxes by 1-2 orders of magnitude; it also decreased 6 year mean residence times by 53-87%. Long, slow flow paths driven by flood pulses increased 6 year hyporheic fluxes by another 1-2 orders of magnitude, to a level comparable to that induced over the short term by shear flow in streams. Results suggest that models of intermediate-timescale processes should include at least two-storage zones with different RTDs, and that supporting field data collection occur over 3-4 years.

  9. Tinetti mobility test is related to muscle mass and strength in non-institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Francesco; Basile, Claudia; Liguori, Ilaria; Della-Morte, David; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Galizia, Gianluigi; Testa, Gianluca; Langellotto, Assunta; Cacciatore, Francesco; Bonaduce, Domenico; Abete, Pasquale

    2016-12-01

    Elderly people are characterized by a high prevalence of falls and sarcopenia. However, the relationship among Tinetti mobility test (TMT) score, a powerful tool to detect elderly people at risk of falls, and sarcopenia is still not thoroughly investigated. Thus, to determine the relationship between TMT score and muscle mass and strength, 337 elderly participants (mean age 77.1 ± 6.9 years) admitted to comprehensive geriatric assessment were enrolled. TMT score, muscle mass by bioimpedentiometer, and muscle strength by grip strength were evaluated. Muscle mass progressively decreased as TMT score decreased (from 15.3 ± 3.7 to 8.8 ± 1.8 kg/m2; p for trend Tinetti score decreased (from 34.7 ± 8.0 to 23.7 ± 8.7 kg; p for trend 0.001). Linear regression analysis demonstrated that TMT score is linearly related with muscle mass (y = 4.5x + 0.4, r = 0.61; p < 0.01) and strength (y = 14.0x + 0.8, r = 0.53; p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis confirms the strong relationship between the TMT score and muscle mass (r = 0.48, p = 0.024) and strength (r = 0.39, p = 0.046). The present study indicates that TMT score is significantly related to muscle mass and strength in non-institutionalized elderly participants. This evidence suggests that TMT score, together with evaluation of muscle mass and strength, may identify sarcopenic elderly participants at high risk of falls.

  10. Dynamic hyporheic exchange at intermediate timescales: testing the relative importance of evapotranspiration and flood pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson W.; Maglio, Morgan M.

    2014-01-01

    Hyporheic fluxes influence ecological processes across a continuum of timescales. However, few studies have been able to characterize hyporheic fluxes and residence time distributions (RTDs) over timescales of days to years, during which evapotranspiration (ET) and seasonal flood pulses create unsteady forcing. Here we present a data-driven, particle-tracking piston model that characterizes hyporheic fluxes and RTDs based on measured vertical head differences. We used the model to test the relative influence of ET and seasonal flood pulses in the Everglades (FL, USA), in a manner applicable to other low-energy floodplains or broad, shallow streams. We found that over the multiyear timescale, flood pulses that drive relatively deep (∼1 m) flow paths had the dominant influence on hyporheic fluxes and residence times but that ET effects were discernible at shorter timescales (weeks to months) as a break in RTDs. Cumulative RTDs on either side of the break were generally well represented by lognormal functions, except for when ET was strong and none of the standard distributions applied to the shorter timescale. At the monthly timescale, ET increased hyporheic fluxes by 1–2 orders of magnitude; it also decreased 6 year mean residence times by 53–87%. Long, slow flow paths driven by flood pulses increased 6 year hyporheic fluxes by another 1–2 orders of magnitude, to a level comparable to that induced over the short term by shear flow in streams. Results suggest that models of intermediate-timescale processes should include at least two-storage zones with different RTDs, and that supporting field data collection occur over 3–4 years.

  11. Transferability of Data Related to the Underground Test Area Project, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2004-06-24

    This document is the collaborative effort of the members of an ad hoc subcommittee of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Technical Working Group (TWG). The UGTA Project relies on data from a variety of sources; therefore, a process is needed to identify relevant factors for determining whether material-property data collected from other areas can be used to support groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and other models within a Corrective Action Unit (CAU), and for documenting the data transfer decision and process. This document describes the overall data transfer process. Separate Parameter Descriptions will be prepared that provide information for selected specific parameters as determined by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) UGTA Project Manager. This document and its accompanying appendices do not provide the specific criteria to be used for transfer of data for specific uses. Rather, the criteria will be established by separate parameter-specific and model-specific Data Transfer Protocols. The CAU Data Documentation Packages and data analysis reports will apply the protocols and provide or reference a document with the data transfer evaluations and decisions.

  12. Test-retest reliability, criterion-related validity, and minimal detectable change of the Illinois agility test in male team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachana, Younes; Chaabène, Helmi; Nabli, Mohamed A; Attia, Ahmed; Moualhi, Jamel; Farhat, Najiba; Elloumi, Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    The purposes of this study were first to assess the reliability and criterion-related validity of the Illinois change of direction (COD) Illinois Agility Test (IAGT) and second to determine whether a relationship with power and speed exists. A total of 105 male team sport athletes participated in this investigation. Repeat measurements in 89 subjects out of the 105 were performed to assess the test-retest reliability and the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference in the score between paired observations (minimal detectable change [MDC]95) of the COD IAGT. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM values for the COD IAGT test were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.85-0.98) and 0.19 seconds, respectively. The smallest worthwhile change (0.20 seconds) for the IAGT was greater than its SEM (0.19 seconds). The MDC95 value for the IAGT was 0.52 seconds. Criterion-related validity of the COD IAGT was assessed in the 105 subjects. They performed the COD IAGT and the T-test. Both tests were significantly correlated (r = 0.31 [95% CI, 0.24-0.39]; p valid test, whose performance is significantly related to speed rather than to acceleration and leg power.

  13. Incidence of acute injury related to fitness testing of U.S. Army personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rachel; Reynolds, Katy; Creedon, Joseph; Murphy, Michelle

    2005-12-01

    This study documented the incidence of acute injuries related to the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). A questionnaire was administered to 1,532 soldiers after they completed a biannual APFT. Self-reported injury responses determined the rates of injuries resulting from the push-up, sit-up, and 2-mile run events and were classified into three categories, i.e., all injuries, performance-limiting injuries, and time-loss injuries. A total of 117 soldiers (injury rate, 7.6%) reported sustaining an injury (all injuries), with 11% attributed to the push-up event, 56% to the sit-up event, and 32% to the run event. Forty-six of these injuries reportedly limited performance (injury rate, 3.0%), and 11 soldiers received a duty-limiting profile (time-loss injury rate, 0.7%), which did not differ among events. Injury rates were not significantly associated with the number of sit-ups performed per week or the number of days per week a soldier participated in physical training and were not greater for soldiers who trained specifically for the APFT. History of previous injury was a significant risk factor for injury. The push-up, sit-up, and run events of the APFT do not pose a considerable acute injury risk to active duty soldiers.

  14. Assessment centers versus cognitive ability tests: Challenging the conventional wisdom on criterion-related validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Paul R; Shewach, Oren R; Keiser, Heidi N

    2017-10-01

    Separate meta-analyses of the cognitive ability and assessment center (AC) literatures report higher criterion-related validity for cognitive ability tests in predicting job performance. We instead focus on 17 samples in which both AC and ability scores are obtained for the same examinees and used to predict the same criterion. Thus, we control for differences in job type and in criteria that may have affected prior conclusions. In contrast to Schmidt and Hunter's (1998) meta-analysis, reporting mean validity of .51 for ability and .37 for ACs, we found using random-effects models mean validity of .22 for ability and .44 for ACs using comparable corrections for range restriction and measurement error in the criterion. We posit that 2 factors contribute to the differences in findings: (a) ACs being used on populations already restricted on cognitive ability and (b) the use of less cognitively loaded criteria in AC validation research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Testing Taxonomic Predictivity of Foliar and Tuber Resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Wild Relatives of Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiutti, A; Spooner, D M; Jansky, S H; Halterman, D A

    2015-09-01

    Potato late blight, caused by the oomycete phytopathogen Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease found in potato-growing regions worldwide. Long-term management strategies to control late blight include the incorporation of host resistance to predominant strains. However, due to rapid genetic changes within pathogen populations, rapid and recurring identification and integration of novel host resistance traits is necessary. Wild relatives of potato offer a rich source of desirable traits, including late blight resistance, but screening methods can be time intensive. We tested the ability of taxonomy, ploidy, crossing group, breeding system, and geography to predict the presence of foliar and tuber late blight resistance in wild Solanum spp. Significant variation for resistance to both tuber and foliar late blight was found within and among species but there was no discernable predictive power based on taxonomic series, clade, ploidy, breeding system, elevation, or geographic location. We observed a moderate but significant correlation between tuber and foliar resistance within species. Although previously uncharacterized sources of both foliar and tuber resistance were identified, our study does not support an assumption that taxonomic or geographic data can be used to predict sources of late blight resistance in wild Solanum spp.

  16. Event-related potential correlates of serial-position effects during an elaborative memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, Jacqueline A; Barry, Robert J; Johnstone, Stuart S

    2002-10-01

    Twenty undergraduate students participated in an elaborative learning test to evaluate the relationship between electrical brain activity and subsequently recalled and not-recalled words. Data collected from the midline (Fz, Cz, Pz) and lateral scalp sites (F3, F4, C3, C4, P3, P4) were analysed. The difference between event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by subsequently recalled and not-recalled words, the ERP memory effect, was evaluated for each portion (primacy, plateau and recency) of the serial-position curve (SPC). We compared peak amplitudes for the P1, N1, P2, N400, P3 and frontal positive slow wave (FPSW) components. The electrophysiological data support the hypothesis that different mechanisms underlie primacy and recency effects during free recall paradigms. There was no support for the hypothesis that an association arises between memory and the FPSW when subjects utilise elaborative learning strategies. The P2 component predicted subsequent recall at the primacy portion of the SPC, and P1 predicted recall at the primacy and plateau portions of the curve. The findings suggest that the early positive components of the ERP (i.e. P1 and P2) are useful indices of the differential stimulus processing during elaborative learning which predicts later recall. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. Is procrastination related to sleep quality? Testing an application of the procrastination–health model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuschia M. Sirois

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a growing body of research on the consequences of procrastination for health and well-being, there is little research focused on testing or explaining the potential links between procrastination and sleep quality. Using the procrastination–health model as our guiding conceptual lens, we addressed this gap by examining how and why trait procrastination may be linked to various dimensions of sleep quality across two student samples. In Study 1, procrastination was associated with feeling unrested, but not with sleep disturbance frequency, in a sample of Greek undergraduate students (N = 141. In Study 2, bootstrapping analysis of the indirect effects of procrastination on an index of sleep quality through perceived stress in a sample of Canadian students (N = 339 was significant, supporting an extended procrastination–health model view of how chronic self-regulation failure may compromise sleep quality. Given the potential for dynamic and reciprocal relations among procrastination, stress, and sleep quality, suggested by the current and other research, the ways in which procrastination may contribute to and be influenced by poor sleep quality warrant further investigation.

  18. Prevalence of Abnormal Papanicolaou Test Results and Related Factors among Women Living in Zanjan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Azam; Ahmadnia, Elahe; Avazeh, Azar; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh; Molaei, Behnaz; Jalilvand, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Currently, a comprehensive program for screening and early detection of cervical cancer does not exist in Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and some related factors among women living in Zanjan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Zanjan on 4274 married women aged 20-65 years. The study participants were selected through two-stage cluster sampling. After obtaining written consent, demographic and fertility questionnaires were completed. Samples from cervix were obtained through a standard method using the Rover Cervex- Brush. Evaluation and interpretation of the samples were reported using the Bethesda 2001 method. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression models. Most inflammatory changes in the samples were mild (37.4%). Abnormal atypical changes in the epithelial cells were found in 4.04%. The highest percentage of abnormal changes in the epithelial cells was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (1.9%). Abnormal results of Pap smear was significantly and independently associated with age, papillomavirus infection, and lack of awareness about Pap smear tests. Given the high prevalence of inflammatory and precancerous changes in this study, compared to other studies in Iran and other Muslim countries, and the effect of demographic variables and individual factors on abnormal results, increasing the awareness of women and their families regarding the risk factors for cervical cancer, preventive measures such as screening, and timely treatment seem necessary.

  19. Characterization of compacted silty sand via relative humidity-controlled triaxial testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Ujwalkumar D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rather limited experimental evidence is available of triaxial shear-induced response of unsaturated soils at suction states far beyond residual suction. In this work, a fully automated, relative-humidity (Auto-RH control unit is adapted to a newly implemented double-walled triaxial cell to test compacted silty sand specimens under consider-ably high total suction states via the vapor-pressure technique. The work is intended to gain critical insight into some of the most essential hydro-mechanical features of densely compacted intermediate geomaterials, such as post-peak softening and strain-induced dilatancy, under suction-controlled monotonic shearing. In general, peak strength is followed by large strain-induced softening until critical state is apparently reached. Strain-softening is observed to be-come considerably more pronounced with increasing total suction. The slope of critical state lines, however, remains virtually constant, regardless of induced total suction, in agreement with critical state-based constitutive frameworks previously postulated for unsaturated soils.

  20. An effective formalism for testing extensions to General Relativity with gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlich, Solomon; Gorbenko, Victor; Huang, Junwu; Senatore, Leonardo

    2017-09-01

    The recent direct observation of gravitational waves (GW) from merging black holes opens up the possibility of exploring the theory of gravity in the strong regime at an unprecedented level. It is therefore interesting to explore which extensions to General Relativity (GR) could be detected. We construct an Effective Field Theory (EFT) satisfying the following requirements. It is testable with GW observations; it is consistent with other experiments, including short distance tests of GR; it agrees with widely accepted principles of physics, such as locality, causality and unitarity; and it does not involve new light degrees of freedom. The most general theory satisfying these requirements corresponds to adding to the GR Lagrangian operators constructed out of powers of the Riemann tensor, suppressed by a scale comparable to the curvature of the observed merging binaries. The presence of these operators modifies the gravitational potential between the compact objects, as well as their effective mass and current quadrupoles, ultimately correcting the waveform of the emitted GW.

  1. Age- and gender-related test performance in community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, T M; Mollinger, L A

    2005-12-01

    Interpretation of patient scores on functional tests is enhanced by an understanding of test performance in reference groups. The purpose of this study was to expand performance values, by age and gender, on balance tests [the Multi-Directional Reach (MDRT); Berg Balance (BBS); Sharpened Romberg, eyes open (SREO), eyes closed (SREC); Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC)], and a general mobility test [Physical Performance Test, (PPT-7, PPT-9)]. The study also examined relationships between test performance and subject characteristics. Eighty-three community-dwelling adults over 50 participated in the study and completed the 5 functional tests during one test session. Means, standard deviations, and confidence intervals were calculated for each of the tests. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine relationships between test scores and age, gender, height, and weight. Test performance is reported by gender,within 10-year age cohorts. Regression analysis showed that age contributed significantly to prediction of performance on all of the tests and gender contributed significantly to prediction of scores on the Berg, SREO, and SREC. Test performance values, in a sample of community-dwelling adults, is provided by age and gender cohorts to provide additional reference data that can be used by clinicians for comparison with client data. The small sample size for subjects over 80 years limits the reference value of data for this age group. In regression analyses, age and gender help predict outcomes on the dependent variables used in the study.

  2. Informational content, literacy demands, and usability of websites offering health-related genetic tests directly to consumers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lachance, Christina R; Erby, Lori A H; Ford, Beth M; Allen, Jr, Vincent C; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2010-01-01

    .... In light of concerns raised about direct-to-consumer genetic testing, this study sought to critically examine whether the informational content, literacy demands, and usability of health-related...

  3. Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r) between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measure...

  4. Statement of the ESHG on direct-to-consumer genetic testing for health-related purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Many private companies offer direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing services. Some tests may detect severe and highly penetrant monogenic disorders, while other tests are for genetic variants found associated with increased susceptibility for common and complex diseases in large-scale population studies. Through its Public and Professional Policy committee followed by member and expert consultation, the European Society of Human Genetics has developed the following policy on advertising and provision of predictive genetic tests by such DTC companies: (1) clinical utility of a genetic test shall be an essential criterion for deciding to offer this test to a person or a group of persons; (2) laboratories providing genetic tests should comply with accepted quality standards, including those regarding laboratory personnel qualifications; (3) information about the purpose and appropriateness of testing should be given before the test is done; (4) genetic counselling appropriate to the type of test and disease should be offered; and for some tests psychosocial evaluation and follow-up should be available; (5) privacy and confidentiality of sensitive genetic information should be secured and the data safely guarded; (6) special measures should be taken to avoid inappropriate testing of minors and other legally incapacitated persons; (7) all claims regarding genetic tests should be transparent; advertisement should be unbiased and marketing of genetic tests should be fair; (8) in biomedical research, health care and marketing, respect should be given to relevant ethical principles, as well as international treaties and recommendations regarding genetic testing; and (9) nationally approved guidelines considering all the above-mentioned aspects should be made and followed.

  5. Influence of relative humidity and physical load during storage on dustiness of inorganic nanomaterials: implications for testing and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Marcus; Rojas, Elena; Vanhala, Esa

    2015-01-01

    Dustiness testing using a down-scaled EN15051 rotating drum was used to investigate the effects of storage conditions such as relative humidity and physical loading on the dustiness of five inorganic metal oxide nanostructured powder materials. The tests consisted of measurements of gravimetrical...

  6. Biological monitoring of isocyanates and related amines. III. Test chamber exposure of humans to toluene diisocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarping, G; Brorson, T; Sangö, C

    1991-01-01

    Five men were exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) atmospheres for 7.5 h. The TDI atmospheres were generated by a gas-phase permeation method, and the exposures were performed in an 8-m3 stainless-steel test chamber. The mean air concentration of TDI was ca. 40 micrograms/m3, which corresponds to the threshold limit value (TLV) of Sweden. The inhaled doses of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI were ca. 120 micrograms. TDI in the test chamber air was determined by an HPLC method using the 9-(N-methylaminomethyl)-anthracene reagent and by a continuous-monitoring filter-tape instrument. After hydrolysis of plasma and urine, the related amines, 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine 2,4-, and 2,6-TDA), were determined as pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) derivatives by capillary gas-chromatography using selected ion monitoring (SIM) in the electron-impact mode. The urinary elimination of the TDAs showed a possible biphasic pattern, with rapid first phases for 2,4-TDA (mean t1/2 for the concentration in urine, 1.9 h) and for 2,6-TDA (mean t1/2 for the concentration in urine, 1.6 h). The cumulative amount of 2,4-TDA excreted in urine within 28 h ranged from 8% to 14% of the estimated dose of 2,4-TDI, and the cumulative amount of 2,6-TDA in urine ranged from 14% to 18% of the 2,6-TDI dose. The average urinary level of 2,4-TDA was 5 micrograms/l in the 6 to 8-h sample (range 2.8-9.6 micrograms/l), and the corresponding value for 2,6-TDA was 8.6 micrograms/l (range, 5.6-16.6 micrograms/l). Biological monitoring of exposure to 2,4- and 2,6-TDI by analysis of 2,4- and 2,6-TDA in urine is feasible.

  7. Testing Spatial Symmetry Using Contingency Tables Based on Nearest Neighbor Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Elvan

    2014-01-01

    We consider two types of spatial symmetry, namely, symmetry in the mixed or shared nearest neighbor (NN) structures. We use Pielou's and Dixon's symmetry tests which are defined using contingency tables based on the NN relationships between the data points. We generalize these tests to multiple classes and demonstrate that both the asymptotic and exact versions of Pielou's first type of symmetry test are extremely conservative in rejecting symmetry in the mixed NN structure and hence should be avoided or only the Monte Carlo randomized version should be used. Under RL, we derive the asymptotic distribution for Dixon's symmetry test and also observe that the usual independence test seems to be appropriate for Pielou's second type of test. Moreover, we apply variants of Fisher's exact test on the shared NN contingency table for Pielou's second test and determine the most appropriate version for our setting. We also consider pairwise and one-versus-rest type tests in post hoc analysis after a significant overall symmetry test. We investigate the asymptotic properties of the tests, prove their consistency under appropriate null hypotheses, and investigate finite sample performance of them by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The methods are illustrated on a real-life ecological data set. PMID:24605061

  8. Testing Spatial Symmetry Using Contingency Tables Based on Nearest Neighbor Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvan Ceyhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider two types of spatial symmetry, namely, symmetry in the mixed or shared nearest neighbor (NN structures. We use Pielou’s and Dixon’s symmetry tests which are defined using contingency tables based on the NN relationships between the data points. We generalize these tests to multiple classes and demonstrate that both the asymptotic and exact versions of Pielou’s first type of symmetry test are extremely conservative in rejecting symmetry in the mixed NN structure and hence should be avoided or only the Monte Carlo randomized version should be used. Under RL, we derive the asymptotic distribution for Dixon’s symmetry test and also observe that the usual independence test seems to be appropriate for Pielou’s second type of test. Moreover, we apply variants of Fisher’s exact test on the shared NN contingency table for Pielou’s second test and determine the most appropriate version for our setting. We also consider pairwise and one-versus-rest type tests in post hoc analysis after a significant overall symmetry test. We investigate the asymptotic properties of the tests, prove their consistency under appropriate null hypotheses, and investigate finite sample performance of them by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The methods are illustrated on a real-life ecological data set.

  9. Criterion-Related Validity of the 20-M Shuttle Run Test for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Aguilar-Soto, Pablo; Viciana, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. Relevant studies were searched from twelve electronic databases up to December 2014, as well as from several alternative modes of searching. The Hunter-Schmidt's psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test. From 57 studies that were included in the present meta-analysis, a total of 78 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test had a moderate-to-high criterion-related validity for estimating maximum oxygen uptake (r p = 0.66-0.84), being higher when other variables (e.g. sex, age or body mass) were used (r p = 0.78-0.95). The present meta-analysis also showed that the criterion-related validity of Léger's protocol was statistically higher for adults (r p = 0.94, 0.87-1.00) than for children (r p = 0.78, 0.72-0.85). However, sex and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity values. When an individual's maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory-based test is not feasible, the 20-m shuttle run test seems to be a useful alternative for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. In adults the performance score only seems to be a strong estimator of cardiorespiratory fitness, in contrast among children the performance score should be combined with other variables. Nevertheless, as in the application of any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. Key pointsOverall the 20-m shuttle run test has a moderate-to-high mean criterion-related validity for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness.The criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test is significantly

  10. Absolute and Relative Reliability of the Timed 'Up & Go' Test and '30second Chair-Stand' Test in Hospitalised Patients with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyders Johansen, Katrine; Derby Stistrup, Rikke; Skibdal Schjøtt, Camilla; Madsen, Jacqueline; Vinther, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The timed 'Up & Go' test and '30second Chair-Stand' test are simple clinical outcome measures widely used to assess functional performance. The reliability of both tests in hospitalised stroke patients is unknown. The purpose was to investigate the relative and absolute reliability of both tests in patients admitted to an acute stroke unit. Sixty-two patients (men, n = 41) attended two test sessions separated by a one hours rest. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1) were calculated to assess relative reliability. Absolute reliability was expressed as Standard Error of Measurement (with 95% certainty-SEM95) and Smallest Real Difference (SRD) and as percentage of their respective means if heteroscedasticity was observed in Bland Altman plots (SEM95% and SRD%). ICC values for interrater reliability were 0.97 and 0.99 for the timed 'Up & Go' test and 0.88 and 0.94 for '30second Chair-Stand' test, respectively. ICC values for intrarater reliability were 0.95 and 0.96 for the timed 'Up & Go' test and 0.87 and 0.91 for '30second Chair-Stand' test, respectively. Heteroscedasticity was observed in the timed 'Up & Go' test. Interrater SEM95% ranged from 9.8% to 14.2% with corresponding SRD% of 13.9-20.1%. Intrarater SEM95% ranged from 15.8% to 18.7% with corresponding SRD% of 22.3-26.5%. For '30second Chair-Stand' test interrater SEM95 ranged between 1.5 and 1.9 repetitions with corresponding SRD of 2 and 3 and intrarater SEM95 ranged between 1.8 and 2.0 repetitions with corresponding SRD values of 3. Excellent reliability was observed for the timed 'Up & Go' test and the '30second Chair-Stand' test in hospitalised stroke patients. The thresholds to detect a real change in performance were 18.7% for the timed 'Up & Go' test and 2.0 repetitions for the '30second Chair-Stand' in groups of patients and 26.5% and 3 repetitions in individual patients, respectively.

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2016-06-14

    to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. verificar a associação entre o conhecimento, atitude e prática de mulheres em relação ao exame colpocitológico e a faixa etária. trata-se de pesquisa de corte transversal associada ao inquérito conhecimento, atitude e prática, em uma Unidade de Atenção Primária à Saúde. A amostra foi composta por 775 mulheres, distribuídas em três faixas etárias: adolescentes, jovens e idosas. embora o conhecimento inadequado tenha tido altas taxas em todas as faixas etárias, foi significativamente superior entre as adolescentes (p=0,000). Tendência semelhante no componente atitude por apresentar percentuais de inadequabilidade na adolescência e decair com o avançar da idade (p=0,000). Todavia, não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos quanto à prática (p=0,852). o estudo demonstrou relação entre a faixa etária e o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do exame colpocitológico. verificar la asociación entre el conocimiento, la actitud y práctica de mujeres con relación a la prueba colpocitológica y el rango de edad. se trata de investigación trasversal asociada a la encuesta conocimiento, actitud y pr

  12. Testing the Relations Among Family Disorganization, Delay Discounting, and Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Genetically Informed Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Frances L; Pandika, Danielle; Chassin, Laurie; Lee, Matthew; King, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Delay discounting is a potential etiological factor in adolescents' alcohol use, making it important to understand its antecedents. Family disorganization might contribute to delay discounting, but few studies have tested this relation. Moreover, because delay discounting is heritable, the effects of family disorganization on delay discounting might be moderated by adolescents' genetic risk for delay discounting. Thus, the current study examined the role of family disorganization, in interaction with genetic risk, in predicting adolescents' delay discounting and subsequent alcohol use. Adolescents participated in 4 waves of data collection. Adolescents self-reported their family disorganization at T1, completed a delay discounting questionnaire at T3, and self-reported their alcohol use both at T2 (covariate) and T4 (outcome). Using results from an independent sample, we created a polygenic risk score consisting of dopaminergic genes to index genetic risk for delay discounting. Greater family disorganization predicted adolescents' greater delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low levels of genetic risk for delay discounting. Adolescents with high and mean levels of genetic risk for delay discounting showed elevated delay discounting regardless of their family's disorganization. Greater delay discounting prospectively predicted adolescents' greater alcohol use. Finally, the effects of family disorganization on adolescents' alcohol use were mediated through delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low levels of genetic risk. Results suggest multiple pathways to delay discounting. Although there are genetically influenced pathways to delay discounting, family disorganization might represent an environmental pathway to delay discounting (and subsequent alcohol use) for a subset of adolescents at low genetic risk. These findings reinforce the utility of family interventions for reducing adolescents' delay discounting and alcohol use, at least for a

  13. Evaluating traditional healers knowledge and practices related to HIV testing and treatment in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In a context of inadequate human resources for health, this study investigated whether traditional healers have the knowledge and skill base which could be utilised to assist in the scaling up of HIV prevention and treatment services in South Africa. Methods Using a cross-sectional research design a total of 186 traditional healers from the Northern Cape province were interviewed. Responses on the following topics were obtained: socio-demographic characteristics; HIV training, experience and practices; and knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and symptoms. Descriptive statistics and chi square tests were used to analyse the responses. Results Traditional healers’ knowledge of HIV and AIDS was not as high as expected. Less than 50% of both trained and untrained traditional healers would treat a person they suspected of being HIV positive. However, a total of 167 (89%) respondents agreed using a condom can prevent HIV and a majority of respondents also agreed that having one sexual partner (127, 68.8%) and abstaining from sex can prevent HIV (145, 78.8%). Knowledge of treatment practices was better with statistically significant results being obtained. Conclusion The results indicate that traditional healers could be used for prevention as well as referring HIV positive individuals for treatment. Traditional healers were enthusiastic about the possibility of collaborating with bio-medical practitioners in the prevention and care of HIV and AIDS patients. This is significant considering they already service the health needs of a large percentage of the South African population. However, further development of training programmes and materials for them on HIV and AIDS related issues would seem necessary. PMID:24152384

  14. Numerical relativity for D dimensional axially symmetric space-times: Formalism and code tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilhão, Miguel; Witek, Helvi; Sperhake, Ulrich; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Herdeiro, Carlos; Nerozzi, Andrea

    2010-04-01

    The numerical evolution of Einstein’s field equations in a generic background has the potential to answer a variety of important questions in physics: from applications to the gauge-gravity duality, to modeling black hole production in TeV gravity scenarios, to analysis of the stability of exact solutions, and to tests of cosmic censorship. In order to investigate these questions, we extend numerical relativity to more general space-times than those investigated hitherto, by developing a framework to study the numerical evolution of D dimensional vacuum space-times with an SO(D-2) isometry group for D≥5, or SO(D-3) for D≥6. Performing a dimensional reduction on a (D-4) sphere, the D dimensional vacuum Einstein equations are rewritten as a 3+1 dimensional system with source terms, and presented in the Baumgarte, Shapiro, Shibata, and Nakamura formulation. This allows the use of existing 3+1 dimensional numerical codes with small adaptations. Brill-Lindquist initial data are constructed in D dimensions and a procedure to match them to our 3+1 dimensional evolution equations is given. We have implemented our framework by adapting the Lean code and perform a variety of simulations of nonspinning black hole space-times. Specifically, we present a modified moving puncture gauge, which facilitates long-term stable simulations in D=5. We further demonstrate the internal consistency of the code by studying convergence and comparing numerical versus analytic results in the case of geodesic slicing for D=5, 6.

  15. Field-based fitness assessment in young people: the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castro-Piñero, José; España-Romero, Vanesa; Artero, Enrique G; Ortega, Francisco B; Cuenca, Magdalena M; Jimenez-Pavón, David; Chillón, Palma; Girela-Rejón, María J; Mora, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Angel; Suni, Jaana; Sjöström, Michael; Castillo, Manuel J

    2011-05-01

    The present study summarises the work developed by the ALPHA (Assessing Levels of Physical Activity) study and describes the procedures followed to select the tests included in the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents. The authors reviewed physical fitness and health in youth findings from cross-sectional studies. The authors also performed three systematic reviews dealing with (1) the predictive validity of health-related fitness, (2) the criterion validity of field-based fitness tests and (3) the reliability of field-based fitness tests in youth. The authors also carried out 11-methodological studies to determine the criterion validity and the reliability of several field-based fitness tests for youth. Finally, the authors performed a study in the school setting to examine the reliability, feasibility and safety of the selected tests. The selected fitness tests were (1) the 20 m shuttle run test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness; (2) the handgrip strength and (3) standing broad jump to assess musculoskeletal fitness, and (4) body mass index, (5) skinfold thickness and (5) waist circumference to assess body composition. When there are time limits, the authors propose the high-priority ALPHA health-related fitness test battery, which comprises all the evidence-based fitness tests except the measurement of the skinfold thickness. The time required to administer this battery to a group of 20 youth by one physical education teacher is less than 2 h. In conclusion, the ALPHA fitness tests battery is valid, reliable, feasible and safe for the assessment of health-related physical fitness in children and adolescents to be used for health monitoring purposes at population level.

