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  1. Irritantcy potential and sub acute dermal toxicity study of Pistacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was undertaken to assess safety of Pistacia lentiscus fruits fatty oil (PLFO) as a topical traditional remedy. A primary skin and eye irritation tests were conducted with New Zealand white rabbits to determine the potential for PLFO to produce irritation from a single application. In addition, a sub acute dermal ...

  2. Acute Severe Chromium Poisoning After Dermal Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chi Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute chromium poisoning related to dermal involvement has rarely been reported in the literature. We report a case of acute severe chromium poisoning through skin exposure as a result of a chemical burn of 15% of the body surface area and multiple organ failure after short-term exposure. Medical interventions, including mechanical ventilation, continuous venovenous hemofiltration, and plasmapheresis were performed. In addition, a chelating agent, dimercapto-propane sulfonic acid, was infused intravenously, combined with intravenous N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid as adjuvant therapy. The patient was discharged on day 33 without long-term sequelae. The consequence of transdermal exposure of hexavalent chromium should not be overlooked.

  3. Management of acute complex traumatic wound with a dermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute complex traumatic wounds of the lower limbs are usually managed by a combination of multiple debridements, dressing changes, and specialized surgical procedures which may include tissue transfers for the reconstruction of the soft tissue injury. The recovery is lengthy, and the outcome dependent on ...

  4. Assessment of acute oral and dermal toxicity of 2 ethyl-carbamates with activity against Rhipicephalus microplus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Ochoa, María Guadalupe; Gutiérrez-Amezquita, Ricardo Alfonso; Abrego-Reyes, Víctor Hugo; Velázquez-Sánchez, Ana María; Muñoz-Guzmán, Marco Antonio; Ramírez-Noguera, Patricia; Angeles, Enrique; Alba-Hurtado, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The acute oral and dermal toxicity of two new ethyl-carbamates (ethyl-4-bromophenyl-carbamate and ethyl-4-chlorophenyl-carbamate) with ixodicide activity was determined in rats. The oral LD50 of each carbamate was 300 to 2000 mg/kg, and the dermal LD50 of each carbamate was >5000 mg/kg. Clinically, the surviving rats that had received oral doses of each carbamate showed decreased weight gain (P lesions, binucleated hepatocytes, focal coagulative necrosis, and congestion areas; the severity of the lesions increased with dosage. Furthermore, an slight increase in gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine was observed in the plasma. The dermal application of the maximum dose (5000 mg/kg) of each carbamate did not cause clinical manifestations or liver and skin alterations. This finding demonstrates that the carbamates under study have a low oral hazard and low acute dermal toxicity.

  5. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis impairs dermal lymphatic function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agollah, Germaine D; Wu, Grace; Peng, Ho-Lan; Kwon, Sunkuk

    2015-12-07

    To investigate whether dermal lymphatic function and architecture are systemically altered in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. Balb/c mice were administered 4% DSS in lieu of drinking water ad libitum for 7 d and monitored to assess disease activity including body weight, diarrhea severity, and fecal bleeding. Control mice received standard drinking water with no DSS. Changes in mesenteric lymphatics were assessed following oral administration of a fluorescently-labelled fatty acid analogue, while dermal lymphatic function and architecture was longitudinally characterized using dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging following intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) at the base of the tail or to the dorsal aspect of the left paw prior to, 4, and 7 d after DSS administration. We also measured dye clearance rate after injection of Alexa680-bovine serum albumin (BSA). NIRF imaging data was analyzed to reveal lymphatic contractile activity after selecting fixed regions of interest (ROIs) of the same size in fluorescent lymphatic vessels on fluorescence images. The averaged fluorescence intensity within the ROI of each fluorescence image was plotted as a function of imaging time and the lymphatic contraction frequency was computed by assessing the number of fluorescent pulses arriving at a ROI. Mice treated with DSS developed acute inflammation with clinical symptoms of loss of body weight, loose feces/watery diarrhea, and fecal blood, all of which were aggravated as disease progressed to 7 d. Histological examination of colons of DSS-treated mice confirmed acute inflammation, characterized by segmental to complete loss of colonic mucosa with an associated chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate that extended into the deeper layers of the wall of the colon, compared to control mice. In situ intravital imaging revealed that mice with acute colitis showed significantly fewer fluorescent mesenteric lymphatic vessels, indicating impaired

  6. 77 FR 43089 - Evaluation of an Up-and-Down Procedure for Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Testing: Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... significant pain and distress to test animals (ICCVAM, 2008). The acute dermal systemic toxicity UDP protocol... products and that reduce, refine (enhance animal well-being and lessen or avoid pain and distress), or... (OECD) Test Guideline 425 in 2001 (OECD, 2001). The oral UDP reduces animal use by up to 70% compared to...

  7. Assessment of Acute Oral and Dermal Toxicity of 2 Ethyl-Carbamates with Activity against Rhipicephalus microplus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Prado-Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute oral and dermal toxicity of two new ethyl-carbamates (ethyl-4-bromophenyl-carbamate and ethyl-4-chlorophenyl-carbamate with ixodicide activity was determined in rats. The oral LD50 of each carbamate was 300 to 2000 mg/kg, and the dermal LD50 of each carbamate was >5000 mg/kg. Clinically, the surviving rats that had received oral doses of each carbamate showed decreased weight gain (P<0.05 and had slight nervous system manifestations. These clinical signs were evident from the 300 mg/kg dose and were reversible, whereas the 2000 mg/kg dose caused severe damage and either caused their death or was motive for euthanasia. At necropsy, these rats had dilated stomachs and cecums with diffuse congestion, as well as moderate congestion of the liver. Histologically, the liver showed slight degenerative lesions, binucleated hepatocytes, focal coagulative necrosis, and congestion areas; the severity of the lesions increased with dosage. Furthermore, an slight increase in gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine was observed in the plasma. The dermal application of the maximum dose (5000 mg/kg of each carbamate did not cause clinical manifestations or liver and skin alterations. This finding demonstrates that the carbamates under study have a low oral hazard and low acute dermal toxicity.

  8. 'Submission'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Sørensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    On 7 January 2015, the day of the deadly attack on Charlie Hebdo, the Parisian satirical magazine, French author Michel Houellebecq published Soumission (Submission), his already contested novel. Charlie Hebdo had a satirical feature on the cover that day ridiculing Houellebecq’s novel, which...

  9. Investigation of acute dermal irritation/corrosion, acute inhalation toxicity and cytotoxicity tests for Nanobiocide®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Hemmati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nanomaterials, especially silver Nanoparticles (Ag-NPs, are employed in an increasing number of commercial products. This has led to an ever growing exposure of human beings to this substance. The first purpose of the Nano Committee of Food and Drug Administration of The Islamic Republic of Iran (IFDA is developing guidelines to assess and approve commercial nano-health products for their safety of human applications. Nanobiocide® as a commercial product of stable colloid including 2000 ppm Ag-NPs for surface antimicrobial applications was investigated according to IFDA guidelines in the approval process. Methods: The first fabrication and characterization method of the product were determined. The human exposure to Nanobiocide® were studied by cytotoxicity assay, dermal irritation and inhalation toxicity assay based on the standard assay. Results: According to cytotoxicity assay by MTT method the concentration-dependent of cell viability was reduced and Inhibitory concentration-50 was about 1160 ppm. The Draize dermal irritation scoring system (DDIS showed no irritation to the skin of rabbits. No sign of gross toxicity, adverse pharmacological effect, or abnormal behavior based on inhalation toxicity was observed. Conclusions: The consideration of toxicity of Nanobiocide® is one of the major key for medical application. The results obtained revealed that the Nanobiocide® may be safe using in domestic and veterinary applications.

  10. Irritantcy potential and sub acute dermal toxicity study of Pistacia lentiscus fatty oil as a topical traditional remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerrou, Zouhir; Djaalab, Hdria; Riachi, Foulla; Serakta, Mennouba; Chettoum, Aziez; Maameri, Zineb; Boutobza, Badaoui; Hamdi-Pacha, Youcef

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to assess safety of Pistacia lentiscus fruits fatty oil (PLFO) as a topical traditional remedy. A primary skin and eye irritation tests were conducted with New Zealand white rabbits to determine the potential for PLFO to produce irritation from a single application. In addition, a sub acute dermal toxicity study was performed on 18 NZW rabbits to evaluate possible adverse effect following application of PLFO for 28 days. Based on the results of the current study, PLFO is classified as slightly irritating to the skin and the eye of rabbits (Primary Irritation Index (P.I.I.) = 1.037; Ocular Irritation Index (O.I.I.) = 5.33 at 1 h). In the sub-acute toxicity test, PLFO produced neither mortality nor significant differences in the body and organ weights between control group and treated rabbits. However, a reversible irritant contact dermatitis was observed in the treated areas from the end of the second week of application until the end of experiment. This local phenomenon was accompanied by a significant skin thickening (P≤0.01) since the 12(th) day (ANOVA, F = 11, 07143, P = 0, 00765) which is confirmed with an inflammatory granuloma in histological study. Haematological analysis and blood chemistry values of the 2 groups showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined. In summary, PLFO is minimally irritating to the eye and skin after a single exposure, but it may cause irritant contact dermatitis and a reversible thickening of skin after prolonged use.

  11. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of “Zapote” Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutok, Carlos M. S.; Berenguer-Rivas, Clara Azalea; Rodríguez-Leblanch, Elizabeth; Pérez-Jackson, Liliana; Chil-Nuñez, Idelsy; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Reyes-Tur, Bernardo; Queiroz, Margareth M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist, “Mamey or Zapote,” in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25%) Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5), while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4). Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating. PMID:26273696

  12. RNA-Seq Transcriptomic Responses of Full-Thickness Dermal Excision Wounds to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acute and Biofilm Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S L Rajasekhar Karna

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections of wounds in clinical settings are major complications whose outcomes are influenced by host responses that are not completely understood. Herein we evaluated transcriptomic changes of wounds as they counter P. aeruginosa infection-first active infection, and then chronic biofilm infection. We used the dermal full-thickness, rabbit ear excisional wound model. We studied the wound response: towards acute infection at 2, 6, and 24 hrs after inoculating 106 bacteria into day-3 wounds; and, towards more chronic biofilm infection of wounds similarly infected for 24 hrs but then treated with topical antibiotic to coerce biofilm growth and evaluated at day 5 and 9 post-infection. The wounds were analyzed for bacterial counts, expression of P. aeruginosa virulence and biofilm-synthesis genes, biofilm morphology, infiltrating immune cells, re-epithelialization, and genome-wide gene expression (RNA-Seq transcriptome. This analysis revealed that 2 hrs after bacterial inoculation into day-3 wounds, the down-regulated genes (infected vs. non-infected of the wound edge were nearly all non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, comprised of snoRNA, miRNA, and RNU6 pseudogenes, and their down-regulation preceded a general down-regulation of skin-enriched coding gene expression. As the active infection intensified, ncRNAs remained overrepresented among down-regulated genes; however, at 6 and 24 hrs they changed to a different set, which overlapped between these times, and excluded RNU6 pseudogenes but included snRNA components of the major and minor spliceosomes. Additionally, the raw counts of multiple types of differentially-expressed ncRNAs increased on post-wounding day 3 in control wounds, but infection suppressed this increase. After 5 and 9 days, these ncRNA counts in control wounds decreased, whereas they increased in the infected, healing-impaired wounds. These data suggest a sequential and coordinated change in the levels of transcripts

  13. RNA-Seq Transcriptomic Responses of Full-Thickness Dermal Excision Wounds to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acute and Biofilm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsute; Qian, Li-Wu; Fourcaudot, Andrea B.; Yamane, Kazuyoshi; Chen, Ping; Abercrombie, Johnathan J.; You, Tao; Leung, Kai P.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections of wounds in clinical settings are major complications whose outcomes are influenced by host responses that are not completely understood. Herein we evaluated transcriptomic changes of wounds as they counter P. aeruginosa infection—first active infection, and then chronic biofilm infection. We used the dermal full-thickness, rabbit ear excisional wound model. We studied the wound response: towards acute infection at 2, 6, and 24 hrs after inoculating 106 bacteria into day-3 wounds; and, towards more chronic biofilm infection of wounds similarly infected for 24 hrs but then treated with topical antibiotic to coerce biofilm growth and evaluated at day 5 and 9 post-infection. The wounds were analyzed for bacterial counts, expression of P. aeruginosa virulence and biofilm-synthesis genes, biofilm morphology, infiltrating immune cells, re-epithelialization, and genome-wide gene expression (RNA-Seq transcriptome). This analysis revealed that 2 hrs after bacterial inoculation into day-3 wounds, the down-regulated genes (infected vs. non-infected) of the wound edge were nearly all non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), comprised of snoRNA, miRNA, and RNU6 pseudogenes, and their down-regulation preceded a general down-regulation of skin-enriched coding gene expression. As the active infection intensified, ncRNAs remained overrepresented among down-regulated genes; however, at 6 and 24 hrs they changed to a different set, which overlapped between these times, and excluded RNU6 pseudogenes but included snRNA components of the major and minor spliceosomes. Additionally, the raw counts of multiple types of differentially-expressed ncRNAs increased on post-wounding day 3 in control wounds, but infection suppressed this increase. After 5 and 9 days, these ncRNA counts in control wounds decreased, whereas they increased in the infected, healing-impaired wounds. These data suggest a sequential and coordinated change in the levels of transcripts of multiple

  14. RNA-Seq Transcriptomic Responses of Full-Thickness Dermal Excision Wounds to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acute and Biofilm Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, S L Rajasekhar; D'Arpa, Peter; Chen, Tsute; Qian, Li-Wu; Fourcaudot, Andrea B; Yamane, Kazuyoshi; Chen, Ping; Abercrombie, Johnathan J; You, Tao; Leung, Kai P

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections of wounds in clinical settings are major complications whose outcomes are influenced by host responses that are not completely understood. Herein we evaluated transcriptomic changes of wounds as they counter P. aeruginosa infection-first active infection, and then chronic biofilm infection. We used the dermal full-thickness, rabbit ear excisional wound model. We studied the wound response: towards acute infection at 2, 6, and 24 hrs after inoculating 106 bacteria into day-3 wounds; and, towards more chronic biofilm infection of wounds similarly infected for 24 hrs but then treated with topical antibiotic to coerce biofilm growth and evaluated at day 5 and 9 post-infection. The wounds were analyzed for bacterial counts, expression of P. aeruginosa virulence and biofilm-synthesis genes, biofilm morphology, infiltrating immune cells, re-epithelialization, and genome-wide gene expression (RNA-Seq transcriptome). This analysis revealed that 2 hrs after bacterial inoculation into day-3 wounds, the down-regulated genes (infected vs. non-infected) of the wound edge were nearly all non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), comprised of snoRNA, miRNA, and RNU6 pseudogenes, and their down-regulation preceded a general down-regulation of skin-enriched coding gene expression. As the active infection intensified, ncRNAs remained overrepresented among down-regulated genes; however, at 6 and 24 hrs they changed to a different set, which overlapped between these times, and excluded RNU6 pseudogenes but included snRNA components of the major and minor spliceosomes. Additionally, the raw counts of multiple types of differentially-expressed ncRNAs increased on post-wounding day 3 in control wounds, but infection suppressed this increase. After 5 and 9 days, these ncRNA counts in control wounds decreased, whereas they increased in the infected, healing-impaired wounds. These data suggest a sequential and coordinated change in the levels of transcripts of multiple

  15. Evaluation of the acute dermal exposure of the ethanolic and hexanic extracts from leaves of Schinus molle var. areira L. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Cristina; Gumilar, Fernanda; Gandini, Norberto; Minetti, Alejandra; Ferrero, Adriana

    2011-10-11

    Schinus molle var. areira L. (Anacardiaceae) is employed in herbal medicine for many conditions, including respiratory, urinary and menstrual disorders, and as a digestive stimulant, diuretic, astringent and antidepressant. It is also known for its topical use as wound healer, antiseptic, for skin disorders and as repellent and insecticide. In the present work, the acute dermal exposure to ethanolic and hexanic extracts from leaves of Schinus molle var. areira was studied in rats. A single dose of 2000 mg/kg of body weight of ethanolic and hexanic extracts from leaves was applied on the shaved skin of male and female rats. After 24h of exposure, the patch was removed and any sign of irritation was recorded. Behavioral and functional parameters in a functional observational battery and motor activity in an open field were assessed after the exposure to the extracts. Then, after 14 days of observation, animals were retested. Finally, histopathological studies were conducted on several organs. Slight signs of erythema and edema were observed in the skin site of exposure, but they disappeared after 48 h. The exposure to the hexanic extract produced an increase in parameters of activity, rearing and arousal assessed in the functional observational battery, which reversed after 14 days. On the other hand, the ethanolic extract caused an increase in locomotor activity, reflected in a higher number of rearings performed in the open field in the evaluation carried out on Day 14. No histopathological alterations were detected in the analyzed organs. The results show that the acute dermal exposure of the ethanolic and hexanic extracts from leaves of Schinus molle var. areira only causes a slight and reversible skin irritation, and a mild stimulatory effect in rats. All these indicate that the topical use of these extracts would be safe. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Skin substitute-assisted repair shows reduced dermal fibrosis in acute human wounds validated simultaneously by histology and optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Nicholas S; Iqbal, Syed A; Hodgkinson, Tom; Morris, Julie; Benatar, Brian; Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Skin substitutes are heterogeneous biomaterials designed to accelerate wound healing through provision of replacement extracellular matrix. Despite growing evidence for their use in chronic wounds, the role of skin substitutes in acute wound management and their influence on fibrogenesis remains unclear. Skin substitute characteristics including biocompatibility, porosity, and elasticity strongly influence cellular behavior during wound healing. Thus, we hypothesize that structural and biomechanical variation between biomaterials may induce differential scar formation after cutaneous injury. The following human prospective cohort study was designed to investigate this premise. Four 5-mm full thickness punch biopsies were harvested from 50 volunteers. In all cases, site 1 healed by secondary intention, site 2 was treated with collagen-GAG scaffold (CG), and decellularised dermis (DCD) was applied to site 3 while tissue extracted from site 4 was replaced (autograft). Healing tissue was assessed weekly with optical coherence tomography (OCT), before being excised on days 7, 14, 21, or 28 depending on study group allocation for later histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Extracted RNA was used in microarray analysis and polymerase chain reaction of highlighted genes. Autograft treatment resulted in minimal fibrosis confirmed immunohistochemically and with OCT through significantly lower collagen I levels (p = 0.047 and 0.03) and reduced mean grayscale values (p = 0.038 and 0.015), respectively. DCD developed intermediate scar formation with partial rete ridge reformation and reduced fasiculonodular fibrosis. It was uniquely associated with late up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3, oncostatin M, and interleukin-10 (p = 0.007, 0.04, 0.019, 0.019). Regenerated dermis was significantly thicker in DCD and autografts 28 days post-injury compared with control and CG samples (p = 0.003 and < 0.0001). In conclusion, variable fibrotic outcomes were

  17. Dermal exposure assessment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, R A

    1993-12-01

    Exposure of the skin to chemical substances can contribute significantly to total dose in many workplace situations, and its relative importance will increase when airborne occupational exposure limits are reduced, unless steps to reduce skin exposure are undertaken simultaneously. Its assessment employs personal sampling techniques to measure skin loading rates, and combines these measurements with models of percutaneous absorption to estimate absorbed dose. Knowledge of dermal exposure pathways is in many cases fundamental to hazard evaluation and control. When the skin is the primary contributor to absorbed dose, dermal exposure measurements and biological monitoring play complementary roles in defining occupational exposures. Exposure normally occurs by one of three pathways: (i) immersion (direct contact with a liquid or solid chemical substance); (ii) deposition of aerosol or uptake of vapour through the skin; or (iii) surface contact (residue transfer from contaminated surfaces). Sampling methods fall into three categories: surrogate skin; chemical removal; and fluorescent tracers. Surface sampling represents a supplementary approach, providing an estimate of dermal exposure potential. Surrogate skin techniques involve placing a chemical collection medium on the skin. Whole-body garment samplers do not require assumptions relating to distribution, an inherent limitation of patch sampling. The validity of these techniques rests on the ability of the sampling medium to capture and retain chemicals in a manner similar to skin. Removal techniques include skin washing and wiping, but these measure only what can be removed from the skin, not exposure: laboratory removal efficiency studies are required for proper interpretation of data. Fluorescent tracer techniques exploit the visual properties of fluorescent compounds, and combined with video imaging make quantification of dermal exposure patterns possible, but the need to introduce a chemical substance (tracer

  18. Acute Dermal Irritation Study In New Zealand White Rabbits: Four Alcohol-to-Jet (ATJ) Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) Alternative Jet Fuels Compared With Petroleum-Derived JP-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    Research Service. Draize, J.H. 1965. Appraisal of the Safety of Chemicals in Foods, Drugs and Cosmetics – Dermal Toxicity. Association of Food and...well defined) 2 Slight erythema (pale red in color and edges definable) 3 Moderate to severe erythema (definite red in color and area well defined...The Appraisal of the Safety of Chemicals in Foods, Drugs and Cosmetics . Dermal Toxicity, pp. 46-59. Assoc. of Food and Drug Officials of the U.S

  19. Efficacy of dermal substitute on deep dermal to full thickness burn injury: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Winy; Tan, Juen; Maitz, Peter K M

    2017-06-01

    The study aims to systematically examine the efficacy of dermal regeneration templates (DRTs) in comparison to split thickness skin grafting (STSG) in the management of acute burn injuries post-excision and debridement. Systematic literature search was conducted by two independent reviewers from the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library with selection criteria set a priori. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Main outcomes extracted were percent of STSG take, infection rate and scar quality. Seven studies were included. Three of the seven studies reported no significant difference in STSG take between burn wounds treated with dermal substitute and or STSG only. Three of the seven studies reported either low rates of infection or no significant difference in infection rates between dermal substitute and control. Four of the seven studies reported no significant difference in scar quality. Statistical pooling of data was not performed due to heterogeneity of the studies. Current RCTs available are generally of small sample size with poor methodological reporting. Given the results of more recent RCTs, the risk associated with DRTs is low and it can be a useful alternative for immediate wound coverage post-burn excision. However, there is still no strong evidence to support that DRTs have significant impact on scaring. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One concern involves the materials in wipes used to collect pesticide residues or other contact materials on the skin. In recent studies (e.g., National Human Exposure Assessment Survey; NHEXAS), isopropyl alcohol has been used as a solvent in conjunction with a cloth wipe to obtain samples from the hands of adults and children. Although isopropyl alcohol is generally considered innocuous, the use of commercially available products could eliminate concerns about exposure to alcohol. A few studies have evaluated the potential of commercially available baby wipes to collect personal exposure samples for metals research, but not for the area of pesticide research (Millson et al., 1994; Campbell et al., 1993; Lichtenwalner et al., 1993). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the potential for using commercially available baby wipes for collecting pesticide samples from skin and other surfaces. Another concern involves establishing a convenient and safe method for assessing overall dermal exposure for children, especially for those in crawling stage. One route that the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would like to investigate is the use of cotton body suits (infant sleepers) as an indicator

  1. Zimbabwe Science News: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Submission Preparation Checklist. As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another ...

  2. From dermal exposure to internal dose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Dellarco, M.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Exposure scenarios form an essential basis for chemical risk assessment reports under the new EU chemicals regulation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals). In case the dermal route of exposure is predominant, information on both exposure and dermal

  3. Dermal absorption of chlorpyrifos in human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuling, W.J.; Ravensberg, L.C.; Roza, L.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The methods and results are described of a study on the dermal absorption of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in humans established via urinary excretion of the metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). Methods: Two dermal, single, doses of CPF were applied in two study groups (A and B) each

  4. [Advances in the research of negative-pressure wound therapy inducing the vascularization of dermal substitute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, H W; Wang, X G; You, Z G; Han, C M

    2017-08-20

    In clinical practice, skin defects resulted from various acute and chronic diseases occur frequently. Dermal substitute (DS), known as dermal regenerative template, is used more and more widely, but the slow process of vascularization limits its clinical application. At present, there are many strategies developed to enhance the process of vascularization, such as modifying the structure of dermal scaffolds, prevascularization by seeding stem cells and/or endothelial cells. Recently, negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) emerged and rapidly became popular in promoting wound healing due to its intrinsic advantages. Furthermore, some researchers introduced this technique to accelerate the vascularization process of DS. This paper represents a comprehensive overview on the efficiency of NPWT in different combination models, and the related mechanism.

  5. The Role of Dermal Matrices in Treating Inflammatory and Diabetic Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climov, Mihail; Bayer, Lauren R; Moscoso, Andrea V; Matsumine, Hajime; Orgill, Dennis P

    2016-09-01

    Dermal matrices are used to improve healing in both acute and chronic wounds including diabetic and lower extremity wounds, burns, trauma, and surgical reconstruction. The use of dermal matrices for the closure of inflammatory ulcerations is less frequent but growing. Currently available products include decellularized dermis and semisynthetic matrices. A review of the published literature was performed to identify reports that use acellular dermal matrices in diabetic and inflammatory wounds. Studies were evaluated for quality and outcomes, and a level of evidence was assigned according to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons' Rating Levels of Evidence. Case studies from the authors' experience are also presented. Seventeen primary studies evaluating the use of dermal matrices in diabetic ulcers were identified with 2 based on level I data. There are no prospective clinical trial reports of their use in atypical or inflammatory wounds, but there are several case studies. Treatment of diabetic and inflammatory wounds may include both medical and surgical modalities. The use of dermal matrices can be a useful adjunct, but their optimal use will require future clinical studies.

  6. Tetrabromobisphenol A In vitro Dermal Absopriton Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro dermal absorption data of tetrabromobisphenol A using human cadaver and rat skin. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Knudsen, G., M....

  7. Radiation Doses to Skin from Dermal Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Doses to Skin From Dermal Contamination HDTRA1-07-C-0015 A. Iulian Apostoaei and David C. Kocher Prepared by: SENES Oak Ridge, Inc. Center for Risk...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER HDTRA1-07-C-0015 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Radiation Doses to Skin from Dermal Contamination 5c... contamination due to a uniform deposition of airborne radioactive material in specific regions of the body. This methodology includes a model to estimate

  8. Dermal Coverage of Traumatic War Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    healing/non-healing of wound and donor site • Graft loss • Heterotrophic ossification • Infection • Scar contracture • Durability (i.e. abrasions/ injuries ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0004 TITLE: "Dermal Coverage of Traumatic War Wounds ” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Leon Nesti CONTRACTING...REPORT DATE January 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 31 Oct 2012- 30 Oct 2016 " Dermal Coverage of Traumatic War Wounds ” 5a

  9. Antioxidant Nanoplatforms for Dermal Delivery: Melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Aroha Sanchez; Campmany, Ana Cristina Calpena; Naveros, Beatriz Clares

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin is emerging as a promising therapeutic agent, mainly due to its role as antioxidant. Substantial evidences show that melatonin is potentially effective in a variety of diseases as cancer, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. The excellent antioxidant capacity with pharmacokinetics characteristics and the emerging search for new pharmaceutical nanotechnology based systems, make it particularly attractive to elaborate nanoplatforms based on melatonin for biomedical or cosmetic dermal applications. Different nanosystems for dermal delivery have been investigated. This review focuses on nanocarrier production strategies, dermal melatonin application and delivery advances in vivo and in vitro. Equally, future perspectives of this assisted melatonin delivery have also been discussed. In the current review, we have revised relevant articles of the available literature using the major scientific databases. One hundred and thirteen papers were included in the review, the majority of which represent latest researches in nanosized platforms for the dermal delivery of melatonin including liposomes, ethosomes, niosomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles and cyclodextrins. Furthermore, relevant papers reporting in vitro and in vivo application studies of these nano-based melatonin platforms were also discussed. The use of nanoplatforms for the dermal melatonin delivery as antioxidant agent could improve the efficacy of conventional melatonin administration due to the preservation of the drug from premature oxidation and the enhancement of drug permeation through the skin providing greater exposure times. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Dermal and inhalation exposure to dimethoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Jaghbir, M T; Salhab, A S; Hamarsheh, F A

    1992-05-01

    Dermal and respiratory exposure and plasma acetylcholinesterase (ChE) activity were monitored on six workers spraying tomato crops under plastic houses with dimethoate [O,O-dimethyl S-(N-methylcarbamoylmethyl) phosphorodithoate]. The mean dermal exposure was 914 mg/day and the mean respiratory exposure was 17 mg/day. The maximum dose received by the spraymen was 18.2 mg/day. It was estimated that 84% of the dermal exposure was to the forearms and hands. Of the body areas monitored, the back of the neck received the least rate of exposure. The results also show a reduction in plasma ChE among spraymen. The mean difference was 37.1% less than the preexposure values, which exceeds the limits set by the World Health Organization.

