WorldWideScience

Sample records for submission process dawn

  1. 78 FR 4418 - Electronic Submission Process for Requesting Export Certificates From the Center for Devices and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Electronic Submission Process for Requesting Export... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of an electronic submission process for requesting export certificates for products regulated by...

  2. Where should I send it? Optimizing the submission decision process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Santiago; Munch, Stephan B

    2015-01-01

    How do scientists decide where to submit manuscripts? Many factors influence this decision, including prestige, acceptance probability, turnaround time, target audience, fit, and impact factor. Here, we present a framework for evaluating where to submit a manuscript based on the theory of Markov decision processes. We derive two models, one in which an author is trying to optimally maximize citations and another in which that goal is balanced by either minimizing the number of resubmissions or the total time in review. We parameterize the models with data on acceptance probability, submission-to-decision times, and impact factors for 61 ecology journals. We find that submission sequences beginning with Ecology Letters, Ecological Monographs, or PLOS ONE could be optimal depending on the importance given to time to acceptance or number of resubmissions. This analysis provides some guidance on where to submit a manuscript given the individual-specific values assigned to these disparate objectives.

  3. Where should I send it? Optimizing the submission decision process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Salinas

    Full Text Available How do scientists decide where to submit manuscripts? Many factors influence this decision, including prestige, acceptance probability, turnaround time, target audience, fit, and impact factor. Here, we present a framework for evaluating where to submit a manuscript based on the theory of Markov decision processes. We derive two models, one in which an author is trying to optimally maximize citations and another in which that goal is balanced by either minimizing the number of resubmissions or the total time in review. We parameterize the models with data on acceptance probability, submission-to-decision times, and impact factors for 61 ecology journals. We find that submission sequences beginning with Ecology Letters, Ecological Monographs, or PLOS ONE could be optimal depending on the importance given to time to acceptance or number of resubmissions. This analysis provides some guidance on where to submit a manuscript given the individual-specific values assigned to these disparate objectives.

  4. 'Submission'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Sørensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    On 7 January 2015, the day of the deadly attack on Charlie Hebdo, the Parisian satirical magazine, French author Michel Houellebecq published Soumission (Submission), his already contested novel. Charlie Hebdo had a satirical feature on the cover that day ridiculing Houellebecq’s novel, which...

  5. Cosmic Dawn with WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James

    Central objectives: WFIRST-AFTA has tremendous potential for studying the epoch of "Cosmic Dawn" the period encompassing the formation of the first galaxies and quasars, and their impact on the surrounding universe through cosmological reionization. Our goal is to ensure that this potential is realized through the middle stages of mission planning, culminating in designs for both WFIRST and its core surveys that meet the core objectives in dark energy and exoplanet science, while maximizing the complementary Cosmic Dawn science. Methods: We will consider a combined approach to studying Cosmic Dawn using a judicious mixture of guest investigator data analysis of the primary WFIRST surveys, and a specifically designed Guest Observer program to complement those surveys. The Guest Observer program will serve primarily to obtain deep field observations, with particular attention to the capabilities of WFIRST for spectroscopic deep fields using the WFI grism. We will bring to bear our years of experience with slitless spectroscopy on the Hubble Space Telescope, along with an expectation of JWST slitless grism spectroscopy. We will use this experience to examine the implications of WFIRST’s grism resolution and wavelength coverage for deep field observations, and if appropriate, to suggest potential modifications of these parameters to optimize the science return on WFIRST. We have assembled a team of experts specializing in (1) Lyman Break Galaxies at redshifts higher than 7 (2) Quasars at high redshifts (3) Lyman-alpha galaxies as probes of reionization (4) Theoretical simulations of high-redshift galaxies (5) Simulations of grism observations (6) post-processing analysis to find emission line galaxies and high redshift galaxies (7) JWST observations and calibrations. With this team we intend to do end-to-end simulations starting with halo populations and expected spectra of high redshift galaxies and finally extracting what we can learn about (a) reionization

  6. Zimbabwe Science News: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Submission Preparation Checklist. As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another ...

  7. 1062 Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . SERIES ARTICLES. 1062 Dawn of Science. The Indo–Arabic Numerals. T Padmanabhan. GENERAL ARTICLES. 1068 Peter Debye and Electrochemistry. A K Shukla and T Prem Kumar. 1074 Counting Subspaces of a Finite Vector Space – ...

  8. 75 FR 11889 - Request for Comments on Proposed NIH, AHRQ and CDC Process Change for Electronic Submission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Comments on Proposed NIH, AHRQ and CDC Process Change for Electronic Submission of Grant Applications AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Process change... correction window from the electronic grant application submission process on our applicant organizations and...

  9. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 10. Dawn of Science - The Healing Art. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 15 Issue 10 October 2010 pp 870-874. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/10/0870-0874. Keywords.

  10. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 2. Dawn of Science - The Conquest of the Seas. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 2 February 2011 pp 110-115. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/02/0110-0115 ...

  11. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 5. Dawn of Science - The Quest for Power. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 17 Issue 5 May 2012 pp 436-440. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/05/0436-0440. Keywords.

  12. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dawn of Science - The Athens Factor. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 590-594. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0590-0594. Keywords. Pythagoras; Kepler; Plato; Academy at Athens. Author Affiliations. T Padmanabhan1.

  13. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 9. Dawn of Science - The Invisible Weight. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 9 September 2011 pp 854-859. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/09/0854-0859 ...

  14. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 9. Dawn of Science - Archimedes. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 15 Issue 9 September 2010 pp 774-778. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/09/0774-0778. Keywords.

  15. 498 Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    498. Dawn of Science. The First Tottering Steps. T Padmanabhan. GENERAL ARTICLES. 503. C H Waddington, Canalisation and Genetic. Assimilation. Vidyanand Nanjundiah. 514. States of Matter. Deepak Dhar. 526. The Ribosome and the 2009 Nobel Prize in. Chemistry. Laasya Samhita and Umesh Varshney. 514. 526.

  16. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 8. Dawn of Science - The Affairs of the Heart. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 8 August 2011 pp 770-775. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/08/0770-0775 ...

  17. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 1. Dawn of Science - Measuring the Heavens. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 17 Issue 1 January 2012 pp 6-10. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/01/0006-0010 ...

  18. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 11. Dawn of Science - The Questions of Life. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 11 ... Keywords. Francesco Redi; Antony Van Leeuwenhoek; Marcello Malphigi; Lazzaro Spallanzani; John Ray; Carl Linnaeus; microscopes.

  19. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 7. Dawn of Science-The Galilean World. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 7 July 2011 pp 663-669. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/07/0663-0669. Keywords.

  20. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 11. Dawn of Science - The Arab Legacy. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 15 Issue 11 November 2010 pp 1009-1015. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/11/1009-1015 ...

  1. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 1. Dawn of Science - The Printed Page. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 1 January 2011 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/01/0006-0011. Keywords.

  2. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 3. Dawn of Science - The Role of Modern Medicine. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 3 March 2011 pp 274-278. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/03/0274-0278 ...

  3. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 10. Dawn of Science - Geometry Without Figures. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 10 October 2011 pp 950-955. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/10/0950-0955 ...

  4. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SERIES ARTICLE. Dawn of Science. 1. The First Tottering Steps. T Padmanabhan. Keywords. Pyramids, Imhotep, Moscow. Papyrus, Thales of Miletus. In mankind's quest for knowledge, spanning the last four ... We believe it is the former and that the ancient literary fables cannot be taken too seriously in determining the ...

  5. Interview with Dawn Raffel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Manolescu-Oancea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dawn Raffel was born in Wisconsin and graduated from Brown University. She has published three books: In the Year of Long Division, a collection of short fiction (Knopf, 1994, Carrying the Body, a novel (Scribner, 2002 and Further Adventures in the Restless Universe, a collection of stories (Dzanc Books, 2010. She was the guest of Marc Chénetier and the Observatoire de littérature américaine at the Université Paris 7-Denis Diderot in March 2007.Monica Manolescu: At the opening of the confe...

  6. GRIP DOPPLER AEROSOL WIND LIDAR (DAWN) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Doppler Aerosol WiNd (DAWN), a pulsed lidar, operated aboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field campaign....

  7. DAWN CERES RAW GRAVITY SCIENCE V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains archival raw, partially processed, and ancillary/supporting gravity science data acquired during the Dawn mission while the spacecraft was in...

  8. DAWN VESTA RAW GRAVITY SCIENCE V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains archival raw, partially processed, and ancillary/supporting gravity science data acquired during the Dawn mission while the spacecraft was in...

  9. Data Analysis WorkbeNch (DAWN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basham, Mark; Filik, Jacob; Wharmby, Michael T; Chang, Peter C Y; El Kassaby, Baha; Gerring, Matthew; Aishima, Jun; Levik, Karl; Pulford, Bill C A; Sikharulidze, Irakli; Sneddon, Duncan; Webber, Matthew; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S; Maccherozzi, Francesco; Svensson, Olof; Brockhauser, Sandor; Náray, Gabor; Ashton, Alun W

    2015-05-01

    Synchrotron light source facilities worldwide generate terabytes of data in numerous incompatible data formats from a wide range of experiment types. The Data Analysis WorkbeNch (DAWN) was developed to address the challenge of providing a single visualization and analysis platform for data from any synchrotron experiment (including single-crystal and powder diffraction, tomography and spectroscopy), whilst also being sufficiently extensible for new specific use case analysis environments to be incorporated (e.g. ARPES, PEEM). In this work, the history and current state of DAWN are presented, with two case studies to demonstrate specific functionality. The first is an example of a data processing and reduction problem using the generic tools, whilst the second shows how these tools can be targeted to a specific scientific area.

  10. Dawn Maps the Surface Composition of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettyman, T.; Palmer, E.; Reedy, R.; Sykes, M.; Yingst, R.; McSween, H.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Capaccinoni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Filacchione, G.; hide

    2011-01-01

    By 7-October-2011, the Dawn mission will have completed Survey orbit and commenced high altitude mapping of 4-Vesta. We present a preliminary analysis of data acquired by Dawn's Framing Camera (FC) and the Visual and InfraRed Spectrometer (VIR) to map mineralogy and surface temperature, and to detect and quantify surficial OH. The radiometric calibration of VIR and FC is described. Background counting data acquired by GRaND are used to determine elemental detection limits from measurements at low altitude, which will commence in November. Geochemical models used in the interpretation of the data are described. Thermal properties, mineral-, and geochemical-data are combined to provide constraints on Vesta s formation and thermal evolution, the delivery of exogenic materials, space weathering processes, and the origin of the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites.

  11. Where Should I Send It? Optimizing the Submission Decision Process

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas, Santiago; Munch, Stephan B.

    2015-01-01

    How do scientists decide where to submit manuscripts? Many factors influence this decision, including prestige, acceptance probability, turnaround time, target audience, fit, and impact factor. Here, we present a framework for evaluating where to submit a manuscript based on the theory of Markov decision processes. We derive two models, one in which an author is trying to optimally maximize citations and another in which that goal is balanced by either minimizing the number of resubmissions o...

  12. The dawn of freudism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Barilli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The author is a follower of the so called cultural materialism, which invites us to put the incoming of a new technology at the origin of each cultural age. A big rupture  arrived at the end of the 18th century, when scientists (as Galvani and Volta realized the first discoveries concerning electromagnetism. Such discoveries led to establish that matter is mainly energy, so opening a path which had to reach  the audacious conclusions due to Einstein’s relativism. But at the same time some writers and visual artists (Blake, Goethe, Alfieri, Foscolo, Leopardi discovered that a corresponding energy exists also into each of us. By this way they anticipated on a psychological level the intuitions  which should come from  Freud and his psychoanalisis. So we may conclude that at the end of i8th century there was a kind  of dawn both of technetronic era  and  of psychoanalysis.

  13. Data Analysis WorkbeNch (DAWN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basham, Mark; Filik, Jacob; Wharmby, Michael T.; Chang, Peter C. Y.; El Kassaby, Baha; Gerring, Matthew; Aishima, Jun; Levik, Karl; Pulford, Bill C. A.; Sikharulidze, Irakli; Sneddon, Duncan; Webber, Matthew; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S.; Maccherozzi, Francesco [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Svensson, Olof [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 71 Rue des Martyrs, Grenoble 38000 (France); Brockhauser, Sandor; Náray, Gabor [European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, Grenoble 38042 (France); Ashton, Alun W., E-mail: scientificsoftware@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-02

    DAWN is a generic data analysis software platform that has been developed for use at synchrotron beamlines for data visualization and analysis. Its generic design makes it suitable for use in a range of scientific and engineering applications. Synchrotron light source facilities worldwide generate terabytes of data in numerous incompatible data formats from a wide range of experiment types. The Data Analysis WorkbeNch (DAWN) was developed to address the challenge of providing a single visualization and analysis platform for data from any synchrotron experiment (including single-crystal and powder diffraction, tomography and spectroscopy), whilst also being sufficiently extensible for new specific use case analysis environments to be incorporated (e.g. ARPES, PEEM). In this work, the history and current state of DAWN are presented, with two case studies to demonstrate specific functionality. The first is an example of a data processing and reduction problem using the generic tools, whilst the second shows how these tools can be targeted to a specific scientific area.

  14. Dawn Mission Education and Public Outreach: Science as Human Endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, W. H.; Wise, J.; Schmidt, B. E.; Ristvey, J.

    2012-12-01

    Dawn Education and Public Outreach strives to reach diverse learners using multi-disciplinary approaches. In-depth professional development workshops in collaboration with NASA's Discovery Program, MESSENGER and Stardust-NExT missions focusing on STEM initiatives that integrate the arts have met the needs of diverse audiences and received excellent evaluations. Another collaboration on NASA ROSES grant, Small Bodies, Big Concepts, has helped bridge the learning sequence between the upper elementary and middle school, and the middle and high school Dawn curriculum modules. Leveraging the Small Bodies, Big Concepts model, educators experience diverse and developmentally appropriate NASA activities that tell the Dawn story, with teachers' pedagogical skills enriched by strategies drawn from NSTA's Designing Effective Science Instruction. Dawn mission members enrich workshops by offering science presentations to highlight events and emerging data. Teachers' awareness of the process of learning new content is heightened, and they use that experience to deepen their science teaching practice. Activities are sequenced to enhance conceptual understanding of big ideas in space science and Vesta and Ceres and the Dawn Mission 's place within that body of knowledge Other media add depth to Dawn's resources for reaching students. Instrument and ion engine interactives developed with the respective science team leads help audiences engage with the mission payload and the data each instrument collects. The Dawn Dictionary, an offering in both audio as well as written formats, makes key vocabulary accessible to a broader range of students and the interested public. Further, as Dawn E/PO has invited the public to learn about mission objectives as the mission explored asteroid Vesta, new inroads into public presentations such as the Dawn MissionCast tell the story of this extraordinary mission. Asteroid Mapper is the latest, exciting citizen science endeavor designed to invite the

  15. Journal of Psychology in Africa: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Please note that this journal is no longer published by NISC. Submission Preparation Checklist. As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these ...

  16. Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Submission Preparation Checklist. As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another ...

  17. Dawn at Vesta: Characterizing a minor planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, C.; Russell, C.; Raymond, C.; Dawn Team

    2014-07-01

    , one that involves regolith mixing instead of accumulation of nano-phase opaque components on surface grains [8]. The apparent dearth of nano-phase opaque coatings on regolith grains is due to a combination of factors involving Vesta's location and specific surface composition. The result is a mineralogically rich surface exposed to Dawn's sensors [9], although substantially rearranged by impact processes. Major scientific insights will continue to emerge as calibration improves for the Dawn instruments that measure spectral properties of the surface.

  18. Ceres' Geophysical Evolution Inferred from Dawn Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bowling, Timothy; Ermakov, Anton I.; Fu, Roger; Park, Ryan; Raymond, Carol; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Prettyman, Thomas H.; Y McSween, Harry; Toplis, Michael J.; Russell, Christopher T.; Dawn Team

    2016-10-01

    If Ceres formed as an ice-rich body, as suggested by its low density and the detection of ammoniated phyllosilicates [1], then it should have differentiated an ice-dominated shell, analogous to large icy satellites [2]. Instead, Dawn observations revealed an enrichment of Ceres' shell in strong materials, either a rocky component and/or salts and gas hydrates [3, 4, 5, 6]. We have explored several scenarios for the emplacement of Ceres' surface. Endogenic processes cannot account for its overall homogeneity. Instead we suggest that Ceres differentiated an icy shell upon freezing of its early ocean that was removed as a consequence of frequent exposure by impacting after the dwarf planet migrated from a cold accretional environment to the warmer outer main belt (or when the solar nebula dissipated, if Ceres formed in situ). This scenario implies that Ceres' current surface represents the interface between the original ice shell and the top of the frozen ocean, a region that is extremely rich chemistry-wise, as illustrated by the mineralogical observations returned by Dawn [7]. Thermal modeling shows that the shell could remain warm over the long term and offer a setting for the generation of brines that may be responsible for the emplacement of Ahuna Mons [8] and Occator's bright spots [7] on an otherwise homogeneous surface [9]. An important implication is that Ceres' surface offers an analog for better understanding the deep interior and chemical evolution of large ice-rich bodies.References: [1] De Sanctis et al., Nature, 2015; [2] McCord and Sotin, Journal of Geophysical Research, 2005; [3] Park et al., Nature, 2016 (in press); [4] Hiesinger et al., Science (submitted); [5] Bland et al., Nature Geoscience, 2016 (in press); [6] Fu et al., AGU Fall Meeting, 2015 [7] De Sanctis et al., Nature, 2016 (in press); [8] Ruesch et al., Science, in revision; [9] Ammannito et al., Science, 2016 (accepted).Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet

  19. Studying Cosmic Dawn with WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Jansen, Rolf A.; Windhorst, Rogier; Tilvi, Vithal; Finkelstein, Steven; Wold, Isak; Papovich, Casey; Fan, Xiaohui; Mellema, Garrelt; Zackrisson, Erik; Jensen, Hannes; T

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of Cosmic Dawn can be revolutionized using WFIRST's combination of wide-field, sensitive, high resolution near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy. Guest investigator studies of WFIRST's high latitude imaging survey and supernova search fields will yield orders of magnitude increases in our samples of Lyman break galaxies from z=7 to z>12. The high latitude spectrsocopic survey will enable an unprecedented search for z>7 quasars. Guest observer deep fields can extend these studies to flux levels of Hubble's deepest fields, over regions measured in square degrees. The resulting census of luminous objects in the Cosmic Dawn will provide key insights into the sources of the ultraviolet photons that powered reionization. Moreover, because WFIRST has a wide field (slitless) spectroscopic capability, it can be used to search for Lyman alpha emitting galaxies over the full history of reionization. By comparing the Lyman alpha galaxy statistics to those of continuum sources, we can directly probe the transparency of the intergalactic gas and chart reionization history.Our team is planning for both Guest Investigator and Guest Observer applications of WFIRST to studying Cosmic Dawn, and welcomes dialog with other interested members of the community.

  20. Moon Search Algorithms for NASA's Dawn Mission to Asteroid Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Mcfadden, Lucy A.; Skillman, David R.; McLean, Brian; Mutchler, Max; Carsenty, Uri; Palmer, Eric E.

    2012-01-01

    A moon or natural satellite is a celestial body that orbits a planetary body such as a planet, dwarf planet, or an asteroid. Scientists seek understanding the origin and evolution of our solar system by studying moons of these bodies. Additionally, searches for satellites of planetary bodies can be important to protect the safety of a spacecraft as it approaches or orbits a planetary body. If a satellite of a celestial body is found, the mass of that body can also be calculated once its orbit is determined. Ensuring the Dawn spacecraft's safety on its mission to the asteroid Vesta primarily motivated the work of Dawn's Satellite Working Group (SWG) in summer of 2011. Dawn mission scientists and engineers utilized various computational tools and techniques for Vesta's satellite search. The objectives of this paper are to 1) introduce the natural satellite search problem, 2) present the computational challenges, approaches, and tools used when addressing this problem, and 3) describe applications of various image processing and computational algorithms for performing satellite searches to the electronic imaging and computer science community. Furthermore, we hope that this communication would enable Dawn mission scientists to improve their satellite search algorithms and tools and be better prepared for performing the same investigation in 2015, when the spacecraft is scheduled to approach and orbit the dwarf planet Ceres.

  1. Vesta and Ceres as Seen by Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Nathues, A.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Prettyman, T. H.; Konopliv, A. S.; Park, R. S.; Jaumann, R.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Raymond, C. A.; Pieters, C. M.; McCord, T. B.; Marchi, S.; Schenk, P.; Buczkowski, D.

    2015-12-01

    Ceres and Vesta are the most massive bodies in the main asteroid belt. They have witnessed 4.6 Ga of solar system history. Dawn's objective is to interview these two witnesses. These bodies are relatively simple protoplanets, with a modest amount of thermal evolution and geochemical alteration. They are our best archetypes of the early building blocks of the terrestrial planets. In particular siderophile elements in the Earth's core were probably first segregated in Vesta-like bodies, and its water was likely first condensed in Ceres-like bodies. Vesta has provided copious meteorites for geochemical analysis. This knowledge was used to infer the constitution of the parent body. Dawn verified that Vesta was consistent with being that body, confirming the geochemical inferences from these samples on the formation and evolution of the solar system. Ceres has not revealed itself with a meteoritic record nor an asteroid family. While the surface is scarred with craters, it is probable that the ejecta from the crater-forming events created little competent material from the icy crust and any such ejected material that reached Earth might have disintegrated upon entry into the Earth's atmosphere. Ceres' surface differs greatly from Vesta's. Plastic or fluidized mass wasting is apparent as are many irregularly shaped craters, including many polygonal crater forms. There are many central-pit craters possibly caused by volatilization of the crust in the center of the impact. There are many central-peak craters but are these due to rebound or pingo-like formation processes? Bright spots, possibly salt deposits, dot the landscape, evidence of fluvial processes beneath the crust. Observations of the largest region of bright spots may suggest sublimation from the surface of the bright area, consistent with Herschel water vapor observations. Ceres is not only the most massive body in the asteroid belt but also possibly the most active occupant of the main belt.

  2. Effects of artificial dawn on sleep inertia, skin temperature, and the awakening cortisol response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Werken, Maan; Giménez, Marina C; De Vries, Bonnie; Beersma, Domien G M; Van Someren, Eus J W; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    2010-09-01

    The effect of artificial dawn during the last 30 min of sleep on subsequent dissipation of sleep inertia was investigated, including possible involvement of cortisol and thermoregulatory processes. Sixteen healthy subjects who reported difficulty with waking up participated in random order in a control and an artificial dawn night. Sleep inertia severity was measured by subjective ratings of sleepiness and activation, and by performance on an addition and a reaction time task measured at 1, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 min after waking up at habitual wake up time at workdays. At all intervals, saliva samples were collected for cortisol analysis. Sleep electroencephalogram was recorded during the 30 min prior to waking up; core body temperature and skin temperatures were recorded continuously until 90 min after waking up. Subjective sleepiness was significantly decreased and subjective activation increased after waking up in the artificial dawn condition as compared with control, in which lights were turned on at waking up. These effects can be explained by effects of artificial dawn on skin temperature and amount of wakefulness during the 30 min prior to the alarm. Artificial dawn accelerated the decline in skin temperature and in the distal-to-proximal skin temperature gradient after getting up. No significant effects of artificial dawn on performance, core body temperature, and cortisol were found. These results suggest that the physiology underlying the positive effects of artificial dawn on the dissipation of sleep inertia involves light sleep and an accelerated skin temperature decline after awakening.

  3. Understanding Spacecraft Agility for Orbit Transfers on the Dawn Low-thrust Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brett A.; Vanelli, C. Anthony; Lee, Allan Y.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional maneuver design processes were inadequate. Long thrusting durations with the small force of SEP. Increased coupling between ACS and NAV teams. Definition of quantifiable constraints proved impractical. Specifically for the Dawn mission, because of the attitude steering algorithm. A time-efficient simulation tool, qSTAT, was developed and allowed fast verification of candidate thrust profile designs. This approach allowed Dawn to overcome the complications of low-thrust orbit transfers.

  4. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  5. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  6. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  7. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  8. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  9. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  10. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  11. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  12. Dawn at Vesta: An overview after the Dawn mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Francesca

    2016-07-01

    Vesta, the second largest object in the main asteroid belt of our Solar System, was explored by the Dawn mission for over a year [1, 2]. Dawn is equipped with the Framing Camera (FC) [3], which provides geological and compositional analysis, the Visible and InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer [4], which allowed a comprehensive mineralogical mapping of the surface, and the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [5], which reveals the elemental composition. A wealth of data acquired by these three instruments allowed for improving the knowledge on the surface and near-surface properties of Vesta. Dawn covered a large fraction of Vesta' surface. Dawn's mission at Vesta has been divided into four different phases based on the spacecraft altitude [1], which resulted in a variety of pixel resolutions, reaching down to ~70 m/pixel for VIR and ~25 m/pixel for the FC. Pyroxene absorptions are the most prominent visible-to-near infrared spectral features of Vesta [6]. The overall mineralogy is consistent with howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) meteorites [7, 8]. More specifically, VIR spectra, acquired in the overall range 0.25-5.1 μm at spatial scales ranging from tens of meters to tens of kilometers, are consistent with a surface covered by a howardite-like regolith containing various proportions of eucrite and diogenite at different locations [9, 10]. Diogenite shows up in localized regions and mostly occurs in the southern polar region within the Rheasilvia impact basin [10]. Lithologies other than HEDs were indeed revealed by VIR spectra at the local scale. Olivine-rich deposits have been detected in Bellicia and Arruntia craters as well as in a limited number of other sites [11, 12, 13], while a large number of bright [14] and dark units [15, 16, 17] overlay Vesta'surface. Spectrally distinct, eucrite-rich ejecta have been observed in the Oppia and Octavia ejecta, interpreted to be glassy impact melt [18, 19]. VIR spectral analysis highlights a shallow 2.8-μm band

  13. Dawn song in natural and artificial continuous day: Light pollution affects songbirds at high latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P

    2017-10-01

    In Focus: Da Silva, A., & Kempenaers, B. (2017). Singing from North to South: Latitudinal variation in timing of dawn singing under natural and artificial light conditions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 1286-1297. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12739 Satellite images of the world at night show bright dots connected by glowing lines crisscrossing the globe. As these connect-the-dots become brighter and expand into more and more remote regions, much of the flora and fauna of the world are experiencing evolutionarily unprecedented levels of light at night. Light cues are essential to most physiological and behavioural processes, and so the need to measure the effects of light pollution on these processes is critical. In this issue, Da Silva and Kempenaers take on this task using an important reproductive behaviour in songbirds-dawn song. The geographic, temporal and taxonomic breadth of sampling in this study allows for a close examination of a potentially complex interaction between light pollution and natural variation in the behaviour of dawn singing across latitude, season and species. Their extensive dataset highlights complexity in how songbirds respond to light pollution. Although light pollution has a strong effect on the timing of dawn song, not all songbirds respond the same way to light pollution, and the effects of light pollution vary with changes in natural light levels. Early dawn singers show more flexibility in the timing of dawn song across the season and across latitudes than late dawn singers, and also appear less affected by light pollution at high latitudes than are late dawn singers. These findings suggest that not all songbirds are responding to artificial continuous daylight as they do to natural continuous daylight, highlighting the general need to measure the fitness effects of light pollution. © 2017 The Author. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  14. African Journal of Infectious Diseases: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copying text, photographs, tables or graphics from any source and using it as ones own is considered plagiarism whether or not a reference to the copied portion is given. Submission Preparation Checklist As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the ...

  15. High resolution Ceres HAMO atlas derived from Dawn FC images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatsch, Thomas; Kersten, Elke; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Chris T.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: NASA's Dawn spacecraft entered the orbit of dwarf planet Ceres in March 2015, and will characterize the geology, elemental and mineralogical composition, topography, shape, and internal structure of Ceres. One of the major goals of the mission is a global mapping of Ceres. Data: The Dawn mission was mapping Ceres in HAMO (High Altitude Mapping Orbit, 1475 km altitude) between August and October 2015. The framing camera took about 2,600 clear filter images with a resolution of about 140 m/pixel during these cycles. The images were taken with different viewing angles and different illumination conditions. We selected images from one cycle (cycle #1) for the mosaicking process to have similar viewing and illumination conditions. Very minor gaps in the coverage were filled with a few images from cycle #2. Data Processing: The first step of the processing chain towards the cartographic products is to ortho-rectify the images to the proper scale and map projec-tion type. This process requires detailed information of the Dawn orbit and attitude data and of the topography of the targets. Both, improved orientation and a high-resolution shape model, are provided by stereo processing (bundle block adjustment) of the HAMO stereo image dataset [3]. Ceres's HAMO shape model was used for the calculation of the ray intersection points while the map projection itself was done onto the reference sphere of Ceres with a radius of 470 km. The final step is the controlled mosaicking) of all images to a global mosaic of Ceres, the so-called basemap. Ceres map tiles: The Ceres atlas was produced in a scale of 1:750,000 and consists of 15 tiles that conform to the quadrangle scheme proposed by Greeley and Batson [4]. A map scale of 1:750,000 guarantees a mapping at the highest available Dawn resolution in HAMO. The individual tiles were extracted from the global mosaic and reprojected. Nomenclature: The Dawn team proposed 81 names for geological features. By international

  16. Vesta Mineralogy after Dawn Global Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChristinaDeSanctis, Maria; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Cparia, M. T.; Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Frigeri, A.; Longobardo, A.; Marchi, S.; Palomba, E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Dawn mission has completed its mapping phases at Vesta and millions of spectra have been acquired by the Visible and InfraRed Mapping Spectrometer, VIR(1). VIR characterizes and maps the mineral distribution on Vesta -strengthening the Vesta HED linkage- and provides new insights into Vesta s formation and evolution(2,3). VIR spectra are dominated by pyroxene absorptions near 0.9 and 2.0 m and large thermal emission beyond 3.5 m. Although almost all surface materials exhibit howardite-like spectra, some large regions can be interpreted to be richer in eucritic (basaltic) material and others richer in diogenititic (Mg-orthopyroxenitic) material. The Rheasilvia basin contains Mg-pyroxene-rich terrains for example. Vesta' s surface shows considerable diversity at local scales. Many bright and dark areas(3,4) are associated with various geological features and show remarkably different morphology. Moreover, VIR detected statistically significant, but weak, variations at 2.8 m that have been interpreted as indicating the presence of OH-bearing phases on the surface(5). The OH distribution is uneven with large regions lacking this absorption feature. Associations of 2.8 m band with morphological structures indicate complex process responsible for OH. Vesta exhibits large spectral variations that often correlate with geological structures, indicating a complex geological and evolutionary history, more similar to that of the terrestrial planets than to other asteroids visited by spacecrafts.

  17. Dawn at Vesta: testing the protoplanetary paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C.T.; Raymond, C.A.; Coradini, A.; McSween, H.Y.; Zuber, M.T.; Nathues, A.; DeSanctis, Maria-Cristina; Jaumann, R.; Konopliv, A.S.; Preusker, F.; Asmar, S.W.; Park, R.S.; Gaskell, R.; Keller, H.U.; Mottola, S.; Roatsch, T.; Scully, J.E.C.; Smith, D.E.; Tricarico, P.; Toplis, M.J.; Christensen, U.R.; Feldman, W.C.; Lawrence, D.J.; McCoy, T.J.; Prettyman, T.H.; Reedy, R.C.; Sykes, M.E.; Titus, T.N.

    2012-01-01

    The Dawn spacecraft targeted 4 Vesta, believed to be a remnant intact protoplanet from the earliest epoch of solar system formation, based on analyses of howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) meteorites that indicate a differentiated parent body. Dawn observations reveal a giant basin at Vesta's south pole, whose excavation was sufficient to produce Vesta-family asteroids (Vestoids) and HED meteorites. The spatially resolved mineralogy of the surface reflects the composition of the HED meteorites, confirming the formation of Vesta's crust by melting of a chondritic parent body. Vesta's mass, volume, and gravitational field are consistent with a core having an average radius of 107 to 113 kilometers, indicating sufficient internal melting to segregate iron. Dawn's results confirm predictions that Vesta differentiated and support its identification as the parent body of the HEDs.

  18. GRIP DOPPLER AEROSOL WIND LIDAR (DAWN) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Doppler Aerosol WiNd Lidar (DAWN) Dataset was collected by the Doppler Aerosol WiNd (DAWN), a pulsed lidar, which operated aboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft...

  19. Dawn Mission's Education and Public Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Lucy-Ann A.; Wise, J.; Ristvey, J.; Warner, E. M.

    2007-10-01

    NASA's Dawn mission, the 9th Discovery mission, is the first to orbit two solar system bodies: Vesta (Oct 2011-Apr 2012), then Ceres (Feb-Jul 2015), the most massive Main Belt asteroids. The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) goals are to inspire the next generation of explorers; motivate students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM); to enhance the quality of STEM education at the K-13 level and engage the public in exploration and discovery. Dawn's website (dawn.jpl.nasa.gov) is central to the dissemination of products and activities. The Dawn E-Newsletter, with 2,301 subscribers, is produced on a quarterly basis. Leonard Nimoy narrated the mission video available on Google videos. Dawn Young Engineers build a paper model of the Dawn spacecraft and submit photos with their constructions. 366,050 names were collected to send to the asteroids. Speaker's kits for the Solar System Ambassadors are online and a poster can be printed via web at a local Office Max. Educational materials about dwarf planets, history and discovery of asteroids, ion propulsion and finding meteorites have been developed. In addition, numerous activities including an interactive activity on ion propulsion, identifying craters (ClickWorkers) and observing asteroids (Telescopes in Education and Amateur Observers' Program) appeal to formal and informal educational audiences. Educators from over 20 states convened in Florida for a workshop in June with the opportunity to meet mission scientists, learn about the modules and activities, observe Vesta through a telescope and tour KSFC. Plans for the coming years include developing modules on instrumentation, theories of the origin of the solar system and data analysis. A planetarium show, museum displays, a video field trip to the asteroid belt and additional educator workshops are planned. This work is funded by NASA's Discovery Program.

  20. Dawn's plans to explore Vesta in 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Carol; Russell, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    The Dawn mission, launched on September 7th 2007 aboard a Delta-II rocket, is the ninth project in NASA's Discovery program. Dawn's ion propulsion system enables a dual-rendezvous mission to protoplanets Vesta and Ceres in the main asteroid belt. Dawn's first target is Vesta, a dry differentiated body that is thought to be the source of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogeneite meteorites. Dawn will begin its approach to entering orbit around Vesta in May of 2011. During the Approach Phase several rotational characterizations will be performed to update Vesta's pole, finalize instrument calibrations, and tune exposure times for the redundant Framing Cameras (FC from Max Planck/Lindau) and the Visible and InfraRed Spectrometer (VIR from INAF/Rome). Dawn enters its Survey orbit in August of 2011, observing Vesta for six orbits over 18 days at a mean radius of 3000 km, while the sun is at its highest southern latitudes. After achieving global color and multispectral maps with FC and VIR, the spacecraft transfers to the High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO - mean radius 950 km) using the ion propulsion system. In HAMO Dawn performs detailed global mapping in multiple color filters with FC, while VIR collects high-resolution multispectral data in the southern hemisphere. Multi-angle off-nadir mappings in the FC clear filter are performed to derive the topographic model. After 30 days in HAMO, Dawn transfers to the Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO - mean radius of 460 km), where the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND from LANL/PSI) will map Vesta for nominally 70 days, while daily tracking passes will map the gravity field to degree and order 10 using the radio science package (from JPL). Near-global high-resolution nadir imaging will be collected in LAMO, along with selected VIR targets. Following LAMO, Dawn will begin to spiral out for departure to Ceres, but will stop at HAMO altitude to observe the newly illuminated terrain in the northern polar region, and complete the

  1. Thales and the Dawn of Western Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Donald V.

    1975-01-01

    From the insights of ancient and modern commentators and historical and psychological research, the author strived to determine briefly: (1) what Thales meant by his statements, (2) how he came to such conclusions, and (3) why such conclusions are now regarded as marking the dawn of Western philosophy. (Author/RK)

  2. Sherry Red Owl, Stands at Dawn Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crazy Bull, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Sherry Red Owl, also known as "Stands at Dawn Woman," because she greets each day as a new opportunity and has spent her life working at new things. She worked at Sinte Gleska University (SGU) during its founding years, taught at an elementary school when few Native teachers were employed in the school systems,…

  3. The Dawn of Human Matrilineal Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Doron M.; Villems, Richard; Soodyall, Himla; Blue-Smith, Jason; Pereira, Luisa; Metspalu, Ene; Scozzari, Rosaria; Makkan, Heeran; Tzur, Shay; Comas, David; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Wells, R. Spencer; Rosset, Saharon

    2008-01-01

    The quest to explain demographic history during the early part of human evolution has been limited because of the scarce paleoanthropological record from the Middle Stone Age. To shed light on the structure of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny at the dawn of Homo sapiens, we constructed a matrilineal tree composed of 624 complete mtDNA genomes from sub-Saharan Hg L lineages. We paid particular attention to the Khoi and San (Khoisan) people of South Africa because they are considered to be a unique relic of hunter-gatherer lifestyle and to carry paternal and maternal lineages belonging to the deepest clades known among modern humans. Both the tree phylogeny and coalescence calculations suggest that Khoisan matrilineal ancestry diverged from the rest of the human mtDNA pool 90,000–150,000 years before present (ybp) and that at least five additional, currently extant maternal lineages existed during this period in parallel. Furthermore, we estimate that a minimum of 40 other evolutionarily successful lineages flourished in sub-Saharan Africa during the period of modern human dispersal out of Africa approximately 60,000–70,000 ybp. Only much later, at the beginning of the Late Stone Age, about 40,000 ybp, did introgression of additional lineages occur into the Khoisan mtDNA pool. This process was further accelerated during the recent Bantu expansions. Our results suggest that the early settlement of humans in Africa was already matrilineally structured and involved small, separately evolving isolated populations. PMID:18439549

  4. Lagos Historical Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Submissions can be made by sending a word processing computer file in MS Word format by e-mail to sarlek@yahoo.com, or by mailing three paper copies to the Editorial Office. Authors should keep a computer file version of their manuscript, as Lagos Historical Review will require a disk version upon acceptance for ...

  5. Dawn: Testing Paradigms by Exploring Dichotomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Schmidt, B. E.; Wise, J.; Ristvey, J.; Raymond, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Dawn mission represents a series of “firsts” for major NASA missions. Dawn is the first major NASA science mission to use ion propulsion engines, allowing Dawn to be the first mission to orbit one target and then leave its gravity well to explore a second destination. Dawn is the first science mission to the main asteroid belt, reaching protoplanet Vesta in summer 2011, and will be the first mission to reach a “dwarf planet” when it arrives at Ceres in 2015. By targeting both Vesta and Ceres, Dawn explores two intriguing dichotomies in the solar system, that of the dry rocky planets and the wet icy bodies (Fire and Ice) and the dichotomy between planets and asteroids. Is there a clear dividing line here? Vesta, the second most massive asteroid, is a protoplanet: a round, mostly intact asteroid that bears more resemblance to a planet than to smaller asteroids. Vesta is also the likely parent body of the HED meteorites that richly populate Earth’s meteorite collections. It is possible to hold a piece of Vesta in your hands. From the HED meteorites, scientists have learned the Vesta is one of few differentiated asteroids. And from its spectrum, rich in basaltic minerals, it is known to be much like a mini-version of Earth’s Moon and Mercury. Vesta’s surface once was home to floods of lava not unlike those found still today on the Earth. Vesta is very similar to a terrestrial planet. Ceres is the giant of the asteroid belt with a hydrostatic shape that earns it a dwarf planet classification. Like its larger cousins, Ceres’ round shape suggests that the body may be differentiated, but due to its low density, Ceres’ interior is more like an icy moon of Jupiter. Beneath a relatively thin clay veneer probably lies an ice-rich mantle and rocky core, and even possibly a liquid ocean. With such enticing questions posed for Vesta and Ceres, Dawn will enable scientists and the public alike to explore how planets were born, how fire and ice have shaped

  6. Dawn-dusk asymmetries in the coupled solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, A.P. [European Space Agency, ESAC, Madrid (Spain). Science and Robotic Exploration Directorate; Haaland, S. [Max-Planck-Institue for Solar System Research, Goettingen (Germany); Bergen Univ. (Norway). Birkeland Center for Space Science; Forsyth, C. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary (United Kingdom). UCL Dept. of Space and Climate Physics; and others

    2014-10-01

    Dawn-dusk asymmetries are ubiquitous features of the coupled solar-wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system. During the last decades, increasing availability of satellite and ground-based measurements has made it possible to study these phenomena in more detail. Numerous publications have documented the existence of persistent asymmetries in processes, properties and topology of plasma structures in various regions of geospace. In this paper, we present a review of our present knowledge of some of the most pronounced dawn-dusk asymmetries. We focus on four key aspects: (1) the role of external influences such as the solar wind and its interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere; (2) properties of the magnetosphere itself; (3) the role of the ionosphere and (4) feedback and coupling between regions. We have also identified potential inconsistencies and gaps in our understanding of dawn-dusk asymmetries in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere.