  16. Test-retest reliability, criterion-related validity, and minimal detectable change of score on an abbreviated Wingate test for field sport participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachana, Younes; Attia, Ahmed; Nassib, Sabri; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel

    2012-05-01

    Repeat measurements in 69 young adults were performed to assess the test-retest reliability and the 95% confidence interval of the difference in score between paired observations (MDC95) of a Wingate test as abbreviated for field sport participants (test of a 15-second duration [15-secT]). Test-retest reliability was excellent for peak power output (PPO) and mean power output (MPO), independently of their mode of expression and was moderate for the fatigue index (FI). The standard errors of measurement (SEM) for absolute, relative, and derived PPO and MPO values ranged from 2.6 to 3.7%, all being smaller than the corresponding smallest worthwhile change (SWC). In contrast, FI values were rated as "marginal," with an SEM (9.6%) greater than the SWC (1.7). The range of MDC95 values for PPO and MPO were 9.9-10.4 and 7.37-7.42%, respectively. The absolute MPO showed the highest test-retest reliability and was the most effective in detecting real change. A second phase of the study evaluated the criterion-related validity of the 15-secT in 43 young men who performed 15-secT and standard 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (30-secT) in random order, on 2 separate occasions. There were no significant intertest differences in absolute, relative, or derived PPO. However, the FI for the 30-secT was greater than that for the 15-secT. Intertest correlations were highly significant for both MPOs and FIs. These findings suggest that the abbreviated Wingate test offers a reliable and valid tool for the evaluation of PPO and MPO, at least in young physical education students.

  17. Criterion-related validity of field-based muscular fitness tests in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artero, E G; España-Romero, V; Castro-Piñero, J; Ruiz, J; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Aparicio, V; Gatto-Cardia, M; Baena, P; Vicente-Rodríguez, G; Castillo, M J; Ortega, F B

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the association between isokinetic strength and field-based muscular fitness tests in youth. One hundred twenty-six adolescents (14.4±1.7 y) participated in the study. Upper and lower body isokinetic strength were measured at preset angular velocities of 90 º/s and 60 º/s, respectively. Muscular fitness was also assessed by means of field-based tests: handgrip strength, bent and extended arm hang tests, standing long jump, squat jump, countermovement jump and Abalakov jump. Height, weight and skinfold thickness were used to estimate body composition. All field-based tests were significantly associated with isokinetic peak torque and power (Pvalid field-based muscular fitness tests when compared to isokinetic strength. These tests can be useful to assess muscular fitness in young people when laboratory methods are not feasible.

  18. Indices of slowness of information processing in head injury patients : Tests for selective attention related to ERP latencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, Jacoba M.; Naalt, van der Joukje; Weerden , van Tiemen; Zomeren , van Adriaan H.

    2004-01-01

    We explored the relation between neuropsychological (attention tests involving time constraints) and neurophysiological (N2 and P3 event-related potential (ERP) latencies) indices of slowness of information processing after closed head injury (CHI). A group of 44 CHI patients performed worse than

  19. The Use of the Rorschach Inkblot Test in the Assessment of Object Relations: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Hope Lynette

    Research in how the Rorschach Inkblot Test has been utilized in the assessment of object relations is reviewed. The review includes a critical examination of six areas: (1) constructs and concepts of object-relations theory represented in the research; (2) relevant Rorschach history and history; (3) characteristics of Rorschach-based,…

  20. Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mayorga-Vega

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measures. Then, from the included studies, the Hunter- Schmidt´s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate population criterion- related validity of sit-and-reach tests. Firstly, the corrected correlation mean (rp, unaffected by statistical artefacts (i.e., sampling error and measurement error, was calculated separately for each sit-and-reach test. Subsequently, the three potential moderator variables (sex of participants, age of participants, and level of hamstring extensibility were examined by a partially hierarchical analysis. Of the 34 studies included in the present meta-analysis, 99 correlations values across eight sit-and-reach tests and 51 across seven sit-and-reach tests were retrieved for hamstring and lumbar extensibility, respectively. The overall results showed that all sit-and-reach tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (rp = 0.46-0.67, but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility (rp = 0. 16-0.35. Generally, females, adults and participants with high levels of hamstring extensibility tended to have greater mean values of criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility. When the use of angular tests is limited such as in a school setting or in large scale studies, scientists and practitioners could use the sit-and-reach tests as a useful alternative for hamstring extensibility estimation, but not for estimating lumbar extensibility.

  1. Relation between education and dementia: the role of test bias revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Lindeboom, J.; Hooijer, C.; Jonker, C.

    1995-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that dementia screening tests may be biased against low levels of education, whereas others find that a low level of education is a genuine risk factor for dementia. The present paper attempts to reconcile these conflicting views by examining item bias and test bias

  2. The relation between psychometric test performance and physical performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, E F; Storandt, M; Birge, S J

    1999-08-01

    The relationship between cognitive function and physical disability in nondemented older adults is not well characterized. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between performance on psychometric measures and a modified Physical Performance Test (modified PPT) in older men and women. One hundred twenty-five men and women aged 75 years and older, who were enrolled in randomized, controlled trials of exercise or hormone replacement therapy, were recruited from the community-at-large and from congregate living sites. Measures obtained included Trailmaking A and B tests, Cancellation Random Figure tests, Weschler Associate Learning and 20-minute Delayed Recall, Verbal Fluency test, a modified PPT, and self-reports about performance of activities of daily living, medication use, and hospitalization in the previous year. Simple regression analysis demonstrated that speed of performance on the Trailmaking B and Cancellation Random Figure tests was significantly associated with total modified PPT score (r = .29, p test battery demonstrated that two factors, a cognitive speed factor and a memory factor, accounted for 55% of the variance in cognitive test performance. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that age, number of medications, and the cognitive speed factor were independent predictors of total modified PPT score. Cognitive processing speed is a significant component of physical frailty in this population, although it accounts for a small percentage of variance on a standardized physical performance test.

  3. Students' Interpersonal Trust and Attitudes towards Standardised Tests: Exploring Affective Variables Related to Student Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Man-Wai; Guo, Qi; Leighton, Jacqueline P.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and psychometric variables have directed research on student test performance. However, student learning involves a substantial affective component. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between two kinds of affective variables--interpersonal trust and attitudes towards standardised tests--likely to underlie student…

  4. The "value added" of neurocognitive testing after sports-related concussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kampen, Derk A.; Lovell, Mark R.; Pardini, Jamie E.; Collins, Michael W.; Fu, Freddie H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Neurocognitive testing has been endorsed as a "cornerstone" of concussion management by recent Vienna and Prague meetings of the Concussion in Sport Group. Neurocognitive testing is important given the potential unreliability of athlete self-report after injury. Relying only on athletes'

  5. Perceptions and Discourses Relating to Genetic Testing: Interviews with People with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Barbara; Hastings, Richard Patrick; Williams, Rebecca; Huws, Jaci C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The perceptions of individuals with Down syndrome are conspicuously absent in discussions about the use of prenatal testing. Method: Eight individuals with Down syndrome were interviewed about their views and experience of the topic of prenatal testing. Results: Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed two major themes with…

  6. Construct Related Validity for the Baumgartner Modified Pull-Up Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Ted A.; Gaunt, Sharon j.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally the pull-up was used as a measure of arm and shoulder girdle strength and endurance. This measure did not discriminate among ability levels because many zero scores occur. Baumgartner (1978) developed a modified pull-up test that was easier than the traditional pull-up test. The Baumgartner Modified Pull-Up (BMPU) has been used as an…

  7. The Association between Relational Aggression and Perceived Popularity in Early Adolescence: A Test of Competing Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangel, Meghan J.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.; Shanahan, Lilly; O'Brien, Marion

    2017-01-01

    This study examined two competing hypotheses regarding the moderators of the association between relational aggression and peer status in early adolescence. The "mitigation relational aggression" hypothesis examined whether positive social behaviors reduced the negative effects of relational aggression, thus amplifying the association…

  8. Skin Testing in the Evaluation and Management of Carboplatin-Related Hypersensitivity Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, Timothy; Long, Aidan; Banerji, Aleena

    2015-01-01

    Carboplatin-induced hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) are a frequent occurrence in patients being retreated for malignancy. The most common and severe reactions are thought to be IgE mediated. Currently, skin testing is the only method used clinically to identify individuals sensitized to carboplatin. Despite almost 20 years of clinical use, a standardized approach to skin testing and its use in the management of carboplatin HSRs has not been well established. We review the utility of carboplatin skin testing and discuss factors that influence the interpretation of skin testing results. A risk stratification strategy using skin testing and desensitization to manage patients with carboplatin HSRs is proposed. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Accepting test-anxiety-related thoughts increases academic performance among undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that unwanted thoughts are enhanced when suppressed, we tested among college freshmen who were about to take an academic exam if an acceptance strategy consisting of not suppressing intrusive thoughts will improve test performance. This strategy proved superior to students’ own default strategies as much as a modified, alternative strategy, avoiding the antecedents of intrusive thoughts. Moreover, the combination of the two strategies counteracted a stronger, negative effect of test anxiety on test performance as compared with each strategy used alone. The results suggest that not only intrusive thoughts per se but also the suppression of these thoughts can disrupt test performance, and hint that approaching such thoughts with acceptance may not interfere with simultaneously working toward avoiding the antecedents of these thoughts.

  10. [Objective assessment of transfusion-related knowledge of nurses using modern test theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajki, Veronika; Deutsch, Tibor; Csóka, Mária; Mészáros, Judit

    2015-09-13

    Clinical practice requires knowledge of health professionals for the application of problem solving of different tasks in various clinical settings. Therefore, a set of reliable measurement tools is required to assess various components of the professional knowledge including factual knowledge, skills and competence as outcomes of nursing education and training. Traditional questionnaires and test methods do not allow the measurement of these characteristics properly, as these tools typically provide overall scores without relevant insight into areas in which nurses perform well, and those where their knowledge and/or skills should be improved substantially. The aim of this nationwide survey conducted among nurses between November 2014 and February 2015 was to determine how the teaching/training objectives have been achieved in the nurses' transfusion practice. The authors attempted to exceed the capabilities of classical test theory and acquire a detailed picture about what the nurses know about transfusion therapy and how they are involved and behave in routine clinical practice. The knowledge and skills of 657 participants were assessed using a validated instrument consisting of a set of questions covering every aspects of transfusion therapy. The answers to these items were evaluated on a binary (good or bad) scale. Recorded answers of the participants were analysed using hierarchical cluster analysis and item response theory tools such as the one-parametric Rasch model suitable for dichotomous data. Data analysis was performed with the SPSS program and the ltm module of the R statistical program. The paper presents the distribution of correct and incorrect answers to various questions about transfusion therapy along with the corresponding logit values and odds ratios, respectively. The characteristic curves of each item were determined on the basis of the number of correct answers that have been recorded. These curves highlight which questions were answered

  11. Development and pilot testing of a decision aid for men considering genetic testing for breast and/or ovarian cancer-related mutations (BRCA1/2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Anne S; Wakefield, Claire E; Kasparian, Nadine A; Kirk, Judy; Tyler, Janet; Tucker, Kathy

    2008-12-01

    Despite the fact that both men and women can carry a breast/ovarian cancer-related mutation, the main emphasis in genetic counseling for breast/ovarian cancer-related risk remains on females. This study aimed to develop and pilot a decision aid specifically designed for men with a strong family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer who are considering genetic testing. The decision aid was developed by a multidisciplinary team of experts and a consumer representative. It was then reviewed by 27 men who had previously undergone genetic testing to identify a mutation in a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. All men who reviewed the decision aid indicated that they would recommend the booklet to other men in the same situation, and 96% of the sample (n = 26) reported being "very satisfied" or "satisfied" with the information contained in the decision aid. The decision aid was perceived by all participants as "very relevant" or "quite relevant" for men considering genetic testing. Ninety-three percent of men felt that it was easy to weigh the pros and cons of genetic testing with the help of the decision aid. The perceived impact on participants' emotions and understanding of the genetic testing process was also assessed. Several factors may hinder men from effectively weighing up the potential benefits and risks of genetic testing. A greater understanding of these issues may help health professionals to encourage men with a strong family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer to learn about cancer risk and the appropriate management strategies for themselves and their female relatives.

  12. Prevalence of the use of cancer related self-tests by members of the public: a community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marriott John

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests are those where an individual can obtain a result without recourse to a health professional, by getting a result immediately or by sending a sample to a laboratory that returns the result directly. Self-tests can be diagnostic, for disease monitoring, or both. There are currently tests for more than 20 different conditions available to the UK public, and self-testing is marketed as a way of alerting people to serious health problems so they can seek medical help. Almost nothing is known about the extent to which people self-test for cancer or why they do this. Self-tests for cancer could alter perceptions of risk and health behaviour, cause psychological morbidity and have a significant impact on the demand for healthcare. This study aims to gain an understanding of the frequency of self-testing for cancer and characteristics of users. Methods Cross-sectional survey. Adults registered in participating general practices in the West Midlands Region, will be asked to complete a questionnaire that will collect socio-demographic information and basic data regarding previous and potential future use of self-test kits. The only exclusions will be people who the GP feels it would be inappropriate to send a questionnaire, for example because they are unable to give informed consent. Freepost envelopes will be included and non-responders will receive one reminder. Standardised prevalence rates will be estimated. Discussion Cancer related self-tests, currently available from pharmacies or over the Internet, include faecal occult blood tests (related to bowel cancer, prostate specific antigen tests (related to prostate cancer, breast cancer kits (self examination guide and haematuria tests (related to urinary tract cancers. The effect of an increase in self-testing for cancer is unknown but may be considerable: it may affect the delivery of population based screening programmes; empower patients or cause unnecessary anxiety

  13. Relational Aggression, Victimization and Self-Concept: Testing Pathways from Middle Childhood to Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely-McClure, Sarah J; Ostrov, Jamie M

    2016-02-01

    When studying adolescent development, it is important to consider two key areas that are salient for teens, which are self-concept and peer relations. A secondary analysis of the National Institute of Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development was conducted to examine the prospective bidirectional associations between self-concept and peer relations. To date, how social development broadly and peer relations in particular (e.g., relational aggression and victimization) affect self-concept domains is not fully understood. Using a large sample (N = 1063; 532 girls; M = 11.14 years; SD = .59) with multiple informants, the present study examined whether fifth grade relational aggression and sixth grade relational victimization was associated with adolescent self-concept in three key domains (i.e., academic, sports, physical appearance). A significant direct effect emerged, such that relational aggression in middle childhood was associated with decreases in academic self-concept and increases in sports self-concept in adolescence. Analyses also revealed that having higher levels of domain specific self-concept led to decreases in relational aggression across the transition to adolescence. The findings highlight the importance of examining bidirectional prospective associations between relational aggression, relational victimization, and domain specific self-concept. Implications for future research and clinical intervention are discussed.

  14. Accepting test-anxiety-related thoughts increases academic performance among undergraduate students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senay Ibrahim; Cetinkaya Mustafa; Usak Muhammet

    2012-01-01

    Given that unwanted thoughts are enhanced when suppressed, we tested among college freshmen who were about to take an academic exam if an acceptance strategy consisting of not suppressing intrusive...

  15. Annotated Bibliography of Bioassays Related to Sediment Toxicity Testing in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    inclusa), sand shrimp ( Crangon - mix of three species), sanddab (Citharicthys sordidus), lugworm, and amphipod (Rhepoxynius epistomus). Used 1 to 40...differences in mortalities over controls. However, Crangon and Rhepoxynius did suffer some mortalities >10%. Elutriate test: Algae biomasses

  16. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal...... incline in plasma creatine kinase or myoglobin could be observed days after the test was studied also. Fifteen female fibromyalgia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls performed a stepwise incremental maximal bicycle-ergometer test. Blood samples were collected from a catheter in a cubital vein....... The changes in heart rate, potassium levels, and haematocrit during the exercise test were similar in the two groups. The maximal obtained lactate concentration was 4.2 mmol l-1 (3.5-5.6) in the patients as compared to 4.9 mmol l-1 (3.9-5.9) in the controls (NS). The estimated anaerobic threshold of 2 mmol l...

  17. Self-Testing of Vision in Age-Related Macula Degeneration: A Longitudinal Pilot Study Using a Smartphone-Based Rarebit Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Winther

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. There is a need for efficient self-tests of vision in patients with neovascular age-related macula degeneration. A new tablet/smartphone application aiming to meet this need is described and its performance is assessed in a longitudinal pilot study. Materials and Methods. The new MultiBit Test (MBT employs segmented digits defined by rarebits, that is, receptive field-size bright dots briefly presented against a dark background. The number of rarebits per digit segment was varied in a cyclic fashion, in preset steps. There were no fixation demands. Twenty-eight patients with neovascular AMD of varying severity were monitored for an average of 30 weeks. Test scores were evaluated on an individual basis, by contrasting observed trends with the clinical status recorded at independently scheduled clinical examinations. Results. Serial plots of MBT results revealed gradual improvement after successful antineovascular treatment. Recurrences were signalled by gradual deteriorations of results. Test results remained stable during clinically stable time intervals. MBT results agreed well with clinical assessments whereas an acuity test performed at chance level. The MBT was well accepted by all subjects. Conclusions. The MBT appears to have a good potential for effective self-testing of vision in AMD and merits large-scale studies. Exploration of MBT performance with other forms of macula conditions may be worthwhile.

  18. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Denovan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy, the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT, the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual

  19. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denovan, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Clough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy), the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT), the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT) best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual-processing frameworks. This

  20. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denovan, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Clough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy), the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT), the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT) best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual-processing frameworks. This

  1. Evaluating the survivor or the relatives of those who do not survive: the role of genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, David J; Ackerman, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The molecular millennium has bestowed clinicians and researchers with the essential tools to identify the underlying genetic substrates for thousands of genetic disorders, most of which are rare and follow Mendelian inheritance patterns. The genetic basis of potentially lethal and heritable cardiomyopathies and cardiac channelopathies has been identified and are now better understood. Genetic testing for several of these heritable conditions has made its transition from discovery through translation and have been commercially available clinical tests for over a decade. Now that clinical genetic testing is available more readily and delivers a disease-specific impact across the triad of medicine - diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic - it is important for the community of cardiologists to not only be familiar with the language of genomic medicine but to also be wiser users and even wiser interpreters of genetic testing so that wise decisions can be rendered for those patients and their families being evaluated with respect to the presence or absence of one of these potentially lethal yet highly treatable genetic disorders. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with a foundational understanding of genetic testing in clinical cardiology. Here, we will present some benefits of genetic testing: indications for either post-mortem genetic testing for the major cardiomyopathies and channelopathies or pre-mortem genetic testing among the decedent's surviving relatives; the need for careful interpretation of genetic testing results; the importance of genetic counselling; and some points on the ethical and societal implications of genetic testing.

  2. Hamstring muscle extensibility influences the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach and toe-touch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Miñarro, Pedro A; Rodríguez-García, Pedro L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of hamstring muscle extensibility on the hamstring criterion-related validity of the sit-and-reach (SR) and toe-touch (TT) tests. Two hundred forty young adults (mean age: 22.9 +/- 3.6 years) participated in this study. Three trials of straight leg raise (SLR) (left and right), SR, and TT tests were performed in a random order. The subjects were dichotomized into group A (subjects with an SLR angle /= 75 degrees ). The correlation values between SLR angle and SR and TT scores were calculated and compared between both groups. Group B elicited higher mean SR and TT scores than group A (p criterion-related validity of the SR and TT tests is influenced by hamstring muscle extensibility. From the results of this investigation, we find that the SR and TT tests are not valid measures of hamstring extensibility for subjects with reduced hamstring muscle extensibility.

  3. Relational Memory Is Evident in Eye Movement Behavior despite the Use of Subliminal Testing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Allison E.; Henke, Katharina; Hannula, Deborah E.

    2015-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that perception can occur without awareness, there continues to be debate about the type of representational content that is accessible when awareness is minimized or eliminated. Most investigations that have addressed this issue evaluate access to well-learned representations. Far fewer studies have evaluated whether or not associations encountered just once prior to testing might also be accessed and influence behavior. Here, eye movements were used to examine whether or not memory for studied relationships is evident following the presentation of subliminal cues. Participants assigned to experimental or control groups studied scene-face pairs and test trials evaluated implicit and explicit memory for these pairs. Each test trial began with a subliminal scene cue, followed by three visible studied faces. For experimental group participants, one face was the studied associate of the scene (implicit test); for controls none were a match. Subsequently, the display containing a match was presented to both groups, but now it was preceded by a visible scene cue (explicit test). Eye movements were recorded and recognition memory responses were made. Participants in the experimental group looked disproportionately at matching faces on implicit test trials and participants from both groups looked disproportionately at matching faces on explicit test trials, even when that face had not been successfully identified as the associate. Critically, implicit memory-based viewing effects seemed not to depend on residual awareness of subliminal scene cues, as subjective and objective measures indicated that scenes were successfully masked from view. The reported outcomes indicate that memory for studied relationships can be expressed in eye movement behavior without awareness. PMID:26512726

  4. Relational Memory Is Evident in Eye Movement Behavior despite the Use of Subliminal Testing Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison E Nickel

    Full Text Available While it is generally agreed that perception can occur without awareness, there continues to be debate about the type of representational content that is accessible when awareness is minimized or eliminated. Most investigations that have addressed this issue evaluate access to well-learned representations. Far fewer studies have evaluated whether or not associations encountered just once prior to testing might also be accessed and influence behavior. Here, eye movements were used to examine whether or not memory for studied relationships is evident following the presentation of subliminal cues. Participants assigned to experimental or control groups studied scene-face pairs and test trials evaluated implicit and explicit memory for these pairs. Each test trial began with a subliminal scene cue, followed by three visible studied faces. For experimental group participants, one face was the studied associate of the scene (implicit test; for controls none were a match. Subsequently, the display containing a match was presented to both groups, but now it was preceded by a visible scene cue (explicit test. Eye movements were recorded and recognition memory responses were made. Participants in the experimental group looked disproportionately at matching faces on implicit test trials and participants from both groups looked disproportionately at matching faces on explicit test trials, even when that face had not been successfully identified as the associate. Critically, implicit memory-based viewing effects seemed not to depend on residual awareness of subliminal scene cues, as subjective and objective measures indicated that scenes were successfully masked from view. The reported outcomes indicate that memory for studied relationships can be expressed in eye movement behavior without awareness.

  5. Evaluation of Four Commercial Test Systems for Identification of Actinomyces and Some Closely Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santala, Anne-Marie; Sarkonen, Nanna; Hall, Val; Carlson, Petteri; Jousimies-Somer, Hannele; Könönen, Eija

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated four commercially available kits for rapid identification of Actinomyces and related species. The kits identified correctly 26 to 65% of “classical” Actinomyces strains to the species level and 13 to 49% of newly described Actinomyces strains to the genus level, thus indicating relatively poor applicability and a need to update these kits. PMID:14715795

  6. Development and testing of a cross-culturally valid instrument: food-related life style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1995-01-01

    Based on a cognitive perspective, we propose to make life style specific to certain areas of consumption. The specific area of consumption studied here is food, resulting in a concept of food-related life style. We have developed an instrument tha measure food-related life style in a cross...

  7. Approach, avoidance and weight-related testing: An investigation of frontal EEG asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faries, Mark D; Kephart, Wesley; Jones, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Two motivational systems underlie behaviour and affective responses - an inhibition/avoidance system and an activation/approach system. The purpose of the present study was to explore if individual differences in these motivational systems would occur in response to common weight and body composition testing within a sample of young, adult women. Electroencephalogram was used to distinguish approach or avoidance orientations via frontal asymmetry before and after testing sessions. Clear distinctions in motivational response were found, with 65% of the sample responding with an approach motivation, while 35% responded with an avoidance motivation. Even though all participants, on average, experienced a negative affective response, only the avoidance group self-reported a subsequent increase in "comfort food" consumption of desserts and snacks the week following the testing session. As shown with other stressors, clear individual differences exist in motivational responses to common weight and body composition testing. Such testing produces a general negative affective response; however, the individual differences in motivational responses might produce different behavioural choices. Future research and interventions in health communication should be considerate to this variation in motivational responses to help explain changes in both healthy and unhealthy behaviours following interactions involving one's body weight and/or body composition.

  8. Testing ‘cultural reproduction theory’ against relative risk aversion theory – some remarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin David; Jakobsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research note is to discuss inherent limitations in certain established, but problematic, conventions for operationalizing and testing Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction. These conventions entail a selective focus on the concept of capital at the expense of the conc......The aim of this research note is to discuss inherent limitations in certain established, but problematic, conventions for operationalizing and testing Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction. These conventions entail a selective focus on the concept of capital at the expense...... of the concept of habitus. Our point is that blinding out the important concept of habitus amputates the theory, and that a test built upon this limitation is not a test of Bourdieu’s theory as a whole, but rather a straw man construction ignoring important parts of the theory. This has strong implications when...... seeking to test statistically the viability of Bourdieu’s theory, particularly vis-a-vis rational choice alternatives, and especially where these limitations are not adequately reflected in the interpretation of results and in conclusions....

  9. Evaluation of psychoacoustic tests and P300 event-related potentials in elderly patients with hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Leines, Sergio; Peñaloza-López, Yolanda R; Serrano-Miranda, Tirzo A; Flores-Ávalos, Blanca; Vidal-Ixta, Martha T; Jiménez-Herrera, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for hearing impairment, neuronal damage and cognitive impairment in elderly patients is controversial and is limited by the small number of studies. The aim of this work was determine if elderly patients detected with hyperhomocysteinemia have an increased risk of developing abnormalities in the central auditory processes as compared with a group of patients with appropriate homocysteine levels, and to define the behaviour of psychoacoustic tests and long latency potentials (P300) in these patients. This was a cross-sectional, comparative and analytical study. We formed a group of patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and a control group with normal levels of homocysteine. All patients underwent audiometry, tympanometry and a selection of psychoacoustic tests (dichotic digits, low-pass filtered words, speech in noise and masking level difference), auditory evoked brainstem potentials and P300. Patients with hyperhomocysteinemia had higher values in the test of masking level difference than did the control group (P=.049) and more protracted latency in P300 (P=.000). Hyperhomocysteinemia is a factor that alters the central auditory functions. Alterations in psychoacoustic tests and disturbances in electrophysiological tests suggest that the central portion of the auditory pathway is affected in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Peritonsillar abscess and cellulitis and their relation to a positive antigen detection test for streptococcal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, Stefan; Engfeldt, Peter; Hugosson, Svante

    2010-10-01

    The microbiological cause of peritonsillar abscess and the role of group A β-haemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) are unclear. We performed a retrospective study at the ear, nose and throat clinic (ENT) of Orebro University Hospital, Sweden, and included 376 events of peritonsillitis between 2002 and 2004. We determined if the patients had visited a primary healthcare centre (PHCC) within 30 days prior to inclusion. The results of the rapid antigen detection test for GAS (Strep A) taken at the PHCC were compared with the occurrence of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) and peritonsillar cellulitis (PTC). A Strep A test was performed in 61% (229/376) of the events studied. Strep A was positive in 22% of PTA events and in 35% of PTC events (p = 0.036). Of 48,000 Strep A tests taken in primary healthcare, mainly for sore throat, 22% were positive. We examined the relationship between age, the incidence of PTA, and positive Strep A tests. We also determined if there was a monthly correlation between number of positive Strep A tests and number of PTA events. We found no significant correlations. In conclusion, our findings indicate that GAS does not play a major role in the development of PTA/PTC.

  11. Influence of relative humidity and physical load during storage on dustiness of inorganic nanomaterials: implications for testing and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Marcus, E-mail: mle@nrcwe.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Micro and Nanotechnology (Denmark); Rojas, Elena [CIC biomaGUNE (Spain); Vanhala, Esa; Vippola, Minnamari [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (Finland); Liguori, Biase; Kling, Kirsten I.; Koponen, Ismo K. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Mølhave, Kristian [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Micro and Nanotechnology (Denmark); Tuomi, Timo [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (Finland); Gregurec, Danijela; Moya, Sergio [CIC biomaGUNE (Spain); Jensen, Keld A. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark)

    2015-08-15

    Dustiness testing using a down-scaled EN15051 rotating drum was used to investigate the effects of storage conditions such as relative humidity and physical loading on the dustiness of five inorganic metal oxide nanostructured powder materials. The tests consisted of measurements of gravimetrical respirable dustiness index and particle size distributions. Water uptake of the powders during 7 days of incubation was investigated as an explanatory factor of the changes. Consequences of these varying storage conditions in exposure modelling were tested using the control banding and risk management tool NanoSafer. Drastic material-specific effects on powder respirable dustiness index were observed with the change in TiO{sub 2} from 30 % RH (639 mg/kg) to 50 % RH (1.5 mg/kg). All five tested materials indicate a decreasing dustiness index with relative humidity increasing from 30 to 70 % RH. Test of powder water uptake showed an apparent link with the decreasing dustiness index. Effects of powder compaction appeared more material specific with both increasing and decreasing dustiness indices observed as an effect of compaction. Tests of control banding exposure models using the measured dustiness indices in three different exposure scenarios showed that in two of the tested materials, one 20 % change in RH changed the exposure banding from the lowest level to the highest. The study shows the importance of powder storage conditions prior to tests for classification of material dustiness indices. It also highlights the importance of correct storage information and relative humidity and expansion of the dustiness test conditions specifically, when using dustiness indices as a primary parameter for source strength in exposure assessment.

  12. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    incline in plasma creatine kinase or myoglobin could be observed days after the test was studied also. Fifteen female fibromyalgia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls performed a stepwise incremental maximal bicycle-ergometer test. Blood samples were collected from a catheter in a cubital vein....... The changes in heart rate, potassium levels, and haematocrit during the exercise test were similar in the two groups. The maximal obtained lactate concentration was 4.2 mmol l-1 (3.5-5.6) in the patients as compared to 4.9 mmol l-1 (3.9-5.9) in the controls (NS). The estimated anaerobic threshold of 2 mmol l...

  13. Evolution of the Mascotte test bench to high pressure operation and related combustor technology issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vingert, L.; Habiballah, M.; Hervat, P. [ONERA, 92 - Chatillon (France); Dugue, F. [CSTM, (France); Vuilermoz, P. [Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents the evolutions of the Mascotte test facility, developed by the Onera to study elementary processes involved in the combustion of cryogenic propellants. Three successive versions of this test facility were built up: a V01 version with only low chamber pressures (< 10 bars) and hydrogen at ambient temperature, a V02 version with a heat exchanger for the cooling of hydrogen down to 100 deg. K which permitted to increase the maximum flow rate of gaseous hydrogen at low pressure with subsonic flow at the injector exit, and a V03 version with supercritical pressures in the combustor and with an increase of the maximum oxygen flow rate. The low and high combustion chambers of the Mascotte test facility are described in a second part: combustors, optimization of metallic modules, heat flux measurements, design of the visualization module, design of the nozzle. (J.S.)