  11. Perspectives in Education: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Guidelines to authors can be found on the journal's own site here: http://www.perspectives-in-education.com/pages.aspx?PID=10. Alternatively, see below: Information for Authors. Submission of articles. PiE invites submissions in the following categories: Research articles. Contributors are encouraged to ...

  12. Mizan Law Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. SUBMISSION GUIDELINES The following submissions are acceptable for publication upon approval by the Editorial Board. Publication of an article further involves anonymous peer review by two External Assessors. Articles: Research articles that identify, examine, explore and analyze legal and related ...

  13. New in vitro dermal absorption database and the prediction of dermal absorption under finite conditions for risk assessment purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Freidig, A.P.; Maas, W.J.M.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de

    2010-01-01

    Most QSARs for dermal absorption predict the permeability coefficient, Kp, of a molecule, which is valid for infinite dose conditions. In practice, dermal exposure mostly occurs under finite dose conditions. Therefore, a simple model to predict finite dose dermal absorption from infinite

  14. New in vitro dermal absorption database and the prediction of dermal absorption under finite conditions for risk assessment purposes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Freidig, A.P.; Maas, W.J.; Sandt, J.J. van de

    2010-01-01

    Most QSARs for dermal absorption predict the permeability coefficient, K(p), of a molecule, which is valid for infinite dose conditions. In practice, dermal exposure mostly occurs under finite dose conditions. Therefore, a simple model to predict finite dose dermal absorption from infinite dose data

  15. Familial Dermal Eccrine Cylindromatosis with Emphasis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These globules were surrounded by cohesive benign epithelial cells with dark uniform nuclei. The background was clean and no mitosis was noticed. Surgical excision along with the skin grafting was performed to improve the facial appearance of the patient. Specimen was. Familial Dermal Eccrine Cylindromatosis with.

  16. Wrinkles due to idiopathic dermal elastolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ashok

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with the skin changes in a 9-year-old male patient, appearing clinically as a localized area of wrinkling of skin accompanied by follicular prominences over the involved skin, and characterized histopathologically by dermal loss of elastic tissue.

  17. A Dermal Piercing Complicated by Mycobacterium fortuitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dermal piercings have recently become a fashion symbol. Common complications include hypertrophic scarring, rejection, local infection, contact allergy, and traumatic tearing. We report a rare case of Mycobacterium fortuitum following a dermal piercing and discuss its medical implications and treatments. Case. A previously healthy 19-year-old woman presented complaining of erythema and edema at the site of a dermal piercing on the right fourth dorsal finger. She was treated with a 10-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and one course of cephalexin by her primary care physician with incomplete resolution. The patient stated that she had been swimming at a local water park daily. A punch biopsy around the dermal stud was performed, and cultures with sensitivities revealed Mycobacterium fortuitum. The patient was treated with clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin for two months receiving full resolution. Discussion. Mycobacterium fortuitum is an infrequent human pathogen. This organism is a Runyon group IV, rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria, often found in water,soil, and dust. Treatment options vary due to the size of the lesion. Small lesions are typically excised, while larger lesions require treatment for 2–6 months with antibiotics. We recommend a high level of suspicion for atypical mycobacterial infections in a piercing resistant to other therapies.

  18. Acellular Dermal Matrix in Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.S. Ibrahim (Ahmed)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Over the last decade the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in reconstructive breast surgery has been transformative. Some authors have gone as far as to suggest that it is the single most important advancement in prosthetic breast reconstruction. ADMs are able

  19. Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The methods for the dermal exposure assessment vary in their complexity and are in some sense complementary to each other. The most easy-to-use methods involve a pseudo-skin-approach, such as gloves and removal by washing. In some cases generic modelling appears to be possible. The experimental

  20. Focal dermal hypoplasia: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana M Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome.

  1. Intraspinal Abscess Associated with Congenital Dermal Sinus: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Yi; Jung, Won Sung; Ihn, Yon Kwon [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Dermal sinus tracts are remnants of incomplete neural tube closure. Dermal sinus tracts in the spine range from asymptomatic pits to tracts with significant disease. Congenital spinal dermal sinus tract can produce significant morbidity if not adequately managed. Spinal subdural abscess caused by the spread of an infection within the dermal sinus tract is rare in children. We now described a 3-year-old male who presented with extensive spinal subdural abscess resulting from dermal sinus tract that was low-lying in the sacral area.

  2. MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION FORM Upon submission of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The submission of a paper by a set of authors represents the results of their original research not previously published; that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; and that if accepted for the journal, it will not be published elsewhere. ii). The list of authors includes those and all those who have contributed in.

  3. Dermal Adipocytes: From Irrelevance to Metabolic Targets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglikov, Ilja L; Scherer, Philipp E

    2016-01-01

    Dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) has received little appreciation in the past as a distinct entity from the better recognized subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). However, recent work has established dWAT as an important contributor to a multitude of processes, including immune response, wound healing and scarring, hair follicle (HF) growth, and thermoregulation. Unique metabolic contributions have also been attributed to dWAT, at least in part due to its thermic insulation properties and response to cold exposure. Dermal adipocytes can also undergo an adipocyte-myofibroblast transition (AMT), a process that is suspected to have an important role in several pathophysiological processes within the skin. Here, we discuss emerging concepts regarding dWAT physiology and its significance to a variety of cellular processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dermal Uptake of Benzophenone-3 from Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn C.; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    compartments, including clothing. Given its physical and chemical properties, we hypothesized that dermal uptake from clothing could contribute to the body burden of this compound. First, cotton shirts were exposed to air at an elevated concentration of BP-3 for 32 days; the final air concentration was 4.4 μg....../m3. Next, three participants wore the exposed shirts for 3 h. After 3 h of exposure, participants wore their usual clothing during the collection of urine samples for the next 48 h. Urine was analyzed for BP-3, a metabolite (BP-1), and six other UV filters. The rate of urinary excretion of the sum...... with predictions of steady-state models, suggest that dermal uptake of BP-3 from clothing could meaningfully contribute to overall body burden....

  5. DERMAL ADIPOCYTES: FROM IRRELEVANCE TO METABOLIC TARGETS?

    OpenAIRE

    Kruglikov, Ilja L.; Philipp E. Scherer

    2015-01-01

    Dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) has found little appreciation in the past as a distinct entity from the better recognized subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). However, recent work has established dWAT as an important contributor to a multitude of processes, including immune response, wound healing and scarring, hair follicle growth and thermoregulation. Unique metabolic contributions are attributed to dWAT as well, at least in part due to thermic insulation properties and its response...

  6. Chemical sterilization of allograft dermal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Abigail; Vaynshteyn, Edward; Kowalski, John B; Ngo, Manh-Dan; Merritt, Karen; Osborne, Joel; Chnari, Evangelia

    2017-12-01

    Common terminal sterilization methods are known to alter the natural structure and properties of soft tissues. One approach to providing safe grafts with preserved biological properties is the combination of a validated chemical sterilization process followed by an aseptic packaging process. This combination of processes is an accepted method for production of sterile healthcare products as described in ANSI/AAMI ST67:2011. This article describes the validation of the peracetic acid and ethanol-based (PAAE) chemical sterilization process for allograft dermal tissues at the Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation (MTF, Edison, NJ). The sterilization capability of the PAAE solution used during routine production of aseptically processed dermal tissue forms was determined based on requirements of relevant ISO standards, ISO 14161:2009 and ISO 14937:2009. The resistance of spores of Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium sporogenes, Mycobacterium terrae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium, and Staphylococcus aureus to the chemical sterilization process employed by MTF was determined. Using a worst-case scenario testing strategy, the D value was calculated for the most resistant microorganism, Bacillus. The 12D time parameter determined the minimum time required to achieve a SAL of 10 -6 . Microbiological performance qualification demonstrated a complete kill of 10 6 spores at just a quarter of the full cycle time. The validation demonstrated that the PAAE sterilization process is robust, achieves sterilization of allograft dermal tissue to a SAL 10 -6 , and that in combination with aseptic processing secures the microbiological safety of allograft dermal tissue while avoiding structural and biochemical tissue damage previously observed with other sterilization methods such as ionizing irradiation.

  7. Focal dermal hypoplasia in a male

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Leni; Agrawal, Nisha; Hogan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare mesoectodermal dysplasia syndrome characterized by cutaneous, skeletal, dental, ocular and soft-tissue defects. An X-linked dominant mode of inheritance with lethality in male subjects has been proposed. Only around 30 cases of FDH have been reported in male subjects. Live born affected males are mosaic for mutations in PORCN gene . We present the mosaic pattern of FDH in a young boy. PMID:25386262

  8. Posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernard Taylor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative vaginal incision separation and healing in patients undergoing posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal grafts with those that received grafts without perforations. Secondarily, the tensile properties of the perforated and non-perforated grafts were measured and compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a non-randomized retrospective cohort analysis of women with stage II or greater rectoceles who underwent posterior repair with perforated and non-perforated porcine dermal grafts (PelvicolTM CR Bard Covington, GA USA. The incidence of postoperative vaginal incision separation (dehiscence was compared. A secondary analysis to assess graft tensile strength, suture pull out strength, and flexibility after perforation was performed using standard test method TM 0133 and ASTM bending and resistance protocols. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of patients (21/127 who received grafts without perforations developed vaginal incision dehiscence compared to 7% (5/71 of patients who received perforated grafts (p = 0.078. Four patients with vaginal incision dehiscence with non-perforated grafts required surgical revision to facilitate healing. Neither tensile strength or suture pull out strength were significantly different between perforated and non-perforated grafts (p = 0.81, p = 0.29, respectively. There was no difference in the flexibility of the two grafts (p = 0.20. CONCLUSION: Perforated porcine dermal grafts retain their tensile properties and are associated with fewer vaginal incision dehiscences.

  9. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... laboratory strains must be employed. If a species other than rats, rabbits, or guinea pigs is used, the... directed primarily to studies in either rats, rabbits, or guinea pigs but may be adapted for studies in... substances are discussed in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards. (3) Test procedures—(i...

  10. DREAM: a method for semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Brouwer, D.H.; Kromhout, H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new method (DREAM) for structured, semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment for chemical or biological agents that can be used in occupational hygiene or epidemiology. It is anticipated that DREAM could serve as an initial assessment of dermal exposure, amongst others,

  11. Dermal pharmacokinetics of microemulsion formulations determined by in vivo microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the potential of improving dermal drug delivery of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances by formulation in microemulsion vehicles and to establish a reliable pharmacokinetic model to analyze cutaneous microdialysis data.......To investigate the potential of improving dermal drug delivery of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances by formulation in microemulsion vehicles and to establish a reliable pharmacokinetic model to analyze cutaneous microdialysis data....

  12. Dermal exposure to toluene diisocyanate and respiratory cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prueitt, Robyn L; Lynch, Heather N; Zu, Ke; Shi, Liuhua; Goodman, Julie E

    2017-12-01

    Human exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) occurs mainly through inhalation of vapors in occupational settings where TDI is produced or used, but dermal exposure to TDI is also possible during some operations. Because of a recent epidemiology study reporting a possible association with lung cancer risk in workers with potential dermal exposure to TDI, we evaluated the evidence from epidemiological, toxicological, and toxicokinetic studies to assess whether it is likely that dermal exposure to TDI can cause human respiratory cancers. We found that the reported associations with respiratory cancers in the epidemiology studies do not support TDI as a causal factor, as there are other explanations that are more likely than causation, such as confounding by smoking and low socioeconomic status. Experimental animal and genotoxicity studies indicate that the carcinogenic potential of TDI depends on its conversion to toluene diamine (TDA), and there is no evidence of systemic availability of TDA after dermal or inhalation exposure to TDI. Also, systemic uptake of TDI is very low after dermal exposure, and any absorbed TDI is more likely to react with biomolecules on or below the skin surface than to form TDA. Even if some TDA formation occurred after dermal exposure to TDI, TDA does not induce respiratory tract tumors in experimental animals after either dermal or oral exposure. We conclude that the available evidence indicates that dermal TDI exposure does not cause respiratory cancers in humans. Copyright © 2017 Gradient. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... toxicological studies. For dermal bioavailability studies, the rat and the mini-pig shall be used. (ii) Test... 9 weeks of age, shall be used. For dermal studies, young adult mini-pigs shall also be used. The... laboratory. The animals shall be selected at random for the test groups and any animal showing signs of ill...

  14. Abdominal wall reconstruction using De-epithelialized dermal flap: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to determine the place of de-epithelialized dermal flap in the reconstruction of abdominal wall hernias. Materials and Methods: A five-year prospective, descriptive analysis of eligible patients with difficult abdominal wall hernias closed with de-epithelialized dermal flap in a Nigerian Tertiary Health ...

  15. Dermal Uptake of Benzophenone-3 from Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Glenn C; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Schripp, Tobias; Salthammer, Tunga; Hill, Jonathan; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo; Frederiksen, Hanne

    2017-10-03

    Benzophenone-3 (also known as BP-3 or oxybenzone) is added to sunscreens, plastics, and some coatings to filter UV radiation. The suspected endocrine disruptor BP-3 has been detected in the air and settled dust of homes and is expected to redistribute from its original sources to other indoor compartments, including clothing. Given its physical and chemical properties, we hypothesized that dermal uptake from clothing could contribute to the body burden of this compound. First, cotton shirts were exposed to air at an elevated concentration of BP-3 for 32 days; the final air concentration was 4.4 μg/m(3). Next, three participants wore the exposed shirts for 3 h. After 3 h of exposure, participants wore their usual clothing during the collection of urine samples for the next 48 h. Urine was analyzed for BP-3, a metabolite (BP-1), and six other UV filters. The rate of urinary excretion of the sum of BP-1 and BP-3 increased for all participants during and following the 3 h of exposure. The summed mass of BP-1 and BP-3 excreted during the first 24 h attributable to wearing exposed t-shirts were 12, 9.9, and 82 μg for participants 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Analysis of these results, coupled with predictions of steady-state models, suggest that dermal uptake of BP-3 from clothing could meaningfully contribute to overall body burden.

  16. Bioresorbable scaffold as a dermal substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Lenon; Cleto, Marília Colturato; Barbo, Maria Lourdes Peris; Esposito, Andréa Rodrigues; Orgaes, Flavio Stillitano; Duek, Eliana Aparecida de Rezende

    2017-01-01

    Bioresorbable polymers are often used in medical procedures. Since they are biocompatible, this class of materials is a viable alternative for cases in which tissue regeneration is strongly compromised. Bioresorbable synthetic polymers may be used as membranes to support and guide cell growth through the process of tissue repair. To assess the efficiency of a porous bioresorbable membrane Poly (L-co-DL lactic acid)-co-trimethylene carbonate, PL-co-DLA-co-TMC, as a dermal substitute associated with partial skin graft in rats. A 1.5×1.5 cm defect was created on the backs of 40 Wistar rats. The rats were divided into a control group, in which the defects were filled with partial skin graft, and a treated group, in which a membrane associated with the graft was implemented. The animals were sacrificed 7 days or 60 days after the procedure and the results were evaluated by macroscopic and microscopic analysis. The polymer was biocompatible and allowed better regeneration of the dermis with less shrinkage, unlike what occurs in second intention healing. Compared to the control group, the treated group showed a thicker and wider dermis with the presence of skin appendages, suggesting partial graft integration and better healing. The skin graft acted as a biological protection of the wound. The study material was shown to act as a biocompatible dermal substitute and promoted less scarring of the dermis. Further studies should be conducted to improve the methodology of the surgical procedure.

  17. Evaluation of dermal irritation and skin sensitization due to vitacoxib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Wang

    Full Text Available The prediction of side-effects is a key issue in the REACH initiative on chemicals in the preclinical testing of drugs. The dermal irritation and skin sensitization toxicity potential of a new molecule, vitacoxib, were invested in rabbits and guinea pigs in compliance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guideline. To assess dermal irritation, rabbits were dermally attached to vitacoxib for 72 h or repeated application. The results showed that no adverse reactions such as erythema and edema were observed throughout the test. In skin sensitization test, guinea pigs were sensitized to vitaoxib, positive and negative article for 24 h. No sensitization reaction was shown in the vitacoxib and negative group whereas severe sensitization was observed in the positive group. Based on these findings, vitacoxib does not cause dermal irritation and skin sensitization toxicity, and seems to be safe for animal use. Keywords: Vitacoxib, Dermal irritation, Skin sensitization

  18. Tanzania Veterinary Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corresponding author certifies in the letter that all coauthors have read the manuscript and agree to its submission. Every coauthor should .... If you will be using a digital camera to capture images for print production, you must use the highest resolution setting option with the least amount of compression. Digital camera ...

  19. ORiON: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This format is also supported by the ORiON LATEX style sheet (which may be downloaded from http://www.orssa.org.za -> ORiON -> Submissions -> Style Sheets). ... If MS Word is used to prepare a manuscript, it should be utilised appropriately. .... An example of an unpublished technical report [6] is also shown below.

  20. Nigerian Veterinary Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SCOPE The Editorial Board of the Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) welcomes contributions in the form of original research papers, review articles, clinical case reports, and short communications on all aspects of Veterinary Medicine, Surgery and Animal Production. Submissions are accepted on the understanding that ...

  1. Open Veterinary Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All submitted manuscripts are checked for plagiarism using PlagScan Plagiarism Detection Software: The image shows our cooperation with the online plagiarism detection service PlagScan. Submission ... For case reports, text should be organized as follows: Introduction, Case Details, Discussion, and References. Review ...

  2. Ergonomics SA: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manuscript submissions. Authors should submit their full papers (using the abovementioned template) as an attachment via email to the journal email address j.mcdougall@ru.ac.za. All submitted papers should be sent in .doc or .rtf formats. No other formats will be accepted. Editor. Editor-in-Chief: Ergonomics SA

  3. Manuscript Submission Form

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mr.XAVIER

    To: Indian Academy of Sciences. From: Author or Corresponding author with institutional/corresponding address including e-mail. (on behalf of, and binding upon, all the authors). Journal: Title of manuscript: Date of submission of manuscript: In respect of the work mentioned above, I/we undertake to ensure that: i).

  4. Lagos Historical Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Submissions can be made by sending a word processing computer file in MS Word format by e-mail to sarlek@yahoo.com, or by mailing three paper copies to the Editorial Office. Authors should keep a computer file version of their manuscript, as Lagos Historical Review will require a disk version upon acceptance for ...

  5. Africa Sanguine: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Submissions for consideration may include original scientific articles (which will be peer reviewed), short reports, letters to the Editor, reviews, congress proceedings, and reprints of published articles (with permission). Original scientific work must meet the following requirements: Be a report of original ...

  6. Dermal and ocular irritation and skin sensitization studies of fullerene C60 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Makoto; Matsuda, Akitaka; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Naya, Masato; Nakanishi, Junko

    2013-06-01

    Widespread production and use of nanomaterials have caused the release of increasing amounts of nanomaterials into the environment. The introduction of novel materials into industry requires safety evaluations as well as an understanding of the impact of the nanomaterials on human health, because the unique properties and size of nanomaterials may also result in unique health risks. Skin and eyes have the highest risk of exposure to nanomaterials, because deposition to the superficial organs has the potential to be a major route of exposure during the manufacturing, use, and disposal of nanomaterials. However, information on the dermal and eye irritation and sensitization of fullerene C(60) nanoparticles is still lacking. This study was performed to examine the potential irritating and sensitizing effects of fullerenes on the skin and eyes. The dermal and eye irritation study was performed using rabbits according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidelines 404 and 405, respectively. The skin sensitization study was carried out in accordance to the OECD Guideline 406 using guinea pigs. The concentrations of the fullerenes in the test substances were the maximum allowable for administration. Fullerenes were applied at 50 mg in dermal irritation, 40 mg in skin sensitization, and 100 mg in eye irritation studies. No dermal responses, including erythema/eschar or edema, were found in rabbits treated with fullerenes. No rabbits exhibited corneal opacity, abnormality of the iris, or chemosis eye at any time point after the application of fullerenes. Fullerenes caused conjunctival redness and blood vessel hyperemia at 1 h, but not at 24 h. No erythema or edema was observed after the challenge with fullerenes in the fullerene-treated guinea pigs. Reversible minimal potential for acute irritation of the eyes was induced by fullerenes, but neither irritation nor sensitization was caused on the skin. Although the present study provided

  7. Dissolving Microneedle Patches for Dermal Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, M; Mönkäre, J; Bouwstra, J A; Kersten, G

    2017-11-01

    The dermal route is an attractive route for vaccine delivery due to the easy skin accessibility and a dense network of immune cells in the skin. The development of microneedles is crucial to take advantage of the skin immunization and simultaneously to overcome problems related to vaccination by conventional needles (e.g. pain, needle-stick injuries or needle re-use). This review focuses on dissolving microneedles that after penetration into the skin dissolve releasing the encapsulated antigen. The microneedle patch fabrication techniques and their challenges are discussed as well as the microneedle characterization methods and antigen stability aspects. The immunogenicity of antigens formulated in dissolving microneedles are addressed. Finally, the early clinical development is discussed.

  8. Journal of Psychology in Africa: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Please note that this journal is no longer published by NISC. Submission Preparation Checklist. As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these ...

  9. Abdominal wall reconstruction using De-epithelialized dermal flap: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdominal wall reconstruction using De-epithelialized dermal flap: A new technique. ... hernias, nine healed exomphalos major and two giant umbilical hernias. ... Morbidity was minimal and included skin dimpling in 11 patients, seroma in ...

  10. Focal dermal hypoplasia: Unusual presentation in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadh Alamri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome is a rare genetic multisystem characterized by multiple abnormalities of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. It is found predominantly in females. We report a case of a two month-old baby girl who had dermal hypoplasia, atrophic skin lesions with telangiectasia in a linear pattern, fat herniations, papillomas and cleft of the upper lip, ectrodactyly, claw hands, microphthalmia and unusual association of gastrointestinal omphalocele.

  11. Dermal in vitro penetration of methiocarb, paclobutrazol, and pirimicarb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J B; Nielsen, F

    2000-11-01

    The dominant route of occupational exposure to pesticides in horticulture is dermal. However, preventive measures are seldom used when handling plant cultures recently treated with pesticides, thus causing significant dermal exposure and potential absorption. Assessment of exposure often depends on biological monitoring of blood or urine samples. The skin often acts as a temporary reservoir for chemicals before absorption. Failure to consider the lag time between dermal exposure and appearance of pesticide or metabolites in the general circulation may lead to false conclusions about assessment of exposure. In an experimental model in which in vitro static diffusion cells were mounted with human skin, dermal penetration of three extensively used pesticides (methiocarb, paclobutrazol, pirimicarb) was evaluated. Pirimicarb and paclobutrazol had comparable rates of dermal penetration and lag times of around 18 hours. Methiocarb had a considerably shorter lag time. Dermal penetration continued for extended periods after exposure had ended. With lag times sometimes considerably longer than a normal working day, biological monitoring at the end of exposure may seriously underestimate the actual exposure. There may be implications for regulatory guidelines, which often require only 24 hour observation periods.

  12. Dermal scarification versus intramuscular diclofenac sodium injection for the treatment of renal colic: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Stavros; Kampantais, Spyridon; Ioannidis, Anastasios; Gkagkalidis, Konstantinos; Vakalopoulos, Ioannis; Toutziaris, Chrysovalantis; Patsialas, Christos; Laskaridis, Leonidas; Dimopoulos, Panagiotis; Dimitriadis, Georgios

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study is to determine whether dermal scarification is equally effective for treating acute renal colic compared to diclofenac sodium intramuscular therapy. A prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted with methodologic rigor based on CONSORT criteria. A total of 291 patients, aged ≥ 18 years, suffering from acute renal colic were included in this trial and randomly assigned in two groups. Patients in the first group (A) received endodermal injection (dermal scarification) of 1 ml normal saline at the area of intensity of pain. The second group (B) received 75 mg diclofenac sodium by intramuscular injection. The success of each method defined the primary end point. Pain intensity before and after treatment was assessed using a visual analog scale. The time onset and the duration of analgesia were also recorded. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding hematuria (p = 0.158), stone identification at KUB (p = 0.751) and mean pain intensity (p = 0.609) before treatment initiation. The method was successful in 75.5 % of patients in group A and 74.3 % of patients in group B (p = 0.812). Mean pain reduction was comparable, 5.65 ± 3.05 in group A and 5.34 ± 2.99 in group B (p = 0.379), with dermal scarification eliciting its effect considerably faster, whereas the duration of analgesia was longer in the diclofenac group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dermal scarification could constitute an alternative method for treating renal colic as it is equally effective compared to the standard treatment of diclofenac sodium.

  13. Mathematical models for dermal drug absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Dominik; Neumann, Dirk; Schaefer, Ulrich F

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models of dermal transport offer the advantages of being much faster and less expensive than in vitro or in vivo studies. The number of methods used to create such models has been increasing rapidly, probably due to the steady rise in computational power. Although each of the various approaches has its own virtues and limitations, it may be difficult to decide which approach is best suited to address a given problem. Here we outline the basic ideas, drawbacks and advantages of compartmental and quantitative structure-activity relationship models, as well as of analytical and numerical approaches for solving the diffusion equation. Examples of special applications of the different approaches are given. Although some models are sophisticated and might be used in future to predict transport through damaged or diseased skin, the comparatively low availability of suitable and accurate experimental data limits extensive usage of these models and their predictive accuracy. Due to the lack of experimental data, the possibility of validating mathematical models is limited.

  14. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J

    2011-02-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the effects of endogenous and exogenous local dermal changes by body creams, hyperemia, vasoconstriction, and hydration. SAF was measured before and after local administration of body lotion, day cream, sunscreen, or self-browning cream and after attempts to remove these effects with alcohol swabs and washing. SAF was measured before and during three hyperemia maneuvers: vasoconstriction and on a dry and wet skin. The body lotion increased SAF by 18%. Day cream, sunscreen, and self-browning cream gave an increase of >100%. Except for body lotion, subsequent cleaning with alcohol swabs and washing with soap did not return SAF to baseline values. The effect of self-browning cream persisted for 2 weeks and that of sunscreen for 4 days. Hyperemia caused by a hot bath, capsicum cream, or postocclusive reactive hyperemia gave a decrease in SAF of, respectively, 18%, 22%, and 2.3%. Vasoconstriction caused by immersing the arm in cold water gave a 10% increase. Hydration state did not influence SAF. Measurement of SAF is strongly affected by several skin creams. This effect was often not fully corrected by alcohol swabs and washing with soap and may persist for many days. Marked hyperemia and vasoconstriction also influence SAF. We advise avoiding these potential error sources.