  7. Artefacts removal in VIR/DAWN data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrozzo, F. G.; Sanctis, M. C.; Raponi, A.; Ammannito, E.; Giardino, M.; Fonte, S.; Tosi, F.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Ciarniello, M.; Longobardo, A.; Palomba, E.; Zambon, F.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2015-10-01

    VIR is a imaging spectrometer on board Dawn spacecraft acquiring hyperspectral images in the 0.25-5.1 spectral range [1]. After the success of the Dawn mission in the study of the asteroid Vesta, the spacecraft departed toward the dwarf planet Ceres and is currently in its orbit. All VIR spectra display residual artifacts due to the systematic instrumental uncorrected effects. In order to highlight the spectral bands hidden by spectral artifacts, we propose here a denoising method to remove these artifacts from the VIR spectra. Other authors have studied the denoising of planetary spectra with different approach [2] or similar one [3]. The method that we are applying is in a test phase, but the obtained results are encouraging. We tested this method on various cubes of different mission phases during Vesta observations and the results are presented in this paper.

  8. Cosmological Structure Formation: From Dawn till Dusk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heneka, Caroline Samantha

    with massive galaxy clusters, traveling from the dawn of structure formation, when the first galaxies appear, to its dusk, when a representative part of the mass in the Universe is settled in massive structures. This hunt for accurate constraints on cosmology is complemented with the demonstration of novel......Cosmology has entered an era where a plethora data is available on structure formation to constrain astrophysics and underlying cosmology. This thesis strives to both investigate new observables and modeling of the Epoch of Reionization, as well as to constrain dark energy phenomenology...... Bayesian statistical tools and kinematical constraints on dark energy. Starting at the dawn of structure formation, we study emission line fluctuations, employing semi-numerical simulations of cosmological volumes of their line emission, in order to cross-correlate fluctuations in brightness. This cross...

  9. Effects of artificial dawn on sleep inertia, skin temperature, and the awakening cortisol response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werken, Maan; Gimenez, Marina C.; de Vries, Bonnie; Beersma, Domien G. M.; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Gordijn, Marijke C. M.

    P>The effect of artificial dawn during the last 30 min of sleep on subsequent dissipation of sleep inertia was investigated, including possible involvement of cortisol and thermoregulatory processes. Sixteen healthy subjects who reported difficulty with waking up participated in random order in a

  10. Effects of artificial dawn on sleep inertia, skin temperature, and the awakening cortisol response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werken, M.; Gimenez, M.C.; de Vries, B.; Beersma, D.G.M.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Gordijn, M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of artificial dawn during the last 30 min of sleep on subsequent dissipation of sleep inertia was investigated, including possible involvement of cortisol and thermoregulatory processes. Sixteen healthy subjects who reported difficulty with waking up participated in random order in a

  11. GEODYN Orbit Determination of Dawn at Vesta using Image Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centinello, F. J., III; Mazarico, E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    The Dawn spacecraft has completed the orbital phase of its mapping mission of the asteroid 4 Vesta. We utilized radiometric measurements and image constraints to compute the spacecraft orbit using the GEODYN II orbit determination software. Image constraints are computed control point vectors which point from the spacecraft to landmarks observed in two images of the same region of Vesta, and are a newly developed measurement type for GEODYN. This capability was added because image constraints can provide supplemental information on the spacecraft trajectory especially in a weak gravity environment. Due to the geometric nature of image constraints, they can reduce the orbital errors in the along- and cross-track directions, which have typically carried higher uncertainty in previous interplanetary missions. Image constraints are also useful during times of absence of radiometric tracking data. Improvements to orbit determination can provide improved gravity field estimation and knowledge of the interior structure of Vesta. The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) provides X-band tracking measurements for Dawn. Radiometric and image constraints were processed for the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) I and II, and the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO), from 23 Sept 2011 to 26 July 2012. The spacecraft altitude was roughly 685 km during HAMO and 200 km during LAMO. Doppler and range residual RMS were under 1 mm/s and 10 m, respectively. Improvement in orbital knowledge from image constraints is typically greatest in the cross-track direction and in our analysis these residuals were typically better than 500 m.

  12. AHP 45: REVIEW: THE DAWN OF TIBET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea McGill

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1983, John Vincent Bellezza has made numerous treks into Upper Tibet, the cold, northern Plateau region in the Himalayas. In his excursions, he has discovered the remains of a thriving civilization in what is now considered one of the most difficult climates on earth. The Dawn of Tibet draws upon textual sources, ethnographic study with the people who live in Upper Tibet today, and his discoveries of archaeological sites to draw a multifaceted picture of what Zhang Zhung, as this civilization is referred to, might have looked like. His analysis is divided into ten chapters, each dealing with a separate kind of material.

  13. 76 FR 30178 - Submission for OMB review; Comment Request; Process Evaluation of the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... across primary and secondary data sources will provide critical insights on transformativeness of high... monitoring systems along with primary data to assess program process and progress, is non-experimental. The assessment is based on secondary source information, with primary source information collection added to...

  14. 78 FR 79703 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Application Process for Clinical Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... application (in burden hours of applicants per applicant hours) requested Doctoral Level 6,488 1 20/60 2,163 Students 82 1 20/60 27 Other 59 1 20/60 20 Dated: December 18, 2013. Laura Lee, Project Clearance Liaison... for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Application Process for Clinical Research Training and Medical...

  15. Orbital bistatic radar observations of asteroid Vesta by the Dawn mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Elizabeth M; Heggy, Essam; Kofman, Wlodek

    2017-09-12

    We present orbital bistatic radar observations of a small-body, acquired during occultation by the Dawn spacecraft at asteroid Vesta. The radar forward-scattering properties of different reflection sites are used to assess the textural properties of Vesta's surface at centimeter-to-decimeter scales and are compared to subsurface hydrogen concentrations observed by Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector to assess potential volatile occurrence in the surface and shallow subsurface. We observe significant differences in surface radar reflectivity, implying substantial spatial variations in centimeter-to-decimeter-scale surface roughness. Our results suggest that unlike the Moon, Vesta's surface roughness variations cannot be explained by cratering processes only. In particular, the occurrence of heightened hydrogen concentrations within large smoother terrains (over hundreds of square kilometers) suggests that potential ground-ice presence may have contributed to the formation of Vesta's current surface texture. Our observations are consistent with geomorphological evidence of transient water flow from Dawn Framing Camera images.The Dawn spacecraft has provided orbital bistatic radar observations of a small body in the solar system. Here, the authors present results from Vesta suggesting that smooth terrains with heightened hydrogen concentrations indicate that ground-ice presence potentially helped shape Vesta's current surface texture.

  16. Color and albedo heterogeneity of Vesta from Dawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Nathues, Andreas; Le Corre, Lucille; Sierks, Holger; Li, Jian-Yang; Gaskell, Robert; McCoy, Timothy; Beck, Andrew W; Schröder, Stefan E; Pieters, Carle M; Becker, Kris J; Buratti, Bonnie J; Denevi, Brett; Blewett, David T; Christensen, Ulrich; Gaffey, Michael J; Gutierrez-Marques, Pablo; Hicks, Michael; Keller, Horst Uwe; Maue, Thorsten; Mottola, Stefano; McFadden, Lucy A; McSween, Harry Y; Mittlefehldt, David; O'Brien, David P; Raymond, Carol; Russell, Christopher

    2012-05-11

    Multispectral images (0.44 to 0.98 μm) of asteroid (4) Vesta obtained by the Dawn Framing Cameras reveal global color variations that uncover and help understand the north-south hemispherical dichotomy. The signature of deep lithologies excavated during the formation of the Rheasilvia basin on the south pole has been preserved on the surface. Color variations (band depth, spectral slope, and eucrite-diogenite abundance) clearly correlate with distinct compositional units. Vesta displays the greatest variation of geometric albedo (0.10 to 0.67) of any asteroid yet observed. Four distinct color units are recognized that chronicle processes--including impact excavation, mass wasting, and space weathering--that shaped the asteroid's surface. Vesta's color and photometric diversity are indicative of its status as a preserved, differentiated protoplanet.

  17. Ceres photometric properties from VIR on Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarniello, M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Fonte, S.; Frigeri, A.; Giardino, M.; Longobardo, A.; Magni, G.; Palomba, E.; Raponi, A.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.; Li, J.-Y.

    2015-10-01

    Dawn spacecraft [1] entered orbit around Ceres on 6 March 2015. During the approach phase to this dwarf planet and later, through the Survey, High Altitude Mapping (HAMO) and Low Altitude Mapping Orbits (LAMO), the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) will perform detailed observations of the surface of the body. VIR [2] is an imaging spectrometer onboard the Dawn mission and it is composed of two spectral channels: the visible (VIS) covering the 0.25 μm - 1.0 μm wavelength range and the infrared (IR) for the 0.95 μm - 5.0 μm interval. During the various phases of the mission, the surface of Ceres will be observed under different observation geometries. The measured signal is then affected by photometric issues that need to be minimized in order to exploit the intrinsic spectral variability of the surface, thus allowing the direct comparison between acquisitions taken under different observation conditions. In order to accomplish this task we perform a photometric reduction of the dataset by means of a simplified Hapke model, following the approach of [3].

  18. The dawn of gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    On Sep 14 2015, gravitational waves were for the first time detected directly. This observation by the LIGO interferometric detectors marks the dawn of a new era in our observational study of the cosmos as a qualitatively new window to its exploration has been opened. This talk reviews some of the fundamental concepts of gravitational waves and the methodology employed for their observation. The first event, dubbed GW150914, and the properties of its source, as inferred from the observation, will be discussed. The talk concludes with a selected set of the most important topics where we expect gravitational-wave observations to deepen and either challenge or confirm our present understanding of the laws and the history of our universe.

  19. Drug Abuse Warning Network US (DAWN-NS-1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) survey is designed to capture data on emergency department (ED) episodes that are induced by or related to the use of an...

  20. Drug Abuse Warning Network US (DAWN-NS-1994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) survey is designed to capture data on emergency department (ED) episodes that are induced by or related to the use of an...

  1. DAWN GRAND RAW (EDR) VESTA COUNTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRaND EDR are a time-ordered collection of gamma ray and neutron counting data and histograms acquired by GRaND during all phases of the Dawn mission. The...

  2. Pre-Dawn Temperatures on Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This infrared image of Jupiter's moon Ganymede, showing heat radiation from its surface at a wavelength of 27 microns (millionths of a meter), provides the best view yet of pre-dawn temperatures on Ganymede. Temperatures, derived from the brightness of the infrared radiation, can be determined from the colors by reference to the scale at the bottom of the image.The image, taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft, shows half of Ganymede's disk as seen by the approaching spacecraft. Longitudes covered range from 340 on the right of the image, through longitude zero (the direction facing Jupiter) to longitude 60 near Ganymede's limb on the left. The morning terminator, near longitude 15, curves through the middle of the image, separating areas experiencing the last hours of the long (3.5 Earth day) Ganymede night, on the left, from areas that are warming up in the morning sunshine, on the right. Ganymede's north pole is in the upper right corner of the image, and the south pole is in the lower right. Ganymede rotates from left to right.Nighttime temperatures, shown in blue and purple colors, are in the range 85 - 100 Kelvin (-306 to -279 F). The surface cools steadily during the night, so the warmest nighttime temperatures are on the left side of the disk, and temperatures drop towards the dawn terminator on the right, before warming rapidly once the sun rises (the red, yellow and white areas on the far right). Study of the rate of nighttime cooling and the rate of post-sunrise warming, will provide information about Ganymede's surface properties.The image was taken with Galileo's PPR (Photopolarimeter-Radiometer) instrument on the spacecraft's seventh orbit around Jupiter, from a range of about 190,000 kilometers (118,060 miles). Surface temperatures derived from the strength of infrared radiation, as was done here, are called 'brightness temperatures', and may be slightly in error.The PPR instrument builds up an image by slowly scanning across the target over a period of

  3. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If digital images are the only source of images, ensure that the image has minimum resolution of 300 dpi or 1800 x 1600 pixels in TIFF format. ... Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics charges Nigerian Naira 5000 (USD25) on submission of manuscript as processing fees and Nigerian Naira 25,000 (USD125) publication fees on ...

  4. Orient Journal of Medicine: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charges: Authors are required, at the submission of each article, to pay a sum of N15,000 (Fifteen Thousand Naira only) as processing fee at the Journal Office and obtain a written receipt, or pay into the Orient Journal of Medicine Bank Account (Account No. should be obtained directly from the Editor)and mail a scanned ...

  5. High-resolution Ceres HAMO Atlas derived from Dawn FC Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatsch, T.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K. D.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Introduction: NASA's Dawn spacecraft will orbit the dwarf planet Ceres in August and September 2015 in HAMO (High Altitude Mapping Orbit) with an altitude of about 1,500 km to characterize for instance the geology, topography, and shape of Ceres before it will be transferred to the lowest orbit. One of the major goals of this mission phase is the global mapping of Ceres. Data: The Dawn mission is equipped with a fram-ing camera (FC). The framing camera will take about 2600 clear filter images with a resolution of about 120 m/pixel and different viewing angles and different illumination conditions. Data Processing: The first step of the processing chain towards the cartographic products is to ortho-rectify the images to the proper scale and map projec-tion type. This process requires detailed information of the Dawn orbit and attitude data and of the topography of the target. Both, improved orientation and high-resolution shape models, are provided by stereo processing of the HAMO dataset. Ceres' HAMO shape model is used for the calculation of the ray intersection points while the map projection itself will be done onto a reference sphere for Ceres. The final step is the controlled mosaicking of all nadir images to a global mosaic of Ceres, the so called basemap. Ceres map tiles: The Ceres atlas will be produced in a scale of 1:750,000 and will consist of 15 tiles that conform to the quadrangle schema for small planets and medium size Icy satellites. A map scale of 1:750,000 guarantees a mapping at the highest availa-ble Dawn resolution in HAMO. Nomenclature: The Dawn team proposed to the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to use the names of gods and goddesses of agriculture and vege-tation from world mythology as names for the craters. This proposal was accepted by the IAU and the team proposed names for geological features to the IAU based on the HAMO mosaic. These feature names will be applied to the map tiles.

  6. Homogeneous spectral units on Ceres as inferred from Dawn/VIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, F.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Tosi, F.; Carrorro, F. G.; Ciarniello, M.; Longobardo, A.; Fonte, S.; Giardino, M.; Palomba, E.; Frigeri, A.; Raponi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Formisano, M.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The dwarf planet Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt, is being closely investigated by the NASA Dawn mission since the beginning of 2015. The Visible InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer onboard Dawn has obtained hyperspectral images of Ceres, with spatial resolution increasing with decreasing distance from the surface. Using its overall spectral range from 0.25 to 5.1 μm, VIR will ultimately enable a comprehensive mapping of Ceres' mineralogy and surface temperature. Prior to Dawn, Ceres was extensively observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), which resulted in low-resolution (30 km/px) albedo and color maps in the UV-VIS spectral domain. During the approach phase VIR acquired data with a spatial resolution of ~11 km/px, and confirmed the regional color trends identified by HST earlier. In the subsequent Survey mission phase hyperspectral coverage of Ceres was obtained at ~1.3 km/px, while in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) the nominal spatial resolution will be ~0.4 km/px. Unlike Vesta, which was investigated by Dawn in 2011-2012, the spectrum of Ceres does not display prominent absorption bands in the VIS-near IR range. Ground-based observations of Ceres highlighted a decrease in reflectance shortward of 0.4 μm and the existence of a broad absorption feature in the 3-μm region, associated with hydrated minerals. VIR data are key to unveiling the surface composition of Ceres at different spatial scales, providing answers to several unsolved questions. Compositionally homogeneous surface units, emerging in the VIS-IR spectral range sampled by VIR, are presented here for the first time. These units and their degree of similarity in terms of spectral parameters might provide insight on the surface processes that led to the composition observed nowadays.

  7. 40 CFR 82.180 - Agency review of SNAP submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency review of SNAP submissions. 82... review of SNAP submissions. (a) Processing of SNAP notices—(1) 90-day review process. The 90-day review...) Initial review of notice. The SNAP Document Control Officer will review the notice to ensure that basic...

  8. 76 FR 48834 - Michigan Consolidated Gas Company and Dawn Gateway Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Michigan Consolidated Gas Company and Dawn Gateway Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 26, 2011, Michigan Consolidated Gas Company (MichCon), and Dawn Gateway Pipeline, LLC (Dawn Gateway), whose offices are co-located at One Energy Plaza, Detroit, Michigan 48226...

  9. Evolution of asteroid (4) Vesta in the light of Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangjam, Guneshwar; Mengel, Kurt; Nathues, Andreas; Schmidt, Kai H.; Hoffmann, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Asteroid (4) Vesta has been visited by the NASA Dawn spacecraft in 2011/12. The combination of compositional/elemental information from the three onboard instruments with mineralogical information from the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) clan of stony achondrites has shed new light on the surface lithologic heterogeneity and the early evolution. Although petrologic/chemical models have tried to unravel the evolutionary processes, inconsistencies exist for some chemical major element/phase [e.g., 1, 2]. A revised evolutionary model is presented here [3]. The three oxygen isotope signature of HEDs and, thus, of proto-Vesta is best met by a mixture of 80% ordinary plus 20 % CV chondrites. Assuming a 27Al-triggered magma ocean within the first MA after accretion and taking into account the reliable major element data of the silicate fraction of the chondritic mixture results a crystallization sequence that differs from the earlier models [1, 2, 3]. The crystallized phase obtained by 'MELTS' software [4] starts with olivine and continues with minor olivine plus orthopyroxene until the liquid reaches a Kd value (partition coefficient) of 0.31 where the fractionated melt is in equilibrium with the residual liquid [5]. The abundance of minerals and rocks formed in this model are converted in volume proportions assuming a spherical shape of early Vesta (262 km radius) with a core (FeNi, FeNiS) radius of 110 km [6]. Two scenarios are considered to describe the early bulk silicate Vesta. First, the early-crystallized olivine accumulated at the base of the silicate shell is accounted for a dunitic lower mantle having a thickness of 46 km while the later crystallized phases form an orthopyroxenitic upper mantle and a crust of thickness 84 and 22 km, respectively. Second, an olivine-rich lower mantle that gradually changes to orthopyroxene-rich upper mantle is expected having an overall shell thickness of 137 km, with a 15 km thick crust. An important result is that the deep

  10. ORIGIN: metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Herder, J.W.A.; Piro, L.; Ohashi, T.; Kouveliotou, C.; Hartmann, D.H.; Kaastra, J.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070911134; Amati, L.

    2011-01-01

    ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z = 10,

  11. Using Dawn to Observe SEP Events Past 2 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Michaela; Russell, Christopher T.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2017-10-01

    The launch of the STEREO spacecraft provided much insight into the longitudinal and radial distribution of solar energetic particles (SEPs) relative to their origin site. However, almost all of the observations of SEP events have been made exclusively near 1 AU. The Dawn mission, which orbited around Vesta before arriving at Ceres, provides an opportunity to analyze these events at much further distances. Although Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) is not optimized for SEP characterization, it is sensitive to protons greater than 4 MeV, making it capable of detecting a solar energetic particle event in its vicinity. Solar energetic particles in this area of the solar system are important as they are believed to cause sputtering at bodies such as Ceres and comets (Villarreal et al., 2017; Wurz et al., 2015). In this study, we use Dawn’s GRaND data from 2011-2015 when Dawn was at distances between 2-3 AU. We compare the SEP events seen by Dawn with particle measurements at 1 AU using STEREO, Wind, and ACE to understand how the SEP events evolved past 1 AU.References: Villarreal, M. N., et al. (2017), The dependence of the Cerean exosphere on solar energetic particle events, Astrophys. J. Lett., 838, L8.Wurz, P. et al. (2015), Solar wind sputtering of dust on the surface of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, A&A, 583, A22.

  12. ORIGIN : Metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Herder, Jan-Willem; Piro, Luigi; Ohashi, Takaya; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Kaastra, Jelle S.; Amati, L.; Andersen, M. I.; Arnaud, M.; Attéia, J.-L.; Bandler, S.; Barbera, M.; Barcons, X.; Barthelmy, S.; Basa, S.; Basso, S.; Boer, M.; Branchini, E.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Borgani, S.; Boyarsky, A.; Brunetti, G.; Budtz-Jorgensen, C.; Burrows, D.; Butler, N.; Campana, S.; Caroli, E.; Ceballos, M.; Christensen, F.; Churazov, E.; Comastri, A.; Colasanti, L.; Cole, R.; Content, R.; Corsi, A.; Costantini, E.; Conconi, P.; Cusumano, G.; de Plaa, J.; De Rosa, A.; Del Santo, M.; Di Cosimo, S.; De Pasquale, M.; Doriese, R.; Ettori, S.; Evans, P.; Ezoe, Y.; Ferrari, L.; Finger, H.; Figueroa-Feliciano, T.; Friedrich, P.; Fujimoto, R.; Furuzawa, A.; Fynbo, J.; Gatti, F.; Galeazzi, M.; Gehrels, N.; Gendre, B.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Giommi, P.; Girardi, M.; Grindlay, J.; Cocchi, M.; Godet, O.; Guedel, M.; Haardt, F.; den Hartog, R.; Hepburn, I.; Hermsen, W.; Hjorth, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holland, A.; Hornstrup, A.; van der Horst, A.; Hoshino, A.; in't Zand, J.; Irwin, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Jonker, P.; Kitayama, T.; Kawahara, H.; Kawai, N.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C.; de Korte, P.; Kusenko, A.; Kuvvetli, I.; Labanti, M.; Macculi, C.; Maiolino, R.; Hesse, M. Mas; Matsushita, K.; Mazzotta, P.; McCammon, D.; Méndez, M.; Mignani, R.; Mineo, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Mushotzky, R.; Molendi, S.; Moscardini, L.; Natalucci, L.; Nicastro, F.; O'Brien, P.; Osborne, J.; Paerels, F.; Page, M.; Paltani, S.; Pedersen, K.; Perinati, E.; Ponman, T.; Pointecouteau, E.; Predehl, P.; Porter, S.; Rasmussen, A.; Rauw, G.; Röttgering, H.; Roncarelli, M.; Rosati, P.; Quadrini, E.; Ruchayskiy, O.; Salvaterra, R.; Sasaki, S.; Sato, K.; Savaglio, S.; Schaye, J.; Sciortino, S.; Shaposhnikov, M.; Sharples, R.; Shinozaki, K.; Spiga, D.; Sunyaev, R.; Suto, Y.; Takei, Y.; Tanvir, N.; Tashiro, M.; Tamura, T.; Tawara, Y.; Troja, E.; Tsujimoto, M.; Tsuru, T.; Ubertini, P.; Ullom, J.; Ursino, E.; Verbunt, F.; van de Voort, F.; Viel, M.; Wachter, S.; Watson, D.; Weisskopf, M.; Werner, N.; White, N.; Willingale, R.; Wijers, R.; Yamasaki, N.; Yoshikawa, K.; Zane, S.

    2012-01-01

    ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z = 10,

  13. ORIGIN: metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Herder, J.W.; Piro, L.; Ohashi, T.; Kouveliotou, C.; Hartmann, D.H.; Kaastra, J.S.; Amati, L.; Andersen, M.I.; Arnaud, M.; Atteia, J.-L.; Bandler, S.; Barbera, M.; Barcons, X.; Barthelmy, S.; Basa, S.; Basso, S.; de Boer, M.; Branchini, E.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Borgani, S.; Boyarsky, A.; Brunetti, G.; Budtz-Jorgensen, C.; Burrows, D.; Butler, N.; Campana, S.; Caroli, E.; Ceballos, M.; Christensen, F.; Churazov, E.; Comastri, A.; Colasanti, L.; Cole, R.; Content, R.; Corsi, A.; Costantini, E.; Conconi, P.; Cusumano, G.; de Plaa, J.; De Rosa, A.; Del Santo, M.; Di Cosimo, S.; De Pasquale, M.; Doriese, R.; Ettori, S.; Evans, P.; Ezoe, Y.; Ferrari, L.; Finger, H.; Figueroa-Feliciano, T.; Friedrich, P.; Fujimoto, R.; Furuzawa, A.; Fynbo, J.; Gatti, F.; Galeazzi, M.; Gehrels, N.; Gendre, B.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Giommi, P.; Girardi, M.; Grindlay, J.; Cocchi, M.; Godet, O.; Guedel, M.; Haardt, F.; Hartog, R.; Hepburn, I.; Hermsen, W.; Hjorth, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holland, A.; Hornstrup, A.; van der Horst, A.; Hoshino, A.; in 't Zand, J.; Irwin, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Jonker, P.; Kitayama, T.; Kawahara, H.; Kawai, N.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C.; de Korte, P.; Kusenko, A.; Kuvvetli, I.; Labanti, M.; Macculi, C.; Maiolino, R.; Mas Hesse, M.; Matsushita, K.; Mazzotta, P.; McCammon, D.; Méndez, M.; Mignani, R.; Mineo, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Mushotzky, R.; Molendi, S.; Moscardini, L.; Natalucci, L.; Nicastro, F.; O'Brien, P.; Osborne, J.; Paerels, F.; Page, M.; Paltani, S.; Pedersen, K.; Perinati, E.; Ponman, T.; Pointecouteau, E.; Predehl, P.; Porter, S.; Rasmussen, A.; Rauw, G.; Röttgering, H.; Roncarelli, M.; Rosati, P.; Quadrini, E.; Ruchayskiy, O.; Salvaterra, R.; Sasaki, S.; Sato, K.; Savaglio, S.; Schaye, J.; Sciortino, S.; Shaposhnikov, M.; Sharples, R.; Shinozaki, K.; Spiga, D.; Sunyaev, R.; Suto, Y.; Takei, Y.; Tanvir, N.; Tashiro, M.; Tamura, T.; Tawara, Y.; Troja, E.; Tsujimoto, M.; Tsuru, T.; Ubertini, P.; Ullom, J.; Ursino, E.; Verbunt, F.; van de Voort, F.; Viel, M.; Wachter, S.; Watson, D.; Weisskopf, M.; Werner, N.; White, N.; Willingale, R.; Wijers, R.; Yamasaki, N.; Yoshikawa, K.; Zane, S.

    2012-01-01

    ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z = 10,

  14. Dawn-Dusk Asymmetries in Rapidly Rotating Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X.; Kivelson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Spacecraft measurements reveal perplexing dawn-dusk asymmetries of field and plasma properties in the magnetospheres of Saturn and Jupiter. Here we describe a previously unrecognized source of dawn-dusk asymmetry in a rapidly rotating magnetosphere. As plasma rotates from dawn to noon on a dipolarizing flux tube, it flows away from the equator at close to the sound speed. As plasma rotates from noon to dusk on a stretching flux tube, it is accelerated back to the equator by centrifugal acceleration at flow speeds typically smaller than the sound speed. Correspondingly, the plasma sheet remains far thicker in the afternoon than in the morning. Using two magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we analyze the forces that account for flows along and across the field in Saturn's magnetosphere and point out analogous effects at Jupiter. Different radial force balance in the morning and afternoon sectors produces net dusk to dawn flow, or equivalently, a large-scale electric field oriented from post-noon to pre-midnight.

  15. High-resolution Ceres LAMO atlas derived from Dawn FC images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatsch, T.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K. D.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C.

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: NASA's Dawn spacecraft has been orbiting the dwarf planet Ceres since December 2015 in LAMO (High Altitude Mapping Orbit) with an altitude of about 400 km to characterize for instance the geology, topography, and shape of Ceres. One of the major goals of this mission phase is the global high-resolution mapping of Ceres. Data: The Dawn mission is equipped with a fram-ing camera (FC). The framing camera took until the time of writing about 27,500 clear filter images in LAMO with a resolution of about 30 m/pixel and dif-ferent viewing angles and different illumination condi-tions. Data Processing: The first step of the processing chain towards the cartographic products is to ortho-rectify the images to the proper scale and map projec-tion type. This process requires detailed information of the Dawn orbit and attitude data and of the topography of the target. A high-resolution shape model was provided by stereo processing of the HAMO dataset, orbit and attitude data are available as reconstructed SPICE data. Ceres' HAMO shape model is used for the calculation of the ray intersection points while the map projection itself was done onto a reference sphere of Ceres. The final step is the controlled mosaicking of all nadir images to a global mosaic of Ceres, the so called basemap. Ceres map tiles: The Ceres atlas will be produced in a scale of 1:250,000 and will consist of 62 tiles that conforms to the quadrangle schema for Venus at 1:5,000,000. A map scale of 1:250,000 is a compro-mise between the very high resolution in LAMO and a proper map sheet size of the single tiles. Nomenclature: The Dawn team proposed to the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to use the names of gods and goddesses of agriculture and vege-tation from world mythology as names for the craters and to use names of agricultural festivals of the world for other geological features. This proposal was ac-cepted by the IAU and the team proposed 92 names for geological features to the IAU

  16. Source modelling at the dawn of gravitational-wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Davide

    2016-09-01

    The age of gravitational-wave astronomy has begun. Gravitational waves are propagating spacetime perturbations ("ripples in the fabric of space-time") predicted by Einstein's theory of General Relativity. These signals propagate at the speed of light and are generated by powerful astrophysical events, such as the merger of two black holes and supernova explosions. The first detection of gravitational waves was performed in 2015 with the LIGO interferometers. This constitutes a tremendous breakthrough in fundamental physics and astronomy: it is not only the first direct detection of such elusive signals, but also the first irrefutable observation of a black-hole binary system. The future of gravitational-wave astronomy is bright and loud: the LIGO experiments will soon be joined by a network of ground-based interferometers; the space mission eLISA has now been fully approved by the European Space Agency with a proof-of-concept mission called LISA Pathfinder launched in 2015. Gravitational-wave observations will provide unprecedented tests of gravity as well as a qualitatively new window on the Universe. Careful theoretical modelling of the astrophysical sources of gravitational-waves is crucial to maximize the scientific outcome of the detectors. In this Thesis, we present several advances on gravitational-wave source modelling, studying in particular: (i) the precessional dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries; (ii) the astrophysical consequences of black-hole recoils; and (iii) the formation of compact objects in the framework of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. All these phenomena are deeply characterized by a continuous interplay between General Relativity and astrophysics: despite being a truly relativistic messenger, gravitational waves encode details of the astrophysical formation and evolution processes of their sources. We work out signatures and predictions to extract such information from current and future observations. At the dawn of a revolutionary

  17. Zero to Integration in Eight Months, the Dawn Ground Data System Engineering Challange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubon, Lydia P.

    2006-01-01

    The Dawn Project has presented the Ground Data System (GDS) with technical challenges driven by cost and schedule constraints commonly associated with National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery Projects. The Dawn mission consists of a new and exciting Deep Space partnership among: the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), responsible for project management and flight operations; Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC), spacecraft builder and responsible for flight system test and integration; and the University of California, at Los Angeles (UCLA), responsible for science planning and operations. As a cost-capped mission, one of Dawn s implementation strategies is to leverage from both flight and ground heritage. OSC's ground data system is used for flight system test and integration as part of the flight heritage strategy. Mission operations, however, are to be conducted with JPL s ground system. The system engineering challenge of dealing with two heterogeneous ground systems emerged immediately. During the first technical interchange meeting between the JPL s GDS Team and OSC's Flight Software Team, August 2003, the need to integrate the ground system with the flight software was brought to the table. This need was driven by the project s commitment to enable instrument engineering model integration in a spacecraft simulator environment, for both demonstration and risk mitigation purposes, by April 2004. This paper will describe the system engineering approach that was undertaken by JPL's GDS Team in order to meet the technical challenge within a non-negotiable eight-month schedule. Key to the success was adherence to an overall systems engineering process and fundamental systems engineering practices: decomposition of the project request into manageable requirements; definition of a structured yet flexible development process; integration of multiple ground disciplines and experts into a focused team effort; in-process risk management; and aggregation

  18. Zero to Integration in Eight Months, the Dawn Ground Data System Engineering Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubon, Lydia P.

    2006-01-01

    The Dawn Project has presented the Ground Data System (GDS) with technical challenges driven by cost and schedule constraints commonly associated with National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery Projects. The Dawn mission consists of a new and exciting Deep Space partnership among: the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), manages the project and is responsible for flight operation; Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC), is the spacecraft builder and is responsible for flight system test and integration; and the University of California, at Los Angeles (UCLA), is responsible for science planning and operations. As a cost-capped mission, one of Dawn's implementation strategies is to leverage from both flight and ground heritage. OSC's ground data system is used for flight system test and integration as part of the flight heritage strategy. Mission operations, however, are to be conducted with JPL's ground system. The system engineering challenge of dealing with two heterogeneous ground systems emerged immediately. During the first technical interchange meeting between the JPL's GDS Team and OSC's Flight Software Team, August 2003, the need to integrate the ground system with the flight software was brought to the table. This need was driven by the project's commitment to enable instrument engineering model integration in a spacecraft simulator environment, for both demonstration and risk mitigation purposes, by April 2004. This paper will describe the system engineering approach that was undertaken by JPL's GDS Team in order to meet the technical challenge within a non-negotiable eight-month schedule. Key to the success was adherence to fundamental systems engineering practices: decomposition of the project request into manageable requirements; integration of multiple ground disciplines and experts into a focused team effort; definition of a structured yet flexible development process; definition of an in-process risk reduction plan; and aggregation of

  19. Observations of the generation of eastward equatorial electric fields near dawn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Kelley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report and discuss interesting observations of the variability of electric fields and ionospheric densities near sunrise in the equatorial ionosphere made by instruments onboard the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS satellite over six consecutive orbits. Electric field measurements were made by the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI, and ionospheric plasma densities were measured by Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP. The data were obtained on 17 June 2008, a period of solar minimum conditions. Deep depletions in the equatorial plasma density were observed just before sunrise on three orbits, for which one of these depletions was accompanied by a very large eastward electric field associated with the density depletion, as previously described by de La Beaujardière et al. (2009, Su et al. (2009 and Burke et al. (2009. The origin of this large eastward field (positive upward/meridional drift, which occurred when that component of the field is usually small and westward, is thought to be due to a large-scale Rayleigh–Taylor process. On three subsequent orbits, however, a distinctly different, second type of relationship between the electric field and plasma density near dawn was observed. Enhancements of the eastward electric field were also detected, one of them peaking around 3 mV m−1, but they were found to the east (later local time of pre-dawn density perturbations. These observations represent sunrise enhancements of vertical drifts accompanied by eastward drifts such as those observed by the San Marco satellite (Aggson et al., 1995. Like the San Marco measurements, the enhancements occurred during winter solstice and low solar flux conditions in the Pacific longitude sector. While the evening equatorial ionosphere is believed to present the most dramatic examples of variability, our observations exemplify that the dawn sector can be highly variable as well.

  20. Perspectives in Education: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Guidelines to authors can be found on the journal's own site here: http://www.perspectives-in-education.com/pages.aspx?PID=10. Alternatively, see below: Information for Authors. Submission of articles. PiE invites submissions in the following categories: Research articles. Contributors are encouraged to ...

  1. Mizan Law Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. SUBMISSION GUIDELINES The following submissions are acceptable for publication upon approval by the Editorial Board. Publication of an article further involves anonymous peer review by two External Assessors. Articles: Research articles that identify, examine, explore and analyze legal and related ...

  2. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sci is not contingent upon the author's ability to pay the charges. Neither is acceptance to pay the processing fee a guarantee that the paper will be accepted for publication. Authors may still request (in advance) that the editorial office waive some of the processing fee under special circumstances. Submission checklist

  3. CODE-SWITCHING IN HOUSE MADE OF DAWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Bartelt

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The diglossic role of Spanish and Towa in House Made of Dawn is explored as a possible expression of factionalism at Jemez Pueblo. The interruption of the narrative voice by Spanish utterances is interpreted as an implication of social distancing and as strengthening the novel's theme of estrangement. The strategic lexicalcode-switches to Towa, which occur within these stretches of Spanish speech, are examined for their semantic motivations and for their potential as devices for achieving textual disjunction.

  4. Women and Golden Dawn: Reproducing the Nationalist Habitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koronaiou, Alexandra; Sakellariou, Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the place and role of women in the ideology of the Greek neo-Nazi political party Golden Dawn (GD). The article considers the place of women in GD's ideology as well as how GD envisages the role of women in society. It asks whether this vision of women's role is reflected in the participation of women in the party's…

  5. The dawn and dusk electrojet response to substorm onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borälv

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the time delay between substorm onset and related reactions in the dawn and dusk ionospheric electrojets, clearly separated from the nightside located substorm current wedge by several hours in MLT. We looked for substorm onsets occurring over Greenland, where the onset was identified by a LANL satellite and DMI magnetometers located on Greenland. With this setup the MARIA magnetometer network was located at dusk, monitoring the eastward electrojet, and the IMAGE chain at dawn, for the westward jet. In the first few minutes following substorm onset, sudden enhancements of the electrojets were identified by looking for rapid changes in magnetograms. These results show that the speed of information transfer between the region of onset and the dawn and dusk ionosphere is very high. A number of events where the reaction seemed to preceed the onset were explained by either unfavorable instrument locations, preventing proper onset timing, or by the inner magnetosphere's reaction to the Earthward fast flows from the near-Earth neutral line model. Case studies with ionospheric coherent (SuperDARN and incoherent (EISCAT radars have been performed to see whether a convection-induced electric field or enhanced conductivity is the main agent for the reactions in the electrojets. The results indicate an imposed electric field enhancement.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; electric fields and currents - Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  6. The dawn and dusk electrojet response to substorm onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borälv

    Full Text Available We have investigated the time delay between substorm onset and related reactions in the dawn and dusk ionospheric electrojets, clearly separated from the nightside located substorm current wedge by several hours in MLT. We looked for substorm onsets occurring over Greenland, where the onset was identified by a LANL satellite and DMI magnetometers located on Greenland. With this setup the MARIA magnetometer network was located at dusk, monitoring the eastward electrojet, and the IMAGE chain at dawn, for the westward jet. In the first few minutes following substorm onset, sudden enhancements of the electrojets were identified by looking for rapid changes in magnetograms. These results show that the speed of information transfer between the region of onset and the dawn and dusk ionosphere is very high. A number of events where the reaction seemed to preceed the onset were explained by either unfavorable instrument locations, preventing proper onset timing, or by the inner magnetosphere's reaction to the Earthward fast flows from the near-Earth neutral line model. Case studies with ionospheric coherent (SuperDARN and incoherent (EISCAT radars have been performed to see whether a convection-induced electric field or enhanced conductivity is the main agent for the reactions in the electrojets. The results indicate an imposed electric field enhancement.

    Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; electric fields and currents - Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  7. Spectral analysis of Ahuna Mons from Dawn mission's visible-infrared spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, F.; Raponi, A.; Tosi, F.; De Sanctis, M. C.; McFadden, L. A.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Longobardo, A.; Ciarniello, M.; Krohn, K.; Stephan, K.; Palomba, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Ammannito, E.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ahuna Mons is the highest mountain on Ceres. A unique complex in terms of size, shape, and morphology, Ahuna is bordered by flanks of the talus around its summit. Recent work by Ruesch et al. based on Dawn's Framing Camera images shed light on the possible origin of Ahuna Mons. According to Ruesch et al. (2016), Ahuna Mons is formed by a volcanic process involving the ascent of cryomagma and extrusion onto the surface followed by dome development and subsequent spreading. Here we analyzed in detail the composition of Ahuna Mons, using data acquired by the visible and infrared spectrometer aboard Dawn. The spectral analysis reveals a relatively high abundance of carbonates and a nonhomogeneous variation in carbonate composition and abundance along Ahuna's flanks, associated with a lower amount of the Ceres's ubiquitous NH4-phyllosilicates over a large portion of the flanks. The grain size is coarser on the flanks than in the surrounding regions, suggesting the presence of fresher material, also compatible with a larger abundance of carbonates. Thermal variations are seen in Ahuna, supporting the evidence of different compactness of the surface regolith in specific locations. Results of the spectral analysis are consistent with a possible cryovolcanic origin which exposed fresher material that slid down on the flanks.