  14. Analysis of the cool down related cavity performance of the European XFEL vertical acceptance tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenskat, Marc; Schaffran, J.

    2017-09-15

    For the European X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) cavity production, the cold radio-frequency (RF) test of the cavities at 2 K after delivery from the two vendors was the mandatory acceptance test. It has been previously reported, that the cool down dynamics of a cavity across T{sub c} has a significant influence on the observed intrinsic quality factor Q{sub 0}, which is a measure of the losses on the inner cavity surface. A total number of 367 cool downs is used to analyze this correlation and we show that such a correlation is not observed during the European XFEL cavity production.

  15. Work-related stress is associated with impaired neuropsychological test performance: a clinical cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Anita; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Vandborg, Sanne Kjær; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often complain about impaired concentration and memory. However, it is undetermined how widespread these impairments are, and which cognitive domains are most long-term stress sensitive. Previous studies show inconsistent results and are difficult to synthesize. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether patients with work-related stress complaints have cognitive impairments compared to a matched control group without stress. Our secondary aim was to examine whether the level of self-reported perceived stress is associated with neuropsychological test performance. We used a broad neuropsychological test battery to assess 59 outpatients with work-related stress complaints (without major depression) and 59 healthy controls. We matched the patients and controls pairwise by sex, age and educational level. Compared to controls, patients generally showed mildly reduced performance across all the measured domains of the neuropsychological test battery. However, only three comparisons reached statistical significance (p working memory. There were no statistical significant associations between self-reported perceived stress level and neuropsychological test performance. In conclusion, we recommend that cognitive functions should be considered when evaluating patients with work-related stress complaints, especially when given advice regarding return to work. Since this study had a cross-sectional design, it is still uncertain whether the impairments are permanent. Further study is required to establish causal links between work-related stress and cognitive deficits.

  16. Testing general relativity with compact coalescing binaries: comparing exact and predictive methods to compute the Bayes factor

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pozzo, Walter; Mandel, Ilya; Vecchio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The second generation of gravitational-wave detectors is scheduled to start operations in 2015. Gravitational-wave signatures of compact binary coalescences could be used to accurately test the strong-field dynamical predictions of general relativity. Computationally expensive data analysis pipelines, including TIGER, have been developed to carry out such tests. As a means to cheaply assess whether a particular deviation from general relativity can be detected, Cornish et al. and Vallisneri recently proposed an approximate scheme to compute the Bayes factor between a general-relativity gravitational-wave model and a model representing a class of alternative theories of gravity parametrised by one additional parameter. This approximate scheme is based on only two easy-to-compute quantities: the signal-to-noise ratio of the signal and the fitting factor between the signal and the manifold of possible waveforms within general relativity. In this work, we compare the prediction from the approximate formula agains...

  17. Criterion-related validity of four clinical tests used to measure hamstring flexibility in professional futsal players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, F; Sainz de Baranda, P; De Ste Croix, M; Santonja, F

    2011-11-01

    To examine the criterion related validity of the sit-and-reach test (SR), toe touch test (TT), modified sit-and-reach test (MSR) and back-saver sit-and-reach test (BSSR) for estimating hamstring flexibility measured through the passive straight leg raise test (PSLR) in professional futsal players. Correlation laboratory study. Controlled laboratory environment. One hundred and three futsal players (55 males age 26 ± 4 years, 48 females age 23 ± 5 years). Two trials of SR, TT, MSR, BSSR (left and right) and PSLR right and left (hamstring criterion measure) in a randomized order. Regression analysis was performed to examine the association of SR, TT, MSR and BSSR with PSLR in both males and females separately. In males, only MSR test had moderate association criterion with PSLR (R(2) = 0.57). In females, SR (R(2) = 0.86), TT (R(2) = 0.85), MSR (R(2) = 0.53) and average BSSR (R(2) = 0.82) were associated with PSLR. SR, TT, MSR and BSSR had moderate criterion related validity for estimating hamstring flexibility in female but not male professional futsal players. The authors recommend that researchers, clinicians, and physical therapists adopt one angular test as a measure of hamstring muscle length in futsal players. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relations between peripheral and brain serotonin measures and behavioural responses in a novelty test in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursinus, Winanda W.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Zonderland, Johan J.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; de Souza, Adriana S.; Koopmanschap, Rudie E.; Kemp, Bas; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Korte, S. Mechiel; van Reenen, Cornelis G.

    2013-01-01

    Pigs differ in their behavioural responses towards environmental challenges. Individual variation in maladaptive responses such as tail biting, may partly originate from underlying biological characteristics related to (emotional) reactivity to challenges and serotonergic system functioning.

  19. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at…

  20. Inequality of Higher Education in China: An Empirical Test Based on the Perspective of Relative Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liming

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to examine what makes Chinese college students dissatisfied with entrance opportunities for higher education. Based on the author's survey data, we test two parameters which could be a potential cause of this dissatisfaction: 1) distributive inequality, which emphasizes the individual's dissatisfaction caused by…

  1. Patch test results of hand eczema patients : relation to clinical types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, M B; Christoffers, W A; Coenraads, P J; Schuttelaar, M L A

    BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis is a well-known cause of hand eczema, although the influence of contact allergens on different clinical types of hand eczema remains still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To identify most common positive tested allergens among hand eczema patients and to define the

  2. An Exploratory Study of Listening Practice Relative to Memory Testing and Lecture in Business Administration Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin T.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the combined impact of a memory test and subsequent listening practice in enhancing student listening abilities in collegiate business administration courses. The article reviews relevant literature and describes an exploratory study that was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of this technique with traditional…

  3. Is procrastination related to sleep quality? Testing an application of the procrastination-health model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sirois, F.M.; van Eerde, W.; Argiropoulou, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on the consequences of procrastination for health and well-being, there is little research focused on testing or explaining the potential links between procrastination and sleep quality. Using the procrastination-health model as our guiding conceptual lens, we

  4. Perceptions of Examiner Behavior Modulate Power Relations in Oral Performance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plough, India C.; Bogart, Pamela S. H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent are the discourse behaviors of examiners salient to participants of an oral performance test? This exploratory study employs a grounded ethnographic approach to investigate the perceptions of the verbal, paralinguistic and nonverbal discourse behaviors of an examiner in a one-on-one role-play task that is one of four tasks in an…

  5. The relation of HIV testing and treatment to identity formation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing upon the notion of 'therapeutic citizenship' I examine why the 'AIDS industry' continues to symbolise such tension. I explore how individuals believe their identity will shift through participation in HIV testing and treatment options and how that might impact long-term and short-term livelihood strategies. Keywords: ...

  6. Test for Nonlinear Input Output Relations in SISO Systems by Preliminary Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses and develops preliminary statistical tests for detecting nonlinearities in the deterministic part of SISO systems with noise. The most referenced method is unreliable for common noise processes as e.g.\\ colored. Therefore two new methods based on superposition and sinus input...

  7. Perceived social structural relations and group stereotypes : A test of the Stereotype Content Model in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Heleen; Verkuijten, Maykel; Khan, Aqeel

    2015-01-01

    Using data from two studies, the current research tests the Stereotype Content Model (SCM) within a Malaysian context using Chinese and ethnic Malay participants. The aim of the research is to examine the theoretical underpinnings of the SCM in a new context by investigating the role of aspects of

  8. US-Korea Relations: Summitry, Strength, and a Fourth Nuclear Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephen Noerper

    2016-01-01

    ... Korea prepared for a fourth nuclear test, which came on January 6. September began with an easing of inter-Korean tensions and Pres Park Geun-hye's visit to Beijing for a military parade marking the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II...

  9. Physical capacity and the motor tests relative for the health promotion in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses physical capacity and health-promotion-oriented motor tests in children and adolescents, in order to provide a foundation for future studies that intend to debate this topic. The idea of evaluating physical activity levels in a population is aimed to determine the level of physical fi tness, and to verify that this is in line with criteria for good health. From a functional point of view, .good health is defined by the following components: body composition (not considered in this article, strength, muscular endurance capacity and fl exibility. These components are measured by test batteries that are intended to measure the health of individuals and/or populations. The starting point for this debate is the published reference literature that classifi es motor tests as either norm-referenced or criterion-referenced standards. RESUMO Este artigo discute as capacidades físicas e os testes motores voltados à promoção da saúde em crianças e adolescentes, de forma a subsidiar trabalhos em que este tema esteja em voga. A idéia de avaliar a atividade física em uma população é baseada no desejo de determinar o estado de atividade atual da mesma, e verifi car se ela está de acordo com os critérios apropriados para uma boa saúde. Do ponto de vista morfofuncional, uma boa “saúde relatada” é defi nida a partir dos componentes: composição corporal (não abordado neste trabalho, força e resistência muscular e fl exibilidade, componentes estes que são verifi cados a partir da aplicação de testes ou baterias de testes que pretendem medir e verifi car os níveis individuais e/ou populacionais de saúde relatada. A literatura de referência, que classifi ca os testes motores como referenciados a partir de normas ou critérios é o ponto de partida para esse debate.

  10. Effects of dark energy perturbations on cosmological tests of general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, Jason N.; Ishak, Mustapha

    2013-11-01

    Cosmological tests to distinguish between dark energy (DE) and modifications to gravity are a promising route to obtain clues on the origin of cosmic acceleration. We study here the robustness of these tests to the presence of DE density, velocity, and anisotropic stress perturbations. We find that the dispersion in the growth index parameter remains small enough to distinguish between extreme cases of DE models and some commonly used modified gravity models. The sign of the slope parameter for a redshift-dependent growth index was found to be inconsistent as an additional test in extreme cases of DE models with perturbations. Next, we studied the effect of DE perturbations on the modified growth (MG) parameters that enter the perturbed Einstein equations. We find that while the dark energy perturbations affect the MG parameters, the deviations remain smaller than those due to modified gravity models. Additionally, the deviations due to DE perturbations with a nonzero effective sound speed occur at scale ranges that are completely different than those due to some modified gravity models such as the f(R) models. In the case of modified gravity models with zero anisotropic stress at late times, the simultaneous determination of the effective dark energy equation of state and the MG parameters can provide the distinction between these models and DE. The growth index test was found to be the most robust to these perturbations. The scale dependence of the MG parameters in some cases of modified gravity constitutes a clear-cut discriminant regardless of any DE perturbations. In summary, we find that the currently proposed cosmological tests to distinguish between DE and modified gravity are robust to DE perturbations even for extreme cases. This is certainly the case even for DE models with equations of state of DE that fall well outside of current cosmological constraints.

  11. Relations between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Guvenc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine relations occurring between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds. In this study, seeds of six lots ('Kalem', 'Ala', 'Ínegöl-A, B, C and D' from three cultivars of leek and seven onion cultivars ('Early Texas Grano' (ETG, 'Panku', 'Storm', 'Banko', 'Aki', 'Kisagün' and 'Banka' seeds were used as plant material and their viability was evaluated in boiling water test (BWT, standard germination test (SGT and field emergence (FE. The percentage of field emergence was evaluated at three sowing times: 20 May (FE-I, 10 June (FE-II and 20 July (FE-III. The mean germination of leek seeds varied from 77.5% to 100.0% and from 36.0% to 61.0% in SGT and BWT, respectively. While the range of results obtained in the boiling water test was from 38.5% to 60.0%, the range of results of the standard germination test was from 81.0% to 100.0% in onion seeds. The range of field emergence was between 18.5% ('Kisagün', FE-III and 72.0% (İnegöl-C', FE-II. Besides, the boiling water test was correlated highly significantly with SGT (r = 0.670**, FE-I (r = 0.923**, FE-II (r = 0.906** and FE-III (r = 0.939** in leek seeds. Similarly, BWT showed positive correlation with SGT (r = 0.568**, FE-I (r = 0.844**, FE-II (r = 0.933** and FE-III (r = 0.858** in onion seeds. In conclusion, the boiling water test is a new and reliable technique to test seed viability and it has a great potential to test rapidly germination and field emergence of leek and onion seeds at different sowing times.

  12. Histological analysis and identification of spermatogenesis-related genes in 2-, 6-, and 12-month-old sheep testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Man; Sun, Limin; Zhao, Jia; Xiang, Lujie; Cheng, Xiaoyin; Li, Jiarong; Jia, Chao; Jiang, Huaizhi

    2017-09-25

    Testis development and spermatogenesis are vital factors that influence male animal fertility. In order to identify spermatogenesis-related genes and further provide a theory basis for finding biomarkers related to male sheep fertility, 2-, 6-, and 12-month-old Small Tail Han Sheep testes were selected to investigate the dynamic changes of sheep testis development. Hematoxylin-eosin routine staining and RNA-Seq technique were used to perform histological and transcriptome analysis for these testes. The results showed that 630, 102, and 322 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in 2- vs 6-month-old, 6- vs 12-month-old, and 2- vs 12-month-old testes, respectively. GO and KEGG analysis showed the following: DEGs in 2- vs 6-month-old testes were mainly related to the GO terms of sexual maturation and the pathways of multiple metabolism and biosynthesis; in 6- vs 12-month-old testes, most of the GO terms that DEGs involved in were related to metabolism and translation processes; the most significantly enriched pathway is the ribosome pathway. The union of DEGs in 2- vs 6-month-old, 6- vs 12-month-old, and 2- vs 12-month-old testes was categorized into eight profiles by series cluster. Subsequently, the eight profiles were classified into four model profiles and four co-expression networks were constructed based on the DEGs in these model profiles. Finally, 29 key regulatory genes related to spermatogenesis were identified in the four co-expression networks. The expression of 13 DEGs (CA3, APOH, MYOC, CATSPER4, SYT6, SERPINA10, DAZL, ADIPOR2, RAB13, CEP41, SPAG4, ODF1, and FRG1) was validated by RT-PCR.

  13. Histological analysis and identification of spermatogenesis-related genes in 2-, 6-, and 12-month-old sheep testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Man; Sun, Limin; Zhao, Jia; Xiang, Lujie; Cheng, Xiaoyin; Li, Jiarong; Jia, Chao; Jiang, Huaizhi

    2017-10-01

    Testis development and spermatogenesis are vital factors that influence male animal fertility. In order to identify spermatogenesis-related genes and further provide a theory basis for finding biomarkers related to male sheep fertility, 2-, 6-, and 12-month-old Small Tail Han Sheep testes were selected to investigate the dynamic changes of sheep testis development. Hematoxylin-eosin routine staining and RNA-Seq technique were used to perform histological and transcriptome analysis for these testes. The results showed that 630, 102, and 322 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in 2- vs 6-month-old, 6- vs 12-month-old, and 2- vs 12-month-old testes, respectively. GO and KEGG analysis showed the following: DEGs in 2- vs 6-month-old testes were mainly related to the GO terms of sexual maturation and the pathways of multiple metabolism and biosynthesis; in 6- vs 12-month-old testes, most of the GO terms that DEGs involved in were related to metabolism and translation processes; the most significantly enriched pathway is the ribosome pathway. The union of DEGs in 2- vs 6-month-old, 6- vs 12-month-old, and 2- vs 12-month-old testes was categorized into eight profiles by series cluster. Subsequently, the eight profiles were classified into four model profiles and four co-expression networks were constructed based on the DEGs in these model profiles. Finally, 29 key regulatory genes related to spermatogenesis were identified in the four co-expression networks. The expression of 13 DEGs (CA3, APOH, MYOC, CATSPER4, SYT6, SERPINA10, DAZL, ADIPOR2, RAB13, CEP41, SPAG4, ODF1, and FRG1) was validated by RT-PCR.

  14. Informational content, literacy demands, and usability of websites offering health-related genetic tests directly to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Christina R; Erby, Lori A H; Ford, Beth M; Allen, Vincent C; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2010-05-01

    As direct-to-consumer genetic testing becomes more available, a diverse group of consumers, including those with limited health literacy, may consider testing. In light of concerns raised about direct-to-consumer genetic testing, this study sought to critically examine whether the informational content, literacy demands, and usability of health-related direct-to-consumer websites met existing recommendations. A content analysis was performed on 29 health-related direct-to-consumer websites. Two coders independently evaluated each website for informational content (e.g., benefits, limitations), literacy demands (e.g., reading level), and usability (e.g., ease of navigation). Most sites presented health conditions and some markers for which they tested, benefits of testing, a description of the testing process, and their privacy policy. Fewer cited scientific literature, explained test limitations, or provided an opportunity to consult a health professional. Key informational content was difficult to locate on most sites. Few sites gave sample disease risk estimates or used common language and explained technical terms consistently. Average reading level was grade 15. The quality of informational content, literacy demands, and usability across health-related direct-to-consumer websites varied widely. Many users would struggle to find and understand the important information. For consumers to better understand the content on these sites and evaluate the meaning of the tests for their health, sites should lower the demands placed on users by distilling and prioritizing the key informational content while simultaneously attending to the reading level and usability elements. In the absence of regulation compelling such changes, government agencies or professional organizations may need to increase consumer and provider awareness of these issues.

  15. Experimental Test of the State Estimation-Reversal Tradeoff Relation in General Quantum Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When a measurement has limited strength, only partial information, regarding the initial state, is extracted, and, correspondingly, there is a probability to reverse its effect on the system and retrieve the original state. Recently, a clear and direct quantitative description of this complementary relationship, in terms of a tradeoff relation, was developed by Y. K. Cheong and S. W. Lee. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 150402 (2012]. Here, this tradeoff relation is experimentally verified using polarization-encoded single photons from a quantum dot. Measurement operators representing a complete range, from not affecting the system to a projection to a single polarization state, are realized. In addition, for each measurement operator, an optimal reversal operator is also implemented. The upper bound of the tradeoff relation is mapped to experimental parameters representing the measurement strength. Our results complement the theoretical work and provide a hands-on characterization of general quantum measurements.

  16. Transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analytic test of their relative validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Piccolo, Ronald F

    2004-10-01

    This study provided a comprehensive examination of the full range of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership. Results (based on 626 correlations from 87 sources) revealed an overall validity of .44 for transformational leadership, and this validity generalized over longitudinal and multisource designs. Contingent reward (.39) and laissez-faire (-.37) leadership had the next highest overall relations; management by exception (active and passive) was inconsistently related to the criteria. Surprisingly, there were several criteria for which contingent reward leadership had stronger relations than did transformational leadership. Furthermore, transformational leadership was strongly correlated with contingent reward (.80) and laissez-faire (-.65) leadership. Transformational and contingent reward leadership generally predicted criteria controlling for the other leadership dimensions, although transformational leadership failed to predict leader job performance. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Is procrastination related to sleep quality? Testing an application of the procrastination-health model

    OpenAIRE

    Sirois, F.; van Eerde, W.; Argiropoulou, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on the consequences of procrastination for health and well-being, there is little research focused on testing or explaining the potential links between procrastination and sleep quality. Using the procrastination–health model as our guiding conceptual lens, we addressed this gap by examining how and why trait procrastination may be linked to various dimensions of sleep quality across two student samples. In Study 1, procrastination was associated with feelin...

  18. Dental Student Study Strategies: Are Self-Testing and Scheduling Related to Academic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Maureen; Morrow, Christina S; Atiyeh, Lindsey; Pierre, Gaëlle C

    2016-05-01

    Self-testing, a strategy wherein a student actively engages in creating questions and answers from study materials to assist with studying, has been found to be especially advantageous because it enhances future retrieval of information. Studies have found correlations among students' grade point averages (GPAs), self-testing, and rereading study strategies, as well as the spacing of study sessions over time. The aim of this study was to assess relationships among dental students' study strategies, scheduling of study time, and academic achievement. A 16-item survey requesting information on study habits, study schedules, and GPAs was distributed to 358 second-year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry. Additionally, the survey asked students to report the average number of hours per week they devoted to studying for didactic courses and preparing for hands-on preclinical courses. Of the 358 students, 94 (26%) responded to the survey. The vast majority of the respondents reported utilizing self-testing and rereading study strategies. High performers (with higher GPAs) were more likely to use self-testing, especially with flashcards, and to space their studying over multiple sessions. Lower performing students were more likely to highlight or underline their notes and to mass their study sessions or cram. Longer hours devoted to studying and practicing for simulation courses were associated with stronger performance; lower performers reported spending significantly fewer hours practicing for simulation courses. Half of the dental students surveyed said that they felt their studying would be more productive in the morning, although 84% reported doing most of their studying in the evening or late night. Sound study decisions depend on accurate regulation of ongoing learning and appropriate use and timing of evidence-based study strategies, so these results suggest that dental students may require guidance in these areas.

  19. Oral but not written test anxiety is related to social anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin-Barantke, Lisa; Hoyer, Jürgen; Fehm, Lydia; Knappe, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the associations of test anxiety (TA) in written vs oral exam situations with social anxiety (SA). METHODS A convenience sample of 204 students was recruited at the Technische Universität Dresden (TU Dresden, Germany) and contacted via e-mail asking to complete a cross-sectional online survey based on established questionnaires. The study protocol was approved by the ethics committee of the TU Dresden. Full data of n = 96 students were available for dependent t-tests and correlation analyses on the associations of SA and TA respectively with trigger events, cognitions, safety behaviors, physical symptoms and depersonalization. Analyses were run using SPSS. RESULTS Levels of TA were higher for fear in oral exams than for fear in written exams (M = 48.1, SD = 11.5 vs M = 43.7, SD = 10.1 P 0.05; Pearson’s r = 0.223, P > 0.05). Compared to written TA, trigger events were more often reported for oral TA (18.2% vs 30.3%, P = 0.007); which was also accompanied more often by test-anxious cognitions (7.9% vs 8.5%, P = 0.001), safety behavior (8.9% vs 10.3%, P < 0.001) and physical symptoms (for all, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Written, but not oral TA emerged being unrelated to SA and may rather not be considered as a typical facet of SA disorder. PMID:27679775

  20. The relative utility of the autologous control and the antiglobulin test phase of the crossmatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, J T; Arruza, M; Fong, K; Sosler, S D; Saporito, C

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective study of pretransfusion testing records compared the utility of the antiglobulin test (AGT) phase of the crossmatch and the autologous control (autocontrol) for detecting clinically significant alloimmunization to red cells (RBCs). Of 110,780 consecutive crossmatches, 141 were positive after a negative antibody screening test; only 4 of these were due to alloantibodies of potential clinical significance, for a predictive value of a positive AGT crossmatch, after a negative antibody screen, of 2.8 percent (4/141). The frequency of potentially shortened RBC survival was 1 in 27,685 units crossmatched. During a similar period, 56,090 autocontrols were performed with the antibody screen. The autocontrol was positive on 902 samples in which the antibody screen was negative. Antibody identification performed in 684 cases generally yielded only cold or warm autoagglutinins. In 96 cases, some form of alloantibody was detected, but only 25 had potential clinical significance by our criteria. Eight of these alloantibodies had concurrently caused in vivo sensitization of RBCs and were classified as delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. The predictive value of the autocontrol, calculated as the number of significant alloantibodies detected in autocontrol-positive, antibody-screen-negative samples, was 3.6 percent (25/684). Inspection of these cases revealed 11 in which shortened RBC survival might have resulted if the serologic abnormality had not been detected. Thus, the autocontrol had a slightly greater yield of clinically significant findings than the AGT crossmatch.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Vision-related fitness to drive mobility scooters: A practical driving test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Christina; Heutink, Joost; Tucha, Oliver M; Brookhuis, Karel A; Brouwer, Wiebo H; Melis-Dankers, Bart J M

    2017-03-06

    To investigate practical fitness to drive mobility scooters, comparing visually impaired participants with healthy controls. Between-subjects design. Forty-six visually impaired (13 with very low visual acuity, 10 with low visual acuity, 11 with peripheral field defects, 12 with multiple visual impairment) and 35 normal-sighted controls. Participants completed a practical mobility scooter test-drive, which was recorded on video. Two independent occupational therapists specialized in orientation and mobility evaluated the videos systematically. Approximately 90% of the visually impaired participants passed the driving test. On average, participants with visual impairments performed worse than normal-sighted controls, but were judged sufficiently safe. In particular, difficulties were observed in participants with peripheral visual field defects and those with a combination of low visual acuity and visual field defects. People with visual impairment are, in practice, fit to drive mobility scooters; thus visual impairment on its own should not be viewed as a determinant of safety to drive mobility scooters. However, special attention should be paid to individuals with visual field defects with or without a combined low visual acuity. The use of an individual practical fitness-to-drive test is advised.

  2. An empirical test of competing theories of hazard-related trust: the case of GM food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allum, Nick

    2007-08-01

    Few scholars doubt the importance of trust in explaining variation in public perception of technological risk. Relatively little, however, is known about the particular types of judgments that people use in granting or withholding trust. This article presents findings from an empirical study that explores several dimensions of trust relevant for citizens' judgments of scientists involved in the development of GM food. The relationship between particular dimensions of trust and perceptions of GM food risk is also explored, using structural equation modeling. Results suggest that trust judgments based on the perception of shared values are most important in relation to GM food risk, but that judgments about scientists' technical competence are also important.

  3. Corrigendum to ;Testing general relativity on accelerators; [Phys. Lett. B 750 (2015) 112-116

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran

    2017-11-01

    I worked on Ref. [1] initially, but disagreement with the author of Ref. [1] on the physical conclusions led to this work. As a result there are textual overlaps with Ref. [1]. The paper differs in many ways from Ref. [1] and, even though some of the mathematical expressions look similar on a superficial level, I obtained opposite conclusions to the ones proposed in Ref. [1]. In particular, Ref. [1] states that the considered experiments contradict general relativity, while I state that they confirm validity of the general relativity within the given experimental precision.

  4. Derivation and validation of a simple exercise-based algorithm for prediction of genetic testing in relatives of LQTS probands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sy, Raymond W.; van der Werf, Christian; Chattha, Ishvinder S.; Chockalingam, Priya; Adler, Arnon; Healey, Jeffrey S.; Perrin, Mark; Gollob, Michael H.; Skanes, Allan C.; Yee, Raymond; Gula, Lorne J.; Leong-Sit, Peter; Viskin, Sami; Klein, George J.; Wilde, Arthur A.; Krahn, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic testing can diagnose long-QT syndrome (LQTS) in asymptomatic relatives of patients with an identified mutation; however, it is costly and subject to availability. The accuracy of a simple algorithm that incorporates resting and exercise ECG parameters for screening LQTS in asymptomatic

  5. Sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms and adolescents' experience with sexual behavior : Testing an integrative model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Reitz, Ellen; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-01-01

    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model

  6. Risk of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Relation to Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Testing, Repeat Testing, and Positivity: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reekie, Joanne; Donovan, Basil; Guy, Rebecca; Hocking, Jane S; Kaldor, John M; Mak, Donna B; Pearson, Sallie; Preen, David; Stewart, Louise; Ward, James; Liu, Bette

    2017-11-09

    There is uncertainty around whether the risks of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) differ following Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) infection. We quantified the risk of PID associated with chlamydia and gonorrhea infection and subsequent repeat infections in a whole-population cohort. A cohort of 315123 Western Australian women, born during 1974-1995, was probabilistically linked to chlamydia and gonorrhea testing records and to hospitalizations and emergency department presentations for PID from 2002 to 2013. Time-updated survival analysis was used to investigate the association between chlamydia and gonorrhea testing, and positivity, and risk of PID. Over 3199135 person-years, 120748 women had pathology test records for both chlamydia and gonorrhea, 10745 chlamydia only, and 653 gonorrhea only. Among those tested, 16778 (12.8%) had ≥1 positive chlamydia test, 3195 (2.6%) ≥1 positive gonorrhea test, and 1874 (1.6%) were positive for both. There were 4819 PID presentations (2222 hospitalizations, 2597 emergency presentations). Adjusting for age, Aboriginality, year of follow-up, health area, and socioeconomic status, compared to women negative for chlamydia and gonorrhea, the relative risk (adjusted incidence rate ratio) of PID was 4.29 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.66-5.03) in women who were both chlamydia and gonorrhea positive; 4.54 (95% CI, 3.87-5.33) in those only gonorrhea positive; and 1.77 (95% CI, 1.61-1.94) in those only chlamydia positive. Gonorrhea infection conferred a substantially higher risk than chlamydia of hospitalization or emergency department presentation for PID. The emergence of gonorrhea antimicrobial resistance may have a serious impact on rates of PID and its associated reproductive health sequelae.

  7. Laboratory and Field Studies Related to Radionuclide Migration at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. A. Martinez; D. L. Finnegan; Joseph L. Thompson; K. S. Kung

    1999-03-01

    In this report, we describe the work done in FY 1998 at Los Alamos National Laboratory as part of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMA) funded by the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE/NV). The major part of our research effort was to measure radionuclides present in water or soil samples collected from near nuclear tests. We report our measurements for materials collected in both saturated and unsaturated horizons adjacent to nuclear test cavities or collapse chimneys and from within several cavities. Soil samples collected from above the cavities formed by the Halfbeak, Jerboa, and Bobac tests contained no radioactivity, although a test similar to Bobac in the same area had been contaminated with {sup 137}Cs. Water samples from near the Shoal test contained no measurable radionuclides, whereas those from near Faultless and Aleman had concentrations similar to previous measurements. Water from the Tybo-Benham site was similar to earlier collections at that site; this year, we added {sup 241}Am to the list of radionuclides measured at this location. Two Bennett pumps in tandem were used to extract water from the piezometer tube in the cavity of the Dalhart event. This extraction is a significant achievement in that it opens the possibility of purging similar tubes at other locations on the NTS. The Cheshire post shot hole was reconfigured and pumped from two horizons for the first time since mid-1980. We are especially interested in examining water from the level of the working point to determine the hydrologic source term in a cavity filled with groundwater for over 20 years. We devoted much time this year to examining the colloid content of NTS groundwater. After developing protocols for collecting, handling, and storing groundwater samples without altering their colloid content, we analyzed water from the Tybo-Benham and from the Cheshire sites. Whereas the colloid concentration did not vary much with depth at Tybo

  8. Test-retest reliability of Antonovsky's 13-item sense of coherence scale in patients with hand-related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice Ørts; Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Cederlund, Ragnhild

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report on the distribution and test-retest reliability of Antonovsky's 13-item Sense of Coherence (SOC-13) Scale in patients with hand-related disorders (HRD). Links between the SOC-13 score and factors such as age, number of days between date of injury and start of rehabilitation......, gender and educational level were explored. METHOD: Survey with test-retest, using self-administered questionnaire. SOC-13 was completed before starting rehabilitation at an outpatient clinic after 14 days and three months. Adult patients with HRD were included. RESULTS: A total of 170 participants...... to be a powerful tool to measure the ICF component personal factors, which could have an impact on patients' rehabilitation outcomes. Implications for rehabilitation Antonovsky's SOC-13 scale showed test-retest reliability for patients with hand-related disorders. The SOC-13 scale could be a suitable tool to help...