  15. Emotional intelligence and electro-dermal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysberg, Leehu

    2012-09-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is a promising concept in our understanding of emotional regulation, related behaviors and pathologies. However, research linking EI to underlying physiological and biological structure and responses is meager. This study explored potential associations of EI with electro-dermal activity (EDA) responses to emotionally arousing visual stimuli. It was hypothesized that higher levels of EI will associate with more efficient emotional regulation as reflected by EDA. Eighty-four healthy participants were exposed to stimuli consisting of a series of 12 images designed to evoke positive or negative emotional responses, presented in a counterbalanced order. A self-report questionnaire and a computer based test of EI were administered along with a demographic questionnaire. EDA measures were taken during the exposure to the above stimuli using BIOPACK MP150. EI test scores (Beta = .35, .32; p emotional responses and regulation. The findings are briefly discussed within the context of underlying mechanisms of EI as well as measure validity and relevance.

  16. ABCB5 Identifies Immunoregulatory Dermal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schatton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based strategies represent a new frontier in the treatment of immune-mediated disorders. However, the paucity of markers for isolation of molecularly defined immunomodulatory cell populations poses a barrier to this field. Here, we show that ATP-binding cassette member B5 (ABCB5 identifies dermal immunoregulatory cells (DIRCs capable of exerting therapeutic immunoregulatory functions through engagement of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1. Purified Abcb5+ DIRCs suppressed T cell proliferation, evaded immune rejection, homed to recipient immune tissues, and induced Tregs in vivo. In fully major-histocompatibility-complex-mismatched cardiac allotransplantation models, allogeneic DIRCs significantly prolonged allograft survival. Blockade of DIRC-expressed PD-1 reversed the inhibitory effects of DIRCs on T cell activation, inhibited DIRC-dependent Treg induction, and attenuated DIRC-induced prolongation of cardiac allograft survival, indicating that DIRC immunoregulatory function is mediated, at least in part, through PD-1. Our results identify ABCB5+ DIRCs as a distinct immunoregulatory cell population and suggest promising roles of this expandable cell subset in cellular immunotherapy.

  17. Biocompatible polymer microneedle for topical/dermal delivery of tranexamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Machekposhti, S; Soltani, M; Najafizadeh, P; Ebrahimi, S A; Chen, P

    2017-09-10

    Recently-introduced biocompatible polymeric microneedles offer an efficient method for drug delivery. Tranexamic acid is a novel drug for treating melasma that is administered both locally and orally and inhibits excessive melanin via melanocyte. The tranexamic acid biocompatible polymer microneedle used in this study was fabricated from PVP and methacrylic acid, using the lithography method. The required mechanical strength to pierce skin was attained by optimizing the ratio of PVP to methacrylic acid. Acute dermal toxicity was done, and drug diffusion in skin layers was simulated by calculating the diffusion coefficient of tranexamic acid in interstitial fluid (plasma). The biocompatible polymer microneedle was fabricated at 60°C. Needles could sustain 0.6N that is enough to pierce stratum corneum. 34% of the released drug was locally effective and the rest permeated through the skin. The pyramidal polymer microneedle in this study was fully released in skin in approx. 7h. This polymer microneedle has no dermal toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with hyaluronic acid dermal fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basora, Jose F; Fernandez, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Modesto; Adorno, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Male, 25 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage Symptoms: Cough dry • short of breath - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: - Unusual clinical course. Hyaluronic acid is a substance that is naturally present in the human body, especially in joints and eyes. Hyaluronic acid injectable gels have been available for the general market since 2003 as cosmetic dermal fillers and skin boosters. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is an acute event that threatens the life of the patient and can lead to pulmonary fibrosis. Alveolar hemorrhage associated with hyaluronic acid dermal fillers is an entity that to the best of our knowledge has never been described in the medical literature. We describe a patient who presented with dyspnea and cough after a subcutaneous injection of hyaluronic acid, with radiographic abnormalities including ground glass opacities and consolidation. The patient underwent flexible bronchoscopy and was diagnosed with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. This case emphasizes that this life threatening condition may occur with the use of this medication and physicians must be aware of this disorder, as early recognition and management can reduce morbidity.

  19. A DNA vaccine delivered by dermal electroporation fully protects cynomolgus macaques against Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kathleen A; Wilkinson, Eric R; Shaia, Carl I; Facemire, Paul R; Bell, Todd M; Bearss, Jeremy J; Shamblin, Joshua D; Wollen, Suzanne E; Broderick, Kate E; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2017-12-02

    Lassa virus (LASV) is an ambisense RNA virus in the Arenaviridae family and is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe hemorrhagic disease endemic to West and Central Africa. 1,2 There are no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-licensed vaccines available to prevent Lassa fever. 1,2 in our previous studies, we developed a gene-optimized DNA vaccine that encodes the glycoprotein precursor gene of LASV (Josiah strain) and demonstrated that 3 vaccinations accompanied by dermal electroporation protected guinea pigs from LASV-associated illness and death. Here, we describe an initial efficacy experiment in cynomolgus macaque nonhuman primates (NHPs) in which we followed an identical 3-dose vaccine schedule that was successful in guinea pigs, and a follow-on experiment in which we used an accelerated vaccination strategy consisting of 2 administrations, spaced 4 weeks apart. In both studies, all of the LASV DNA-vaccinated NHPs survived challenge and none of them had measureable, sustained viremia or displayed weight loss or other disease signs post-exposure. Three of 10 mock-vaccinates survived exposure to LASV, but all of them became acutely ill post-exposure and remained chronically ill to the study end point (45 d post-exposure). Two of the 3 survivors experienced sensorineural hearing loss (described elsewhere). These results clearly demonstrate that the LASV DNA vaccine combined with dermal electroporation is a highly effective candidate for eventual use in humans.

  20. Alteration of Skin Properties with Autologous Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh L. Thangapazham

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon repair. One clinical application for autologous dermal fibroblasts has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA while others are in preclinical development or various stages of regulatory approval. In this context, we outline the role of fibroblasts in wound healing and discuss recent advances and the current development pipeline for cellular therapies using autologous dermal fibroblasts. The microanatomic and phenotypic differences of fibroblasts occupying particular locations within the skin are reviewed, emphasizing the therapeutic relevance of attributes exhibited by subpopulations of fibroblasts. Special focus is provided to fibroblast characteristics that define regional differences in skin, including the thick and hairless skin of the palms and soles as compared to hair-bearing skin. This regional specificity and functional identity of fibroblasts provides another platform for developing regional skin applications such as the induction of hair follicles in bald scalp or alteration of the phenotype of stump skin in amputees to better support their prosthetic devices.

  1. Antibacterial and dermal toxicological profiles of ethyl acetate extract from Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch. Milne-Redh (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njateng Guy SS

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence in recent years of numerous resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria to a range of formerly efficient antibiotics constitutes a serious threat to public health. Crassocephalum bauchiense, a medicinal herb found in the West Region of Cameroon is used to treat gastrointestinal infections as well as liver disorders. The ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of C. bauchiense was evaluated for its antibacterial activity as well as acute and sub-acute toxicities. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its phytochemical screening was done by standard methods. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity. The in vivo antibacterial activity of a gel formulation (0.05, 1 and 2% w/v of this extract was evaluated using a Staphylococcus aureus-induced dermatitis in a murine model. Selected haematological and biochemical parameters were used to evaluate the dermal sub-acute toxicity of the extract in rats. Results Phytochemical screening of the C. bauchiense extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins and sterols. In vitro antibacterial activities were observed against all the tested microorganisms (MIC = 0.04-6.25 mg/ml. Formulated extract-gel (2% w/v and gentamycin (reference drug eradicated the microbial infection after five days of treatment. A single dermal dose of this extract up to 32 g/kg body weight (bw did not produce any visible sign of toxicity. Also, daily dermal application of the C. bauchiense extract gel formulation for 28 days did not show any negative effect, instead some biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT and AST, low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL and triglycerides were significantly (p Conclusion These results indicate that the C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract can be used safely for the treatment of some bacterial infections.

  2. Antibacterial and dermal toxicological profiles of ethyl acetate extract from Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence in recent years of numerous resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria to a range of formerly efficient antibiotics constitutes a serious threat to public health. Crassocephalum bauchiense, a medicinal herb found in the West Region of Cameroon is used to treat gastrointestinal infections as well as liver disorders. The ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of C. bauchiense was evaluated for its antibacterial activity as well as acute and sub-acute toxicities. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its phytochemical screening was done by standard methods. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity. The in vivo antibacterial activity of a gel formulation (0.05, 1 and 2% w/v) of this extract was evaluated using a Staphylococcus aureus-induced dermatitis in a murine model. Selected haematological and biochemical parameters were used to evaluate the dermal sub-acute toxicity of the extract in rats. Results Phytochemical screening of the C. bauchiense extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins and sterols. In vitro antibacterial activities were observed against all the tested microorganisms (MIC = 0.04-6.25 mg/ml). Formulated extract-gel (2% w/v) and gentamycin (reference drug) eradicated the microbial infection after five days of treatment. A single dermal dose of this extract up to 32 g/kg body weight (bw) did not produce any visible sign of toxicity. Also, daily dermal application of the C. bauchiense extract gel formulation for 28 days did not show any negative effect, instead some biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT and AST), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides were significantly (p < 0.05) affected positively. Conclusion These results indicate that the C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract can be used safely for the treatment of some bacterial infections. PMID:21615960

  3. Treatment of the ageing hand with dermal fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Kühne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the trend in facial cosmetic procedures, patients are now increasingly requesting hand rejuvenation treatments. Intrinsic ageing of the hands is characterized by loss of dermal elasticity and atrophy of the subcutaneous tissue. Thus, veins, tendons and bony structures become apparent. Among the available procedures, intrinsic ageing of the hands is best improved by restoring the volume of soft tissue. Volume restoration can be achieved with a number of long-lasting dermal fillers with varying degrees of improvement and treatment longevity. The dermal fillers used in hand rejuvenation include autologous fat, collagen, hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite and poly-L-lactic acid. Here, we describe our preferred injection method for hand rejuvenation using calcium hydroxylapatite and a single-bolus injection.

  4. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects - A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gysin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962 suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH.

  5. Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Submissions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. African Journal of Finance and Management: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Finance and Management: Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal > African Journal of Finance and Management: Submissions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Dermal Exposure during Filling, Loading and Brushing with Products Containing 2-(2-Butoxyethoxy)ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, J.H.J.; Tielemans, E.; Brouwer, D.H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Limited quantitative information is available on dermal exposure to chemicals during various industrial activities. Therefore, within the scope of the EU-funded RISKOFDERM project, potential dermal exposure was measured during three different tasks: filling, loading and brushing. DEGBE

  8. Dermal filler injection: a novel approach for limiting infarct expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Liam P; Matsuzaki, Kanji; Noma, Mio; Jackson, Benjamin M; Eperjesi, Thomas J; Plappert, Theodore J; St John-Sutton, Martin G; Gorman, Joseph H; Gorman, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Early infarct expansion after coronary occlusion compromises contractile function in perfused myocardial regions and promotes adverse long-term left ventricular (LV) remodeling. We hypothesized that injection of a tissue-expanding dermal filler material into a myocardial infarction (MI) would attenuate infarct expansion and limit LV remodeling. Fifteen sheep were subjected to an anteroapical MI involving approximately 20% of the LV followed by the injection of 1.3 mL of a calcium hydroxyapatite-based dermal filler into the infarct. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography was performed at baseline, 30 minutes after MI, and 15 minutes after injection to assess infarct expansion. Sixteen additional sheep were subjected to the same infarction and followed echocardiographically and hemodynamically for 4 weeks after MI to assess chronic remodeling. Eight animals had injection with dermal filler as described above immediately after MI, and 8 animals were injected with an equal amount of saline solution. All animals exhibited infarct expansion soon after coronary occlusion. The regional ejection fraction of the apex became negative after infarction, consistent with systolic dyskinesia. Injection of the dermal filler converted the apical wall motion from dyskinetic to akinetic and resulted immediately in significant decreases in global, regional, and segmental LV volumes. Chronically, relative to saline control, dermal filler injection significantly reduced LV end-systolic volume (62.2 +/- 3.6 mL versus 44.5 +/- 3.9 mL; p < 0.05) and improved global ejection fraction (0.295 +/- 0.016 versus 0.373 +/- 0.017; p < 0.05) at 4 weeks after infarction. Injection of an acellular dermal filler into an MI immediately after coronary occlusion reduces early infarct expansion and limits chronic LV remodeling.

  9. Resistance of acellular dermal matrix materials to microbial penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Elizabeth N; Qi, Chao; Ibrahim, Omer; Kim, John Y; Alam, Murad

    2013-05-01

    Acellular dermal matrices have many current and potential applications, but their long-term safety has not been extensively studied. In particular, limited information exists regarding such materials' resistance to infection. To assess the resistance to microbial penetration of common acellular dermal matrix materials used in reconstruction after skin cancer excision, treatment of chronic ulcers and burns, breast reconstruction, hernia repairs, and other applications. Comparative in vitro study of 4 commercially available dermal substitutes for their ability to act as barriers to penetration by common skin pathogens. University-based dermatology and plastic surgery departments and a hospital microbiology laboratory. Four commercially available dermal substitutes, including AlloDerm (LifeCell), FlexHD (Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation), Strattice (LifeCell), and NeoForm (Mentor Corporation). We tested the 4 dermal matrix materials with the following 4 organisms commonly implicated in wound infections: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Candida albicans. Each material was inoculated with the same concentration of each pathogen. The number of bacterial colonies grown on blood agar plates. AlloDerm and rehydrated FlexHD were found to be the best barriers to penetration by P. aeruginosa. AlloDerm, FlexHD, and Strattice also prevented penetration by S. aureus and S. pyogenes; NeoForm was less effective in withstanding these organisms. The results of this study were inconclusive with regard to C. albicans penetration. Three of the 4 commonly used acellular dermal matrix materials are resistant to in vitro penetration by S. aureus and S. pyogenes and partially resistant to P. aeruginosa. Resistance to fungal pathogens is uncertain. Antimicrobial differences across matrix materials may influence their selection for particular uses, such as treatment of refractory leg ulcers or reconstruction after skin cancer excision.

  10. Dermal Uptake of Organic Vapors Commonly Found in Indoor Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2014-01-01

    semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Here, we extend that analysis to approximately eighty organic compounds that (a) occur commonly indoors and (b) are primarily in the gas-phase rather than being associated with particles. For some compounds, the modeled ratio of dermal-to-inhalation uptake is large....... In this group are common parabens, lower molecular weight phthalates, o-phenylphenol, Texanol, ethylene glycol, and α-terpineol. For other compounds, estimated dermal uptakes are small compared to inhalation. Examples include aliphatic hydrocarbons, single ring aromatics, terpenes, chlorinated solvents...

  11. African Journal of Infectious Diseases: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copying text, photographs, tables or graphics from any source and using it as ones own is considered plagiarism whether or not a reference to the copied portion is given. Submission Preparation Checklist As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the ...

  12. Relative absorption and dermal loading of chemical substances: Consequences for risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Schaafsma, G.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of skin absorption is an essential step in reducing the uncertainty of dermal risk assessment. Data from literature indicate that the relative dermal absorption of substances is dependent on dermal loading. Therefore, an internal exposure calculated with absorption data determined at

  13. Validation of the dermal exposure model in ECETOC TRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Hans; Franken, Remy; Goede, Henk; Fransman, Wouter; Schinkel, Jody

    2017-08-01

    The ECETOC TRA model (presently version 3.1) is often used to estimate worker inhalation and dermal exposure in regulatory risk assessment. The dermal model in ECETOC TRA has not yet been validated by comparison with independent measured exposure levels. This was the goal of the present study. Measured exposure levels and relevant contextual information were gathered via literature search, websites of relevant occupational health institutes and direct requests for data to industry. Exposure data were clustered in so-called exposure cases, which are sets of data from one data source that are expected to have the same values for input parameters in the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model. For each exposure case, the 75th percentile of measured values was calculated, because the model intends to estimate these values. The input values for the parameters in ECETOC TRA were assigned by an expert elicitation and consensus building process, based on descriptions of relevant contextual information.From more than 35 data sources, 106 useful exposure cases were derived, that were used for direct comparison with the model estimates. The exposure cases covered a large part of the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model. The model explained 37% of the variance in the 75th percentiles of measured values. In around 80% of the exposure cases, the model estimate was higher than the 75th percentile of measured values. In the remaining exposure cases, the model estimate may not be sufficiently conservative.The model was shown to have a clear bias towards (severe) overestimation of dermal exposure at low measured exposure values, while all cases of apparent underestimation by the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model occurred at high measured exposure values. This can be partly explained by a built-in bias in the effect of concentration of substance in product used, duration of exposure and the use of protective gloves in the model. The effect of protective gloves was calculated to be on average a

  14. Dermal Autograft Using Donor Breast as Alternative to Acellular Dermal Matrices in Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction: A Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, William Darden; Kubajak, Christopher S; St Martin, Brad; Rinker, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Shifting preference for implant-based breast reconstruction has resulted in an increased use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in tissue-expander breast reconstruction. The benefits afforded by ADM must be weighed against a potential increased risk for postoperative complications. Dermal autograft-assisted breast reconstruction using autograft harvest from the lower abdomen has been shown to result in equivalent aesthetics and patient satisfaction compared with ADM at a lower cost, with fewer complications. The purpose of this study was to review a series of patients who underwent bilateral mastectomy and immediate dermal autograft-assisted tissue expander (TE) breast reconstruction using the non-cancerous breast as a donor site, comparing the outcomes with a concurrent cohort of patients undergoing ADM-assisted reconstruction to determine the relative safety, cost, and effectiveness of the 2 procedures. The study population included all patients who underwent dermal autograft-assisted TE breast reconstruction, using the contralateral cancer-free breast as the source of dermal autograft, between 2010 and 2015. The ADM cohort consisted of patients who underwent bilateral mastectomy and immediate ADM-assisted TE breast reconstruction during the same period. Univariate analysis was performed for demographic data, complications, operative cost, and operative time. Data were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test for nonparametric data and χ analyses for continuous and categorical variables. Significance was defined as P value less than 0.05. Seventeen patients received dermal autograft using the non-cancerous breast donor site. Twenty-seven patients who underwent ADM-assisted reconstruction during the same period were identified. Significantly higher cost was demonstrated between groups (ADM, US $9999.87; autograft, US $3924.19; P autograft, 97 min; ADM, 120 min). No difference was found in wound healing complications (ADM, 14.8%; autograft, 23.53%; P = 0.47). No

  15. Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Submission Preparation Checklist. As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another ...

  16. The histology of dermal glands of mating Breviceps with comments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Zoology, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza. During mating male and female Breviceps become 'glued' together. The distribution of multicellular dermal glands varies between the sexes. The male has a large number of holocrine glands on the vent rum, while ...

  17. PULMONARY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS FOLLOWING DERMAL EXPOSURE TO SELECTED DIISOCYANATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    PULMONARY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS FOLLOWING DERMAL EXPOSURE TO SELECTED DIISOCYANATESM.J.K. Selgrade, E.H. Boykin, N.H. Coates, D.L. Doerfler, S.H. GavettExperimental Toxicology Div., National Health and Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Developmen...

  18. Implanon sub-dermal implant: an emerging method of contraception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implanon, a single rod sub-dermal implant is a relatively new contraceptive which offers long term reversible contraception for women. This study seeks to determine the safety, efficacy and acceptor characteristics of Implanon at the family planning clinic of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin, Nigeria.

  19. Pigmentation and dermal conservative effects of the astonishing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, seaweeds Sargassum polycystum and Padina tenuis were investigated for their in vitro and in vivo potentials in working as skin whitening agents. ... Extracts with potent melanocytotoxicity were formulated into cosmetic cream and tested on guinea pigs in dermal irritation tests and de-pigmentation assessments.

  20. Characterization and biocompatibility of epoxy-crosslinked dermal sheep collagens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, PB; Zeeman, R; Dijkstra, PJ; Feijen, J; Hendriks, M; Cahalan, PT; van Luyn, MJA

    1999-01-01

    Dermal sheep collagen (DSC), which was crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BD) by using four different conditions, was characterized and its biocompatibility was evaluated after subcutaneous implantation in rats. Crosslinking at pH 9.0 (BD90) or with successive epoxy and carbodiimide

  1. Dissecting antigen processing and presentation routes in dermal vaccination strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, Anouk C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375805613; Henri, Sandrine; Zaiss, Dietmar M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838381; Sijts, Alice J A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/115553843

    2017-01-01

    The skin is an attractive site for vaccination due to its accessibility and presence of immune cells surveilling this barrier. However, knowledge of antigen processing and presentation upon dermal vaccination is sparse. In this study we determined antigen processing routes that lead to CD8(+) T cell

  2. Formulation effects of topical emulsions on transdermal and dermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, A; du Plessis, J; Wiechers, J W

    2009-02-01

    It has been recognized that the vehicle in which a permeant is applied to the skin has a distinctive effect on the dermal and transdermal delivery of active ingredients. The cutaneous and percutaneous absorptions can be enhanced, e.g. by an increase in thermodynamic activity, supersaturation and penetration modifiers. Furthermore, dermal and transdermal delivery can be influenced by the interactions that may occur between the vehicle and the skin on the one hand, and interactions between the active ingredient and the skin on the other hand. Emulsions are widely used as cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations because of their excellent solubilizing capacities for lipophilic and hydrophilic active ingredients and application acceptability. This review focuses, in particular, on the effect of emulsions on the dermal and transdermal delivery of active ingredients. It is shown that the type of emulsion (w/o vs. o/w emulsion), the droplet size, the emollient, the emulsifier as well as the surfactant organization (micelles, lyotropic liquid crystals) in the emulsion may affect the cutaneous and percutaneous absorption. Examples substantiate the fact that emulsion constituents such as emollients and emulsifiers should be selected carefully for optimal efficiency of the formulation. Moreover, to understand the influence of emulsion on dermal and transdermal delivery, the physicochemical properties of the formulation after application are considered.

  3. SVOC exposure indoors: fresh look at dermal pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper critically examines indoor exposure to semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) via dermal pathways. First, it demonstrates that - in central tendency - an SVOC's abundance on indoor surfaces and in handwipes can be predicted reasonably well from gas-phase concentrations, assumi...

  4. visceral leishmaniasis with concomittant post kala-azar dermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 80 No. 8 August 2003. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS WITH CONCOMITTANT POST KALA-AZAR DERMAL LEISHMANIASIS RESPONDS TO ORAL SITAMAQUINE: CASE. REPORT. J. Mbui, MBChB, MMed, MSc,Senior Research Officer, R. Rashid, MBChB, MMed, Principal Research Officer, ...

  5. Dermal fillers in the Netherlands : A market surveillance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizers P; van Drongelen A; Geertsma R; Hodemaekers H; de Jong W; Lamme E; Oostlander A; Roszek B; Schwillens P; Venhuis B; Janssen R; PRS; GZB

    2017-01-01

    Dermal fillers, or just fillers, are products that are injected into or under the skin for medical or cosmetic purposes. This could be to restore the natural contours of the body after an operation for example, but also to mask the visible effects of ageing. The National Institute for Public

  6. Differential Apoptosis in Mucosal and Dermal Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ariel; Francis, Marybeth; DiPietro, Luisa Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Dermal and mucosal healing are mechanistically similar. However, scarring and closure rates are dramatically improved in mucosal healing, possibly due to differences in apoptosis. Apoptosis, nature's preprogrammed form of cell death, occurs via two major pathways, extrinsic and intrinsic, which intersect at caspase3 (Casp3) cleavage and activation. The purpose of this experiment was to identify the predominant pathways of apoptosis in mucosal and dermal wound healing. Approach: Wounds (1 mm biopsy punch) were made in the dorsal skin (n=3) or tongue (n=3) of female Balb/C mice aged 6 weeks. Wounds were harvested at 6 h, 24 h, day 3 (D3), D5, D7, and D10. RNA was isolated and analyzed using real time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Expression levels for genes in the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were compared in dermal and mucosal wounds. Results: Compared to mucosal healing, dermal wounds exhibited significantly higher expression of Casp3 (at D5; phealing compared to skin. Conclusion: Expression patterns of key regulators of apoptosis in wound healing indicate that apoptosis occurs predominantly through the intrinsic pathway in the healing mucosa, but predominantly through the extrinsic pathway in the healing skin. The identification of differences in the apoptotic pathways in skin and mucosal wounds may allow the development of therapeutics to improve skin healing. PMID:25493209

  7. Differential Apoptosis in Mucosal and Dermal Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ariel; Francis, Marybeth; DiPietro, Luisa Ann

    2014-12-01

    Objectives: Dermal and mucosal healing are mechanistically similar. However, scarring and closure rates are dramatically improved in mucosal healing, possibly due to differences in apoptosis. Apoptosis, nature's preprogrammed form of cell death, occurs via two major pathways, extrinsic and intrinsic, which intersect at caspase3 (Casp3) cleavage and activation. The purpose of this experiment was to identify the predominant pathways of apoptosis in mucosal and dermal wound healing. Approach: Wounds (1 mm biopsy punch) were made in the dorsal skin (n=3) or tongue (n=3) of female Balb/C mice aged 6 weeks. Wounds were harvested at 6 h, 24 h, day 3 (D3), D5, D7, and D10. RNA was isolated and analyzed using real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Expression levels for genes in the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were compared in dermal and mucosal wounds. Results: Compared to mucosal healing, dermal wounds exhibited significantly higher expression of Casp3 (at D5; pInnovation: Our observations indicate differential execution of apoptosis in oral wound healing compared to skin. Conclusion: Expression patterns of key regulators of apoptosis in wound healing indicate that apoptosis occurs predominantly through the intrinsic pathway in the healing mucosa, but predominantly through the extrinsic pathway in the healing skin. The identification of differences in the apoptotic pathways in skin and mucosal wounds may allow the development of therapeutics to improve skin healing.

  8. Task-based dermal exposure models for regulatory risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.D.; Marquart, H.; Christopher, Y.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The regulatory risk assessment of chemicals requires the estimation of occupational dermal exposure. Until recently, the models used were either based on limited data or were specific to a particular class of chemical or application. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a considerable number of

  9. Defense against dermal exposures is only skin deep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Nielsen, Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2007-01-01

    substances (glyphosat, caffeine, benzoic acid, malathion) covering a range of solubilities. Further, we studied the extent to which a slightly damaged skin would change the rate, the amount absorbed during dermal exposure and the distribution of chemical deposition between epidermis and dermis. The present...

  10. The histology of dermal glands of mating Breviceps with comments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histology of dermal glands of mating Breviceps with comments on their. possible functional value in microhylids (Amphibia: Anura). J, Visser, J.M. Cei and LS. Gutierrez. Department of Zoology, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza. During mating male and female Breviceps ...

  11. Allogeneic fibroblasts in dermal substitutes induce inflammation and scar formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, Evert N.; van Leeuwen, Rene T. J.; Mekkes, Jan R.; Middelkoop, Esther

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we compared the use of autologous versus allogeneic fibroblasts in dermal skin substitutes in a porcine wound model. The allogeneic fibroblast populations were isolated from female and a male pig (allo-1, - 2 and - 3) and the controls, autologous fibroblasts, from female

  12. Dermal uptake of nicotine from air and clothing: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Studies suggest that dermal uptake of certain semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) directly from air can be a significant exposure pathway. This has been experimentally confirmed for two phthalates (Weschler et al., 2015). Morrison et al. (2016) showed that clean clothing can impede, while cloth...

  13. In vivo dermal absorption of pyrethroid pesticides in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for exposure to pyrethroid pesticides has risen recently because of their increased use. The objective of this study was to examine the in vivo dermal absorption of bifenthrin, deltamethrin and permethrin in the rat. Hair on the dorsal side of anesthetized adult m...