  8. The dawn-dusk asymmetry of ion density in the dayside magnetosheath and its annual variability measured by THEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Andrew P.; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.; Osmane, Adnane; Nykyri, Katariina

    2016-05-01

    The local and global plasma properties in the magnetosheath play a fundamental role in regulating solar wind-magnetosphere coupling processes. However, the magnetosheath is a complex region to characterise as it has been shown theoretically, observationally and through simulations that plasma properties are inhomogeneous, non-isotropic and asymmetric about the Sun-Earth line. To complicate matters, dawn-dusk asymmetries are sensitive to various changes in the upstream conditions on an array of timescales. The present paper focuses exclusively on dawn-dusk asymmetries, in particularly that of ion density. We present a statistical study using THEMIS data of the dawn-dusk asymmetry of ion density in the dayside magnetosheath and its long-term variations between 2009 and 2015. Our data suggest that, in general, the dawn-side densities are higher, and the asymmetry grows from noon towards the terminator. This trend was only observed close to the magnetopause and not in the central magnetosheath. In addition, between 2009 and 2015, the largest asymmetry occurred around 2009 decreasing thereafter. We also concluded that no single parameter such as the Alfvén Mach number, plasma velocity, or the interplanetary magnetic field strength could exclusively account for the observed asymmetry. Interestingly, the dependence on Alfvén Mach number differed between data sets from different time periods. The asymmetry obtained in the THEMIS data set is consistent with previous studies, but the solar cycle dependence was opposite to an analysis based on IMP-8 data. We discuss the physical mechanisms for this asymmetry and its temporal variation. We also put the current results into context with the existing literature in order to relate THEMIS era measurements to those made during earlier solar cycles.

  9. MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION FORM Upon submission of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The submission of a paper by a set of authors represents the results of their original research not previously published; that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; and that if accepted for the journal, it will not be published elsewhere. ii). The list of authors includes those and all those who have contributed in.

  10. Decision Support Model for User Submission Approval Energy Partners Candidate Using Profile Matching Method and Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moedjiono Moedjiono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of services, customer satisfaction is a very important factor and determine the success of an enterprise. In the field of outsourcing, customer satisfaction indicator is the labor required delivery in a timely manner and has a level of quality in accordance with the terms proposed by the customer. To provide the best talent to customers, team recruitment and selection must perform a series of tests with a variety of methods to match the criteria of office given by the user with the criteria owned candidates and in order to support growth in graduation rates force a partner at the stage of user approval. For this purpose, the authors conducted a study with the method of observation, interviews, document reviews the candidate recruitment process, so as to provide recommendations for candidates with the highest quality delivery to the user at the stage of approval. The author put forward a model of decision support that is supported by the method of profile matching and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP in problem solving. The final results of this study can be used to support a decision in order to improve the effectiveness of the delivery of quality candidates, increase customer satisfaction, lower costs and improve gross operational margin of the company.

  11. High-Resolution Ceres HAMO Color Mosaics derived from Dawn FC Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, K. D.; Schroeder, S.; Roatsch, T.; Kersten, E.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C.

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: NASA's Dawn spacecraft orbited the dwarf planet Ceres from August to October 2015 in HAMO (High Altitude Mapping Orbit) with an altitude of about 1,500 km to characterize, among others, the geology, topography, and shape of Ceres. Data: The Dawn mission is equipped with a framing camera (FC) which has one broad band clear filter and seven narrow band color filters. The FC took about 4300 color filter images in HAMO with a resolution of about 140 m/pixel. Data Processing: The first steps of the processing chain towards the mosaics are: radiometric calibration and photometric correction of the images followed by ortho-rectification to the proper scale and map projection type. These steps require detailed information of the Dawn orbit, the orientation of the spacecraft, and of the topography of the target. Both, improved orientation and a high-resolution shape model, are provided by the stereo processing of the HAMO clear filter dataset. Ceres' HAMO shape model is used for the calculation of the ray intersection points and the orientation of the surface normals, while the map projection itself is done onto a reference sphere for Ceres. The final step is the controlled mosaicking of all color images to seven global mosaics of Ceres. True color: True color was achieved by scaling FC images acquired through the red, green, and blue filters (effective wavelength 653, 555, and 438 nm) to RGB values calculated from the CIE color matching functions and a Ceres reflectance spectrum. Color ratios: Color ratio image mosaics were calculated using the images of four different narrow band filters; Red channel: 965/749 nanometers (nm); Green channel: 555/749 nm; Blue channel: 438/749 nm. The color ratio image serves to cancel out the dominant brightness variations of the scene (caused by albedo variations and topographic shading) and enhances color differences related to soil mineralogy and, possibly, maturity. Download: All color mosaics will become available to the

  12. Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs second study (DAWN2™)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Richard I G; Nicolucci, Antonio; Kovacs Burns, K

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: The second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study sought cross-national comparisons of perceptions on healthcare provision for benchmarking and sharing of clinical practices to improve diabetes care. METHODS: In total, 4785 healthcare professionals caring for people with diabetes...... across 17 countries participated in an online survey designed to assess diabetes healthcare provision, self-management and training. RESULTS: Between 61.4 and 92.9% of healthcare professionals felt that people with diabetes needed to improve various self-management activities; glucose monitoring (range...... will allow benchmarking and sharing of clinical practices....

  13. From Cosmic Dusk till Dawn with RELICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradac, Marusa

    current surveys with a significantly improved sample variance over deep field surveys. It will allow us to study the properties (e.g. SFRs and stellar masses) of a large number of galaxies (200 at z=6-10), thus meeting our goal of reconstructing the cosmic SFR density with sufficient precision to better understand the role of galaxies in the reionization process. We will measure the presence (or absence) of established stellar populations with Spitzer for the largest sample to date. Furthermore this proposal will allow us to study the SFRs of the intrinsically faint (and magnified) intermediate redshift (z 4) galaxies, as well as the stellar mass function of z=0.3-0.7 galaxy members of our cluster sample, thereby expanding our understanding of star formation from reionization to the epoch of galaxy formation and dense environments. Many of the science goals of this proposal are main science drivers for JWST. Due to magnification our effective depth and resolution match those of the JWST blank fields and affords us a sneak preview of JWST sources with Spitzer now. This program will thus provide a valuable test-bed for simulations, observation planning and source selection just in time for JWST Cycle 1.

  14. Effect of simulated dawn on quality of sleep – a community-based trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haukka Jari

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morning light exposure administered as simulated dawn looks a promising method to treat Seasonal Affective Disorder, but it may moreover help with resetting the inaccurate organisation of body clock functions relative to sleep occurring in winter among people in general. Disturbances in sleep patterns are common and may compromise wellbeing even in the short term. Our hypothesis was that simulated dawn could improve the subjective quality of sleep during winter. Methods A community-based trial with 100 volunteer subjects provided with dawn simulators. Study period lasted for eight weeks, and subjects used the dawn simulators for two weeks at a time, each subject acting as his own control (ABAB-design. Main outcome measure was subjective quality of sleep recorded each morning with Groningen Sleep Quality Scale. Results 77 subjects completed the trial. Quality of sleep improved while subjects were using dawn simulator-devices (p = 0.001. The treatment became beneficial after six days' use of dawn simulator, but the effect did not last after the use was ceased. Conclusion Dawn simulation may help to improve the subjective quality of sleep, but the benefits are modest. Further research is needed to verify these findings and to elucidate the mechanism by which dawn simulation acts on the sleep-wake pattern.

  15. Nature of the "Orange" Material on Vesta From Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCorre, L.; Reddy, V.; Schmedemann, N.; Becker, K. J.; OBrien, D. P.; Yamashita, N.; Peplowski, P. N.; Prettyman, T. H.; Li, J.-Y.; Coultis, E. A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    From ground-based observations of Vesta, it is well-known that the vestan surface has a large variation in albedo. Analysis of images acquired by the Hubble Space Telescope allowed production of the first color maps of Vesta and showed a diverse surface in terms of reflectance. Thanks to images collected by the Dawn spacecraft at Vesta, it became obvious that these specific units observed previously can be linked to geological features. The presence of the darkest material mostly around impact craters and scattered in the Western hemisphere has been associated with carbonaceous chondrite contamination [4]; whereas the brightest materials are believed to result from exposure of unaltered material from the subsurface of Vesta (in fresh looking impact crater rims and in Rheasilvia's ejecta and rim remants). Here we focus on a distinct material characterized by a steep slope in the near-IR relative to all other kinds of materials found on Vesta. It was first detected when combining Dawn Framing Camera (FC) color images in Clementine false-color composites [5] during the Approach phase of the mission (100000 to 5200 km from Vesta). We investigate the mineralogical and elemental composition of this material and its relationship with the HEDs (Howardite-Eucrite- Diogenite group of meteorites).

  16. Dawn Arrives At Ceres: First Obervations From Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher; Raymond, Carol; Nathues, Andreas; Gutierrez-Marquez, Pablo; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Prettyman, Thomas; Konopliv, Alex; Park, Ryan; McSween, Harry; Jaumann, Ralf; Joy, Steven; Polanskey, Carol; Rayman, Marc

    2015-04-01

    The Dawn spacecraft left Vesta orbit in September 2012 and set sail for Ceres, the second of its targets and the most massive body in the main asteroid belt. Unlike Vesta, associated with both a prevalent class of meteorites the HEDs, and an extensive family of asteroids, the vestoids, Ceres has neither associated meteorites nor a family of asteroids. Thus while the prime objectives of the Vesta investigation were paradigm testings, the prime objectives of the Ceres investigation are pure discovery with few clues from low resolution remote sensing. Discovered in 1801 by Guiseppe Piazzi, 1 Ceres is the largest, one of the oldest intact objects in the asteroid belt, classified by the IAU as a dwarf planet in 2006. Ceres orbits the sun at a distance of 2.77 and differs from any other asteroid visited so far. Its surface seems to be covered with clay, a hydrated rock alteration product, and might have regions covered with frost. This is consistent with thermal models making Ceres an icy object that has been subject to differentiation and hydrothermal activity, and that might host a liquid subsurface layer even today. Dawn is equipped with a framing camera with one clear and seven color filters, a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer, VIR, a gamma ray and neutron detector, GRaND, and radiometric tracking for gravity determination. It obtained its first resolved image of Ceres on December 1, 2014. This 9-pixel across image has been used to improve the stray light from the framing camera. This improved correction benefits not only Ceres imagery but also all color images obtained at Vesta. On approach to Ceres and prior to the LPSC Dawn obtains images on seven occasions. Five of these are classified as optical navigation observations and two of them are classified as rotational characterizations in which a series of images are obtained as Ceres rotates. The first optical navigation images are similar to the resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope but the other images

  17. Before the dawn recovering the lost history of our ancestors

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    Nicholas Wade’s articles are a major reason why the science section has become the most popular, nationwide, in the New York Times. In his groundbreaking Before the Dawn, Wade reveals humanity’s origins as never before—a journey made possible only recently by genetic science, whose incredible findings have answered such questions as: What was the first human language like? How large were the first societies, and how warlike were they? When did our ancestors first leave Africa, and by what route did they leave? By eloquently solving these and numerous other mysteries, Wade offers nothing less than a uniquely complete retelling of a story that began 500 centuries ago.

  18. ORIGIN: Metal Creation and Evolution from the Cosmic Dawn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herder, J. W. den; Piro, L.; Ohashi, T.

    2011-01-01

    ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z=10......, and beyond. The mission will answer questions such as: When were the first metals created? How does the cosmic metal content evolve? Where do most of the metals reside in the Universe? What is the role of metals in structure formation and evolution? To reach out to the early Universe ORIGIN will use Gamma...

  19. A new DAWN: Improving the psychosocial management of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard I. G. Holt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN-2 study assessed psychosocial issues and health-care provision of people with diabetes, their family members and health-care professionals. Materials and Methods: Participants completed an online, telephone or in-person survey designed to assess health-related quality-of-life, self-management, attitudes/beliefs, social support and priorities for improving diabetes care as well as health-care provision and the impact of diabetes on family life. Results: A total of 8596 adults with diabetes, 2057 family members of people with diabetes and 4785 health-care professionals across 17 countries completed the survey. There were significant between country differences, but no one country′s outcomes were consistently better or worse than others. A high proportion of people with diabetes reported likely depression (13.8% and poor quality-of-life (12.2%. Diabetes had a negative impact on many aspects of life, including relationships with family/friends and physical health. A third of family members did not know how to help the person with diabetes, but wanted to be more involved in their care. Many health-care professionals indicated that major improvements were needed across a range of areas including health-care organization, resources for diabetes prevention, earlier diagnosis and treatment and psychological support. Conclusions: DAWN-2 is a multinational, multidisciplinary systematic study that compared unmet needs of people with diabetes and those who care for them in 17 countries across four continents. Its findings should facilitate innovative efforts to improve self-management and psychosocial support in diabetes, with the aim of reducing the burden of disease. The implications for India are discussed.

  20. Tanzania Veterinary Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corresponding author certifies in the letter that all coauthors have read the manuscript and agree to its submission. Every coauthor should .... If you will be using a digital camera to capture images for print production, you must use the highest resolution setting option with the least amount of compression. Digital camera ...

  1. ORiON: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This format is also supported by the ORiON LATEX style sheet (which may be downloaded from http://www.orssa.org.za -> ORiON -> Submissions -> Style Sheets). ... If MS Word is used to prepare a manuscript, it should be utilised appropriately. .... An example of an unpublished technical report [6] is also shown below.

  2. Nigerian Veterinary Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SCOPE The Editorial Board of the Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) welcomes contributions in the form of original research papers, review articles, clinical case reports, and short communications on all aspects of Veterinary Medicine, Surgery and Animal Production. Submissions are accepted on the understanding that ...

  3. Open Veterinary Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All submitted manuscripts are checked for plagiarism using PlagScan Plagiarism Detection Software: The image shows our cooperation with the online plagiarism detection service PlagScan. Submission ... For case reports, text should be organized as follows: Introduction, Case Details, Discussion, and References. Review ...

  4. Ergonomics SA: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manuscript submissions. Authors should submit their full papers (using the abovementioned template) as an attachment via email to the journal email address j.mcdougall@ru.ac.za. All submitted papers should be sent in .doc or .rtf formats. No other formats will be accepted. Editor. Editor-in-Chief: Ergonomics SA

  5. Manuscript Submission Form

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mr.XAVIER

    To: Indian Academy of Sciences. From: Author or Corresponding author with institutional/corresponding address including e-mail. (on behalf of, and binding upon, all the authors). Journal: Title of manuscript: Date of submission of manuscript: In respect of the work mentioned above, I/we undertake to ensure that: i).

  6. Africa Sanguine: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Submissions for consideration may include original scientific articles (which will be peer reviewed), short reports, letters to the Editor, reviews, congress proceedings, and reprints of published articles (with permission). Original scientific work must meet the following requirements: Be a report of original ...

  7. Analysis of Temperature Maps of Selected Dawn Data Over the Surface of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, F.; Capria, M. T.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Palomba, E.; Grassi, D.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Sunshine, J. M.; McCord, T. B.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The thermal behavior of areas of unusual albedo at the surface of Vesta can be related to physical properties that may provide some information about the origin of those materials. Dawn s Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) [1] hyperspectral cubes can be used to retrieve surface temperatures. Due to instrumental constraints, high accuracy is obtained only if temperatures are greater than 180 K. Bright and dark surface materials on Vesta are currently investigated by the Dawn team [e.g., 2 and 3 respectively]. Here we present temperature maps of several local-scale features that were observed by Dawn under different illumination conditions and different local solar times.

  8. Machine Learning Applied to Dawn/VIR data of Vesta in view of MERTIS/BepiColombo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbert, J.; D'Amore, M.; Le Scaon, R.; Maturilli, A.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Hiesinger, H.

    2016-12-01

    Remote sensing spectroscopy is one of the most commonly used technique in planetary science and for recent instruments producing huge amount of data, classic methods could fails to unlock the full scientific potential buried in the measurements. We explored several Machine Learning techniques: multi-step clustering method is developed, using an image segmentation method, a stream algorithm, and hierarchical clustering. The MErcury Radiometer and Thermal infrared Imaging Spectrometer (MERTIS) is part of the payload of the Mercury Planetary Orbiter spacecraft of the ESA-JAXA BepiColombo mission. MERTIS's scientific goals are to infer rock-forming minerals, to map surface composition, and to study surface temperature variations on Mercury. The NASA mission DAWN carry a suites of instruments aimed at understanding the two most massive objects in the main asteroid belt: Vesta and Ceres. DAWN has already successfully completed the exploration of Vesta in September 2012 and it is now in the last phase of the mission around Ceres. To cope with the stream of data that will be delivered by MERTIS, we developed an algorithm that could aggregate new data as they come in during the mission giving the scientist a guide for the most interesting and new discovery on Mercury. The DAWN/VESTA VIR data is a testbed for the algorithm. The algorithm identified the Olivine outcrops around two craters on Vesta's surface described in Ammannito et al., 2013. We furthermore mimic the data acquisition process as if the mission were dumping the data live. The algorithm provides insightful information on the novelty and classes int he data as they are collected. This will enhance MERTIS targeting and maximize its scientific return during BepiColombo mission at Mercury. E Ammannito et al. "Olivine in an unexpected location on Vesta/'s surface". In: Nature 504.7478 (2013), pp. 122-125.

  9. Courtroom Narratives: Judgement, Evidence and Submissions in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the theory of trials as narratives. It makes a comprehensive analysis of courtroom processes, which are classified into two types, being the administrative and the substantive processes. The substantive processes are the examinations, the submissions (or Summation in the U.S .A.), and the judgments.

  10. DAWN CERES GRAVITY SCIENCE DERIVED SCIENCE DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains archival results from gravity investigations conducted during the Dawn mission while the spacecraft was in orbit around the asteroid Ceres....

  11. DAWN GRAND RAW (EDR) MARS FLYBY COUNTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRaND EDR are a time-ordered collection of gamma ray and neutron counting data and histograms acquired by GRaND during all phases of the Dawn mission. The...

  12. DAWN GRAND RAW (EDR) CRUISE CHECKOUT/BACKGROUND COUNTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRaND EDR are a time-ordered collection of gamma ray and neutron counting data and histograms acquired by GRaND during all phases of the Dawn mission. The...

  13. DAWN VESTA GRAVITY SCIENCE DERIVED SCIENCE DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains archival results from gravity investigations conducted during the Dawn mission while the spacecraft was in orbit around the asteroid Vesta....

  14. Dawn simulation vs. bright light in seasonal affective disorder: Treatment effects and subjective preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilenko, K V; Ivanova, I A

    2015-07-15

    Studies comparing the efficacy of dawn simulation to conventional bright light for the treatment of seasonal affective disorder (in parallel groups) have yielded conflicting results. This crossover study investigated treatment outcomes and long-term treatment preference. Forty winter depressives were treated for a week with bright light (4.300lx for 30-45min shortly after awakening) or dawn simulation (gradually increasing light during the last 30min of sleep achieving 100lx before alarm beep, with the dawn simulator placed closer to the open eyes for a further 15min: 250lx). The depression level was self-rated using SIGH-SAD-SR. Depression scores reduced similarly following bright light and dawn simulation: for 43.8% and 42.2% (medians), respectively; efficacy ratio was 23:17. The preference was also similar (21:19). Among those who preferred bright light, the most common reason was that they perceived the bright light to be more effective (19/21; it was more effective, p=0.0096; this subgroup tended to have more severe depression) and ease of use (6/21). Among those who preferred the dawn simulator, the reasons were a more "natural" action (9/19), device compactness and/or time-saving (10/19) and in 4 cases where bright light caused eyestrain. Not overhead naturalistic light for dawn simulation, self-rating of depression. Dawn simulation is similarly effective to bright light in the treatment of winter depression. Patients with more severe depression tended to report greater improvement with bright light; in such cases, this would outweigh the non-clinical advantages of dawn simulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The dawn of medicine: ancient egypt and Athotis, the king-physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecinski, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    The earliest physician recorded in history is Athotis (Aha), one of the first rulers of ancient Egypt. While it is debatable whether the story of a king-physician is a fact or just a legend, it is clear that ancient Egyptian medicine developed around the time of his reign. The fortunate combination of earlier medical observations, the development of script, and favorable social conditions made the dawn of ancient Egypt also the dawn of medicine.

  16. The dawn of the third renaissance in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackam, David J

    2015-08-01

    In this presidential address, I will share my belief that our proud and noble field stands at the dawn of a great renaissance. I further believe that this is the third such renaissance that has occurred in surgery. As described herein, the first renaissance in surgery occurred during the 1600s, which involved a transformation in operative care unlike anything that had been seen since Roman times. This first renaissance was triggered by tumultuous world events but was spurred on by the invention of the printing press. The second renaissance occurred during the 1980s and was triggered by the invention of the computer, which is of equal significance to the printing press 240 years earlier. I believe that this third renaissance shares with the earlier renaissances its transformative nature and its reaction to turmoil, both in the medical and nonmedical worlds. This is a renaissance driven by science, by creativity, and by innovation—resources that are never in short supply within our great profession. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Red Dawn – the final episode of the Cold war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the period of renewal of the Cold war, after 1980, movies which abandon the idea of the dentate appear, and they represent the response to Soviet expansion taking place under the auspices of diminished military confrontation. Of course, the Hollywood reaction to the real expansion of communism was not at adequate response, but it is a part of the wider restructuring of American politics regarding the Soviet Union, which was evidenced by strengthening defenses through the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI, forcible intervention in Grenada, helping anti-communist movements around the world etc. In opposition to part of the US political scene which shut down attempts to stop the spread of communism across the world, action through popular culture, especially film, created a new climate in which multifaceted pressures on the socialist block were prepared. The movie Red Dawn can be considered part of the reaction of US politics on the particularistic view of the dentate as a shield for military and political spread of the USSR in Africa and other parts of the world. This pressure played on the inherent weaknesses of Soviet society in the 1980’s, a society which, after a brief period of failed transformation fell apart at the start of the final decade of the 20th century.

  18. ORIGIN: Metal Creation and Evolution from the Cosmic Dawn

    CERN Document Server

    Herder, Jan-Willem den; Ohashi, Takaya; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Kaastra, Jelle S.; Amati, L.; Andersen, M.I.; Arnaud, M.; Attéia, J.-L.; Bandler, S.; Barbera, M.; Barcons, X.; Barthelmy, S.; Basa, S.; Basso, S.; Boer, M.; Branchini, E.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Borgani, S.; Boyarsky, A.; Brunetti, G.; Budtz-Jorgensen, C.; Burrows, D.; Butler, N.; Campana, S.; Caroli, E.; Ceballos, M.; Christensen, F.; Churazov, E.; Comastri, A.; Colasanti, L.; Cole, R.; Content, R.; Corsi, A.; Costantini, E.; Conconi, P.; Cusumano, G.; de Plaa, J.; De Rosa, A.; Del Santo, M.; Di Cosimo, S.; De Pasquale, M.; Doriese, R.; Ettori, S.; Evans, P.; Ezoe, Y.; Ferrari, L.; Finger, H.; Figueroa-Feliciano, T.; Friedrich, P.; Fujimoto, R.; Furuzawa, A.; Fynbo, J.; Gatti, F.; Galeazzi, M.; Gehrels, N.; Gendre, B.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Giommi, P.; Girardi, M.; Grindlay, J.; Cocchi, M.; Godet, O.; Guedel, M.; Haardt, F.; den Hartog, R.; Hepburn, I.; Hermsen, W.; Hjorth, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holland, A.; Hornstrup, A.; van der Horst, A.; Hoshino, A.; in 't Zand, J.; Irwin, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Jonker, P.; Kitayama, T.; Kawahara, H.; Kawai, N.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C.; de Korte, P.; Kusenko, A.; Kuvvetli, I.; Labanti, M.; Macculi, C.; Maiolino, R.; Hesse, M. Mas; Matsushita, K.; Mazzotta, P.; McCammon, D.; Méndez, M.; Mignani, R.; Mineo, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Mushotzky, R.; Molendi, S.; Moscardini, L.; Natalucci, L.; Nicastro, F.; O'Brien, P.; Osborne, J.; Paerels, F.; Page, M.; Paltani, S.; Pedersen, K.; Perinati, E.; Ponman, T.; Pointecouteau, E.; Predehl, P.; Porter, S.; Rasmussen, A.; Rauw, G.; Röttgering, H.; Roncarelli, M.; Rosati, P.; Quadrini, E.; Ruchayskiy, O.; Salvaterra, R.; Sasaki, S.; Sato, K.; Savaglio, S.; Schaye, J.; Sciortino, S.; Shaposhnikov, M.; Sharples, R.; Shinozaki, K.; Spiga, D.; Sunyaev, R.; Suto, Y.; Takei, Y.; Tanvir, N.; Tashiro, M.; Tamura, T.; Tawara, Y.; Troja, E.; Tsujimoto, M.; Tsuru, T.; Ubertini, P.; Ullom, J.; Ursino, E.; Verbunt, F.; van de Voort, F.; Viel, M.; Wachter, S.; Watson, D.; Weisskopf, M.; Werner, N.; White, N.; Willingale, R.; Wijers, R.; Yamasaki, N.; Yoshikawa, K.; Zane, S.

    2011-01-01

    ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z=10, and beyond. The mission will answer questions such as: When were the first metals created? How does the cosmic metal content evolve? Where do most of the metals reside in the Universe? What is the role of metals in structure formation and evolution? To reach out to the early Universe ORIGIN will use Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) to study their local environments in their host galaxies. This requires the capability to slew the satellite in less than a minute to the GRB location. By studying the chemical composition and properties of clusters of galaxies we can extend the range of exploration to lower redshifts (z ~ 0.2). For this task we need a high-resolution spectral imaging instrument with a large field of view. Using the ...

  19. Sleepless in town--drivers of the temporal shift in dawn song in urban European blackbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Nordt

    Full Text Available Organisms living in urban environments are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to their rural conspecifics. Especially anthropogenic noise and artificial night light are closely linked to urbanization and pose new challenges to urban species. Songbirds are particularly affected by these factors, because they rely on the spread of acoustic information and adjust their behaviour to the rhythm of night and day, e.g. time their dawn song according to changing light intensities. Our aim was to clarify the specific contributions of artificial night light and traffic noise on the timing of dawn song of urban European Blackbirds (Turdus merula. We investigated the onset of blackbird dawn song along a steep urban gradient ranging from an urban forest to the city centre of Leipzig, Germany. This gradient of anthropogenic noise and artificial night light was reflected in the timing of dawn song. In the city centre, blackbirds started their dawn song up to 5 hours earlier compared to those in semi-natural habitats. We found traffic noise to be the driving factor of the shift of dawn song into true night, although it was not completely separable from the effects of ambient night light. We additionally included meteorological conditions into the analysis and found an effect on the song onset. Cloudy and cold weather delayed the onset, but cloud cover was assumed to reflect night light emissions, thus, amplified sky luminance and increased the effect of artificial night light. Beside these temporal effects, we also found differences in the spatial autocorrelation of dawn song onset showing a much higher variability in noisy city areas than in rural parks and forests. These findings indicate that urban hazards such as ambient noise and light pollution show a manifold interference with naturally evolved cycles and have significant effects on the activity patterns of urban blackbirds.

  20. Sleepless in town--drivers of the temporal shift in dawn song in urban European blackbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Anja; Klenke, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Organisms living in urban environments are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to their rural conspecifics. Especially anthropogenic noise and artificial night light are closely linked to urbanization and pose new challenges to urban species. Songbirds are particularly affected by these factors, because they rely on the spread of acoustic information and adjust their behaviour to the rhythm of night and day, e.g. time their dawn song according to changing light intensities. Our aim was to clarify the specific contributions of artificial night light and traffic noise on the timing of dawn song of urban European Blackbirds (Turdus merula). We investigated the onset of blackbird dawn song along a steep urban gradient ranging from an urban forest to the city centre of Leipzig, Germany. This gradient of anthropogenic noise and artificial night light was reflected in the timing of dawn song. In the city centre, blackbirds started their dawn song up to 5 hours earlier compared to those in semi-natural habitats. We found traffic noise to be the driving factor of the shift of dawn song into true night, although it was not completely separable from the effects of ambient night light. We additionally included meteorological conditions into the analysis and found an effect on the song onset. Cloudy and cold weather delayed the onset, but cloud cover was assumed to reflect night light emissions, thus, amplified sky luminance and increased the effect of artificial night light. Beside these temporal effects, we also found differences in the spatial autocorrelation of dawn song onset showing a much higher variability in noisy city areas than in rural parks and forests. These findings indicate that urban hazards such as ambient noise and light pollution show a manifold interference with naturally evolved cycles and have significant effects on the activity patterns of urban blackbirds.

  1. Sleepless in Town – Drivers of the Temporal Shift in Dawn Song in Urban European Blackbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Anja; Klenke, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Organisms living in urban environments are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to their rural conspecifics. Especially anthropogenic noise and artificial night light are closely linked to urbanization and pose new challenges to urban species. Songbirds are particularly affected by these factors, because they rely on the spread of acoustic information and adjust their behaviour to the rhythm of night and day, e.g. time their dawn song according to changing light intensities. Our aim was to clarify the specific contributions of artificial night light and traffic noise on the timing of dawn song of urban European Blackbirds (Turdus merula). We investigated the onset of blackbird dawn song along a steep urban gradient ranging from an urban forest to the city centre of Leipzig, Germany. This gradient of anthropogenic noise and artificial night light was reflected in the timing of dawn song. In the city centre, blackbirds started their dawn song up to 5 hours earlier compared to those in semi-natural habitats. We found traffic noise to be the driving factor of the shift of dawn song into true night, although it was not completely separable from the effects of ambient night light. We additionally included meteorological conditions into the analysis and found an effect on the song onset. Cloudy and cold weather delayed the onset, but cloud cover was assumed to reflect night light emissions, thus, amplified sky luminance and increased the effect of artificial night light. Beside these temporal effects, we also found differences in the spatial autocorrelation of dawn song onset showing a much higher variability in noisy city areas than in rural parks and forests. These findings indicate that urban hazards such as ambient noise and light pollution show a manifold interference with naturally evolved cycles and have significant effects on the activity patterns of urban blackbirds. PMID:23940759

  2. Ionospheric control of the dawn-dusk asymmetry of the Mars magnetotail current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, Michael W.; Xu, Shaosui; Dong, Chuanfei; Bougher, Stephen W.; Johnson, Blake C.; Ilie, Raluca; De Zeeuw, Darren L.

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the role of solar EUV intensity at controlling the location of the Mars magnetotail current sheet and the structure of the lobes. Four simulation results are examined from a multifluid magnetohydrodynamic model. The solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions are held constant, and the Mars crustal field sources are omitted from the simulation configuration. This isolates the influence of solar EUV. It is found that solar maximum conditions, regardless of season, result in a Venus-like tail configuration with the current sheet shifted to the -Y (dawnside) direction. Solar minimum conditions result in a flipped tail configuration with the current sheet shifted to the +Y (duskside) direction. The lobes follow this pattern, with the current sheet shifting away from the larger lobe with the higher magnetic field magnitude. The physical process responsible for this solar EUV control of the magnetotail is the magnetization of the dayside ionosphere. During solar maximum, the ionosphere is relatively strong and the draped IMF field lines quickly slip past Mars. At solar minimum, the weaker ionosphere allows the draped IMF to move closer to the planet. These lower altitudes of the closest approach of the field line to Mars greatly hinder the day-to-night flow of magnetic flux. This results in a buildup of magnetic flux in the dawnside lobe as the S-shaped topology on that side of the magnetosheath extends farther downtail. The study demonstrates that the Mars dayside ionosphere exerts significant control over the nightside induced magnetosphere of that planet.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummaryMars, which does not have a strong magnetic field, has an induced magnetic environment from the draping of the interplanetary magnetic field from the Sun. It folds around Mars, forming two "lobes" of magnetic field behind the planet with a current sheet of electrified gas (plasma) behind it. The current sheet is not directly

  3. Cluster observations of surface waves on the dawn flank magnetopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Owen

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available On 14 June 2001 the four Cluster spacecraft recorded multiple encounters of the dawn-side flank magnetopause. The characteristics of the observed electron populations varied between a cold, dense magnetosheath population and warmer, more rarified boundary layer population on a quasi-periodic basis. The demarcation between these two populations can be readily identified by gradients in the scalar temperature of the electrons. An analysis of the differences in the observed timings of the boundary at each spacecraft indicates that these magnetopause crossings are consistent with a surface wave moving across the flank magnetopause. When compared to the orientation of the magnetopause expected from models, we find that the leading edges of these waves are approximately 45° steeper than the trailing edges, consistent with the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH driving mechanism. A stability analysis of this interval suggests that the magnetopause is marginally stable to this mechanism during this event. Periods in which the analysis predicts that the magnetopause is unstable correspond to observations of greater wave steepening. Analysis of the pulses suggests that the waves have an average wavelength of approximately 3.4 RE and move at an average speed of ~65km s-1 in an anti-sunward and northward direction, despite the spacecraft location somewhat south of the GSE Z=0 plane. This wave propagation direction lies close to perpendicular to the average magnetic field direction in the external magnetosheath, suggesting that these waves may preferentially propagate in the direction that requires no bending of these external field lines

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; MHD waves and unstabilities; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  4. 78 FR 10599 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... coastal management problems, the people who need to use the science must be involved in its generation... science into the research process so that their perspectives can inform problem definition, research... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management...

  5. 78 FR 47016 - Submission for Review: Request for External Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Request for External Review AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management... on a new information collection request (ICR) 3206-NEW, Request for External Review. As required by... March 11, 2013, 78 FR 15560, which outlined an external review process that would be available to...

  6. 76 FR 45233 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... type of request and the method of submission (electronic or paper). Needs and Uses: The Patent Examiner... user-friendly process. The USPTO uses the electronic transmission of this information to review and...

  7. From first submission to citation: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe academic publication process consists of two stages. The first stage covers for example the conception of a paper, its submission to a journal, possible revisions due to comments made by (anonymous) reviewers, and acceptance of the manuscript. The second stage concerns the eventual

  8. From first submission to citation: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe academic publication process consists of al least two stages. The first stage covers the conception of a paper, its submission to a journal, possible revisions due to comments made by (anonymous) reviewers, and acceptance of the manuscript, among other aspects. The second stage

  9. Color variations on Ceres derived by Dawn/VIR: Implications for the surface composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, F.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Tosi, F.; Longobardo, A.; Palomba, E.; Carrozzo, G.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Li, J.-Y.; McFadden, L. A.; Marchi, S.; Jaumann, R.; Schoeder, S.; Ciarniello, M.; Raponi, A.; Frigeri, A.; Ammannito, E.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2015-10-01

    Ceres, the second target of the Dawn mission [1], with a diameter of ˜952 km, is the largest object in the main asteroid belt [2], and classified as a dwarf planet. More than two years after departure from Vesta, Dawn finally arrived to Ceres. During the approach phase, the spacecraft acquired data with unprecedented spatial resolution. Previous work based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data, highlight regions with different albedo variation in the UV-VIS range [3] (Fig. 1). The Visible and InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer onboard Dawn covers the overall wavelength range between 0.25 and 5.1 μm [4]. VIR will enable the first comprehensive compositional mapping of Ceres, focusing on the possible presence of water ice, salts, organics and volatiles, and surface thermal properties [5].

  10. Does pre-dawn water potential reflect conditions of equilibrium in plant and soil water status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Arne

    1999-02-01

    Variation in base water potential ( Ψb, a daily maximum level of plant water potential, which is presumed to correspond to the equilibrium between soil and plant water potentials) was examined in shoots of Picea abies and Vaccinium myrtillus with respect to soil (available water storage, water potential, temperature) and atmospheric (temperature, relative humidity, vapour pressure deficit) conditions. The available soil water storage (W tr) accounted for 77% of the dynamics of Ψb, while the influence of atmospheric factors became evident under high evaporative demand. Ψb was not always observable immediately before dawn, but on 30% of observation days, the recovery continued up to an hour or two after dawn. Full equilibrium between soil and plant water potentials in P. abies in northern conditions is rather improbable by dawn in summer-time, because of the shortness of the dark period and probable night-time transpiration in the case of high atmospheric vapour pressure deficit.

  11. Effects of artificial dawn on subjective ratings of sleep inertia and dim light melatonin onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Marina C; Hessels, Martijn; van de Werken, Maan; de Vries, Bonnie; Beersma, Domien G M; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    2010-07-01

    The timing of work and social requirements has a negative impact on performance and well-being of a significant proportion of the population in our modern society due to a phenomenon known as social jetlag. During workdays, in the early morning, late chronotypes, in particular, suffer from a combination of a nonoptimal circadian phase and sleep deprivation. Sleep inertia, a transient period of lowered arousal after awakening, therefore, becomes more severe. In the present home study, the authors tested whether the use of an alarm clock with artificial dawn could reduce complaints of sleep inertia in people having difficulties in waking up early. The authors also examined whether these improvements were accompanied by a shift in the melatonin rhythm. Two studies were performed: Study 1: three conditions (0, 50, and 250 lux) and Study 2: two conditions (0 lux and self-selected dawn-light intensity). Each condition lasted 2 weeks. In both studies, the use of the artificial dawn resulted in a significant reduction of sleep inertia complaints. However, no significant shift in the onset of melatonin was observed after 2 weeks of using the artificial dawn of 250 lux or 50 lux compared to the control condition. A multilevel analysis revealed that only the presence of the artificial dawn, rather than shift in the dim light melatonin onset or timing of sleep offset, is related to the observed reduction of sleep inertia complaints. Mechanisms other than shift of circadian rhythms are needed to explain the positive results on sleep inertia of waking up with a dawn signal.

  12. ORIGIN: Metal Creation and Evolution from the Cosmic Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.; vanderHorst, A.; Weisskopf, M.; White, N.; denHerder, J. W.; Costantini, E.; denHartog, R.; Hermsen, W.; in'tZhand, J.; Kaastra, J.; hide

    2012-01-01

    ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z=10, and beyond. The mission will answer questions such as: When were the first metals created? How does the cosmic metal content evolve? Where do most of the metals reside in the Universe? What is the role of metals in structure formation and evolution? To reach out to the early Universe ORIGIN will use Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) to study their local environments in their host galaxies. This requires the capability to slew the satellite in less than a minute to the GRB location. By studying the chemical composition and properties of clusters of galaxies we can extend the range of exploration to lower redshifts (z approx. 0.2). For this task we need a high-resolution spectral imaging instrument with a large field of view. Using the same instrument, we can also study the so far only partially detected baryons in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). The less dense part of the WHIM will be studied using absorption lines at low redshift in the spectra for GRBs. The ORIGIN mission includes a Transient Event Detector (coded mask with a sensitivity of 0.4 photon/sq cm/s in 10 s in the 5-150 keV band) to identify and localize 2000 GRBs over a five year mission, of which approx.65 GRBs have a redshift >7. The Cryogenic Imaging Spectrometer, with a spectral resolution of 2.5 eV, a field of view of 30 arcmin and large effective area below 1 keV has the sensitivity to study clusters up to a significant fraction of the virial radius and to map the denser parts of the WHIM (factor 30 higher than achievable with current instruments). The payload is complemented by a Burst InfraRed Telescope to enable onboard red-shift determination of GRBs (hence securing proper follow up of high-z bursts

  13. Compressional wave events in the dawn plasma sheet observed by Interball-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Verkhoglyadova

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Compressional waves with periods greater than 2 min (about 10-30 min at low geomagnetic latitudes, namely compressional Pc5 waves, are studied. The data set obtained with magnetometer MIF-M and plasma analyzer instrument CORALL on board the Interball-1 are analyzed. Measurements performed in October 1995 and October 1996 in the dawn plasma sheet at -30 RE ≤ XGSM and |ZGSM| ≤ 10 RE are considered. Anti-phase variations of magnetic field and ion plasma pressures are analyzed by searching for morphological similarities in the two time series. It is found that longitudinal and transverse magnetic field variations with respect to the background magnetic field are of the same order of magnitude. Plasma velocities are processed for each time period of the local dissimilarity in the pressure time series. Velocity disturbances occur mainly transversely to the local field line. The data reveal the rotation of the velocity vector. Because of the field line curvature, there is no fixed position of the rotational plane in the space. These vortices are localized in the regions of anti-phase variations of the magnetic field and plasma pressures, and the vortical flows are associated with the compressional Pc5 wave process. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the main features of the nonlinear wave processes. Our main goal is to study coupling of drift Alfven wave and magnetosonic wave in a warm inhomogeneous plasma. A vortex is the partial solution of the set of the equations when the compression is neglected. A compression effect gives rise to a nonlinear soliton-like solution.Key words. Magnetosphere physics (magnetotail · Space plasma physics (kinetic and MHD theory; non-linear phenomena

  14. Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Submissions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. African Journal of Finance and Management: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Finance and Management: Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal > African Journal of Finance and Management: Submissions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Dawn of a New Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-07

    REPORT TYPE 09/07/2017 Presentation 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Traumatic Brain Injury and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Dawn ofn New Day 6. AUTHOR(S) E...ANSI Std Z39 18 Adobe Professton•I 7 .0 LJ-tv .... ,I Traumatic Brain Injury and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: Dawn of a New Day APWCA 16th Annual...subjects from 2.4 ATA 02 • Nestin is specifically associated with neuronal stem cells. • CD34 represents a marker for hematopoietic and

  17. Ceres spectral modelling with VIR data onboard Dawn: Method and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raponi, A.; Ciarniello, M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Frigeri, A.; Fonte, S.; Giardino, M.; Longobardo, A.; Magni, G.; Palomba, E.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-10-01

    The Dawn spacecraft [1] is at Ceres, the closest of the IAU-defined dwarf planets to the Sun and the only one found in the inner Solar System. Despite it has been one of the most intensely observed objects in the asteroid belt, many issues about its surface and internal composition remain unanswered. Topic of this work is the interpretation of Ceres' surface composition based on the data coming from the VIR instrument [2] onboard Dawn. We have attempted to reproduce the composition modeled by previous works, focused on Earth-based observations.