  9. Assessment of a relative contribution of terrestrial background radiation in the test field by using RADIAGEMTM 2000 portable survey meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdić Senada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the radiological investigation of terrestrial gamma radiation in the test field with soil samples from different minefields in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Measurements of ambient dose equivalent rate, commonly referred to as “air dose rate”, in the test field located in the Tuzla Canton, were performed by RADIAGEMTM 2000 portable survey meter, based on energy-compensated Geiger-Muller counter. Its performances were tested in the laboratory conditions with gamma point sources. Since all the samples in the test field were exposed to the same cosmic radiation, there was a possibility to assess a relative contribution of terrestrial gamma radiation due to soil samples of different composition. One set of measurements in the test field was performed with RADIAGEMTM 2000, at a height of about one meter above the ground and basic statistical parameters indicated that there was no significant difference of terrestrial gamma radiation from different soil samples. The other set of measurements was carried out with the same device placed on the ground in the test field. Processing of experimental data on terrestrial gamma radiation has shown that it was possible to make a difference between relative contributions of terrestrial gamma radiation from individual soil samples. The results of investigation could be useful for multiple purposes of public interest.

  10. Testing a mobile mindful eating intervention targeting craving-related eating: feasibility and proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley E; Jhaveri, Kinnari; Cohn, Michael; Brewer, Judson A

    2017-09-16

    Theoretically driven smartphone-delivered behavioral interventions that target mechanisms underlying eating behavior are lacking. In this study, we administered a 28-day self-paced smartphone-delivered intervention rooted in an operant conditioning theoretical framework that targets craving-related eating using mindful eating practices. At pre-intervention and 1-month post-intervention, we assessed food cravings among adult overweight or obese women (N = 104; M age = 46.2 ± 14.1 years; M BMI = 31.5 ± 4.5) using ecological momentary assessment via text message (SMS), self-reported eating behavior (e.g., trait food craving), and in-person weight. Seventy-eight participants (75.0%) completed the intervention within 7 months ('all completers'), and of these, 64 completed the intervention within 3 months ('timely completers'). Participants experienced significant reductions in craving-related eating (40.21% reduction; p mindful eating training targeting craving-related eating may (1) target behavior that impacts a relative metabolic pathway, and (2) represent a low-burden and highly disseminable method to reduce problematic overeating among overweight individuals. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT02694731.

  11. School Public Relations: Helping an American Institution Pass Its Most Crucial Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    The professional discipline of strategic public relations offers many benefits to organizations. It helps them prevent and mitigate crises. It allows them to identify and manage issues that may interfere with their goals and objectives. It also leads them in building and maintaining quality relationships with strategic publics. However, can the…

  12. Decision making about healthcare-related tests and diagnostic test strategies. Paper 3: a systematic review shows limitations in most tools designed to assess quality and develop recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Reem A; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Falavigna, Maicon; Zhang, Yuan; Ivanova, Liudmila; Arevalo-Rodriguez, Ingrid; Cheung, Adrienne; Prediger, Barbara; Ventresca, Matthew; Brozek, Jan; Santesso, Nancy; Bossuyt, Patrick; Garg, Amit X; Lloyd, Nancy; Lelgemann, Monika; Bühler, Diedrich; Schünemann, Holger J

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and describe critical appraisal tools designed for assessing the quality of evidence (QoE) and/or strength of recommendations (SoRs) related to health care-related tests and diagnostic strategies (HCTDSs). We conducted a systematic review to identify tools applied in guidelines, methodological articles, and systematic reviews to assess HCTDS. We screened 5,534 titles and abstracts, 1,004 full-text articles, and abstracted data from 330 references. We identified 29 tools and 14 modifications of existing tools for assessing QoE and SoR. Twenty-three out of 29 tools acknowledge the importance of assessing the QoE and SoR separately, but in 8, the SoR is based solely on QoE. When making decisions about the use of tests, patient values and preferences and impact on resource utilization were considered in 6 and 8 tools, respectively. There is also confusion about the terminology that describes the various factors that influence the QoE and SoR. Although at least one approach includes all relevant criteria for assessing QoE and determining SoR, more detailed guidance about how to operationalize these assessments and make related judgments will be beneficial. There is a need for a better description of the framework for using evidence to make decisions and develop recommendations about HCTDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conceptual design of severe accident free HTR and related test program of HTTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Tachibana, Yukio; Saikusa, Akio; Sawa, Kazuhiro [Department of HTTR Project, Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute JAERI, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    The SFHTR (Severe Accident Free HTR) is a prototype design for a next generation reactor. It is suitable for widespread deployment by virtue of its inherent safety features and very long refueling interval. Furthermore, its inherent safety features can be demonstrated by full scale tests. Many of these features may be demonstrated in the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor). The SFHTR is designed to have a probability of severe accident at least two orders lower than existing systems. The fuel will not exceed its failure temperature even in the event of complete loss of coolant or complete withdrawal of two control rods. A unique configuration of burnable poisons allows a fuel cycle of 16 years and a burnup exceeding 120 GWd/ton. This feature promises very high availability and good economics. We have designed two SFHTR systems. The larger one, the MSFHTR, has a 450-600 MW thermal capacity, and is intended for the production of hydrogen and electricity. The smaller SSFHTR is intended for remote areas, off the electrical grid, for simultaneous production of electricity and desalinated water. The SSFHTR can produce 23.5 MWe plus 40 ton/hr of water with a net efficiency of 47%. The HTTR is capable of conducting full scale simulation testing of key SFHTR design features, to confirm and extend the designs, and as a first step in convincing the public and the licensing authority of the validity of demonstrable inherent safety. This paper describes design features of a 50 MW SFHTR focusing on the safety concept, safety evaluation, and core design. 18 refs.

  14. Systematic Functional Testing of Rare Variants: Contributions of CFI to Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Perciliz L; Garrett, Melanie E; Willer, Jason R; Campochiaro, Peter A; Campochiaro, Betsy; Zack, Donald J; Ashley-Koch, Allison E; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    Genome-wide association (GWAS) and sequencing studies for AMD have highlighted the importance of coding variants at loci that encode components of the complement pathway. However, assessing the contribution of such alleles to AMD, especially when they are rare, remains coarse, in part because of the persistent challenge in establishing their functional relevance. Others and we have shown previously that rare alleles in complement factor I (CFI) can be tested functionally using a surrogate in vivo assay of retinal vascularization in zebrafish embryos. Here, we have implemented and scaled these tools to assess the overall contribution of rare alleles in CFI to AMD. We performed targeted sequencing of CFI in 731 AMD patients, followed by replication in a second patient cohort of 511 older healthy individuals. Systematic functional testing of all alleles and post-hoc statistical analysis of functional variants was also performed. We discovered 20 rare coding nonsynonymous variants, including the previously reported G119R allele. In vivo testing led to the identification of nine variants that alter CFI; six of which are associated with hypoactive complement factor I (FI). Post-hoc analysis in ethnically matched, population controls showed six of these to be present exclusively in cases. Taken together, our data argue that multiple rare and ultra-rare alleles in CFI contribute to AMD pathogenesis; they improve the precision of the assessment of the contribution of CFI to AMD; and they offer a rational route to establishing both causality and direction of allele effect for genes associated with this disorder.

  15. Surface self-potential patterns related to transmissive fracture trends during a water injection test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesRoches, A. J.; Butler, K. E.; MacQuarrie, K. TB

    2018-03-01

    Variations in self-potential (SP) signals were recorded over an electrode array during a constant head injection test in a fractured bedrock aquifer. Water was injected into a 2.2 m interval isolated between two inflatable packers at 44 m depth in a vertical well. Negative SP responses were recorded on surface corresponding to the start of the injection period with strongest magnitudes recorded in electrodes nearest the well. SP response decreased in magnitude at electrodes further from the well. Deflation of the packer system resulted in a strong reversal in the SP signal. Anomalous SP patterns observed at surface at steady state were found to be aligned with dominant fracture strike orientations found within the test interval. Numerical modelling of fluid and current flow within a simplified fracture network showed that azimuthal patterns in SP are mainly controlled by transmissive fracture orientations. The strongest SP gradients occur parallel to hydraulic gradients associated with water flowing out of the transmissive fractures into the tighter matrix and other less permeable cross-cutting fractures. Sensitivity studies indicate that increasing fracture frequency near the well increases the SP magnitude and enhances the SP anomaly parallel to the transmissive set. Decreasing the length of the transmissive fractures leads to more fluid flow into the matrix and into cross-cutting fractures proximal to the well, resulting in a more circular and higher magnitude SP anomaly. Results from the field experiment and modelling provide evidence that surface-based SP monitoring during constant head injection tests has the ability to identify groundwater flow pathways within a fractured bedrock aquifer.

  16. Identification of exponent from load-deformation relation for soft materials from impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciornei, F. C.; Alaci, S.; Romanu, I. C.; Ciornei, M. C.; Sopon, G.

    2018-01-01

    When two bodies are brought into contact, the magnitude of occurring reaction forces increase together with the amplitude of deformations. The load-deformation dependency of two contacting bodies is described by a function having the form F = Cxα . An accurate illustration of this relationship assumes finding the precise coefficient C and exponent α. This representation proved to be very useful in hardness tests, in dynamic systems modelling or in considerations upon the elastic-plastic ratio concerning a Hertzian contact. The classical method for identification of the exponent consists in finding it from quasi-static tests. The drawback of the method is the fact that the accurate estimation of the exponent supposes precise identification of the instant of contact initiation. To overcome this aspect, the following observation is exploited: during an impact process, the dissipated energy is converted into heat released by internal friction in the materials and energy for plastic deformations. The paper is based on the remark that for soft materials the hysteresis curves obtained for a static case are similar to the ones obtained for medium velocities. Furthermore, utilizing the fact that for the restitution phase the load-deformation dependency is elastic, a method for finding the α exponent for compression phase is proposed. The maximum depth of the plastic deformations obtained for a series of collisions, by launching, from different heights, a steel ball in free falling on an immobile prism made of soft material, is evaluated by laser profilometry method. The condition that the area of the hysteresis loop equals the variation of kinetical energy of the ball is imposed and two tests are required for finding the exponent. Five collisions from different launching heights of the ball were taken into account. For all the possible impact-pair cases, the values of the exponent were found and close values were obtained.

  17. Testing the Independence of Multiple Personality Factors in Relation to Health Among Community-Dwelling Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagula, Stephen F; Faulkner, Kimberly; Scheier, Michael F; Tindle, Hilary A; Cauley, Jane A

    2016-06-01

    We assessed associations between specific personality factors and health, and tested whether specific personality factors were related to health outcomes independent of each other. We performed cross-sectional analyses of personality and health among a sample of community-dwelling older men (n = 613, M age = 81.4, SD = 5.04 years) living in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Personality factors (dispositional optimism, conscientiousness, and goal adjustment) were crudely related to both physical and mental health, but adjusting for other personality factors completely attenuated several of these associations. Conscientiousness remained uniquely related to every physical and mental health outcome. Optimism remained uniquely related to all health outcomes, except physical activity (which was more highly related to conscientiousness and goal adjustment). Associations between goal adjustment and probable depression appeared to be explained by conscientiousness and optimism. Correlations among multiple aspects of personality may mask unique associations of specific personality aspects with successful aging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Assessing health-related fitness tests in the school setting: reliability, feasibility and safety; the ALPHA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España-Romero, V; Artero, E G; Jimenez-Pavón, D; Cuenca-Garcia, M; Ortega, F B; Castro-Piñero, J; Sjöstrom, M; Castillo-Garzon, M J; Ruiz, J R

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability, feasibility and safety of a health-related fitness test battery administered by Physical Education (PE) teachers in the school setting. Six PE teachers, from three primary schools and three secondary schools, assessed twice (7 days apart) the 20 m shuttle run, handgrip and standing long jump tests, as well as weight, stature, triceps and subscapular thickness and waist circumference in 58 children (age: 6-11 yr) and 80 adolescents (age: 12-18 yr). Feasibility and safety were assessed by researches by means of direct observation. Significant inter-trial differences were found for the standing long jump test (3.8+/-12.7 cm, Pfitness tests administered by PE teachers are reliable, feasible and safe to be performed in the school setting. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  19. Single-field consistency relations of large scale structure part III: test of the equivalence principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creminelli, Paolo [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Gleyzes, Jérôme; Vernizzi, Filippo [CEA, Institut de Physique Théorique, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 France (France); Hui, Lam [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10027 (United States); Simonović, Marko, E-mail: creminel@ictp.it, E-mail: jerome.gleyzes@cea.fr, E-mail: lhui@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: msimonov@sissa.it, E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    The recently derived consistency relations for Large Scale Structure do not hold if the Equivalence Principle (EP) is violated. We show it explicitly in a toy model with two fluids, one of which is coupled to a fifth force. We explore the constraints that galaxy surveys can set on EP violation looking at the squeezed limit of the 3-point function involving two populations of objects. We find that one can explore EP violations of order 10{sup −3}÷10{sup −4} on cosmological scales. Chameleon models are already very constrained by the requirement of screening within the Solar System and only a very tiny region of the parameter space can be explored with this method. We show that no violation of the consistency relations is expected in Galileon models.

  20. Associative vocabulary learning: development and testing of two paradigms for the (re-) acquisition of action- and object-related words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects and actions. Words and what they stand for are supposed to be grounded in perceptual and sensorimotor brain circuits depending on their meaning. If there are specific brain representations for different word categories, we hypothesized behavioural differences in the learning of action-related and object-related words. Paradigm A, with the learning of novel words for body-related actions spread out over a number of days, revealed fast learning of these new action words, and stable retention up to 4 weeks after training. The single-session Paradigm B employed objects and actions. Performance during acquisition did not differ between action-related and object-related words (time*word category: p = 0.01), but the translation rate was clearly better for object-related (79%) than for action-related words (53%, p = 0.002). Both paradigms yielded robust associative learning of novel action-related words, as previously demonstrated for object-related words. Translation success differed for action- and object-related words, which may indicate different neural mechanisms. The paradigms tested here are well suited to investigate such differences with neuroscientific means. Given the stable retention and minimal requirements for conscious effort, these learning paradigms are promising for vocabulary re-learning in brain-lesioned people. In combination with neuroimaging, neuro-stimulation or pharmacological intervention, they may well advance the understanding of language learning

  1. Safety evaluation report related to operation of Fast Flux Test Facility. Supplement No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    This supplement provides (1) the staff's evaluation of additional information received since issuance of the Safety Evaluation Report regarding previously identified uncompleted review items, (2) a discussion of comments made by the ACRS in its report of November 8, 1978, and (3) the staff's evaluation of additional or revised information related to new or old issues that have arisen since the issuance of the Safety Evaluation Report.

  2. Test of the Einstein relation in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wolschin, G

    1999-01-01

    Rapidity spectra for protons at SIS, AGS and SPS energies are analyzed within a relativistic diffusion model. At low beam energies of 1.06 A GeV rapidity diffusion coefficients are related to the corresponding relaxation times via a $9 weak-coupling dissipation- fluctuation theorem. At higher energies progressively larger deviations are found, rising to about an order of magnitude at SPS energies. (9 refs).

  3. Organic matrix-related mineralization of sea urchin spicules, spines, test and teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veis, Arthur

    2011-06-01

    The camarodont echinoderms have five distinct mineralized skeletal elements: embryonic spicules, mature test, spines, lantern stereom and teeth. The spicules are transient structural elements whereas the spines, and test plates are permanent. The teeth grow continuously. The mineral is a high magnesium calcite, but the magnesium content is different in each type of skeletal element, varying from 5 to 40 mole% Mg. The organic matrix creates the spaces and environments for crystal initiation and growth. The detailed mechanisms of crystal regulation are not known, but acidic and phosphorylated matrix proteins may be of special importance. Biochemical studies, sequencing of the complete genome, and high-throughput proteomic analysis have not yet provided insight into the mechanisms of crystallization, calcite composition, and orientation applicable to all skeletal elements. The embryonic spicules are not representative of the mature skeletal elements. The next phase of research will have to focus on the specific localization of the proteins and individual biochemistries of each system with regard to mineral content and placement.

  4. DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE AND ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST IN YOUNG WOMEN: IS IT RELATED TO EACH OTHER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M AMINI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this study we wanted to compare the means of area under the curve (AVC of glucose tolerance test in young women depending on dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA levels. Methods. Selected subjects were examined for DHEA and glucose tolerance test. At first, they were divided into two groups (under the mean of DHEA vs above the mean of DHEA and then into three groups (under the mean-SD, between the mean±SD, above the mean + SD. 37 young women with no abnormality whose 8MI was below 30 Kg/m2 they were refered to research center of endocrinology and metabolism of IUMSHS. Results. The mean of DHEA was 2895±1113 ng/ml. The mean of AUC was 745±104.7 mmol/l/min in women under the mean of DHEA and 670±51.9 mmol/l/min in women above the mean of DHEA (P < 0.05. In comparison of women based on mean±SD, the AVe was 786±88.3, 691. 7 ± 77.5 and 670.8±92.5 mmol/l/min, respectively. Results showed a significant decrease of AVC in women above the mean+ SO of DHEA (P < 0.05. Discussion. This study suggests that in young healthy women DHEA can increase the glucose tolerance.

  5. Biomechanics of the human posterior sclera: age- and glaucoma-related changes measured using inflation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudrillier, Baptiste; Tian, Jing; Alexander, Stephen; Myers, Kristin M; Quigley, Harry A; Nguyen, Thao D

    2012-04-02

    The objective of this study was to measure the biomechanical response of the human posterior sclera in vitro and to estimate the effects of age and glaucoma. Scleral specimens from 22 donors with no history of glaucoma and 11 donors with a history of glaucoma were excised 3 mm posterior to the equator and affixed to an inflation chamber. Optic nerve cross-sections were graded to determine the presence of axon loss. The time-dependent inflation response was measured in a series of pressure-controlled load-unload tests to 30 mm Hg and creep tests to 15 and 30 mm Hg. Circumferential and meridional strains were computed from the digital image correlation displacements, and midposterior stresses were determined from pressure and deformed geometry. Among normal specimens, older age was predictive of a stiffer response and a thinner sclera. In the age group 75 to 93, diagnosed glaucoma eyes with axon damage were thicker than normal eyes. Both damaged and undamaged glaucoma eyes had a different strain response in the peripapillary sclera characterized by a stiffer meridional response. Undamaged glaucoma eyes had slower circumferential creep rates in the peripapillary sclera than normal eyes. Glaucoma eyes were not different from normal eyes in stresses and strains in the midposterior sclera. The observed differences in the biomechanical response of normal and glaucoma sclera may represent baseline properties that contribute to axon damage, or may be characteristics that result from glaucomatous disease.

  6. Copper-Induced Spermatozoa Head Malformation Is Related to Oxidative Damage to Testes in CD-1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo-Wei; Zhi-GangTan; Qiao, Na; Kang, Zhen-Long; Chen, Zhi-Ling; Hu, Lian-Mei; Yang, Zeng-Ming; Li, Ying

    2016-10-01

    The molecular mechanism for copper toxicity on spermatozoa quality in mice is not well understood. In a 4-week experiment, we challenged 24, 6-week-old male CD-1 mice with twice-a-week intraperitoneal copper chloride injections and evaluated spermatozoa quality, copper levels in the testes, serum testosterone, the expression of key antioxidant glutathione peroxidase 5 (GPx5), and the regulated androgen receptor (AR) in the mice testes. We compared these outcomes for four groups of six mice given doses of 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 mg/kg weight copper chloride twice a week for 4 weeks. The mice demonstrated a copper increase spermatozoa head malformation in a dose-response manner. However, we observed no changes in spermatozoa viability and acrosome integrity in the ratio of mouse body weight to testes weight or in the histomorphology of the testes as the average copper level increased. Results of our RT-PCR assays, immunohistochemical tests, ELISA, and histochemistry analyses indicated that testis GPx5 expression was increased, AR expression in the testes was decreased, serum testosterone was decreased, and the activity of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was decreased as the copper dose increased. In conclusion, these data show that sublethal exposure to copper induces spermatozoa head malformation and influences both mRNA and protein levels of GPx5 and AR which is related to copper resides in the testes.

  7. Sex- and age-related mortality profiles during famine: testing the 'body fat' hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, John R

    2013-11-01

    During famines females generally have a mortality advantage relative to males, and the highest levels of mortality occur in the very young and the elderly. One popular hypothesis is that the sex differential in mortality may reflect the greater body fatness combined with lower metabolism of females, which may also underpin the age-related patterns of mortality among adults. This study evaluated the 'body fat' hypothesis using a previously published and validated mathematical model of survival during total starvation. The model shows that at a given body weight females would indeed be expected to survive considerably longer than males in the absence of food. At a mass of 70 kg for example a female aged 30 would survive for 144 days compared with life expectancy of only 95 days for a male of the same age and weight. This effect is contributed to by both the higher body fatness and lower metabolism of the females at a given body weight. However, females are generally smaller than males and in addition to a sex effect there was also a major effect of body size - heavier individuals survive longer. When this body size effect was removed by considering survival in relation to BMI the sex effect was much reduced, and could be offset by a relatively small difference in pre-famine BMI between the sexes. Nevertheless, combining these predictions with observed mean BMIs of males and females across 48 countries at the low end of the obesity spectrum suggests that in the complete absence of food females would survive on average about 40% longer (range 6 to 64.5%) than males. The energy balance model also predicted that older adult individuals should survive much longer than younger adult individuals, by virtue of their lower resting metabolic rates and lower activity levels. Observations of the female survival advantage in multiple famines span a much wider range than the model prediction (5% to 210%). This suggests in some famines body fatness may be a significant factor

  8. Assessment of HIV-related stigma in a US faith-based HIV education and testing intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannette Y Berkley-Patton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The African American church is a highly influential institution with the potential to greatly increase the reach of HIV prevention interventions and address HIV-related stigma in US African American communities. However, there are few studies on HIV-related stigma and African American church populations. This study explored HIV-related stigma among church and community members participating in an HIV education and testing intervention pilot study in African American churches, named Taking It to the Pews. Methods: Four African American churches located in Kansas City, MO and KS, were randomized to either intervention or comparison groups. Churches assigned to the intervention group received religiously tailored HIV education, testing and compassion messages/activities (e.g. sermons, brochures/church bulletins, testimonials via the Taking It to the Pews HIV Tool Kit. Comparison churches received non-religiously tailored HIV information. HIV-related stigma was assessed with 543 church members and with community members served through church outreach services (e.g. food/clothing pantries, social services in the four churches. Participants completed surveys at baseline, 6 months and 12 months to assess their HIV-related stigma beliefs, exposure to intervention components and satisfaction with the study. Results: At baseline, HIV-related stigma beliefs were similar across experimental groups and were quite low. Mean HIV-related stigma scores were not significantly different between experimental groups at 6 months (p=0.92 or at 12 months (p=0.70. However, mean HIV-related stigma scores within both groups showed decreasing trends at six months, which approached significance. Analysis of previously studied HIV-related stigma factors (e.g. age, gender, income, HIV knowledge, religiosity did not yield changes in the null findings. Intervention group participants were highly exposed to several intervention components (sermons, HIV resource

  9. Association between parent-adolescent communication about sex-related topics and HIV testing, United States. 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B; Oraka, Emeka; Fasula, Amy M; Jayne, Paula E; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L

    2017-03-01

    Adolescents need information about sex-related topics in order to reduce risk behavior and engage in healthy sexual decision-making. Parents have the potential to be an important source of this information. Using the 2006-2010 and 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth, we examined associations between parent-adolescent communication before age 18 about sex-related topics and HIV testing among respondents aged 18-24 that ever had sexual intercourse (women = 3893; men = 3359). Analyses showed that for both men and women, discussing how to prevent HIV/AIDS and how to use a condom with a parent before age 18 were positively associated with HIV testing. Among women only, discussions about methods of birth control, where to get birth control, and STDs were positively associated with HIV testing. Developing strategies and interventions to facilitate parent-adolescent communication about sex-related topics, particularly HIV prevention and condom use, may be important to increase HIV testing among young women and men.

  10. A test of the culture-performance related distress hypothesis among employees in a collectivistic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pheko, M.M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To test the notions that people from collectivist cultures may experience more intense Sensitivity Towards being the Target of Upward Comparison (STTUC responses the current study investigated the relationships between traditional gender role orientation and STTUC, and collectivistic cultural orientation and STTUC. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional survey approach, a convenient sample of 464 participants from various organizations in Botswana completed the questionnaire. The participants were mostly female (59.9%, in a dating relationship (67.9%, and between the ages of 20 and 57 (M = 32.69, SD = 7.43. In the main, the hypotheses were not supported as the correlation results indicated that neither collectivistic cultural orientation nor traditional gender role orientation were linked to STTUC experiences. Discussions center on the importance of reporting and suggesting theoretical justifications for the so called ‘”nonsignificant findings.” Implications of the empirical findings and the future research directions are also discussed.

  11. Growth hormone response to a standardised exercise test in relation to puberty and stature.

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, S A; Torresani, T; Prader, A.

    1987-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) was measured before and 10 minutes after a standardised bicycle exercise test (duration 15 minutes) in 37 short children (group 1: mean (SD) age 12.8 (3.5) years; mean (SD) bone age 10.4 (3.6) years; mean (SD) height standard deviation score (SDS) -2.8 (0.7], 16 tall children (group 2: mean age 12.9 (2.8) years; mean bone age 13.9 (1.4) years; mean height SDS 3.0 (0.8], and 30 normal children (group 3: mean age 13.3 (3.2) years; mean bone age 12.8 (3.4) years; mean height ...

  12. Relation between respiratory function tests and life habits of the university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Mustafa; Ongel, Kurtuluş; Caliskan, Sadettin

    2015-05-01

    Among the university students especially in adolescence period, smoking habits and unhealthy lifestyles are major problems in social life. In this study, it is intended to reveal smoking habits and lifestyles of the students from Suleyman Demirel University and to determine the effects of smoking and lifestyles on pulmonary functions. Participants were 94 university students who were getting formal education in the Suleyman Demirel University central campus. Data were analysed by analysis of variance and chi-square tests. For all analysis, p value of habit of university students can be prevented, and it is an important point that they have a healthy lifestyle both for their own health and for future generations. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Relative abundance and behavior of marine mammals exposed to transmissions from the Heard Island Feasibility Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, A E; Smultea, M; Würsig, B; DeMaster, D P; Palka, D

    1994-10-01

    The Heard Island Feasibility Test source transmitted a hum at 209-220 dB re: 1 microPa at 175-m depth, centered on 57 Hz with a maximum bandwidth of 30 Hz for 1 h of every 3. Experienced marine mammal observers conducted line-transect surveys and monitored marine mammal behavior visually and acoustically in a 70 x 70 km square centered on the transmission site. Thirty-nine groups of cetaceans and 19 of pinnipeds were sighted from both vessels before the start of transmissions. Thirty-nine groups of cetaceans and 23 of pinnipeds were sighted during transmissions. Blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (B. physalus), and sperm (Physeter macrocephalus) whales were sighted during the base line period; blue, sperm, and possibly sei (B. borealis) whales were sighted during the transmission period. More schools of hourglass dolphins (Lagenorhynchus cruciger) were sighted during transmissions, but fewer groups of pilot whales (Globicephala melas), southern bottlenose whales (Hyperoodon planifrons), and minke whales (B. acutorostrata). The density of all cetaceans was 0.0157 groups/km2 before the transmissions and 0.0166 groups/km2 during. Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) were seen, but not in sufficient numbers to estimate abundance. One blue whale tracked before, during and after a transmission changed respiration and reorientation rates, but did not avoid the source detectably. Sperm whales and pilot whales were heard in 23% of 1181 min of baseline acoustic surveys; but in none of 1939 min during the transmission period. Both species were heard within 48 h after the end of the test.

  14. Food allergy-related paediatric constipation: the usefulness of atopy patch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrigou, Ekaterini I; Pitsios, Constantinos; Panagiotou, Ioanna; Chouliaras, Georgios; Kitsiou, Sofia; Kanariou, Mary; Roma-Giannikou, Eleftheria

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the implication of food allergy as a cause of paediatric constipation and to determine the diet period needed to tolerate the constipation-causing foods. Fifty-four children aged 6 months to 14 years (median, 42 months) suffering from chronic constipation (without anatomic abnormalities, cοeliac disease or hypothyroidism), unresponsive to a 3-month laxative therapy, were prospectively evaluated. All participants were evaluated for allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, rice, corn, potato, chicken, beef and soy, using skin tests (SPT), serum specific IgE and atopy patch test (APT). A withdrawal of the APT-positive foods was instructed. Thirty-two children had positive APT; 15 were positive to one; six, to two and 11, to three or more food allergens, wheat and egg being the commonest. After withdrawing the APT-positive foods for an 8-week period, constipation had improved in 28/32 children, but a relapse of constipation was noticed after an oral food challenge, so they continued the elimination diet. Tolerance to food allergens was achieved in only 6/28 after 6 months, compared to 25/28 after 12 months and to all after a 2-year-long elimination. Food allergy seems to be a significant etiologic factor for chronic constipation not responding to treatment, in infants and young children. APT was found to be useful in evaluating non-IgE allergy-mediated constipation, and there was no correlation of APT with IgE detection. Tolerance was adequately achieved after 12 months of strict food allergen elimination.

  15. Visual processing in patients with age-related macular degeneration performing a face detection test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vottonen, Pasi; Kaarniranta, Kai; Pääkkönen, Ari; Tarkka, Ina M

    2017-01-01

    People with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have difficulties in familiar face recognition and facial expression discrimination. Our aim was to evaluate the visual processing of faces in AMD patients and whether this would be improved by anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. This was a prospective interventional cohort study. Twelve patients with monocular wet AMD and 6 control subjects were recruited. Face detection processes were studied using cortical event-related potentials (ERPs). Patients received 3 bevacizumab intravitreal injections to the single affected eye. At baseline and 4-6 weeks after the last injection, clinical presentation and ERPs of the face task were evaluated. Face pictures were shown as targets (16.7%) among standard pictures of pixelated faces in an oddball-type paradigm. Face pictures elicited well-defined electrical components in occipital and parieto-occipital cortical areas at baseline and after treatment. The face-specific N170 component was evident in all subjects with longer peak latency in patients than in controls (170±13 vs 155±14, P=0.032). Unexpectedly, an early component reflecting unintentional prediction of perceiving a face, that is, deviance-related negativity, was present in patients and controls. Visual acuity of the affected eye seemed improved in patients from logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution 0.71 (±0.33) to 0.52 (±0.39) by 119 (±23) days without accompanying significant change in face-specific ERPs. Monocular wet AMD distinctly influenced face-specific brain electrophysiological components. However, the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment did not improve the binocular face detection ability. The EudraCT number of this study is 2012-000765-20.

  16. Quantitative tests of the Perceived Relative Argument Model: comment on Loomes (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Regenwetter, Michel

    2014-10-01

    Loomes (2010, Psychological Review) proposed the Perceived Relative Argument Model (PRAM) as a novel descriptive theory for risky choice. PRAM differs from models like prospect theory in that decision makers do not compare 2 prospects by first assigning each prospect an overall utility and then choosing the prospect with the higher overall utility. Instead, the decision maker determines the relative argument for one or the other prospect separately for outcomes and probabilities, before reaching an overall pairwise preference. Loomes (2010) did not model variability in choice behavior. We consider 2 types of "stochastic specification" of PRAM. In one, a decision maker has a fixed preference, and choice variability is caused by occasional errors/trembles. In the other, the parameters of the perception functions for outcomes and for probabilities are random, with no constraints on their joint distribution. State-of-the-art frequentist and Bayesian "order-constrained" inference suggest that PRAM accounts poorly for individual subject laboratory data from 67 participants. This conclusion is robust across 7 different utility functions for money and remains largely unaltered also when considering a prior unpublished version of PRAM (Loomes, 2006) that featured an additional free parameter in the perception function for probabilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Testing Scaling Relations for Solar-like Oscillations from the Main Sequence to Red Giants Using Kepler Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, D.; Bedding, T.R.; Stello, D.