  14. Serum amyloid A induces interleukin-6 in dermal fibroblasts via Toll-like receptor 2, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 and nuclear factor-κB

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Steven; Cant, Rachel; Ciechomska, Marzena; Finnigan, James; Oakley, Fiona; Hambleton, Sophie; van Laar, Jacob M

    2014-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune idiopathic connective tissue disease, characterized by vasculopathy, inflammation and fibrosis. There appears to be a link between inflammation and fibrosis, although the exact nature of the relationship is unknown. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute-phase protein that is elevated up to 1000-fold in times of infection or inflammation. This acute-phase reactant, as well as being a marker of inflammation, may initiate signals in a cytokine-like manner, possibly through toll-like receptors (TLRs) promoting inflammation. This study addressed the role of SAA in initiating interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in dermal fibroblasts and the role of TLR2 in this system. We show that SAA induces IL-6 secretion in healthy dermal fibroblasts and that blockade of TLR2 with a neutralizing antibody to TLR2 or specific small interfering RNA attenuated the SAA-induced IL-6 secretion and that this was also mediated through the TLR adaptor protein IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4. The effect is nuclear factor-κB-mediated because blockade of nuclear factor-κB reduced the induction. We also demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts express TLR2; this is functional and over-expressed in the fibroblasts of patients with systemic sclerosis. Taken together these data suggest that SAA is a danger signal that initiates IL-6 signalling in systemic sclerosis via enhanced TLR2 signalling. PMID:24476318

  15. Efek Pemberian Suntikan Subkutan Vitamin C Terhadap Luka Insisi Dermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Darma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Vitamin C berfungsi sebagai kofaktor enzyme prolil dan lysil hydroxilase. Enzym tersebut berfungsi dalam proses hidroksilasi yang membentuk ikatan hidroksiprolin dan hidroksilisin pada fibroblast dalam membentuk kolagen. Selain itu Vitaimin C juga berfungsi meregulasi dan menstabilkan trankripsi gen mRNA prokolagen pada proses pembentukan kolagen di dermis. Berdasarkan hal tersebut diatas, peneliti tertarik untuk membuktikan apakah pemberian vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal berefek pada pembentukan kolagen yang lebih padat dalam proses penyembuhan luka. Metode: Penelitian eksperimental ini menggunakan tikus Wistar sebanyak 32 ekor, yang dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu 16 ekor sebagai kontrol dan 16 ekor lagi sebagai perlakuan. Pada kedua kelompok dilakukan insisi di punggung sepanjang 2 cm. Kelompok perlakuan diberi suntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal sebanyak 9 mg (0,09ml, sedangkan kelompokkontrol tidak diberikan.Pada hari kelima dilakukan pengambilan jaringan luka pada kedua sampel untuk pemeriksaan kepadatan kolagen secara mikroskopik. Hasil:Kepadatan kolagen pada hari kelimamenunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna dari efek penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan terhadap kepadatan kolagen (χ2 = 5,833; P<0,05. Kesimpulan: Penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal efektif dalam meeningkatan kepadatan kolagen. Kata kunci: suntikan vitamin C subkutan, kepadatan kolagen. Abstract Vitamin C functions as enzyme co-factor for prolyl and hidroxylase lysil. The enzyme functions in hydroxylase process that builds hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine bondsin fibroblast in the synthesis of collagen. Besides that, vitamin C also functions in regulating and stabilizing procollagen mRNA gen transcription in dermal collagen synthesis. Based on the facts above, researchers are interested to prove whether subcutaneous injection of vitamin C around dermal insisional wound would result in more compact collagen

  16. Efek Pemberian Suntikan Subkutan Vitamin C Terhadap Luka Insisi Dermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Darma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Vitamin C berfungsi sebagai kofaktor enzyme prolil dan lysil hydroxilase. Enzym tersebut berfungsi dalam proses hidroksilasi yang membentuk ikatan hidroksiprolin dan hidroksilisin pada fibroblast dalam membentuk kolagen. Selain itu Vitaimin C juga berfungsi meregulasi dan menstabilkan trankripsi gen mRNA prokolagen pada proses pembentukan kolagen di dermis. Berdasarkan hal tersebut diatas, peneliti tertarik untuk membuktikan apakah pemberian vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal berefek pada pembentukan kolagen yang lebih padat dalam proses penyembuhan luka. Metode: Penelitian eksperimental ini menggunakan tikus Wistar sebanyak 32 ekor, yang dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu 16 ekor sebagai kontrol dan 16 ekor lagi sebagai perlakuan. Pada kedua kelompok dilakukan insisi di punggung sepanjang 2 cm. Kelompok perlakuan diberi suntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal sebanyak 9 mg (0,09ml, sedangkan kelompokkontrol tidak diberikan.Pada hari kelima dilakukan pengambilan jaringan luka pada kedua sampel untuk pemeriksaan kepadatan kolagen secara mikroskopik. Hasil:Kepadatan kolagen pada hari kelimamenunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna dari efek penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan terhadap kepadatan kolagen (χ2 = 5,833; P<0,05. Kesimpulan: Penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal efektif dalam meeningkatan kepadatan kolagen. Kata kunci: suntikan vitamin C subkutan, kepadatan kolagen.Abstract Vitamin C functions as enzyme co-factor for prolyl and hidroxylase lysil. The enzyme functions in hydroxylase process that builds hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine bondsin fibroblast in the synthesis of collagen. Besides that, vitamin C also functions in regulating and stabilizing procollagen mRNA gen transcription in dermal collagen synthesis. Based on the facts above, researchers are interested to prove whether subcutaneous injection of vitamin C around dermal insisional wound would result in more compact collagen

  17. Enhancing dermal and bone regeneration in calvarial defect surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Zanotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To optimize the functional and esthetic result of cranioplasty, it is necessary to choose appropriate materials and take steps to preserve and support tissue vitality. As far as materials are concerned, custom-made porous hydroxyapatite implants are biomimetic, and therefore, provide good biological interaction and biointegration. However, before it is fully integrated, this material has relatively low mechanical resistance. Therefore, to reduce the risk of postoperative implant fracture, it would be desirable to accelerate regeneration of the tissues around and within the graft. Objectives: The objective was to determine whether integrating growth-factor-rich platelet gel or supportive dermal matrix into hydroxyapatite implant cranioplasty can accelerate bone remodeling and promote soft tissue regeneration, respectively. Materials and Methods: The investigation was performed on cranioplasty patients fitted with hydroxyapatite cranial implants between 2004 and 2010. In 7 patients, platelet gel was applied to the bone/prosthesis interface during surgery, and in a further 5 patients, characterized by thin, hypotrophic skin coverage of the cranial lacuna, a sheet of dermal matrix was applied between the prosthesis and the overlying soft tissue. In several of the former groups, platelet gel mixed with hydroxyapatite granules was used to fill small gaps between the skull and the implant. To confirm osteointegration, cranial computed tomography (CT scans were taken at 3-6 month intervals for 1-year, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used to confirm dermal integrity. Results: Clinical examination performed a few weeks after surgery revealed good dermal regeneration, with thicker, healthier skin, apparently with a better blood supply, which was confirmed by MRI at 3-6 months. Furthermore, at 3-6 months, CT showed good biomimetism of the porous hydroxyapatite scaffold. Locations at which platelet gel and hydroxyapatite granules were

  18. Enhancing dermal and bone regeneration in calvarial defect surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Bruno; Zingaretti, Nicola; Almesberger, Daria; Verlicchi, Angela; Stefini, Roberto; Ragonese, Mauro; Guarneri, Gianni Franco; Parodi, Pier Camillo

    2014-01-01

    To optimize the functional and esthetic result of cranioplasty, it is necessary to choose appropriate materials and take steps to preserve and support tissue vitality. As far as materials are concerned, custom-made porous hydroxyapatite implants are biomimetic, and therefore, provide good biological interaction and biointegration. However, before it is fully integrated, this material has relatively low mechanical resistance. Therefore, to reduce the risk of postoperative implant fracture, it would be desirable to accelerate regeneration of the tissues around and within the graft. The objective was to determine whether integrating growth-factor-rich platelet gel or supportive dermal matrix into hydroxyapatite implant cranioplasty can accelerate bone remodeling and promote soft tissue regeneration, respectively. The investigation was performed on cranioplasty patients fitted with hydroxyapatite cranial implants between 2004 and 2010. In 7 patients, platelet gel was applied to the bone/prosthesis interface during surgery, and in a further 5 patients, characterized by thin, hypotrophic skin coverage of the cranial lacuna, a sheet of dermal matrix was applied between the prosthesis and the overlying soft tissue. In several of the former groups, platelet gel mixed with hydroxyapatite granules was used to fill small gaps between the skull and the implant. To confirm osteointegration, cranial computed tomography (CT) scans were taken at 3-6 month intervals for 1-year, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to confirm dermal integrity. Clinical examination performed a few weeks after surgery revealed good dermal regeneration, with thicker, healthier skin, apparently with a better blood supply, which was confirmed by MRI at 3-6 months. Furthermore, at 3-6 months, CT showed good biomimetism of the porous hydroxyapatite scaffold. Locations at which platelet gel and hydroxyapatite granules were used to fill gaps between the implant and skull appeared to show more rapid

  19. Hair follicle reformation induced by dermal papilla cells from human scalp skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Tang-You; Lu, Yuan-Gang; Liu, Rong-Qing; Mai, Yue; Cheng, Bo; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zhong, Bai-Yu; Tang, Shu-Qian

    2006-09-01

    To investigate the possibility of hair follicle reformation induced by dermal papilla cells in vivo and in vitro. Dermal papilla cells, dermal sheath cells obtained from human scalp skin by enzyme digestion were mixed with collagen to form mesenchymal cell-populated collagen gels. Superior and inferior epithelial cells and bulb matrical cells were then cultured on these gels by organotypic culture to recombine bilayer artificial skins. Dermal papilla cells and outer root sheath keratinocytes were mingled together and transplanted under subcutaneous tissue of the dorsal skin of nude mice. The results of histologic examination was observed with HE stain. These recombinants by organotypic culture all reformed bilayer structure like nature skin. Hair follicle-like structure reformation was found in dermal sheath cell-populated collagen gel when combined with superior or inferior epithelial cells. Dermal papilla cells also induced superior and inferior epithelial cells to form hair follicle on nude mice. Low passage dermal papilla cells mixed with hair follicle epithelial cells reformed many typical hair follicle structures and produced hair fibres after transplantation on nude mice. The dermal part of hair follicle, such as dermal papilla cells and dermal sheath cells, has the ability to induce hair follicle formation by interaction with the epithelial cells of hair follicle.

  20. Lipid nanoparticles (SLN, NLC) in cosmetic and pharmaceutical dermal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeike, Jana; Hommoss, Aiman; Müller, Rainer H

    2009-01-21

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are distinguishable from nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) by the composition of the solid particle matrix. Both are an alternative carrier system to liposomes and emulsions. This review paper focuses on lipid nanoparticles for dermal application. Production of lipid nanoparticles and final products containing lipid nanoparticles is feasible by well-established production methods. SLN and NLC exhibit many features for dermal application of cosmetics and pharmaceutics, i.e. controlled release of actives, drug targeting, occlusion and associated with it penetration enhancement and increase of skin hydration. Due to the production of lipid nanoparticles from physiological and/or biodegradable lipids, this carrier system exhibits an excellent tolerability. The lipid nanoparticles are a "nanosafe" carrier. Furthermore, an overview of the cosmetic products currently on the market is given and the improvement of the benefit/risk ratio of the topical therapy is shown.

  1. Bio-artificial pleura using an autologous dermal fibroblast sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Masato; Takagi, Ryo; Washio, Kaoru; Kokubo, Mami; Yamato, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    Air leaks (ALs) are observed after pulmonary resections, and without proper treatment, can produce severe complications. AL prevention is a critical objective for managing patients after pulmonary resection. This study applied autologous dermal fibroblast sheets (DFS) to close ALs. For sealing ALs in a 44-year-old male human patient with multiple bullae, a 5 × 15-mm section of skin was surgically excised. From this skin specimen, primary dermal fibroblasts were isolated and cultured for 4 weeks to produce DFSs that were harvested after a 10-day culture. ALs were completely sealed using surgical placement of these autologous DFSs. DFS were found to be a durable long-term AL sealant, exhibiting requisite flexibility, elasticity, durability, biocompatibility, and usability, resulting reliable AL closure. DFS should prove to be an extremely useful tissue-engineered pleura substitute.

  2. Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among road pavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaananen, V.; Hameila, M.; Kalliokoski, P.; Nykyri, E.; Heikkila, P. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-03-01

    Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the role of an industrial by-product, coal fly ash, on workers' PAH exposure were investigated during stone mastic asphalt (SMA) paving and remixing. PAH exposure was measured at eight sites during the laying of SMA containing coal fly ash or limestone (conventional SMA) as the filler. Six of the surveys were carried out during SMA paving and two during remixing of SMA (hot recycling at the paving site). Dermal PAH exposure was measured by hand washing (using sunflower oil and wiping with Kleenex tissues) before and after the work shift, and by placing exposure pads on the workers' wrists during the work shift. The PAH results obtained using the pad and hand-washing methods (concentrations after the work shift) were equivalent and showed a strong correlation = 0.757, P {lt} 0.001, N = 23 for total PAHs). There was a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-shift samples as measured by hand washing. The skin contamination by PAHs was significantly higher (P {lt} 0.01) during remixing than during SMA paving. The variation in PAH contamination on the skin explained more of the variation in the excretion of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and phenanthrols than the variation in the respiratory PAH concentrations. The industrial by-product investigated in asphalt, coal fly ash, had no statistically significant effect on the workers' dermal PAH exposure. The dermal exposure of paving workers to PAHs was higher during remixing than during SMA paving.

  3. Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz-Gorlin) syndrome with taurodontism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, T; Trotman, C A; Hahessy, A M; Kavanagh, P

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a case report of a 10-year-old girl with focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) who presented for dental care. She displayed many of the well-documented oral features associated with this syndrome. Additionally, she had taurodontism of a permanent mandibular molar. Although taurodontism affected only one tooth in this patient, the presentation of taurodontism with FDH has not been reported previously.

  4. Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among road pavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Virpi; Hämeilä, Mervi; Kalliokoski, Pentti; Nykyri, Elina; Heikkilä, Pirjo

    2005-03-01

    Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the role of an industrial by-product, coal fly ash, on workers' PAH exposure were investigated during stone mastic asphalt (SMA) paving and remixing. PAH exposure was measured at eight sites during the laying of SMA containing coal fly ash or limestone (conventional SMA) as the filler. Six of the surveys were carried out during SMA paving and two during remixing of SMA (hot recycling at the paving site). Dermal PAH exposure was measured by hand washing (using sunflower oil and wiping with Kleenex tissues) before and after the work shift, and by placing exposure pads on the workers' wrists during the work shift. The analyses included 15 native PAHs from the hand-washing samples determined using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a two-channel fluorescence detector and 16 native PAHs and four methylated PAHs from the exposure pads using gas chromatography with mass-selective detection. The PAH results obtained using the pad and hand-washing methods (concentrations after the work shift) were equivalent and showed a strong correlation (r = 0.757, P < 0.001, N = 23 for total PAHs). There was a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-shift samples as measured by hand washing. The skin contamination by PAHs was significantly higher (P < 0.01) during remixing than during SMA paving. The variation in PAH contamination on the skin explained more of the variation in the excretion of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and phenanthrols than the variation in the respiratory PAH concentrations. The industrial by-product investigated in asphalt, coal fly ash, had no statistically significant effect on the workers' dermal PAH exposure. The dermal exposure of paving workers to PAHs was higher during remixing than during SMA paving.

  5. Journal of Business Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS: Submission of Papers The JBR welcomes papers from the general academia and professionals. Authors are encouraged to submit papers for publications in the JBR at any time. The Journal will also at specific times solicit for reviews on topical issues of interest. Procedure ...

  6. South African Medical Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Authorship should be based on: (i) substantial contribution to conceptualisation, design, analysis and interpretation of data; (ii) drafting or critical revision of important scientific ... If authors' names are added or deleted after submission of an article, or the order of the names is changed, all authors must agree to this in writing.

  7. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. PLEASE follow these guidelines closely when preparing your paper for submission. The editors reserve the right to reject inadequately prepared papers. All areas of linguistics are invited – the journal is not limited to articles on languages of or in Ghana or Africa. ALL CONTRIBUTIONS must be submitted ...

  8. Nigerian Journal of Technology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article acts as the template for preparing articles for submission to Nigerian Journal of Technology. The abstract should be a clear statement defining the problems of study, methodology adopted, results and conclusions. Please do not refer readers to other literature articles in the abstract. The abstract should be brief ...

  9. Ghana Journal of Geography: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Submission to the Ghana Journal of Geography. Papers submitted to the journal should follow the guidelines set out below. All correspondence between editor and author is performed by e-mail, and paper copies are not required at all stages. A manuscript must be submitted electronically as an email ...

  10. Shakespeare in Southern Africa: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Shakespeare in Southern Africa sets out to publish articles, commentary and reviews on all aspects of Shakespearean studies and performance, with a particular emphasis on the response to Shakespeare in southern Africa. Scholarly notes of a factual nature are also welcome. Submissions are reviewed ...

  11. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If digital images are the only source of images, ensure that the image has minimum resolution of 300 dpi or 1800 x 1600 pixels in TIFF format. ... Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics charges Nigerian Naira 5000 (USD25) on submission of manuscript as processing fees and Nigerian Naira 25,000 (USD125) publication fees on ...

  12. Journal of Cultural Studies: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bibliographic referencing within and at the end of each paper should follow the MLA style. An abstract of between 150 and 200 words, and a cover page, which indicates the full name and brief bio-data of the author, should accompany each submission. The cover page should be typed separately from the manuscript, which ...

  13. Journal for Juridical Science: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. 1. Manuscripts may be submitted to Journal for Juridical Science in Afrikaans or English. The desired length of articles is 7 000 words, while 4 500 words is regarded as the minimum and 11 000 as the maximum. 2. Two typed copies of manuscripts must be submitted. In addition submission on computer ...

  14. Orient Journal of Medicine: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charges: Authors are required, at the submission of each article, to pay a sum of N15,000 (Fifteen Thousand Naira only) as processing fee at the Journal Office and obtain a written receipt, or pay into the Orient Journal of Medicine Bank Account (Account No. should be obtained directly from the Editor)and mail a scanned ...

  15. Research in Hospitality Management: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Original research papers, substantive topic reviews, viewpoints and short communications that make an original contribution to the understanding of hospitality and hospitality management in a global context will be considered for publication in the Journal. Submissions should be e-mailed to the ...

  16. ChemSearch Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It publishes original quality articles which are reporting advances in theory, techniques methodology applications and practice, general survey and critical reviews, etc. SUBMISSION OF ARTICLE ... c/o Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, P.M.B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. or. via our Email address: ...

  17. Dynamic interactions between dermal macrophages and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Reinhild; Kolter, Julia; Henneke, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    The dermis, a major reservoir of immune cells in immediate vicinity to the colonizing skin microflora, serves as an important site of host-pathogen interactions. Macrophages (Mϕ) are the most frequent resident immune cell type in the dermis. They protect the host from invasive infections by highly adapted bacteria, such as staphylococci via pattern recognition of bacterial effectors, phagocytosis, and recruitment of other myeloid cells from the blood. Already under homeostatic conditions, the dermal Mϕ population receives a dynamic input of monocytes invading from the bloodstream. This quantitative renewal is promoted further at the beginning of life, when prenatally seeded cells are rapidly replaced and in healing phases after injuries or infections. Here, we discuss the potential implications of the dynamic dermal Mϕ biology on the establishment and maintenance of immunity against Staphylococcus aureus, which can either be a harmless colonizer or an invasive pathogen. The understanding of the heterogeneity of the "mature" dermal Mϕ compartment driven both by the influx of differentiating monocytes and by a bone marrow-independent Mϕ persistence and expansion may help to explain failing immunity and immunopathology originating from the skin, the important interface between host and environment. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  18. Dermal morphological changes following salicylic acid peeling and microdermabrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Motaleb, Amira A; Abu-Dief, Eman E; Hussein, Mahmoud Ra

    2017-12-01

    Microdermabrasion and chemical peeling are popular, inexpensive, and safe methods for treatment of some skin disorders and to rejuvenate skin. To study the alterations of the dermal connective tissue following salicylic acid peeling and microdermabrasion. Twenty patients were participated in our study. All participants underwent facial salicylic acid 30% peel or microdermabrasion (10 cases in each group) weekly for 6 weeks. Punch biopsies were obtained from the clinically normal skin of the right postauricular region 1 week before treatment (control group). Other punch skin biopsies were obtained 1 week after the end of the treatments from the left postauricular area. This region was treated in a similar way to the adjacent lesional skin (treated group). We used routine histological techniques (H&E stain), special stains (Masson trichrome and orcein stains), and image analyzer to study the alterations of the dermal connective tissues. Our study demonstrates variations in the morphological changes between the control and the treated groups, and between chemical peels and microdermabrasion. Both salicylic acid 30% and microdermabrasion were associated with thickened epidermal layer, shallow dermal papillae, dense collagen, and elastic fibers. There was a significant increase among those treated sites vs control regarding epidermal thickness and collagen thickness. Also, there was a highly statistically significant increase among those treated with salicylic acid vs microdermabrasion regarding the epidermal, collagen, and elastin thickness. Both methods stimulate the repair process. The mechanisms underlying these variations are open for further investigations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Patient factors influencing dermal filler complications: prevention, assessment, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Boulle K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Koenraad De Boulle,1 Izolda Heydenrych2 On behalf of the Consensus Group 1Aalst Dermatology Group, Aalst, Belgium; 2Cape Town Cosmetic Dermatology Centre, Century City, South Africa Abstract: While rare, complications do occur with the esthetic use of dermal fillers. Careful attention to patient factors and technique can do much to avoid these complications, and a well-informed practitioner can mitigate problems when they do occur. Since cosmetic surgery is usually an elective process, requested by the patient, clinical trials are complex to organize and run. For this reason, an international group of practicing physicians in the field of esthetics came together to share knowledge and to try and produce some informed guidance for their colleagues, considering the literature and also pooling their own extensive clinical experience. This manuscript aims to summarize the crucial aspects of patient selection, including absolute contraindications as well as situations that warrant caution, and also covers important considerations for the pre- and posttreatment periods as well as during the procedure itself. Guidance is given on both immediate and long-term management of adverse reactions. The majority of complications are related to accepting patients inappropriate for treatment or issues of sterility, placement, volume, and injection technique. It is clear that esthetic practitioners need an in-depth knowledge of all aspects of treatment with dermal fillers to achieve optimal outcomes for their patients. Keywords: dermal fillers, complications, prevention, assessment, treatment, patient factors

  20. A Hydrogel Derived From Decellularized Dermal Extracellular Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Matthew T.; Daly, Kerry A.; Brennan-Pierce, Ellen P.; Johnson, Scott A.; Carruthers, Christopher; D’Amore, Antonio; Nagarkar, Shailesh P.; Velankar, Sachin S.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    The ECM of mammalian tissues has been used as a scaffold to facilitate the repair and reconstruction of numerous tissues. Such scaffolds are prepared in many forms including sheets, powders, and hydrogels. ECM hydrogels provide advantages such as injectability, the ability to fill an irregularly shaped space, and the inherent bioactivity of native matrix. However, material properties of ECM hydrogels and the effect of these properties upon cell behavior are neither well understood nor controlled. The objective of this study was to prepare and determine the structure, mechanics, and the cell response in vitro and in vivo of ECM hydrogels prepared from decellularized porcine dermis and urinary bladder tissues. Dermal ECM hydrogels were characterized by a more dense fiber architecture and greater mechanical integrity than urinary bladder ECM hydrogels, and showed a dose dependent increase in mechanical properties with ECM concentration. In vitro, dermal ECM hydrogels supported greater C2C12 myoblast fusion, and less fibroblast infiltration and less fibroblast mediated hydrogel contraction than urinary bladder ECM hydrogels. Both hydrogels were rapidly infiltrated by host cells, primarily macrophages, when implanted in a rat abdominal wall defect. Both ECM hydrogels degraded by 35 days in vivo, but UBM hydrogels degraded more quickly, and with greater amounts of myogenesis than dermal ECM. These results show that ECM hydrogel properties can be varied and partially controlled by the scaffold tissue source, and that these properties can markedly affect cell behavior. PMID:22789723

  1. The radiation response of human dermal fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephen Andrew

    A clinically reliable predictive assay based on normal-tissue radiosensitivity may lead to improved tumour control through individualised dose prescriptions. In-vitro fibroblast radiosensitivity has been shown, in several studies, to correlate with late radiation morbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate some of the cellular mechanisms underlying the normal-tissue response. In this study, seventeen primary fibroblast strains were established by enzymatic disaggregation of skin biopsies obtained from patients. These comprised seven who experienced acute tissue reactions to radiotherapy, four patients with a normal response and six non-cancer volunteers. An AT cell line was included as a positive control for radiosensitivity. In-vitro radiosensitivity was measured using a clonogenic assay at both high (HDR: 1.6 Gymin-1) and low dose rate (LDR: 0.01 Gymin-1). The radiation parameter HDR SF2 was the most sensitive in discriminating the seven sensitive patients from the remaining ten normal patients (range 0.11-0.19 sensitive patients compared with 0.17-0.34 control patients: pDNA damage. However, a strong correlation was found between clonogenic survival and both residual DNA damage (measured over 10-70 Gy, allowing 4 h repair, correlation coefficient: 0.90, DNA damage, with the sensitive cell lines generally showing a higher level of residual DNA damage. Cell-cycle delays were found in all 18 cell strains in response to 2 Gy irradiation, but were not found to discriminate between sensitive and normal patients. Associated studies found no mutations of the ATM gene in the five radiosensitive patients studied. However, a coding sequence alteration was found in the XRCC1 gene in one of the radiosensitive patients. These findings indicate that a DNA repair defect may be partly responsible for the extreme reactions to radiotherapy observed in a small percentage of patients and that with further modifications, an assay based on measurement of residual DNA damage

  2. Significant chemical burns associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jason L; Wiles, Devin A; Kenney, Brian; Spiller, Henry A

    2014-09-01

    Concentrated laundry pods have been reported to cause significant clinical effects including oropharyngeal burns and respiratory distress requiring intubation. Dermal burns have been reported, but no incidents of serious isolated dermal injury have been published. We report a case of significant, isolated dermal injury as a result of dermal exposure to a concentrated laundry detergent pod. Total body surface area partial thickness burns in this case were estimated at approximately 2 % with an additional 4-5 % of total body surface area (TBSA) displaying superficial burns/chemical dermatitis. Health-care providers should be aware of this complication and should perform thorough dermal decontamination in the event of an exposure. Parents should be educated regarding the dangers associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod compounds and the need to secure these items away from children as well as proper decontamination techniques should an exposure occur.

  3. Long-Term Followup of Dermal Substitution with Acellular Dermal Implant in Burns and Postburn Scar Corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Juhasz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Full-thickness burn and other types of deep skin loss will result in scar formation. For at least partial replacement of the lost dermal layer, there are several options to use biotechnologically derived extracellular matrix components or tissue scaffolds of cadaver skin origin. In a survey, we have collected data on 18 pts who have previously received acellular dermal implant Alloderm. The age of these patients at the injury varied between 16 months and 84 years. The average area of the implants was 185 cm2. Among those, 15 implant sites of 14 patients were assessed at an average of 50 months after surgery. The scar function was assessed by using the modified Vancouver Scar Scale. We have found that the overall scar quality and function was significantly better over the implanted areas than over the surrounding skin. Also these areas received a better score for scar height and pliability. Our findings suggest that acellular dermal implants are especially useful tools in the treatment of full-thickness burns as well as postburn scar contractures.