  18. Chemical Mixing Model and K-Th-Ti Systematics and HED Meteorites for the Dawn Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, T.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Prettyman, T. H.

    2009-01-01

    The Dawn mission will explore 4 Vesta, a large differentiated asteroid believed to be the parent body of the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorite suite. The Dawn spacecraft carries a gamma-ray and neutron detector (GRaND), which will measure the abundances of selected elements on the surface of Vesta. This study provides ways to leverage the large geochemical database on HED meteorites as a tool for interpreting chemical analyses by GRaND of mapped units on the surface of Vesta.

  19. A Study on the Type of School during the Dawn of Modern Education in Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Takehiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to clarify the state of school education in the Bhutan during the 1940-50s, a period of dawn of the modern education in Bhutan, by classifying schools and identifying their contrasting characteristics. The origins of modern education in Bhutan can be traced back approximately 100 years. Bhutan's modern period began in 1907 when…

  20. Dawn: An Ion-Propelled Journey to the Beginning of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, John R.; Rayman, Marc D.; Pavri, Betina

    2008-01-01

    The Dawn mission is designed to perform a scientific investigation of the two heaviest mainbelt asteroids Vesta and Ceres. These bodies are believed to preserve records of the physical and chemical conditions present during the formation of the solar system. The mission uses an ion propulsion system to enable the single Dawn spacecraft and its complement of scientific instruments to orbit both of these asteroids. Dawn's three science instruments - the gamma ray and neutron detector, the visible and infrared mapping spectrometer, and the primary framing camera - were successfully tested after launch and are functioning normally. The ion propulsion system includes three ion thrusters of the type flown previously on NASA's Deep Space 1 mission. A minimum of two ion thrusters is necessary to accomplish the Dawn mission. Checkout of two of the ion thrusters was completed as planned within 30 days after launch. This activity confirmed that the spacecraft has two healthy ion thrusters. While further checkout activities are still in progress, the activities completed as of the end of October indicate that the spacecraft is well on its way toward being ready for the start of the thrusting-cruise phase of the mission beginning December 15th.

  1. A new dawn for plant mitochondrial NAD(P)H dehydrogenases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The expression of complex I and two homologues of bacterial and yeast NADH dehydrogenases, NDA and NDB, have been studied in potato leaf mitochondria. The mRNA level of NDA is completely light dependent and shows a diurnal rhythm with a sharp maximum just after dawn. NDA protein quantity and inte...

  2. Books, Not Bombs: Teaching Peace since the Dawn of the Republic. Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Charles; Harris, Ian,

    2010-01-01

    "Books Not Bombs: Teaching Peace Since the Dawn of the Republic" is an important work relevant to peace scholars, practitioners, and students. This incisive book offers an exciting and comprehensive historical analysis of the origins and development of peace education from the creation of the New Republic at the end of the Eighteenth Century to…

  3. The state of codeswitching research at the dawn of the new millennium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the second article aimed at reviewing the state of codeswitching research at the dawn of the new millennium. The first article (Kamwangamalu, 1999) focused on the state of codeswitching research in the global context. In the present article I focus on the state of codeswitching research in Africa. More specifically, I ...

  4. DAWN Handbook: Teaching Students with Disabilities--Guidelines for Academic Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephen; Treanor, Declan; O'Grady, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This guide was developed by DAWN (Disability Advisors Working Network) in consultation with AHEAD (Association for Higher Education Access and Disability), Asperger Syndrome Association of Ireland, Brainwave, DeafHear, Dyslexia Association of Ireland and the National Council for the Blind. This is an introductory guide and should be used as a…

  5. Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionization Foreground Removal with the SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, E.; Bonaldi, A.; Harker, G.; Jelic, V.; Abdalla, F. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bobin, J.; Dulwich, F.; Mort, B.; Santos, M.; Starck, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    The exceptional sensitivity of the SKA will allow observations of the Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionization (CD/EoR) in unprecedented detail, both spectrally and spatially. This wealth of information is buried under Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds, which must be removed accurately and

  6. Effect of simulated dawn on quality of sleep - a community-based trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leppamaki, Sami; Meesters, Ybe; Haukka, Jari; Lonnqvist, Jouko; Partonen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    Background: Morning light exposure administered as simulated dawn looks a promising method to treat Seasonal Affective Disorder, but it may moreover help with resetting the inaccurate organisation of body clock functions relative to sleep occurring in winter among people in general. Disturbances in

  7. 4 Vesta in Color: High Resolution Mapping from Dawn Framing Camera Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V.; LeCorre, L.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Christensen, U.; Hoffmann, M.; Schroeder, S. E.; Vincent, J. B.; McSween, H. Y.; Denevi, B. W.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Rotational surface variations on asteroid 4 Vesta have been known from ground-based and HST observations, and they have been interpreted as evidence of compositional diversity. NASA s Dawn mission entered orbit around Vesta on July 16, 2011 for a year-long global characterization. The framing cameras (FC) onboard the Dawn spacecraft will image the asteroid in one clear (broad) and seven narrow band filters covering the wavelength range between 0.4-1.0 microns. We present color mapping results from the Dawn FC observations of Vesta obtained during Survey orbit (approx.3000 km) and High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) (approx.950 km). Our aim is to create global color maps of Vesta using multi spectral FC images to identify the spatial extent of compositional units and link them with other available data sets to extract the basic mineralogy. While the VIR spectrometer onboard Dawn has higher spectral resolution (864 channels) allowing precise mineralogical assessment of Vesta s surface, the FC has three times higher spatial resolution in any given orbital phase. In an effort to extract maximum information from FC data we have developed algorithms using laboratory spectra of pyroxenes and HED meteorites to derive parameters associated with the 1-micron absorption band wing. These parameters will help map the global distribution of compositionally related units on Vesta s surface. Interpretation of these units will involve the integration of FC and VIR data.

  8. Line-of-Sight Anisotropies in the Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Cosmic Dawn (CD) is the period in the history of our Universe when the first sources of light were formed and they gradually warmed up their surrounding Inter-. Galactic Medium (IGM). This period was followed by the Epoch of Reionization. (EoR) when these first and subsequent population of sources produced ...

  9. DAWN GRAND MAP VESTA GAMMA FE UNCORRECTED COUNTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides tables of net counting rates of Fe gamma rays at 7.6 MeV measured by the BGO detector of Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector acquired at the...

  10. DAWN GRAND MAP VESTA GAMMA FE CORRECTED COUNTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides tables of net counting rates of Fe gamma rays at 7.6 MeV measured by the BGO detector of Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector acquired at the...

  11. Dawn-dusk asymmetries in rotating magnetospheres: Lessons from modeling Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xianzhe; Kivelson, Margaret G.

    2016-02-01

    Spacecraft measurements reveal perplexing dawn-dusk asymmetries of field and plasma properties in the magnetospheres of Saturn and Jupiter. Here we describe a previously unrecognized source of dawn-dusk asymmetry in a rapidly rotating magnetosphere. We analyze two magnetohydrodynamic simulations, focusing on how flows along and across the field vary with local time in Saturn's dayside magnetosphere. As plasma rotates from dawn to noon on a dipolarizing flux tube, it flows away from the equator along the flux tube at roughly half of the sound speed (Cs), the maximum speed at which a bulk plasma can flow along a flux tube into a lower pressure region. As plasma rotates from noon to dusk on a stretching flux tube, the field-aligned component of its centripetal acceleration decreases and it flows back toward the equator at speeds typically smaller than 1/2 Cs. Correspondingly, the plasma sheet remains far thicker and the field less stretched in the afternoon than in the morning. Different radial force balance in the morning and afternoon sectors produce asymmetry in the plasma sheet thickness and a net dusk-to-dawn flow inside of L = 15 or equivalently, a large-scale electric field (E) oriented from postnoon to premidnight, as reported from observations. Morning-afternoon asymmetry analogous to that found at Saturn has been observed at Jupiter, and a noon-midnight component of E cannot be ruled out.

  12. Dawn and Dusk Set States of the Circadian Oscillator in Sprouting Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Boden, Scott; Oliver, Sandra N; Casao, M Cristina; Ford, Brett; Anderssen, Robert S; Trevaskis, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod-insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states.

  13. Geological Mapping of the Ac-H-3 Dantu Quadrangle of Ceres from NASA's Dawn Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneissl, Thomas; Schmedemann, Nico; Neesemann, Adrian; Williams, David A.; Crown, David A.; Mest, Scott C.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Frigeri, Allessandro; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Hiesinger, Harald; Walter, Sebastian H. G.; Jaumann, Ralf; Roatsch, Thomas; Preusker, Frank; Kersten, Elke; Naß, Andrea; Nathues, Andreas; Platz, Thomas; Russell, Chistopher T.

    2016-04-01

    The Dawn Science Team is conducting a geologic mapping campaign for Ceres similar to that done for Vesta [1,2], including production of a Survey- and High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO)-based global map and a series of 15 Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO)-based quadrangle maps. In this abstract we discuss the geologic evolution of the Ac-H-3 Dantu Quadrangle. The current map is based on a Framing Camera (FC) clear-filter image mosaic from HAMO data (~140 m/px) as well as a digital terrain model (DTM) derived from imagery of the Survey phase [3]. Albedo variations were identified and mapped using a mosaic of photometrically corrected HAMO images provided by DLR. FC color images provided further context for map unit identification. LAMO images (35m/pixel), which have just become available at the time of writing, will be used to update the map to be presented as a poster. The quadrangle is located between 21-66°N and 90-180°E in a large-scale depression north of the impact basin Kerwan. The northern and southeastern parts of the quadrangle are characterized by cratered terrain while the south and southwest are dominated by the partially smooth ejecta blankets of craters Dantu and Gaue. East-west oriented pit/crater chains in the southern half of the quadrangle might be related to tectonic processes [4,5]. Dantu crater (d=~126 km) is a complex impact crater showing slump terraces and a partially smooth crater floor with concentric and radial fractures. Furthermore, Dantu shows a central pit structure with pitted terrain on its floor as well as several bright spots in the interior and exterior of the crater. High-resolution measurements of crater size-frequency distributions (CSFDs) superposed on Dantu indicate a formation/modification age of ~200 - 700 Ma. Most of the ejecta appear to be relatively bright and correspond to parts of the #2 high albedo region observed with the Hubble Space Telescope [6]. However, the southwestern portion of the ejecta blanket is

  14. Cultural Appropriation in Games : A Comparative Study Between Far Cry 3 (2012), Overwatch (2016) and Horizon Zero Dawn (2017)

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Tova

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is a comparative study between Far Cry 3 (2012), Overwatch (2016) and Horizon Zero Dawn (2017) to determine how game developers appropriate minority cultures in character design. The character designs are compared to the cultures of origin to determine whether they have been appropriated and to what extent. Far Cry 3 appropriates Maori and Samoan cultures, Horizon Zero Dawn appropriates native American cultures, and Overwatch appropriates both Maori and native American cultures. A...

  15. Journal of Business Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS: Submission of Papers The JBR welcomes papers from the general academia and professionals. Authors are encouraged to submit papers for publications in the JBR at any time. The Journal will also at specific times solicit for reviews on topical issues of interest. Procedure ...

  16. South African Medical Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Authorship should be based on: (i) substantial contribution to conceptualisation, design, analysis and interpretation of data; (ii) drafting or critical revision of important scientific ... If authors' names are added or deleted after submission of an article, or the order of the names is changed, all authors must agree to this in writing.

  17. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. PLEASE follow these guidelines closely when preparing your paper for submission. The editors reserve the right to reject inadequately prepared papers. All areas of linguistics are invited – the journal is not limited to articles on languages of or in Ghana or Africa. ALL CONTRIBUTIONS must be submitted ...

  18. Nigerian Journal of Technology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article acts as the template for preparing articles for submission to Nigerian Journal of Technology. The abstract should be a clear statement defining the problems of study, methodology adopted, results and conclusions. Please do not refer readers to other literature articles in the abstract. The abstract should be brief ...

  19. Ghana Journal of Geography: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Submission to the Ghana Journal of Geography. Papers submitted to the journal should follow the guidelines set out below. All correspondence between editor and author is performed by e-mail, and paper copies are not required at all stages. A manuscript must be submitted electronically as an email ...

  20. Shakespeare in Southern Africa: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Shakespeare in Southern Africa sets out to publish articles, commentary and reviews on all aspects of Shakespearean studies and performance, with a particular emphasis on the response to Shakespeare in southern Africa. Scholarly notes of a factual nature are also welcome. Submissions are reviewed ...

  1. Journal of Cultural Studies: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bibliographic referencing within and at the end of each paper should follow the MLA style. An abstract of between 150 and 200 words, and a cover page, which indicates the full name and brief bio-data of the author, should accompany each submission. The cover page should be typed separately from the manuscript, which ...

  2. Journal for Juridical Science: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. 1. Manuscripts may be submitted to Journal for Juridical Science in Afrikaans or English. The desired length of articles is 7 000 words, while 4 500 words is regarded as the minimum and 11 000 as the maximum. 2. Two typed copies of manuscripts must be submitted. In addition submission on computer ...

  3. Research in Hospitality Management: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Original research papers, substantive topic reviews, viewpoints and short communications that make an original contribution to the understanding of hospitality and hospitality management in a global context will be considered for publication in the Journal. Submissions should be e-mailed to the ...

  4. ChemSearch Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It publishes original quality articles which are reporting advances in theory, techniques methodology applications and practice, general survey and critical reviews, etc. SUBMISSION OF ARTICLE ... c/o Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, P.M.B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. or. via our Email address: ...

  5. Origin of Dark Material on VESTA from DAWN FC Data: Remnant Carbonaceous Chondrite Impators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V.; LeCorre, L.; Nathues, A.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Cloutis, E. A.; OBrien, D. P.; Durda, D. D.; Bottke, W. F.; Buczkowski, D.; Scully, J. E. C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft entered orbit around asteroid (4) Vesta in July 2011 for a yearlong mapping orbit. The surface of Vesta as imaged by the Dawn Framing Camera (FC) revealed a surface that is unlike any asteroid we have visited so far with a spacecraft. Albedo and color variations on Vesta are the most diverse in the asteroid belt with a majority of these linked to distinct compositional units on the asteroid s surface. FC discovered dark material on Vesta. These low albedo surface features were first observed during Rotational Characterization 3 phase at a resolution of approx. 487 m/pixel. Here we explore the composition and possible meteoritical analogs for the dark material on Vesta.

  6. Reconciling the dawn-dusk asymmetry in Mercury's exosphere with the micrometeoroid impact directionality

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorný, Petr; Sarantos, Menelaos; Janches, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Combining dynamical models of dust from Jupiter Family Comets and Halley-type Comets, we demonstrate that the seasonal variation of the dust/meteoroid environment at Mercury is responsible for producing the dawn-dusk asymmetry in Mercury's exosphere observed by the MESSENGER spacecraft. Our latest models, calibrated recently from ground-based and space-borne measurements, provide unprecedented statistics that enable us to study the longitudinal and latitudinal distribution of meteoroids impac...

  7. Dawn : a mission in developement for exploration of main belt asteroids Vesta and Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, Marc D.; Fraschetti, Thomas C.; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2004-01-01

    Dawn is in development for a 2006 launch on a mission to explore main belt asteroids in order to yield insights into important questions about the formation and evolution of the solar system. Its objective is to acquire detailed data from orbit around two complementary bodies, Vesta and Ceres, the two most massive asteroids. The project relies on extensive heritage from other deep-space and Earth-orbiting missions, thus permitting the ambitious objectives to be accomplished with an affordable budget.

  8. Dawn FC2 Derived Vesta DTM SPG V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Matz, K.-D.; Roatsch, T.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-10-01

    This data set contains the Vesta digital terrain model based on the Dawn High Altitude Mapping orbit (HAMO) Framing Camera 2 (FC2) images and derived by using the stereo photo-grammetric (SPG) method. The HAMO DTM covers approximately 95% of the Vesta surface (few permanently shadowed areas near the poles required interpolation). The a DTM has a lateral spacing of 70 m/pixel (64.0 pixel/degree) and a vertical accuracy of +/-6 m.

  9. Dawn FC2 Derived Ceres HAMO DTM SPG V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatsch, T.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K.-D.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Elgner, S.; Schroeder, S. E.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-10-01

    This data set contains the Ceres digital terrain model based on the Dawn High Altitude Mapping orbit (HAMO) Framing Camera 2 (FC2) images and derived by using the stereo photo-grametric (SPG) method. The HAMO DTM covers approximately 98% of the Ceres surface (few permanently shadowed areas near the poles required interpolation). The a DTM has a lateral spacing of 136.7 m/pixel (60 pixel/degree) and a vertical accuracy of about 10 m.

  10. The role of PDF neurons in setting the preferred temperature before dawn in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Roessingh, Sanne; Hayley, Sean E; Chu, Michelle L; Tanaka, Nobuaki K; Wolfgang, Werner; Song, Seongho; Stanewsky, Ralf; Hamada, Fumika N

    2017-05-02

    Animals have sophisticated homeostatic controls. While mammalian body temperature fluctuates throughout the day, small ectotherms, such as Drosophila achieve a body temperature rhythm (BTR) through their preference of environmental temperature. Here, we demonstrate that pigment dispersing factor (PDF) neurons play an important role in setting preferred temperature before dawn. We show that small lateral ventral neurons (sLNvs), a subset of PDF neurons, activate the dorsal neurons 2 (DN2s), the main circadian clock cells that regulate temperature preference rhythm (TPR). The number of temporal contacts between sLNvs and DN2s peak before dawn. Our data suggest that the thermosensory anterior cells (ACs) likely contact sLNvs via serotonin signaling. Together, the ACs-sLNs-DN2s neural circuit regulates the proper setting of temperature preference before dawn. Given that sLNvs are important for sleep and that BTR and sleep have a close temporal relationship, our data highlight a possible neuronal interaction between body temperature and sleep regulation.

  11. Light pollution alters the phenology of dawn and dusk singing in common European songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Arnaud; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-05-05

    Artificial night lighting is expanding globally, but its ecological consequences remain little understood. Animals often use changes in day length as a cue to time seasonal behaviour. Artificial night lighting may influence the perception of day length, and may thus affect both circadian and circannual rhythms. Over a 3.5 month period, from winter to breeding, we recorded daily singing activity of six common songbird species in 12 woodland sites, half of which were affected by street lighting. We previously reported on analyses suggesting that artificial night lighting affects the daily timing of singing in five species. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of artificial night lighting is also associated with the seasonal occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. We found that in four species dawn and dusk singing developed earlier in the year at sites exposed to light pollution. We also examined the effects of weather conditions and found that rain and low temperatures negatively affected the occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. Our results support the hypothesis that artificial night lighting alters natural seasonal rhythms, independently of other effects of urbanization. The fitness consequences of the observed changes in seasonal timing of behaviour remain unknown.

  12. Detection of Widespread Hydrated Materials on Vesta by the VIR Imaging Spectrometer on board the Dawn Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, M. C.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Ammannito, E.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; McCord, T. B.; Marchi, S.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Sunshine, J.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Frigeri, A.; Magni, G.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.; Turrini, D.

    2012-10-01

    Water plays a key role in the evolution of terrestrial planets, and notably in the occurrence of Earth's oceans. However, the mechanism by which water has been incorporated into these bodies—including Earth—is still extensively debated. Here we report the detection of widespread 2.8 μm OH absorption bands on the surface of the asteroid Vesta by the VIR imaging spectrometer on board Dawn. These observations are surprising as Vesta is fully differentiated with a basaltic surface. The 2.8 μm OH absorption is distributed across Vesta's surface and shows areas enriched and depleted in hydrated materials. The uneven distribution of hydrated mineral phases is unexpected and indicates ancient processes that differ from those believed to be responsible for OH on other airless bodies, like the Moon. The origin of Vestan OH provides new insight into the delivery of hydrous materials in the main belt and may offer new scenarios on the delivery of hydrous minerals in the inner solar system, suggesting processes that may have played a role in the formation of terrestrial planets.

  13. DETECTION OF WIDESPREAD HYDRATED MATERIALS ON VESTA BY THE VIR IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON BOARD THE DAWN MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Frigeri, A.; Magni, G. [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF, Rome (Italy); Combe, J.-Ph.; McCord, T. B. [Bear Fight Institute, Winthrop, WA (United States); Marchi, S. [NASA Lunar Science Institute, Boulder, CO (United States); Mittlefehldt, D. W. [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States); Pieters, C. M. [Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Sunshine, J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, Maryland (United States); Raymond, C. A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Russell, C. T., E-mail: mariacristina.desanctis@iaps.inaf.it [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); and others

    2012-10-20

    Water plays a key role in the evolution of terrestrial planets, and notably in the occurrence of Earth's oceans. However, the mechanism by which water has been incorporated into these bodies-including Earth-is still extensively debated. Here we report the detection of widespread 2.8 {mu}m OH absorption bands on the surface of the asteroid Vesta by the VIR imaging spectrometer on board Dawn. These observations are surprising as Vesta is fully differentiated with a basaltic surface. The 2.8 {mu}m OH absorption is distributed across Vesta's surface and shows areas enriched and depleted in hydrated materials. The uneven distribution of hydrated mineral phases is unexpected and indicates ancient processes that differ from those believed to be responsible for OH on other airless bodies, like the Moon. The origin of Vestan OH provides new insight into the delivery of hydrous materials in the main belt and may offer new scenarios on the delivery of hydrous minerals in the inner solar system, suggesting processes that may have played a role in the formation of terrestrial planets.

  14. Fall Meeting abstract submission inspires science poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    When the 4 August deadline for submitting Fall Meeting abstracts passed, AGU had received more than 20,000 abstracts, a record-breaking number. The submission process had an unexpected by-product: It inspired some scientists to write haiku on Twitter. (Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry typically having three lines, the first with five syllables, the second with seven, and the third with five.) The following are examples of the haiku tweets, with the hashtag #AGU11AbstractHaiku. (For those who want to keep updated about the Fall Meeting on Twitter, the hashtag is #AGU11.) For more information about the meeting, including registration and housing, visit http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/.

  15. Dynamics and local boundary properties of the dawn-side magnetopause under conditions observed by Equator-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Dunlop

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field measurements, taken by the magnetometer experiment (MAM on board the German Equator-S spacecraft, have been used to identify and categorise 131 crossings of the dawn-side magnetopause at low latitude, providing unusual, long duration coverage of the adjacent magnetospheric regions and near magnetosheath. The crossings occurred on 31 orbits, providing unbiased coverage over the full range of local magnetic shear from 06:00 to 10:40 LT. Apogee extent places the spacecraft in conditions associated with intermediate, rather than low, solar wind dynamic pressure, as it processes into the flank region. The apogee of the spacecraft remains close to the magnetopause for mean solar wind pressure. The occurrence of the magnetopause encounters are summarised and are found to compare well with predicted boundary location, where solar wind conditions are known. Most scale with solar wind pressure. Magnetopause shape is also documented and we find that the magnetopause orientation is consistently sunward of a model boundary and is not accounted for by IMF or local magnetic shear conditions. A number of well-established crossings, particularly those at high magnetic shear, or exhibiting unusually high-pressure states, were observed and have been analysed for their boundary characteristics and some details of their boundary and near magnetosheath properties are discussed. Of particular note are the occurrence of mirror-like signatures in the adjacent magnetosheath during a significant fraction of the encounters and a high number of multiple crossings over a long time period. The latter is facilitated by the spacecraft orbit which is designed to remain in the near magnetosheath for average solar wind pressure. For most encounters, a well-ordered, tangential (draped magnetosheath field is observed and there is little evidence of large deviations in local boundary orientations. Two passes corresponding to close conjunctions of the Geotail spacecraft

  16. Dynamics and local boundary properties of the dawn-side magnetopause under conditions observed by Equator-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Dunlop

    Full Text Available Magnetic field measurements, taken by the magnetometer experiment (MAM on board the German Equator-S spacecraft, have been used to identify and categorise 131 crossings of the dawn-side magnetopause at low latitude, providing unusual, long duration coverage of the adjacent magnetospheric regions and near magnetosheath. The crossings occurred on 31 orbits, providing unbiased coverage over the full range of local magnetic shear from 06:00 to 10:40 LT. Apogee extent places the spacecraft in conditions associated with intermediate, rather than low, solar wind dynamic pressure, as it processes into the flank region. The apogee of the spacecraft remains close to the magnetopause for mean solar wind pressure. The occurrence of the magnetopause encounters are summarised and are found to compare well with predicted boundary location, where solar wind conditions are known. Most scale with solar wind pressure. Magnetopause shape is also documented and we find that the magnetopause orientation is consistently sunward of a model boundary and is not accounted for by IMF or local magnetic shear conditions. A number of well-established crossings, particularly those at high magnetic shear, or exhibiting unusually high-pressure states, were observed and have been analysed for their boundary characteristics and some details of their boundary and near magnetosheath properties are discussed. Of particular note are the occurrence of mirror-like signatures in the adjacent magnetosheath during a significant fraction of the encounters and a high number of multiple crossings over a long time period. The latter is facilitated by the spacecraft orbit which is designed to remain in the near magnetosheath for average solar wind pressure. For most encounters, a well-ordered, tangential (draped magnetosheath field is observed and there is little evidence of large deviations in local boundary orientations. Two passes corresponding to close conjunctions of the Geotail spacecraft

  17. 29 CFR 99.320 - Report submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Report submission. 99.320 Section 99.320 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditees § 99.320 Report submission. (a) General. The audit shall be completed and the data collection form described in...

  18. Southern African Journal of Environmental Education: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Online Submissions. Already have a Username/Password for Southern African Journal of Environmental Education? Go to Login. Need a Username/Password? Go to Registration. Registration and login are required to submit items online and to check the status of current submissions.

  19. 28 CFR 51.22 - Premature submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premature submissions. 51.22 Section 51.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF... § 51.22 Premature submissions. The Attorney General will not consider on the merits: (a) Any proposal...

  20. 6 CFR 27.210 - Submissions schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.210 Submissions schedule. (a) Initial Submission. The... of any of the chemicals listed in appendix A at or above the STQ for any applicable Security Issue...

  1. West African Journal of Applied Ecology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Instructions To Authors Papers for submission to the West African Journal of Applied Ecology should be written in English and should not exceed 8,000 words in total length. Papers should not have been submitted or be considered for submission for publication elsewhere. Ideas expressed in papers that ...

  2. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Manuscripts Submission Manuscript must be submitted with a covering letter from the author of correspondence to the Editor in Chief by e-mail. After the successful submission of manuscript the corresponding author will be acknowledged within 72 hours. Any quarry regarding the preparation ...

  3. KCA Journal of Business Management: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Online Submissions. Already have a Username/Password for KCA Journal of Business Management? Go to Login. Need a Username/Password? Go to Registration. Registration and login are required to submit items online and to check the status of current submissions.

  4. African Journal of Marine Science: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Marine Science: Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal > African Journal of Marine Science: Submissions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  5. Precision medicine in genetic epilepsies: break of dawn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Philipp Sebastian; Tsai, Meng-Han; Helbig, Ingo; Rosenow, Felix; Klein, Karl Martin

    2017-04-01

    Therapy with current antiepileptic drugs aims at reducing the likelihood of seizure occurrence rather than influencing the underlying disease process. Therefore, antiepileptic drugs have an anticonvulsant rather than antiepileptic property. Areas covered: The increasing identification of genetic causes for epilepsy over the recent years improves the understanding of the underlying epileptogenic process and allows for the possibility of directed therapeutic approaches. An ideal antiepileptic therapy consists of a drug which is able to influence the functional changes caused by a specific pathogenic variant. In this review we will describe the current precision medicine approaches in genetic epilepsies in reference to the identified genetic etiologies. References for this review were identified through searches of PubMed and the authors' own files. Expert commentary: Currently established or investigated precision medicine treatments include the ketogenic diet in patients with GLUT1 deficiency, sodium channel blockers in patients with KCNQ2, SCN2A and SCN8A mutations as well as mTOR-inhibitors in mTORopathies. These predominantly represent already available treatments that were repurposed for use in epilepsy. The development of new therapeutic agents aiming at targets identified in genetic epilepsies will advance epilepsy treatment considerably.

  6. The Marin Lab at the Dawn of Cognitive Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Myrna F

    2015-09-01

    This essay discusses the intellectual developments in psychology, linguistics, and behavioral neurology that shaped Oscar Marin's approach to disorders of high cortical function. As Chief of Neurology at Baltimore City Hospitals in the 1970s, Dr Marin teamed with biopsychologist Eleanor Saffran and the author in seminal studies of acquired language disorders (aphasia) centering on core processes of syntax and semantics, and rejecting premature reductionism. The philosophical and methodological principles that motivated these studies are traced through the author's personal recollections and the published writings of the Marin lab. These principles came to be associated with the cognitive neuropsychology school of research and have important linkages to contemporary work in the neuroscience of aphasia and related cognitive disorders.

  7. The Dawn Of Gender Justice Against Discrimination - A Legal Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Vijaya Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Socio-economic rights are a vital aspect of human rights agenda for women. The slowstudy process and radical change in recognizing the rights of women to a greater extend has helped tobuild her own identity and withstand her rights against all discrimination. The feminist movementquestioned several discriminatory practices against women. However there was a need for revolutionto debar the discriminatory practice of status on the ground of gender. And revolution was created byfeminist movement. These Movements largely contributed by feminist writing recognized the need tosubdue the discriminatory practice of status. Feminist theory emerged from these feministmovements includes general theories and theories about the origins of inequality, economic injusticeand in some cases, about the social construction of sex and gender, in a variety of disciplines.Feminist activists have campaigned for women's rights as such, in contract, property, and voting,while also promoting women's rights from human right perspective. They have opposed domesticviolence sexual harassment and sexual assault, in economics they have advocated for workplacerights, including equal pay and opportunities for careers and to start businesses. Interventions ofnational and international legal instrument have added grace and recognized women’s right. All thisresulted in increase participation of women both in formal and informal job sector. However thejourney to heed her right did not end here; it was the beginning, the beginning to fight for hersurvival.

  8. PHASE ANGLE EFFECTS ON 3 μm ABSORPTION BAND ON CERES: IMPLICATIONS FOR DAWN MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takir, D.; Reddy, V.; Sanchez, J. A.; Corre, L. Le [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E Fort Lowell Road, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hardersen, P. S. [Department of Space Studies, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202 (United States); Nathues, A., E-mail: dtakir@psi.edu [Max-Planck-Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Phase angle-induced spectral effects are important to characterize since they affect spectral band parameters such as band depth and band center, and therefore skew mineralogical interpretations of planetary bodies via reflectance spectroscopy. Dwarf planet (1) Ceres is the next target of NASA’s Dawn mission, which is expected to arrive in 2015 March. The visible and near-infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR) on board Dawn has the spatial and spectral range to characterize the surface between 0.25–5.0 μm. Ceres has an absorption feature at 3.0 μm due to hydroxyl- and/or water-bearing minerals. We analyzed phase angle-induced spectral effects on the 3 μm absorption band on Ceres using spectra measured with the long-wavelength cross-dispersed (LXD: 1.9–4.2 μm) mode of the SpeX spectrograph/imager at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. Ceres LXD spectra were measured at different phase angles ranging from 0.°7 to 22°. We found that the band center slightly increases from 3.06 μm at lower phase angles (0.°7 and 6°) to 3.07 μm at higher phase angles (11° and 22°), the band depth decreases by ∼20% from lower phase angles to higher phase angles, and the band area decreases by ∼25% from lower phase angles to higher phase angles. Our results will have implications for constraining the abundance of OH on the surface of Ceres from VIR spectral data, which will be acquired by Dawn starting spring 2015.

  9. In-Flight Operation of the Dawn Ion Propulsion System Through Survey Science Orbit at Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Charles E.; Rayman, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    The Dawn mission, part of NASA's Discovery Program, has as its goal the scientific exploration of the two most massive main-belt objects, Vesta and Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 27, 2007 on a Delta-II 7925H- 9.5 (Delta-II Heavy) rocket that placed the 1218-kg spacecraft onto an Earth-escape trajectory. On-board the spacecraft is an ion propulsion system (IPS) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory which will provide a total delta V of 11 km/s for the heliocentric transfer to Vesta, orbit capture at Vesta, transfer between Vesta science orbits, departure and escape from Vesta, heliocentric transfer to Ceres, orbit capture at Ceres, and transfer between Ceres science orbits. Full-power thrusting from December 2007 through October 2008 was used to successfully target a Mars gravity assist flyby in February 2009 that provided an additional delta V of 2.6 km/s. Deterministic thrusting for the heliocentric transfer to Vesta resumed in June 2009 and concluded with orbit capture at Vesta on July 16, 2011. From July 2011 through September 2012 the IPS was used to transfer to all the different science orbits at Vesta and to escape from Vesta orbit. Cruise for a rendezvous with Ceres began in September 2012 and concluded with the start of the approach to Ceres phase on December 26, 2015, leading to orbit capture on March 6, 2015. Deterministic thrusting continued during approach to place the spacecraft in its first science orbit, called RC3, which was achieved on April 23, 2015. Following science operations at RC3 ion thrusting was resumed for twenty-five days leading to arrival to the next science orbit, called survey orbit, on June 3, 2015. The IPS will be used for all subsequent orbit transfers and trajectory correction maneuvers until completion of the primary mission in approximately June 2016. To date the IPS has been operated for over 46,774 hours, consumed approximately 393 kg of xenon, and provided

  10. [The Dawn of Modernity: Giovanni Boccaccio's "The Decameron" and the Tradition of Genetic Understanding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigand, Moritz Eric; Söhner, Felicitas Petra; Jäger, Markus; Becker, Thomas; Wiegand, Hauke Felix

    2017-11-08

    "The Decameron" by Giovanni Boccaccio is a work which stands between the Middle Ages and Modernity. There are theories which postulate that concepts of identity and individuality, which arose with the dawn of Modernity, have an influence on mental illness. We chose a hermeneutic approach towards "The Decameron" to analyse the depiction of a changing society, of love, mental suffering and the role of therapeutic interventions. We conclude that Boccaccio showed an interest in intrapsychic mechanisms, an idea pertaining to Modernity, and discuss this idea in light of today's psychiatry and Karl Jaspers' concept of "genetic understanding". Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. A Comparative Assessment of the Navy’s Future Naval Capabilities (FNC) Process and Joint Staff Capability Gap Assessment Process as Related to Pacific Commands (PACOM) Integrated Priority List Submission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Boards ( JCBs ).  These outcome-tracking metrics could be used by both JS and COCOM staffs to inform process improvement efforts. The JS process...associated solutions to the Joint Capability Board ( JCB ). The JCB reviews and recommends the capability gap list to the Joint Requirements Oversight...components, PACOM Commander, Joint Staff J-8, FCBs, JCB , and JROC. They are configured and linked according to long-standing Joint Staff and PACOM

  12. A Comparative Assessment of the Navy’s Future Naval Capabilities (FNC) Process and Joint Staff Capability Gap Assessment Process as Related to Pacific Command’s Integrated Priority List Submission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    Boards ( JCBs ).  These outcome-tracking metrics could be used by both JS and COCOM staffs to inform process improvement efforts. The JS process could...Capability Board ( JCB ). The JCB reviews and recommends the capability gap list to the Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC). 4) The JROC validates...PROP components, PACOM Commander, Joint Staff J-8, FCBs, JCB , and JROC. They are configured and linked according to long-standing Joint Staff and

  13. The Relation Between Submissive Behaviours and Self Esteem State Among Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkay Arslan Ozkan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to determine relationship between submissive acts and self esteem among nursing students. METHODS: This descriptive research has been performed with 322 nursing students in Akdeniz University, between February 2007-March 2007. Research data has derived by the questionnaire from that composed of two-parts. In the first part The Submissive Act Scale (SAS and in the second part The Coopersmith Esteem Inventory (CSEI has been used. The data analyzed by spearman’s correlation analysis. RESULTS: According to collected data; the students, who has participated to research 34.88 +-8.7 SAS average and 74.78 +/- 16.2 CSEI average has been established. 47 % of the students have SAS points more than average and 65 % of the students have high self esteem level is confirmed. As a result correlation analysis, significant relationship has determined between submissive acts and self esteem (r=- 0.42, p<0.01. According to the findings; submissive acts were negatively correlated with self esteem. CONCLUSION: Communications and interpersonal relationships are very important for nursing. Nurses play a vital communication role in the healthcare system. Assertiveness and self esteem is necessary for effective nurse communication. Because of the process of becoming a nurse is started at nursing school, nursing education should be more promote to self esteem and decreased to submissive behaviours through educational methods. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 53-58

  14. Ghana Mining Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; Hydrology; Petroleum Engineering; Mineral Processing; Metallurgy; Material Science; Mineral Economics; Financial Evaluation and Risk Assessment; Mineral Policy; Environmental and Safety Engineering; Corporate Social Responsibility; ...

  15. Diabetes Attitudes Wishes and Needs 2 (DAWN2) : A multinational, multi-stakeholder study of psychosocial issues in diabetes and person-centred diabetes care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peyrot, M.; Burns, K.K.; Davies, M.M.; Forbes, A.; Hermanns, N.; Holt, R.I.G.; Kalra, S.; Nicolucci, A.; Pouwer, F.; Wens, J.; Willaing, I.; Skovlund, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aims The Diabetes Attitudes Wishes and Needs 2 (DAWN2) study aims to provide a holistic assessment of diabetes care and management among people with diabetes (PWD), family members (FM), and healthcare professionals (HCPs) and explores potential drivers leading to active management. Methods DAWN2

  16. First detection of global dawn-dusk ionospheric current intensities using Ampere's integral law on Orsted orbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, P.; Primdahl, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic measurements by the Orsted satellite in noon-midnight orbits have enabled the derivation of the global dawn-dusk oriented ionospheric currents from an Ampere's law closed loop line integral of the geomagnetic vector field along the satellite track. The globally integrated dawn......-to-dusk ionospheric current is found to be proportional to the gee-effective solar wind electric field and is around 1 million ampere for a typical solar wind electric field of 2 mV/m. Dividing the Ampere integral into semi-orbit parts has enabled us to show that the hemispherical total current intensities depend...

  17. On the Dawn-Dusk Asymmetry of the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability Between 2007 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Z. W.; Nykyri, K.; Moore, T. W.; Dimmock, A. P.; Ma, X.