    2011-01-01

    for subgiant stars. Finally, we test the location of the cool edge of the instability strip in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram using solar-like oscillations and find the detections in the hottest stars compatible with a domain of hybrid stochastically excited and opacity driven pulsation.......We have analyzed solar-like oscillations in ~1700 stars observed by the Kepler Mission, spanning from the main sequence to the red clump. Using evolutionary models, we test asteroseismic scaling relations for the frequency of maximum power (νmax), the large frequency separation (Δν...

  18. A psychometric comparison of the Internet Addiction Test, the Internet Related Problem Scale, and self-diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Widyanto, L; Griffiths, M.; Brunsden, V

    2011-01-01

    One of the more prominent issues in the field of Internet addiction is the validity of the instrument used to assess users’ level of Internet involvement. Many of the instruments used to assess Internet addiction have high face validity but have yet to be tested psychometrically. The aim of this study is to compare two of the most used Internet addiction research measures, the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Internet-Related Problem Scale (IRPS), along with a self-diagnostic question si...

  19. Mold-specific IgE antibodies in relation to exposure and skin test data in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Taskinen, Taina; Laitinen, Sirpa; Hyvärinen, Anne; Meklin, Teija; Husman, Tuula; Nevalainen, Aino; Korppi,Matti

    2001-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to compare mold specific IgE results with skin test and exposure data, as well as in relation to asthma and other allergic manifestations. Methods: We performed skin prick tests (SPT) to 13 molds in 341 children from six schools and studied the microbial status of all school buildings. Subsequently, mold specific IgE was measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to 10 molds in 31 of those children with a positive (≥3 mm) or weak SPT reaction (1–2...

  20. Indirect immunofluorescence test in new world Leishmaniasis: serological and clinical relation-ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio C. F. Mendonça

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available The indirect immunofluorescence test (IF for anti-Leishmania antibodies (IgC and IgM was performed with sera form the following groups of individuals: 214 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients, 28 healthy subjects with positive Montenegro's skin test (MST, 29 healthy subjects with negativeMST and 16 visceral leishmaniasis patients. The first four groups came from a suburban area of Rio de Janeiro (Jacarepaguá where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis is endemic. It was observed that IF-IgM titers were significantly higher amongst the cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with less than four months of disease as compared to those with longer periods and that IF-IgG titers were significantly higher in patients with multiple lesions as compared to those with single lesions. The visceral leishmaniasis patients had IF-IgG titers significantly higher than those from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. A group of 28 individuals selected amongst the 214 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients had their IF-titers (IgG and IgM compared to those of the two control groups of healthy subjects from the endemic area, respectively with positive and negative MST. Significantly higher titers of IF-IgG and IF-IgM were found in the group with active disease. The same group of patients showed IF-IgG titers significantly lower at the end of the antimonial therapy than those observed during this tratment.O teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IF para a detecção de anticorpos anti-Leismania nas classes IgG e IgM foi realizado em soros de indivíduos dos seguintes grupos: 214 pacientes com leismaniose cutânea, quatro pacientes com leismaniose mucocutânea, 28 indivíduos sadios com intradermorreação de Montenegro (IDRM positiva, 29 indivíduos sadios com IDRM negativa e 16 pacientes com leishmaniose visceral. Os indivíduos dos quatro primeiros grupos eram provenientes de uma área da periferia da cidade do Rio de Janeiro (Jacarepaguá onde a

  1. Reliability and criterion-related validity of the 20-yard shuttle test in competitive junior tennis players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anna Eriksson,1 Fredrik R Johansson,2 Maria Bäck3–5 1Rehab City Östermalm, Primary Health Care, 2Department of Environmental Medicine, Musculoskeletal and Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 3Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, 4Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 5Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Purpose: This study adds to the previous work in the field of sport-specific fitness testing by evaluating a tennis-specific agility test called “the 20-yard shuttle test”. The aim of the study was to evaluate the test–retest reliability, the inter-rater reliability, and the criterion-related validity of the 20-yard shuttle test on competitive junior tennis players. Participants and methods: Totally, 34 Swedish tennis players (13 girls, mean age 14±1.6 years, participated in the study. To examine test–retest reliability, the subjects performed the 20-yard shuttle test three times on the same day and then the same procedure was repeated after 3 days. To test the inter-rater reliability, the time was measured with a stopwatch simultaneously by two different raters. The time recorded manually was compared to the gold standard of digital timing to evaluate the criterion-related validity. Results: Excellent test–retest reliability was found both within the same day (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.95 and between days (ICC 0.91. Furthermore, the results showed excellent inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.99 and criterion-related validity on both test occasions (ICC 0.99. Conclusion: We have provided introductory support for the 20-yard shuttle test as a reliable and valid test for use in competitive junior tennis players. The ease of administration makes this test a practical alternative to evaluate physical fitness in order to

  2. Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor related pathways tested on an endometrial ex-vivo model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Rahmati

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recombinant human Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (rhG-CSF supplementation seems to be a promising innovative therapy in reproductive medicine, used in case of recurrent miscarriage, embryo implantation failure or thin endometrium, although its mechanisms of action remain unknown. Our aim was to identify possible endometrial pathways influenced by rhG-CSF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hypothetical molecular interactions regulated by G-CSF were designed through a previous large scale endometrial microarray study. The variation of endometrial expression of selected target genes was confirmed in control and infertile patients. G-CSF supplementation influence on these targets was tested on an endometrial ex-vivo culture. Middle luteal phase endometrial biopsies were cultured on collagen sponge with or without rhG-CSF supplementation during 3 consecutive days. Variations of endometrial mRNA expression for the selected targets were studied by RT-PCR. RESULTS: At the highest dose of rhG-CSF stimulation, the mRNA expression of these selected target genes was significantly increased if compared with their expression without addition of rhG-CSF. The selected targets were G-CSF Receptor (G-CSFR, Integrin alpha-V/beta-3 (ITGB3 implicated in cell migration and embryo implantation, Plasminogen Activator Urokinase Receptor (PLAUR described as interacting with integrins and implicated in cell migration, Thymidine Phosphorylase (TYMP implicated in local angiogenesis, CD40 and its ligand CD40L involved in cell proliferation control. CONCLUSION: RhG-CSF seems able to influence endometrial expressions crucial for implantation process involving endometrial vascular remodelling, local immune modulation and cellular adhesion pathways. These variations observed in an ex-vivo model should be tested in-vivo. The strict indications or counter indication of rhG-CSF supplementation in reproductive field are not yet established, while the safety of its

  3. Testing General Relativity with Stellar Orbits around the Supermassive Black Hole in Our Galactic Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hees, A; Do, T; Ghez, A M; Martinez, G D; Naoz, S; Becklin, E E; Boehle, A; Chappell, S; Chu, D; Dehghanfar, A; Kosmo, K; Lu, J R; Matthews, K; Morris, M R; Sakai, S; Schödel, R; Witzel, G

    2017-05-26

    We demonstrate that short-period stars orbiting around the supermassive black hole in our Galactic center can successfully be used to probe the gravitational theory in a strong regime. We use 19 years of observations of the two best measured short-period stars orbiting our Galactic center to constrain a hypothetical fifth force that arises in various scenarios motivated by the development of a unification theory or in some models of dark matter and dark energy. No deviation from general relativity is reported and the fifth force strength is restricted to an upper 95% confidence limit of |α|black hole. A sensitivity analysis for future measurements is also presented.

  4. Applications of Generalizability Theory and Their Relations to Classical Test Theory and Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vispoel, Walter P; Morris, Carrie A; Kilinc, Murat

    2017-01-23

    Although widely recognized as a comprehensive framework for representing score reliability, generalizability theory (G-theory), despite its potential benefits, has been used sparingly in reporting of results for measures of individual differences. In this article, we highlight many valuable ways that G-theory can be used to quantify, evaluate, and improve psychometric properties of scores. Our illustrations encompass assessment of overall reliability, percentages of score variation accounted for by individual sources of measurement error, dependability of cut-scores for decision making, estimation of reliability and dependability for changes made to measurement procedures, disattenuation of validity coefficients for measurement error, and linkages of G-theory with classical test theory and structural equation modeling. We also identify computer packages for performing G-theory analyses, most of which can be obtained free of charge, and describe how they compare with regard to data input requirements, ease of use, complexity of designs supported, and output produced. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The relation between vitamin D and postural balance according to clinical tests and tetrax posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, Sedef; Hepguler, Simin; Öztürk, Cihat; Atamaz, Funda Calis

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the association between Vitamin D and risk of falling, balance, and lower extremity neuromuscular function in women aged 60 and above by using Tetrax posturography. [Subjects and Methods] A total 200 women were classified based on their 25-OH-vitamin D (25(OH)D) values: hypo-vitaminosis group (less than 50.0 nmol/l) and normal group (50.0 more). Balance was measured using a Tetrax(®) posturography device (Sunlight Medical Ltd, Israel). Falling risk, stability index (SI), and weight distribution index (WDI) were calculated. Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were used as the clinical tests. [Results] Standing balance, gait, chair stand performance and total SPPB scores were significantly better in the patients with serum 25(OH)D levels higher than 50.0 nmol/l. Similarly, falling risk and SI values in the most of the postures were significantly higher in the hypovitaminosis group. There were significant associations between serum 25(OH)D levels with SPPB total score and Tetrax-measured falling risk. [Conclusion] This study showed better balance control, lower extremity function, and reduced falling risk in patients with serum 25(OH)D levels higher than 50.0 nmol/l in women aged 60 and above.

  6. Hydrogen-related challenges for the steelmaker: the search for proper testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, R. G.

    2017-06-01

    The modern steelmaker of advanced high-strength steels has always been challenged with the conflicting targets of increased strength while maintaining or improving ductility. These new steels help the transportation sector, including the automotive sector, to achieve the goals of increased passenger safety and reduced emissions. With increasing tensile strengths, certain steels exhibit an increased sensitivity towards hydrogen embrittlement (HE). The ability to characterize the material's sensitivity in an as-delivered condition has been developed and accepted (SEP1970), but the complexity of the stress states that can induce an embrittlement together with the wide range of applications for high-strength steels make the development of a standardized test for HE under in-service conditions extremely challenging. Some proposals for evaluating the material's sensitivity give an advantage to materials with a low starting ductility. Despite this, newly developed materials can have a higher original elongation with only a moderate reduction in elongation due to hydrogen. This work presents a characterization of new materials and their sensitivity towards HE. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  7. Testing the relative importance of ion diffusive transport and turbulent mixing with separated-reactant capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Nelson; Zylstra, Alex

    2017-10-01

    Two recent capsule implosion shots at OMEGA, employing separated reactants (tritium gas surrounded by a layer of deuterated CD plastic) [A. B. Zylstra et al., in preparation], afford a simple test for distinguishing the importance of ion diffusive transport vs. turbulent mixing in the implosions. One capsule had a CD layer that was twice as thick as the other capsule: 0.3 μm vs 0.15 μm. Simulations using a turbulent-mix model together with an ion-diffusion model indicate that the thick-CD capsule would be expected to give higher DT yield than the thin-CD capsule, owing to the larger quantity of D available to mix with T. By contrast, simulations using the ion-diffusion model alone indicate that the thin-CD capsule would give the higher DT yield, owing to the fact that (a) it was driven somewhat harder than the thick-CD capsule and (b) only an extremely thin layer on the inside of the CD contributes significantly to the DT yield for either capsule, so the thickness difference is irrelevant. Measurements showed that in fact the thin-CD capsule gave higher DT yield, supporting the importance of ion diffusive transport in such capsule implosions. Research supported by US DOE under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  8. Verification of FPGA-Signal using the test board which is applied to Safety-related controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Youn-Hu; Yoo, Kwanwoo; Lee, Myeongkyun; Yun, Donghwa [SOOSAN ENS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This article aims to provide the verification method for BGA-type FPGA of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) developed as Safety Class. The logic of FPGA in the control device with Safety Class is the circuit to control overall logic of PLC. Saftety-related PLC must meet the international standard specifications. With this reason, we use V and V according to an international standard in order to secure high reliability and safety. By using this, we are supposed to proceed to a variety of verification courses for extra reliability and safety analysis. In order to have efficient verification of test results, we propose the test using the newly changed BGA socket which can resolve the problems of the conventional socket on this paper. The Verification of processes is divided into verification of Hardware and firmware. That processes are carried out in the unit testing and integration testing. The proposed test method is simple, the effect of cost reductions by batch process. In addition, it is advantageous to measure the signal from the Hi-speed-IC due to its short length of the pins and it was plated with the copper around it. Further, it also to prevent abrasion on the IC ball because it has no direct contact with the PCB. Therefore, it can be actually applied is to the BGA package test and we can easily verify logic as well as easily checking the operation of the designed data.

  9. Material factors in relation to development time in liquid-penetrant inspection. Part 3. Testing of model plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irek P.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is the continuation of the previous ones entitled „Material factors in relation to development time in liquid-penetrant inspection. Part 1. Material factors“ and „Material factors in relation to development time in liquid-penetrant inspection. Part 2. Investigation programme and preliminary tests“ in which material factors influencing essentially the development time in penetrant testing as well as the range of their values have been specified. These factors are: material kind, surface roughness and imperfection width.

  10. A new maximum color contrast sensitivity test for detecting early changes of visual function in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liutkevičienė, Rasa; Cebatorienė, Džastina; Zaliūnienė, Dalia; Lukauskienė, Rita; Jašinskas, Vytautas

    2014-01-01

    To determine the association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and color perception established by the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue (F-M 100) and maximum color contrast sensitivity (MCCS) tests. We performed a case-control study, which comprised of 100 patients with AMD and 100 healthy controls. To test visual acuity (VA), a typical Snellen chart was used. The computerized F-M 100 and MCCS programs were used for color discrimination. The results of VA, and the F-M 100 and MCCS tests in the healthy controls were statistically significantly better than in the patients with AMD (1.0 vs. 0.82±0.16, P=0.005; 87.39±24.11 vs. 185.39±74.43, P=0.005; 1.33±1.17 vs. 1.96±0.46, P=0.005, respectively). When VA was 1.0 in patients with AMD, the total error scores of the F-M 100 test and MCCS test compared with healthy persons were even worse (166.09±66.57 vs. 87.39±24.11, P=0.002; 1.67±0.92 vs. 1.33±1.17, P=0.001, respectively). Analysis of the results of patients with AMD compared to healthy controls showed the highest error score in the blue color range. The results of the color contrast sensitivity test decreased by half in patients with AMD compared with ophthalmologically healthy patients when they performed the F-M 100 test and by one and half when they performed a MCCS test in the blue color range. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Material Factors in Relation to Development Time in Liquid-Penetrant Inspection. Part 2. Investigation Programme and Preliminary Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irek P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is the continuation of the previous one entitled “Material factors in relation to development time in liquid-penetrant inspection. Part 1. Material factors” in which the material factors influencing essentially the development time in penetrant testing have been marked out. These are: type of material, surface roughness and imperfection width. In the paper it has been described how to prepare the factorial plan which will enable to test every factor with taking into account its different values. Moreover, it has been presented investigations on natural cracks, their width and roughness profile what will allow to assign suitable values of independent variables to the factorial plan. The purpose of the plan prepared in such a way will be the determination of the influence of the material kind, surface roughness and discontinuity width on the development time in penetrant testing.

  12. Timed up & go test score in patients with hip fracture is related to the type of walking aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten T; Bandholm, Thomas; Holm, Bente

    2009-01-01

    Kristensen MT, Bandholm T, Holm B, Ekdahl C, Kehlet H. Timed Up & Go test score in patients with hip fracture is related to the type of walking aid. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between Timed Up & Go (TUG) test scores and type of walking aid used during the test, and to determine...... the feasibility of using the rollator as a standardized walking aid during the TUG in patients with hip fracture who were allowed full weight-bearing (FWB). DESIGN: Prospective methodological study. SETTING: An acute orthopedic hip fracture unit at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=126; 90 women......, 36 men) with hip fracture with a mean age +/- SD of 74.8+/-12.7 years performed the TUG the day before discharge from the orthopedic ward. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The TUG was performed with the walking aid the patient was to be discharged with: a walker (n=88) or elbow...

  13. Testing DNA barcodes in closely related species of Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) from Myanmar and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Zhao, Jietang; Erickson, David L; Xia, Nianhe; Kress, W John

    2015-03-01

    The genus Curcuma L. is commonly used as spices, medicines, dyes and ornamentals. Owing to its economic significance and lack of clear-cut morphological differences between species, this genus is an ideal case for developing DNA barcodes. In this study, four chloroplast DNA regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnL-F) and one nuclear region (ITS2) were generated for 44 Curcuma species and five species from closely related genera, represented by 96 samples. PCR amplification success rate, intra- and inter-specific genetic distance variation and the correct identification percentage were taken into account to assess candidate barcode regions. PCR and sequence success rate were high in matK (89.7%), rbcL (100%), trnH-psbA (100%), trnL-F (95.7%) and ITS2 (82.6%) regions. The results further showed that four candidate chloroplast barcoding regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnL-F) yield no barcode gaps, indicating that the genus Curcuma represents a challenging group for DNA barcoding. The ITS2 region presented large interspecific variation and provided the highest correct identification rates (46.7%) based on BLASTClust method among the five regions. However, the ITS2 only provided 7.9% based on NJ tree method. An increase in discriminatory power needs the development of more variable markers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Flight Tests Related to Jet-Transport Upset and Turbulent-Air Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William H.; Butchart, Stanley P.; Sisk, Thomas R.; Hughes, Donald L.

    1965-01-01

    A flight program, utilizing a Convair 880 and a Boeing 720 airplane, was conducted in conjunction with wind-tunnel and simulator programs to study problems related to jet-transport upsets and operation in a turbulent environment. During the handling-qualities portion of the program the basic static stability of the airplanes was considered to be satisfactory and the lateral-directional damping was considered to be marginal without damper augmentation. An evaluation of the longitudinal control system indicated that this system can become marginal in effectiveness in the high Mach number and high dynamic-pressure range of the flight envelope. From the upset and recovery phase of the program it was apparent that retrimming the stabilizer and spoiler deployment were valuable tools in effecting a positive recovery; however, if these devices are to be used safely, it appears that a suitable g-meter should be provided in the cockpit because the high control forces in recovery tend to reduce the pilot's sensitivity to the actual acceleration loads. During the turbulence penetrations the pilot noted that the measured vibrations of 4 to 6 cps in the cockpit considerably disrupted their normal scan pattern and suggested that an improvement should be made in the seat cushion and restraint system. Also it was observed that the indicator needles on the flight instruments were quite stable in the turbulent environment.

  15. Introducing Distance and Measurement in General Relativity: Changes for the Standard Tests and the Cosmological Large-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crothers S. J.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic motion in the gravitational field of a massive body is governed by the external metric of a spherically symmetric extended object. Consequently, any solution for the point-mass is inadequate for the treatment of such motions since it pertains to a fictitious object. I therefore develop herein the physics of the standard tests of General Relativity by means of the generalised solution for the field external to a sphere of incompressible homogeneous fluid.

  16. Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Cunha, Denise de Fátima Fernandes; Coelho, Cássia Fernandes; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Sawada, Namie Okino

    2014-01-01

    Objective to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test. Method a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, between September 2010 and February 2011. Results the majority of the women studied were young (≤35 years), had low levels of education (≤7 years of study), and commenced sexual activity early (≤20 years), with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001); early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047); and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029). Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer. PMID:25029050

  17. Increasing HIV-related knowledge, communication, and testing intentions among Latinos: Protege tu Familia: Hazte la Prueba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Ellis, Britt; Espinoza, Lilia; Bird, Mara; Garcia, Melawhy; D'Anna, Laura Hoyt; Bellamy, Laura; Scolari, Rosana

    2010-08-01

    Latinos are less likely to be aware of their HIV seropositivity than African Americans and Whites. 'Protege tu Familia: Hazte la Prueba' is a culturally and linguistically-sensitive HIV/AIDS prevention and testing program targeting Latino families. Using community-based participatory research techniques, Spanish-speaking bicultural community health workers helped develop and then used an educational flip chart and materials to conduct outreach and HIV prevention education in diverse settings. The intervention was created to increase HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, to improve communication regarding sexual risk, and to augment intentions to use condoms and test for HIV. A secondary purpose was to decrease HIV-related stigma by improving knowledge about transmission and reducing homophobia. Participants demonstrated significant increases in HIV knowledge, intention to practice safer sex and communicate sexual risk to partner(s), and intention to test for HIV. Improvements were also found in self-reported comfort levels when interacting with and caring for the HIV positive, thus decreasing HIV/AIDS-related stigma.

  18. Pre-test of questions on health-related resource use and expenditure, using behaviour coding and cognitive interviewing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyak, Nadja; Ernsting, Corinna; Icks, Andrea

    2012-09-06

    Validated instruments collecting data on health-related resource use are lacking, but required, for example, to investigate predictors of healthcare use or for health economic evaluation.The objective of the study was to develop, test and refine a questionnaire collecting data on health-related resource use and expenditure in patients with diabetes. The questionnaire was tested in 43 patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2 in Germany. Response behaviour suggestive of problems with questions (item non-response, request for clarification, comments, inadequate answer, "don't know") was systematically registered. Cognitive interviews focusing on information retrieval and comprehension problems were carried out. Many participants had difficulties answering questions pertaining to frequency of visits to the general practitioner (26%), time spent receiving healthcare services (39%), regular medication currently taken (35%) and out of pocket expenditure on medication (42%). These difficulties seem to result mainly from poor memory. A number of comprehension problems were established and relevant questions were revised accordingly. The questionnaire on health-related resource use and expenditure for use in diabetes research in Germany was developed and refined after careful testing. Ideally, the questionnaire should be externally validated for different modes of administration and recall periods within a variety of populations.

  19. Effects of moderate exercise over different phases on age-related physiological dysfunction in testes of SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiujun; Bian, Yanqing; Sun, Yichong; Li, Li; Wang, Lixuan; Zhao, Chunfang; Shen, Yongqing; Song, Qingliang; Qu, Yine; Niu, Siyun; Wu, Wenshuang; Gao, Fulu

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation have been implicated in the testicular aging process. Different types and moderate-intensity of regular exercise may reduce age-related physiological dysfunction associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, but such effects of moderate-intensity of exercise over different phases of life in testes have not been reported. In this study, male SAMP8 mice, a senescence-accelerated strain, were maintained as sedentary (sed) or subjected to daily 15-min periods of swimming exercise between ages of 2-7 months (lifelong), 2-4 months (earlier) or 5-7 months (late). Age-related changes, including serum testosterone levels and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were analyzed at the end of the experiment. All exercise groups showed significantly greater serum testosterone levels and decreased age-related inflammation and oxidative stress compared with the sedentary group. Exercise also increased expression and activity of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), a transcriptional regulator of the cellular anti-oxidant system, and decreased expression and activity of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), a mediator of inflammatory molecules, in the nucleus of testicular cells. However, lifelong and earlier groups generally showed significantly better protective effects than the late group against age-related physiological dysfunction in testes. Thus, lifelong exercise and earlier phase exercise were most effective in counteracting oxidative stress and inflammation and in preserving testes function through regulation of Nrf2 and NF-κB. These results advocate the benefits of lifelong exercise and emphasize a greater protection against male aging by instituting exercise earlier rather than late in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  1. Testing general relativity using gravitational wave signals from the inspiral, merger and ringdown of binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhirup; Johnson-McDaniel, Nathan K.; Ghosh, Archisman; Kant Mishra, Chandra; Ajith, Parameswaran; Del Pozzo, Walter; Berry, Christopher P. L.; Nielsen, Alex B.; London, Lionel

    2018-01-01

    Advanced LIGO’s recent observations of gravitational waves (GWs) from merging binary black holes have opened up a unique laboratory to test general relativity (GR) in the highly relativistic regime. One of the tests used to establish the consistency of the first LIGO event with a binary black hole merger predicted by GR was the inspiral-merger-ringdown consistency test. This involves inferring the mass and spin of the remnant black hole from the inspiral (low-frequency) part of the observed signal and checking for the consistency of the inferred parameters with the same estimated from the post-inspiral (high-frequency) part of the signal. Based on the observed rate of binary black hole mergers, we expect the advanced GW observatories to observe hundreds of binary black hole mergers every year when operating at their design sensitivities, most of them with modest signal to noise ratios (SNRs). Anticipating such observations, this paper shows how constraints from a large number of events with modest SNRs can be combined to produce strong constraints on deviations from GR. Using kludge modified GR waveforms, we demonstrate how this test could identify certain types of deviations from GR if such deviations are present in the signal waveforms. We also study the robustness of this test against reasonable variations of a variety of different analysis parameters.

  2. Food-related lifestyles in Singapore: Preliminary testing of a Western European research instrument in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Brunsø, Karen

    1999-01-01

    The food-related lifestyle instrument developed by the MAPP research group has, up till now, been applied mainly in the context of European cultures. The purpose of the present study is to apply the food-related life style instrument in a new and very different cultural setting, to compare results......, and to interpret similarities and differences found. For this purose, data have been collected in Singaporean families using the food-related life style instrument. A total of 89 questionnaires form the basis of the analysis. The cross-cultural validity of the instrument is tested and, in the light of those...... results, we interpret the results in relationship to local food cultures....

  3. Approach-Phase Precision Landing with Hazard Relative Navigation: Terrestrial Test Campaign Results of the Morpheus/ALHAT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Timothy P.; Bishop, Robert H.; Carson, John M., III; Trawny, Nikolas; Hanak, Chad; Sullivan, Jacob; Christian, John; DeMars, Kyle; Campbell, Tom; Getchius, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Morpheus Project began in late 2009 as an ambitious e ort code-named Project M to integrate three ongoing multi-center NASA technology developments: humanoid robotics, liquid oxygen/liquid methane (LOX/LCH4) propulsion and Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) into a single engineering demonstration mission to be own to the Moon by 2013. The humanoid robot e ort was redirected to a deploy- ment of Robonaut 2 on the International Space Station in February of 2011 while Morpheus continued as a terrestrial eld test project integrating the existing ALHAT Project's tech- nologies into a sub-orbital ight system using the world's rst LOX/LCH4 main propulsion and reaction control system fed from the same blowdown tanks. A series of 33 tethered tests with the Morpheus 1.0 vehicle and Morpheus 1.5 vehicle were conducted from April 2011 - December 2013 before successful, sustained free ights with the primary Vertical Testbed (VTB) navigation con guration began with Free Flight 3 on December 10, 2013. Over the course of the following 12 free ights and 3 tethered ights, components of the ALHAT navigation system were integrated into the Morpheus vehicle, operations, and ight control loop. The ALHAT navigation system was integrated and run concurrently with the VTB navigation system as a reference and fail-safe option in ight (see touchdown position esti- mate comparisons in Fig. 1). Flight testing completed with Free Flight 15 on December 15, 2014 with a completely autonomous Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), integration of surface relative and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN) measurements into the onboard dual-state inertial estimator Kalman lter software, and landing within 2 meters of the VTB GPS-based navigation solution at the safe landing site target. This paper describes the Mor- pheus joint VTB/ALHAT navigation architecture, the sensors utilized during the terrestrial ight campaign, issues resolved during testing, and the navigation

  4. Investigation of accident management procedures related to loss of feedwater and station blackout in PSB-VVER integral test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucalossi, A. [EC JRC, (JRC F.5) PO Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Del Nevo, A., E-mail: alessandro.delnevo@enea.it [ENEA, C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy); Moretti, F.; D' Auria, F. [GRNSPG, Universita di Pisa, via Diotisalvi 2, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Elkin, I.V.; Melikhov, O.I. [Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre, Electrogorsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four integral test facility experiments related to VVER-1000 reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TH response of the VVER-1000 primary system following total loss of feedwater and station blackout scenarios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accident management procedures in case of total loss of feedwater and station blackout. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental data represent an improvement of existing database for TH code validation. - Abstract: VVER 1000 reactors have some unique and specific features (e.g. large primary and secondary side fluid inventory, horizontal steam generators, core design) that require dedicated experimental and analytical analyses in order to assess the performance of safety systems and the effectiveness of possible accident management strategies. The European Commission funded project 'TACIS 2.03/97', Part A, provided valuable experimental data from the large-scale (1:300) PSB-VVER test facility, investigating accident management procedures in VVER-1000 reactor. A test matrix was developed at University of Pisa (responsible of the project) with the objective of obtaining the experimental data not covered by the OECD VVER validation matrix and with main focus on accident management procedures. Scenarios related to total loss of feed water and station blackout are investigated by means of four experiments accounting for different countermeasures, based on secondary cooling strategies and primary feed and bleed procedures. The transients are analyzed thoroughly focusing on the identification of phenomena that will challenge the code models during the simulations.