  4. S100A12 Induced in the Epidermis by Reduced Hydration Activates Dermal Fibroblasts and Causes Dermal Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingling; Zhong, Aimei; Friedrich, Emily E; Jia, Shengxian; Xie, Ping; Galiano, Robert D; Mustoe, Thomas A; Hong, Seok Jong

    2017-03-01

    Disruption of the barrier function of skin increases transepidermal water loss and up-regulates inflammatory pathways in the epidermis. Consequently, sustained expression of proinflammatory cytokines from the epidermis is associated with dermal scarring. We found increased expression of S100A12 in the epidermis of human hypertrophic and keloid scar. Exposing a stratified keratinocyte culture to a reduced-hydration environment increased the expression and secretion of S100A12 by nearly 70%, which in turn activated dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Direct treatment of fibroblasts with conditioned medium collected from stratified keratinocyte culture under reduced-hydration conditions activated fibroblasts, shown by up-regulation of α-smooth muscle actin, pro-collagen 1, and F-actin expression. However, this fibroblast activation was not found when S100A12 was knocked down by RNA interference in keratinocytes. Pharmacological blockade of S100A12 receptors, RAGE, or TLR4 inhibited S100A12-induced fibroblast activation. Local delivery of S100A12 resulted in a marked hypertrophic scar formation in a validated rabbit hypertrophic scar model compared with saline control. Our findings indicate that S100A12 functions as a proinflammatory cytokine and suggest that S100A12 is a potential therapeutic target for dermal scarring. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A new technique to assess dermal absorption of chemical vapor in vitro by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

    OpenAIRE

    Rauma, Matias

    2008-01-01

    There is a huge lack of dermal uptake data for chemicals, and it is frequent with large variations in reported permeability coefficients for chemicals with more than one data set, showing the need for a new and standardized in vitro method. The overall aim of this thesis was to develop the new method of measuring dermal absorption of chemical vapor using the TGA method. Assessment of dermal absorption by TGA (Study I) Round pieces (ø8 mm) of pig epidermis were placed on ...

  6. Cross-linking of dermal sheep collagen with tannic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijmen, F H; du Pont, J S; Middelkoop, E; Kreis, R W; Hoekstra, M J

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cross-linking of (damaged) collagen by tannic acid, with a view to reconsider its use as a possible therapeutical agent in the treatment of burn wounds. Because of contradictory reports in the literature, and increased purity of tannic acid, this method has again become valuable for re-evaluation. A laboratory study using dermal sheep collagen was conducted to analyse the influence of several metal ions on collagen cross-linking with tannic acid. The tannic acid concentration vs degree of cross-linking, tannic acid uptake and release, influence of the addition of metal ions, and the rate of degradation of treated collagen were established. We have shown that tannic acid mediated collagen cross-linking in a concentration-dependent manner. Cross-linking was influenced by the presence of metal ions: Fe3+ and Ag+ were shown to exert a stimulatory effect on the degree of cross-linking by a 2% tannic acid solution, whereas Zn2+ had an inhibitory effect Ce3+ Ca2+ and Na+ did not influence the degree of cross-linking. The degree of cross-linking was proportional to the uptake of tannic acid, which variod between 6 and 35 wt%. Reversibility of cross-linking was established. Tannic acid-treated dermal sheep collagen showed a slow degradation rate relative to differently cross-linked collagen materials when subjected to collagenase or pancreatic proteolytic enzymes. The results of this study suggest that tannic acid could have a function in vivo in burn treatment by binding burn toxins and inhibiting degradation of the (remaining) dermal matrix, and allows combination with metal ions as antimicrobials. Optimal cross-linking was obtained using a 2 wt% tannic acid solution; combination with Ce3+ as a potential antimicrobial agent is possible without diminishing cross-linking.

  7. Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodger Jason QD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h, with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain.

  8. Evaluation of dermal wound healing activity of synthetic peptide SVVYGLR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchinaka, Ayako; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Ban, Tsuyoshi; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Mori, Seiji; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Sawa, Yoshiki; Nagata, Kohzo; Yamamoto, Hirofumi

    2017-09-23

    SVVYGLR peptide (SV peptide) is a 7-amino-acid sequence with angiogenic properties that is derived from osteopontin in the extracellular matrix and promotes differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblast-like cells and the production of collagen type Ⅲ by cardiac fibroblasts. However, the effects of SV peptide on dermal cells and tissue are unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effects of this peptide in a rat model of dermal wound healing. The synthetic SV peptide was added to dermal fibroblasts or keratinocytes, and their cellular motility was evaluated. In an in vivo wound healing exeriment, male rats aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned to the SV peptide treatment, non-treated control, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) groups. Wound healing was assessed by its repair rate and histological features. Scratch assay and cell migration assays using the Chemotaxicell method showed that SV peptide significantly promoted the cell migration in both fibroblasts and keratinocytes. In contrast the proliferation potency of these cells was not affected by SV peptide. In the rat model, wound healing progressed faster in the SV peptide-treated group than in the control and PBS groups. The histopathological analyses showed that the SV peptide treatment stimulated the migration of fibroblasts to the wound area and increased the number of myofibroblasts. Immunohistochemical staining showed a marked increase of von Willebland factor-positive neomicrovessels in the SV peptide-treated group. In conclusion, SV peptide has a beneficial function to promote wound healing by stimulating granulation via stimulating angiogenesis, cell migration, and the myofibroblastic differentiation of fibroblasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Survey of dermal protection in Washington State collision repair industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana M; Fent, Kenneth W; Whittaker, Stephen G; Gaines, Linda G T; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Flack, Sheila L; Nylander-French, Leena A; Yost, Michael G; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K

    2011-09-01

    Substantial exposure to isocyanates may occur during spray painting in autobody shops, yet information is lacking on the efficacy of the protective clothing used during spray painting. We investigated the personal and workplace factors associated with painters' dermal protection use during a large-scale exposure assessment study. Survey data indicated that 69% of painters always used gloves, with latex gloves (47%) and nitrile gloves (34%) used most frequently. Among latex glove users, 53% used thin latex (0.05-0.13 mm), 6% used medium latex (0.15-0.20 mm), and 12% used thick latex (> 0.20 mm). Among nitrile glove users, 27% used thin nitrile and 45% used medium nitrile. Sixty-three percent of painters always used coveralls, 44% preferring one particular brand. Although overspray presents an opportunity for dermal exposure to the neck and face, only 19% of painters protected these areas with personal protective equipment. Painters who always used coveralls were more likely to use gloves (odds ratio = 7.9, p = 0.061). Painters who reported ever having smoked cigarettes used gloves (p = 0.05) and coveralls (p = 0.04) more frequently. Painters who sprayed more than 34 clear coat jobs per month used coveralls most frequently (p = 0.038). Exact logistic regressions along with random sample calculations indicated that the survey results were independent of the shops. Because of the small sample size in this study, future research is warranted to corroborate these results. Studying the effectiveness of gloves and coveralls against polyurethane paints and understanding the underlying motivators and preferences for painters and business owners is needed for the development of best practices for the selection and use of dermal protection.

  10. Tensegrity and type 1 dermal dendrocytes in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatresooz, P; Hermanns-Lê, T; Ciccarelli, A; Beckers, A; Piérard, G E

    2005-02-01

    Skin is enlarged and doughy in acromegaly. Alterations have been reported in the structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and in the mechanical properties of the dermis. It is recognized that internal tensions in the dermis give rise to active cell-ECM and cell-cell mechanical interactions. This mechanobiological aspect can lead to functional and conformational changes in the cells. Such alterations in connective tissue cells have not been explored so far in acromegaly. The aim of the study was to assess structural changes in the dermal ECM, and in the number and shape of factor XIIIa-positive type I dermal dendrocytes (DDs) in acromegaly. A total of 32 patients with acromegaly (three untreated, 17 with active disease under somatostatin analogues and 12 cured) were examined. Both the maximum and the most recent IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor) dosages recorded in the patients' files were retrieved. Skin biopsies were taken from their forearms. Histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, morphometry and electron microscopy were used. Collagen-bundle coarsening and acidic glycosaminoglycan deposits were found irrespective of the current endocrine status. Dermal dendrocytes were often markedly reduced in numbers, but those present were plump with few dendrites. A negative correlation was found between DD numbers and the maximum IGF-1 dosages recorded in the patients' files. A similar although weaker trend was found with the most recent IGF-1 dosages. Collagen, glycosaminoglycans and DDs appeared affected in acromegaly, even when the hormonal status was controlled after surgery and/or somatostatin analogue treatment. The persisting conformational change of DDs suggests a modification in cellular tensegrity, perhaps initiated by hormonal effects and probably maintained by alterations in the ECM interactions.

  11. 29 CFR 99.320 - Report submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Report submission. 99.320 Section 99.320 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditees § 99.320 Report submission. (a) General. The audit shall be completed and the data collection form described in...

  12. Southern African Journal of Environmental Education: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Online Submissions. Already have a Username/Password for Southern African Journal of Environmental Education? Go to Login. Need a Username/Password? Go to Registration. Registration and login are required to submit items online and to check the status of current submissions.

  13. 28 CFR 51.22 - Premature submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premature submissions. 51.22 Section 51.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF... § 51.22 Premature submissions. The Attorney General will not consider on the merits: (a) Any proposal...

  14. 6 CFR 27.210 - Submissions schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.210 Submissions schedule. (a) Initial Submission. The... of any of the chemicals listed in appendix A at or above the STQ for any applicable Security Issue...

  15. West African Journal of Applied Ecology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Instructions To Authors Papers for submission to the West African Journal of Applied Ecology should be written in English and should not exceed 8,000 words in total length. Papers should not have been submitted or be considered for submission for publication elsewhere. Ideas expressed in papers that ...

  16. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Manuscripts Submission Manuscript must be submitted with a covering letter from the author of correspondence to the Editor in Chief by e-mail. After the successful submission of manuscript the corresponding author will be acknowledged within 72 hours. Any quarry regarding the preparation ...

  17. KCA Journal of Business Management: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Online Submissions. Already have a Username/Password for KCA Journal of Business Management? Go to Login. Need a Username/Password? Go to Registration. Registration and login are required to submit items online and to check the status of current submissions.

  18. African Journal of Marine Science: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Marine Science: Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal > African Journal of Marine Science: Submissions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  19. Spontaneous patella fracture presenting as osteomyelitis in focal dermal hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Eric L; Yoon, Richard S; Dentico, Richard; Liporace, Frank A

    2012-08-01

    We report the first case of the assessment and treatment of a spontaneous patellar fracture in a patient with Goltz syndrome-a rare dermal hypoplasia. This case illustrates the non-straightforward presentation of a spontaneous patellar fracture in seemingly osteoporotic bone stock further complicated by the inability to rule out osteomyelitis. In this confusing presentation, a high index of suspicion for patella fracture should be maintained for patients with knee pain and osteoporosis on x-ray with a dysplastic syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Focal dermal hypoplasia: a case report and review of literature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    II y a des lignes radio-opaque fines paralleles verticals bilateralement dans les métaphyses distale femorale (osteopathie stiata). On a fait un diagnostique de la hypoplasie dermal focal. Le défaut très énorme de la vulve et les défauts sur les amygdales ont été opérés. Elle s'est rétabli rapidement et sortie de l'hôpital.

  1. Ocular, nasal, dermal and general symptoms among commercial airline crews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, T; Andersson, K; Dammström, B-G; Norbäck, D

    2002-09-01

    To study symptoms among a commercial cabin crew, in relation to personal risk factors, perceived psychosocial work environment, occupation, and work on intercontinental flights, with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A standardized questionnaire (MM 040 NA) was mailed in February-March 1997 to all Stockholm aircrew on duty in a Scandinavian flight company ( n=1,857), and office workers from the same company ( n=218). During this time, smoking was allowed only on intercontinental flights. The participation rate was 81% ( n=1,513) of the aircrew, and 77% ( n=168) of the office group. Statistical analysis was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis, keeping age, gender, atopy, current smoking, occupation, and perceived psychosocial work conditions simultaneously in the model. The most common symptoms among the aircrew were fatigue (21%), nasal symptoms (15%), ocular symptoms (11%), dry or flushed facial skin (12%), and dermal hand symptoms (12%). The aircrew had more nasal (odds ratio (OR) = 3.12), throat (OR=5.75), and dermal symptoms on the face (OR=2.03), and hands (OR=3.68), than the office workers. The aircrew with a history of atopy had an increase of most symptoms (OR=1.5-3.8), but age, gender, or smoking was not associated with symptoms. Perceived stress due to excess of work was associated with fatigue (OR=7.33), feeling heavy-headed (OR=9.52), headache (OR=5.10), and facial dermal symptoms (OR=3.75), while those crew with better work control and work satisfaction had less fatigue. For most symptoms, there were no differences between different categories onboard, but pilots had fewer ocular (OR=0.28) nasal (OR=0.52), and dermal hand symptoms (OR=0.39). Airline crew that had been on an intercontinental flight the previous week had more complaints of fatigue (OR=1.87), heavy-headedness (OR=1.89), and difficulties concentrating (OR=3.22). There was an association between symptoms and work stress, lack of influence on working conditions

  2. Measurements of Dermal and Oral Emissions from Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsushima, Sayana; Bekö, Gabriel; Bossi, Rossana

    2016-01-01

    Human related pollutants (bioeffluents) emitted through skin and via exhaled breath were measured. Two climate chambers were connected via flexible ducts. The ducts were in one chamber attached to a breathing mask, through which five subjects exhaled on one occasion the air into the other chamber...... in the chambers. They judged the air quality in the chamber with dermal bioeffluents to be lower than in the one containing orally exhaled bioeffluents, and similar to the air quality in the chamber with all bioeffluents. The chemical compounds with slightly elevated concentrations differed between the two...

  3. Soft tissue augmentation - Use of hyaluronic acid as dermal filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedamurthy Maya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue augmentation has revolutionized the treatment of the aging face. It is a technique in which a substance is injected under the skin. The concept of utilizing materials for soft tissue augmentation actually began around 1950 with the use of fluid silicone. Today we have a large armamentarium of implant materials to delay the tell tale signs of aging. Filling has replaced conventional surgery in facial rejuvenation. In this article, the emphasis will be on hyaluronic acid as this substance is easily available in India and ranks among the most widely used dermal fillers.

  4. Chemical stabilization of polymers: Implications for dermal exposure to additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, N; Girard, M; Schneider, L; Weijgert, V Van De; Wilde, A; Kappenstein, O; Vieth, B; Hutzler, C; Luch, A

    2018-01-15

    Technical benefits of additives in polymers stand in marked contrast to their associated health risks. Here, a multi-analyte method based on gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed to quantify polymer additives in complex matrices such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and isolated human skin layers after dermal exposure ex vivo. That way both technical aspects and dermal exposure were investigated. The effects of polymer additivation on the material were studied using the example of LDPE. To this end, a tailor-made polymer was applied in aging studies that had been furnished with two different mixtures of phenol- and diarylamine-based antioxidants, plasticizers and processing aids. Upon accelerated thermo-oxidative aging of the material, the formation of LDPE degradation products was monitored with attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Compared to pure LDPE, a protective effect of added antioxidants could be observed on the integrity of the polymer. Further, thermo-oxidative degradation of the additives and its kinetics were investigated using LDPE or squalane as matrix. The half-lives of additives in both matrices revealed significant differences between the tested additives as well as between LDPE and squalane. For instance, 2-tert-butyl-6-[(3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)methyl]-4-methylphenol (Antioxidant 2246) showed a half-life 12 times lower when incorporated in LDPE as compared to squalane. As a model for dermal exposure of consumers, human skin was brought into contact with the tailor-made LDPE containing additives ex vivo in static Franz diffusion cells. The skin was then analyzed for additives and decomposition products. This study proved 10 polymer additives of diverse pysicochemical properties and functionalities to migrate out of the polymer and eventually overcome the intact human skin barrier during contact. Moreover, their individual distribution within

  5. Nano-TiO2 modulates the dermal sensitization potency of dinitrochlorobenzene after topical exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, S.; Golanski, L.; Smolders, E.J.; Vanoirbeek, J.; Hoet, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on skin sensitization caused by chemicals. OBJECTIVES: We determined the ability of different ENPs (TiO2 , Ag and SiO2 ) and aged paint particles containing ENPs to modulate dermal sensitization by a known potent dermal

  6. A dermal model for spray painters, part II : estimating the deposition and uptake of solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semple, S.; Brouwers, D.H.; Dick, F.; Cherrie, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    The contribution of dermal exposure to the total body burden of a given chemical is difficult to assess. However, it is possible that as regulatory pressures lead to reductions in inhalation exposure, the proportion of uptake via the dermal route will increase. This study brings together recent work

  7. Dermal exposure assessment to benzene and toluene using charcoal cloth pads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joode, De B.V.; Tielemans, E.; Vermeulen, R.; Wegh, H.C.P.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Charcoal cloth pads have been used to assess volatile chemicals on the skin in a laboratory setting; however, they have not yet been applied to measure dermal exposure in occupational settings. This study aimed at evaluating whether charcoal pads can be used to assess dermal exposure to benzene and

  8. The relationship between dermal papillary structure and skin surface properties, color, and elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukoshi, K; Nakamura, T; Oba, A

    2016-08-01

    The skin contains an undulating structure called the dermal papillary structure between the border of the epidermis and dermis. The physiological importance of the dermal papillary structures has been discussed, however, the dermal papillary structures have never been evaluated for their contribution to skin appearance. In this study, we investigated the correlation between the dermal papillary structure and skin color and elasticity. In addition, the relationship was validated with skin model experiments. The dermal papillary structures in the skin of the female cheek were quantitatively measured by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy images. In addition, the skin color and elasticity were measured at the same site. A skin model with dermal papilla-like structures was created by referring to the optical and shape properties of the skin using agar gel and a scattering sheet. Correlations were found between the dermal papillary structures and skin color irregularity and skin elasticity. These relationships were verified by the experiments employing a skin model. The results of this study indicated that the dermal papillary structure is also an important factor for skin appearance such as color and elasticity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Human bone marrow-derived cells: an attractive source to populate dermal substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretti, Florence; Lebreton-DeCoster, Corinne; Gueniche, Farida; Yousfi, Myriam; Humbert, Philippe; Godeau, Gaston; Senni, Karim; Desmoulière, Alexis; Coulomb, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    We have previously shown the importance of dermal fibroblasts within skin substitutes for promoting the emergence of a functional neodermis after grafting in humans. However, the use of fibroblasts from sources other than the dermis needs to be evaluated for patients with extensive skin loss. Here we examined the capacity of human bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), selected for their ability to adhere to plastic culture dishes, to behave like human dermal fibroblasts when incorporated within a 3D in vitro reconstructed tissue that promotes dermal fibroblast differentiation. Like dermal fibroblasts, BMDCs contracted a collagen matrix and were growth regulated by the matrix environment. They had the same shape and their nuclei had the same form factor as dermal fibroblasts. In addition, both cell types expressed desmin and vimentin but not alpha-smooth muscle actin. BMDCs deposited collagen types I and III, and fibrillin-1 with similar efficiency to dermal fibroblasts. In addition, BMDCs have the potential to regulate this deposition, as they produced metalloproteinases (MMP1, MMP2, and MMP9) and metalloproteinase inhibitors (TIMP1) very similarly to dermal fibroblasts. BMDCs can thus be induced to express functions resembling those of dermal fibroblasts, including those involved in the wound healing process.

  10. Living skin substitutes: survival and function of fibroblasts seeded in a dermal substitute in experimental wounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, E. N.; van Leeuwen, R. T.; Jonker, A.; van Marle, J.; Middelkoop, E.

    1998-01-01

    The healing of full-thickness skin defects requires extensive synthesis and remodeling of dermal and epidermal components. Fibroblasts play an important role in this process and are being incorporated in the latest generation of artificial dermal substitutes. We studied the fate of fibroblasts

  11. Relay of herpes simplex virus between Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells in human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism by which immunity to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV is initiated is not completely defined. HSV initially infects mucosal epidermis prior to entering nerve endings. In mice, epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs are the first dendritic cells (DCs to encounter HSV, but it is CD103(+ dermal DCs that carry viral antigen to lymph nodes for antigen presentation, suggesting DC cross-talk in skin. In this study, we compared topically HSV-1 infected human foreskin explants with biopsies of initial human genital herpes lesions to show LCs are initially infected then emigrate into the dermis. Here, LCs bearing markers of maturation and apoptosis formed large cell clusters with BDCA3(+ dermal DCs (thought to be equivalent to murine CD103(+ dermal DCs and DC-SIGN(+ DCs/macrophages. HSV-expressing LC fragments were observed inside the dermal DCs/macrophages and the BDCA3(+ dermal DCs had up-regulated a damaged cell uptake receptor CLEC9A. No other infected epidermal cells interacted with dermal DCs. Correspondingly, LCs isolated from human skin and infected with HSV-1 in vitro also underwent apoptosis and were taken up by similarly isolated BDCA3(+ dermal DCs and DC-SIGN(+ cells. Thus, we conclude a viral antigen relay takes place where HSV infected LCs undergo apoptosis and are taken up by dermal DCs for subsequent antigen presentation. This provides a rationale for targeting these cells with mucosal or perhaps intradermal HSV immunization.

  12. Effect of Arctium lappa (burdock) extract on canine dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica

    2013-12-15

    Although the biological activities of Arctium lappa (burdock) have been already investigated in human and other species, data evaluating the molecular mechanisms have not been reported in the dog. In this study we analyzed for the first time the effect of a root extract of burdock on molecular responses in canine dermal fibroblasts with H2O2 stimulation (H group), with burdock treatment (B group) and with H2O2 stimulation and burdock treatment (BH group), using RNAseq technology. Differentially expressed genes (P<0.05) of H, B and BH groups in comparison to the untreated sample (negative control, C group) were identified with MeV software and were functional annotated and monitored for signaling pathways and candidate biomarkers using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA). The expression profile of canine dermal fibroblasts treated with burdock extract with or without H2O2 stimulation, showed an up-regulation of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), disheveled 3 (DVL3) and chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (CSGALNACT2). The data suggested that burdock has implications in cell adhesion and gene expression with the modulation of Wnt/β catenin signaling and Chondroitin Sulphate Biosynthesis that are particularly important for the wound healing process. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Acellular dermal matrix based nipple reconstruction: A modified technique

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    Raghavan Vidya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nipple areolar reconstruction (NAR has evolved with the advancement in breast reconstruction and can improve self-esteem and, consequently, patient satisfaction. Although a variety of reconstruction techniques have been described in the literature varying from nipple sharing, local flaps to alloplastic and allograft augmentation, over time, loss of nipple projection remains a major problem. Acellular dermal matrices (ADM have revolutionised breast reconstruction more recently. We discuss the use of ADM to act as a base plate and strut to give support to the base and offer nipple bulk and projection in a primary procedure of NAR with a local clover shaped dermal flap in 5 breasts (4 patients. We used 5-point Likert scales (1 = highly unsatisfied, 5 = highly satisfied to assess patient satisfaction. Median age was 46 years (range: 38–55 years. Nipple projection of 8 mm, 7 mm, and 7 mms were achieved in the unilateral cases and 6 mm in the bilateral case over a median 18 month period. All patients reported at least a 4 on the Likert scale. We had no post-operative complications. It seems that nipple areolar reconstruction [NAR] using ADM can achieve nipple projection which is considered aesthetically pleasing for patients.

  14. Biological activities of frankincense essential oil in human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesheng Han

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although frankincense essential oil (FREO has become increasingly popular in skin care, research on its biological activities in human skin cells is scarce, if not completely absent. In the current study, we explored the biological activities of FREO in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts by analyzing the levels of 17 important protein biomarkers pertinent to inflammation and tissue remodeling. FREO exhibited robust anti-proliferative activity in these skin cells. It also significantly inhibited collagen III, interferon gamma-induced protein 10, and intracellular cell adhesion molecule 1. We also studied its effect in regulating genome-wide gene expression. FREO robustly modulated global gene expression. Furthermore, Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis showed that FREO affected many important signaling pathways that are closely related to inflammation, immune response, and tissue remodeling. This study provides the first evidence of the biological activities of FREO in human dermal fibroblasts. Consistent with existing studies in other models, the current study suggests that FREO possesses promising potential to modulate the biological processes of inflammation and tissue remodeling in human skin. Further research into the biological mechanisms of action of FREO and its major active components is recommended.

  15. The Use of Dermal Autograft for Fascial Repair of TRAM Flap Donor Sites

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    Ali Arab Kheradmand

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Closure of fascia after transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM flap has usually been performed with direct closure or synthetic material. The dermal autograft was removed from zone IV of flap was an alternative to reinforce fascial closure. The dermal autograft was used in 34 patients after TRAM harvest for breast, head and neck reconstruction and Prolene mesh was used in 42 other patients for closure of fascial defect. All patients were followed by physical examinations. Average follow-up in the dermal autograft group was 27.3 versus 20.7 months in the second group. In the dermal autograft group, one patient complained of bulging of the anterior abdominal wall; one developed a wound infection. In the second group, one patients experienced true hernia. Dermal autografts are a useful alternative to mesh repair of fascial defects after TRAM flap harvest.

  16. Evaluation of dermal substitute in a novel co-transplantation model with autologous epidermal sheet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Huang

    Full Text Available The development of more and more new dermal substitutes requires a reliable and effective animal model to evaluate their safety and efficacy. In this study we constructed a novel animal model using co-transplantation of autologous epidermal sheets with dermal substitutes to repair full-thickness skin defects. Autologous epidermal sheets were obtained by digesting the basement membrane (BM and dermal components from rat split-thickness skins in Dispase II solution (1.2 u/ml at 4 °C for 8, 10 and 12 h. H&E, immunohistochemical and live/dead staining showed that the epidermal sheet preserved an intact epidermis without any BM or dermal components, and a high percentage of viable cells (92.10 ± 4.19% and P63 positive cells (67.43 ± 4.21% under an optimized condition. Porcine acellular dermal matrixes were co-transplanted with the autologous epidermal sheets to repair full-thickness skin defects in Sprague-Dawley rats. The epidermal sheets survived and completely re-covered the wounds within 3 weeks. Histological staining showed that the newly formed stratified epidermis attached directly onto the dermal matrix. Inflammatory cell infiltration and vascularization of the dermal matrix were not significantly different from those in the subcutaneous implantation model. Collagen IV and laminin distributed continuously at the epidermis and dermal matrix junction 4 weeks after transplantation. Transmission electron microscopy further confirmed the presence of continuous lamina densa and hemidesmosome structures. This novel animal model can be used not only to observe the biocompatibility of dermal substitutes, but also to evaluate their effects on new epidermis and BM formation. Therefore, it is a simple and reliable model for evaluating the safety and efficacy of dermal substitutes.