    2017-12-01

    Using data from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), a statistical study was performed to determine whether a dawn-dusk asymmetry exists in the occurrence rates of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability during Parker-Spiral (PS) and Ortho-Parker-Spiral (OPS) orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). It is determined from the data that there is a strong preference toward the dawnside during PS orientation, and although a preference to the duskside during OPS is suggested, this requires further study for an unambiguous confirmation. The uncertainty in the OPS result is due to a low number of events, which satisfied our selection criteria. Because IMF is statistically in PS orientation, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) preference for the dawn flank during this orientation may help explain the origin of the plasma sheet asymmetry of cold component ions because it has been shown that KHI can drive kinetic-scale wave activity capable of ion heating.

  18. Effects of dawn simulation on markers of sleep inertia and post-waking performance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew; Jones, Helen; Gregson, Warren; Atkinson, Greg

    2014-05-01

    To examine the effects of a simulated dawn during the last 30 min of sleep on the subsequent dissipation of sleep inertia and changes in simulated work and physical performance. Eight participants, who reported difficulty with morning waking, were administered in a random order to a control (C) and a dawn simulation (DS) trial (starting 30 min prior to waking). Subjective ratings of sleep quality and alertness were obtained alongside measures of cognitive performance (addition and reaction time tasks measured at 5, 30 and 75 min after waking at habitual workday times). Physical performance was also measured 35 min after waking using a self-paced cycling protocol. After waking in DS, perceived sleep quality was 1.16 ± 0.89 (p = 0.01) points higher compared with C. Ratings of alertness were significantly higher in DS than C throughout the testing period (p = 0.04). Cognitive performance improved in both trials as time awake increased (p sleep can increase subjective alertness and improve both cognitive and physical performance after waking.

  19. Artificial night lighting affects dawn song, extra-pair siring success, and lay date in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempenaers, Bart; Borgström, Pernilla; Loës, Peter; Schlicht, Emmi; Valcu, Mihai

    2010-10-12

    Associated with a continued global increase in urbanization, anthropogenic light pollution is an important problem. However, our understanding of the ecological consequences of light pollution is limited. We investigated effects of artificial night lighting on dawn song in five common forest-breeding songbirds. In four species, males near street lights started singing significantly earlier at dawn than males elsewhere in the forest, and this effect was stronger in naturally earlier-singing species. We compared reproductive behavior of blue tits breeding in edge territories with and without street lights to that of blue tits breeding in central territories over a 7 year period. Under the influence of street lights, females started egg laying on average 1.5 days earlier. Males occupying edge territories with street lights were twice as successful in obtaining extra-pair mates than their close neighbors or than males occupying central forest territories. Artificial night lighting affected both age classes but had a stronger effect on yearling males. Our findings indicate that light pollution has substantial effects on the timing of reproductive behavior and on individual mating patterns. It may have important evolutionary consequences by changing the information embedded in previously reliable quality-indicator traits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Metaphor of the Dawn of the Space Age in the Contemporary Social Sciences and Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Majsova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The dawn of the space age in the early 1960s first provoked unabashed awe. Then, it inspired numerous attempts to explain (away the evental status of the first examples of manned spaceflight accounts that mainly interpreted Yuri Garagin’s flight (1961 and the Moon landing (1969 as logical consequences of technological progress, a certain constellation of political circumstances, and a pinch of ‘imagination’ to begin with. Curiously enough, conclusions of the vast majority of such accounts cannot but resort to ‘terrestrial’ metaphors in order to explain why these endeavours were worth undertaking in the first place. In the 21st century, reflections on outer space seem to have settled within three conceptually designed research fields within the social sciences and humanities: astrosociology, noocosmology and cultural studies of outer space. The text analyses conceptualisations and accounts of the dawn of the space age exhibited by the core texts and methodologies of these research fields to demonstrate how they actually hinge on variant epistemologies, and interpret the role of metaphor in world-formation in radically differing ways.

  1. Changes in publication statistics when electronic submission was introduced in an international applied science journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard J. Swatland

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In a refereed journal in the food and agriculture sector, papers were tracked over a five-year period during the introduction of electronic submissions. Papers originated in the Americas and Pacific region and were processed in Canada. Acceptance times for revised papers were reduced (P < 0.001 to 59% of the original, from 156.5 ± 69.1 days to 92.8 ± 57.5 days. But the start of electronic submission coincided with a change in the geographical origin of papers, with papers from Anglophone countries changing from a 61% majority to a 42% minority. It is possible that submissions from non-Anglophone sources were facilitated, thus creating challenges to the traditional Anglophone reviewer population.

  2. Effect of social interactions on hippocampal protein expression in animal dominant and submissive model of behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovok, Natalia; Nesher, Elimelech; Reichenstein, Michal; Tikhonova, Tatiana; Levin, Yishai; Pinhasov, Albert; Michaelevski, Izhak

    2017-12-01

    Psychiatric conditions, in many cases, arise from social interactions necessary for optimal mental functioning. Dominance and submissiveness are two opposite poles of behavior, stemming from processes of social interactions between members inside one group or species. Extreme dominance and submissiveness expressions in humans is accompanied by mental impairments, including mania and depression. Here, taking advantage of animals bred selectively for traits of dominance and submissiveness, we assess protein expression profiles in dominant and submissive mice in the context of social interaction. Proteins extracted from hippocampi of naïve and social interaction subjected dominant, submissive and wild type mice (15 mice per each group) are quantified using label-free quantitative LC/MS/MS analysis. Complexity of social interaction-related protein expression is resolved by factor analysis and enriched with GO and protein-protein interaction functional network analyses. In total, 1146 proteins exhibiting expression changes in the wild type mice, as well as dominant and submissive mice are enriched in protein datasets responsible for: 1) socially triggered dominance (90 proteins), 2) inherent submissiveness (75 proteins), 3) socially triggered submissiveness (117 proteins), and 4) social interaction triggered protein expression changes, related to resilience/adaptation to stress (69 proteins). Among the most enriched categories, extensive changes are found in proteins related to presynaptic release, ion channel regulation, circadian rhythm, MAPK, ErbB and NF-kB pathways. Data extracted from this first extensive proteomic study of a social interaction paradigm may facilitate decoding of molecular mechanisms responsible for pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Russian Chronicles on the Submission of the Kievan Rus’ to the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hautala

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to present fragments of the Russian chronicles from the 13th and 14th centuries dedicated to the period of submission of Rus’ to the Mongols in 1237–1260. The process of submission of Russia to the Golden Horde is divided into two periods. The first one (1237–40 regards properly the Mongol invasion of Russian territories. The second period (1240–60 concerns the gradual submission of Russia to the Golden Horde, the process which had a more peaceful nature. The Mongol invasion was the defining moment for Kievan Rus’: for the first time in its history, the Russian population underwent a full-scale extermination with the destruction of chief towns. Contemporary to the invasion, Russian chronicles describe warfare at length and show emotional involvement as well. The requirement of the Mongol governors of absolute submission to their power with payment of the tenth share from all types of income and property are perceived as absolutely inadmissible. The succeeding destruction of the main towns of Russia, the last centres of resistance, is perceived in chronicles as a divine punishment for lack of military cooperation between the Russian princes. The Mongols themselves are presented as tabsolutely alien to orthodox culture and their pagan customs cause disgust in the authors of Russian chronicles. The subsequent period of the gradual submission of Russia to the Golden Horde is not less important in the evolution of political and cultural relations between nomads and the Russian settled population. Russian chronicles testify to fast restoration of towns after the Mongol invasion and stabilization of economic life. The governors of the Golden Horde are limited by the requirement of formal submission of the Russian princes which avoided direct military showdowns. Russia gradually became involved in the fiscal system of the Mongolian empire, but in exchange Russian princes receive a considerable political autonomy.

  4. 78 FR 54636 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for Review... necessary to the proper functions of the Department; (2) will this information be processed and used in a... recommendations of the National Research Council's reports on early childhood. Five key program reform areas...

  5. Design Of A Web-Based Paper Submission And Reviewing System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the design of a web-based conference paper management system which facilitates easy and efficient review of technical submissions to conferences. Our proposed system stores authors\\' information, abstracts, papers and reviewers\\' comments. The process of assignment of papers to reviewers is done ...

  6. 78 FR 17417 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... at increasing the number of organ donors ] in this country. Many preventable deaths occur each year... primary mechanism for providing the public with information about organ donation. Among the most visited... to enhance public viewing and understanding of the organ donation process. Submission of a story and...

  7. 76 FR 11783 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... potential health-endangering spoilage, process deviation, or contamination with microorganisms where any lot... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (formerly Docket 2007N-0026) Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Food Canning...

  8. 78 FR 31970 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Federal Labor Standards Payee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Federal Labor Standards Payee Verification and Payment Processing AGENCY: Office of Labor Relations, HUD. ACTION: Notice...: Saundra A. Green, Admin. Officer, Office of Labor Relations, Department of Housing and Urban Development...

  9. Guilt, fear, submission, and empathy in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Lynn E; Berry, Jack W; Weiss, Joseph; Gilbert, Paul

    2002-09-01

    This study compares self-focused motivations (fear of negative evaluation, social comparison, and fear of envy) and other-focused motivations (empathy and interpersonal guilt) in submissive behavior and depression. The Beck Depression Inventory, Submissive Behavior Scale, Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Social Comparison Scale, Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire, and Interpersonal Reactivity Inventory were administered to 50 patients hospitalized for depression and 52 students. Depressed patients were significantly higher in survivor guilt, omnipotent responsibility guilt, submissive behavior, fear of negative evaluation, fear of envy, and empathic distress, and lower in social comparison. This research was limited in that it was a correlational study. This study suggests that altruistic concern about others may be an important factor in depression and submissive behavior. Evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. 7 CFR 900.113 - Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... notifications and communications concerning the arbitration shall be sent; (iii) Description of the organization..., the parties to the dispute shall file with the Administrator a formal submission, which shall contain...

  11. LBS Management Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The Lagos Business School Management Review is published by management professionals for practising managers, without sacrificing academic standards. The Review welcomes articles that enhance knowledge about the process of managing an organisation as well as reflect techniques, trends and ...

  12. African Health Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The copyright owners or the authors grant the 3rd party (perpetually and in advance) the right to disseminate, reproduce, or use the research papers in part or in full, format/medium as long as: No substantive errors are introduced in the process; Attribution of authorship and correct citation details are given; The referencing ...

  13. 76 FR 62421 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; A Generic Submission for Theory Development and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Submission for Theory Development and Validation (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D... October 1, 1995, unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. Proposed Collection: Title: A Generic Submission for Theory Development and Validation (NCI). Type of Information Collection Request...

  14. Case study : Dawn simulation as maintenance treatment in a nine-year-old patient with seasonal affective disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Y

    After four winter seasons of successful treatment with tight boxes. a g-year-old patient with seasonal affective disorder refused to make further use of the light box. instead he was treated with dawn simulation (a dim light administered just before waking up and gradually increased in intensity).

  15. Spectral modeling of Ceres VIR data from Dawn: Method and Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raponi, Andrea; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ciarniello, M.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Frigeri, A.; Fonte, S.; Giardino, M.; Longobardo, A.; Magni, G.; Marchi, S.; Palomba, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Tosi, F.; Turrini, D.; Zambon, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-11-01

    The Dawn spacecraft [1] is at Ceres, the closest of the IAU-defined dwarf planets to the Sun. This work focuses on the interpretation of Ceres’ surface composition based on the data from the VIR instrument [2] onboard Dawn. The Visible InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer combines high spectral and spatial resolution in the VIS (0.25-1mm) and IR (1-5mm) spectral ranges. VIR will provide a very good coverage of the surface during its orbital mission at Ceres.In order to model the measured spectra, we have utilized Hapke's radiative transfer model [3], which allows estimation of the mineral composition, the relative abundances of the spectral end-members, and the grain size. Optical constants of the spectral end-members are approximated by applying the methodology described in [4] to IR spectra reflectance obtained from the RELAB database.The observed spectra of Ceres surface are affected by a thermal emission component that prevents direct comparison with laboratory data at longer wavelengths. Thus to model the whole wavelength range measured by VIR, the thermal emission is modeled together with the reflectance. Calibrated spectra are first cleaned by removing artefacts. A best fit is obtained with a least square optimization algorithm. For further details on the method, see reference [5].The range 2.5 - 2.9 μm is severely hindered by Earth's atmosphere, but it contains a strong absorption band that dominates the IR Ceres’ spectrum. Thanks to the VIR instrument we can obtain a compositional model for the whole IR range [6]. We used several different combinations of materials hypothesized to be representative of the Ceres’ surface including phyllosilicates, ices, carbonaceous chondrites and salts. The results will be discussed.Acknowledgements This work is supported by the Italian Space Agencies and NASA. Enabling contributions from the Dawn Instrument, Operations, and Science Teams are gratefully acknowledged.Reference[1] Russell et al., Space Sci. Rev., 163

  16. Dawn-dusk asymmetry in particles of solar wind origin within the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Stubbs

    Full Text Available Solar wind/magnetosheath plasma in the magnetosphere can be identified using a component that has a higher charge state, lower density and, at least soon after their entry into the magnetosphere, lower energy than plasma from a terrestrial source. We survey here observations taken over 3 years of He2+ ions made by the Magnetospheric Ion Composition Sensor (MICS of the Charge and Mass Magnetospheric Ion Composition Experiment (CAMMICE instrument aboard POLAR. The occurrence probability of these solar wind ions is then plotted as a function of Magnetic Local Time (MLT and invariant latitude (7 for various energy ranges. For all energies observed by MICS (1.8–21.4 keV and all solar wind conditions, the occurrence probabilities peaked around the cusp region and along the dawn flank. The solar wind conditions were filtered to see if this dawnward asymmetry is controlled by the Svalgaard-Mansurov effect (and so depends on the BY component of the interplanetary magnetic field, IMF or by Fermi acceleration of He2+ at the bow shock (and so depends on the IMF ratio BX /BY . It is shown that the asymmetry remained persistently on the dawn flank, suggesting it was not due to effects associated with direct entry into the magnetosphere. This asymmetry, with enhanced fluxes on the dawn flank, persisted for lower energy ions (below a "cross-over" energy of about 23 keV but reversed sense to give higher fluxes on the dusk flank at higher energies. This can be explained by the competing effects of gradient/curvature drifts and the convection electric field on ions that are convecting sunward on re-closed field lines. The lower-energy He2+ ions E × B drift dawnwards as they move earthward, whereas the higher energy ions curvature/ gradient drift towards dusk. The convection electric field in the tail is weaker for

  17. Dawn-dusk asymmetry in particles of solar wind origin within the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Stubbs

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar wind/magnetosheath plasma in the magnetosphere can be identified using a component that has a higher charge state, lower density and, at least soon after their entry into the magnetosphere, lower energy than plasma from a terrestrial source. We survey here observations taken over 3 years of He2+ ions made by the Magnetospheric Ion Composition Sensor (MICS of the Charge and Mass Magnetospheric Ion Composition Experiment (CAMMICE instrument aboard POLAR. The occurrence probability of these solar wind ions is then plotted as a function of Magnetic Local Time (MLT and invariant latitude (7 for various energy ranges. For all energies observed by MICS (1.8–21.4 keV and all solar wind conditions, the occurrence probabilities peaked around the cusp region and along the dawn flank. The solar wind conditions were filtered to see if this dawnward asymmetry is controlled by the Svalgaard-Mansurov effect (and so depends on the BY component of the interplanetary magnetic field, IMF or by Fermi acceleration of He2+ at the bow shock (and so depends on the IMF ratio BX /BY . It is shown that the asymmetry remained persistently on the dawn flank, suggesting it was not due to effects associated with direct entry into the magnetosphere. This asymmetry, with enhanced fluxes on the dawn flank, persisted for lower energy ions (below a "cross-over" energy of about 23 keV but reversed sense to give higher fluxes on the dusk flank at higher energies. This can be explained by the competing effects of gradient/curvature drifts and the convection electric field on ions that are convecting sunward on re-closed field lines. The lower-energy He2+ ions E × B drift dawnwards as they move earthward, whereas the higher energy ions curvature/ gradient drift towards dusk. The convection electric field in the tail is weaker for northward IMF. Ions then need less energy to drift to the dusk flank, so that the cross-over energy, at which the asymmetry changes sense, is reduced

  18. First Responses to Submissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    education have faced intensifying pressure to publish internationally in high-ranking academic journals. Nevertheless, there has been little research on the publishing process involved. One notable exception is that of Flowerdew and Dudley-Evans (2002), which, on the basis of the genre analysis framework......The past 20-30 years have seen much scholarly interest in English for academic purposes, be it in the form of academic writing, academic English in general, or the various genres characteristic of academic communication in English. Over the same period of time, researchers at institutions of higher...

  19. Accelerated flows at Jupiter's magnetopause: Evidence for magnetic reconnection along the dawn flank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, R. W.; Allegrini, F.; Bagenal, F.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Clark, G.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Kurth, W. S.; Levin, S.; Louarn, P.; Mauk, B. H.; McComas, D. J.; Reno, M.; Szalay, J. R.; Thomsen, M. F.; Valek, P.; Weidner, S.; Wilson, R. J.

    2017-05-01

    We report on plasma and magnetic field observations from Juno's Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment and Magnetic Field Investigation at 18 magnetopause crossings when the spacecraft was located at 6 h magnetic local time and 73-114 Jovian radii from Jupiter. Several crossings showed evidence of plasma energization, accelerated ion flows, and large magnetic shear angles, each representing a signature of magnetic reconnection. These signatures were observed for times when the magnetosphere was in both compressed and expanded states. We compared the flow change magnitudes to a simplified Walén relation and found 60% of the events to be 110% or less of the predicted values. Close examination of two magnetopause encounters revealed characteristics of a rotational discontinuity and an open magnetopause. These observations provide compelling evidence that magnetic reconnection can occur at Jupiter's dawn magnetopause and should be incorporated into theories of solar wind coupling and outer magnetosphere dynamics at Jupiter.

  20. Preliminary temperature maps of dwarf planet Ceres as derived by Dawn/VIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, F.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Zambon, F.; Ammannito, E.; Capria, M. T.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Li, J.-Y.; Longobardo, A.; Mottola, S.; Palomba, E.; Raponi, A.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-10-01

    The NASA Dawn mission [1] spacecraft was captured by the dwarf planet Ceres on March 6, 2015. During the Approach phase in the months preceding capture, the remote sensing instruments on the spacecraft acquired data with increasing spatial resolution. Analogous to the observation campaign planned at protoplanet Vesta during 2011-12, Dawn at Ceres proceeds in a series of orbits, carried out at increasingly lower altitudes over the mean surface, with a consequent increase of the spatial resolution. The Visible InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer onboard Dawn [2] operates in the overall spectral range 0.25-5.1 μm, with the main goal of inferring the surface composition of the target in its uppermost layer, as thick as several tens of microns [3]. Taking advantage of the wavelength range longward of 3 μm, it is possible to use VIR as a thermal mapper, i.e. as a tool to derive thermal images and spatially-resolved temperature maps. To do this, the VIR team uses a Bayesian approach to nonlinear inversion [4] that was extensively applied to the Vesta dataset, as well as to Rosetta/VIRTIS data of small bodies [e.g., 5,6]. In the case of Vesta, this capability allowed us to build both global thermal maps for each orbit phase (spatial resolution) as well as for different local solar times [7], and to investigate the thermal behavior of specific regions of interest seen at the local scale [4]. Such investigations fall well within the broad science goals that Dawn/VIR should address at Ceres. In February 2015, still with a coarse spatial resolution (~11.4 km/px), VIR was able to obtain temperature images of Ceres that revealed the existence of differences in the thermal behavior of two bright spots seen at broad regional scale (Figs. 1, 2). At that time it was too early to say if this was the result of a real difference in the physical structure of the material and/or in its composition, because low resolution has the effect of averaging together very different areas. In

  1. Reconciling the Dawn-Dusk Asymmetry in Mercury’s Exosphere with the Micrometeoroid Impact Directionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Petr; Sarantos, Menelaos; Janches, Diego

    2017-10-01

    Combining dynamical models of dust from Jupiter-family comets and Halley-type comets, we demonstrate that the seasonal variation of the dust/meteoroid environment at Mercury is responsible for producing the dawn-dusk asymmetry in Mercury’s exosphere observed by the MESSENGER spacecraft. Our latest models, calibrated recently from ground-based and space-borne measurements, provide unprecedented statistics that enable us to study the longitudinal and latitudinal distribution of meteoroids impacting Mercury’s surface. We predict that the micrometeoroid impact vaporization source is expected to undergo significant motion on Mercury’s surface toward the nightside during Mercury’s approach to aphelion and toward the dayside when the planet is approaching the Sun.

  2. Constraints on Vesta's elemental composition: Fast neutron measurements by Dawn's gamma ray and neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J; Peplowski, Patrick N; Prettyman, Thomas H; Feldman, William C; Bazell, David; Mittlefehldt, David W; Reedy, Robert C; Yamashita, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Surface composition information from Vesta is reported using fast neutron data collected by the gamma ray and neutron detector on the Dawn spacecraft. After correcting for variations due to hydrogen, fast neutrons show a compositional dynamic range and spatial variability that is consistent with variations in average atomic mass from howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites. These data provide additional compositional evidence that Vesta is the parent body to HED meteorites. A subset of fast neutron data having lower statistical precision show spatial variations that are consistent with a 400 ppm variability in hydrogen concentrations across Vesta and supports the idea that Vesta's hydrogen is due to long-term delivery of carbonaceous chondrite material. PMID:26074718

  3. Breaking the barriers of time and space: the dawning of the great age of librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutchak, T Scott

    2012-01-01

    This lecture, reflecting on future roles, posits the potential dawning of a "great age of librarians," if librarians make the conceptual shift of focusing on their own skills and activities rather than on their libraries. In the digital age, physical libraries are becoming less relevant to the communities that they serve. Librarians, however, are more necessary than ever in helping members of their communities navigate the increasingly complex information space. To meet their social responsibilities requires that librarians seek new roles and recognize that their most important activities will take place outside of the physical library. A great age of librarians is possible, but not guaranteed. We are at the very beginning of the development of a digital culture that parallels the print culture that has been dominant for five hundred years. Innovative and creative librarians have the potential to shape the development of that culture in ways that will truly serve the needs of their communities.

  4. Dawn simulation light impacts on different cognitive domains under sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Virginie; Maire, Micheline; Reichert, Carolin F; Chellappa, Sarah L; Schmidt, Christina; Hommes, Vanja; Cajochen, Christian; Viola, Antoine U

    2015-03-15

    Chronic sleep restriction (SR) has deleterious effects on cognitive performance that can be counteracted by light exposure. However, it is still unknown if naturalistic light settings (dawn simulating light) can enhance daytime cognitive performance in a sustainable matter. Seventeen participants were enrolled in a 24-h balanced cross-over study, subsequent to SR (6-h of sleep). Two different light settings were administered each morning: a) dawn simulating light (DsL; polychromatic light gradually increasing from 0 to 250 lx during 30 min before wake-up time, with light around 250 lx for 20 min after wake-up time) and b) control dim light (DL; Cognitive tests were performed every 2 h during scheduled wakefulness and questionnaires were completed hourly to assess subjective mood. The analyses yielded a main effect of "light condition" for the motor tracking task, sustained attention to response task and a working memory task (visual 1 and 3-back task), as well as for the Simple Reaction Time Task, such that participants showed better task performance throughout the day after morning DsL exposure compared to DL. Furthermore, low performers benefited more from the light effects compared to high performers. Conversely, no significant influences from the DsL were found for the Psychomotor Vigilance Task and a contrary effect was observed for the digit symbol substitution test. No light effects were observed for subjective perception of sleepiness, mental effort, concentration and motivation. Our data indicate that short exposure to artificial morning light may significantly enhance cognitive performance in a domain-specific manner under conditions of mild SR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Variations of topside ionospheric electron density near the dawn terminator in relation to geomagnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Sunny W. Y.; Chen, Chien-Han; Wang, Kaiti

    2017-11-01

    A statistical study to determine the influence of geomagnetic disturbances on the ionosphere across the dawn terminator at subauroral and middle latitudes is performed, based on the vertical electron density profiles measured by the GPS Occultation Experiment aboard the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites from August 2006 to July 2009. Three ranges of solar zenith angles are adopted to characterize transitions between the pre- and post-dawn ionosphere. Results indicate opposing plasma density effects at the darkened and sunlit locations between 50° and 65° magnetic latitude (λm). The darkened topside ionosphere features density increases associated with geomagnetic activity, while density reductions mark its sunlit counterpart. The average electron peak density in the F2 region can increase by up to 44% in the darkened ionosphere and decrease by up to 20% in the sunlit ionosphere as Kp changes from 0-1 to 4-5. In the λm = 55°-65° range, the dominant contributors to the density perturbation are auroral electron precipitation for the darkened region and enhanced penetration electric fields for the sunlit region, with the transition occurring across the terminator local times. Dominance shifts first to electric fields at 50°-55°, then to aurora-induced neutral wind at 45°-50°, suggesting that during disturbed times electric fields seldom penetrate below λm = 50°. Findings presented in this statistical study should contribute to the study of space weather and the understanding of non-local influences of geomagnetic disturbances on topside dynamics.

  6. Identifying multiple submissions in Internet research: preserving data integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Anne M; Daniel, Candice M; Williams, Mark L; Baird, Grayson L

    2008-11-01

    Internet-based sexuality research with hidden populations has become increasingly popular. Respondent anonymity may encourage participation and lower social desirability, but associated disinhibition may promote multiple submissions, especially when incentives are offered. The goal of this study was to identify the usefulness of different variables for detecting multiple submissions from repeat responders and to explore incentive effects. The data included 1,900 submissions from a three-session Internet intervention with a pretest and three post-test questionnaires. Participants were men who have sex with men and incentives were offered to rural participants for completing each questionnaire. The final number of submissions included 1,273 "unique", 132 first submissions by "repeat responders" and 495 additional submissions by the "repeat responders" (N = 1,900). Four categories of repeat responders were identified: "infrequent" (2-5 submissions), "persistent" (6-10 submissions), "very persistent" (11-30 submissions), and "hackers" (more than 30 submissions). Internet Provider (IP) addresses, user names, and passwords were the most useful for identifying "infrequent" repeat responders. "Hackers" often varied their IP address and identifying information to prevent easy identification, but investigating the data for small variations in IP, using reverse telephone look up, and patterns across usernames and passwords were helpful. Incentives appeared to play a role in stimulating multiple submissions, especially from the more sophisticated "hackers". Finally, the web is ever evolving and it will be necessary to have good programmers and staff who evolve as fast as "hackers".

  7. Plasma flow channels at the dawn/dusk polar cap boundaries: momentum transfer on old open field lines and the roles of IMF By and conductivity gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Using DMSP F13 data in conjunction with IMF data we investigate the newly discovered channels of enhanced (1.5–3 km/s antisunward convection occurring at the dawn (06:00–09:00 MLT or dusk (15:00–18:00 MLT flanks of the polar cap for different combinations of IMF By polarity, hemisphere (NH/SH and the dawn/dusk MLTs. Dawn-side cases where this flow channel appears occur for the following combinations: NH-dawn/By>0 and SH-dawn/By<0. The dusk-side cases are: NH-dusk/By<0 and SH-dusk/By>0. The flow channels are placed in the context of particle precipitation regimes/boundaries and ionospheric conductivity gradients. They are found to be threaded by "old open field lines" ("time since reconnection" >10 min characterized by polar rain precipitation. In the dawn-side cases (NH-dawn/By>0 and SH-dawn/By<0 and in a Parker spiral field, the polar rain contains the "solar wind strahl" component. The convection enhancement is attributed to the Pedersen current closure of Birkeland current sheets (C1 and C2 in the polar cap (C1 and at the polar cap boundary (C2. The low ionospheric conductivity in the polar cap, particularly in the winter hemisphere, is compensated by an enhanced electric field driving the flow channel there. This is momentum transfer from the solar wind via dynamo action taking place in the combined current system of the high- and low-latitude boundary layers (HBL/LLBL. The conductivity gradient at the polar cap boundary contributes to establishing the convection channel and the associated enhancement of the dawn-dusk convection asymmetry extending beyond the dawn-dusk terminator during intervals of nonzero IMF By component. The HBL/LLBL-ionosphere coupling via Birkeland currents C1/C2 is a source of dawn-dusk convection asymmetry and Svalgaard-Mansurov effect which must be added to the effect of magnetic tension acting on "newly open field lines".

  8. 76 FR 71621 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Organizational Actions Affecting Basis of Securities. Forms: 8937. Abstract: Organizational actions that affect... Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235, Washington, DC 20503; (202) 395- 7873. Dawn...

  9. In-Flight Operation of the Dawn Ion Propulsion System Through Start of the Vesta Cruise Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Charles E.; Rayman, Marc D.; Brophy, John R.

    2009-01-01

    The Dawn mission, part of NASA's Discovery Program, has as its goal the scientific exploration of the two most massive main-belt asteroids, Vesta and Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 27, 2007 on a Delta-II 7925H-9.5 (Delta-II Heavy) rocket that placed the 1218 kg spacecraft into an Earth-escape trajectory. On-board the spacecraft is an ion propulsion system (IPS) which will provide most of the delta V needed for heliocentric transfer to Vesta, orbit capture at Vesta, transfer to Vesta science orbits, departure and escape from Vesta, heliocentric transfer to Ceres, orbit capture at Ceres, and transfer to Ceres science orbits. The Dawn ion design is based on the design validated on NASA's Deep Space 1 (DS1) mission. However, because of the very substantial (11 km/s) delta V requirements for this mission Dawn requires two engines to complete its mission objectives. The power processor units (PPU), digital control and interface units (DCIU) slice boards and the xenon control assembly (XCA) are derivatives of the components used on DS1. The DCIUs and thrust gimbal assemblies (TGA) were developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The spacecraft was provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, Sterling, Virginia, and the mission is managed by and operated from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Dawn partnered with Germany, Italy and Los Alamos National Laboratory for the science instruments. The mission is led by the principal investigator, Dr. Christopher Russell, from the University of California, Los Angeles. The first 80 days after launch were dedicated to the initial checkout of the spacecraft followed by cruise to Mars. Cruise thrusting leading to a Mars gravity assist began on December 17, 2007 and was successfully concluded as planned on October 31, 2008. During this time period the Dawn IPS was operated mostly at full power for approximately 6500 hours, consumed 71.7 kg of xenon and delivered approximately 1.8 km

  10. In-Flight Operation of the Dawn Ion Propulsion System: Status at One Year from the Vesta Rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Charles E.; Rayman, Marc D.

    2010-01-01

    The Dawn mission, part of NASA's Discovery Program, has as its goal the scientific exploration of the two most massive main-belt asteroids, Vesta and Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 27, 2007 on a Delta-II 7925H-9.5 (Delta-II Heavy) rocket that placed the 1218 kg spacecraft into an Earth-escape trajectory. On-board the spacecraft is an ion propulsion system (IPS) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory which will provide most of the delta V needed for heliocentric transfer to Vesta, orbit capture at Vesta, transfer among Vesta science orbits, departure and escape from Vesta, heliocentric transfer to Ceres, orbit capture at Ceres, and transfer among Ceres science orbits. The Dawn ion thruster [I thought we only called it a thruster. Both terms are used in the paper, but I think a replacement of every occurrence of "engine" with "thruster" would be clearer.] design is based on the design validated on NASA's Deep Space 1 (DS1) mission. However, because of the very substantial (11 km/s) delta V requirements for this mission Dawn requires two engines to complete its mission objectives. The power processor units (PPU), digital control and interface units (DCIU) slice boards and the xenon control assembly (XCA) are derivatives of the components used on DS1. The DCIUs and thrust gimbal assemblies (TGA) were developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The spacecraft was provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, Sterling, Virginia, and the mission is managed by and operated from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Dawn partnered with Germany, Italy and Los Alamos National Laboratory for the science instruments. The mission is led by the principal investigator, Dr. Christopher Russell, from the University of California, Los Angeles. The first 80 days after launch were dedicated to the initial checkout of the spacecraft followed by cruise to Mars. Cruise thrusting leading to a Mars gravity assist began on December 17

  11. Optical space weathering on Vesta: Radiative-transfer models and Dawn observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, David T.; Denevi, Brett W.; Le Corre, Lucille; Reddy, Vishnu; Schröder, Stefan E.; Pieters, Carle M.; Tosi, Federico; Zambon, Francesca; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Roatsch, Thomas; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to ion and micrometeoroid bombardment in the space environment causes physical and chemical changes in the surface of an airless planetary body. These changes, called space weathering, can strongly influence a surface's optical characteristics, and hence complicate interpretation of composition from reflectance spectroscopy. Prior work using data from the Dawn spacecraft (Pieters, C.M. et al. [2012]. Nature 491, 79-82) found that accumulation of nanophase metallic iron (npFe0), which is a key space-weathering product on the Moon, does not appear to be important on Vesta, and instead regolith evolution is dominated by mixing with carbonaceous chondrite (CC) material delivered by impacts. In order to gain further insight into the nature of space weathering on Vesta, we constructed model reflectance spectra using Hapke's radiative-transfer theory and used them as an aid to understanding multispectral observations obtained by Dawn's Framing Cameras (FC). The model spectra, for a howardite mineral assemblage, include both the effects of npFe0 and that of a mixed CC component. We found that a plot of the 438-nm/555-nm ratio vs. the 555-nm reflectance for the model spectra helps to separate the effects of lunar-style space weathering (LSSW) from those of CC-mixing. We then constructed ratio-reflectance pixel scatterplots using FC images for four areas of contrasting composition: a eucritic area at Vibidia crater, a diogenitic area near Antonia crater, olivine-bearing material within Bellicia crater, and a light mantle unit (referred to as an ;orange patch; in some previous studies, based on steep spectral slope in the visible) northeast of Oppia crater. In these four cases the observed spectral trends are those expected from CC-mixing, with no evidence for weathering dominated by production of npFe0. In order to survey a wider range of surfaces, we also defined a spectral parameter that is a function of the change in 438-nm/555-nm ratio and the 555-nm reflectance

  12. Iron oxide minerals in dust of the Red Dawn event in eastern Australia, September 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Cattle, Stephen R.; Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Yauk, Kimberly; Flagg, Cody B.; Berquó, Thelma S.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Morman, Suzette A.; Breit, George N.

    2014-01-01

    Iron oxide minerals typically compose only a few weight percent of bulk atmospheric dust but are important for potential roles in forcing climate, affecting cloud properties, influencing rates of snow and ice melt, and fertilizing marine phytoplankton. Dust samples collected from locations across eastern Australia (Lake Cowal, Orange, Hornsby, and Sydney) following the spectacular “Red Dawn” dust storm on 23 September 2009 enabled study of the dust iron oxide assemblage using a combination of magnetic measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Red Dawn was the worst dust storm to have hit the city of Sydney in more than 60 years, and it also deposited dust into the Tasman Sea and onto snow cover in New Zealand. Magnetization measurements from 20 to 400 K reveal that hematite, goethite, and trace amounts of magnetite are present in all samples. Magnetite concentrations (as much as 0.29 wt%) were much higher in eastern, urban sites than in western, agricultural sites in central New South Wales (0.01 wt%), strongly suggesting addition of magnetite from local urban sources. Variable temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy (300 and 4.2 K) indicates that goethite and hematite compose approximately 25–45% of the Fe-bearing phases in samples from the inland sites of Orange and Lake Cowal. Hematite was observed at both temperatures but goethite only at 4.2 K, thereby revealing the presence of nanogoethite (less than about 20 nm). Similarly, hematite particulate matter is very small (some of it d < 100 nm) on the basis of magnetic results and Mössbauer spectra. The degree to which ferric oxide in these samples might absorb solar radiation is estimated by comparing reflectance values with a magnetic parameter (hard isothermal remanent magnetization, HIRM) for ferric oxide abundance. Average visible reflectance and HIRM are correlated as a group (r2 = 0.24), indicating that Red Dawn ferric oxides have

  13. A preliminary global geologic map of Vesta based on Dawn Survey orbit data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Mest, S. C.; Petro, N. E.; Buczkowski, D.; Schenk, P.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Nathues, A.; LeCorre, L.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; DeSanctis, C.; Ammannito, E.; Filacchione, G.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4Vesta on July 15, 2011, and is now collecting imaging, spectroscopic, and elemental abundance data during its one-year orbital mission. As part of the geological analysis of the surface, we have utilized images and data from the Survey orbital sequence to produce a global map of Vesta's surface. Unit boundaries and feature characteristics were determined primarily from morphologic analysis of image data; projected Framing Camera (FC) images were used as the base map. Spectral information from FC and VIR are used to refine unit contacts and to separate compositional distinctions from differences arising from illumination or other factors. Those units that could be discerned both in morphology and in the color data were interpreted as geologically distinct units. Vesta's surface is highly-cratered; differences in color and albedo are possible indicators of varying thicknesses and areal extents of crater ejecta. The most prominent candidate impact feature dominates the south pole. This feature consists of a depression roughly circular in shape, with a central hill that is characterized by smoother texture and lower albedo distinctive from the lower-lying surrounding terrain. A complex network of deep troughs and ridges cuts through the floor of the feature. Many of these troughs trend north-south, while others appear circumferential to the hill and are truncated by or terminate at orthogonal ridges/grooves. Detailed mapping of these features will provide information on their orientations, possible origin(s), and their relationship, if any, to the central hill. The equator of Vesta is also girdled by a wide set of flat-floored troughs. Their orientation implies that their formation is related to the south polar structure. Several regions on Vesta have a concentration of craters displaying low-albedo interiors or exteriors. These craters may have an exogenic origin, or may be the result of excavation of a thin sub

  14. The Ceres gravity field, spin pole, rotation period and orbit from the Dawn radiometric tracking and optical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopliv, A. S.; Park, R. S.; Vaughan, A. T.; Bills, B. G.; Asmar, S. W.; Ermakov, A. I.; Rambaux, N.; Raymond, C. A.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Russell, C. T.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    Ceres' gravity field and rotational parameters have been precisely measured using 1.5 years of radiometric Doppler and range data and optical landmark tracking from the Dawn spacecraft in orbit about the dwarf planet. As was the case with Dawn at Vesta, the gravity field, orientation parameters, landmark locations, and Ceres' orbit are jointly estimated in a global solution. Even though Dawn's radio science investigation at Ceres was complicated by additional thrusting for attitude control, the resulting spherical harmonic gravity field has a half-wavelength resolution of up to 82 km (degree 18) near the equator, which is similar harmonic resolution to that of Vesta. The gravity field is consistent with Airy isostatic compensation, and this model assumption limits Ceres' crustal density to be between 1200 and 1600 kg/m3 for two-layer and three-layer models with mean crustal thickness between 27 and 43 km. The compensation depth is determined using admittance between gravity and gravity from topography and is superior to admittance between gravity and topography. The gravitational mass of Ceres is determined to better than 0.002% (GMCeres = 62.62736 ± 0.00040 km3/s2), the spin pole location is improved by 10× over previous results with right ascension (α = 291.427°) and declination (δ = 66.760°) uncertainty less than 0.001°, and the rotation rate is improved by ∼100× over previous determinations from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. Ceres' heliocentric orbit has also been improved, with about 17 months of precision range measurements reducing ephemeris uncertainties to about 10 m during the Dawn timeframe.

  15. Women’s Peace Movements and Pioneers of Social Work at the Dawn of World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Joya Valbuena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del capítulo “Women’s Peace Movements and Pioneers of Social Work at the Dawn of World War I” de Gaby Franger en Peacebuilding-Gender-Social Work: International Human rights Dialogue: Celebrating the 100th Anniversary of the Women’s Peace Congress. Gaby Franger y Claudia Lohrenscheit (Editoras. Oldenburg: Paulo Freire Verlag. 2015, 31-48 pp.