  5. Role of advanced neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers and genetic testing in the assessment of sport-related concussion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Michael; Meier, Timothy; Huber, Daniel; Ptito, Alain; Bigler, Erin; Debert, Chantel T; Manley, Geoff; Menon, David; Chen, Jen-Kai; Wall, Rachel; Schneider, Kathryn J; McAllister, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    To conduct a systematic review of published literature on advanced neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers and genetic testing in the assessment of sport-related concussion (SRC). Computerised searches of Medline, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Scopus and Cochrane Library from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016 were done. There were 3222 articles identified. In addition to medical subject heading terms, a study was included if (1) published in English, (2) represented original research, (3) involved human research, (4) pertained to SRC and (5) involved data from neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers or genetic testing collected within 6 months of injury. Ninety-eight studies qualified for review (76 neuroimaging, 16 biomarkers and 6 genetic testing). Separate reviews were conducted for neuroimaging, biomarkers and genetic testing. A standardised data extraction tool was used to document study design, population, tests employed and key findings. Reviewers used a modified quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2) tool to rate the risk of bias, and a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to rate the overall level of evidence for each search. Results from the three respective reviews are compiled in separate tables and an interpretive summary of the findings is provided. Advanced neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers and genetic testing are important research tools, but require further validation to determine their ultimate clinical utility in the evaluation of SRC. Future research efforts should address current gaps that limit clinical translation. Ultimately, research on neurobiological and genetic aspects of SRC is predicted to have major translational significance to evidence-based approaches to clinical management of SRC, much like applied clinical research has had over the past 20 years. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  6. Development and preliminary testing of a scale to assess pain-related fear in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Anna; McGrath, Patrick J; Pardos, Judit

    2011-08-01

    It is assumed that pain-related fear, a present response to an immediate danger or threat such as pain, plays a significant role in the experience of pediatric pain. However, there are no measures to adequately measure this construct in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a scale to assess pain-related fear to be used with Catalan-speaking children and adolescents between 7- and 16-years-old. We initially developed a list of items that reflected the physiological, cognitive, and behavioral components of pain-related fear components. We also queried an international group of experts, and interviewed children and adolescents. After pilot testing the initial version with a sample of 10 children, we administered the questionnaire to a sample of schoolchildren (n = 273) and children from medical clinics (n = 164) through individual interviews. Additional information was also collected during the interview to study the psychometric properties of the scale. Ten days after the initial interview, participating schoolchildren were requested to answer the questionnaire again. Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis with data from the school sample produced 2 meaningful factors (namely, Fearful thoughts and Fearful physical feelings and behaviors). Findings also showed that the Pediatric Pain Fear Scale (total scale and the 2 subscales) was both reliable and valid. This scale could help researchers to gain a better understanding about the role of pain-related fear in children and adolescents and support clinical decision-making. This article presents a new measure of fear associated with pain in children and adolescents. This measure could potentially help researchers to gain a better understanding about the role of pain-related fear in children and adolescents and support clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Blood gas testing and related measurements: National recommendations on behalf of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Lora; Kopčinović, Lara Milevoj; Dorotić, Adrijana; Baršić, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Blood gas analysis (BGA) is exposed to risks of errors caused by improper sampling, transport and storage conditions. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) generated documents with recommendations for avoidance of potential errors caused by sample mishandling. Two main documents related to BGA issued by the CLSI are GP43-A4 (former H11-A4) Procedures for the collection of arterial blood specimens; approved standard – fourth edition, and C46-A2 Blood gas and pH analysis and related measurements; approved guideline – second edition. Practices related to processing of blood gas samples are not standardized in the Republic of Croatia. Each institution has its own protocol for ordering, collection and analysis of blood gases. Although many laboratories use state of the art analyzers, still many preanalytical procedures remain unchanged. The objective of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CSMBLM) is to standardize the procedures for BGA based on CLSI recommendations. The Working Group for Blood Gas Testing as part of the Committee for the Scientific Professional Development of the CSMBLM prepared a set of recommended protocols for sampling, transport, storage and processing of blood gas samples based on relevant CLSI documents, relevant literature search and on the results of Croatian survey study on practices and policies in acid-base testing. Recommendations are intended for laboratory professionals and all healthcare workers involved in blood gas processing. PMID:27812301

  8. Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation?: A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method A diverse community sample (55% African-American) of males (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of age (M = 25.80) were randomly assigned to one of two beverage conditions (i.e., alcohol, no-alcohol control) and one of two distraction conditions (i.e., distraction, no-distraction). Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks and a verbal insult from a fictitious male opponent. Participants’ attention-allocation to aggression words (i.e., aggression bias) and physical aggression were measured using a dot probe task and a shock-based aggression task, respectively. Results Intoxicated men whose attention was distracted displayed significantly lower levels of aggression bias and enacted significantly less physical aggression than intoxicated men whose attention was not distracted. However, aggression bias did not account for the lower levels of alcohol-related aggression in the distraction, relative to the no-distraction, condition. Conclusions These results replicated and extended past evidence that cognitive distraction is associated with lower levels of alcohol-related aggression in highly provoked males and provide the first known cognitive data to support the attentional processes posited by the attention-allocation model. Discussion focused on how these data inform intervention programming for alcohol-related aggression. PMID:21500889

  9. Summary of ground motion prediction results for Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions related to the Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walck, M.C.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes available data on ground motions from underground nuclear explosions recorded on and near the Nevada Test Site, with emphasis on the ground motions recorded at stations on Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Sandia National Laboratories, through the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations project, collected and analyzed ground motion data from NTS explosions over a 14-year period, from 1977 through 1990. By combining these data with available data from earlier, larger explosions, prediction equations for several ground motion parameters have been developed for the Test Site area for underground nuclear explosion sources. Also presented are available analyses of the relationship between surface and downhole motions and spectra and relevant crustal velocity structure information for Yucca Mountain derived from the explosion data. The data and associated analyses demonstrate that ground motions at Yucca Mountain from nuclear tests have been at levels lower than would be expected from moderate to large earthquakes in the region; thus nuclear explosions, while located relatively close, would not control seismic design criteria for the potential repository.

  10. Emotional arousal modulates the encoding of crime-related details and corresponding physiological responses in the Concealed Information Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peth, Judith; Vossel, Gerhard; Gamer, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that concealed crime-related memories can be validly identified using the Concealed Information Test (CIT). However, its field applicability is still debated, and it is specifically unknown how emotional arousal during a crime would influence CIT results. In the current study, emotional arousal during a mock crime and the time delay between mock crime and CIT examination were manipulated. At the immediate and the delayed CIT occasion, central crime details were better remembered than peripheral ones and enhanced emotional arousal further reduced memory for peripheral information. Electrodermal, respiratory, and cardiovascular responses to central crime details were strong and CIT validity was unaffected by delaying the test when arousal was induced during the mock crime. These findings indicate that emotional arousal might facilitate the detection of concealed information some time after a crime occurred. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Reliability and criterion-related validity with a smartphone used in timed-up-and-go test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Mercant, Alejandro; Barón-López, Francisco Javier; Labajos-Manzanares, María T; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I

    2014-12-02

    The capacity to diagnosys, quantify and evaluate movement beyond the general confines of a clinical environment under effectiveness conditions may alleviate rampant strain on limited, expensive and highly specialized medical resources. An iPhone 4® mounted a three dimensional accelerometer subsystem with highly robust software applications. The present study aimed to evaluate the reliability and concurrent criterion-related validity of the accelerations with an iPhone 4® in an Extended Timed Get Up and Go test. Extended Timed Get Up and Go is a clinical test with that the patient get up from the chair and walking ten meters, turn and coming back to the chair. A repeated measure, cross-sectional, analytical study. Test-retest reliability of the kinematic measurements of the iPhone 4® compared with a standard validated laboratory device. We calculated the Coefficient of Multiple Correlation between the two sensors acceleration signal of each subject, in each sub-stage, in each of the three Extended Timed Get Up and Go test trials. To investigate statistical agreement between the two sensors we used the Bland-Altman method. With respect to the analysis of the correlation data in the present work, the Coefficient of Multiple Correlation of the five subjects in their triplicated trials were as follows: in sub-phase Sit to Stand the ranged between r = 0.991 to 0.842; in Gait Go, r = 0.967 to 0.852; in Turn, 0.979 to 0.798; in Gait Come, 0.964 to 0.887; and in Turn to Stand to Sit, 0.992 to 0.877. All the correlations between the sensors were significant (p relatively inexpensive and easy to use.

  12. User-centered design and usability testing of an innovative health-related quality of life module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagykaldi, Z J; Jordan, M; Quitoriano, J; Ciro, C A; Mold, J W

    2014-01-01

    Various computerized health risk appraisals (HRAs) are available, but few of them assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a goal-directed framework. This study describes the user-centered development and usability testing of an innovative HRQoL module that extends a validated HRA tool in primary care settings. Systematic user-centered design, usability testing, and qualitative methods were used to develop the HRQoL module in primary care practices. Twenty two patients and 5 clinicians participated in two rounds of interactive technology think-out-loud sessions (TOLs) and semi-structured interviews (SSIs) to iteratively develop a four-step, computerized process that collects information on patient goals for meaningful life activities and current level of disability and presents a personalized and prioritized list of preventive recommendations linked to online resources. Analysis of TOLs and SSIs generated 5 categories and 11 sub-categories related to facilitators and barriers to usability and human-technology interaction. The categories included: Understanding the Purpose, Usability, Perceived Value, Literacy, and Participant Motivation. Some categories were inter-connected. The technology was continually and iteratively improved between sessions until saturation of positive feedback was achieved in 4 categories (addressing motivation will require more research). Usability of all screen units of the module was improved substantially. Clinician feedback emphasized the importance of the module's ability to translate the patient-centered HRQoL Report into actionable items for clinicians to facilitate shared decision-making. Complete integration of the HRQoL module into the existing HRA will require further development and testing. Systematic application of user-centered design and human factors principles in technology development and testing may significantly improve the usability and clinical value of health information systems. This more sophisticated

  13. The Transformation of Teaching Habits in Relation to the Introduction of Grading and National Testing in Science Education in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidar, Malena; Lundqvist, Eva; Ryder, Jim; Östman, Leif

    2017-12-01

    In Sweden, a new curriculum and new methods of assessment (grading of students and national tests) in science education were introduced in grade 6 in 2012/2013. We have investigated what implications these reforms have for teachers' teaching and assessment practices in order to explore the question of how teachers transform their teaching habits in relation to policy reforms. Interviews with 16 teachers teaching science in grade 6 (Y6), over 3 years after the reforms were introduced, were analysed. Building on the ideas of John Dewey, we consider teachers' talk about their everyday practice as expressions of their habits of teaching. Habits of teaching are related both to individual experiences as well as institutional traditions in and about teaching. A categorisation of educational philosophies was used to teachers' habits of teaching to a collective level and to show how habits can be transformed and developed over time in specific sociocultural contexts. The teachers were categorised as using essentialist and/or progressivist educational philosophy. In the responses to the introduction of grading and national testing, the teachers took three approaches: Their habits being reinforced, revised or unchanged in relation to the reforms. Although the responses were different, a striking similarity was that all teachers justified their responses with wanting to do what is best for students. However, how to show care for students differed, from delivering scientific knowledge in alignment with an essentialist educational philosophy, to preparing students to do well on tests, to supporting their development as individuals, which is in alignment with a progressivist educational philosophy.

  14. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Post-Flight Navigation Performance Assessment Relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Robert S.; Holt, Greg N.; Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the post-flight navigation performance assessment of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Results of each flight phase are presented: Ground Align, Ascent, Orbit, and Entry Descent and Landing. This study examines the on-board Kalman Filter uncertainty along with state deviations relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET). Overall the results show that the Orion Navigation System performed as well or better than expected. Specifically, the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement availability was significantly better than anticipated at high altitudes. In addition, attitude estimation via processing GPS measurements along with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data performed very well and maintained good attitude throughout the mission.

  15. Decision making about healthcare-related tests and diagnostic test strategies. Paper 5: a qualitative study with experts suggests that test accuracy data alone is rarely sufficient for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Reem A; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Ventresca, Matthew; Brozek, Jan; Schünemann, Holger J

    2017-12-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the critical factors that determine recommendations and other decisions about healthcare-related tests and diagnostic strategies (HCTDS). We used a qualitative descriptive approach and conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 24 international experts (informants) in evidence and decisions about HCTDS. Although test accuracy (TA) was the factor most commonly considered by organizations when developing recommendations about HCTDS, informants agreed that TA is necessary but rarely, if ever, sufficient and may be misleading when solely considered. The informants identified factors that are important for developing recommendations about HCTDS. Informants largely agreed that laying out the potential care pathways based on the test result is an essential early step but is rarely done in developing recommendations about HCTDS. Most informants also agreed that decision analysis could be useful for organizing the clinical, cost, and preference data relevant to the use of tests in the absence of direct evidence. However, they noted that using models is limited by the lack of resources and expertise required. Developing guidelines about HCTDS requires consideration of factors beyond TA, but implementing this may be challenging. Further development and testing of "frameworks" that can guide this process is a priority for decision makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sports-related testing protocols are required to reveal trunk stability adaptations in high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbado, David; Barbado, Luis C; Elvira, Jose L L; Dieën, Jaap H van; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    Trunk/core stability is considered a key component of training programs, because it could contribute to prevention of low-back and lower-limb injuries and to sports performance. Based on the specificity principle, sports-related trunk stability tests would be required in elite sports performance. However, there may be some generic qualities underlying trunk stability that can be assessed with nonspecific protocols, which are broadly used in sport and rehabilitation. To assess whether specific tests are needed in a high-performance context, we analyzed the influence of specialization in sports with large but qualitatively different balance control demands (judo and kayaking) on trunk stability and compared high-performance athletes with recreational athletes without a specific training history. Twenty-five judokas, sixteen kayakers and thirty-seven recreational athletes performed two trunk stability protocols: sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to external and unexpected perturbations; stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participant's ability to control trunk while sitting. Within-session test-retest reliability analyses were performed to support the between-groups comparison. Judokas showed lower angular displacement (0.199rad) against posterior loading than kayakers (0.221rad) probably because they are frequently challenged by higher sudden loads while they are pushed or pulled. Kayakers showed lower error (7.33mm), probably because they train and compete seated on unstable surfaces. Importantly, judokas and kayakers obtained better results than recreational athletes only in those tests designed according to the specific demands of each sport (psport training induces specific trunk stability adaptations, which are not revealed through nonspecific tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reliability of breath by breath spirometry and relative flow-time indices for pulmonary function testing in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnheim, K; Hughes, K J; Evans, D L; Raidal, S L

    2016-11-28

    Respiratory problems are common in horses, and are often diagnosed as a cause of poor athletic performance. Reliable, accurate and sensitive spirometric tests of airway function in resting horses would assist with the diagnosis of limitations to breathing and facilitate investigations of the effects of various treatments on breathing capacity. The evaluation of respiratory function in horses is challenging and suitable procedures are not widely available to equine practitioners. The determination of relative flow or flow-time measures is used in paediatric patients where compliance may limit conventional pulmonary function techniques. The aim of the current study was to characterise absolute and relative indices of respiratory function in healthy horses during eupnoea (tidal breathing) and carbon dioxide (CO2)-induced hyperpnoea (rebreathing) using a modified mask pneumotrachographic technique well suited to equine practice, and to evaluate the reliability of this technique over three consecutive days. Coefficients of variation, intra-class correlations, mean differences and 95% confidence intervals across all days of testing were established for each parameter. The technique provided absolute measures of respiratory function (respiratory rate, tidal volume, peak inspiratory and expiratory flows, time to peak flow) consistent with previous studies and there was no significant effect of day on any measure of respiratory function. Variability of measurements was decreased during hyperpnea caused by rebreathing CO2, but a number of relative flow-time variables demonstrated good agreement during eupnoeic respiration. The technique was well tolerated by horses and study findings suggest the technique is suitable for evaluation of respiratory function in horses. The use of relative flow-time variables provided reproducible (consistent) results, suggesting the technique may be of use for repeated measures studies in horses during tidal breathing or rebreathing.

  18. Tests of linear and nonlinear relations between cumulative contextual risk at birth and psychosocial problems during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Gilbert R; Smith, Gail L; Mason, W Alex; Savolainen, Jukka; Chmelka, Mary B; Miettunen, Jouko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2017-10-01

    This study tested whether there are linear or nonlinear relations between prenatal/birth cumulative risk and psychosocial outcomes during adolescence. Participants (n = 6963) were taken from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study 1986. The majority of participants did not experience any contextual risk factors around the time of the target child's birth (58.1%). Even in this low-risk sample, cumulative contextual risk assessed around the time of birth was related to seven different psychosocial outcomes 16 years later. There was some evidence for nonlinear effects, but only for substance-related outcomes; however, the form of the association depended on how the cumulative risk index was calculated. Gender did not moderate the relation between cumulative risk and any of the adolescent psychosocial outcomes. Results highlight the potential value of using the cumulative risk framework for identifying children at birth who are at risk for a range of poor psychosocial outcomes during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance on the Green Word Memory Test following Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom-era military service: Test failure is related to evaluation context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cortney L; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth E; McDonald, Scott D; Campbell, Thomas C; Tupler, Larry A

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates prior reports of high neuropsychological symptom validity test (SVT) failure rates in post-deployed Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) active and veteran military personnel, using a large, multi-site sample (N = 214) drawn from three levels of the Department of Defense/Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Polytrauma System of Care. The sample failure rate and its relationship to research versus dual research/clinical context of evaluation were examined, in addition to secondary variables explored in prior studies. Results yielded an overall failure rate of 25%, lower than prior reports describing OEF/OIF active-duty and veteran military personnel. Findings also supported the hypothesis that SVT failure rates would differ by context (dual > research). Participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI) failed more frequently than those without TBI in the dual context but not in the research context. Secondary analyses revealed that failure rates increased in the presence of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and male sex but were unrelated to active versus veteran military status, service connection (SC) or percentage of SC, age, education, or ethnicity. Further research is required to elucidate the underpinnings of these findings in light of the limited literature and variability between OEF/OIF-related SVT studies, as well as the substantial diagnostic and treatment implications for VA.

  20. Exploring experience of family relations by patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa using a projective family test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fäldt Ciccolo, Erica B

    2008-08-01

    Elements of family dynamics have been shown to be related to onset, course, as well as prognosis of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The goal was to explore the experience of family relations in a group of patients with eating disorders using a projective family test. The Patient group (anorexia=21, bulimia=16), as well as a healthy Control group, were given a projective family test, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, as well as Karolinska Scales of Personality. The Patient group expressed more discord within the family picture than the Control group, such as cold and loveless relationships and not feeling validated. The group of patients reporting the most family discord did not show more eating disorder pathology or general psychopathology. They did, however, have higher scores on the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 subscale Maturity Fears, as well as higher values on the Karolinska Scales of Personality subscale Socialization. These results are interpreted within the background of methodological challenges in this area of research.

  1. RELATIONS BETWEEN GENERAL MOTOR SKILLS AND HANDBALL SPECIFIC TEST "BALL SLALOM" IN STUDENTS OF THE IV GRADE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Branković

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Teaching physical education and physical training of children, should be appropriate to their age abilities and needs. Acquire the diversified movement experience is a priority of physical education in junior school age. Students fourth grade of primary school - age 10-11 years, in the sensitive period for developing coordination and speed capabilities. Sports game handball and mode of the game "mini-handball", which is adapted to students age abilities and spatial characteristics of the majority of primary schools, abundant with various tasks, specifically dominated by natural forms of movement - running, jumping, throwing. Therefore, handball has a significant role in solving the tasks of physical education. The specific motor tests and relations with the general motor skills are particularly important for continuous monitoring of motor development of children. The survey was conducted on 79 boys fourth grade of primary school who participated in the electoral sport of handball in the regular physical education classes. The results of the handball test "ball slalom" and its relation with general motor skills of students fourth grade of primary school, should contribute to the perception of the value of handball as the content of physical education, but also to contribute to the selection and forecast performance of children in handball.

  2. The current use, and opinions of elite athletes and support staff in relation to genetic testing in elite sport within the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Varley, I; Patel, S; Williams, AG; Hennis, PJ

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the current use of genetic testing in UK elite sport and assess how genetic testing might be received by those employed in elite sport. Seventy-two elite athletes and 95 support staff at UK sports clubs and governing bodies completed an online survey of 11 questions concerning their experience of genetic testing and beliefs regarding the use of genetic testing in sport. Genetic testing related to sports performance and injury susceptibility is condu...

  3. Biological and analytical variations of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests and the activity of coagulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Shou, Weiling; Wu, Wei; Guo, Ye; Zhang, Yujuan; Huang, Chunmei; Cui, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To accurately estimate longitudinal changes in individuals, it is important to take into consideration the biological variability of the measurement. The few studies available on the biological variations of coagulation parameters are mostly outdated. We confirmed the published results using modern, fully automated methods. Furthermore, we added data for additional coagulation parameters. At 8:00 am, 12:00 pm, and 4:00 pm on days 1, 3, and 5, venous blood was collected from 31 healthy volunteers. A total of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests as well as the activity of coagulation factors were analyzed; these included prothrombin time, fibrinogen (Fbg), activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time activity, activated partial thromboplastin time ratio, fibrin(-ogen) degradation products, as well as the activity of factor II, factor V, factor VII, factor VIII, factor IX, and factor X. All intraindividual coefficients of variation (CVI) values for the parameters of the screening tests (except Fbg) were less than 5%. Conversely, the CVI values for the activity of coagulation factors were all greater than 5%. In addition, we calculated the reference change value to determine whether a significant difference exists between two test results from the same individual. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Gravitational-Wave Tests of General Relativity with Ground-Based Detectors and Pulsar-Timing Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Yunes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This review is focused on tests of Einstein's theory of general relativity with gravitational waves that are detectable by ground-based interferometers and pulsar-timing experiments. Einstein’s theory has been greatly constrained in the quasi-linear, quasi-stationary regime, where gravity is weak and velocities are small. Gravitational waves will allow us to probe a complimentary, yet previously unexplored regime: the non-linear and dynamical strong-field regime. Such a regime is, for example, applicable to compact binaries coalescing, where characteristic velocities can reach fifty percent the speed of light and gravitational fields are large and dynamical. This review begins with the theoretical basis and the predicted gravitational-wave observables of modified gravity theories. The review continues with a brief description of the detectors, including both gravitational-wave interferometers and pulsar-timing arrays, leading to a discussion of the data analysis formalism that is applicable for such tests. The review ends with a discussion of gravitational-wave tests for compact binary systems.

  5. Duration and frequency of migraines affect cognitive function: evidence from neuropsychological tests and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lifang; Juan Dong, Hong; Wang, Xi; Wang, Yan; Xiao, Zheman

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the cognitive performance of migraine patients using a comprehensive series of cognitive/behavioral and electrophysiological tests. A randomized, cross-sectional, within subject approach was used to compare neuropsychological and electrophysiological evaluations from migrane-affected and healthy subjects. Thirty-four patients with migraine (6 males, 28 females, average 36 years old) were included. Migraineurs performed worse in the majority of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) (p = 0.007) compared to the healthy subjects, significantly in language (p = 0.005), memory (p = 0.006), executive functions (p = 0.042), calculation (p = 0.018) and orientation (p = 0.012). Migraineurs had a lower score on the memory trial of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test (ROCF) (p = 0.012). The P3 latency in Fz, Cz, Pz was prolonged in migraineurs compared with the normal control group (P migraine. We also observed that a decrease in the MoCA-executive functions and calculation score and in the ROCF-recall score were both correlated to the frequency of migraine. Migraineurs were more anxious than healthy subjects (p = 0.001), which is independent of cognitive testing. Differences were unrelated to age, gender and literacy. Cognitive performance decreases during migraine, and cognitive dysfunction can be related to the duration and frequency of a migraine attack.

  6. Automatic detection of MLC relative position errors for VMAT using the EPID-based picket fence test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophides, Damianos; Davies, Alex; Fleckney, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) ensure the accurate delivery of treatments requiring complex beam fluences like intensity modulated radiotherapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy. The purpose of this work is to automate the detection of MLC relative position errors  ⩾0.5 mm using electronic portal imaging device-based picket fence tests and compare the results to the qualitative assessment currently in use. Picket fence tests with and without intentional MLC errors were measured weekly on three Varian linacs. The picket fence images analysed covered a time period ranging between 14-20 months depending on the linac. An algorithm was developed that calculated the MLC error for each leaf-pair present in the picket fence images. The baseline error distributions of each linac were characterised for an initial period of 6 months and compared with the intentional MLC errors using statistical metrics. The distributions of median and one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test p-value exhibited no overlap between baseline and intentional errors and were used retrospectively to automatically detect MLC errors in routine clinical practice. Agreement was found between the MLC errors detected by the automatic method and the fault reports during clinical use, as well as interventions for MLC repair and calibration. In conclusion the method presented provides for full automation of MLC quality assurance, based on individual linac performance characteristics. The use of the automatic method has been shown to provide early warning for MLC errors that resulted in clinical downtime.

  7. Access and Quality of HIV-Related Point-of-Care Diagnostic Testing in Global Health Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonjungo, Peter N; Boeras, Debrah I; Zeh, Clement; Alexander, Heather; Parekh, Bharat S; Nkengasong, John N

    2016-02-01

    Access to point-of-care testing (POCT) improves patient care, especially in resource-limited settings where laboratory infrastructure is poor and the bulk of the population lives in rural settings. However, because of challenges in rolling out the technology and weak quality assurance measures, the promise of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related POCT in resource-limited settings has not been fully exploited to improve patient care and impact public health. Because of these challenges, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), in partnership with other organizations, recently launched the Diagnostics Access Initiative. Expanding HIV programs, including the "test and treat" strategies and the newly established UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, will require increased access to reliable and accurate POCT results. In this review, we examine various components that could improve access and uptake of quality-assured POC tests to ensure coverage and public health impact. These components include evaluation, policy, regulation, and innovative approaches to strengthen the quality of POCT. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Gravitational-Wave Tests of General Relativity with Ground-Based Detectors and Pulsar-Timing Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Nicolás; Siemens, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This review is focused on tests of Einstein's theory of general relativity with gravitational waves that are detectable by ground-based interferometers and pulsar-timing experiments. Einstein's theory has been greatly constrained in the quasi-linear, quasi-stationary regime, where gravity is weak and velocities are small. Gravitational waves will allow us to probe a complimentary, yet previously unexplored regime: the non-linear and dynamical strong-field regime. Such a regime is, for example, applicable to compact binaries coalescing, where characteristic velocities can reach fifty percent the speed of light and gravitational fields are large and dynamical. This review begins with the theoretical basis and the predicted gravitational-wave observables of modified gravity theories. The review continues with a brief description of the detectors, including both gravitational-wave interferometers and pulsar-timing arrays, leading to a discussion of the data analysis formalism that is applicable for such tests. The review ends with a discussion of gravitational-wave tests for compact binary systems.

  9. 454 pyrosequencing to describe microbial eukaryotic community composition, diversity and relative abundance: a test for marine haptophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elianne Egge

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing of ribosomal DNA is increasingly used to assess the diversity and structure of microbial communities. Here we test the ability of 454 pyrosequencing to detect the number of species present, and assess the relative abundance in terms of cell numbers and biomass of protists in the phylum Haptophyta. We used a mock community consisting of equal number of cells of 11 haptophyte species and compared targeting DNA and RNA/cDNA, and two different V4 SSU rDNA haptophyte-biased primer pairs. Further, we tested four different bioinformatic filtering methods to reduce errors in the resulting sequence dataset. With sequencing depth of 11000-20000 reads and targeting cDNA with Haptophyta specific primers Hap454 we detected all 11 species. A rarefaction analysis of expected number of species recovered as a function of sampling depth suggested that minimum 1400 reads were required here to recover all species in the mock community. Relative read abundance did not correlate to relative cell numbers. Although the species represented with the largest biomass was also proportionally most abundant among the reads, there was generally a weak correlation between proportional read abundance and proportional biomass of the different species, both with DNA and cDNA as template. The 454 sequencing generated considerable spurious diversity, and more with cDNA than DNA as template. With initial filtering based only on match with barcode and primer we observed 100-fold more operational taxonomic units (OTUs at 99% similarity than the number of species present in the mock community. Filtering based on quality scores, or denoising with PyroNoise resulted in ten times more OTU99% than the number of species. Denoising with AmpliconNoise reduced the number of OTU99% to match the number of species present in the mock community. Based on our analyses, we propose a strategy to more accurately depict haptophyte diversity using 454 pyrosequencing.

  10. Event-related potentials associated with masked priming of test cues reveal multiple potential contributions to recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollams, Anna M; Taylor, Jason R; Karayanidis, Frini; Henson, Richard N

    2008-06-01

    The relationship between recognition memory and repetition priming remains unclear. Priming is believed to reflect increased processing fluency for previously studied items relative to new items. Manipulations that affect fluency can also affect the likelihood that participants will judge items as studied in recognition tasks. This attribution of fluency to memory has been related to the familiarity process, as distinct from the recollection process, that is assumed by dual-process models of recognition memory. To investigate the time courses and neural sources of fluency, familiarity, and recollection, we conducted an event-related potential (ERP) study of recognition memory using masked priming of test cues and a remember/know paradigm. During the recognition test, studied and unstudied words were preceded by a brief, masked word that was either the same or different. Participants decided quickly whether each item had been studied ("old" or "new"), and for items called old, indicated whether they "remembered" (R) the encoding event, or simply "knew" (K) the item had been studied. Masked priming increased the proportion of K, but not R, judgments. Priming also decreased response times for hits but not correct rejections (CRs). Four distinct ERP effects were found. A medial-frontal FN400 (300-500 msec) was associated with familiarity (R, K Hits > CRs) and a centro-parietal late positivity (500-800 msec) with recollection (R Hits > K Hits, CRs). A long-term repetition effect was found for studied items judged "new" (Misses > CRs) in the same time window as the FN400, but with a posterior distribution. Finally, a centrally distributed masked priming effect was visible between 150 and 250 msec and continued into the 300-500 msec time window, where it was topographically dissociable from the FN400. These results suggest that multiple neural signals are associated with repetition and potentially contribute to recognition memory.

  11. The perspective from EASAC and FEAM on direct-to-consumer genetic testing for health-related purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fears, Robin; ter Meulen, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing services raise scientific, regulatory and ethical questions. A report was prepared by consultation with an expert Working Group and published by the academies of science (European Academies of Science Advisory Council, EASAC) and medicine (Federation of European Academies of Medicine, FEAM). This report reviews current scientific evidence, ascertains the principles that should underpin the options for action by policy-makers, and discusses the potential for devising proportionate and flexible regulation that enables future innovation, taking account of the work of other expert groups, most notably the European Society of Human Genetics. EASAC–FEAM concluded that DTC genetic testing has little clinical value at present, and expresses especial caution in several specific respects, for example relating to testing for high penetrance, serious disorders, prenatal screening, nutrigenomic and pharmacogenetic testing. It was emphasised that regulation must be on the basis that claims about the link between genetic marker and disease are scientifically valid. Other key issues to address include quality assurance (that includes the professional interpretation of results), transparent supply of accurate information, consideration of the implications for established health services, and clarification of consent procedures for any use of data for research purposes. There are important implications: for the European Commission, in revising the Directive on In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices; for professional bodies, in supporting training and guideline development; for the broader research community, in generating the evidence base; and for the public health community, in improving the routine translation of research advances into clinical practice. PMID:23169492

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of subacute computerized neurocognitive testing and symptom evaluation in predicting outcomes after sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Brian C; Collins, Michael W; Lovell, Mark R

    2011-06-01

    Concussions affect an estimated 136 000 high school athletes yearly. Computerized neurocognitive testing has been shown to be appropriately sensitive and specific in diagnosing concussions, but no studies have assessed its utility to predict length of recovery. Determining prognosis during subacute recovery after sports concussion will help clinicians more confidently address return-to-play and academic decisions. To quantify the prognostic ability of computerized neurocognitive testing in combination with symptoms during the subacute recovery phase from sports-related concussion. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. In sum, 108 male high school football athletes completed a computer-based neurocognitive test battery within 2.23 days of injury and were followed until returned to play as set by international guidelines. Athletes were grouped into protracted recovery (>14 days; n = 50) or short-recovery (≤14 days; n = 58). Separate discriminant function analyses were performed using total symptom score on Post-Concussion Symptom Scale, symptom clusters (migraine, cognitive, sleep, neuropsychiatric), and Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing neurocognitive scores (verbal memory, visual memory, reaction time, processing speed). Multiple discriminant function analyses revealed that the combination of 4 symptom clusters and 4 neurocognitive composite scores had the highest sensitivity (65.22%), specificity (80.36%), positive predictive value (73.17%), and negative predictive value (73.80%) in predicting protracted recovery. Discriminant function analyses of total symptoms on the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale alone had a sensitivity of 40.81%; specificity, 79.31%; positive predictive value, 62.50%; and negative predictive value, 61.33%. The 4 symptom clusters alone discriminant function analyses had a sensitivity of 46.94%; specificity, 77.20%; positive predictive value, 63.90%; and negative predictive value, 62.86%. Discriminant function

  13. Evaluation of gas condensate reservoir behavior using velocity dependent relative permeability during the numerical well test analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Azamifard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gas condensate is one of the most different fluids in reservoir simulation due to retrograde condensation in case of pressure reduction. In this kind of fluids, two phenomena named negative inertia and positive coupling, become significant in the high velocity zone around the wellbore. In this study, a modified black oil simulator is developed that take into account the velocity dependent relative permeability. Against the industrial simulator that assumes linear variation of transmissibilities by pressure, modified black oil nonlinear equations are solved directly without linearization. The developed code is validated by ECLIPSE simulator. The behavior of two real gas condensate fluids, a lean and a rich one, are compared with each other. For each fluid, simulations of PVT experiments are carried out to calculate black oil property applying Coats approach for gas condensate fluids. For both fluids, the proposed models for gas condensate velocity dependent relative permeability show different influence of velocity on relative permeability in the same conditions. Moreover, it is observed that higher flow rate of gas production leads to more condensate production during constant rate well testing.