  17. Inflammatory, immune-mediated adverse reactions related to soft tissue dermal fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijotas-Reig, Jaume; Fernández-Figueras, Maria Teresa; Puig, Lluís

    2013-10-01

    An increasing number of persons seek medical solutions for esthetic indications and for diverse pathological conditions, such as malformations, trauma, or cancer. Despite manufacturers' and different authors' claims that fillers are non-immunogenic or that complications are uncommon, unwanted adverse reactions do occur. To review the literature regarding the multiple types of immune-mediated adverse reactions related to medical dermal filler injections/prosthesis. A comprehensive MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar electronic database search was performed (2000-January 2012). Selected articles published before 2000 referring to general concerns regarding the studied topic were also included. The search provided almost 300 articles. Finally, 235 studies were selected and included. All known fillers present in the market have been shown to be able to provoke early- and late-onset inflammatory adverse reactions. Their true prevalence is unknown but appears to be significant. The majority of the late-onset adverse effects are inflammatory and immune-mediated in nature. Edema, granulomas, sarcoid-like disorders, and panniculitis are the findings most commonly seen. Rarely, systemic granulomatous and autoimmune diseases, and to lesser extent acute hypersensitivity reactions can be seen. All implanted, injected, and blood-contact biomaterials trigger a wide variety of adverse reactions that may appear early or late and range from local to systemic. Most fillers act more as adjuvants than as direct T-cell activators, on a background of genetic predisposition. Their treatment has not been the subject of well-designed studies. Management of both acute and systemic reactions is often difficult and requires anti-inflammatory and occasionally immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A macrophage phenotype for a constitutive, class II antigen-expressing, human dermal perivascular dendritic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontheimer, R D; Matsubara, T; Seelig, L L

    1989-07-01

    A previously uncharacterized population of class II antigen-bearing dendritic cells that are intimately associated with the dermal microvasculature was identified in normal human skin using a double-label, indirect immunofluorescence technique. The only other major HLA-DR positive dermal cell type noted in these studies, the dermal microvascular endothelial cell (DMVEC), appeared to express lesser amounts of HLA-DR region gene product than did this dermal perivascular dendritic cell (DPDC). These DPDC were particularly common around small vessels in the superficial vascular plexus of the papillary dermis and were distinct from the mast cell, another cell type normally seen in a similar location. Phenotypic and ultrastructural studies have determined that the DPDC is more closely related to the monocyte/macrophage lineage than the dendritic cell lineage. The perivascular location and phenotype of this cell distinguishes it from other previously described constitutive dermal cell types such as the classic "histiocyte," veiled cell, and dendrocyte. The relatively rich expression of all three major HLA-D region gene products by this dermal perivascular dendritic macrophage would suggest that it could play a significant role in the immunobiology of the dermal microvascular unit.

  19. Dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing: Comparison of model to human participant results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, G C; Weschler, C J; Bekö, G

    2017-05-01

    In this research, we extend a model of transdermal uptake of phthalates to include a layer of clothing. When compared with experimental results, this model better estimates dermal uptake of diethylphthalate and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) than a previous model. The model predictions are consistent with the observation that previously exposed clothing can increase dermal uptake over that observed in bare-skin participants for the same exposure air concentrations. The model predicts that dermal uptake from clothing of DnBP is a substantial fraction of total uptake from all sources of exposure. For compounds that have high dermal permeability coefficients, dermal uptake is increased for (i) thinner clothing, (ii) a narrower gap between clothing and skin, and (iii) longer time intervals between laundering and wearing. Enhanced dermal uptake is most pronounced for compounds with clothing-air partition coefficients between 104 and 107 . In the absence of direct measurements of cotton cloth-air partition coefficients, dermal exposure may be predicted using equilibrium data for compounds in equilibrium with cellulose and water, in combination with computational methods of predicting partition coefficients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  1. Sonographic Appearance of Dermal and Subcutaneous Sarcoidosis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ja Yoon; Bae, Young A; Hong, Hyeok Jin; Kwon, Kye Won [Dept. of Radiology, Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown origin that mainly involves lung and skin, but rarely involves subcutaneous tissue. While some studies have reported on CT or MR imaging findings of subcutaneous sarcoidosis, there is only one report on sonographic findings of subcutaneous sarcoidosis, recently published in the US. Familiarity with ultrasonographic findings of subcutaneous sarcoidosis might be helpful for the early diagnosis in patient with palpable nodules and image follow-up for subcutaneous sarcoidosis. Here we report on the sonographic appearance of subcutaneous sarcoidosis involving dermal and subcutaneous tissue over axilla and sole, a case diagnosed as sarcoidosis and improved by steroid treatment, along with a review of the relevant literature.

  2. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  3. Bioactives from probiotics for dermal health: functions and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, L-C; Liong, M-T

    2013-05-01

    Probiotics have been extensively reviewed for decades, emphasizing on improving general gut health. Recently, more studies showed that probiotics may exert other health-promoting effects beyond gut well-being, attributed to the rise of the gut-brain axis correlations. Some of these new benefits include skin health such as improving atopic eczema, atopic dermatitis, healing of burn and scars, skin-rejuvenating properties and improving skin innate immunity. Increasing evidence has also showed that bacterial compounds such as cell wall fragments, their metabolites and dead bacteria can elicit certain immune responses on the skin and improve skin barrier functions. This review aimed to underline the mechanisms or the exact compounds underlying the benefits of bacterial extract on the skin based on evidences from in vivo and in vitro studies. This review could be of help in screening of probiotic strains with potential dermal enhancing properties for topical applications. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Microporous Dermal-Like Electrospun Scaffolds Promote Accelerated Skin Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvallet, Paul P.; Culpepper, Bonnie K.; Bain, Jennifer L.; Schultz, Matthew J.; Thomas, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to synthesize skin substitutes that blend native extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules with synthetic polymers which have favorable mechanical properties. To this end, scaffolds were electrospun from collagen I (col) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and then pores were introduced mechanically to promote fibroblast infiltration, and subsequent filling of the pores with ECM. A 70:30 col/PCL ratio was determined to provide optimal support for dermal fibroblast growth, and a pore diameter, 160 μm, was identified that enabled fibroblasts to infiltrate and fill pores with native matrix molecules, including fibronectin and collagen I. Mechanical testing of 70:30 col/PCL scaffolds with 160 μm pores revealed a tensile strength of 1.4 MPa, and the scaffolds also exhibited a low rate of contraction (microporous electrospun scaffolds are effective substrates for skin regeneration. PMID:24568584

  5. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: an unresolved mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Debanjan; Dalton, Jane E; Kaye, Paul M; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2014-02-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a cutaneous sequela of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), develops in some patients alongside but more commonly after apparent cure from VL. In view of the pivotal role of PKDL patients in the transmission of VL, here we review clinical, epidemiological, parasitological, and immunological perspectives of this disease, focusing on five hypotheses to explain the development of PKDL: (i) the role of antimonial drugs; (ii) UV-induced skin damage; (iii) reinfection; (iv) organ specific failure of memory T cell responses; and (v) genetic susceptibility of the host. This review will enable researchers and clinicians to explore the unresolved mystery of PKDL and provide a framework for future application of 'omic' approaches for the control and eventual elimination of VL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jankowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the principles of the selected model functioning. This paper presents examples of models to assist the employer in the the assessment of occupational exposure associated with the skin contact with chemicals, developed in European Union (EU countries, as well as in countries outside the EU. Based on the literature data dermal exposure models EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure, COSHH Essentials (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, DREAM (Dermal Exposure Assessment Method, Stoffenmanager , ECETOC TRA (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment, MEASE (Metal’s EASE, PHED (Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database, DERM (Dermal Exposure Ranking Method and RISKOFDERM (Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure to Chemicals were briefly described. Moreover the characteristics of RISKOFDERM, guidelines for its use, information on input and output data were further detailed. Problem of full work shift dermal exposure assessment is described. An example of exposure assessment using RISKOFDERM and effectiveness evaluation to date were also presented. When no measurements are available, RISKOFDERM allows dermal exposure assessment and thus can improve the risk assessment quality and effectiveness of dermal risk management. Med Pr 2017;68(4:557–569

  7. [Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Agnieszka; Czerczak, Sławomir; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata

    2017-06-27

    Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the principles of the selected model functioning. This paper presents examples of models to assist the employer in the the assessment of occupational exposure associated with the skin contact with chemicals, developed in European Union (EU) countries, as well as in countries outside the EU. Based on the literature data dermal exposure models EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure), COSHH Essentials (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations), DREAM (Dermal Exposure Assessment Method), Stoffenmanager , ECETOC TRA (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment), MEASE (Metal's EASE), PHED (Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database), DERM (Dermal Exposure Ranking Method) and RISKOFDERM (Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure to Chemicals) were briefly described. Moreover the characteristics of RISKOFDERM, guidelines for its use, information on input and output data were further detailed. Problem of full work shift dermal exposure assessment is described. An example of exposure assessment using RISKOFDERM and effectiveness evaluation to date were also presented. When no measurements are available, RISKOFDERM allows dermal exposure assessment and thus can improve the risk assessment quality and effectiveness of dermal risk management. Med Pr 2017;68(4):557-569. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. CTRP6 inhibits fibrogenesis in TGF-β1-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts

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    Fan, Rong-hui, E-mail: fan_ronghuixa@163.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China); Zhu, Xiu-mei; Sun, Yao-wen [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China); Peng, Hui-zi [Department of Cosmetology Plastic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Wu, Hang-li; Gao, Wen-jie [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China)

    2016-07-08

    Skin fibrosis is characterized by excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM). C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 6 (CTRP6), a member of CTRPs, has been involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis. However, the function and detailed regulatory mechanism of CTRP6 in skin fibrosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CTRP6 on the activation of human dermal fibroblasts. Our results showed that CTRP6 was lowly expressed in scar tissues and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated dermal fibroblasts. CTRP6 overexpression significantly inhibited the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, as well as suppressed the expression of ECM in TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CTRP6 overexpression markedly inhibited TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 in dermal fibroblasts. In conclusion, the data reported here demonstrate that CTRP6 is able to inhibit the proliferation and ECM expression in human dermal fibroblasts through suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that CTRP6 may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of skin fibrosis. -- Highlights: •CTRP6 expression was decreased in scar tissues and TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits TGF-β1-induced the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits expression of collagen type I and α-SMA. •CTRP6 inhibits the activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway in dermal fibroblasts.

  9. Do nanoparticles have a future in dermal drug delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Alexa; Mak, Wing Cheung; Jung, Sora; Knorr, Fanny; Meinke, Martina C; Richter, Heike; Rühl, Eckart; Cheung, Kwan Yee; Tran, Ngo Bich Nga Nathalie; Lademann, Jürgen

    2017-01-28

    More and more investigations confirm that nanoparticles are incapable of overcoming the intact skin barrier in vivo. Do nanoparticles still have a future in dermal drug delivery? Unlike many other topically applied substances, nanoparticles have not been reported to utilize the intercellular penetration pathway and preferentially make use of the follicular penetration pathway. Deep penetration into the follicular ducts has been described for a variety of particles and appears to be strongly influenced by particle size. For targeted drug delivery, smart nanoparticles are required which are able to release their loaded drugs subsequent to internal or external trigger stimuli, and thereby enable the translocation of the active agents into the viable epidermis. In the recent manuscript, three nanoparticles systems are summarized and compared which release their model drugs upon different trigger mechanisms. The BSA hydrogel nanoparticles release their model drug TRITC-dextran by passive diffusion due to a concentration gradient via a porous surface. The protease-triggered controlled release BSA nanoparticles release their model drug if they are applied simultaneously with protease nanoparticles, resulting in an enzymatic degradation of the particles and a release of the model drug FITC. Finally, the IR-triggered controlled release AuNP-doped BSA nanoparticles release their model drug FITC after photoactivation with wIRA. For all three nanoparticle systems, the release of their model drugs could be observed. For the first nanoparticle system, only low follicular penetration depths were found which might by due do an agglomeration effect. For the last two nanoparticle systems, deep follicular penetration and even an uptake by the sebaceous glands were verified. In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that nanoparticles do have a future in dermal drug delivery if smart nanoparticle systems are utilized which are able to release their drug at specific times and locations

  10. Challenges in Dermal Delivery of Therapeutic Antimicrobial Protein and Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Rohan; Misra, Ambikanandan; Amrutiya, Jitendra; Patel, Hinal; Bhatt, Priyanka; Patel, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Protein and peptides in biological system form an important part of innate immune system and are being explored for potential use in various diseases as therapeutics. Importance of proteins and peptides as a new class of antimicrobial agents has boosted research in the field of biotechnology as potential alternative to antibiotic agents. Protein and peptides antimicrobial as a therapeutic class are structurally diverse and exhibit potent activity against microbes by various mechanisms. However, they present formidable challenge in formulation due to requirement of specific spatial configuration for their activity and stability. Thus, encapsulation of these therapeutics in various nano-systems may sustain activity along with improvement in stability. The article highlights the need for antimicrobial peptides in dermal infections along with discussion of mechanism of their action. It highlights challenges faced for dermal delivery and research carried out for their successful delivery using nano-systems. It is widely realized that these novel classes of therapeutic agents have tremendous market potential to emerge as an alternative to conventional antibiotic agents for combating issue of multidrug resistant microbial species. Research in their delivery aspects by use of current advances made in delivery systems through use of nanoconstructs offers much needed area for exploration and achieving success. As there is an urgent need for coming up with new therapeutic agents for encompassing the increased burden of microbial diseases in human population as well as their delivery challenges, research in field will give the much-needed strategic advantage against pathogenic organisms. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Dermal uptake of nicotine from air and clothing: Experimental verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekö, G; Morrison, G; Weschler, C J; Koch, H M; Pälmke, C; Salthammer, T; Schripp, T; Eftekhari, A; Toftum, J; Clausen, G

    2017-11-02

    This study aims to elucidate in greater detail the dermal uptake of nicotine from air or from nicotine-exposed clothes, which was demonstrated recently in a preliminary study. Six non-smoking participants were exposed to gaseous nicotine (between 236 and 304 μg/m3 ) over 5 hours while breathing clean air through a hood. Four of the participants wore only shorts and 2 wore a set of clean clothes. One week later, 2 of the bare-skinned participants were again exposed in the chamber, but they showered immediately after exposure instead of the following morning. The 2 participants who wore clean clothes on week 1 were now exposed wearing a set of clothes that had been exposed to nicotine. All urine was collected for 84 hours after exposure and analyzed for nicotine and its metabolites, cotinine and 3OH-cotinine. All participants except those wearing fresh clothes excreted substantial amounts of biomarkers, comparable to levels expected from inhalation intake. Uptake for 1 participant wearing exposed clothes exceeded estimated intake via inhalation by >50%. Biomarker excretion continued during the entire urine collection period, indicating that nicotine accumulates in the skin and is released over several days. Absorbed nicotine was significantly lower after showering in 1 subject but not the other. Differences in the normalized uptakes and in the excretion patterns were observed among the participants. The observed cotinine half-lives suggest that non-smokers exposed to airborne nicotine may receive a substantial fraction through the dermal pathway. Washing skin and clothes exposed to nicotine may meaningfully decrease exposure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Review of preventative behavioural interventions for dermal and respiratory hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, J A; Sheffield, D; Bell, N; Bennett, V; Morris, L A

    2011-08-01

    No previous systematic review of the evidence base has been undertaken to help occupational health professionals understand how to reliably lower the instance of occupational ill-health through reducing risk-taking behaviour. To evaluate the effectiveness and processes of occupational-based behavioural interventions for workers exposed to dermal and respiratory hazards. A systematic review was conducted. Sixteen electronic databases were searched using key words. Bibliography, health and safety websites and hand searches of key journals were also undertaken. Articles were included if they evaluated an intervention targeting workers' behavioural compliance, addressed dermal or respiratory hazards, used before and after measures with a control group comparison and used behaviour-related exposure indicators such as airborne exposure, health effects, behaviour observations and self-reported work practices. Data were extracted according to potential sources of bias, impact and behavioural change processes used. Ten of 550 articles identified as potentially relevant were included. A predominance of small effect sizes, particularly for larger samples, demonstrated limited but positive impact upon exposure. Studies contained too much heterogeneity for reliable meta-analysis. None of the studies covered the full range of behaviour change components necessary for reducing exposure risk. We conclude that future interventions could enhance their effectiveness through improving design quality, reporting and basing their content upon evidence-based behavioural change approaches. Using a comprehensive range of evidence-informed behaviour change ingredients should improve occupational health professional's ability to reliably reduce occupational ill-health where exposure cannot totally be designed out of the workplace.

  13. Guilt, fear, submission, and empathy in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Lynn E; Berry, Jack W; Weiss, Joseph; Gilbert, Paul

    2002-09-01

    This study compares self-focused motivations (fear of negative evaluation, social comparison, and fear of envy) and other-focused motivations (empathy and interpersonal guilt) in submissive behavior and depression. The Beck Depression Inventory, Submissive Behavior Scale, Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Social Comparison Scale, Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire, and Interpersonal Reactivity Inventory were administered to 50 patients hospitalized for depression and 52 students. Depressed patients were significantly higher in survivor guilt, omnipotent responsibility guilt, submissive behavior, fear of negative evaluation, fear of envy, and empathic distress, and lower in social comparison. This research was limited in that it was a correlational study. This study suggests that altruistic concern about others may be an important factor in depression and submissive behavior. Evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. 7 CFR 900.113 - Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... notifications and communications concerning the arbitration shall be sent; (iii) Description of the organization..., the parties to the dispute shall file with the Administrator a formal submission, which shall contain...

  15. Dermal Discolorations and Burns at Neuromonitoring Electrodes in Pediatric Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Austin; Andras, Lindsay; Lehman, Alison; Bridges, Nancy; Skaggs, David L

    2017-01-01

    Prospective review of consecutive patients. To evaluate the incidence and raise awareness of electrode discoloration that can occur in the operating room when using neuromonitoring. To our knowledge there are no articles that discuss dermal discolorations following spine surgery. Following recognition of dermal discolorations in some patients, a prospective evaluation of all patients undergoing spine surgery with somatosensory-evoked potential and motor-evoked potential neuromonitoring using subdermal needle electrodes was carried out over a 16-month period for quality assurance and improvement. A total of 201 consecutive patients with mean age of 14 years (4-25) were prospectively evaluated. Sixteen percent (33/201) had dermal discolorations associated with neuromonitoring. There were no significant differences in mean age (P = 0.624), height (P = 0.308), weight (P = 0.899), or body mass index (P = 0.571) between the patients with and without dermal discolorations. There was also no difference in prevalence of dermal discoloration by diagnosis (P = 0.490) or location of grounding pad and occurrence of dermal discoloration between groups (P = 0.268). The only difference noted was that patients without dermal discoloration had an average monopolar cautery setting of 46.8 W compared to 40.5 W for patients with dermal discolorations (P = 0.042). Of the 33 patients with a dermal discoloration, 27% (9/33) of these were on both the upper and lower extremities, 21% (7/33) on only the upper extremities, and 52% (17/33) on only the lower extremities. None of the dermal discolorations were painful or tender, and all resolved by 6-month follow-up. One patient did not have any dermal discoloration but did experience two full-thickness burns around the electrodes in one leg. The incidence of burns in this series was 0.5% (1/201). Dermal discolorations occurred in 16% of patients undergoing neuromonitoring for spine surgery. These common

  16. The relationship between dermal pesticide exposure by fruit harvesters and dislodgeable foliar residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, G; Leffingwell, J T; Popendorf, W

    1985-02-01

    Dermal pesticide exposure rates, expressed in mg/hr, by strawberry and blueberry harvesters and dislodgeable foliar pesticide residues were determined in 7 separate field experiments during 1981-1983 in California and Oregon. The pesticides which were studied included captan, vinclozolin, carbaryl, and methiocarb. A positive correlation between these two parameters was found and compared with literature values involving different pesticides and tree crops. The ratio between dermal exposure rate and dislodgeable foliar residues, the units of which are area/time, may have a possible use as an empirical factor for a first approximation of dermal exposure rates by fruit harvesters without the involvement of human subjects.

  17. Assessment of the dermal and ocular irritation potential of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by using in vitro and in vivo methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, A Sairam; Surekha, P; Murthy, P Balakrishna

    2009-12-15

    In view of increase in the manufacture of various nanomaterials runs the risk of increased human exposure, in vitro screening will serve as a preliminary method to assess possible risk in animal studies. We attempted to know whether the validated in vitro alternative models established for chemicals, drugs, pesticides are suitable for nanomaterials, since these materials differ largely and may interfere with commonly used test systems. In vitro and in vivo studies on ocular and dermal irritation were carried out with two different sizes of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The results of acute eye irritation toxicity studies with two different sizes of MWCNT in rabbits demonstrated reversible conjunctival redness and discharge and exhibited minimal concern while acute dermal irritation studies indicated that MWCNT of two sizes were non-irritant to the skin of rabbits. Both the sizes of MWCNT revealed non-irritant result in HE-CAM test. In vitro skin (EPISKIN) irritation studies revealed that two sizes of MWCNT are non-irritant to skin. In conclusion this work purports, the future of alternative research lies in the validation of the methodology for nanomaterials.

  18. 76 FR 62421 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; A Generic Submission for Theory Development and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Submission for Theory Development and Validation (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D... October 1, 1995, unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. Proposed Collection: Title: A Generic Submission for Theory Development and Validation (NCI). Type of Information Collection Request...

  19. Functional trade-off between strength and thermal capacity of dermal armor: Insights from girdled lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckhoven, Chris; du Plessis, Anton; Hui, Cang

    2017-10-01

    The presence of dermal armor is often unambiguously considered the result of an evolutionary predator-prey arms-race. Recent studies focusing predominantly on osteoderms - mineralized elements embedded in the dermis layer of various extant and extinct vertebrates - have instead proposed that dermal armor might exhibit additional functionalities besides protection. Multiple divergent functionalities could impose conflicting demands on a phenotype, yet, functional trade-offs in dermal armor have rarely been investigated. Here, we use high-resolution micro-computed tomography and voxel-based simulations to test for a trade-off between the strength and thermal capacity of osteoderms using two armored cordylid lizards as model organisms. We demonstrate that high vascularization, associated with improved thermal capacity might limit the strength of osteoderms. These results call for a holistic, cautionary future approach to studies investigating dermal armor, especially those aiming to inspire artificial protective materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro bioaccessibility of copper azole following simulated dermal transfer from pressure-treated wood

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro bioaccessibility of copper azole following simulated dermal transfer from pressure-treated wood. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  1. In vitro dermal absorption of decabromodiphenyl ethane in rat and human skin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro dermal absorption of decabromodiphenyl ethane in rat and human skin. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Knudsen, G., J.M. Sanders,...

  2. Dermal in vitro penetration of methiocarb, paclobutrazol, and pirimicarb: effect of nonylphenolethoxylate and protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J B; Andersen, H R

    2001-02-01

    Dermal exposure has become the major route of human occupational exposure to pesticides. Detergents are used as part of formulated pesticide products and are known to change the barrier properties of human skin in vitro. However, studies on the influence of detergents as well as protective glove materials on dermal penetration of pesticides are scarce. In an experiment using in vitro static diffusion cells mounted with human skin, we evaluated the effect of nonylphenol-ethoxylate on dermal penetration of three extensively used pesticides--methiocarb, paclobutrazol, and pirimicarb--and the protection against dermal penetration offered by protective gloves made of latex or nitrile. There was a general tendency, though not statistically significant for all pesticides, for nonylphenolethoxylate to decrease the percutaneous penetration of the three pesticides. The nitrile generally offered better protection against percutaneous penetration of pesticides than did latex, but the degree of protection decreased over time and depended on the pesticides used.

  3. Dermal In Vitro Penetration of Methiocarb, Paclobutrazol, and Pirimicarb: Effect of Nonylphenolethoxylate and Protective Gloves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jesper Bo Nielsen; Helle Raun Andersen

    2001-01-01

    .... In an experiment using in vitro static diffusion cells mounted with human skin, we evaluated the effect of nonylphenolethoxylate on dermal penetration of three extensively used pesticides-methiocarb...

  4. Osteopathia striata: a characteristic X-ray finding in focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz-Gorlin syndrome)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthels, W.; Boepple, D.; Petzel, H.

    1982-12-01

    Two cases of the very rare Goltz-Gorlin syndrome are presented. The relationship of osteopathia striata and focal dermal hypoplasia is discussed, and it is concluded that the osteopathia striata represents the characteristic picture of this ectopic mesodermal abnormality.

  5. Increased dermal mast cell prevalence and susceptibility to development of basal cell carcinoma in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Skov, Lone; Finlay-Jones, John J

    2002-01-01

    eliminate them. Studies in a range of inbred mouse strains as well as mast cell-depleted mice reconstituted with mast cell precursors support a functional link between histamine-staining dermal mast cells and the extent of susceptibility to UVB-induced systemic immunomodulation. Humans, like mouse strains......, display variations in dermal mast cell prevalence. In a study of Danish and South Australian BCC patients and control subjects, one 4-mm punch biopsy of non-sun-exposed buttock skin was sampled from each participant. This skin site was investigated to avoid any changes in mast cell prevalence caused...... by sun exposure. Two sections (4 microm) per biopsy were immunohistochemically stained for detection of histamine-containing dermal mast cells. Computer-generated image analysis evaluated dermal mast cell prevalence in both sections by quantifying the total number of mast cells according to the total...

  6. Dermal bone in early tetrapods: a palaeophysiological hypothesis of adaptation for terrestrial acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, Christine M; Devlin, Kelly; Warren, Daniel E; Witzmann, Florian

    2012-08-07

    The dermal bone sculpture of early, basal tetrapods of the Permo-Carboniferous is unlike the bone surface of any living vertebrate, and its function has long been obscure. Drawing from physiological studies of extant tetrapods, where dermal bone or other calcified tissues aid in regulating acid-base balance relating to hypercapnia (excess blood carbon dioxide) and/or lactate acidosis, we propose a similar function for these sculptured dermal bones in early tetrapods. Unlike the condition in modern reptiles, which experience hypercapnia when submerged in water, these animals would have experienced hypercapnia on land, owing to likely inefficient means of eliminating carbon dioxide. The different patterns of dermal bone sculpture in these tetrapods largely correlates with levels of terrestriality: sculpture is reduced or lost in stem amniotes that likely had the more efficient lung ventilation mode of costal aspiration, and in small-sized stem amphibians that would have been able to use the skin for gas exchange.

  7. Influence of ethylene oxide gas treatment on the in vitro degradation behaviour of dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; van Wachem, P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, Jan

    1995-01-01

    The influence of ethylene oxide gas treatment on the in vitro degradation behavior of noncrosslinked, glutaraldehyde crosslinked or hexamethylene diisocyanate crosslinked dermal sheep collagen (DSC) using bacterial collagenase is described. The results obtained were compared with the degradation

  8. Successful Reconstruction of Complex Pediatric Nasal Lesions: Improving Outcomes Using Dermal Regenerative Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorelei J. Grunwaldt, MD

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: The reconstruction of complex pediatric nasal lesions using dermal regenerative templates and full-thickness postauricular skin grafts is safe and effective, and associated with low morbidity and significant improvement in VACS scores.

  9. A Fibrocontractive Mechanochemical Model of Dermal Wound Closure Incorporating Realistic Growth Factor Kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Murphy, Kelly E.

    2012-01-13

    Fibroblasts and their activated phenotype, myofibroblasts, are the primary cell types involved in the contraction associated with dermal wound healing. Recent experimental evidence indicates that the transformation from fibroblasts to myofibroblasts involves two distinct processes: The cells are stimulated to change phenotype by the combined actions of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and mechanical tension. This observation indicates a need for a detailed exploration of the effect of the strong interactions between the mechanical changes and growth factors in dermal wound healing. We review the experimental findings in detail and develop a model of dermal wound healing that incorporates these phenomena. Our model includes the interactions between TGFβ and collagenase, providing a more biologically realistic form for the growth factor kinetics than those included in previous mechanochemical descriptions. A comparison is made between the model predictions and experimental data on human dermal wound healing and all the essential features are well matched. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  10. Potential dermal exposure during the painting process in car body repair shops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delgado, Pedro; Porcel, Juan; Abril, Isaac; Torres, Nuria; Terán, Antonio; Zugasti, Agurtzane

    2004-01-01

    The object of this study was to assess potential dermal exposure to the non-volatile fractions of paints based on studies assessing potential exposure during the painting process in car body repair...