  16. Chondritic Models of 4 Vesta: Comparison of Predicted Internal Structure and Surface Composition/Mineralogy with Data from the Dawn Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplis, M. J.; Mizzon, H.; Forni, O.; Monnereau, M.; Barrat, J-A.; Prettyman, T. H.; McSween, H. Y.; McCoy, T. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; De Sanctis, M. C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the physical and chemical processes which led to the formation of the terrestrial planets remains one of the principal challenges of the Earth and planetary science communities. However, direct traces of the earliest stages of planet building have generally been wiped out on larger bodies such as the Earth or Mars, obscuring our view of how that process occurred. On the other hand, the planet building process would appear to have been arrested prematurely in the region between Mars and Jupiter, now populated by several hundred thousand compositionally diverse objects that escaped accretion into larger planets. Of these, the asteroid 4 Vesta is of particular interest as it is large (520 km diameter), and known to have a basaltic surface dominated by pyroxenes [1, 2]. Furthermore, visible-IR spectra of Vesta obtained by ground and space-based telescopes are remarkably similar to laboratory spectra measured on meteorites of the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite clan (HED), leading to the paradigm that the HEDs came from Vesta [2]. Geochemical and petrological studies of the HEDs confirm the differentiated nature of the near-surface region of their parent body, and imply that crust extraction occurred well within the first 10Ma of solar system history [3]. Vesta is therefore a prime target for studies that aim to constrain the earliest stages of planet building, and for that reason it is currently the subject of the Dawn mission [4].

  17. XML Schema Guide for Secondary CDR Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents the extensible markup language (XML) schema guide for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics’ (OPPT) e-CDRweb tool. E-CDRweb is the electronic, web-based tool provided by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the submission of Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) information. This document provides the user with tips and guidance on correctly using the version 1.1 XML schema for the Joint Submission Form. Please note that the order of the elements must match the schema.

  18. Dawn Auroral Breakup at Saturn Initiated by Auroral Arcs: UVIS/Cassini Beginning of Grand Finale Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioti, A.; Grodent, D.; Yao, Z. H.; Gérard, J.-C.; Badman, S. V.; Pryor, W.; Bonfond, B.

    2017-12-01

    We present Cassini auroral observations obtained on 11 November 2016 with the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph at the beginning of the F-ring orbits and the Grand Finale phase of the mission. The spacecraft made a close approach to Saturn's southern pole and offered a remarkable view of the dayside and nightside aurora. With this sequence we identify, for the first time, the presence of dusk/midnight arcs, which are azimuthally spread from high to low latitudes, suggesting that their source region extends from the outer to middle/inner magnetosphere. The observed arcs could be auroral manifestations of plasma flows propagating toward the planet from the magnetotail, similar to terrestrial "auroral streamers." During the sequence the dawn auroral region brightens and expands poleward. We suggest that the dawn auroral breakup results from a combination of plasma instability and global-scale magnetic field reconfiguration, which is initiated by plasma flows propagating toward the planet. Alternatively, the dawn auroral enhancement could be triggered by tail magnetic reconnection.

  19. The location of the open-closed magnetic field line boundary in the dawn sector auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Wild

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available As a measure of the degree of coupling between the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere systems, the rate at which the size of the polar cap (the region corresponding to ionospheric termini of open magnetic flux tubes varies is of prime importance. However, a reliable technique by which the extent of the polar cap might be routinely monitored has yet to be developed. Current techniques provide particularly ambiguous indications of the polar cap boundary in the dawn sector. We present a case study of space- and ground-based observations of the dawn-sector auroral zone and attempt to determine the location of the polar cap boundary using multi-wavelength observations of the ultraviolet aurora (made by the IMAGE FUV imager, precipitating particle measurements (recorded by the FAST, DMSP, and Cluster 1 and 3 satellites, and SuperDARN HF radar observations of the ionospheric Doppler spectral width boundary. We conclude that in the dawn sector, during the interval presented, neither the poleward edge of the wideband auroral UV emission (140-180nm nor the Doppler spectral width boundary were trustworthy indicators of the polar cap boundary location, while narrow band UV emissions in the range 130-140nm appear to be much more reliable.

  20. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation - XII. Bubbles at dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geil, Paul M.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Duffy, Alan R.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2017-12-01

    The direct detection of regions of ionized hydrogen (H II) has been suggested as a promising probe of cosmic reionization. Observing the redshifted 21-cm signal of hydrogen from the epoch of reionization (EoR) is a key scientific driver behind new-generation, low-frequency radio interferometers. We investigate the feasibility of combining low-frequency observations with the Square Kilometre Array and near infra-red survey data of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope to detect cosmic reionization by imaging H II bubbles surrounding massive galaxies during the cosmic dawn. While individual bubbles will be too small to be detected, we find that by stacking redshifted 21-cm spectra centred on known galaxies, it will be possible to directly detect the EoR at z ∼ 9-12, and to place qualitative constraints on the evolution of the spin temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z ≳ 9. In particular, given a detection of ionized bubbles using this technique, it is possible to determine if the IGM surrounding them is typically in absorption or emission. Determining the globally averaged neutral fraction of the IGM using this method will prove more difficult due to degeneracy with the average size of H II regions.

  1. The prehistory of potyviruses: their initial radiation was during the dawn of agriculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J Gibbs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Potyviruses are found world wide, are spread by probing aphids and cause considerable crop damage. Potyvirus is one of the two largest plant virus genera and contains about 15% of all named plant virus species. When and why did the potyviruses become so numerous? Here we answer the first question and discuss the other. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have inferred the phylogenies of the partial coat protein gene sequences of about 50 potyviruses, and studied in detail the phylogenies of some using various methods and evolutionary models. Their phylogenies have been calibrated using historical isolation and outbreak events: the plum pox virus epidemic which swept through Europe in the 20th century, incursions of potyviruses into Australia after agriculture was established by European colonists, the likely transport of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in cowpea seed from Africa to the Americas with the 16th century slave trade and the similar transport of papaya ringspot virus from India to the Americas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies indicate that the partial coat protein genes of potyviruses have an evolutionary rate of about 1.15x10(-4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year, and the initial radiation of the potyviruses occurred only about 6,600 years ago, and hence coincided with the dawn of agriculture. We discuss the ways in which agriculture may have triggered the prehistoric emergence of potyviruses and fostered their speciation.

  2. Extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, L M; Casey, A R; Asplund, M; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Nataf, D M; Poleski, R; Lind, K; Kobayashi, C; Owen, C I; Ness, M; Bessell, M S; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Mróz, P

    2015-11-26

    The first stars are predicted to have formed within 200 million years after the Big Bang, initiating the cosmic dawn. A true first star has not yet been discovered, although stars with tiny amounts of elements heavier than helium ('metals') have been found in the outer regions ('halo') of the Milky Way. The first stars and their immediate successors should, however, preferentially be found today in the central regions ('bulges') of galaxies, because they formed in the largest over-densities that grew gravitationally with time. The Milky Way bulge underwent a rapid chemical enrichment during the first 1-2 billion years, leading to a dearth of early, metal-poor stars. Here we report observations of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, including one star with an iron abundance about 10,000 times lower than the solar value without noticeable carbon enhancement. We confirm that most of the metal-poor bulge stars are on tight orbits around the Galactic Centre, rather than being halo stars passing through the bulge, as expected for stars formed at redshifts greater than 15. Their chemical compositions are in general similar to typical halo stars of the same metallicity although intriguing differences exist, including lower abundances of carbon.

  3. Colors and Photometry of Bright Materials on Vesta as Seen by the Dawn Framing Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, S. E.; Li, J.-Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Keller, H. U.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Dawn spacecraft has been in orbit around the asteroid Vesta since July, 2011. The on-board Framing Camera has acquired thousands of high-resolution images of the regolith-covered surface through one clear and seven narrow-band filters in the visible and near-IR wavelength range. It has observed bright and dark materials that have a range of reflectance that is unusually wide for an asteroid. Material brighter than average is predominantly found on crater walls, and in ejecta surrounding caters in the southern hemisphere. Most likely, the brightest material identified on the Vesta surface so far is located on the inside of a crater at 64.27deg S, 1.54deg . The apparent brightness of a regolith is influenced by factors such as particle size, mineralogical composition, and viewing geometry. As such, the presence of bright material can indicate differences in lithology and/or degree of space weathering. We retrieve the spectral and photometric properties of various bright terrains from false-color images acquired in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO). We find that most bright material has a deeper 1-m pyroxene band than average. However, the aforementioned brightest material appears to have a 1-m band that is actually less deep, a result that awaits confirmation by the on-board VIR spectrometer. This site may harbor a class of material unique for Vesta. We discuss the implications of our spectral findings for the origin of bright materials.

  4. Performance of High-Efficiency Advanced Triple-Junction Solar Panels for the LILT Mission Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Navid S.; Sharma, Surya; Buitrago, Oscar; Sharps, Paul R.; Blok, Ron; Kroon, Martin; Jalink, Cees; Harris, Robin; Stella, Paul; Distefano, Sal

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Discovery Mission Dawn is designed to (LILT) conditions. operate within the solar system's Asteroid belt, where the large distance from the sun creates a low-intensity, low-temperature (LILT) condition. To meet the mission power requirements under LlLT conditions, very high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells were selected to power the spacecraft to be built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) under contract with JPL. Emcore's InGaP/InGaAs/Ge advanced triple-junction (ATJ) solar cells, exhibiting an average air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of greater than 27.6% (one-sun, 28 C), were used to populate the solar panels [1]. The two solar array wings, to be built by Dutch Space, with 5 large- area panels each (total area of 36.4 sq. meters) are projected to produce between 10.3 kWe and 1.3 kWe of end-of life (EOL) power in the 1.0 to 3.0 AU range, respectively. The details of the solar panel design, testing and power analysis are presented.

  5. Breaking the barriers of time and space: the dawning of the great age of librarians*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutchak, T. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This lecture, reflecting on future roles, posits the potential dawning of a “great age of librarians,” if librarians make the conceptual shift of focusing on their own skills and activities rather than on their libraries. Discussion: In the digital age, physical libraries are becoming less relevant to the communities that they serve. Librarians, however, are more necessary than ever in helping members of their communities navigate the increasingly complex information space. To meet their social responsibilities requires that librarians seek new roles and recognize that their most important activities will take place outside of the physical library. Conclusion: A great age of librarians is possible, but not guaranteed. We are at the very beginning of the development of a digital culture that parallels the print culture that has been dominant for five hundred years. Innovative and creative librarians have the potential to shape the development of that culture in ways that will truly serve the needs of their communities. PMID:22272154

  6. Internal lecture: The dawn of the Standard Model's revolution | 6 June | Main Auditorium

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    "The dawn of the Standard Model's revolution", by Luigi di Lella and Alvaro de Rujula.   Alvaro de Rujula. 15:30 - 16:20: Lecture by Alvaro de Rujula (followed by 20 minutes of questions) Abstract In the few years around November 1974, particle physics changed very significantly and at a frantic pace. Practitioners began to get accustomed to the successful predictions of the Standard Model, which did not have many believers at that time. I shall recall the main experimental and theoretical advances, concerning in particular quarks as partons, the asymptotic freedom of QCD, charmonia and the first openly charmed particles. Career Alvaro de Rújula was at Harvard University during the Standard Model revolution. Before and after, amongst many other places, he worked at CERN.   16:40 - 17:00: Coffee break   Luigi di Lella. 17:00 - 17:50: Lecture by Luigi di Lella: Experiments at CERN in the decade 1964-1974 (followed by 20 minut...

  7. Dusk to dawn activity patterns of anopheline mosquitoes in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike

    2011-05-01

    Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. We investigated the dusk to dawn anopheline mosquito activity patterns, host-seeking and resting locations in coastal plain, hilly and highland areas in West Timor and Java. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans or resting in houses or animal barns. Data analyzed were: mosquito night-time activities; period of peak activity; night-time activity in specific periods of time and for mosquito resting locations. Eleven species were recorded; data were sparse for some species therefore detailed analyses were performed for four species only. In Java Anopheles vagus was common, with a bimodal pattern of high activity. In West Timor, its activity peaked around midnight. Other species with peak activity around the middle of the night were An. barbirostris and An. subpictus. Most species showed no biting and resting preference for indoors or outdoors, although An. barbirostris preferred indoors in West Timor, but outdoors in Java. An. aconitus and An. annularis preferred resting in human dwellings; An. subpictus and An. vagus preferred resting in animal barns. An. barbirostris preferred resting in human dwellings in West Timor and in animal barns in Java. The information is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. For example, where mosquito species have peak activity at night indoors, bednets and indoor residual spraying should reduce malaria risk, but where mosquitoes are most active outdoors, other options may be more effective.

  8. BibSword Implementation of SWORD client in Invenio for the automated submission of digital objects to arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Barras, Mathieu; Abou Khaled, Omar; Mugellini, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Since recently, arXiv offers a new submission interface implementing SWORD. SWORD is a brand new protocol that defines a simple way to deposit digital document on web repositories. The most part of digital documents submitted on Invenio are also deposited on arXiv. For this reason, it is a relevant added value for Invenio to offers such an automated “Forward to ArXiv” option to its users. The aim of this project is then to analyse, design and implements a library oriented SWORD client module (BibSword). This module will offer an user interface and will be integrated in the Invenio submission process.

  9. Singing from North to South: Latitudinal variation in timing of dawn singing under natural and artificial light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Arnaud; Kempenaers, Bart

    2017-10-01

    Animals breeding at northern latitudes experience drastic changes in daily light conditions during the breeding season with decreasing periods of darkness, whereas those living at lower latitudes are exposed to naturally dark nights throughout the year. Nowadays, many animals are also exposed to artificial night lighting (often referred to as light pollution). Animals strongly rely on variation in light levels to time their daily and seasonal behaviour. Previous work on passerine birds showed that artificial night lighting leads to earlier onset of dawn song. However, these studies were carried out at intermediate latitudes with more limited seasonal changes in daylength, and we still lack an understanding of the impact of artificial night lighting in relation to variation in natural light conditions. We investigated the influence of natural and artificial light conditions on the timing of dawn singing in five common songbird species in each of three regions in Europe that differed in natural variation in daylength (northern Finland, 65°N; southern Germany, 48°N; southern Spain, 37°N). In each region, we selected five peri-urban forest sites with and five without street lighting, and we recorded dawn singing at the beginning of the local breeding season. Our results show that the earliest natural singers, that is, European robins (Erithacus rubecula) and common blackbirds (Turdus merula), started dawn singing earlier along with the natural increase in night brightness in Finland, with no additional effects of artificial night lighting. In contrast, the later singers, such as, great tits (Parus major), blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs), showed similar onsets of dawn song relative to sunrise across the season and similar effects of artificial night lighting at all latitudes. Artificial night lighting affected great tits, blue tits and chaffinches even in northern Finland where nights became very bright. Proximate factors such as

  10. Submissive display in young helmeted guineafowl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-06-04

    Jun 4, 1984 ... guardian lightly on the breast and to crawl under the guar- dian (Figure Ib). The reaction of the guardian is often ag- gressive e.g. pecking, trampling and dart chases; but these do not deter the chick. Submissive display may also be given after the guardian or a senior member has threatened the.

  11. International Journal of Health Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maximum length of manuscripts should be 6000 words (24 double-spaced typewritten pages) for review, 4000 words for research articles, 1,500 for technical notes, commentaries and short communications. Submission of Manuscript With effect from June 2006 all manuscripts (most be in English) and should be ...

  12. 17 CFR 201.222 - Prehearing submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PRACTICE Rules of Practice Initiation of Proceedings and Prehearing Rules § 201.222 Prehearing submissions... information as deemed appropriate, including any or all of the following: (1) An outline or narrative summary of its case or defense; (2) The legal theories upon which it will rely; (3) Copies and a list of...

  13. Southern African Journal of Critical Care: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Authorship should be based on: (i) substantial contribution to conceptualisation, design, analysis and interpretation of data; (ii) drafting or critical revision of important scientific ... If authors' names are added or deleted after submission of an article, or the order of the names is changed, all authors must agree to this in writing.

  14. Critical Studies in Teaching and Learning: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Submissions must be original research, and must be between 5000 and 8000 words excluding references and endnotes. STYLE GUIDE ... The journal uses U.K. punctuation and spelling, following The Oxford English Dictionary (OED). Foreign words .... In Jones, C., Turner, J. & Street, B.V. Students Writing in the University.

  15. International Journal of Humanistic Studies: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manuscripts are refereed anonymously; therefore, the author's name, e-mail address, and brief contributor information (not exceeding fifty words) should appear on the title page only. All pages must be numbered. The Journal prefers submissions sent as an e-mail attachment editoruniswaijhs@yahoo.com in Microsoft Word.

  16. Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Paper Submission Guidelines. A Submitted manuscript must be an original contribution, not previously published, and, not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. We prefer the articles and other material to be sent in a formatted text file like 'Microsoft word'. The articles can be sent by either ...

  17. Journal of Applied Science and Technology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. AIMS & SCOPE. The Journal of Applied Science and Technology (JAST) seeks to promote and disseminate knowledge of various research topics in the applied sciences which address issues of technological developments in the Tropics. GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS. 1. All submissions to the Journal of ...

  18. Journal of East African Natural History: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... Author Guidelines. Submission: manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document in an email attachment, to the Editor-in-Chief, Journal of East African Natural History at office@naturekenya.org. The manuscript should be accompanied by a covering letter from the author, or in the case of multiple ...

  19. 77 FR 60160 - Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Industrial Classification Codes: All. Description of Affected Public: U.S. companies or citizens investing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Submission for OMB Review AGENCY: Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC). ACTION: Request...

  20. 76 FR 38219 - Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Industrial Classification Codes: All. Description of Affected Public: U.S. companies or citizens investing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Submission for OMB Review AGENCY: Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC). ACTION: Request...

  1. 77 FR 33497 - Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Industrial Classification Codes: All. Description of Affected Public: U.S. companies or citizens investing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Submission for OMB Review AGENCY: Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC). ACTION: Request...

  2. 76 FR 38220 - Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...); individuals. Standard Industrial Classification Codes: All. Description of Affected Public: U.S. companies or... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Submission for OMB Review AGENCY: Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC). ACTION: Request...

  3. Notebook paper: TNO instance search submission 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Eendebak, P.T.; Staalduinen, M. van; Kraaij, W.

    2011-01-01

    The TNO instance search submission to TRECVID 2011 consisted of three different runs: one is using an exhaustive keypoint search, one is using a bag-of-visual-words approach and one is using open-source face-recognition software. Our run approaches: Briefly, what approach or combination of

  4. The swiss army knife of job submission tools: grid-control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, F.; Fischer, M.; Schleper, P.; Stadie, H.; Garbers, C.; Lange, J.; Kovalchuk, N.

    2017-10-01

    grid-control is a lightweight and highly portable open source submission tool that supports all common workflows in high energy physics (HEP). It has been used by a sizeable number of HEP analyses to process tasks that sometimes consist of up to 100k jobs. grid-control is built around a powerful plugin and configuration system, that allows users to easily specify all aspects of the desired workflow. Job submission to a wide range of local or remote batch systems or grid middleware is supported. Tasks can be conveniently specified through the parameter space that will be processed, which can consist of any number of variables and data sources with complex dependencies on each other. Dataset information is processed through a configurable pipeline of dataset filters, partition plugins and partition filters. The partition plugins can take the number of files, size of the work units, metadata or combinations thereof into account. All changes to the input datasets or variables are propagated through the processing pipeline and can transparently trigger adjustments to the parameter space and the job submission. While the core functionality is completely experiment independent, full integration with the CMS computing environment is provided by a small set of plugins.

  5. Evidence for a biological dawn and dusk in the human circadian timing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, T A; Aeschbach, D; Duncan, W C

    2001-01-01

    Because individuals differ in the phase angle at which their circadian rhythms are entrained to external time cues, averaging group data relative to clock time sometimes obscures abrupt changes that are characteristic of waveforms of the rhythms in individuals. Such changes may have important implications for the temporal organization of human circadian physiology. To control for variance in phase angle of entrainment, we used dual internal reference points – onset and offset of the nocturnal period of melatonin secretion – to calculate average profiles of circadian rhythm data from five previously published studies. Onset and/or offset of melatonin secretion were found to coincide with switch-like transitions between distinct diurnal and nocturnal periods of circadian rhythms in core body temperature, sleepiness, power in the theta band of the wake EEG, sleep propensity and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep propensity. Transitions between diurnal and nocturnal periods of sleep–wake and cortisol circadian rhythms were found to lag the other transitions by 1–3 h. When the duration of the daily light period was manipulated experimentally, melatonin-onset-related transitions in circadian rhythms appeared to be entrained to the light-to-dark transition, while melatonin-offset-related transitions appeared to be entrained to the dark-to-light transition. These results suggest a model of the human circadian timing system in which two states, one diurnal and one nocturnal, alternate with one another, and in which transitions between the states are switch-like and are separately entrained to dawn and dusk. This description of the human circadian system is similar to the Pittendrigh–Daan model of the rodent circadian system, and it suggests that core features of the system in other mammals are conserved in humans. PMID:11559786

  6. Dawn-dusk difference of periodic oxygen EUV dayglow variations at Venus observed by Hisaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Kei; Seki, Kanako; Terada, Naoki; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Kimura, Tomoki; Yoshioka, Kazuo; Murakami, Go; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Tao, Chihiro; Leblanc, François; Yoshikawa, Ichiro

    2017-08-01

    We report a dawn-dusk difference of periodic variations of oxygen EUV dayglow (OII 83.4 nm, OI 130.4 nm and OI 135.6 nm) in the upper atmosphere of Venus observed by the Hisaki spacecraft in 2015. Observations show that the periodic dayglow variations are mainly controlled by the solar EUV flux. Additionally, we observed characteristic ∼1 day and ∼4 day periodicities in the OI 135.6 nm brightness. The ∼1 day periodicity was dominant on the duskside while the ∼4 day periodicity was dominant on the dawnside. Although the driver of the ∼1 day periodicity is still uncertain, we suggest that the ∼4 day periodicity is caused by gravity waves that propagate from the middle atmosphere. The thermospheric subsolar-antisolar flow and the gravity waves dominantly enhance eddy diffusion on the dawnside, and the eddy diffusion coefficient changes every ∼4 days due to large periodic modulations of wind velocity of the super-rotating atmosphere. Since the ∼4 day modulations on the dawnside are not continuously observed, it is possible that there is an intermittent coupling between the thermosphere and middle atmosphere due to variations of wave source altitudes. Moreover, if there are variations of the wind velocity in the mesosphere or lower thermosphere, it is possible that gravity waves occasionally propagate to the thermosphere even on the duskside due to periodic disappearance of the critical level and the ∼4 day periodic O atomic modulations occur. Thus, our observations imply that the ∼4 day periodicity of the EUV dayglow may reflect the dynamics of the middle atmosphere of Venus. We also examined the effects of the solar wind on the dayglow variations by shifting the solar wind measurements from earth to Venus. We did not find clear correlations between them. However, since there are no local measurements of the solar wind at Venus, the effect of the solar wind on the dayglow is still uncertain.

  7. 76 FR 77831 - 2012 Presidential Candidate Matching Fund Submission Dates and Post Date of Ineligibility Dates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... 2012 Presidential Candidate Matching Fund Submission Dates and Post Date of Ineligibility Dates To...: Notice of matching fund submission dates and submission dates for statements of net outstanding campaign... fund submission dates for publicly funded 2012 presidential primary candidates. Eligible candidates may...

  8. 76 FR 8371 - Notice Correction; Generic Submission of Technology Transfer Center (TTC) External Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Notice Correction; Generic Submission of Technology... December 23, 2010 (75 FR 80830) announcing the submission to OMB of the project titled, ``Technology... submission ] is now being presented as a generic submission which will include multiple customer satisfaction...

  9. Object Based System for Batch Job Submission and Monitoring (BOSS)

    CERN Document Server

    Grandi, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the CERN LHC collider is producing large amounts of simulated data in order to provide an adequate statistic for Trigger System design. The event simulation process is composed by several steps and each step needs specific bookkeeping in order to assure the quality of the data produced. Furthermore production is carried on at several production centers, each one with its own hardware and software setup. In this work we present BOSS (Batch Object Submission System). BOSS provides real time monitoring and bookkeeping of jobs. Different job types can be registered to the BOSS System, allowing the storage on a local database of information specific to the task that is being performed by the job itself. BOSS is configured as an interface to local batch schedulers, providing a unique interface to the batch facilities. The use of BOSS as an interface to a GRID scheduler is also discussed.

  10. GSE moves to a new system of submission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since October 10, 2005 the management of manuscripts submitted to GSE has moved to a new electronic system: Management Manuscript System or MMS. This system offers different services, which facilitate submission of manuscripts and contribute to their efficient and rapid processing. It is accessible at: http://www.edpsciences.org/gse. With this system, we expect to process your manuscripts quickly and efficiently. In the editorial board, two new scientific editors: Hélène Hayes (INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France and Philippe Baret (Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium have taken over from Francis Minvielle, after six years of active and successful participation as Scientific Editor. H. Hayes will address manuscripts in molecular biology, while P. Baret will deal with those in quantitative genetics. Didier Boichard (INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France will act as Editor-in-Chief. The journal thanks Michel Georges for his continuous help, as former Editor-in-Chief, to improve the quality and the international audience of GSE. For the fourth consecutive year, the impact factor of GSE is in progression (1.65 in 2004. Most of the articles published in GSE have focused on original research in quantitative and molecular genetics of farm and experimental animals, as well as related species. Since the number of submissions has markedly increased over the last two years, GSE has slightly modified its scope by restricting it to domesticated and experimental species and leaving articles on wild species to more specialised journals. The expected outcome is that GSE will specialize on papers with a strong methodological dimension to help understand, maintain and exploit animal genetic variability.

  11. Factors associated to the career choice of family medicine among Japanese physicians: the dawn of a new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ie, Kenya; Tahara, Masao; Murata, Akiko; Komiyama, Manabu; Onishi, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent developments in post-graduate family medicine training in Japan, the numbers of junior doctors entering family medicine residencies are still limited. The objective of this qualitative study was to investigate the possible factors associated to the career choice of family medicine, especially in the context of the newly established family medicine programs in Japan. From December 2010 to January 2011, we distributed a semi-structured questionnaire about career choice to 58 physician members of the Japan Primary Care Association, and 41 of them responded. Four researchers used the Modified Grounded Theory Approach (Kinoshita, 2003) for three-stage conceptualization. We extracted a conceptual model of the choice of newly established family medicine as a career in Japan, consisting of six categories and 77 subordinate concepts from 330 variations. The subcategories of personal background affecting the family-medicine career choice were characteristics ("self-reliance," "pioneering spirit"), career direction ("community/rural-orientedness," "multifaceted orientation") and experience (e.g., "discomfort with fragmented care"). We divided the influencing factors that were identified for career choice into supporters (e.g., "role model"), conflict of career choice (e.g., "anxiety about diverse/broad practice"), and the dawn of a new era in family medicine in Japan (e.g., "lack of social recognition," "concern about livelihood," and "too few role models"). Although the dawn of a new era seemed a rather negative influencer, it was unique to our study that the dawn itself could attract those with a "pioneering spirit" and an "attitude of self-training." Unlike previous studies, the positive factors such as lifestyle and the short residency program were not shown to be part of family medicine's attractiveness. In contrast, "concern about livelihood" was specific among our respondents and was related to career choice in the dawn period. "Community

  12. Semi-automated Data Set Submission Work Flow for Archival with the ORNL DAAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D.; Beaty, T.; Cook, R. B.; Devarakonda, R.; Eby, P.; Heinz, S. L.; Hook, L. A.; McMurry, B. F.; Shanafield, H. A.; Sill, D.; Santhana Vannan, S.; Wei, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The ORNL DAAC archives and publishes, free of charge, data and information relevant to biogeochemical, ecological, and environmental processes. The ORNL DAAC primarily archives data produced by NASA's Terrestrial Ecology Program; however, any data that are pertinent to the biogeochemical and ecological community are of interest. The data set submission process to the ORNL DAAC has been recently updated and semi-automated to provide a consistent data provider experience and to create a uniform data product. The data archived at the ORNL DAAC must be well formatted, self-descriptive, and documented, as well as referenced in a peer-reviewed publication. If the ORNL DAAC is the appropriate archive for a data set, the data provider will be sent an email with several URL links to guide them through the submission process. The data provider will be asked to fill out a short online form to help the ORNL DAAC staff better understand the data set. These questions cover information about the data set, a description of the data set, temporal and spatial characteristics of the data set, and how the data were prepared and delivered. The questionnaire is generic and has been designed to gather input on the various diverse data sets the ORNL DAAC archives. A data upload module and metadata editor further guide the data provider through the submission process. For submission purposes, a complete data set includes data files, document(s) describing data, supplemental files, metadata record(s), and an online form. There are five major functions the ORNL DAAC performs during the process of archiving data: 1) Ingestion is the ORNL DAAC side of submission; data are checked, metadata records are compiled, and files are converted to archival formats. 2) Metadata records and data set documentation made searchable and the data set is given a permanent URL. 3) The data set is published, assigned a DOI, and advertised. 4) The data set is provided long-term post-project support. 5) Stewardship

  13. 47 CFR 90.807 - Submission of upfront payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submission of upfront payments. 90.807 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for 900 MHz Specialized Mobile Radio Service § 90.807 Submission of upfront payments. Each bidder in the 900 MHz SMR auction will be...

  14. 7 CFR 1703.146 - Submission of applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan Program § 1703.146 Submission of... Representatives (GFRs), by Rural Development State Directors, or by applicants themselves. Applications for loans... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of applications. 1703.146 Section 1703.146...

  15. 15 CFR 2009.0 - Submission of representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of representation. 2009.0... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE PROCEDURES FOR REPRESENTATIONS UNDER SECTION 422 OF THE TRADE AGREEMENTS ACT OF 1979 § 2009.0 Submission of representation. (a) Any—(1) Part to the Agreement; or (2...

  16. 77 FR 2947 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... techniques or other forms of information technology should be addressed to: Desk Officer for Agriculture... full effect if received within 30 days of this notification. Copies of the submission(s) may be...), as well as making sure they have no negative record that could be a negative reflection to USDA. The...

  17. 77 FR 73611 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... techniques or other forms of information technology should be addressed to: Desk Officer for Agriculture... full effect if received within 30 days of this notification. Copies of the submission(s) may be... Nutrition Service Title: Negative Quality Control Review Schedule. OMB Control Number: 0584-0034. Summary of...

  18. 40 CFR 145.22 - Elements of a program submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elements of a program submission. 145.22 Section 145.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE UIC PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 145.22 Elements of a...

  19. 40 CFR 271.5 - Elements of a program submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elements of a program submission. 271.5 Section 271.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Authorization § 271.5 Elements of a program submission. (a) Any State that seeks to administer a program under...

  20. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification and/or...

  1. East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The editors welcome submissions of relevance to human rights, peace, constitutional and administrative law, free=edom of information, gender, law and development, good governance and public international law. Interdisciplinary articles on the above topics are encouraged. All submissions should be ...

  2. XML Schema Guide for Primary CDR Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents the extensible markup language (XML) schema guide for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics’ (OPPT) e-CDRweb tool. E-CDRweb is the electronic, web-based tool provided by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the submission of Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) information. This document provides the user with tips and guidance on correctly using the version 1.7 XML schema. Please note that the order of the elements must match the schema.

  3. Spectrophotometric properties of dwarf planet Ceres from the VIR spectrometer on board the Dawn mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarniello, M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Raponi, A.; Longobardo, A.; Palomba, E.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Tosi, F.; Li, J.-Y.; Schröder, S. E.; Zambon, F.; Frigeri, A.; Fonte, S.; Giardino, M.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We present a study of the spectrophotometric properties of dwarf planet Ceres in the visual-to-infrared (VIS-IR) spectral range by means of hyper-spectral images acquired by the VIR imaging spectrometer on board the NASA Dawn mission. Methods: Disk-resolved observations with a phase angle within the 7° <α < 132° interval were used to characterize Ceres' phase curve in the 0.465-4.05 μm spectral range. Hapke's model was applied to perform the photometric correction of the dataset to standard observation geometry at VIS-IR wavelength, allowing us to produce albedo and color maps of the surface. The V-band magnitude phase function of Ceres has been computed from disk-resolved images and fitted with both the classical linear model and H-G formalism. Results: The single-scattering albedo and the asymmetry parameter at 0.55 μm are w = 0.14 ± 0.02 and ξ = -0.11 ± 0.08, respectively (two-lobe Henyey-Greenstein phase function); at the same wavelength, Ceres' geometric albedo as derived from our modeling is 0.094 ± 0.007; the roughness parameter is bar{θ=29° ± 6°}. Albedo maps indicate small variability on a global scale with an average reflectance at standard geometry of 0.034 ± 0.003. Nonetheless, isolated areas such as the Occator bright spots, Haulani, and Oxo show an albedo much higher than average. We measure a significant spectral phase reddening, and the average spectral slope of Ceres' surface after photometric correction is 1.1% kÅ-1 and 0.85% kÅ-1 at VIS and IR wavelengths, respectively. Broadband color indices are V-R = 0.38 ± 0.01 and R-I = 0.33 ± 0.02. Color maps show that the brightest features typically exhibit smaller slopes. The H-G modeling of the V-band magnitude phase curve for α < 30° gives H = 3.14 ± 0.04 and G = 0.10 ± 0.04, while the classical linear model provides V(1,1,0°) = 3.48 ± 0.03 and β = 0.036 ± 0.002. The comparison of our results with spectrophotometric properties of other minor bodies indicates that Ceres

  4. Regional and Local Temperature Maps of Dwarf Planet Ceres from Dawn/VIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Capria, M. T.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Ciarniello, M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Longobardo, A.; Raponi, A.; Ammannito, E.; Combe, J. P.; Hiesinger, H.; Li, J. Y.; McFadden, L. A.; Schorghofer, N.; Schroeder, S.; Stephan, K.; Rayman, M.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Since the beginning of 2015, the Visible InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer onboard the NASA Dawn mission has obtained hyperspectral images of Ceres, with improving spatial resolution. VIR operates in the overall spectral range 0.25-5.1 μm, with the main goal of inferring the surface composition of the target in its uppermost layer, as thick as tens of microns. Taking advantage of the wavelength range longward of 3 μm, VIR can be used as a thermal mapper, i.e. as a tool to derive thermal images and spatially-resolved temperature maps. To do this, the VIR team uses a Bayesian approach to nonlinear inversion that was extensively applied to the Vesta dataset earlier. Already in February 2015, VIR had the chance to acquire data with a spatial resolution of ~11 km/px. Those temperature images revealed that a spot of high-albedo (bright) material, highlighted by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) earlier and recently associated with the crater Haulani, was cooler than sorrounding regions seen under similar solar illumination, whereas the brightest spots on Ceres, in the crater Occator, did not display any thermal contrast. The following Survey phase yielded hyperspectral coverage of Ceres at ~1.3 km/px, and the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase starting in mid-August 2015 is expected to provide VIR data with a resolution of ~0.4 km/px. These datasets allow derivation of regional and local temperature maps as well as the study of thermal anomalies at those spatial scales. Due to the low overall thermal inertia of Ceres, the surface temperature is essentially dominated by the instantaneous value of the solar incidence angle. Small values of this angle result in high surface temperatures, and, unlike Vesta, the low obliquity of Ceres (~4°) does not result in observable seasonal effects for a given location on the surface. However, different responses to insolation as observed at the local scale may be indicative of differences in density/porosity and thermal

  5. Thermal measurements of dark and bright surface features on Vesta as derived from Dawn/VIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Federico; Capria, Maria Teresa; De Sanctis, M.C.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Zambon, F.; Nathues, A.; Schröder, S.E.; Li, J.-Y.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Blewett, D.T.; Denevi, B.W.; Palmer, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Titus, Timothy N.; Mittlefehldt, D.W.; Sunshine, J.M.; Russell, C.T.; Raymond, C.A.; Dawn/VIR Team,

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing data acquired during Dawn’s orbital mission at Vesta showed several local concentrations of high-albedo (bright) and low-albedo (dark) material units, in addition to spectrally distinct meteorite impact ejecta. The thermal behavior of such areas seen at local scale (1-10 km) is related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. We use Dawn’s Visible and InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer hyperspectral data to retrieve surface temperatures and emissivities, with high accuracy as long as temperatures are greater than 220 K. Some of the dark and bright features were observed multiple times by VIR in the various mission phases at variable spatial resolution, illumination and observation angles, local solar time, and heliocentric distance. This work presents the first temperature maps and spectral emissivities of several kilometer-scale dark and bright material units on Vesta. Results retrieved from the infrared data acquired by VIR show that bright regions generally correspond to regions with lower temperature, while dark regions correspond to areas with higher temperature. During maximum daily insolation and in the range of heliocentric distances explored by Dawn, i.e. 2.23-2.54 AU, the warmest dark unit found on Vesta rises to a temperature of 273 K, while bright units observed under comparable conditions do not exceed 266 K. Similarly, dark units appear to have higher emissivity on average compared to bright units. Dark-material units show a weak anticorrelation between temperature and albedo, whereas the relation is stronger for bright material units observed under the same conditions. Individual features may show either evanescent or distinct margins in the thermal images, as a consequence of the cohesion of the surface material. Finally, for the two categories of dark and bright materials, we were able to highlight the influence of heliocentric distance on surface temperatures, and estimate an

  6. Early birds are sexy: male age, dawn song and extrapair paternity in blue tits, Cyanistes (formerly Parus) caeruleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poesel, Angelika; Kunc, H.P.; Foerster, K.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that signals reflecting the relative quality of individuals should be used in mate choice. Females could base their choice of copulation partners on male secondary sexual traits that honestly signal male age, as predicted by the age-based indicator mechanism...... SY males. This difference in the onset of dawn singing was due to age-related changes in individual performance rather than differential survival of individuals with varying expression of the trait. Males that began to sing earlier at dawn had more mating partners, and were more likely to gain...

  7. Emergency Department Visits Involving Misuse and Abuse of the Antipsychotic Quetiapine: Results from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Mattson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Case reports in medical literature suggest that the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine, a medication not previously considered to have abuse potential, is now being subject to misuse and abuse (MUA; ie, taken when not prescribed for them or used in a way other than instructed by their health professional. Here we present systematic, nationally representative data from the 2005 to 2011 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN for prevalence of emergency department (ED visits among the U.S. general population involving quetiapine and related to MUA, suicide attempts, and adverse reactions. Nationally, quetiapine-related ED visits increased 90% between 2005 and 2011, from 35,581 ED visits to 67,497. DAWN data indicate that when used without medical supervision for recreational/self-medication purposes, quetiapine poses health risks for its users, especially among polydrug users and women. These findings suggest that the medical and public health communities should increase vigilance concerning this drug and its potential for MUA.