  14. Direct and indirect effects of enablers on HIV testing, initiation and retention in antiretroviral treatment and AIDS related mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Safarnejad

    Full Text Available An enabling environment is believed to have significant and critical effects on HIV and AIDS program implementation and desired outcomes. This paper estimates the paths, directionality, and direct and indirect associations between critical enablers with antiretroviral treatment (ART coverage and to AIDS-related mortality.Frameworks that consider the role of enablers in HIV and AIDS programs were systematically reviewed to develop a conceptual model of interaction. Measurements for constructs of the model were pooled from the latest publicly available data. A hypothetical model, including latent/unobserved factors and interaction of enablers, program activities and outcomes, was analyzed cross-sectionally with structural equation modeling. Coefficients of the model were used to estimate the indirect associations of enablers to treatment coverage and the subsequent associated impact on AIDS related mortality.The model's fit was adequate (RMSEA = 0·084, 90% CI [0·062, 0·104] and the indirect effects of enablers on outcomes were measured. Enablers having significant associations with increased ART coverage were social/financial protection, governance, anti-discrimination, gender equality, domestic AIDS spending, testing service delivery, and logistics.Critical enablers are significantly correlated to outcomes like ART coverage and AIDS related mortality. Even while this model does not allow inference on causality, it provides directionality and magnitude of the significant associations.

  15. Direct and indirect effects of enablers on HIV testing, initiation and retention in antiretroviral treatment and AIDS related mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarnejad, Ali; Izazola-Licea, Jose-Antonio

    2017-01-01

    An enabling environment is believed to have significant and critical effects on HIV and AIDS program implementation and desired outcomes. This paper estimates the paths, directionality, and direct and indirect associations between critical enablers with antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage and to AIDS-related mortality. Frameworks that consider the role of enablers in HIV and AIDS programs were systematically reviewed to develop a conceptual model of interaction. Measurements for constructs of the model were pooled from the latest publicly available data. A hypothetical model, including latent/unobserved factors and interaction of enablers, program activities and outcomes, was analyzed cross-sectionally with structural equation modeling. Coefficients of the model were used to estimate the indirect associations of enablers to treatment coverage and the subsequent associated impact on AIDS related mortality. The model's fit was adequate (RMSEA = 0·084, 90% CI [0·062, 0·104]) and the indirect effects of enablers on outcomes were measured. Enablers having significant associations with increased ART coverage were social/financial protection, governance, anti-discrimination, gender equality, domestic AIDS spending, testing service delivery, and logistics. Critical enablers are significantly correlated to outcomes like ART coverage and AIDS related mortality. Even while this model does not allow inference on causality, it provides directionality and magnitude of the significant associations.

  16. Sex-Related Online Behaviors, Perceived Peer Norms and Adolescents' Experience with Sexual Behavior: Testing an Integrative Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M Doornwaard

    Full Text Available Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM] and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS] sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents' experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (M(age T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys and SNS use (among boys and girls predicted increases in adolescents' perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents' level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys' SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents' sexual health.

  17. Sex-Related Online Behaviors, Perceived Peer Norms and Adolescents’ Experience with Sexual Behavior: Testing an Integrative Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Reitz, Ellen; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents’ sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents’ lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents’ experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (Mage T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys) demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys) and SNS use (among boys and girls) predicted increases in adolescents’ perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents’ level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys’ SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents’ sexual health. PMID:26086606

  18. Sex-Related Online Behaviors, Perceived Peer Norms and Adolescents' Experience with Sexual Behavior: Testing an Integrative Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; ter Bogt, Tom F M; Reitz, Ellen; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-01-01

    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents' experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys) demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys) and SNS use (among boys and girls) predicted increases in adolescents' perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents' level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys' SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents' sexual health.

  19. Experimental model of biofilm implant-related osteomyelitis to test combination biomaterials using biofilms as initial inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dustin L; Haymond, Bryan S; Woodbury, Kassie L; Beck, J Peter; Moore, David E; Epperson, R Tyler; Bloebaum, Roy D

    2012-07-01

    Currently, the majority of animal models that are used to study biofilm-related infections use planktonic bacterial cells as initial inocula to produce positive signals of infection in biomaterials studies. However, the use of planktonic cells has potentially led to inconsistent results in infection outcomes. In this study, well-established biofilms of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were grown and used as initial inocula in an animal model of a Type IIIB open fracture. The goal of the work was to establish, for the first time, a repeatable model of biofilm implant-related osteomyelitis, wherein biofilms were used as initial inocula to test combination biomaterials. Results showed that 100% of animals that were treated with biofilms developed osteomyelitis, whereas 0% of animals not treated with biofilm developed infection. The development of this experimental model may lead to an important shift in biofilm and biomaterials research by showing that when biofilms are used as initial inocula, they may provide additional insights into how biofilm-related infections in the clinic develop and how they can be treated with combination biomaterials to eradicate and/or prevent biofilm formation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Fish oil-supplementation from 9 to 12 months of age affects infant attention in a free-play test and is related to change in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbild, Helle Liliegren; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram; Christensen, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval.......This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval....

  1. Comparing self-report, clinical examination and functional testing in the assessment of work-related limitations in patients with chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, S; Dijkstra, PU; Stewart, RE; Goeken, LNH; Groothoff, JW; Geertzen, JHB

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the work-related limitations assessed using self-report, clinical examination and functional testing in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Methods. Work-related limitations of 92 patients were assessed using self-report, clinical examination and functional testing. To

  2. Results of a survey among GP practices on how they manage patient safety aspects related to point-of-care testing in every day practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Claudette; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Hilbers, Ellen; Verheij, Robert; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Geertsma, Robert; Kusters, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Background Point-of-care (POC) tests are devices or test strips that can be used near or at the site where care is delivered to patients, enabling a relatively fast diagnosis. Although many general practitioners (GPs) in the Netherlands are using POC tests in their practice, little is known on how

  3. Results of a survey among GP practices on how they manage patient safety aspects related to point-of-care testing in every day practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, C. de; Doggen, C.J.M.; Hilbers, E.; Verheij, R.; IJzerman, M.; Geertsma, R.; Kusters, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Point-of-care (POC) tests are devices or test strips that can be used near or at the site where care is delivered to patients, enabling a relatively fast diagnosis. Although many general practitioners (GPs) in the Netherlands are using POC tests in their practice, little

  4. Feasibility and Reliability of Tests Measuring Health-Related Physical Fitness in Children with Moderate to Severe Levels of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Marieke; van der Zanden, Anna M.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.

    2017-01-01

    Physical fitness is an important marker for health. In this study we investigated the feasibility and reliability of health-related physical fitness tests in children with moderate to severe levels of intellectual disability. Thirty-nine children (2-18 yrs) performed tests for muscular strength and endurance, the modified 6-minute walk test (6mwt)…

  5. Patterns of object relations and reality testing deficits in schizophrenia: clusters and their symptom and personality correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M D; Conway Greig, T; Bryson, G; Kaplan, E

    2001-12-01

    Bell Object Relations Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI) profile scores were used to cluster 222 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. An eight-cluster solution was subjected to replication analysis, and six clusters were found valid and replicable. These clusters were sorted into three pairs that were interpreted as follows: Residually Impaired consisted of Sealed-Over Recovery and Integrated Recovery; Socially Withdrawn consisted of Socially Withdrawn and Socially Withdrawn-Autistic; and Psychotically Egocentric consisted of Psychotically Egocentric and Psychotically Egocentric-Severe. Clusters were compared on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale ratings and on subscales from the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. MANOVAs indicated significant differences among clusters. These differences provided further interpretations of cluster membership. Implications for the use of BORRTI profiles for treatment and rehabilitation planning are discussed. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Using the real-life vision test to assess the functional vision of age-related cataract patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W; Li, X; Ao, M; Zhang, H; Hou, Z; Si, S; Wang, W

    2012-11-01

    (1) To describe and validate a newly developed, timed performance-based measures of functional vision-the real-life vision test (RLVT). (2) To determine how RLVT relates to clinical measures and self-report assessment of visual function and the complex interactions among visual impairment, psychosocial status, and demographic factors. A total of 64 patients with age-related cataract and 45 age-matched controls were evaluated by four types of measurements: (1) demographic, medical, cognitive, and depressive evaluation and the reaction time (RT) testing; (2) clinical measures (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, stereopsis, and the color perception); (3) the 25-item National Eye Institute's Visual Functioning Questionnaire; and (4) the RLVT. Spearman's coefficients, partial correlation, and multiple regression analysis were conducted to determine the relationship among RLVT, clinical measures, and self-report assessment of visual function while controlling for confounders. Control subjects performed RLVT significantly better than the cataract patients. RLVT correlated well with both clinical and self-report assessments of visual function. All subscales of RLVT remained highly associated with most of the clinical measures, even after adjusting for age, years of education, depression, cognitive status, and the RT. Distance, intermediate and near visual acuity, and binocular contrast sensitivity were significant predictors of the RLVT performances. Given the strong relationship among RLVT, clinical measures, and the self-report assessments, our results highlight the potential usefulness of RLVT for assessing the functional vision of cataract patients. RLVT may provide information not obtainable from clinical measures or surveys and therefore it is essential to be incorporated into future ophthalmological practice.

  7. Relative accuracy testing of an X-ray fluorescence-based mercury monitor at coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. James Hay; Bruce E. Johnsen; Paul R. Ginochio; John A. Cooper [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Champaign, IL (United States). Construction Engineering Research Laboratory

    2006-05-15

    The relative accuracy (RA) of a newly developed mercury continuous emissions monitor, based on X-ray fluorescence, was determined by comparing analysis results at coal-fired plants with two certified reference methods (American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method D6784-02 and U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Method 29). During the first determination, the monitor had an RA of 25% compared with ASTM Method D6784-02 (Ontario Hydro Method). However, the Ontario Hydro Method performed poorly, because the mercury concentrations were near the detection limit of the reference method. The mercury in this exhaust stream was primarily elemental. The second test was performed at a U.S. Army boiler against EPA Reference Method 29. Mercury and arsenic were spiked because of expected low mercury concentrations. The monitor had an RA of 16% for arsenic and 17% for mercury, meeting RA requirements of EPA Performance Specification 12a. The results suggest that the sampling stream contained significant percentages of both elemental and oxidized mercury. The monitor was successful at measuring total mercury in particulate and vapor forms. 25 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Expectation maximization algorithm based haplotype relative risk (EM-HRR): test of linkage disequilibrium using incomplete case-parents trios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chao-Yu; DeStefano, Anita L; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Dupuis, Josée; Cupples, L Adrienne

    2005-01-01

    The Haplotype Relative Risk (HRR) was first proposed [Falk et al., Ann Hum Genet 1987] to test for Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) between a marker and a putative disease locus using case-parent trios. Spurious association does not appear in such family-based studies under population admixture. In this paper, we extend the HRR to accommodate incomplete trios via the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm [Dempster et al., J R Stat Soc Ser B, 1977]. In addition to triads and dyads (parent-offspring pair), the EM-HRR easily incorporates individuals with no parental genotype information available, which is excluded from the one parent Transmission/Disequilibrium Test (1-TDT) [Sun et al., Am J Epidemiol 1999]. Due to the data structure of EM-HRR, transmitted alleles are always available regardless of the number of missing parental genotypes. As a result of having a larger sample size, computer simulations reveal that the EM-HRR is more powerful in detecting LD than the 1-TDT in a population under Hardy-Weinberg Equilibirum (HWE). If admixture is not extreme, the EM-HRR remains more powerful. When a large degree of admixture exists, the EM-HRR performs better the 1-TDT when the association is strong, though not as well when the association is weak. We illustrate the proposed method with an application to the Framingham Heart Study. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The chronology of age-related spatial learning impairment in two rat strains, as tested by the Barnes maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Graham L; Bennie, Antoinette; Trieu, Jennifer; Ping, Sophie; Tsafoulis, Christine

    2009-06-01

    The Barnes maze offers advantages for cognitive aging studies, because of its relatively unstressful design and its modest physical demands. The authors therefore undertook a detailed chronological investigation of performance against age, for female Sprague-Dawley and male and female Dark Agouti rats. The trial duration was 10 days. Rats were tested at 6, 11, 14, 17, 20, and 26 months of age, but individual rats were tested at one age only. At 6 months of age, all rats reached the criterion. Sprague-Dawley rats performed best at this age. Impairment began at 14 months in Dark Agouti rats and continued to increase up to 26 months of age. Impairment was greater in Dark Agouti than Sprague-Dawley rats and was greater in females than males. At 26 months, 70% of Sprague-Dawley females reached criterion; of the Dark Agoutis, only 33% of females and 57% of males reached criterion. This study confirms the utility of the Barnes maze as a robust vehicle in aged rats. It also highlights major performance differences between strains and genders in aging rats. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Accelerated Testing and Modeling of Potential-Induced Degradation as a Function of Temperature and Relative Humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu; Terwilliger, Kent; Perrin, Greg; Glick, Stephen; Kurtz, Sarah; Wohlgemuth, John

    2015-06-14

    An acceleration model based on the Peck equation was applied to power performance of crystalline silicon cell modules as a function of time and of temperature and humidity, the two main environmental stress factors that promote potential-induced degradation. This model was derived from module power degradation data obtained semi-continuously and statistically by in-situ dark current-voltage measurements in an environmental chamber. The modeling enables prediction of degradation rates and times as functions of temperature and humidity. Power degradation could be modeled linearly as a function of time to the second power; additionally, we found that coulombs transferred from the active cell circuit to ground during the stress test is approximately linear with time. Therefore, the power loss could be linearized as a function of coulombs squared. With this result, we observed that when the module face was completely grounded with a condensed phase conductor, leakage current exceeded the anticipated corresponding degradation rate relative to the other tests performed in damp heat.

  11. A psychometric comparison of the Internet Addiction Test, the Internet-Related Problem Scale, and self-diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyanto, Laura; Griffiths, Mark D; Brunsden, Vivienne

    2011-03-01

    One of the more prominent issues in the field of Internet addiction is the validity of the instrument used to assess users' level of Internet involvement. Many of the instruments used to assess Internet addiction have high face validity but have yet to be tested psychometrically. The aim of this study is to compare two of the most used Internet addiction research measures, the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Internet-Related Problem Scale (IRPS), along with a self-diagnostic question simply asking Internet users if they thought they were addicted to the Internet. A total of 225 Internet users participated in the study (69 males and 156 females). Participants who defined themselves as Internet addicts had higher scores on both the IAT and IRPS, and the three different Internet addiction measures were strongly correlated to each other. For the IAT, factor analysis generated three factors (emotional/psychological conflict; time management issues; mood modification) explaining 56.3% of the variance. For the IRPS, factor analysis generated four factors (negative effects of Internet use; mood modification; loss of control; increased Internet use) explaining 60.2% of the variance. The implications for these findings are discussed.

  12. Relation of exercise capacity with lung volumes before and after 6-minute walk test in subjects with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibmer, Thomas; Rüdiger, Stefan; Kropf-Sanchen, Cornelia; Stoiber, Kathrin M; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Schumann, Christian

    2014-11-01

    There is growing evidence that exercise-induced variation in lung volumes is an important source of ventilatory limitation and is linked to exercise intolerance in COPD. The aim of this study was to compare the correlations of walk distance and lung volumes measured before and after a 6-min walk test (6MWT) in subjects with COPD. Forty-five subjects with stable COPD (mean pre-bronchodilator FEV1: 47 ± 18% predicted) underwent a 6MWT. Body plethysmography was performed immediately pre- and post-6MWT. Correlations were generally stronger between 6-min walk distance and post-6MWT lung volumes than between 6-min walk distance and pre-6MWT lung volumes, except for FEV1. These differences in Pearson correlation coefficients were significant for residual volume expressed as percent of total lung capacity (-0.67 vs -0.58, P = .043), percent of predicted residual volume expressed as percent of total lung capacity (-0.68 vs -0.59, P = .026), inspiratory vital capacity (0.65 vs 0.54, P = .019), percent of predicted inspiratory vital capacity (0.49 vs 0.38, P = .037), and percent of predicted functional residual capacity (-0.62 vs -0.47, P = .023). In subjects with stable COPD, lung volumes measured immediately after 6MWT are more closely related to exercise limitation than baseline lung volumes measured before 6MWT, except for FEV1. Therefore, pulmonary function testing immediately after exercise should be included in future studies on COPD for the assessment of exercise-induced ventilatory constraints to physical performance that cannot be adequately assessed from baseline pulmonary function testing at rest. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  13. Evaluation of patient perceptions and outcomes related to anticoagulation point-of-care testing in ambulatory care clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermo JD

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, Prothrombin Time/International Normalized Ratio (PT/INR measurements have typically been used to monitor patients on warfarin through institutional laboratories via venous puncture. The Point-of-Care Testing (POCT device has revolutionized the patient care process by allowing for laboratory testing outside of the central laboratory. Objective: To analyze humanistic and clinical outcomes in patients currently treated with warfarin and monitored through a pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinic using point-of-care testing (POCT device versus venipuncture within ambulatory care clinics at our institution. Methods: All patients currently treated with warfarin therapy who were managed by clinical pharmacists for anticoagulation monitoring at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC Family Medicine Center and University Diagnostic Center, were enrolled. Patients were asked to complete a satisfaction survey regarding their anticoagulation monitoring. In addition, data related to emergency department (ED visits, hospitalizations and percent of time in the INR therapeutic range for 6 months pre- and post-implementation of POCT device was collected. This information was obtained through an electronic patient information database, Oacis. Results: A total of 145 patients were included in the data collection from the two clinics. The majority (41% of these patients were taking warfarin for atrial fibrillation. Satisfaction surveys were completed by 86 (59 % of patients. The surveys revealed that POCT device was preferred over venipuncture in 95% of patients. Reasons for the preference included more face-to-face interaction, less wait time, less pain, less blood needed, and quicker results. Of the 145 patients who were included in the objective data analysis, no significant differences were found in the number of hospitalizations, ED visits, or percent of time in the INR therapeutic range pre- and post- implementation of POCT device

  14. Evolution of sexual dichromatism in relation to nesting habits in European passerines: a test of Wallace's hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, J J; Moreno, J

    2012-08-01

    Wallace proposed in 1868 that natural rather than sexual selection could explain the striking differences in avian plumage dichromatism. Thus, he predicted that nesting habits, through their association with nest predation, could drive changes in sexual dichromatism by enabling females in cavity nesters to become as conspicuous as males, whereas Darwin (1871, The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, John Murray, London) argued that sexual selection was the sole explanation for dichromatism. Sexual dichromatism is currently used as indicating the strength of sexual selection, and therefore testing Wallace's claim with modern phylogentically controlled methodologies is of prime interest for comparing the roles of natural and sexual selection in affecting the evolution of avian coloration. Here, we have related information on nest attendance, sexual dichromatism and nesting habits (open and cavity nesting) to male and female plumage conspicuousness in European passerines. Nest incubation attendance does not explain male or female plumage conspicuousness but nest type does. Moreover, although females of monochromatic and cavity nesting species are more conspicuous than females of other species, males of monochromatic and open nesting species are those with more cryptic plumage. Finally, analyses of character evolution suggest that changes in nesting habits influence the probability of changes in both dichromatism and plumage conspicuousness of males but do not significantly affect those in females. These results strongly suggest a role of nesting habits in the evolution of plumage conspicuousness of males, and a role for sexual selection also in females, both factors affecting the evolution of sexual dichromatism. We discuss our findings in relation to the debate that Darwin and Wallace maintained more than one century ago on the importance of natural and sexual selection in driving the evolution of plumage conspicuousness and sexual dichromatism in birds

  15. Validity and reliability of skill-related fitness tests for wheelchair-using youth with Spina Bifida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, M.A.; Takken, T.; Backx, F.J.; Vos, M.; Kruitwagen, C.L.; Groot, J.F. de

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine content validity of the Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST), and construct validity and reliability of the MPST, 10x5 Meter Sprint Test (10x5MST), slalom test, and One Stroke Push Test (1SPT) in wheelchair-using youth with spina bifida (SB). Design: Clinimetric study. Setting:

  16. Validity and Reliability of Skill-Related Fitness Tests for Wheelchair-Using Youth With Spina Bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Manon A.; Takken, Tim; Backx, Frank J.; Vos, Marleen; Kruitwagen, Cas L.; de Groot, Janke F.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine content validity of the Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST) and construct validity and reliability of the MPST, 10x5 Meter Sprint Test (10x5MST), slalom test and one stroke push test (1SPT) in wheelchair-using youth with spina bifida (SB). DESIGN: Clinimetric study SETTING:

  17. Validity and Reliability of Skill-Related Fitness Tests for Wheelchair-Using Youth with Spina Bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cas L.J.J. Kruitwagen; Frank J.G. Backx; Janke de Groot; Manon A.T. Bloemen; Marleen Vos; Tim Takken

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine content validity of the Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST) and construct validity and reliability of the MPST, 10x5 Meter Sprint Test (10x5MST), slalom test and one stroke push test (1SPT) in wheelchair-using youth with spina bifida (SB). Design: Clinimetric study Setting:

  18. Relation of Out-of-Level Testing to Ceiling and Floor Effects on Third and Fifth Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Christopher R.; Gallas, Edwin J.

    Both on-level and out-of-level tests were administered to third and fifth grade children in order to compare the scaled scores of different level tests of the same testing program and to discover whether the relationship between levels might be distorted by ceiling or floor effects. Only reading tests were used in this study. The Stanford…

  19. Recommendations from the EGAPP Working Group: genetic testing strategies in newly diagnosed individuals with colorectal cancer aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality from Lynch syndrome in relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP) Working Group found sufficient evidence to recommend offering genetic testing for Lynch syndrome to individuals with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer to reduce morbidity and mortality in relatives. We found insufficient evidence to recommend a specific genetic testing strategy among the several examined. Genetic testing to detect Lynch syndrome in individuals with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) is proposed as a strategy to reduce CRC morbidity and mortality in their relatives (see Clinical Considerations section for definition of Lynch syndrome). The EGAPP Working Group (EWG) constructed a chain of evidence that linked genetic testing for Lynch syndrome in patients with newly diagnosed CRC with improved health outcomes in their relatives. We found that assessing patients who have newly diagnosed CRC with a series of genetic tests could lead to the identification of Lynch syndrome. Relatives of patients with Lynch syndrome could then be offered genetic testing, and, where indicated, colorectal, and possibly endometrial, cancer surveillance, with the expectation of improved health outcome. The EWG concluded that there is moderate certainty that such a testing strategy would provide moderate population benefit. The EWG found adequate evidence to conclude that the analytic sensitivity and specificity for preliminary and diagnostic tests were high. After accounting for the specific technologies and numbers of markers used, the EWG found at least adequate evidence to describe the clinical sensitivity and specificity for three preliminary tests, and for four selected testing strategies. These measures of clinical validity varied with each test and each strategy (see Clinical Considerations section). The EWG found adequate evidence for testing uptake rates, adherence to recommended surveillance activities, number of relatives approachable, harms associated with additional follow-up, and

  20. Performance on Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) impacts health-related quality of life in Adult Spinal Deformity Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moke, Lieven; Severijns, Pieter; Schelfaut, Sebastiaan; Van de Loock, Kristel; Hermans, Lore; Molenaers, Guy; Jonkers, Ilse; Scheys, Lennart

    2017-08-23

    Prospective single-center study OBJECTIVE.: Study investigates how dynamic balance performance complements 2D static radiographic measurements and demographics in terms of understanding health-related quality of life in Adult Spinal Deformity (ASD) patients. Recent insights suggest that demographic variables have a stronger impact on health-related quality of life than 2D radiographic spinopelvic parameters in ASD patients METHODS.: 9 Healthy volunteers and 36ASD patients following inclusioncriteria were recruited. Demographics, Scoliosis Research Society Score-22r (SRS-22r), OswestryDisability Index (ODI), Core Outcome Measures Index(COMI),2D radiographic spinopelvic measurements and performance on Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) and Trunk Control Measurement Scale (TCMS) were determined for each subject. Non-parametric tests, Spearman correlations, univariate and stepwise-like linear multivariate regression analysis were performed. BESTest and TCMS had significant lower values in the ASD group versus the control group (p = 0,000). In the ASD group, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS) correlated fair to ODI, COMI (0,441≥r≥0,383, p < 0,021) and to SRS-22-r (r = -0,335, p = 0,046), Mini Mental State Examination correlated fair to COMI (r = -0,352, p = 0,035), 'Pelvic Incidence minus Lumbar Lordosis' correlated fair to ODI (r = 0,361, p = 0,031), BESTest correlated moderate to ODI and COMI (r≤-0,505; p≤0,002), TCMS correlated fair to ODI (r = -0,356; p = 0,033). CIRS and BESTest were significant predictive variables for COMI based on univariate analysis in ASD patients. Multivariate regression analysis including demographics, 2D static radiographic parameters and dynamic balance scales identified BESTest as single independentvariable (p = 0,000) to predict COMI (adjusted R = 0,285) in ASD patients. BESTest has a higher potential than demographic and 2D radiographic spinopelvic parameters to predict

  1. Mono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Mononucleosis (Mono) Test Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic ... Questions Related Content View Sources Also Known As Mononucleosis Spot Test Mononuclear Heterophile Test Heterophile Antibody Test ...

  2. Testing the Moderating Effect of Parent–Adolescent Communication on the Acculturation Gap–Distress Relation in Korean American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, May

    2011-01-01

    Although the acculturation gap generally has been associated with poor mental health outcomes among Asian American children, some studies have failed to find a significant relationship between the gap and distress. Using two different methods of operationalizing the gap between mothers and their children, the current study addressed this tension in the literature by testing the following hypotheses in a sample of Korean American families. It was hypothesized that mother–adolescent discrepancies in acculturation and enculturation levels would be associated with youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms and that parent–adolescent communication would moderate the gap–distress relationship. Multi-informant questionnaires were administered to 77 Korean American mother–adolescent dyads from the Midwest. Surprisingly, results indicated that consonance in low levels of mother–adolescent enculturation was associated with the highest levels of externalizing symptoms (interaction term method). Adolescents’ perception of communication with their fathers significantly moderated the relationship between the enculturation gap and internalizing symptoms, such that in dyads with a greater enculturation gap, less perceived open communication with fathers was associated with more internalizing symptoms (difference score method). Clinically, the findings indicate a potential target (i.e., parent–adolescent communication) for treatment programs that aim to improve family relations and youth adjustment in immigrant families. PMID:21404109

  3. A test of two training interventions to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucett, Julia; Garry, Mary; Nadler, Don; Ettare, Dennis

    2002-07-01

    We investigated, on behalf of a large electronics manufacturer, two types of worker training interventions for their efficacy in preventing unnecessary muscle tension and the symptoms of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The first intervention, Muscle Learning Therapy (MLT), used electromyographic (sEMG) feedback and operant conditioning to decrease muscle tension during complex work tasks. The second intervention used adult learning and cognitive behavioral techniques in small group discussion to advance the worker's capabilities for symptom and stress management and problem-solving. Workers were randomly assigned to a control group or one of the two treatment conditions. Prior to training, baseline data were collected using symptom diaries and sEMG recordings of the trapezius and forearm muscles of the left and right arms. The training interventions were conducted for 6 weeks with reinforcement training provided at 18 and 32 weeks post-baseline. Follow-up data were collected after the initial 6-week training period and at 32 weeks, prior to the reinforcement training. Symptom outcomes demonstrated significant differences at 6 weeks, increasing in severity for the control group and declining modestly for the educational group, with little change for the MLT group. These differences were not maintained at further follow-up. The MLT group was consistently effective in reducing muscle tension in the trapezius areas after 6 and 32 weeks, and was partially effective for the forearms. Further testing is recommended of these training interventions, especially with the inclusion of strategic, periodic reinforcement of the worker's learning.

  4. Psychometric properties of the Purpose-In-Life Test and age-related differences among women diagnosed with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alandete, Joaquín; Ros, Montserrat Cañabate; Salvador, José Heliodoro Marco; Rodríguez, Sandra Pérez

    2017-12-21

    The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Purpose-In-Life Test (PIL), as well as the age-related differences in meaning in life in women diagnosed with eating disorders. Participants were 250 Spanish women diagnosed with eating disorders who ranged from 12 to 60 years old. Confirmatory Factor Analysis, descriptive analyses, estimation of the internal consistency of the PIL, correlations between the PIL and the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Overweight Preoccupation Scale (OPS), and Body Investment Scale (BIS), and age differences were calculated. A 19-item model that showed a good fit and internal consistency, a negative correlation between the PIL and both the BHS and OPS, and a positive correlation with the BIS, as well as significant differences between the adolescents and the mature adults, were found. It would be advisable to increase the inclusion of meaning in life in psychotherapeutic interventions with women diagnosed with eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An Innovative Method for Testing Children's Achievement-Related Reactions: Recording Feelings of Helplessness by Means of an Intelligence Test-Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titscher, Anna; Kubinger, Klaus D.

    2008-01-01

    The present study, based on the work of Dweck (2000) and her description of helpless and mastery-orientated children, was designed to find a new, simple and economic way of assessing helplessness while testing a child's intelligence. Two hundred and thirty-two Austrian grammar-school children, previously classified as either helpless or…

  6. The sensitizing potential of metalworking fluid biocides (phenolic and thiazole compounds) in the guinea-pig maximization test in relation to patch-test reactivity in eczema patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1984-01-01

    The sensitizing potential of seven industrial antimicrobial agents was evaluated using the guinea-pig maximization test. Preventol O extra (o-phenylphenol) did not produce a sensitization reaction. Preventol ON extra (sodium salt of o-phenylphenol), Preventol GD (dichlorophene) and Proxel XL and ...