  11. Experimental dermatological surgery: an animal model for developing skills with dermal fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boza, Juliana Catucci; Cunha, Vanessa Santos; de Andrade, Claudia Dickel; Palma Kuhl, Isabel Cristina

    2011-05-01

    The importance of laboratory experiments in the formation of physicians is well recognized since they facilitate scientific development and enhance technical skills. Dermal filling procedures are performed for the correction of wrinkles, rhytids, scars, and lipodystrophy. Till date, experimental models for the training of dermal filling techniques have not been studied. To demonstrate an experimental laboratory model for the training of dermal filling techniques in an animal model. The heads of pigs were used for this purpose, together with Carbopol gel at different densities, which was used to simulate the fillers available in the market. Needles and specific cannulas were used to apply the fillers into the creases and other areas of the pig skin. The pig head appears to be a suitable model for this training. Carbopol gel is a good choice for simulating fillers. This model of laboratory experiment requires a minimum of infrastructure; it is a low-cost alternative and facilitates practical training in the application of dermal fillers.

  12. Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease

    OpenAIRE

    Stricker, Raphael; Middelveen,Marianne; Mayne,Peter; Kahn,

    2013-01-01

    Marianne J Middelveen,1 Peter J Mayne,1 Douglas G Kahn,2 Raphael B Stricker11International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Olive View–UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, USAAbstract: Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either s...

  13. The potential dermal irritating effect of residual (meth)acrylic monomers in pressure sensitive adhesive tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumura, Fumio; Matsui, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Yasuko; Sado, Masashi; Taniguchi, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Kamiyama, Masashi; Suda, Shin; Nakamura, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Yuhiro; Yamori, Akira; Igarashi, Ryosuke; Kawai, Jun; Oka, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    It is generally thought that residual unpolymerized (meth)acrylic monomers commonly found in pressure sensitive adhesive tapes for medical use may cause dermal irritation, but a systematic study has never been carried out. Therefore, we assessed the potential dermal irritating effect of residual (meth)acrylic monomers. We studied seven acrylic monomers, acrylic acid (AA), methyl acrylate (MA), ethyl acrylate (EA), n-butyl acrylate (n-BA), n-hexyl acrylate (n-HA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), as well as three methacrylic monomers, methacrylic acid (MAA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA). We first examined their cytotoxic effect on a cultured dermis model using the MTT method to determine their EC(50) and then performed a primary irritation test in rabbits using the monomers at three different concentrations (i.e., EC(50) , one-tenth EC(50) and 10 times EC(50)). Marked variations were found in cytotoxic and dermal irritating activities among the (meth)acrylic monomers tested. HEA exhibited the most potent dermal irritation having the lowest erythema dose (the concentration which gives a primary dermal irritation index of 1.00) of 460 ppm. But the other monomers exhibited less potent dermal irritation (lowest erythema doses > or =1000 ppm). For the monomers, significant correlation was found between cytotoxic activity and in vivo dermal irritating activity. Our results show that residual unpolymerized (meth)acrylic monomers in adhesive tapes are unlikely to induce skin irritation except for HEA. This study also suggests that cultured skin models are extremely useful as a screening method for chemical substances that could potentially cause dermal irritating activity.

  14. Measurements of dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air and clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beko, G.; Morrison, G.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    In this preliminary study, we have investigated whether dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air or indirectly from clothing can be a meaningful exposure pathway. Two participants wearing only shorts and a third participant wearing clean cotton clothes were exposed to environmental tobacco smo...... was similar to 80 mu g. This study demonstrates meaningful dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air or from nicotine-exposed clothes. The findings are especially relevant for children in homes with smoking or vaping....

  15. Comparison of Calcium and Barium Microcapsules as Scaffolds in the Development of Artificial Dermal Papillae

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang; Lin, Changmin; Zeng, Yang; Li, Haihong; Cai, Bozhi; Huang, Keng; Yuan, Yanping; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate barium and calcium microcapsules as candidates for scaffolding in artificial dermal papilla. Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) were isolated and cultured by one-step collagenase treatment. The DPC-Ba and DPC-Ca microcapsules were prepared by using a specially designed, high-voltage, electric-field droplet generator. Selected microcapsules were assessed for long-term inductive properties with xenotransplantation into Sprague-Dawley rat ears. Both barium and c...

  16. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in visceral leishmaniasis-endemic communities in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rudra Pratap; Picado, Albert; Alam, Shahnawaz; Hasker, Epco; Singh, Shri Prakash; Ostyn, Bart; Chappuis, François; Sundar, Shyam; Boelaert, Marleen

    2012-11-01

    We assessed the prevalence of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a late cutaneous manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in 16 VL-endemic communities in Bihar, India. The prevalence of confirmed PKDL cases was 4.4 per 10 000 individuals and 7.8 if probable cases were also considered. The clinical history and treatment of the post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis cases are discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Sexual dimorphisms in the dermal denticles of thelesser-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Crooks; Lucy Babey; Haddon, William J.; Love, Adrian C.; Waring, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the f...

  18. Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Jankowska; Sławomir Czerczak; Małgorzata Kupczewska-Dobecka

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the princip...

  19. Laser-induced transepidermal elimination of dermal content by fractional photothermolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantash, Basil M.; Bedi, Vikramaditya P.; Sudireddy, Vasanthi; Struck, Steven K.; Herron, G. Scott; Chan, Kin Foong

    2006-07-01

    The wound healing process in skin is studied in human subjects treated with fractional photothermolysis. In-vivo histological evaluation of vacuoles formed over microthermal zones (MTZs) and their content is undertaken. A 30-W, 1550-nm single-mode fiber laser system delivers an array of 60 µm or 140 µm 1/e2 incidence microbeam spot size at variable pulse energy and density. Treatments span from 6 to 20 mJ with skin excisions performed 1-day post-treatment. Staining with hematoxylin and eosin demonstrates an intact stratum corneum with vacuolar formation within the epidermis. The re-epithelialization process with repopulation of melanocytes and keratinocytes at the basal layer is apparent by 1-day post-treatment. The dermal-epidermal (DE) junction is weakened and separated just above zones of dermal coagulation. Complete loss of dermal cell viability is noted within the confines of the MTZs 1-day post-treatment, as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase. All cells falling outside the irradiation field remain viable. Content within the epidermal vacuoles stain positively with Gomori trichrome, suggesting a dermal origin. However, the positive staining could be due to loss of specificity after thermal alteration. Nevertheless, this dermal extrusion hypothesis is supported by very specific positive staining with an antihuman elastin antibody. Fractional photothermolysis creates microthermal lesions that allow transport and extrusion of dermal content through a compromised DE junction. Some dermal material is incorporated into the microepidermal necrotic debris and shuttled up the epidermis to eventually be exfoliated through the stratum corneum. This is the first report of a nonablative laser-induced transport mechanism by which dermal content can be predictably extruded biologically through the epidermis. Thus, treatment with the 1550-nm fiber laser may provide the first therapeutic option for clinical indications, including pigmentary disorders such as medically

  20. Daily Serum Collection after Acellular Dermal Matrix-Assisted Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Giorgia Caputo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe acellular dermal matrix (ADM-assisted breast reconstruction technique is widely known, but discouraging results due to early postoperative complications have been reported. As the literature identifies seroma as the most common issue after breast surgery without identifying its pathogenesis, we aimed to report the trend of postoperative daily serum collection after ADM-assisted breast reconstruction and compare it with data in the literature in order to discover more about this little-known topic.MethodsA retrospective study on 28 consecutive patients who received ADM-assisted breast reconstruction between February 2013 and February 2014 was performed. In order to reduce the number of variables that could affect serum production, only one brand of ADM was used and all tissues were handled gently and precisely. The daily drainage volume was recorded per patient during the first four days of hospitalization. Likewise, postoperative complications were noted during routine follow-up.ResultsIn total, five (17.9% bilateral and 23 (82.1% unilateral ADM-assisted breast reconstructions (33 implants were performed. The mean age, body mass index, and length of hospital stay were 53.6 years, 21.3 kg/m2, and 4.5 days, respectively. One major complication led to implant loss (3.0%, and nine minor complications were successfully treated with ambulatory surgery (27.3%. Serum collection linearly decreased after 24 hours postoperatively.ConclusionsDaily drainage decreased following the theoretical decline of acute inflammation. In concordance with the literature, daily serum production may not be related to the use of ADM.

  1. The application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, W. Z.; Xu, A. E.; Xu, J.; Bi, Z. G.; Shang, Y. B.; Ren, Q. S.

    2010-08-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) allows noninvasive visualization of human skin in vivo, without needing to fix or section the tissue. Melanocytes and pigmented keratinocytes at the level of the basal layer form bright dermal papillary rings which are readily amenable to identify in confocal images. Our purpose was to explore the role of dermal papillary rings in assessment of lesion location, the diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. Seventy-one patients were imaged with the VivaScope 1500 reflectance confocal microscope provided by Lucid, Inc. The results indicate that dermal papillary rings can assess the location of lesion; the application of dermal papillary rings can provide diagnostic support and differential diagnosis for vitiligo, nevus depigmentosus, tinea versicolor, halo nevus, common nevi, and assess the therapeutic efficacy of NBUVB phototherapy plus topical 0.1 percent tacrolimus ointment for vitiligo. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the dermal papillary rings play an important role in the assessment the location of lesion, diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. CLSM may be a promising tool for noninvasive examination in dermatology. However, larger studies are needed to expand the application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology.

  2. In vitro Dermal Absorption of Hydroquinone: Protocol Validation and Applicability on Illegal Skin-Whitening Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, Bart; Ates, Gamze; Courselle, Patricia; De Beer, Jacques O; Rogiers, Vera; Hendrickx, Benoit; Deconinck, Eric; De Paepe, Kristien

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, hydroquinone is a forbidden cosmetic ingredient. It is, however, still abundantly used because of its effective skin-whitening properties. The question arises as to whether the quantities of hydroquinone used become systemically available and may cause damage to human health. Dermal absorption studies can provide this information. In the EU, dermal absorption has to be assessed in vitro since the Cosmetic Regulation 1223/2009/EC forbids the use of animals. To obtain human-relevant data, a Franz diffusion cell protocol was validated using human skin. The results obtained were comparable to those from a multicentre validation study. The protocol was applied to hydroquinone and the dermal absorption ranged between 31 and 44%, which is within the range of published in vivo human values. This shows that a well-validated in vitro dermal absorption study using human skin provides relevant human data. The validated protocol was used to determine the dermal absorption of illegal skin-whitening cosmetics containing hydroquinone. All samples gave high dermal absorption values, rendering them all unsafe for human health. These results add to our knowledge of illegal cosmetics on the EU market, namely that they exhibit a negative toxicological profile and are likely to induce health problems. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Wang, Mingbo [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); She, Zhending [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China); Fan, Kunwu; Xu, Cheng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Chu, Bin; Chen, Changsheng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shi, Shengjun, E-mail: shengjunshi@yahoo.com [The Burns Department of Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280 (China); Tan, Rongwei, E-mail: tanrw@landobiom.com [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  4. Optical coherence tomography for image-guided dermal filler injection and biomechanical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manmohan; Wang, Shang; Yee, Richard W.; Han, Zhaolong; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2017-02-01

    Dermal fillers are a very popular anti-ag ing treatment with estimated sales in the billions of dollars and millions of procedures performed. As the aging population continues to grow, these figures are only e xpected to increase. Dermal fillers have various compositions depending on their intended applicati on. Reactions to dermal fillers can be severe, such as ischemic events and filler migration to the eyes. Howe ver, these adverse reactions are rare. Nevertheless, the capability to perform imag e-guided filler injections would minimize th e risk of such reacti ons. In addition, the biomechanical properties of various fillers have been evalua ted, but there has been no investigation on the effects of filler on the biomechanical properties of skin. In this work, we utilize optical cohe rence tomography (OCT) for visualizing dermal filler injections with micrometer-scale sp atial resolution. In addition, we utilize noncontact optical coherence elastography (OCE) to quantify the changes in the biomechan ical properties of pig skin after the dermal filler injections. OCT was successfully able to visualize the dermal filler injecti on process, and OCE showed that the viscoelasticity of the pig skin was increased locally at the filler injection sites. OCT may be able to provide real-time image guidance in 3D, and when combined with functional OCT techniques such as optical microangiography, could be used to avoid blood vessels during the injection.

  5. Sexual dimorphisms in the dermal denticles of the lesser-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Crooks

    Full Text Available The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female's pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle. No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle. Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process.

  6. Human dermal exposure to galaxolide from personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, P; Cruz, A; Santos, L; Alves, A

    2013-06-01

    Musks are synthetic fragrances applied on personal care and household products as fixatives, by retarding the release of other fragrances with higher volatility. Galaxolide is the most used polycyclic musk since the 90th decade, and it has been detected in several environmental and biological matrices, particularly in human tissues and fluids. For exposure assessment purposes, large-monitoring data need to be obtained and rapid but reliable analytical techniques are requested. The main objective of this study is to develop and validate a new and fast analytical methodology to quantify galaxolide in personal care products and to apply this method to real matrices like skin care products (creams and lotions), shower products (soap bar), hair care products (shampoo and hair conditioner) and oral care products (toothpaste), to evaluate the human dermal exposure risk. A dispersive solid-phase extraction is proposed, using QuEChERS methodology, followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Some extraction parameters were studied, like the ratio of sample/solvent amounts, the homogenization time, the salt addition effect and the used sorbents. The validation parameters of the developed method were the following: a linearity range of 0.005-1.002 mg kg⁻¹ sample, a limit of detection of 0.001 mg kg⁻¹ sample, repeatability between 0.7% and 11.3% (variation coefficient of six standard injections), an intermediate precision of 2.5% (variation coefficient of six independent analysis of the same sample), mean recoveries ranging from 65% (soap bar) to 95% (body cream) and 3% of global uncertainty in most of the working range. The time of analysis, including the extraction steps, is 60 min, allowing a throughput of 4 samples h⁻¹ . Galaxolide was detected in all of the seven analysed products in concentrations ranging from 0.04 ± 0.01 mg kg⁻¹ sample (toothpaste) to 280.78 ± 8.19 mg kg⁻¹ sample (perfumed body cream), which may correspond to a significant estimated

  7. Nanoparticles: a closer look at their dermal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choksi, Adrienne N; Poonawalla, Tasneem; Wilkerson, Michael G

    2010-05-01

    Nano-sized particles represent a unique class of materials with novel physiochemical properties due to increased surface area. Many sunscreens and cosmetics are now using nano-sized titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, which avoids the white, chalky appearance of the older preparations. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that nano-sized titanium dioxide is not a new ingredient, but a specific grade of the original product, recent studies suggest that nanomaterials products may not be equivalent to their respective bulk-form products, and the adverse effects of nanoparticles cannot be reliably predicted from the properties of the material in bulk form. Nanoparticles are incorporated into a variety of skin care products, and in the future may be useful as transdermal drug delivery devices. Thus, understanding potential epidermal and dermal penetration, as well as possible toxicity, is important to the field of dermatology. The authors present a review of the therapeutic applications and potential toxicity of nanoparticles relevant to the field of dermatology thus far.

  8. Characterization and biocompatibility of epoxy-crosslinked dermal sheep collagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wachem, P B; Zeeman, R; Dijkstra, P J; Feijen, J; Hendriks, M; Cahalan, P T; van Luyn, M J

    1999-11-01

    Dermal sheep collagen (DSC), which was crosslinked with 1, 4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BD) by using four different conditions, was characterized and its biocompatibility was evaluated after subcutaneous implantation in rats. Crosslinking at pH 9.0 (BD90) or with successive epoxy and carbodiimide steps (BD45EN) resulted in a large increase in the shrinkage temperature (T(s)) in combination with a clear reduction in amines. Crosslinking at pH 4.5 (BD45) increased the T(s) of the material but hardly reduced the number of amines. Acylation (BD45HAc) showed the largest reduction in amines in combination with the lowest T(s). An evaluation of the implants showed that BD45, BD90, and BD45EN were biocompatible. A high influx of polymorphonuclear cells and macrophages was observed for BD45HAc, but this subsided at day 5. At week 6 the BD45 had completely degraded and BD45HAc was remarkably reduced in size, while BD45EN showed a clear size reduction of the outer DSC bundles; BD90 showed none of these features. This agreed with the observed degree of macrophage accumulation and giant cell formation. None of the materials calcified. For the purpose of soft tissue replacement, BD90 was defined as the material of choice because it combined biocompatibility, low cellular ingrowth, low biodegradation, and the absence of calcification with fibroblast ingrowth and new collagen formation. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Pleomorphic dermal sarcoma: a more aggressive neoplasm than previously estimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardío, Juan C; Pinedo, Fernando; Aramburu, José A; Suárez-Massa, Dolores; Pampín, Ana; Requena, Luis; Santonja, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Pleomorphic dermal sarcoma (PDS) is a rare neoplasm sharing pathological features with atypical fibroxanthoma, but adding tumor necrosis, invasion beyond superficial subcutis or vascular or perineural infiltration. Although its metastatic risk has been estimated to be less than 5%, its real outcome is presently uncertain because of its rarity and to the lack of homogeneous criteria used in reported cases. Retrospective clinicopathological study of 18 cases of PDS. The lesions presented as tumors or plaques (size: 7-70 mm) on the head of elderly patients (median: 81 years), without a gender predominance. Histopathologically, they consisted of spindle cells arranged in a fascicular pattern, containing pleomorphic epithelioid and giant multinucleated cells in varying proportions, and usually exhibiting numerous mitotic figures and infiltrative tumor margins. No immunoexpression for cytokeratins, S100 protein, desmin or CD34 was observed. Necrosis and venous invasion were found in three tumors each (17%). Follow-up was available in 15 cases (median: 33 months). Three patients (20%) had local recurrences, all with incomplete primary surgical resections. Three patients (20%) developed distant metastases in the skin, regional lymph nodes and/or lungs and died from the disease. Our data suggest that PDS may be a more aggressive neoplasm than previously estimated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Dermal lymphatic dilation in a mouse model of alopecia areata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, John P.; Pratt, C. Herbert; Silva, Kathleen A.; Kennedy, Victoria E.; Stearns, Timothy; Sundberg, Beth A.; King, Lloyd E.; HogenEsch, Harm

    2016-01-01

    Mouse models of various types of inflammatory skin disease are often accompanied by increased dermal angiogenesis. The C3H/HeJ inbred strain spontaneously develops alopecia areata (AA), a cell mediated autoimmune disorder that can be controllably expanded using full thickness skin grafts to young unaffected mice. This provides a reproducible and progressive model for AA in which the vascularization of the skin can be examined. Mice receiving skin grafts from AA or normal mice were evaluated at 5, 10, 15, and 20 weeks after engraftment. Lymphatics are often overlooked as they are small slit-like structures above the hair follicle that resemble artifact-like separation of collagen bundles with some fixatives. Lymphatics are easily detected using lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1) by immunohistochemistry to label their endothelial cells. Using LYVE1, there were no changes in distribution or numbers of lymphatics although they were more prominent (dilated) in the mice with AA. Lyve1 transcripts were not significantly upregulated except at 10 weeks after skin grafting when clinical signs of AA first become apparent. Other genes involved with vascular growth and dilation or movement of immune cells were dysregulated, mostly upregulated. These findings emphasize aspects of AA not commonly considered and provide potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26960166

  11. Options in Acellular Dermal Matrix-Device Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalove, Steven

    2017-12-01

    Prepectoral prosthetic breast reconstruction has become increasingly popular during the last several years. Original shortcomings and poor outcomes in the 1970s have been overcome with the use of the bioengineered breast concept-namely, use of improved form stable breast implants, autologous fat grafting, and acellular dermal matrices (ADMs). Careful use of these reconstructive tools combined with improved mastectomy skin flaps has lead to successful early outcomes. Prepectoral breast reconstruction mitigates the animation deformities and muscle tightness previously associated with dual-plane prosthetic breast reconstruction while at the same time producing reproducible and outstanding aesthetic outcomes. The use of ADM is a critical component to performing prepectoral breast reconstruction. There are many techniques utilized to inset the ADM. Various methods of direct in vivo inset have been performed. These techniques are employed following completion of the mastectomy and are performed with both 2-stage as well as single-stage direct-to-implant reconstruction. Various ex vivo techniques have also been used for prepectoral breast reconstruction. Various prefabricated constructs of ADM and implant/tissue expander can be created on the back table while the mastectomy is in progress, which decreases operative time and improves surgical efficiency. This article will describe briefly the history of prepectoral reconstruction as well as describing the various techniques used for creating the ADM-device interphase.

  12. Nurses with dermal exposure to antineoplastic drugs: reproductive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransman, Wouter; Roeleveld, Nel; Peelen, Susan; de Kort, Wim; Kromhout, Hans; Heederik, Dick

    2007-01-01

    Nurses and other hospital workers are exposed to antineoplastic drugs during daily activities. Previous studies suggest that antineoplastic drugs at occupational exposure levels may be toxic to reproduction, but these studies are not consistent or conclusive. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 4393 exposed and nonexposed nurses employed between 1990 and 1997 (79% response). Questions were asked about pregnancy outcome, work-related exposures, and lifestyle. Exposure to antineoplastic drugs was estimated using task-based dermal exposure measurements and self-reported task frequencies. Time to pregnancy was modeled using survival analysis, and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for other reproductive outcomes using multiple logistic regression analysis. Associations were further explored by nonparametric regression modeling. Nurses highly exposed to antineoplastic drugs took longer to conceive than referent nurses (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.8; CI = 0.6-0.9). Exposure to antineoplastic drugs was associated with premature delivery (OR per unit increase in ln[exposure] = 1.08; CI = 1.00-1.17) and low birth weight (OR per unit increase in ln[exposure] = 1.11; 1.01-1.21). Penalized smoothed spline plots corroborated these log-linear relations. Spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, congenital anomalies, and sex of offspring appeared not to be related to exposure to antineoplastic drugs. Antineoplastic drugs may reduce fertility and increase poor neonatal outcomes among occupationally exposed oncology nurses.

  13. Misdiagnosis and Mistreatment of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed El Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is a known complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL caused by L. donovani. It is rare in VL caused by L. infantum and L. chagasi. In Sudan, it occurs with a frequency of 58% among successfully treated VL patients. In the majority of cases, PKDL can be diagnosed on the basis of clinical appearance, distribution of the lesions, and past history of treated VL. The ideal diagnostic method is to demonstrate the parasite in smears, by culture or PCR. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in patients who develop PKDL in the absence of previous history of visceral leishmaniasis. We describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis misdiagnosed as PKDL and 3 cases of PKDL who were either misdiagnosed or mistreated as other dermatoses. This caused exacerbation of their disease leading to high parasite loads in the lesions and dissemination to internal organs in one of the patients, who was also diabetic. The latter patient had L. major infection. A fourth patient with papulonodular lesions on the face and arms of 17-year duration and who was misdiagnosed as having PKDL is also described. He turned out to have cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major. Fortunately, he was not treated with steroids. He was cured with intravenous sodium stibogluconate.

  14. Vitamin D status in Greenland – dermal and dietary donations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vitamin D status influences skeletal health, the risk of falls and fractures, and muscle health, and it has been associated with inflammatory, infectious, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in addition to some cancers. Prevailing intracellular infections such as tuberculosis are speculated to relate to vitamin D status. The vitamin D sources are dietary and dermal, the latter depending on UVB radiation exposure from the sun. Life in the Arctic influences vitamin D status because of dietary peculiarities, the polar night, waning of the ozone layer and maybe ethnic differences between Inuit and non-Inuit. Objective and design. Data on vitamin D status as estimated by plasma 25OHD in Inuit and non-Inuit in Greenland are reviewed. Results. Decreasing intake of vitamin D-rich local food items associated with decreasing plasma 25OHD levels and insufficient vitamin D status is seen with low intake of traditional Inuit foods. Plasma 25OHD levels increase markedly during spring and summer in parallel with the high influx of sunlight while plasma 25OHD is not influenced by obesity in Greenland Inuit and no clear-cut association is seen between plasma 25OHD and the risk of tuberculosis. Conclusion. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency in populations in Greenland rises with the dietary transition and diseases related to low vitamin D status should be monitored.

  15. Optical coherence tomography: imaging architect for dermal microdialysis in psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M.-L.; O'Connor, W.; Ramsay, B.; Guihen, E.; Ho, W. L.; Leahy, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used as part of a ground breaking translational study to shed some light on one of the worlds most prevalent autoimmune diseases; psoriasis. The work successfully integrates the fields of optical imaging, biochemistry and dermatology in conducting a dermal microdialysis (DMD) trial for quantitative histamine assessment amongst a group of psoriasis sufferers. The DMD process involves temporary insertion of microscopic hollow tubes into a layer of skin to measure the levels of histamine and other important biological molecules in psoriasis. For comparison purposes, DMD catheters were implanted into healthy, peri-lesional and lesional skin regions. The catheters' entry and exit points and their precise locations in the epidermal layer of the skin were confirmed using OCT thus obtaining high resolution, wide-field images of the affected skin as well as catheter placement whilst local microdialysis enabled a tissue chemistry profile to be obtained from these three skin regions including histamine, a local immune system activator known to contribute towards itch and inflammation. Together these tools offer a synergistic approach in the clinical assessment of the disease. In addition, OCT delivered a non-invasive and rapid method for analyzing the affected skin architecture.

  16. Occular and dermal toxicity of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Roach, Joy S; Makkar, Harinder P S; Becker, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds are a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. However, Jatropha seed oil and other plant parts are toxic due to the presence of phorbol esters (PEs). The ever-increasing cultivation of toxic genotype of J. curcas runs the risk of increased human exposure to Jatropha products. In the present study, effects of J. curcas oil (from both toxic and nontoxic genotypes), purified PEs-rich extract and purified PEs (factors C1, C2, C(3mixture), (C4+C5)) on reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) and human corneal epithelium (HCE) were evaluated in vitro. The PEs were purified from toxic Jatropha oil. In both RHE and HCE, the topical application of PEs containing samples produced severe cellular alterations such as marked oedema, presence of less viable cell layers, necrosis and/or partial tissue disintegration in epithelium and increased inflammatory response (interleukin-1α and prostaglandin E2). When compared to toxic oil, histological alterations and inflammatory response were less evident (PJatropha PEs are toxic towards RHE and HCE models, which represents dermal and occular toxicity respectively. Data obtained from this study would aid in the development of safety procedures for Jatropha biodiesel industries. It is advised to use protective gloves and glasses when handling PEs containing Jatropha products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of blue light irradiation on human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opländer, Christian; Hidding, Sarah; Werners, Frauke B; Born, Matthias; Pallua, Norbert; Suschek, Christoph V

    2011-05-03

    Previous studies have reported that separately from UV-radiation also blue light influences cellular physiology in different cell types. However, little is known about the blue light action spectrum. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of blue light at distinct wavelengths (410, 420, 453, 480 nm) emitted by well defined light-emitting-diodes on viability, proliferation and antioxidative capacity of human dermal fibroblasts. We found that irradiation with blue light (410, 420 nm) led to intracellular oxidative stress and toxic effects in a dose and wavelength dependent manner. No toxicity was observed using light at 453 nm and 480 nm. Furthermore, blue light (410, 420, 453 nm) at low doses reduced the antioxidative capacity of fibroblasts. At non-toxic doses, irradiations at 410, 420 and 453 nm reduced proliferation indicating a higher susceptibility of proliferating fibroblasts to blue light. Our results show that blue light at different wavelengths may induce varying degrees of intracellular oxidative stress with different physiological outcome, which could contribute to premature skin photoaging. On the other hand, the use of blue light due to its antiproliferative and toxic properties may represent a new approach in treatment and prevention of keloids, hypertrophic scars and fibrotic skin diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identifying multiple submissions in Internet research: preserving data integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Anne M; Daniel, Candice M; Williams, Mark L; Baird, Grayson L

    2008-11-01

    Internet-based sexuality research with hidden populations has become increasingly popular. Respondent anonymity may encourage participation and lower social desirability, but associated disinhibition may promote multiple submissions, especially when incentives are offered. The goal of this study was to identify the usefulness of different variables for detecting multiple submissions from repeat responders and to explore incentive effects. The data included 1,900 submissions from a three-session Internet intervention with a pretest and three post-test questionnaires. Participants were men who have sex with men and incentives were offered to rural participants for completing each questionnaire. The final number of submissions included 1,273 "unique", 132 first submissions by "repeat responders" and 495 additional submissions by the "repeat responders" (N = 1,900). Four categories of repeat responders were identified: "infrequent" (2-5 submissions), "persistent" (6-10 submissions), "very persistent" (11-30 submissions), and "hackers" (more than 30 submissions). Internet Provider (IP) addresses, user names, and passwords were the most useful for identifying "infrequent" repeat responders. "Hackers" often varied their IP address and identifying information to prevent easy identification, but investigating the data for small variations in IP, using reverse telephone look up, and patterns across usernames and passwords were helpful. Incentives appeared to play a role in stimulating multiple submissions, especially from the more sophisticated "hackers". Finally, the web is ever evolving and it will be necessary to have good programmers and staff who evolve as fast as "hackers".