  8. Structure of the auroral precipitation region in the dawn sector: relationship to convection reversal boundaries and field-aligned currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Feldstein

    electrons and isotropic ion precipitation (AO is mapped to the dawn periphery of the Central Plasma Sheet (CPS; the soft small scale structured precipitation (SSSL is mapped to the outer magnetosphere close to the magnetopause, i.e. the Low Latitude Boundary Layer (LLBL. In the near-noon sector, earthward fluxes of soft electrons, which cause the Diffuse Red Aurora (DRA, are observed. The ion energies decrease with increasing latitude. The plasma spectra of the DRA regime are analogous to the spectra of the Plasma Mantle (PM. In the dawn sector, the large-scale field-aligned currents flow into the ionosphere at the SSSL latitudes (Region 1 and flow out at the AO or DAZ latitudes (Region 2. In the dawn and dusk sectors, the large-scale Region 1 and Region 2 FAC generation occurs in different plasma domains of the distant magnetosphere. The dawn and dusk FAC connection to the traditional Region 1 and Region 2 has only formal character, as FAC generating in various magnetospheric plasma domains integrate in the same region (Region 1 or Region 2. In the SSSL, there is anti-sunward convection; in the DAZ and the AO, there is the sunward convection. At PM latitudes, the convection is controlled by the azimuthal IMF component (By . It is suggested to extend the notation of the plasma pattern boundaries, as proposed by Newell et al. (1996, for the nightside sector of the auroral oval to the dawn sector.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; plasma convection

  9. Structure of the auroral precipitation region in the dawn sector: relationship to convection reversal boundaries and field-aligned currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Feldstein

    2001-05-01

    precipitation (AO is mapped to the dawn periphery of the Central Plasma Sheet (CPS; the soft small scale structured precipitation (SSSL is mapped to the outer magnetosphere close to the magnetopause, i.e. the Low Latitude Boundary Layer (LLBL. In the near-noon sector, earthward fluxes of soft electrons, which cause the Diffuse Red Aurora (DRA, are observed. The ion energies decrease with increasing latitude. The plasma spectra of the DRA regime are analogous to the spectra of the Plasma Mantle (PM. In the dawn sector, the large-scale field-aligned currents flow into the ionosphere at the SSSL latitudes (Region 1 and flow out at the AO or DAZ latitudes (Region 2. In the dawn and dusk sectors, the large-scale Region 1 and Region 2 FAC generation occurs in different plasma domains of the distant magnetosphere. The dawn and dusk FAC connection to the traditional Region 1 and Region 2 has only formal character, as FAC generating in various magnetospheric plasma domains integrate in the same region (Region 1 or Region 2. In the SSSL, there is anti-sunward convection; in the DAZ and the AO, there is the sunward convection. At PM latitudes, the convection is controlled by the azimuthal IMF component (By . It is suggested to extend the notation of the plasma pattern boundaries, as proposed by Newell et al. (1996, for the nightside sector of the auroral oval to the dawn sector.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; plasma convection

  10. The size, shape and orientation of the asteroid Vesta based on data from the Dawn mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Roohollah; Azmoudeh Ardalan, Alireza; Vasheghani Farahani, Soheil

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the size, shape, and orientation of the asteroid Vesta based on the Dawn spacecraft observations. In this line, three main reference surfaces are defined; the geoid, reference ellipsoid, and best-fit ellipsoid. To be consistent with International Astronomical Union (IAU) standards, all the computations are done in the Claudia Double-Prime coordinate system. The geoid and its potential value W0 are computed by fitting an equipotential surface to the shape of Vesta in a least-squares sense regarding the topographic bias effect. We find that the topographic bias effect on the geoid potential value as well as the geoidal and topographic heights is significant. The geoid potential value W0 is estimated equal to 68709 ± 24 m2/s2. The reference ellipsoid is defined as an equipotential ellipsoid which best fits the geoid. The reference ellipsoid is computed based on the fundamental geodetic constants which define a geodetic reference system (GRS). The semi-axes of the triaxial reference ellipsoid are found to be equal to 280413 ± 104 m, 274572 ± 102 m, and 231253 ± 86 m with the equatorial semi-major axis longitude 8.29°E, while the semi-axes of the biaxial reference ellipsoid are 278556 ± 117 m and 229921 ± 76 m. The results show that the geoidal heights with respect to the triaxial reference ellipsoid are significantly different from the geoidal heights with respect to the biaxial reference ellipsoid. The parameters of the best-fit ellipsoid are estimated by fitting geometrical ellipsoids with various degrees of freedom to Vesta's shape in a least-squares sense. We report the semi-axes of the general best-fit ellipsoid with 9 degrees of freedom equal to 284562 ± 75 m, 277248 ± 73 m, and 226405 ± 57 m. Regarding the orientation of Vesta, we find that the angle between the equatorial semi-major axis of the general best-fit ellipsoid and the X-axis of the coordinate system is 9.17∘ ± 0.47, and the angle between its polar axis

  11. 32 CFR 279.4 - Claims process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims process. 279.4 Section 279.4 National... RETROACTIVE STOP LOSS SPECIAL PAY COMPENSATION § 279.4 Claims process. (a) The last day for submission of... members may not be knowledgeable of the process and will require additional assistance after filing their...

  12. 5 CFR 1320.13 - Emergency processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency processing. 1320.13 Section... BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.13 Emergency processing. An agency head or the Senior Official, or their designee, may request OMB to authorize emergency processing of submissions of collections of information...

  13. Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs second study (DAWN2™) : Cross-national benchmarking indicators for family members living with people with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacs Burns, K.; Nicolucci, A.; Holt, R.I.G.; Willaing, I.; Hermanns, N.; Kalra, S.; Wens, J.; Pouwer, F.; Skovlund, S.E.; Peyrot, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims The second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study examined the experiences of family members of people with diabetes for benchmarking and identifying unmet needs or areas for improvement to assist family members and those with diabetes to effectively self-manage. Methods In total,

  14. The Relevance Concept of Dawn and Twilight in the Book of Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi for Determine Isya’ and Subuh Pray Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Eko Atmanto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Morning dawn and phenomenon twilight phenomenon are interesting for the sci- entists not only for weather forecast and navigation but also setting time prayer times for muslims. The concept of the morning dawn and evening twilight were introduced by al-Biruni in the book Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi. Al-Biruni described the scene at morning dawn and evening twilight in the book Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi and concluded that the twilight occur when the position of the sun is at an altitude of -18°. The concept of al-Biruni is recognized by modern science, astronomy, and the prophetic tradition for its conformity. Besides, the discovery of al-Biruni on the height of the sun is so far used by several religious organizations in some coun- tries to set the time for isha and fajr prayers. By using content analysis, this study discussed the relevance of the concept of morning dawn and evening twilight in the book Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi for determining maghrib prayer time, the praying time for isha and fajr as well.

  15. Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs second study (DAWN2™) : Cross-national benchmarking of diabetes-related psychosocial outcomes for people with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolucci, A.; Kovacs Burns, K.; Holt, R.I.G.; Comaschi, M.; Hermanns, N.; Ishii, H.; Kokoszka, A.; Pouwer, F.; Skovlund, S.E.; Stuckey, H.; Tarkun, I.; Vallis, M.; Wens, J.; Peyrot, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims The second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study aimed to assess psychosocial outcomes in people with diabetes across countries for benchmarking. Methods Surveys included new and adapted questions from validated questionnaires that assess health-related quality of life,

  16. Investigation of self-compassion, self-confidence and submissive behaviors of nursing students studying in different curriculums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraydın, Şahizer; Karagözoğlu, Şerife

    2017-07-01

    Today, nursing education which educates the future members of the nursing profession aims to gain them high self-esteem, selfconfidence and self-compassion, independence, assertiveness and ability to establish good human relations. This aim can only be achieved through a contemporary curriculum supporting students in the educational process and enabling those in charge to make arrangements by taking the characters and needs of each individual into account. The study aims to investigate self-compassion, self-confidence and submissive behaviours of undergraduate nursing students studying in different curriculums. This descriptive, cross-sectional, comparative study was carried out with the 1st- and 4th-year students of the three schools, each of which has a different curriculum: conventional, integrated and Problem Based Learning (PBL). The study data were collected with the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), Self-Confidence Scale (CS) and Submissive Acts Scale (SAS): The data were analyzed through frequency distribution, means, analysis of variance and the significance test for the difference between the two means. The mean scores the participating students obtained from the Self-Compassion, Self-confidence and Submissive Acts Scales were 3.31±0.56, 131.98±20.85 and 36.48±11.43 respectively. The integrated program students' mean self-compassion and self-confidence scores were statistically significantly higher and their mean submissive behaviour scores were lower than were those of the students studying in the other two programs (pnursing students tended to display moderate levels of selfcompassion, self-confidence and submissive behaviours, and that the selfcompassion and self-confidence scores of the 4th-year students in the integrated program were higher than were those of the students in the other two programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Longbow: A Lightweight Remote Job Submission Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gebbie-Rayet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present Longbow, a lightweight console-based remote job submission tool and library. Longbow allows the user to quickly and simply run jobs on high performance computing facilities without leaving their familiar desktop environment. Not only does Longbow greatly simplify the management of compute- intensive jobs for experienced researchers, it also lowers the technical barriers surrounding high perfor-mance computation for the next generation of scientists and engineers. Longbow has already been used to remotely submit jobs in a number of projects and has the potential to redefine the manner in which high performance computers are used.

  18. Dawn of the electronic age electrical technologies in the shaping of the modern world 1914 to 1945

    CERN Document Server

    Nebeker, Frederik

    2009-01-01

    Much of the infrastructure of today's industrialized world arose in the period from the outbreak of World War I to the conclusion of World War II. It was during these years that the capabilities of traditional electrical engineering became ubiquitous. Even more importantly, it was during this time that a new type of electrical engineering--electronics--emerged. Because of its applications in communications, entertainment, industry, science and medicine, and the military, the electronics industry became a major part of the economy. Dawn of the Electronic Age explores how this engineering knowledge and its main applications developed in various scientific, economic, and social contexts, and explains how each was profoundly affected by electrical technologies. It takes an international perspective and a narrative approach, unfolding the story chronologically. --from publisher description.

  19. Effects of artificial dawn and morning blue light on daytime cognitive performance, well-being, cortisol and melatonin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Virginie; Maire, Micheline; Reichert, Carolin F; Chellappa, Sarah L; Schmidt, Christina; Hommes, Vanja; Viola, Antoine U; Cajochen, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Light exposure elicits numerous effects on human physiology and behavior, such as better cognitive performance and mood. Here we investigated the role of morning light exposure as a countermeasure for impaired cognitive performance and mood under sleep restriction (SR). Seventeen participants took part of a 48h laboratory protocol, during which three different light settings (separated by 2 wks) were administered each morning after two 6-h sleep restriction nights: a blue monochromatic LED (light-emitting diode) light condition (BL; 100 lux at 470 nm for 20 min) starting 2 h after scheduled wake-up time, a dawn-simulating light (DsL) starting 30 min before and ending 20 min after scheduled wake-up time (polychromatic light gradually increasing from 0 to 250 lux), and a dim light (DL) condition for 2 h beginning upon scheduled wake time (melatonin and cortisol were collected throughout scheduled wakefulness in regular intervals, and the effects on melatonin were measured after only one light pulse. Following the first SR, analysis of the time course of cognitive performance during scheduled wakefulness indicated a decrease following DL, whereas it remained stable following BL and significantly improved after DsL. Cognitive performance levels during the second day after SR were not significantly affected by the different light conditions. However, after both SR nights, mood and well-being were significantly enhanced after exposure to morning DsL compared with DL and BL. Melatonin onset occurred earlier after morning BL exposure, than after morning DsL and DL, whereas salivary cortisol levels were higher at wake-up time after DsL compared with BL and DL. Our data indicate that exposure to an artificial morning dawn simulation light improves subjective well-being, mood, and cognitive performance, as compared with DL and BL, with minimal impact on circadian phase. Thus, DsL may provide an effective strategy for enhancing cognitive performance, well-being, and mood under

  20. Imaging the redshifted 21 cm pattern around the first sources during the cosmic dawn using the SKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghara, Raghunath; Choudhury, T. Roy; Datta, Kanan K.; Choudhuri, Samir

    2017-01-01

    Understanding properties of the first sources in the Universe using the redshifted H I 21 cm signal is one of the major aims of present and upcoming low-frequency experiments. We investigate the possibility of imaging the redshifted 21 cm pattern around the first sources during the cosmic dawn using the SKA1-low. We model the H I 21 cm image maps, appropriate for the SKA1-low, around the first sources consisting of stars and X-ray sources within galaxies. In addition to the system noise, we also account for the astrophysical foregrounds by adding them to the signal maps. We find that after subtracting the foregrounds using a polynomial fit and suppressing the noise by smoothing the maps over 10-30 arcmin angular scale, the isolated sources at z ˜ 15 are detectable with the ˜4σ-9σ confidence level in 2000 h of observation with the SKA1-low. Although the 21 cm profiles around the sources get altered because of the Gaussian smoothing, the images can still be used to extract some of the source properties. We account for overlaps in the patterns of the individual sources by generating realistic H I 21 cm maps of the cosmic dawn that are based on N-body simulations and a one-dimensional radiative transfer code. We find that these sources should be detectable in the SKA1-low images at z = 15 with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ˜14(4) in 2000 (200) h of observations. One possible observational strategy thus could be to observe multiple fields for shorter observation times, identify fields with SNR ≳ 3 and observe these fields for much longer duration. Such observations are expected to be useful in constraining the parameters related to the first sources.

  1. 77 FR 46412 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... collection is necessary to fulfill the mandate of the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act... make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as...

  2. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions AGENCY: Departmental Offices. ACTION..., the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office is seeking comments regarding Litigation Management..., preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record, Suite...

  3. 75 FR 75952 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology should be addressed to: Desk... surveillance. APHIS will collect information using VS form 10-4 and 10- 4A, Specimen Submission Form and...

  4. [SDC submission to the Welsh Assembly] [f]ood consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission Wales

    2010-01-01

    The final report of the consultation is entitled 'Food for Wales, food from Wales'. English language version of 'Ymgynghoriad ar fwyd'. Sustainable Development Commission Wales submission to the consultation on a food strategy for Wales. Publisher PDF

  5. 78 FR 66973 - Submission for Review: Representative Payee Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    .... chapter 35) as amended by the Clinger-Cohen Act (Pub. L. 104-106), OPM is soliciting comments for this... other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submissions of responses. DATES...

  6. 78 FR 28006 - Submission for Review: Reemployment of Annuitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. chapter 35) as amended by the Clinger-Cohen Act... information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submissions of responses. DATES: Comments are encouraged...

  7. 77 FR 66189 - Submission for Review: Reemployment of Annuitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. chapter 35) as amended by the Clinger-Cohen Act... information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submissions of responses. DATES: Comments are encouraged...

  8. 78 FR 45579 - Submission for Review: Information Collection;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Clinger-Cohen Act (Pub. L. 104-106), OPM is soliciting comments for this collection. The Office of... information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submissions of responses. DATES: Comments are encouraged...

  9. 75 FR 56516 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... used to notify the training facility of assignments to classes, and for cost analysis, budget estimates... the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  10. 77 FR 72335 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... metrics and data management reports; to register applicants for classes; to notify users of future events... make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as...

  11. 75 FR 76022 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cost Submission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... estimate of the burden of the proposed collection of information, including the validity of the methodology... can be found at http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/toolbox/forms/ . Current Actions: This submission is being...

  12. 75 FR 52307 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Archive; 3 hours for the submission of an operational quarterly report; 8 hours for an annual compliance... Internet at [email protected] ). Written comments and recommendations for the proposed information collection...

  13. Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geenen, P.V.; Bennis, J.

    1989-04-04

    A process is described for minimizing the cracking tendency and uncontrolled dimensional change, and improving the strength of a rammed plastic refractory reactor liner comprising phosphate-bonded silicon carbide or phosphate-bonded alumina. It consists of heating the reactor liner placed or mounted in a reactor, prior to its first use, from ambient temperature up to a temperature of from about 490/sup 0/C to about 510/sup 0/C, the heating being carried out by heating the liner at a rate to produce a temperature increase of the liner not greater than about 6/sup 0/C per hour.

  14. Regulatory Submission Coordinator | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides administrative support to the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI’s), Center for Cancer Research (CCR), Protocol Support Office (PSO). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES Performs regulatory submission/administrative duties for the Protocol Support Office, NCI/CCR Assists with the preparation of documents to include protocols, investigator brochures, consent forms, and submissions to the FDA Maintains revision logs and tracking versions of the documents Provides accurate filing of pertinent regulatory documents Provides administrative support related to document control requirements including filing of master documents, formatting and typing of various document Attends regulatory and administrative meetings for taking and typing of minutes, reports and summaries Communicates with clinical, administrative and management personnel to gather or convey information Edits and prepares material for final review Participates in planning functions Works in conjunction with other administrative staff to accomplish program requirements Acts as liaison coordinating tasks/deadlines between the Clinical Research ARC and the Branch This position is located in Rockville, Maryland.

  15. Global Journal of Humanities: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Articles should be sent to the Editor-In-Chief and Managing Editor. An assessment fee of N1000 (One Thousand Naira) or (US$10) should accompany all articles submitted. Articles not accompanied by the assessment fee shall not be processed. If you want to send your article through the internet please use Microsoft word ...

  16. Journal of Agricultural Extension: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    297mm) paper and not more than 12 double spaced pages.( using one-inch margins with. Arial Theme and 12-point), inclusive of references, tables, figures and appendixes. JAE reserves the right to ask authors to shorten excessively long papers before they are entered in the review process. However, JAE recognizes that ...

  17. Journal of Aquatic Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acceptable topics include aquatic biology, aquatic resources management, aquatic ecotoxicology and pollution, fish physiology, nutrition, health, breeding, population dynamics, fish processing and preservation. Categories of articles include the following: v Full research papers must not exceed 18 manuscript pages ...

  18. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manuscripts should be word-processed in MS Word Software and written in concise English. ... Original works should be in line with the following organization: Abstract, Keywords, Text (Introduction, Material and Methods, Results and Discussion), Acknowledgements and ... Tables must be created with MS Word Table Tool.

  19. Managing a Leader Transition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-23

    GENERAL DOUGLAS MACARTHUR MILITARY LEADERSHIP WRITING COMPETITION SUBMISSION Managing a Leader Transition Process Major Michael B. Siegl 23...DATE 23 FEB 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Managing a Leader Transition Process 5a...1 Managing a Leader Transition Process …one should bear in mind that there is nothing more difficult to execute, nor more dubious of

  20. 78 FR 35940 - Content of Premarket Submissions for Management of Cybersecurity in Medical Devices; Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Content of Premarket Submissions for Management of... Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the draft guidance entitled ``Content of Premarket... draft guidance document entitled ``Content of Premarket Submissions for Management of Cybersecurity in...

  1. 77 FR 46763 - Documents to Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Documents to Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... documents that support making regulatory submissions in electronic format using the electronic Common...

  2. 78 FR 10181 - Documents To Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Documents To Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... versions of documents that support making regulatory submissions in ] electronic format using the...

  3. 76 FR 66311 - Draft Documents To Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Documents To Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... the following draft versions of documents that support making regulatory submissions in electronic...

  4. Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions 2.0 (TSCATS 2.0)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions 2.0 (TSCATS 2.0) tracks the submissions of health and safety data submitted to the EPA either as required or...

  5. 75 FR 65511 - Employee Benefits Security Administration; Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ...., permitting electronic submission of responses. Agency: Employee Benefits Security Administration. Type of... of the Secretary Employee Benefits Security Administration; Submission for OMB Review ACTION: Notice..., Attn: OMB Desk Officer for the Department of Labor--Employee Benefits Security Administration (EBSA...

  6. Journal of Environmental Extension: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manuscripts should be written in English and computer word processed on Microsoft Word, Word Perfect 6.1 or lower versions or PageMaker 6.5 or lower versions (keep a 3.5 floppy file copy). Manually typed manuscripts will be charged for type-setting. Three (3) printed copies of not more than ten (10) A4 pages in double ...

  7. 24 CFR 291.304 - Bidding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bidding process. 291.304 Section 291.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Family Mortgage Loans § 291.304 Bidding process. (a) Submission of bids. All bids must be submitted to...

  8. Submission of content to a digital object repository using a configurable workflow system

    OpenAIRE

    Hense, Andreas; Mueller, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    The prototype of a workflow system for the submission of content to a digital object repository is here presented. It is based entirely on open-source standard components and features a service-oriented architecture. The front-end consists of Java Business Process Management (jBPM), Java Server Faces (JSF), and Java Server Pages (JSP). A Fedora Repository and a mySQL data base management system serve as a back-end. The communication between front-end and back-end uses a SOAP minimal binding s...

  9. 7 CFR 400.702 - Confidentiality of submission and duration of confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality of submission and duration of confidentiality. 400.702 Section 400.702 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Submission of Policies, Provisions of Policies and Rates of Premium § 400.702 Confidentiality of submission...

  10. 28 CFR 512.14 - Submission and processing of proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... membership requirements of an IRB, as specified in 28 CFR part 46. (2) The warden shall review the comments... individual or group behavior or characteristics of individuals, where the investigator does not manipulate subjects' behavior and the research will not involve stress to subjects. Such research would include test...

  11. Day of the week effect in paper submission/acceptance/rejection to/in/by peer review journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, Marcel; Nedic, Olgica; Dekanski, Aleksandar

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims at providing an introduction to the behavior of authors submitting a paper to a scientific journal. Dates of electronic submission of papers to the Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society have been recorded from the 1st January 2013 till the 31st December 2014, thus over 2 years. There is no Monday or Friday effect like in financial markets, but rather a Tuesday-Wednesday effect occurs: papers are more often submitted on Wednesday; however, the relative number of going to be accepted papers is larger if these are submitted on Tuesday. On the other hand, weekend days (Saturday and Sunday) are not the best days to finalize and submit manuscripts. An interpretation based on the type of submitted work ("experimental chemistry") and on the influence of (senior) coauthors is presented. A thermodynamic connection is proposed within an entropy context. A (new) entropic distance is defined in order to measure the "opaqueness" = disorder) of the submission process.

  12. Impact of Time-Restricted Feeding and Dawn-to-Sunset Fasting on Circadian Rhythm, Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse L. Mindikoglu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity now affects millions of people and places them at risk of developing metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. This rapidly emerging epidemic has led to a search for cost-effective methods to prevent the metabolic syndrome and NAFLD as well as the progression of NAFLD to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In murine models, time-restricted feeding resets the hepatic circadian clock and enhances transcription of key metabolic regulators of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Studies of the effect of dawn-to-sunset Ramadan fasting, which is akin to time-restricted feeding model, have also identified significant improvement in body mass index, serum lipid profiles, and oxidative stress parameters. Based on the findings of studies conducted on human subjects, dawn-to-sunset fasting has the potential to be a cost-effective intervention for obesity, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD.

  13. European Strategy Preparatory Group - CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the European Strategy Preparatory Group (ESPG) welcomes submissions on issues related to the strategy from individual physicists, from groups of scientists representing a community (an experiment, a topic of theoretical research, etc.) as well as from Institutions and Organizations (funding agencies, ministries, etc).   These contributions will be discussed at the meetings of the Preparatory Group and during the Open Symposium to be held on 10-12 September 2012 in Cracow, and will be made available to the Strategy Group for drafting the Update of the Strategy. How to submit a contribution? Send your contribution on the scientific issues below using the form under http://indico.cern.ch/event/espg_input (preferably as an attached PDF file): - Accelerator Physics - Astroparticle Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology - Flavour Physics and Symmetries - Physics at High Energy Frontier - Physics of Neutrinos - Strong Interaction Physics...

  14. Fentanyl Law Enforcement Submissions and Increases in Synthetic Opioid-Involved Overdose Deaths - 27 States, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, R Matthew; Martinez, Pedro; Seth, Puja

    2016-08-26

    In March and October 2015, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and CDC, respectively, issued nationwide alerts identifying illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) as a threat to public health and safety (1,2). IMF is unlawfully produced fentanyl, obtained through illicit drug markets, includes fentanyl analogs, and is commonly mixed with or sold as heroin (1,3,4). Starting in 2013, the production and distribution of IMF increased to unprecedented levels, fueled by increases in the global supply, processing, and distribution of fentanyl and fentanyl-precursor chemicals by criminal organizations (3). Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid 50-100 times more potent than morphine (2).* Multiple states have reported increases in fentanyl-involved overdose (poisoning) deaths (fentanyl deaths) (2). This report examined the number of drug products obtained by law enforcement that tested positive for fentanyl (fentanyl submissions) and synthetic opioid-involved deaths other than methadone (synthetic opioid deaths), which include fentanyl deaths and deaths involving other synthetic opioids (e.g., tramadol). Fentanyl deaths are not reported separately in national data. Analyses also were conducted on data from 27 states(†) with consistent death certificate reporting of the drugs involved in overdoses. Nationally, the number of fentanyl submissions and synthetic opioid deaths increased by 426% and 79%, respectively, during 2013-2014; among the 27 analyzed states, fentanyl submission increases were strongly correlated with increases in synthetic opioid deaths. Changes in fentanyl submissions and synthetic opioid deaths were not correlated with changes in fentanyl prescribing rates, and increases in fentanyl submissions and synthetic opioid deaths were primarily concentrated in eight states (high-burden states). Reports from six of the eight high-burden states indicated that fentanyl-involved overdose deaths were primarily driving increases in synthetic opioid deaths. Increases in

  15. An analysis of United States K-12 stem education versus STEM workforce at the dawn of the digital revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Franca

    The world is at the dawn of a third industrial revolution, the digital revolution, that brings great changes the world over. Today, computing devices, the Internet, and the World Wide Web are vital technology tools that affect every aspect of everyday life and success. While computing technologies offer enormous benefits, there are equally enormous safety and security risks that have been growing exponentially since they became widely available to the public in 1994. Cybercriminals are increasingly implementing sophisticated and serious hack attacks and breaches upon our nation's government, financial institutions, organizations, communities, and private citizens. There is a great need for computer scientists to carry America's innovation and economic growth forward and for cybersecurity professionals to keep our nation safe from criminal hacking. In this digital age, computer science and cybersecurity are essential foundational ingredients of technological innovation, economic growth, and cybersecurity that span all industries. Yet, America's K-12 education institutions are not teaching the computer science and cybersecurity skills required to produce a technologically-savvy 21st century workforce. Education is the key to preparing students to enter the workforce and, therefore, American K-12 STEM education must be reformed to accommodate the teachings required in the digital age. Keywords: Cybersecurity Education, Cybersecurity Education Initiatives, Computer Science Education, Computer Science Education Initiatives, 21 st Century K-12 STEM Education Reform, 21st Century Digital Literacies, High-Tech Innovative Problem-Solving Skills, 21st Century Digital Workforce, Standardized Testing, Foreign Language and Culture Studies, Utica College, Professor Chris Riddell.

  16. The Geology of the Marcia Quadrangle of Asteroid 4Vesta: An Integrated Mapping Study Using Dawn Spacecraft Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David A.; Denevi, B. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Mest, S. C.; Schenk, P. M.; Jaumann, R.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Ammannito, E.; Prettyman, T. H.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We used geologic mapping applied to Dawn data as a tool to understand the geologic history of the Marcia quadrangle of Vesta. This region hosts a set of relatively fresh craters and surrounding ejecta field, an unusual dark hill named Arisia Tholus, and a orange (false color) diffuse material surrounding the crater Octavia. Stratigraphically, from oldest to youngest, three increasingly larger impact craters named Minucia, Calpurnia, and Marcia make up a snowmanlike feature, which is surrounded by a zone of dark material interpreted to consist of impact ejecta and possibly impact melts. The floor of Marcia contains a pitted terrain thought to be related to release of volatiles (1). The dark ejecta field has an enhanced signature of H, possibly derived from carbonaceous chondritic material that accumulated in Vesta s crust (2,3). The dark ejecta has a spectrally distinctive behavior with shallow pyroxenes band depths. Outside the ejecta field this quadrangle contains various cratered terrains, with increasing crater abundance moving south to north away from the Rheasilvia basin. Arisia Tholus, originally suggested as an ancient volcano, appears to be an impact-sculpted basin rim fragment with a superposed darkrayed impact crater. There remains no unequivocal evidence of volcanic features on Vesta s surface, likely because basaltic material of the HED meteorite suite demonstrates magmatism ended very early on Vesta (4). Ongoing work includes application of crater statistical techniques to obtain model ages of surface units, and more detailed estimates of the compositional variations among the surface units.

  17. Dawn-dusk asymmetries and sub-Alfvénic flow in the high and low latitude magnetosheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Longmore

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath using four years of Cluster orbital coverage. Moments of the plasma distribution obtained from the electron and ion instruments together with magnetic field data are used to characterise the flow and density in the magnetosheath. We note two important differences between our survey and the gasdynamic model predictions: a deceleration of the flow at higher latitudes close to the magnetopause, resulting in sub-Alfvénic flow near the cusp, and a dawn-dusk asymmetry with higher velocity magnitudes and lower densities measured on the dusk side of the magnetosheath in the Northern Hemisphere. The latter observation is in agreement with studies carried out by Paularena et al. (2001, Němeček et al. (2000, and Šafránková et al. (2004. In equations of hydrodynamics for a single-component additon to this we observe a reverse of this asymmetry for the Southern Hemisphere. High-latitude sub-Alfvénic flow is thought to be a necessary condition for steady state reconnection pole-ward of the cusp.

  18. A new dawn in modern perio-diagnostics: Saliva and gingival crevicular fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a chronic microbial infection. There is a need for the evolvement of contemporary diagnostic tests to improve the clinical management. Molecular arrays for the detection of biomarkers on the different stages of the disease help in understanding various mediators of the disease process. This evolutionary process has promoted the discovery of new biomarkers. A periodontal diagnostic tool provides pertinent information for differential diagnosis and localization of disease. Human saliva is an easily accessible biochemical fluid, which is similar to blood in various biological aspects. Gingival crevicular fluid is an inflammatory exudate that represents serum components overlaid with products from local physiologic phenomena, and has diagnostic value.

  19. An updated protocol to detect invalid entries in an online survey of men who have sex with men (MSM): how do valid and invalid submissions compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Jeremy A; Konstan, Joseph; Iantaffi, Alex; Wilkerson, J Michael; Galos, Dylan; Rosser, B R Simon

    2015-10-01

    Researchers use protocols to screen for suspicious survey submissions in online studies. We evaluated how well a de-duplication and cross-validation process detected invalid entries. Data were from the Sexually Explicit Media Study, an Internet-based HIV prevention survey of men who have sex with men. Using our protocol, 146 (11.6 %) of 1254 entries were identified as invalid. Most indicated changes to the screening questionnaire to gain entry (n = 109, 74.7 %), matched other submissions' payment profiles (n = 56, 41.8 %), or featured an IP address that was recorded previously (n = 43, 29.5 %). We found few demographic or behavioral differences between valid and invalid samples, however. Invalid submissions had lower odds of reporting HIV testing in the past year (OR 0.63), and higher odds of requesting no payment compared to check payments (OR 2.75). Thus, rates of HIV testing would have been underestimated if invalid submissions had not been removed, and payment may not be the only incentive for invalid participation.

  20. Modeling healthcare authorization and claim submissions using the openEHR dual-model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freire Sergio M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TISS standard is a set of mandatory forms and electronic messages for healthcare authorization and claim submissions among healthcare plans and providers in Brazil. It is not based on formal models as the new generation of health informatics standards suggests. The objective of this paper is to model the TISS in terms of the openEHR archetype-based approach and integrate it into a patient-centered EHR architecture. Methods Three approaches were adopted to model TISS. In the first approach, a set of archetypes was designed using ENTRY subclasses. In the second one, a set of archetypes was designed using exclusively ADMIN_ENTRY and CLUSTERs as their root classes. In the third approach, the openEHR ADMIN_ENTRY is extended with classes designed for authorization and claim submissions, and an ISM_TRANSITION attribute is added to the COMPOSITION class. Another set of archetypes was designed based on this model. For all three approaches, templates were designed to represent the TISS forms. Results The archetypes based on the openEHR RM (Reference Model can represent all TISS data structures. The extended model adds subclasses and an attribute to the COMPOSITION class to represent information on authorization and claim submissions. The archetypes based on all three approaches have similar structures, although rooted in different classes. The extended openEHR RM model is more semantically aligned with the concepts involved in a claim submission, but may disrupt interoperability with other systems and the current tools must be adapted to deal with it. Conclusions Modeling the TISS standard by means of the openEHR approach makes it aligned with ISO recommendations and provides a solid foundation on which the TISS can evolve. Although there are few administrative archetypes available, the openEHR RM is expressive enough to represent the TISS standard. This paper focuses on the TISS but its results may be extended to other billing

  1. Introducing a Web API for Dataset Submission into a NASA Earth Science Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, D. F.; Quach, N.; Francis-Curley, W.

    2016-12-01

    As the landscape of data becomes increasingly more diverse in the domain of Earth Science, the challenges of managing and preserving data become more onerous and complex, particularly for data centers on fixed budgets and limited staff. Many solutions already exist to ease the cost burden for the downstream component of the data lifecycle, yet most archive centers are still racing to keep up with the influx of new data that still needs to find a quasi-permanent resting place. For instance, having well-defined metadata that is consistent across the entire data landscape provides for well-managed and preserved datasets throughout the latter end of the data lifecycle. Translators between different metadata dialects are already in operational use, and facilitate keeping older datasets relevant in today's world of rapidly evolving metadata standards. However, very little is done to address the first phase of the lifecycle, which deals with the entry of both data and the corresponding metadata into a system that is traditionally opaque and closed off to external data producers, thus resulting in a significant bottleneck to the dataset submission process. The ATRAC system was the NOAA NCEI's answer to this previously obfuscated barrier to scientists wishing to find a home for their climate data records, providing a web-based entry point to submit timely and accurate metadata and information about a very specific dataset. A couple of NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) have implemented their own versions of a web-based dataset and metadata submission form including the ASDC and the ORNL DAAC. The Physical Oceanography DAAC is the most recent in the list of NASA-operated DAACs who have begun to offer their own web-based dataset and metadata submission services to data producers. What makes the PO.DAAC dataset and metadata submission service stand out from these pre-existing services is the option of utilizing both a web browser GUI and a RESTful API to

  2. REMINDER : deadline for submission of reimbursements claims to UNIQA

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    We would like to remind you of the resolution which took effect from 1 June 2010 changing the deadline for submitting a claim from 24 months to 12 months from the invoice date (as opposed to from the time of treatment). As a transitional measure, it is still possible to submit invoices issued prior to 1 June 2010 as long as they do not date back to more than two years (from the invoice date) at the time of submission. The deadline for transitional claims is 31 May 2011. You are advised to check any outstanding submissions that you have since, as from 1 June 2011, no transitional claims will be accepted.  

  3. Cosmic Dawn (CoDa): the First Radiation-Hydrodynamics Simulation of Reionization and Galaxy Formation in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocvirk, Pierre; Gillet, Nicolas; Shapiro, Paul R.; Aubert, Dominique; Iliev, Ilian T.; Teyssier, Romain; Yepes, Gustavo; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Sullivan, David; Knebe, Alexander; Gottlöber, Stefan; D'Aloisio, Anson; Park, Hyunbae; Hoffman, Yehuda; Stranex, Timothy

    2016-12-01

    Cosmic reionization by starlight from early galaxies affected their evolution, thereby impacting reionization itself. Star formation suppression, for example, may explain the observed underabundance of Local Group dwarfs relative to N-body predictions for cold dark matter. Reionization modelling requires simulating volumes large enough [˜ (100 Mpc)3] to sample reionization `patchiness', while resolving millions of galaxy sources above ˜108 M⊙ combining gravitational and gas dynamics with radiative transfer. Modelling the Local Group requires initial cosmological density fluctuations pre-selected to form the well-known structures of the Local Universe today. Cosmic Dawn (`CoDa') is the first such fully coupled, radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of reionization of the Local Universe. Our new hybrid CPU-GPU code, RAMSES-CUDATON, performs hundreds of radiative transfer and ionization rate-solver timesteps on the GPUs for each hydro-gravity timestep on the CPUs. CoDa simulated (91Mpc)3 with 40963 particles and cells, to redshift 4.23, on ORNL supercomputer Titan, utilizing 8192 cores and 8192 GPUs. Global reionization ended slightly later than observed. However, a simple temporal rescaling which brings the evolution of ionized fraction into agreement with observations also reconciles ionizing flux density, cosmic star formation history, CMB electron scattering optical depth and galaxy UV luminosity function with their observed values. Photoionization heating suppressed the star formation of haloes below ˜2 × 109 M⊙, decreasing the abundance of faint galaxies around MAB1600 = [-10, -12]. For most of reionization, star formation was dominated by haloes between 1010-1011 M⊙ , so low-mass halo suppression was not reflected by a distinct feature in the global star formation history. Intergalactic filaments display sheathed structures, with hot envelopes surrounding cooler cores, but do not self-shield, unlike regions denser than 100 .

  4. SVD/MCMC Data Analysis Pipeline for Global Redshifted 21-cm Spectrum Observations of the Cosmic Dawn and Dark Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Tauscher, Keith; Rapetti, David; Mirocha, Jordan; Switzer, Eric

    2018-01-01

    We have designed a complete data analysis pipeline for constraining Cosmic Dawn physics using sky-averaged spectra in the VHF range (40-200 MHz) obtained either from the ground (e.g., the Experiment to Detect Global Epoch of Reionization Signal, EDGES; and the Cosmic Twilight Polarimeter, CTP) or from orbit above the lunar farside (e.g., the Dark Ages Radio Explorer, DARE). In the case of DARE, we avoid Earth-based RFI, ionospheric effects, and radio solar emissions (when observing at night). To extract the 21-cm spectrum, we parametrize the cosmological signal and systematics with two separate sets of modes defined through Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of training set curves. The training set for the 21-cm spin-flip brightness temperatures is composed of theoretical models of the first stars, galaxies and black holes created by varying physical parameters within the ares code. The systematics training set is created using sky and beam data to model the beam-weighted foregrounds (which are about four orders of magnitude larger than the signal) as well as expected lab data to model receiver systematics. To constrain physical parameters determining the 21-cm spectrum, we apply to the extracted signal a series of consecutive fitting techniques including two usages of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. Importantly, our pipeline efficiently utilizes the significant differences between the foreground and the 21-cm signal in spatial and spectral variations. In addition, it incorporates for the first time polarization data, dramatically improving the constraining power. We are currently validating this end-to-end pipeline using detailed simulations of the signal, foregrounds and instruments. This work was directly supported by the NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute cooperative agreement number 80ARC017M0006 and funding from the NASA Ames Research Center cooperative agreement NNX16AF59G.

  5. The INTERBALL-Tail ELECTRON experiment: initial results on the low-latitude boundary layer of the dawn magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-A. Sauvaud

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available The Toulouse electron spectrometer flown on the Russian project INTERBALL-Tail performs electron measurements from 10 to 26 000 eV over a 4 solid angle in a satellite rotation period. The INTERBALL-Tail probe was launched on 3 August 1995 together with a subsatellite into a 65° inclination orbit with an apogee of about 30 RE. The INTERBALL mission also includes a polar spacecraft launched in August 1996 for correlated studies of the outer magnetosphere and of the auroral regions. We present new observations concerning the low-latitude boundary layers (LLBL of the magnetosphere obtained near the dawn magnetic meridian. LLBL are encountered at the interface between two plasma regimes, the magnetosheath and the dayside extension of the plasma sheet. Unexpectedly, the radial extent of the region where LLBL electrons can be sporadically detected as plasma clouds can reach up to 5 RE inside the magnetopause. The LLBL core electrons have an average energy of the order of 100 eV and are systematically field-aligned and counterstreaming. As a trend, the temperature of the LLBL electrons increases with decreasing distance to Earth. Along the satellite orbit, the apparent time of occurrence of LLBL electrons can vary from about 5 to 20 min from one pass to another. An initial first comparison between electron- and magnetic-field measurements indicates that the LLBL clouds coincide with a strong increase in the magnetic field (by up to a factor of 2. The resulting strong magnetic field gradient can explain why the plasma-sheet electron flux in the keV range is strongly depressed in LLBL occurrence regions (up to a factor of \\sim10. We also show that LLBL electron encounters are related to field-aligned current structures and that wide LLBL correspond to northward interplanetary magnetic field. Evidence for LLBL/plasma-sheet electron leakage into the magnetosheath during southward IMF is also presented.

  6. Persistent pain and comorbidity among Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/operation New Dawn veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Diana M; Kerns, Robert D; Brandt, Cynthia A; Haskell, Sally G; Bathulapalli, Harini; Gilliam, Wesley; Goulet, Joseph L

    2014-05-01

    Chronic pain is a significant concern for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), with chronic pain conditions among those most frequently reported by Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)/Operation New Dawn (OND) veterans. The current study examined VHA electronic medical record data to examine variation in demographics and high prevalence and high impact medical and mental health conditions in order to characterize the differences between patients with persistent pain and no pain. A conservative operational definition of chronic or "persistent pain" based on multiple indicators of pain (i.e., pain intensity ratings, prescription opioids, pain clinic visits, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes) was employed. Analyses included the entire roster of longitudinal clinical data on OEF/OIF/OND veterans who used VHA care to compare those with persistent pain with those with no clinical evidence of pain. Results of logistic regression models suggest that sex, race, education, military variables, body mass index (BMI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and mental health conditions, but not age, reliably discriminate the two groups. Those with persistent pain were more likely to be Black, female, on active duty, enlisted, Army service members, have a high school education or less, and have diagnoses of mood disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, TBI, and have a BMI consistent with overweight and obesity. The operational definition of chronic pain used in this study may have research implications for examining predictors of incident and chronic pain. These data have important clinical implications in that addressing comorbid conditions of persistent pain may improve adaptive coping and functioning in these patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Vortical Dawn Flank Boundary Layer for Near-Radial IMF: Wind Observations on 24 October 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Gratton, F. T.; Gnavi, G.; Torbert, R. B.; Wilson, Lynn B., III

    2014-01-01

    We present an example of a boundary layer tailward of the dawn terminator which is entirely populated by rolled-up flow vortices. Observations were made by Wind on 24 October 2001 as the spacecraft moved across the region at the X plane approximately equal to -13 Earth radii. Interplanetary conditions were steady with a near-radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Approximately 15 vortices were observed over the 1.5 hours duration of Wind's crossing, each lasting approximately 5 min. The rolling up is inferred from the presence of a hot tenuous plasma being accelerated to speeds higher than in the adjoining magnetosheath, a circumstance which has been shown to be a reliable signature of this in single-spacecraft observations. A blob of cold dense plasma was entrained in each vortex, at whose leading edge abrupt polarity changes of field and velocity components at current sheets were regularly observed. In the frame of the average boundary layer velocity, the dense blobs were moving predominantly sunward and their scale size along the X plane was approximately 7.4 Earth radii. Inquiring into the generation mechanism of the vortices, we analyze the stability of the boundary layer to sheared flows using compressible magnetohydrodynamic Kelvin-Helmholtz theory with continuous profiles for the physical quantities. We input parameters from (i) the exact theory of magnetosheath flow under aligned solar wind field and flow vectors near the terminator and (ii) the Wind data. It is shown that the configuration is indeed Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) unstable. This is the first reported example of KH-unstable waves at the magnetopause under a radial IMF.