  7. Relative accuracy of serum, whole blood, and oral fluid HIV tests among Seattle men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekler, Joanne D; O'Neal, Joshua D; Lane, Aric; Swanson, Fred; Maenza, Janine; Stevens, Claire E; Coombs, Robert W; Dragavon, Joan A; Swenson, Paul D; Golden, Matthew R; Branson, Bernard M

    2013-12-01

    Point-of-care (POC) rapid HIV tests have sensitivity during the "window period" comparable only to earliest generation EIAs. To date, it is unclear whether any POC test performs significantly better than others. Compare abilities of POC tests to detect early infection in real time. Men who have sex with men (MSM) were recruited into a prospective, cross-sectional study at two HIV testing sites and a research clinic. Procedures compared four POC tests: one performed on oral fluids and three on fingerstick whole blood specimens. Specimens from participants with negative POC results were tested by EIA and pooled nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). McNemar's exact tests compared numbers of HIV-infected participants detected. Between February 2010 and May 2013, 104 men tested HIV-positive during 2479 visits. Eighty-two participants had concordant reactive POC results, 3 participants had concordant non-reactive POC tests but reactive EIAs, and 8 participants had acute infection. Of 12 participants with discordant POC results, OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test performed on oral fluids identified fewer infections than OraQuick performed on fingerstick (p = .005), Uni-Gold Recombigen HIV test (p = .01), and determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab combo (p = .005). These data confirm that oral fluid POC testing detects fewer infections than other methods and is best reserved for circumstances precluding fingerstick or venipuncture. Regardless of specimen type, POC tests failed to identify many HIV-infected MSM in Seattle. In populations with high HIV incidence, the currently approved POC antibody tests are inadequate unless supplemented with p24 antigen tests or NAAT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Differences between women who pursued genetic testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and their at-risk relatives who did not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapodi, Maria C; Northouse, Laurel; Pierce, Penny; Milliron, Kara J; Liu, Guipeng; Merajver, Sofia D

    2011-09-01

    To (a) examine differences in appraisals of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC), psychological distress, family environment, and decisional conflict between women who pursued genetic testing and their at-risk relatives who did not, and (b) examine correlations among appraisals of HBOC, psychological distress, family environment, and decisional conflict regarding genetic testing in these two cohorts of women. Descriptive, cross-sectional cohort study. Two clinics affiliated with a major research university in the midwestern United States. 372 women aged 18 years and older. 200 pursued genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations (probands) and 172 of their female relatives who had a greater than 10% prior probability of being a mutation carrier but had not pursued testing. After providing informed consent, probands and relatives were mailed self-administered questionnaires. Perceived risk, knowledge of HBOC risk factors and modes of gene inheritance, perceived severity, perceived controllability, psychological distress, family relationships, family communication, and decisional conflict about genetic testing. T tests revealed that probands perceived higher risk and had more psychological distress associated with breast cancer. Probands had more knowledge regarding risk factors and gene inheritance, and greater decisional conflict regarding genetic testing. Relatives reported higher perceived severity and controllability. No differences were observed in family relationships and family communication between probands and relatives. Pearson correlations revealed different patterns in knowledge, perceived controllability, family relationships, and decisional conflict between probands and relatives. Significant differences exist between women who pursue genetic testing and those who do not. The family environment influences adjustment to HBOC and decisions about genetic testing. Enhancing the family communication process about HBOC can provide informational and

  9. Social Psychological Consequences of Interpersonal Relations: A Confirmatory Approach to Testing Deutsch's Theory of Cooperation and Conflict Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quahwu

    This study tested M. Deutsch's theory of cooperation and conflict resolution using an intervention project at an inner city alternative high school in New York City. The study was designed to test the theory by confirmatory structural modeling and by evaluating the intervention. The procedure involved a pre- and post-test procedure administered…

  10. Criterion-related validity of functional capacity evaluation lifting tests on future work disability risk and return to work in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, V; Kuijer, P P F M; Wind, H; van Duivenbooden, C; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2009-10-01

    To assess the criterion-related validity of the five Ergo-Kit (EK) functional capacity evaluation (FCE) lifting tests in construction workers on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Six weeks, 6 months and 1 year after the first sick leave day due to MSDs, construction workers underwent two isometric and three dynamic EK FCE lifting tests, and completed the Instrument for Disability Risk (IDR) for future work disability risk. Concurrent and predictive validity were assessed by the associations between the scores of the EK FCE lifting tests and the IDR outcomes (Pearson Correlation coefficients (r) and associated proportions of variance (PV) and area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)). Predictive validity of the EK FCE lifting tests on the total number of days on sick leave until full durable return to work (RTW) was also evaluated (Cox regression analysis). Concurrent validity with future work disability risk was poor for the two isometric EK FCE lifting tests (-0.15validity on future work disability risk (r = -0.39; AUC = 0.72). Cox regression analyses revealed that two out of the five EK FCE lifting tests predicted durable RTW significantly, but only weakly. Criterion-related validity with future work disability risk was poor for the two isometric EK lifting tests and moderate for the three dynamic lifting tests, especially the carrying lifting strength test. Predictive validity on durable RTW was poor, although weakly significant in two dynamic EK FCE tests, of which one was the carrying lifting strength test.

  11. The relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation and math achievement in 12 to 14-year-old typically developing adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.L.; Toll, S.W.M.; van Luit, J.E.H.

    2017-01-01

    :This study examines the relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation, and math achievement in typically developing 12 to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 108) from a school for secondary education in the Netherlands. Data was obtained using a math speed test,

  12. Biological durability of wood in relation to end-use - Part 1. Towards a European standard for laboratory testing of the biological durability of wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acker, Van J.; Stevens, M.; Carey, J.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Militz, H.; Bayon, Le I.; Kleist, G.; Peek, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    The determination of biological durability of wood is an issue requiring sufficient reliability regarding end-use related prediction of performance. Five test institutes joined efforts to check standard test methods and to improve methodology and data interpretation for assessment of natural

  13. Direct oral provocation tests in non-immediate mild cutaneous reactions related to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezir, Emine; Dibek Misirlioglu, Emine; Civelek, Ersoy; Capanoglu, Murat; Guvenir, Hakan; Ginis, Tayfur; Toyran, Muge; Kocabas, Can N

    2016-02-01

    Skin testing has a limited role in the diagnosis of non-immediate beta-lactam hypersensitivity in children. The aim of this study was to report the results of oral provocation tests performed without skin tests in children with non-immediate mild cutaneous reactions without systemic symptoms caused by beta-lactam antibiotics. Oral provocation tests with suspected antibiotics were performed to patients with non-immediate mild cutaneous reactions without systemic symptoms caused by beta-lactam antibiotics. Skin tests were not performed before provocation tests. A total of five doses were administered with half-an-hour intervals in increasing doses. Provocation was continued for 5 days. A total of 119 patients with a median age of 4.3 (IQR: 2-7.5) years, of whom 58% were males, were included in the study. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was the most frequently responsible agent in 87 (73.1%) patients, and most common type of rash was maculopapular in 74 (62.2%) patients. Four patients (3.4%) had an urticarial reaction during the provocation test. We did not experience any severe reactions during oral provocation test without previous skin tests performed to children with non-immediate mild cutaneous reactions without systemic symptoms. Omitting skin tests before oral provocation test in this group of children can help decreasing the burden of allergy clinics and alleviating the discomfort of children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. House dust mite-related allergic diseases: role of skin prick test, atopy patch test, and RAST in the diagnosis of different manifestations of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuiano, Nicola; Fusilli, Saverio; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2010-07-01

    The atopy patch test (APT) was recently defined as an important tool in diagnosis of atopic dermatitis (AD) and also of rhinitis and asthma caused by hypersensitivity to the house dust mites. We evaluated 465 children (279 males and 186 females) aged 0.4-17.6 years (mean 6.6 +/- 3.8 years), by dividing them into four groups: group A, current AD (40 patients); group B, current AD with respiratory symptoms (156 patients); group C, past AD with respiratory symptoms (203 patients); and the control group, respiratory symptoms with no history of AD (66 patients). The APT was significantly more frequently positive in groups with current AD (groups A and B) or past AD (group C) than in the control group, while skin prick test (SPT) and radioallergosorbent test (RAST) were significantly more frequently positive in the control group. With multivariate analysis, for APT, significant differences were found in the comparison between group A vs group B (odds ratio (OR) 1.55) and between group A vs group C (OR 1.81). The mean age was significantly lower in group A than in groups B, C, and the control group and with less significance in groups C vs D. Children sensitized to mites with current or past AD, with or without respiratory symptoms, have a different response to diagnostic tests, which is characterized by a highly significantly more frequent positive APT in comparison with subjects who have respiratory symptoms but a negative history for AD, who show the common response to SPT and RAST.

  15. A regression-based method for mapping traffic-related air pollution: application and testing in four contrasting urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, D J; de Hoogh, C; Gulliver, J; Wills, J; Elliott, P; Kingham, S; Smallbone, K

    2000-05-15

    Accurate, high-resolution maps of traffic-related air pollution are needed both as a basis for assessing exposures as part of epidemiological studies, and to inform urban air-quality policy and traffic management. This paper assesses the use of a GIS-based, regression mapping technique to model spatial patterns of traffic-related air pollution. The model--developed using data from 80 passive sampler sites in Huddersfield, as part of the SAVIAH (Small Area Variations in Air Quality and Health) project--uses data on traffic flows and land cover in the 300-m buffer zone around each site, and altitude of the site, as predictors of NO2 concentrations. It was tested here by application in four urban areas in the UK: Huddersfield (for the year following that used for initial model development), Sheffield, Northampton, and part of London. In each case, a GIS was built in ArcInfo, integrating relevant data on road traffic, urban land use and topography. Monitoring of NO2 was undertaken using replicate passive samplers (in London, data were obtained from surveys carried out as part of the London network). In Huddersfield, Sheffield and Northampton, the model was first calibrated by comparing modelled results with monitored NO2 concentrations at 10 randomly selected sites; the calibrated model was then validated against data from a further 10-28 sites. In London, where data for only 11 sites were available, validation was not undertaken. Results showed that the model performed well in all cases. After local calibration, the model gave estimates of mean annual NO2 concentrations within a factor of 1.5 of the actual mean (approx. 70-90%) of the time and within a factor of 2 between 70 and 100% of the time. r2 values between modelled and observed concentrations are in the range of 0.58-0.76. These results are comparable to those achieved by more sophisticated dispersion models. The model also has several advantages over dispersion modelling. It is able, for example, to provide

  16. Review of the Safety Concern Related to CANDU Moderator Temperature Distribution and Status of KAERI Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Bo W.; Kim, Hyoung T. [Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tongbeum [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Im, Sunghyuk [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    threshold temperature and no further deformation is expected. Consequently, a sufficient condition to ensure fuel channel integrity following a large LOCA, is the avoidance of sustained calandria tubes dryout. If the moderator available subcooling at the onset of a large LOCA is greater than the subcooling requirements, a sustained calandria tube dryout is avoided. The temperature oscillations observed in reactor and in test measurements such as MTF need to be characterized and quantified to show that it does not jeopardize the currently available safety margins. Because of the importance of an accurate prediction of moderator temperature distributions and the related moderator subcooling, a 1/4 scaled-down moderator tank of a CANDU-6 reactor, called Moderator Circulation Test (MCT), was erected at KAERI and the current status of MCT experiment progress is described and further experiments are expected to be carried out to generate the experimental data necessary to validate the computer codes that will be used to analyze the accident analysis of operating CANDU-6 plants.

  17. Comparing different kinds of words and word-word relations to test an habituation model of priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieth, Cory A; Huber, David E

    2017-06-01

    Huber and O'Reilly (2003) proposed that neural habituation exists to solve a temporal parsing problem, minimizing blending between one word and the next when words are visually presented in rapid succession. They developed a neural dynamics habituation model, explaining the finding that short duration primes produce positive priming whereas long duration primes produce negative repetition priming. The model contains three layers of processing, including a visual input layer, an orthographic layer, and a lexical-semantic layer. The predicted effect of prime duration depends both on this assumed representational hierarchy and the assumption that synaptic depression underlies habituation. The current study tested these assumptions by comparing different kinds of words (e.g., words versus non-words) and different kinds of word-word relations (e.g., associative versus repetition). For each experiment, the predictions of the original model were compared to an alternative model with different representational assumptions. Experiment 1 confirmed the prediction that non-words and inverted words require longer prime durations to eliminate positive repetition priming (i.e., a slower transition from positive to negative priming). Experiment 2 confirmed the prediction that associative priming increases and then decreases with increasing prime duration, but remains positive even with long duration primes. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of repetition and associative priming using a within-subjects design and combined these effects by examining target words that were expected to repeat (e.g., viewing the target word 'BACK' after the prime phrase 'back to'). These results support the originally assumed representational hierarchy and more generally the role of habituation in temporal parsing and priming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of probenecid on the pain-related behaviour and morphological markers in orofacial formalin test of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejes-Szabó, Annamária; Bohár, Zsuzsanna; Nagy-Grócz, Gábor; Vámos, Enikő; Tar, Lilla; Pődör, Borbála; Tajti, János; Toldi, József; Vécsei, László; Párdutz, Árpád

    2015-01-01

    Probenecid has been widely used in the treatment of gout, but evidence suggests that it may also have antinociceptive effects in different inflammatory and pain conditions. We examined the potential modulatory effects of probenecid on behavioural and morphological markers in the orofacial formalin test of the rat. One hour after pre-treatment with vehicle or probenecid (1 mmol/kg body weight) intraperitoneally, 50μl 1.5% formalin solution or physiological saline was injected subcutaneously into the right whisker pad of rats. The rubbing activity directed to the injected whisker pad was then measured for a period of 45 minutes. Four hours after formalin injection, the caudal part of spinal trigeminal nucleus was removed and subjected to c-Fos and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunohistochemistry and to interleukin-1β and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) Western blot. There was a significant decrease in formalin-induced biphasic behavioural response and c-Fos and nNOS immunoreactivity in the rats that were pre-treated with probenecid. However there were no alterations in expression of interleukin-1β or NQO1 after formalin administration. Our results suggest that probenecid has an anti-nociceptive effect in the trigeminal inflammatory pain model. This effect may be through influencing the release of prostaglandin E2 or desensitizing the transient receptor potential channel subtype A member 1 or the transient receptor potential channel subtype V member 2 or the effect may be through modulating kynurenic acid levels in the central nervous system. Thus, probenecid might be a potential candidate for the treatment of trigeminal activation related pain conditions.

  19. Criterion-Related Validity of the Distance- and Time-Based Walk/Run Field Tests for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Bocanegra-Parrilla, Raúl; Ornelas, Martha; Viciana, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the distance- and time-based walk/run tests for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness among apparently healthy children and adults. Materials and Methods Relevant studies were searched from seven electronic bibliographic databases up to August 2015 and through other sources. The Hunter-Schmidt’s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the following walk/run tests: 5,000 m, 3 miles, 2 miles, 3,000 m, 1.5 miles, 1 mile, 1,000 m, ½ mile, 600 m, 600 yd, ¼ mile, 15 min, 12 min, 9 min, and 6 min. Results From the 123 included studies, a total of 200 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests for estimating maximum oxygen uptake ranged from low to moderate (rp = 0.42–0.79), with the 1.5 mile (rp = 0.79, 0.73–0.85) and 12 min walk/run tests (rp = 0.78, 0.72–0.83) having the higher criterion-related validity for distance- and time-based field tests, respectively. The present meta-analysis also showed that sex, age and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests. Conclusions When the evaluation of an individual’s maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory test is not feasible, the 1.5 mile and 12 min walk/run tests represent useful alternatives for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. As in the assessment with any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the walk/run field tests is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26987118

  20. Criterion-Related Validity of the Distance- and Time-Based Walk/Run Field Tests for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Bocanegra-Parrilla, Raúl; Ornelas, Martha; Viciana, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the distance- and time-based walk/run tests for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness among apparently healthy children and adults. Relevant studies were searched from seven electronic bibliographic databases up to August 2015 and through other sources. The Hunter-Schmidt's psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the following walk/run tests: 5,000 m, 3 miles, 2 miles, 3,000 m, 1.5 miles, 1 mile, 1,000 m, ½ mile, 600 m, 600 yd, ¼ mile, 15 min, 12 min, 9 min, and 6 min. From the 123 included studies, a total of 200 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests for estimating maximum oxygen uptake ranged from low to moderate (rp = 0.42-0.79), with the 1.5 mile (rp = 0.79, 0.73-0.85) and 12 min walk/run tests (rp = 0.78, 0.72-0.83) having the higher criterion-related validity for distance- and time-based field tests, respectively. The present meta-analysis also showed that sex, age and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests. When the evaluation of an individual's maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory test is not feasible, the 1.5 mile and 12 min walk/run tests represent useful alternatives for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. As in the assessment with any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the walk/run field tests is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  1. Criterion-Related Validity of the Distance- and Time-Based Walk/Run Field Tests for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mayorga-Vega

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the distance- and time-based walk/run tests for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness among apparently healthy children and adults.Relevant studies were searched from seven electronic bibliographic databases up to August 2015 and through other sources. The Hunter-Schmidt's psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the following walk/run tests: 5,000 m, 3 miles, 2 miles, 3,000 m, 1.5 miles, 1 mile, 1,000 m, ½ mile, 600 m, 600 yd, ¼ mile, 15 min, 12 min, 9 min, and 6 min.From the 123 included studies, a total of 200 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests for estimating maximum oxygen uptake ranged from low to moderate (rp = 0.42-0.79, with the 1.5 mile (rp = 0.79, 0.73-0.85 and 12 min walk/run tests (rp = 0.78, 0.72-0.83 having the higher criterion-related validity for distance- and time-based field tests, respectively. The present meta-analysis also showed that sex, age and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests.When the evaluation of an individual's maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory test is not feasible, the 1.5 mile and 12 min walk/run tests represent useful alternatives for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. As in the assessment with any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the walk/run field tests is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  2. Relative developmental toxicity potencies of retinoids in the embryonic stem cell test compared with their relative potencies in in vivo and two other in vitro assays for developmental toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louisse, J.; Gönen, S.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Verwei, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study determines the relative developmental toxicity potencies of retinoids in the embryonic stem (ES)-D3 cell differentiation assay of the embryonic stem cell test, and compares the outcomes with their relative potencies in in vivo and two other in vitro assays for developmental

  3. Test-retest reliability and construct validity of the DOiT ( Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers) questionnaire: measuring energy balance- related behaviours in Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.H.C.; Singh, A.S.; van Nassau, F.; Brug, J.; van Mechelen, W.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective Adequate assessment of energy balance-related behaviours in adolescents is essential to develop and evaluate effective obesity prevention programmes. The present study examined the test-retest reliability and construct validity of a questionnaire assessing energy balance-related

  4. HIV-related stigma, social norms, and HIV testing in Soweto and Vulindlela, South Africa: National Institutes of Mental Health Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Hlavka, Zdenek; Modiba, Precious; Gray, Glenda; Van Rooyen, Heidi; Richter, Linda; Szekeres, Greg; Coates, Thomas

    2010-12-15

    HIV testing is necessary to curb the increasing epidemic. However, HIV-related stigma and perceptions of low likelihood of societal HIV testing may reduce testing rates. This study aimed to explore this association in South Africa, where HIV rates are extraordinarily high. Data were taken from the Soweto and Vulindlela, South African sites of Project Accept, a multinational HIV prevention trial. Self-reported HIV testing, stigma, and social norms items were used to study the relationship between HIV testing, stigma, and perceptions about societal testing rates. The stigma items were broken into 3 factors: negative attitudes, negative perceptions about people living with HIV, and perceptions of fair treatment for people living with HIV (equity). Results from a univariate logistic regression suggest that history of HIV testing was associated with decreased negative attitudes about people living with HIV/AIDS, increased perceptions that people living with HIV/AIDS experience discrimination, and increased perceptions that people with HIV should be treated equitably. Results from a multivariate logistic regression confirm these effects and suggest that these differences vary according to sex and age. Compared with people who had never tested for HIV, those who had previously tested were more likely to believe that the majority of people have tested for HIV. Data suggest that interventions designed to increase HIV testing in South Africa should address stigma and perceptions of societal testing.

  5. State of play in direct-to-consumer genetic testing for lifestyle-related diseases: market, marketing content, user experiences and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukko, Paula

    2013-02-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests have aroused controversy. Critics have argued many of the tests are not backed by scientific evidence, misguide their customers and should be regulated more stringently. Proponents suggest that finding out genetic susceptibilities for diseases could encourage healthier behaviours and makes the results of genetics research available to the public. This paper reviews the state of play in DTC genetic testing, focusing on tests identifying susceptibilities for lifestyle-related diseases. It will start with mapping the market for the tests. The paper will review (1) research on the content of the online marketing of DTC tests, (2) studies on the effects of DTC genetic tests on customers and (3) academic and policy proposals on how to regulate the tests. Current studies suggest that the marketing of DTC genetic tests often exaggerates their predictive powers, which could misguide consumers. However, research indicates that the tests do not seem to have major negative effects (worry and confusion) but neither do they engender positive effects (lifestyle change) on current users. Research on regulation of the tests has most commonly suggested regulating the marketing claims of the companies. In conclusion, the risks and benefits of DTC genetic tests are less significant than what has been predicted by critics and proponents, which will be argued reflects broader historical trends transforming health and medicine.

  6. An alternative to the balance error scoring system: using a low-cost balance board to improve the validity/reliability of sports-related concussion balance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jasper O; Levy, Susan S; Seay, Seth W; Goble, Daniel J

    2014-05-01

    Recent guidelines advocate sports medicine professionals to use balance tests to assess sensorimotor status in the management of concussions. The present study sought to determine whether a low-cost balance board could provide a valid, reliable, and objective means of performing this balance testing. Criterion validity testing relative to a gold standard and 7 day test-retest reliability. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty healthy young adults. Balance ability was assessed on 2 days separated by 1 week using (1) a gold standard measure (ie, scientific grade force plate), (2) a low-cost Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB), and (3) the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Validity of the WBB center of pressure path length and BESS scores were determined relative to the force plate data. Test-retest reliability was established based on intraclass correlation coefficients. Composite scores for the WBB had excellent validity (r = 0.99) and test-retest reliability (R = 0.88). Both the validity (r = 0.10-0.52) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.61-0.78) were lower for the BESS. These findings demonstrate that a low-cost balance board can provide improved balance testing accuracy/reliability compared with the BESS. This approach provides a potentially more valid/reliable, yet affordable, means of assessing sports-related concussion compared with current methods.

  7. Proposition of law relative to the sanitary follow up of French nuclear tests; Proposition de loi relative au suivi sanitaire des essais nucleaires francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    The present proposition of law has for object to answer the expectation of all the persons who have participated as military personnel or civilians in nuclear tests made by France between February 13., 1960 and January 27., 1996, or lived near the nuclear test sites of Sahara (Reggane) or in French Polynesia. The same pathologies are noticed among the veteran or the populations having lived near the nuclear tests sites of the other nuclear countries which made the same experiments. It is the case in United States, in Great Britain, in Australia, in New Zealand and in Fidgi. In these different countries having a democratic system similar to ours, the governments took concrete measures to accede to the demands of their nationals. It thus turns out that a legislative initiative would represent a strong message of gratitude towards all those who had to undergo aftereffects on their health and that of their descendants of the only fact of their participation in the nuclear experiments of France. (N.C.)

  8. Validity and Reliability of Skill-Related Fitness Tests for Wheelchair-Using Youth With Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemen, Manon A; Takken, Tim; Backx, Frank J; Vos, Marleen; Kruitwagen, Cas L; de Groot, Janke F

    2017-06-01

    To determine content validity of the Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST), and construct validity and reliability of the MPST, 10×5 Meter Sprint Test (10×5MST), slalom test, and One Stroke Push Test (1SPT) in wheelchair-using youth with spina bifida (SB). Clinimetric study. Rehabilitation centers, SB outpatient services, and private practices. A convenience sample of children and adolescents (N=53; 32 boys, 21 girls; age range, 5-19y) with SB who use a manual wheelchair. Participants were recruited through rehabilitation centers, SB outpatient services, pediatric physical therapists, and the BOSK (Association of Physically Disabled Persons and their Parents). Not applicable. Construct validity of the MPST was determined by comparing results with the arm-cranking Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) using paired t tests and Pearson correlation coefficients, while content validity was assessed using time-based criteria for anaerobic testing. Construct validity of the 10×5MST, slalom test, and 1SPT was analyzed by hypothesis testing using Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression. For reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and smallest detectable changes (SDCs) were calculated. For the MPST, the mean ± SD exercise time of 4 sprints was 28.1±6.6 seconds. Correlations between the MPST and arm-cranking WAnT were high (r>.72, P.95), but the SDCs varied widely. The MPST is a valid and reliable test in wheelchair-using youth with SB for measuring anaerobic performance. The 10×5MST and slalom test are valid and reliable for measuring agility. For the 1SPT, both validity and reliability are questionable. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Food-related life styles in Australia: Testing of the MAPP food-related life style instrument in an Australian context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Grunert, Klaus G.; Li, Elton

    based assets, and creating a stronger consumer focus. This research employs the Food-Related Life Styles (FRL) instrument developed by Grunert, Brunsø & Bisp, (1993) to determine the validity of the instrument in an Australian context, to build an a better understanding of Australian food consumers......, and to compare Australian consumers with their international counterparts. The research represents the first stage in an on-going process of mapping movements in Australian consumer food-related life styles and linking these to global trends and changes....

  10. HANDBOOK - Environmental Assessment of Construction Products - An introduction to test mehtods and other procedures related to CE-marking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlstrom, Margareta; Laine-Ylyjoki, Jutta; Rautiainen, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    products takes place and offers guidance on the selection of test methods for assessment of release of regulated dangerous substances from construction products to soil, surface water and groundwater. The handbook includes information on how test results can be used, e.g. by regulators when comparing...

  11. Sunset dates of chemicals subject to final TSCA section 4: test requirements and related section 12(b) actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This table lists all chemical substances and mixtures that are and/or have been the subject of final TSCA Section 4 test rules and/or TSCA Section 4 enforceable consent agreements/orders (ECAs) issued under the TSCA Existing Chemicals Testing Program.

  12. Schools or pools of democracy? A longitudinal test of the relation between civic participation and political socialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ingen, E.; van der Meer, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we demonstrate how the usage of panel data offers possibilities for testing new hypotheses in a research tradition with a long history in political science. Focusing on citizens’ transitions in and out of voluntary associations, we tested four possible explanations for the

  13. Development of a Three-Tier Test as a Valid Diagnostic Tool for Identification of Misconceptions Related to Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, Dusica D.; Hrin, Tamara N.; Segedinac, Mirjana D.; Horvat, Sasa

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and application of a three-tier test as a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing students' misconceptions regarding some basic concepts about carbohydrates. The test was administrated to students of the Pharmacy Department at the University of Bijeljina (Serb Republic). The results denoted construct and content…

  14. Test performance and self-esteem in relation to experienced stress in Swedish sixth and ninth graders--saliva cortisol levels and psychological reactions to demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats; Theorell, Töres; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-04-01

    To study relations between test performance, academic self-esteem, self-reported stress and saliva cortisol levels in students exposed to test demands at school. 46 randomly selected 6th and 9th graders voluntarily participated in an experimental school test concerning reading and mathematics skills. Cortisol saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min later, before test and after test. Perceived stress was registered with a visual analogue scale (VAS). A standardized self-rating questionnaire for measuring self-esteem was administered together with questions about school stress and psychological reactions when exposed to stress during a test. Experienced stress during the school test was correlated to low test performance and to low self-rated evaluation of self-esteem as well as to an increase of saliva cortisol levels during the test. There were also correlations between certain psychological reactions to demands and different cortisol measures. Children who reported that they applied the procedure "I say to myself: I can solve this task" in a school test situation had a lower morning increase of saliva cortisol. Reported use of the procedure "I get worried and will have problems solving other tasks too"--when referring to a school test situation--was correlated to an increase in cortisol levels during the test situation. Test performance, academic self-esteem, perceived stress and reactions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) are highly intertwined. Furthermore, certain school stress psychological reactions to performance demands seem to be related to different cortisol reactions.

  15. Relation of Risk of Atrial Fibrillation With Systolic Blood Pressure Response During Exercise Stress Testing (from the Henry Ford ExercIse Testing Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Wesley T; Qureshi, Waqas T; Blaha, Michael J; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Brawner, Clinton A; Nasir, Khurram; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2015-12-15

    Decreases in systolic blood pressure during exercise may predispose to arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF) because of underlying abnormal autonomic tone. We examined the association between systolic blood pressure response and incident AF in 57,442 (mean age 54 ± 13 years, 47% women, and 29% black) patients free of baseline AF who underwent exercise treadmill stress testing from the Henry Ford ExercIse Testing project. Exercise systolic blood pressure response was examined as a categorical variable across clinically relevant categories (>20 mm Hg: referent; 1 to 20 mm Hg, and ≤0 mm Hg) and per 1-SD decrease. Cox regression, adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, medications, history of coronary heart disease, history of heart failure, and metabolic equivalent of task achieved, was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between systolic blood pressure response and incident AF. Over a median follow-up of 5.0 years, a total of 3,381 cases (5.9%) of AF were identified. An increased risk of AF was observed with decreasing systolic blood pressure response (>20 mm Hg: HR 1.0, referent; 1 to 20 mm Hg: HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.99, 1.20; ≤0 mm Hg: HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.40). Similar results were obtained per 1-SD decrease in systolic blood pressure response (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12). The results were consistent when stratified by age, sex, race, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. In conclusion, our results suggest that a decreased systolic blood pressure response during exercise may identify subjects who are at risk for developing AF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The standing heel-rise test: relation to chronic venous disorders and balance, gait, and walk time in injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Barbara; Templin, Thomas N; Birk, Thomas J; Kirsner, Robert S

    2008-09-01

    Injection drug use can impair mobility. When mobility is impaired in combination with other potential pathologic changes to the veins, muscles, and joints of the lower legs, chronic venous disorders can develop. The heel-rise test, an assessment of eccentric-concentric muscle action of calf muscle function with regard to plantar flexion, can be used to measure ankle mobility. To examine the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the heel-rise test in relation to chronic venous disorders in persons with a history of injection drug use (N = 104), a test-retest study (M = 45.9+/-12.9 days from first to second test) was conducted. Participants were assessed for chronic venous disorders of the legs and walk time; they also completed the heel-rise and Tinetti Balance and Gait tests. Test-retest reliability was found to be good for full heel rise of right and left legs (ICC = .66 and .67, respectively). Heel-rise performance was positively correlated with balance (r = .38 to .47) and gait (r = .38 to .45) and negatively related to walk time (r = -.30 to -.35) (P test as a measure of calf muscle function is supported by these results, implicating the role of mobility restriction in the etiology of venous disease. Although more research is needed regarding its performance, the heel-rise test may be a low-cost, noninvasive screening or assessment tool in a variety of outpatient settings.

  17. The Stick Design Test on the assessment of older adults with low formal education: evidences of construct, criterion-related and ecological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Costa, Mônica Vieira; Bocardi, Matheus Bortolosso; Cortezzi, Mariana; De Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    The assessment of visuospatial abilities is usually performed by drawing tasks. In patients with very low formal education, the use of these tasks might be biased by their cultural background. The Stick Design Test was developed for the assessment of this population. We aim to expand the test psychometric properties by assessing its construct, criterion-related and ecological validity in older adults with low formal education. Healthy older adults (n = 63) and Alzheimer's disease patients (n = 92) performed the Stick Design Test, Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Span Forward and the Clock Drawing Test. Their caregivers answered Personal Care and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living). Construct validity was assessed by factor analysis, convergent correlations (with the Clock Drawing Test), and divergent correlations (with Digit Span Forward); criterion-related validity by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and binary logi