  8. Space Weathering on 4 Vesta: Processes and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, C. M.; Blewett, D. T.; Gaffey, M.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Reddy, V.; Nathues, A.; Denevi, B. W.; Li, J. Y.; McCord, T. B.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The bulk properties of Vesta have previously been linked directly to the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites through remote mineral characterization of its surface from Earth-based spectroscopy [e.g., 1]. A long-standing enigma has been why does Vesta s surface appear to have suffered so little alteration from the space environment, whereas materials exposed on the Moon and some S-type asteroids are significantly changed (grains develop rims containing nano-phase opaques [e.g. 2]). The Dawn spacecraft is well suited to address this issue and is half through its extended mapping phase of this remarkable proto-planet [3]. On a local scale Dawn sees evidence of recent exposures at craters, but distinctive surface materials blend into background at older craters. The presence of space weathering processes are thus evident at Vesta, but the character and form are controlled by the unique environment and geologic history of this small body.

  9. Genomic origin and nuclear localization of TERRA telomeric repeat-containing RNA: from Darkness to Dawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diman, Aurélie; Decottignies, Anabelle

    2017-12-14

    Long noncoding RNAs, produced from distinct regions of the chromosomes, are emerging as new key players in several important biological processes. The long noncoding RNAs add a new layer of complexity to cellular regulatory pathways, from transcription to cellular trafficking or chromatin remodeling. More than 25 years ago, the discovery of a transcriptional activity at telomeres of protozoa ended the long-lasting belief that telomeres were transcriptionally silent. Since then, progressively accumulating evidences established that production of TElomeric Repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) was a general feature of eukaryotic cells. Whether TERRA molecules always originate from the telomeres or whether they can be transcribed from internal telomeric repeats as well is however still a matter of debate. Whether TERRA transcripts always localize to telomeres and play similar roles in all eukaryotic cells is also unclear. We review the studies on TERRA localization in the cell, its composition and some aspects of its transcriptional regulation to summarize the current knowledge and controversies about the genomic origin of TERRA, with a focus on human and mouse TERRA. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. The Methodian mission on the Polish lands until the dawn of 11th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of Conversion of the Slavs was commenced with the contact of the Slavic people and the Byzantine culturewhich was initiated by the mission of Sts. Cyril and Methodius. Apart from the exceptional role of Bulgaria and GreatMoravia in the development of the Cyrillo-Methodian legacy the Russian lands became the heir of this great religious andcultural tradition. Before we move on to the problem of the presence of the Methodian rite on the Polish lands it is worthrecalling the basic facts of the activity of Sts. Cyril and Methodius in the area of Great Moravia.The presented influence of the Methodian rite on the Polish lands had a significant influence in the shaping of thereligious tradition in the local Orthodox Church. In the land of the Piasts and Jagiellons the named tradition rooted in thecult of Bulgarian and Greek saints of the Church-Slavonic liturgy, rituals and culture. The awareness of the role of Cyriland Methodius in the introduction of Christianity in Poland shall be especially cultivated in the Eastern Church. Theevangelization of the Great Moravia, Czech and Poland shall be attributed to the Slavonic Apostles.

  11. Therapeutic education and self-care: Results from the cross-sectional study Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes and Needs 2 (DAWN2) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Rubio, Mercedes; Jansà Morató, Margarida; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro

    2015-10-01

    Therapeutic education (TE) has been gradually introduced progressively into diabetes mellitus care programs with the aim of providing patients and their families or caregivers with the necessary skills for the self-management of the disease. The Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs 2 (DAWN2) study helps to clarify what are the unmet needs with regards to self-management and the TE offer available to patients and their families. The objective of this paper is to analyse the results of the DAWN2 study regarding self-care habits and participation in TE activities in Spain. The DAWN2 is an observational, cross-national study. In this paper, an analysis was performed on the Spanish sample of diabetic patients (502) and family members (123). Patients report taking their medications as recommended by their doctor an average of 6.4 days/week, and self-monitor their blood glucose an average of 3.4 days/week. The large majority (86%) of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1, 59% of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, and 21% of family members state to have participated in education activities. Diabetes educators should reinforce the messages about the benefits of self-care, particularly for patients who are in the early stages of the disease. Likewise, access for family members and people with diabetes mellitus type 2 to TE programs should be improved, and these programs for diabetic patients and their families should be included in the services portfolio of health centres. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 9202 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2012-02-16

    ...; label and specification submission, 30 minutes; HACCP plan, 60 hours; recordkeeping requirements related... Sciences, known as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). The information collection requirements... HACCP-based Inspection Systems,'' from the NMFS Fishery Products Inspection Manual, describes in detail...

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    2010-09-17

    ... and the characteristics of the runaway and homeless youth, and youth at risk of family separation, who... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request Title... responses per hours per Total burden respondents respondent response hours Youth profile 536 153 0.25 20,502...

  14. 78 FR 53173 - Information Collection Request; Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PEACE CORPS Information Collection Request; Submission for OMB Review AGENCY: Peace Corps. ACTION: 30-Day notice and request for...: This form seeks information necessary for the Peace Corps' Office of Volunteer Recruitment and...

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    2012-03-16

    ...: Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) Business Systems-Definition and Administration... Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) Business Systems-Definition and Administration; DFARS 245... from members of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at...

  16. 77 FR 75143 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2012-12-19

    ... and Ethnic Diversity (in honor of Secretary Ronald Brown), Excellence in Business Leadership, and the... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... reauthorization of the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) authorized an awards program to ``implement a program to...

  17. 7 CFR 1726.35 - Submission of documents to RUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1726.35 Submission... resolution awarding the contract. (6) Evidence of clear title to the site for substations and headquarters... contract were in conformance with the requirements of Part 1726, Electric System Construction Policies and...

  18. 75 FR 66060 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2010-10-27

    ... authorized by Section 306 of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (7 U.S.C. 1926) to make loans to...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request October 22, 2010. The Department of Agriculture has submitted the following information collection requirement(s) to OMB for review and clearance...

  19. 77 FR 75969 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... development. This purpose is achieved through loans made by the Rural Business-Cooperative Service (RBS) to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request December 19, 2012. The Department of Agriculture has submitted the...

  20. 7 CFR 1703.136 - Submission of applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of applications. 1703.136 Section 1703.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Combination Loan and Grant Program § 1703.136...

  1. 78 FR 41129 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2013-07-09

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    2011-11-01

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    2011-12-16

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    2011-06-16

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    2012-08-17

    ... of having its full effect if OMB receives it within 30 days of publication. Written comments and... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request Title... is authenticated, secure accounts will be created for authorized users to view data for their...

  6. 75 FR 47770 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... Response: Initial application and summary report, 10 hours each; inseason data report, 1 hour; electronic...

  7. 76 FR 44578 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... request, depending upon the type of request and the method of submission (electronic or paper). Needs and... such marks in commerce may file an application to register their marks with the USPTO. Such individuals...

  8. 76 FR 48801 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... revision involves a change in reporting including 100% electronic collection, elimination of two paper...

  9. 77 FR 59889 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... Administration (NOAA). Title: Gulf of Mexico Electronic Logbook. OMB Control Number: 0648-0543. Form Number(s...

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    2013-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... electronic reporting mechanisms approved by NMFS. The information obtained is used by economists, biologists...

  11. 76 FR 33703 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

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  12. 77 FR 8216 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2012-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... Administration (NOAA). Title: Certification Requirements for Distributors of NOAA Electronic Navigational Charts...

  13. 76 FR 65188 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review

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    2011-10-20

    ... consolidated applications as defined in ESEA is to improve teaching and learning by encouraging greater cross... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review AGENCY: Department of Education. ACTION: Comment request. SUMMARY...

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    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... number or Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) vessel registration number. The regulations also...

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    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... of Fish and Game (ADF&G) is required to annually submit the COAR to State of Alaska, ADF&G, under...

  16. 77 FR 58769 - Facility License Notifications and Submissions

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    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 502 and 559 RIN 3141-AA48 Facility License Notifications and Submissions AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The National Indian Gaming...

  17. 78 FR 70267 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Fishery Conservation and Management Act. Affected Public: Business or other for-profit organizations... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... recovery of normal business practices to the commercial and recreational fishing industries. It seeks to...

  18. 78 FR 42752 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... results to previous data collection efforts in 2010 and 2012. Affected Public: Business or other for... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... to the information collection tool. Historically, changes in fisheries management regulations have...

  19. 75 FR 63165 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review

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    2010-10-14

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  20. 76 FR 35864 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review

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    2011-06-20

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  1. 78 FR 30294 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2013-05-22

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) will submit to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for clearance the... Europe due to the lack of adequate patent grace periods in many European countries. Affected Public...

  2. 41 CFR 101-26.507-1 - Submission of requisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Submission of requisitions. 101-26.507-1 Section 101-26.507-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT...

  3. 41 CFR 101-26.501-4 - Submission of orders.

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    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Submission of orders. 101-26.501-4 Section 101-26.501-4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND...

  4. 41 CFR 101-26.506-3 - Submission of requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Submission of requests. 101-26.506-3 Section 101-26.506-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND...

  5. 75 FR 57961 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2010-09-23

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  6. 76 FR 48165 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2011-08-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request Title... form of trafficking. States that provide services for unaccompanied refugee minors also provide an...: Copies of the proposed collection may be obtained by writing to the Administration for Children and...

  7. 75 FR 81615 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2010-12-28

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  8. 76 FR 3877 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2011-01-21

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  9. 77 FR 15374 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2012-03-15

    ... Resettlement (ORR) to make a periodic assessment, based on refugee population and other relevant factors, of... certain data elements for eligible refugee populations. This revised collection differs from the ORR-11...: Refugee Data Submission System for Formula Funds Allocations. OMB No.: 0970-0043. Description: The...

  10. 78 FR 65963 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2013-11-04

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  11. E-submission chronic toxicology study supplemental files

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formats and instructions in these documents are designed to be used as an example or guide for registrants to format electronic files for submission of animal toxicology data to OPP for review in support of registration and reevaluation of pesticides.

  12. 77 FR 50083 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2012-08-20

    ... monitor U.S. international trade in financial services, analyze its impact on the U.S. and foreign... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management...: Quarterly Survey of Financial Services Transactions between U.S. Financial Services Providers and Foreign...

  13. 75 FR 45093 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2010-08-02

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  14. 78 FR 76811 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2013-12-19

    ... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... of selecting successful candidates, generating internal NOAA reports and articles to demonstrate the... internal tracking purposes. NOAA OEd grantees are required to update the student tracker database with the...

  15. Journal of the Ghana Institution of Engineers: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Submission Three (3) original printouts of the paper should be submitted to the address below. An electronic copy in MS Word, MS Excel format shall be required after the final revision. The Editor-in-Chief Journal of the Ghana Institution of Engineers Engineers Center 13 Continental Road, Roman Ridge, P. O. Box AN 7042

  16. 77 FR 66880 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2012-11-07

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  17. 77 FR 27460 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2012-05-10

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  18. 76 FR 9541 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2011-02-18

    ... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) and the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C... fishermen still involved in fishing since catch shares were implemented. In promulgating and issuing...

  19. 76 FR 66891 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2011-10-28

    ... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management.... The full StormReady recognition is not appropriate for all entities, yet they should still [email protected] . Dated: October 25, 2011. Gwellnar Banks, Management Analyst, Office of the Chief...

  20. 76 FR 39843 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2011-07-07

    ... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... and fire fighter access into the building. However, there still is little understanding of [email protected] ). Dated: June 30, 2011. Gwellnar Banks, Management Analyst, Office of the Chief...

  1. 76 FR 33191 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ...: Environmental Monitoring Form. OMB Control Number: 0579-0117. Summary of Collection: The mission of the Animal... Form 2060, Environmental Monitoring Form, will be used to collect information concerning the effects of...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request June 1, 2011. The Department of...

  2. 75 FR 1584 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2010-01-12

    ..., Public Law 109-97. The Act provides for the Secretary of Agriculture to make grants to cooperatives or... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request January 7, 2010. The Department of Agriculture has submitted the...

  3. 78 FR 59911 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... the protection of animal health. The law gives the Secretary of Agriculture broad authority to detect...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request September 24, 2013. The Department of Agriculture has submitted the following information collection requirement(s) to OMB for review and clearance...

  4. 77 FR 71574 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... reference period and timing of data collection. Qualitative research has ] shown that some respondents do... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... create a marketplace of private health insurance options for individuals and small businesses. While...

  5. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. General Instruction: Submission of electronic copy to tapasinstitute@yahoo.com, tapas-info@tapasinstitute.org is preferred. Where this is not possible, authors should submit two copies of original article not yet published anywhere and accompanied with a 3.5” diskette containing the article labeled ...

  6. 75 FR 66716 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... agency #0;statements of organization and functions are examples of documents #0;appearing in this section... 2008 to provide the opportunity for the submission of a concept proposal to the FCIC Board of Directors (Board) for approval for advance payment of estimated research and development expenses. Need and Use of...

  7. 20 CFR 632.20 - Submission of grant application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submission of grant application. 632.20 Section 632.20 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Planning, Application and Modification...

  8. 20 CFR 632.256 - Submission of applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submission of applications. 632.256 Section 632.256 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND... youth allocation at the same time section 401 allocations are announced. The summer plan will be a...

  9. 77 FR 19177 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... minutes. Needs and Uses: The Sensor Science Division (SSD) of the Physical Measurement Laboratory (PML) of...

  10. 77 FR 25718 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... will be used (1) in the preparation of the biennial Report to the President, the Congress, and the... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request Title: State Council on Developmental Disabilities Annual Program Performance Report. OMB No.: 0980-0172...

  11. 77 FR 56214 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... child care providers/ teachers, and two for parents) have been developed, based on a literature review... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request Title... Collection The Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE), the Administration for Children and...

  12. 37 CFR 150.3 - Submission of requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proclamation shall include: (1) A copy of the foreign law or legal rulings that provide protection for U.S... administrative orders. (5) All copies of laws, legal rulings, regulations or administrative orders submitted must... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of requests. 150.3...

  13. 76 FR 79153 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Number: None. Form Number(s): NA. Type of Request: Regular submission (request for a new information... a limited entry permit system for charter vessels in the guided halibut sport fishery in... (76FR44156) was proposed that would alter the way Pacific halibut is allocated between the guided sport (i.e...

  14. 77 FR 38635 - Supplemental Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Supplemental Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request Title: Mother and Infant Home Visiting Program Evaluation: Baseline collection of saliva for measuring cotinine. OMB No.: 0970-0402. Description: In 2011, the Administration for Children and Families...

  15. 76 FR 55657 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Services Type of Review: Revision. Title of Collection: Annual Progress Report for the Access to Telework...: Nineteen states currently have Access to Telework programs that provide financial loans to individuals with... that is not required for submission by the Telework grantees, further reducing the burden from...

  16. 76 FR 50995 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... associated emergency communications and public response. To achieve this objective, the team will interview individuals who have knowledge and/ or experiences related to the tornado. The team is interested in...

  17. 76 FR 81486 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Notice of Submission for OMB Review AGENCY: Department of Education. ACTION: Comment Request. SUMMARY... is being used in schools today, it is particularly important that policymakers have research-based... been completed that compare K-12 student achievement in online learning to traditional, classroom-based...

  18. 76 FR 20635 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Notice of Submission for OMB Review AGENCY: Department of Education. ACTION: Comment request. SUMMARY... quality teacher in every classroom. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) supports reform in... number of districts. The research questions are: What is the distribution of teacher quality across...

  19. 77 FR 60672 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... checklist, 15 minutes; power down exemption request, 5 minutes; fishing activity report, 1 minute. Annual...

  20. 78 FR 3432 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... academic achievement; (5) crime or domestic violence; (6) family economic self- sufficiency; and (7) use of... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request Title....: 0970-0402. Description: In 2011, the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) and Health...

  1. 78 FR 60826 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... Administration (NOAA). Title: California Recreational Groundfish Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Form Number(s... California saltwater angler preferences relative to Pacific groundfish. Pacific groundfish caught in...

  2. 76 FR 73741 - Submission for OMB Review; Comments Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Affected Public: U.S. companies or citizens investing overseas. Reporting Hours: 187.5 hours (0.75 hours... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Submission for OMB Review; Comments Request AGENCY: Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC...

  3. 76 FR 17164 - Submission of OMB Review; Comments Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... institution. Standard Industrial Classification Codes: All. Description of Affected Public: U.S. companies or... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Submission of OMB Review; Comments Request AGENCY: Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC...

  4. 76 FR 73740 - Submission for OMB Review; Comments Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Codes: All. Description of Affected Public: U.S. companies or citizens investing overseas. Reporting... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Submission for OMB Review; Comments Request AGENCY: Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC...

  5. 76 FR 56146 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    .... The Federal Government is responsible for the management of the Pacific halibut sport fishery off... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... Administration (NOAA). Title: Alaska Saltwater Sport Fishing Economic Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Form...

  6. 77 FR 69590 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request November 14, 2012. The Department of... shopping at farmers markets. In addition, the collection aims to assess how well these incentives programs.... Department of Agriculture's largest nutrition program, enabling millions of low- income Americans to purchase...

  7. 77 FR 50674 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request August 17, 2012. The Department of..., FNS needs to examine the reasons behind the shopping decision at farmers' markets among recipients of... Information: The objectives of this study are to: (1) Understand the shopping patterns of the SNAP...

  8. 48 CFR 849.111-71 - Submission of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submission of information. 849.111-71 Section 849.111-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... procurement analyst in the review. The procurement analyst may, at his or her discretion, require the...

  9. 76 FR 53025 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Companies (RICs) and Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs). Abstract: This document contains final... Real Estate Investment Trust owning property that has a basis determined by reference to a C... submissions may be obtained by calling the Treasury Bureau Clearance Officer listed. Comments regarding these...

  10. Journal of Computer Science and Its Application: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The Journal of Computer Science and Its Applications welcomes submission of complete and original research manuscripts, which are not under review in any other conference or journal. The topics covered by the journal include but are not limited to Artificial Intelligence, Bioinformatics, Computational ...

  11. An electronic submission service for Astronomy and Astrophysics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper outlines an Electronic Submission Service (ess) for Astron- omy and Astrophysics, suitable for all parts of the journal: Letters, Main Journal, andSupplements. The proposed service should be run by a pro- fessional entity: one of the publishers, eso, thecds, orsome other, yetto be

  12. 78 FR 40269 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request June 27, 2013. The Department of the Treasury will submit the..., tax evasion, narcotics trafficking, organized crime, bank, securities, and tax fraud, embezzlement and...

  13. 77 FR 22763 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION... mortgage loan originators (MLOs), enhance consumer protections, reduce fraud in the residential mortgage...

  14. 76 FR 52735 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request August 18, 2011. The Department of the Treasury will submit the... certain tax-related issues. Once an agreement is approved, it will not be reopened unless fraud or...

  15. 77 FR 29965 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... in place to prevent waste, fraud or abuse; and BTOP projects avoid unnecessary delay and cost...

  16. 77 FR 50677 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... the taking is done for subsistence or for creating and selling authentic native articles of handicraft... information is necessary for law enforcement purposes. Affected Public: Business or other for-profit...

  17. 77 FR 73414 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... commercial sales of defense articles and/or defense services as defined by the Arms Export Control Act and... partners when purchasing U.S. military equipment or defense related items. Affected Public: Business and...

  18. 75 FR 15486 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Review: Extension. Title: Tobacco Products Importer or Manufacturer--Records of Large Cigar Wholesale... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request March 23, 2010. The Department of the Treasury will submit the...

  19. 77 FR 74169 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management...: Applications, 2 hours; interviews, 5 hours; reference letters, 15 minutes. Burden Hours: 2,475. Needs and Uses... the economic and physical well-being of the Nation. NOAA Corps officers serve in assignments...

  20. Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Final submission of the article: Once accepted for publication, the final version of the manuscript must be provided, electronically and/or in paper format. It should include author name(s); title of article; journal title; electronic file name. The manuscript will be considered to be the definitive version of the article. The author must ...

  1. 75 FR 68315 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... desiring the patent license along with a plan for the development and marketing of the invention and a...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request November 2, 2010. The Department of Agriculture has submitted the following information collection requirement(s) to OMB for review and clearance...

  2. 76 FR 2645 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... purposes: (1) To fund feasibility studies, marketing and business plans, and similar development activities... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Agriculture has submitted the following...

  3. 78 FR 11134 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... sufficient plan for developing and marketing the invention and the necessary manufacturing, marketing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request February 11, 2013. The Department of Agriculture has submitted the...

  4. 78 FR 69643 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... collection. The North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC) is currently debating designs of a new... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... new program in late 2014 or early 2015. These types of management programs are known to have extensive...

  5. 40 CFR 80.93 - Individual baseline submission and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... due to the circumstances outlined in § 80.91(f). (b) Submission content. (1) Individual baseline..., technical judgment used, effects of petition results on calculated values, and any additional information...: (i) Refinery block flow diagram, showing principal refining units; (ii) Principal refining unit...

  6. Flaked stones and old bones: biological and cultural evolution at the dawn of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The appearance of Oldowan sites ca. 2.6 million years ago (Ma) may reflect one of the most important adaptive shifts in human evolution. Stone artifact manufacture, large mammal butchery, and novel transport and discard behaviors led to the accumulation of the first recognized archaeological debris. The appearance of the Oldowan sites coincides with generally cooler, drier, and more variable climatic conditions across Africa, probably resulting in a net decrease in woodland foods and an increase in large mammal biomass compared to the early and middle Pliocene. Shifts in plant food resource availability may have provided the stimulus for incorporating new foods into the diet, including meat from scavenged carcasses butchered with stone tools. Oldowan artifact form varies with clast size, shape, raw material physical properties, and flaking intensity. Oldowan hominins preferred hard raw materials with good fracture characteristics. Habitual stone transport is evident from technological analysis, and raw material sourcing to date suggests that stone was rarely moved more than 2-3 km from source. Oldowan debris accumulation was spatially redundant, reflecting recurrent visitation of attractive points on the landscape. Thin archaeological horizons from Bed I Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, were probably formed and buried in less than 10 years and document hominin processing of multiple carcasses per year. Transport beyond simple refuging behavior is suggested by faunal density at some site levels. By 2.0 Ma, hominin rank within the predatory guild may have been moderately high, as they probably accessed meaty carcasses through hunting and confrontational scavenging, and hominin-carnivore competition appears minimal at some sites. It is likely that both Homo habilis sensu stricto and early African H. erectus made Oldowan tools. H. habilis sensu stricto was more encephalized than Australopithecus and may foreshadow H. erectus in lower limb elongation and some thermoregulatory

  7. The dawn of Aurora kinase research: from fly genetics to the clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar eCarmena

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aurora kinases comprise a family of highly conserved serine-threonine protein kinases that play a pivotal role in the regulation of cell cycle. Aurora kinases are not only involved in the control of multiple processes during cell division but also coordinate chromosomal and cytoskeletal events, contributing to the regulation of checkpoints and ensuring the smooth progression of the cell cycle.Because of their fundamental contribution to cell cycle regulation, Aurora kinases were originally identified in independent genetic screens designed to find genes involved in the regulation of cell division. The first aurora mutant was part of a collection of mutants isolated in C. Nusslein-Volhard’s laboratory. This collection was screened in D. M. Glover’s laboratory in search for mutations disrupting the centrosome cycle in embryos derived from homozygous mutant mothers. The mutants identified were given names related to the polar regions, and included not only aurora but also the equally famous polo. Ipl1, the only Aurora in yeast, was identified in a genetic screen looking for mutations that caused chromosome segregation defects. The discovery of a second Aurora-like kinase in mammals opened a new chapter in the research of Aurora kinases. The rat kinase AIM was found to be highly homologous to the fly and yeast proteins, but localised at the midzone and midbody and was proposed to have a role in cytokinesis. Homologs of the equatorial Aurora (Aurora B were identified in metazoans ranging from flies to humans. Xenopus Aurora B was found to be in a complex with the chromosomal passenger INCENP, and both proteins were shown to be essential in flies for chromosome structure, segregation, central spindle formation and cytokinesis. Fifteen years on, Aurora kinase research is an active field of research. After the successful introduction of the first anti-mitotic agents in cancer therapy, both Auroras have become the focus of attention as targets for

  8. Influence of Pitch Height on the Perception of Submissiveness and Threat in Musical Passages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huron

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Bolinger, Ohala, Morton and others have established that vocal pitch height is perceived to be associated with social signals of dominance and submissiveness: higher vocal pitch is associated with submissiveness, whereas lower vocal pitch is associated with social dominance. An experiment was carried out to test this relationship in the perception of non-vocal melodies. Results show a parallel situation in music: higher-pitched melodies sound more submissive (less threatening than lower-pitched melodies.

  9. 7 CFR 400.705 - Contents required for a new submission or changes to a previously approved submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reinsured under the Act; (5) Focus group results; (6) Market research studies; (7) Qualitative market... any causes of loss excluded; (6) Any statements to be included in the actuarial documents; and (7) The... performance of the submission under various scenarios depicting good and poor actuarial experience; and (6) A...

  10. Hindrance of conservation biology by delays in the submission of manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Ryan P; Supp, Sarah R; Cobbold, Stephanie M

    2010-04-01

    Timely dissemination of scientific findings depends not only on rapid publication of submitted manuscripts, a topic which has received much discussion, but also on rapid submission of research after the research is completed. We measured submission delay (time from the last date of data collection to the submission of a manuscript) for every paper from 14 journals in 2007 and compared these submission delays among four fields of biology (conservation, taxonomy, behavior, and evolution). Manuscripts published in leading journals in the field of conservation biology have the longest delays in publication of accepted manuscripts and the longest intervals between completion of research and submission of the manuscript. Delay in manuscript submission accounts for more than half of the total time from last date of data collection to publication. Across fields, the number of authors was significantly negatively correlated with submission delay, but conservation journals had the second highest number of authors and the greatest submission delay, so submission of conservation manuscripts was not hindered by a shortage of collaboration relative to other fields. Rejection rates were greater in conservation journals than in behavior and evolution, but rejection times were faster; thus, there were no obvious net differences among fields in the time papers spent waiting to be rejected. Publication delay has been reduced significantly in the last 7 years, but was still greater in conservation journals than in any of the other three fields we studied. Thus, the urgent field of conservation biology is hindered in both preparation and publication of manuscripts.

  11. 77 FR 14016 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Preparation, Submission, and Negotiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...] General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Preparation, Submission, and Negotiation of... Negotiation of Subcontracting Plans; Correction. Correction In the information collection document appearing...

  12. 77 FR 59948 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The submission will describe the nature of the information collection, the... a nationally available and recognized database allowing adults (including medical patients) that...

  13. 14 CFR 406.3 - Submissions; oral presentation in license, permit, and payload actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURE INVESTIGATIONS, ENFORCEMENT, AND... this subpart based on written submissions unless the administrative law judge requires an oral...

  14. 75 FR 44005 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Capital Advance Section 811 Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... and program criteria. A thorough evalution of an applicant's submission is necessary to protect the... disabilities within statutory and program criteria. A thorough evalution of an applicant's submission is...

  15. The INTERBALL-Tail ELECTRON experiment: initial results on the low-latitude boundary layer of the dawn magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-A. Sauvaud

    Full Text Available The Toulouse electron spectrometer flown on the Russian project INTERBALL-Tail performs electron measurements from 10 to 26 000 eV over a 4 solid angle in a satellite rotation period. The INTERBALL-Tail probe was launched on 3 August 1995 together with a subsatellite into a 65° inclination orbit with an apogee of about 30 RE. The INTERBALL mission also includes a polar spacecraft launched in August 1996 for correlated studies of the outer magnetosphere and of the auroral regions. We present new observations concerning the low-latitude boundary layers (LLBL of the magnetosphere obtained near the dawn magnetic meridian. LLBL are encountered at the interface between two plasma regimes, the magnetosheath and the dayside extension of the plasma sheet. Unexpectedly, the radial extent of the region where LLBL electrons can be sporadically detected as plasma clouds can reach up to 5 RE inside the magnetopause. The LLBL core electrons have an average energy of the order of 100 eV and are systematically field-aligned and counterstreaming. As a trend, the temperature of the LLBL electrons increases with decreasing distance to Earth. Along the satellite orbit, the apparent time of occurrence of LLBL electrons can vary from about 5 to 20 min from one pass to another. An initial first comparison between electron- and magnetic-field measurements indicates that the LLBL clouds coincide with a strong increase in the magnetic field (by up to a factor of 2. The resulting strong magnetic field gradient can explain why the plasma-sheet electron flux in the keV range is strongly depressed in LLBL occurrence regions (up to a factor of sim10. We also show that LLBL electron encounters are related to field-aligned current structures and that wide LLBL correspond to northward interplanetary magnetic field. Evidence for LLBL/plasma-sheet electron leakage into the magnetosheath during southward IMF is also presented.

  16. Three-dimensional spectral analysis of compositional heterogeneity at Arruntia crater on (4) Vesta using Dawn FC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangjam, Guneshwar; Nathues, Andreas; Mengel, Kurt; Schäfer, Michael; Hoffmann, Martin; Cloutis, Edward A.; Mann, Paul; Müller, Christian; Platz, Thomas; Schäfer, Tanja

    2016-03-01

    We introduce an innovative three-dimensional spectral approach (three band parameter space with polyhedrons) that can be used for both qualitative and quantitative analyzes improving the characterization of surface compositional heterogeneity of (4) Vesta. It is an advanced and more robust methodology compared to the standard two-dimensional spectral approach (two band parameter space). The Dawn Framing Camera (FC) color data obtained during High Altitude Mapping Orbit (resolution ∼ 60 m/pixel) is used. The main focus is on the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) lithologies containing carbonaceous chondritic material, olivine, and impact-melt. The archived spectra of HEDs and their mixtures, from RELAB, HOSERLab and USGS databases as well as our laboratory-measured spectra are used for this study. Three-dimensional convex polyhedrons are defined using computed band parameter values of laboratory spectra. Polyhedrons based on the parameters of Band Tilt (R0.92μm/R0.96μm), Mid Ratio ((R0.75μm/R0.83μm)/(R0.83μm/R0.92μm)) and reflectance at 0.55 μm (R0.55μm) are chosen for the present analysis. An algorithm in IDL programming language is employed to assign FC data points to the respective polyhedrons. The Arruntia region in the northern hemisphere of Vesta is selected for a case study because of its geological and mineralogical importance. We observe that this region is eucrite-dominated howarditic in composition. The extent of olivine-rich exposures within an area of 2.5 crater radii is ∼12% larger than the previous finding (Thangjam, G. et al. [2014]. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 49, 1831-1850). Lithologies of nearly pure CM2-chondrite, olivine, glass, and diogenite are not found in this region. Although there are no unambiguous spectral features of impact melt, the investigation of morphological features using FC clear filter data from Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (resolution ∼ 18 m/pixel) suggests potential impact-melt features inside and outside of the crater

  17. Guidelines for manuscript submission in the peer-reviewed pharmacological literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullane, Kevin; Enna, S J; Piette, Jacques; Williams, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Recent reports have highlighted studies in biomedical research that cannot be reproduced, tending to undermine the credibility, relevance and sustainability of the research process. To address this issue, a number of factors can be monitored to improve the overall probability of reproducibility. These include: (i) shortcomings in experimental design and execution that involve hypothesis conceptualization, statistical analysis, and data reporting; (ii) investigator bias and error; (iii) validation of reagents including cells and antibodies; and (iv) fraud. Historically, research data that have undergone peer review and are subsequently published are then subject to independent replication via the process of self-correction. This often leads to refutation of the original findings and retraction of the paper by which time considerable resources have been wasted in follow-on studies. New NIH guidelines focused on experimental conduct and manuscript submission are being widely adopted in the peer-reviewed literature. These, in their various iterations, are intended to improve the transparency and accuracy of data reporting via the use of checklists that are often accompanied by "best practice" guidelines that aid in validating the methodologies and reagents used in data generation. The present Editorial provides background and context to a newly developed checklist for submissions to Biochemical Pharmacology that is intended to be clear, logical, useful and unambiguous in assisting authors in preparing manuscripts and in facilitating the peer review process. While currently optional, development of this checklist based on user feedback will result in it being mandatory within the next 12 months. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between electron field-aligned anisotropy and dawn-dusk magnetic field: Nine years of Cluster observations in the Earth magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkov, E.; Petrukovich, A.; Artemyev, A.; Nakamura, R.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the distribution and possible origins of thermal anisotropic electrons in the Earth's magnetotail, using 9 years of Cluster observations. We mainly focus on relation between electron anisotropy and Bz and By magnetic field components (in GSM coordinates). The anisotropy of electron population is characterized by temperature ratio T∥/T⊥ and by the maximum of phase space density ratio F∥/F⊥ (∥ and ⊥ are relative to the background magnetic field). The population identified by large F∥/F⊥ is organized as short-time (dozens of seconds) bursts with enhanced F∥ and can be observed even in the plasma sheet with small T∥/T⊥. The thermal anisotropy T∥/T⊥ is larger for time intervals characterized by stronger Bz and By: the strong By corresponds to the T∥/T⊥ peak around the magnetotail neutral plane Bx=0, whereas the strong Bz corresponds to larger T∥/T⊥ with a flat profile across the magnetotail. There is a dawn-dusk asymmetry: large T∥/T⊥ corresponds mostly to strong Bz at the dusk flank and to strong By at the dawn flank. Using these differences of the electron anisotropy dependence on By and Bz, we discuss two possible mechanisms responsible for the anisotropy formation.

  19. 7 CFR 1773.20 - CPA's submission of the auditor's report, report on compliance, report on compliance and on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CPA's submission of the auditor's report, report on... for the Submission and Review of the Auditor's Report, Report on Compliance and on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting, and Management Letter § 1773.20 CPA's submission of the auditor's report...

  20. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As the Chinese text below shows, men of medicine, since antiq- uity, knew the heart played an important role in the human body and that it was 'somehow' connected with the flow of blood. Ignorance as to what this connection was remained for long a stumbling block in the advance of physiology. “The blood current flows ...

  1. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Questions of this nature were the ones which prompted Darwin to his remarkable discovery. Suggested Reading. [1]. Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Tech- nology, Doubleday, 1982. [2]. R Spangenburg and D K Moser, The Birth of Science – Volume I, Viva. Books Pvt. Ltd., 2006. Figure 8.

  2. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suggested Reading. [1]. Arthur Koestler, Sleep walkers, Penguin, 1959. [2]. Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and. Technology, Doubleday. 1982. [3]. R Spangenburg and D K Moser, The Birth of Science Volume I: Ancient. Times to 1699, Viva Books Pvt. Ltd, 2006. Address for Correspondence.

  3. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pascal also literally introduced true French spirit into these studies. He made a barometer using red wine (which is lighter than water) and verified that a column of about 14 meters could be supported! Suggested Reading. [1] Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and. Technology, Doubleday, 1982.

  4. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassini's most valuable contribution was probably the measure- ment of the distance to Mars. By comparing his own observations of the position of Mars with those made by the French astrono- mer, Jean Richer (1630–1696), he could arrive at the distance to. Mars. The relative distances of the Sun and the planets were.

  5. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The other three planets, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, showed irregular pattern of motion every once in a while. They travelled in one direction for some time, stopped in their tracks and then seemed to move backwards! These features are difficult to understand (in a natural manner) if the planets were moving around the Earth.

  6. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The invention of printing spread literacy and spurred the Scien- tific Revolution. The first four centuries of this millennium, the period 1000–1400, witnessed instability and turmoil in much of Asia and Europe. The Arabs started fighting among themselves and their empire began to break up. From the remnants of the Western ...

  7. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sriranga

    The Rise of Modern Medicine. T Padmanabhan. Keywords. Paracelsus, Vesalius, dissec- tions, anatomy. T Padmanabhan works at. IUCAA, Pune and is interested in all areas of theoretical physics, especially those which have something to do with gravity. Previous parts: Resonance, Vol.15: p.498, p.590, p.684, p.774, ...

  8. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1672. Halley's visit leads to preparation of Principia. —. 1684. Leibniz's first paper on calculus. Publication of Principia. —. 1687. Member of Parliament for Cambridge University. —. 1689. Master of the Mint. —. 1700. Elected President of the Royal Society. —. 1703. Knighted by Queen Anne. —. 1705. Death of Isaac Newton.

  9. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In medicine, two names stand out from the Arabic world – Rhazes ... medicine. His works were so authoritative that the Latin transla- tions of these books were used in Europe until as late as 1650! Another important Arabic contribution to medicine was in the ... innovations in chemical technology from the East to the West –.

  10. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scissors, trocars (for piercing tissues), saws, needles, forceps, levers and hooks. Most of the instruments were made of steel and the operations seem to have been performed using alcohol as an anaesthetic. Almost around the same time, medical art was thriving in Greece as well. Hippocrates (460 BC–370 BC) seems to be ...

  11. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    inventions and discoveries in the branches of mechanics, hydro- dynamics, optics and in pure mathematics, the details of which are spelt out in nine Greek treatises which are available to us. He worked out the principle of lever in clear mathematical terms. (even though several others before him had conjectured about it).

  12. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Descartes (1596–1650), the French philosopher and mathemati- cian. (Descartes used to sign in the Latinized version of his name. 'Cartesins', because of which both his systems of geometry and philosophy go under the name 'Cartesian'.) ... introduce clever constructions and use appropriate theorems to arrive at this ...

  13. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    years and tried to put Pythagorean ideas on a more rational basis, and Democritus (470–380 BC). He was the first man to introduce the atomistic view of matter. The most famous among those who hailed from Athens is, however, Plato who was more a philosopher than scientist. (Inci- dentally, it is through him that we come ...

  14. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Euclid) or on an anonymous compilation found in the Vatican library. Greek commentaries on Euclid were translated by three. Arabic scholars at different times in the Middle Ages (Figure 4). From the Arabic, it was translated to Latin; the first Latin transla- tion was made in AD 1120 by Adelard of Bath (who had to travel.

  15. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This was especially so in astronomical computations involved in the preparation of planetary tables, etc. Napier's logarithms changed the situation completely; it replaced multiplication by addition and division by subtraction. As Laplace said years later, the invention of logarithm effectively 'doubled the life of the astronomer'.

  16. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cated by just placing the terms next to each other, subtraction by placing a dot over the term to be deducted, multiplication by writing bha (the first letter of bhavitha, the product), and square root by the prefix ka (from the word karana). The first unknown in the problem is denoted by ya and additional unknowns were indicated.

  17. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    early days he studied languages, logic and philosophy and very little of science. He first worked as a teacher in a day school at. Cheshire. During this time, he wrote several books dealing with. English grammar, education and history. Though he never studied science formally, he was always curious about the several new.

  18. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RESONANCE │ February 2012. SERIES │ ARTICLE. Virtually all these results were obtained by using techniques which can be thought of as belonging to calculus. The infinite series .... power, a technique we now call mathematical induction. From reading the relevant section of Yuktibhasha it is clear that its author was ...

  19. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The practical necessity for developing steam power came from the rapid deforestation in England in the seventeenth century. The earliest civilisations used human muscle power and animal power in their agricultural and domestic pursuits. The efficiency, which could be achieved in these forms, was necessarily very limited.

  20. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atlantic and 'gifted' all lands to the west of this line to Spain and those to the east to Portugal. This line, however, was not drawn completely round the Earth but only across the Atlantic Ocean. This fact was cleverly exploited by Ferdinand Magellan, the. Portuguese explorer. Magellan was in the service of the Portuguese ...