  19. Dermis, acellular dermal matrix, and fibroblasts from different layers of pig skin exhibit different profibrotic characteristics: evidence from in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yanhai; Lu, Shuliang

    2017-04-04

    To explore the profibrotic characteristics of the autografted dermis, acellular dermal matrix, and dermal fibroblasts from superficial/deep layers of pig skin, 93 wounds were established on the dorsa of 7 pigs. 72 wounds autografted with the superficial/deep dermis and acellular dermal matrix served as the superficial/deep dermis and acellular dermal matrix group, respectively, and were sampled at 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-wounding. 21 wounds autografted with/without superficial/deep dermal fibroblasts served as the superficial/deep dermal fibroblast group and the control group, respectively, and were sampled at 2 weeks post-wounding. The hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that the wounded skin thicknesses in the deep dermis group (superficial acellular dermal matrix group) were significantly greater than those in the superficial dermis group (deep acellular dermal matrix group) at each time point, the thickness of the cutting plane in the deep dermal fibroblast group was significantly greater than that in the superficial dermal fibroblast group and the control group. The western blots showed that the α-smooth muscle actin expression in the deep dermis group (superficial acellular dermal matrix group) was significantly greater than that in the superficial dermis group (deep acellular dermal matrix group) at each time point. In summary, the deep dermis and dermal fibroblasts exhibited more profibrotic characteristics than the superficial ones, on the contrary, the deep acellular dermal matrix exhibited less profibrotic characteristics than the superficial one.

  20. Ergonomics SA publishing requirements and submission guidelines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rhodes

    coughing (39.4%), difficulty with breathing (15.6%), breathlessness (14.9%) and having pulmonary secretions ... health hazards such as increased mortality, dermal contamination, depression in cholinesterase level .... percent of those interviewed reported that they allow their wives or children to wash their clothes used ...

  1. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people ...

  2. SIRT-1 regulates TGF-β-induced dermal fibroblast migration via modulation of Cyr61 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eun-Jeong; Park, Eun-Jung; Yu, Hyeran; Huh, Jung-Sik; Kim, Jinseok; Cho, Moonjae

    2017-07-27

    SIRT1 is a NAD-dependent protein deacetylase that participates in cellular regulation. The increased migration of fibroblasts is an important phenotype in fibroblast activation. The role of SIRT1 in cell migration remains controversial as to whether SIRT1 acts as an activator or suppressor of cell migration. Therefore, we have established the role of SIRT1 in the migration of human dermal fibroblasts and explored targets of SIRT1 during dermal fibroblast migration. SIRT1 and Cyr61 were expressed in human dermal fibroblasts and the stimulation with TGF-β further induced their expression. Treatment with resveratrol (RSV), a SIRT1 agonist, or overexpression of SIRT1 also promoted the expression Cyr61 in human dermal fibroblasts, whereas the inhibition of SIRT1 activity by nicotinamide or knockdown of SIRT1 decreased the level of Cyr61, as well as TGF-β or RSV-induced Cyr61 expression. Blocking of ERK signaling by PD98509 reduced the expression of Cyr61 induced by TGF-β or RSV. TGF-β, RSV, or SIRT1 overexpression enhanced β-catenin as well as Cyr61 expression. This stimulation was reduced by the Wnt inhibitor XAV939. RSV increased migration and nicotinamide attenuated RSV-induced migration of human dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, SIRT1 overexpression promoted cell migration, whereas blocking Cyr61 attenuated SIRT1-stimulated migration of human dermal fibroblasts. SIRT1 increased cell migration by stimulating Cyr61 expression and the ERK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. SIRT1-induced Cyr61 activity is very important for human dermal fibroblasts migration.

  3. High-throughput assay for bacterial adhesion on acellular dermal matrices and synthetic surgical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyame, Theodore T; Lemon, Katherine P; Kolter, Roberto; Liao, Eric C

    2011-11-01

    There has been increasing use of synthetic and acellular dermal matrix materials in surgery, ranging from breast reconstruction to hernia repairs. There is a paucity of data on how acellular dermal matrix compares with other surgical materials as a substrate for bacterial adhesion, the first step in formation biofilm, which occurs in prosthetic wound infections. The authors have designed a high-throughput assay to evaluate Staphylococcus aureus adherence on various synthetic and biologically derived materials. Clinical isolates of S. aureus (strains SC-1 and UAMS-1) were cultured with different materials, and bacterial adherence was measured using a resazurin cell vitality assay. Four materials that are commonly used in surgery were evaluated: Prolene mesh, Vicryl mesh, and two different acellular dermal matrix preparations (AlloDerm and FlexHD). The authors were able to develop a high-throughput and reliable assay for quantifying bacterial adhesion on synthetic and biologically derived materials. The resazurin vitality assay can be reliably used to quantify bacterial adherence to acellular dermal matrix material and synthetic material. S. aureus strains SC-1 and UAMS-1 both adhered better to acellular dermal matrix materials (AlloDerm versus FlexHD) than to the synthetic material Prolene. S. aureus also adhered better to Vicryl than to Prolene. Strain UAMS-1 adhered better to Vicryl and acellular dermal matrix materials than did strain SC-1. The results show that S. aureus adheres more readily to acellular dermal matrix material than to synthetic material. The resazurin assay provides a standard method for evaluating surgical materials with regard to bacterial adherence and potential propensity for biofilm development.

  4. Hydrocortisone effect on hyaluronate synthesis in a self-assembled human dermal equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Madhura; Papp, Suzanne; Schaffer, Lana; Pouyani, Tara

    2016-10-01

    Human dermal matrix is a 'self-assembled' dermal equivalent containing large amounts of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid (hyaluronate, hyaluronan, HA). We sought to investigate the actions of the hormone hydrocortisone on hyaluronate synthesis in the human dermal matrix. To this end, human dermal fibroblasts were cultured under serum-free conditions, and in the absence of a three-dimensional matrix, in the presence of varying amounts of hydrocortisone. The resultant human dermal matrices were characterized. We report that low concentrations of hydrocortisone enhance hyaluronate synthesis in the human dermal equivalent and higher concentrations cause inhibition of hyaluronate synthesis. Other glycosaminoglycan (chondroitin sulphate) synthesis is not affected by changing hydrocortisone concentrations up to 500× (200 µg/ml) of the base value. In order to gain preliminary insight into the molecular mechanism of hyaluronate inhibition, a differential gene array analysis was conducted of human dermal matrix grown in the presence of 200 µg/ml hydrocortisone and in a physiological concentration (0.4 µg/ml, normal conditions). The results of these experiments demonstrate the differential expression of 43 genes in the 500× (200 µg/ml) hydrocortisone construct as compared to the construct grown under normal conditions (0.4 µg/ml hydrocortisone). These preliminary experiments suggest that hydrocortisone at higher concentrations may exert its inhibitory effect on hyaluronate synthesis early in the glycolytic pathway, leading to HA biosynthesis by downregulation of phosphoglucomutase and glucose phosphate isomerase, possibly leading to depletion of the cellular pool of UDP-sugar precursors necessary for HA synthesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Direct correlation between diffusion of Loxosceles reclusa venom and extent of dermal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, H F; Greenfield, D M; Miller, M J; Warren, J S

    2001-04-01

    Envenomation by Loxosceles species (brown recluse) spiders results in large dermal inflammatory lesions. Venom-induced dermal inflammation occurs indirectly via soluble mediators of inflammation. This study aimed to explore whether the anatomic extent of dermonecrotic arachnidism is due to the cascade of soluble proinflammatory mediators elicited by venom deposited at the bite site, or due to diffusion of the venom per se. Three New Zealand white rabbits received intradermal L. reclusa venom (3-microg) injections in the flank. At the time of maximum dermal inflammation (24 hr), paired 4-mm dermal biopsies were obtained in 2-cm intervals extending 0 to 12 cm from the inoculation site. Normal dermal tissue was obtained from the opposite flank to serve as a negative control. One biopsy sample from each interval was homogenized and assayed for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and for the presence of venom via an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The other paired dermal biopsy was sectioned, and examined for the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) by microscopy. Lesional areas were measured using digital images imported into imaging software. Mean +/- SD lesional diameter 24 hours post inoculation measured 9.18 +/- 0.64 cm. Venom was detected in biopsies 0 to 10 cm from the injection site. As expected, the highest venom concentrations were measured at the inoculation site (4.28 +/- 3.9 ng/4 mm). In addition, PMNs and MPO were detected up to 8 and 10 cm from the inoculation site, respectively. Neither PMNs nor MPO was detected in tissue absent of venom (kappa = 0.88, p Loxosceles venom diffuses from the envenomation site. The extent of dermal inflammation mirrors the extent of Loxosceles venom diffusion. This observation implies that the venom itself defines the extent and magnitude of tissue injury following Loxosceles envenomation.

  6. Establishment of banking system for allogeneic cultured dermal substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu; Kubo, Kentaro; Matsui, Hiromich; Kim, Hyun Jung; Numari, Shinichiro; Mabuchi, Yho; Kagawa, Shizuko

    2004-01-01

    Allogeneic cultured dermal substitute (CDS) was prepared by culturing fibroblasts on a two-layered spongy matrix of hyaluronic acid (HA) and atelo-collagen (Col). Allogeneic CDS can be cryopreserved and transported to other hospitals in a frozen state. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, keratinocytes growth factor (KGF), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 were contained in the culture medium which was used in preparing CDS over a cultivation period of one week (fresh CDS culture medium sample). After thawing a cryopreserved CDS, the CDS was recultured in a culture medium for one week. VEGF, bFGF, HGF, TGF-beta1 and IL-8 were contained in the culture medium which was used in reculturing CDS for one week (cryopreserved CDS culture medium sample), although some cytokines were detected at a lower level than those before freezing. This finding suggests that the cryopreserved CDS retains its ability to release these cytokines. Clinical research on allogeneic CDS, which was newly developed at the R & D Center for Artificial Skin of Kitasato University, has been carried out in medical centers across Japan with the support of the Millennium Project of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. It was demonstrated that the allogeneic CDS functions as an excellent cell therapy for intractable skin ulcers as well as burn injuries. The spongy matrix itself, as well as the cytokines released from the allogeneic CDS, seemed to be beneficial for the treatment of intractable skin defect.

  7. Comparison study of acellular dermal matrices in complicated hernia surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, Grant V; De Castro, Gerard P; Bochicchio, Kelly M; Weeks, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Scalea, Thomas M

    2013-10-01

    Damage control surgery and management of the open abdomen has led to a significant improvement in survival in trauma and emergency surgical patients. However, subsequent abdominal reconstruction has become a significant challenge. The objective of this study was to compare 2 different acellular dermal matrices in regard to hernia recurrence and complications in patients who present with a large complicated ventral hernia as a result of trauma or emergency surgery. A prospective quasi-experimental time-interrupted series design was used to evaluate the incidence of hernia recurrence in trauma/emergency surgery patients who had a ventral hernia repair with a biologic matrix. From January 2005 to December 2007, 55 patients with a complicated ventral hernia were repaired with AlloDerm (Life Cell Corporation). Beginning in February 2008 to January 2010, 40 patients with the same criteria were repaired with FlexHD (Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation) and followed prospectively over the following year. The primary outcome for this study was hernia recurrence (functional or real) at 1 year. Other outcomes variables included abdominal laxity, seroma formation, and wound or intra-abdominal infection. There was no significant difference in age, sex, and body mass index between the groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean hernia size and size of the acellular dermis that was inserted. At 1 year postsurgery, all of the AlloDerm patients were diagnosed with recurrence requiring a second formal repair. Eleven patients (31%) whose hernias were repaired with FlexHD were diagnosed with a recurrence requiring a second formal repair. FlexHD appears to have reduced the recurrence and laxity rates while maintaining a similar complication profile compared with AlloDerm in trauma/emergency surgery patients with large complicated ventral hernias. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. XML Schema Guide for Secondary CDR Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents the extensible markup language (XML) schema guide for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics’ (OPPT) e-CDRweb tool. E-CDRweb is the electronic, web-based tool provided by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the submission of Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) information. This document provides the user with tips and guidance on correctly using the version 1.1 XML schema for the Joint Submission Form. Please note that the order of the elements must match the schema.

  9. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel in the skin contaminant layer of workers involved in specific processes and tasks within the primary nickel production and primary nickel user industries. Dermal exposure samples were collected using moist wipes to recover surface contamination from defined areas of skin. These were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel species. Personal samples of inhalable dust were also collected to determine the corresponding inhalable nickel exposures. The air samples were analysed for total inhalable dust and then for soluble, sulfidic, metallic, and oxidic nickel species. The workplace surveys were carried out in five different workplaces, including three nickel refineries, a stainless steel plant, and a powder metallurgy plant, all of which were located in Europe. Nickel refinery workers involved with electrolytic nickel recovery processes had soluble dermal nickel exposure of 0.34 microg cm(-2) [geometric mean (GM)] to the hands and forearms. The GM of soluble dermal nickel exposure for workers involved in packing nickel salts (nickel chloride hexahydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, and nickel hydroxycarbonate) was 0.61 microg cm(-2). Refinery workers involved in packing nickel metal powders and end-user powder operatives in magnet production had the highest dermal exposure (GM = 2.59 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The hands, forearms, face, and neck of these workers all received greater dermal nickel exposure compared with the other jobs included in this study. The soluble nickel dermal exposures for stainless steel production workers were at or slightly above the limit of detection (0.02 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The highest inhalable nickel concentrations were observed for the workers involved in nickel powder packing (GM = 0.77 mg m(-3)), although the soluble component comprised only 2% of the total nickel content. The highest airborne soluble nickel exposures were associated with refineries using

  10. Dermal fillers in aesthetics: an overview of adverse events and treatment approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funt, David; Pavicic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    The ever-expanding range of dermal filler products for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation is of benefit for patients and physicians, but as indications and the number of procedures performed increase, the number of complications will likely also increase. To describe potential adverse events associated with dermal fillers and to provide structured and clear guidance on their treatment and avoidance. Reports of dermal filler complications in the medical literature were reviewed and, based on the publications retrieved and the authors' extensive experience, recommendations for avoiding and managing complications are provided. Different dermal fillers have widely varying properties, associated risks, and injection requirements. All dermal fillers have the potential to cause complications. Most are related to volume and technique, though some are associated with the material itself. The majority of adverse reactions are mild and transient, such as bruising and trauma-related edema. Serious adverse events are rare, and most are avoidable with proper planning and technique. For optimum outcomes, aesthetic physicians should have a detailed understanding of facial anatomy; the individual characteristics of available fillers; their indications, contraindications, benefits, and drawbacks; and ways to prevent and avoid potential complications.

  11. In vitro engineering of a palatal mucosa equivalent with acellular porcine dermal matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xuepeng; Zhao, Yifang; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Weiguo; He, Sangang

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a palatal mucosa equivalent composed of multilayered oral keratinocytes grown on the acellular porcine dermal matrix. Acellular porcine dermal matrix was prepared through a series of procedures and assessed by histological, immunohistochemical, and scanning electron microscopy examination. The palatal mucosa equivalent was fabricated by seeding oral keratinocytes, which cultured from human palate mucosa, onto the acellular dermal matrix. After 4 days submerged in medium, this composite was raised to the air-liquid interface for another 7 or 14 days of cultivation. The results demonstrated the processed porcine dermal matrix was totally cell-free. The resultant palatal mucosa equivalent showed a multilayered oral epithelium that had been formed, and the number of cell layers was correlated with the culture period at the air-liquid interface. Oral keratinocytes infiltrated into the empty hair follicles of the acellular porcine dermal matrix and formed an anchor-like structure, which exhibited resemblance to the rete ridges of the native palate mucosa. Immunohistochemical staining for CK10/13, CK19, Ki-67 nuclear antigen, and Heparan sulphate indicated the cultured palatal mucosa equivalent shared the same characteristics with that of the native palate mucosa. In conclusion, our fabricated palatal mucosa equivalent exhibited the characteristics of the native counterpart, and this equivalent might be useful for recovery of the wounds in the palate secondary to palatoplasty.

  12. Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Glenn C; Weschler, Charles J; Bekö, Gabriel; Koch, Holger M; Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2016-01-01

    To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we measured uptake of selected airborne phthalates for an individual wearing clean clothes or air-exposed clothes and compared these results with dermal uptake for bare-skinned individuals under otherwise identical experimental conditions. Using a breathing hood to isolate dermal from inhalation uptake, we measured urinary metabolites of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from an individual exposed to known concentrations of these compounds for 6 h in an experimental chamber. The individual wore either clean (fresh) cotton clothes or cotton clothes that had been exposed to the same chamber air concentrations for 9 days. For a 6-h exposure, the net amounts of DEP and DnBP absorbed when wearing fresh clothes were, respectively, 0.017 and 0.007 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)); for exposed clothes the results were 0.178 and 0.261 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)), respectively (values normalized by air concentration and body mass). When compared against the average results for bare-skinned participants, clean clothes were protective, whereas exposed clothes increased dermal uptake for DEP and DnBP by factors of 3.3 and 6.5, respectively. Even for non-occupational environments, wearing clothing that has adsorbed/absorbed indoor air pollutants can increase dermal uptake of SVOCs by substantial amounts relative to bare skin.

  13. Dermal fillers in aesthetics: an overview of adverse events and treatment approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funt D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available David Funt,1 Tatjana Pavicic21Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, GermanyBackground: The ever-expanding range of dermal filler products for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation is of benefit for patients and physicians, but as indications and the number of procedures performed increase, the number of complications will likely also increase.Objective: To describe potential adverse events associated with dermal fillers and to provide structured and clear guidance on their treatment and avoidance.Methods: Reports of dermal filler complications in the medical literature were reviewed and, based on the publications retrieved and the authors' extensive experience, recommendations for avoiding and managing complications are provided.Results: Different dermal fillers have widely varying properties, associated risks, and injection requirements. All dermal fillers have the potential to cause complications. Most are related to volume and technique, though some are associated with the material itself. The majority of adverse reactions are mild and transient, such as bruising and trauma-related edema. Serious adverse events are rare, and most are avoidable with proper planning and technique.Conclusion: For optimum outcomes, aesthetic physicians should have a detailed understanding of facial anatomy; the individual characteristics of available fillers; their indications, contraindications, benefits, and drawbacks; and ways to prevent and avoid potential complications.Keywords: aesthetic medicine, complications

  14. Acellular Dermal Matrix as an Adjunct Material in Cleft Le Fort I Osteotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susarla, Srinivas M; MacIsaac, Zoe M; Swanson, Edward; Davidson, Edward; Kumar, Anand

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the use of acellular dermal matrix in the management of nasal lining deficiency at the time of Le Fort I osteotomy. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with residual/recurrent oronasal fistulae who underwent Le Fort I osteotomy. In instances where there was an inadequate volume of nasal mucosa for tension-free closure or for defects >1 cm in width, the acellular dermal matrix was used for augmentation. Demographic and cleft-related factors were recorded. Complications (recurrent fistula, infection, seroma, and wound dehiscence) were recorded. Over the 3-year period, the authors used acellular dermal matrix to augment nasal lining in 8 subjects. The sample's mean age was 18.7 ± 3.1 years; 5 subjects were male. Six patients had bilateral cleft defects. The mean follow-up time was 20.2 ± 3.2 years. There were no episodes of infection, seroma, wound dehiscence, or recurrent fistula. Acellular dermal matrix is a useful adjunct for managing nasal liningdeficiency at the time of Le Fort I osteotomy. There were no episodes of bone graft extrusion, infection, tooth loss, or bone graft loss. The Enemark scores improved significantly across both subsets (P managed at the time of Le Fort I osteotomy using allograft bone and acellular dermal matrix.

  15. A review of adipocyte lineage cells and dermal papilla cells in hair follicle regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia is an exceedingly prevalent problem effecting men and women of all ages. The standard of care for alopecia involves either transplanting existing hair follicles to bald areas or attempting to stimulate existing follicles with topical and/or oral medication. Yet, these treatment options are fraught with problems of cost, side effects, and, most importantly, inadequate long-term hair coverage. Innovative cell-based therapies have focused on the dermal papilla cell as a way to grow new hair in previously bald areas. However, despite this attention, many obstacles exist, including retention of dermal papilla inducing ability and maintenance of dermal papilla productivity after several passages of culture. The use of adipocyte lineage cells, including adipose-derived stem cells, has shown promise as a cell-based solution to regulate hair regeneration and may help in maintaining or increasing dermal papilla cells inducing hair ability. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of the cellular contribution and regulation of dermal papilla cells and summarize adipocyte lineage cells in hair regeneration.

  16. Penile Reconstruction with Skin Grafts and Dermal Matrices: Indications and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana Junco, Paloma; Dore, Mariela; Nuñez Cerezo, Vanesa; Jimenez Gomez, Javier; Miguel Ferrero, Miriam; Díaz González, Mercedes; Lopez-Pereira, Pedro; Lopez-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Introduction  The penis eventually needs specific cutaneous coverage in the context of reconstructive procedures following trauma or congenital anomalies. Local flaps are the first choice but are not always available after multiple previous procedures. In these cases, skin graft and dermal matrices should be considered. Materials and Methods  This study was a retrospective review of the past 4 years of four patients with severe loss of penile shaft skin who underwent skin reconstruction. Dermal matrices and skin grafts were utilized. Dermal matrices were placed for a median of 4.5 weeks (3.0-6.0 weeks). The skin graft was harvested from the inner thigh region for split-thickness skin graft (STSG) and the inguinal region for full-thickness skin graft (FTSG). Results  The four patients presented with complete loss of skin in the penile shaft. One patient had a vesical exstrophy, one had a buried penis with only one corpus cavernosum, one had a wide congenital lymphedema of the genitalia, and one had a lack of skin following circumcision at home. They underwent reconstruction with three patients undergoing split-thickness skin graft; two dermal matrices; and one full-thickness graft, respectively, thereby achieving a good cosmetic and functional result. There were no complications, and all the patients successfully accepted the graft. Conclusion  Dermal matrices and skin grafts may serve as effective tools in the management of severe penile skin defects unable to be covered with local flaps.

  17. Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Mayne, Peter J; Kahn, Douglas G; Stricker, Raphael B

    2013-01-01

    Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either self-implanted by patients or accidentally adhering to lesions, and conclude that patients with this disease have delusions of infestation. We present histological observations and electron microscopic imaging from representative Morgellons disease samples revealing that dermal filaments in these cases are keratin and collagen in composition and result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the epidermis. Spirochetes were detected in the dermatological specimens from our study patients, providing evidence that Morgellons disease is associated with an infectious process.

  18. Alopecia in Rhesus macaques correlates with immunophenotypic alterations in dermal inflammatory infiltrates consistent with hypersensitivity etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Joshua; Fahey, Michele; Santos, Rosemary; Carville, Angela; Wachtman, Lynn; Mansfield, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Background Although alopecia is a commonly recognized problem affecting many captive Rhesus macaque colonies, there is no consensus as to the underlying etiology or appropriate course of management. Methods and Results We performed skin biopsies on a group of Rhesus macaques and demonstrate that alopecia is associated with superficial dermal perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates and skin pathology consistent with chronic hypersensitivity dermatitis. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the inflammation is primarily composed of CD4+ cells admixed with histiocytes and mast cells. Inflammation is correlated with degree of alopecia. Further analysis in different groups of macaques revealed that animals born outdoors or infected with lung mites had reduced dermal inflammatory cell infiltrates and a lower incidence of alopecia. Conclusions These findings support a hypothesis that an altered housing status resulting in decreased pathogen burden in Rhesus macaque colonies may contribute to dermal immunophenotypic alterations and subsequent development of dermatitis with resultant alopecia. PMID:20102458

  19. Changes in dermal matrix in the absence of Rac1 in keratinocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Alanna; Pedersen, Esben Ditlev Kølle; Brakebusch, Cord

    2016-01-01

    Keratinocytes, in response to irritants, secrete pro-inflammatory mediators which recruit and activate immune and mesenchymal cells, including fibroblasts, to repair the skin. Fibroblasts respond by synthesising collagen and promoting the crosslinking extracellular matrix (ECM). We recently showed....... As inflammation is intimately linked with fibrotic disease in the skin, this raised the question as to whether this deletion may also affect the deposition and arrangement of the dermal ECM. This study assessed the effects of Rac1 deletion in keratinocytes and of the heightened inflammatory status by induction...... of ICD on the tissue localisation and arrangements of dermal collagen. Qualitative analysis did not reveal evidence for the formation of pathologies in the dermis. However, quantitative analysis did reveal some perturbations in the dermal matrix, namely that only the combination of the lack of Rac1...

  20. Surgical management of a dermal lymphatic malformation of the lower extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lisa F; Chen, Constance M; Zurada, Joanna M; Walther, Robert; Grant, Robert T

    2008-01-01

    Dermal lymphatic malformations are rare congenital hamartomas of superficial lymphatics characterized by high recurrence rates after excision. The standard therapy for a single lesion is surgical excision with wide margins, which reduces recurrence but can have a potentially unacceptable aesthetic outcome. A case of a 24-year-old woman with a 6 cm × 5 cm dermal lymphatic malformation on her right thigh, diagnosed by clinical history, physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging and pathological findings, is reported. The patient underwent wide local excision with split-thickness skin grafting. After pathological examination revealed negative margins, the patient underwent tissue expander placement and excision of the skin graft with primary closure. The lesion did not recur, and the patient achieved a satisfactory aesthetic result. The present case represents the first report of the use of tissue expanders to treat dermal lymphatic malformations in the lower extremity and demonstrates a safe, staged approach to successful treatment. PMID:19949506

  1. Genomic regions associated with the sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin in Silkie chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming TIAN,Rui HAO,Suyun FANG,Yanqiang WANG,Xiaorong GU,Chungang FENG,Xiaoxiang HU,Ning LI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A unique characteristic of the Silkie chicken is its fibromelanosis phenotype. The dermal layer of its skin, its connective tissue and shank dermis are hyperpigmented. This dermal hyperpigmentation phenotype is controlled by the sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin gene (ID and the dominant fibromelanosis allele. This study attempted to confirm the genomic region associated with ID. By genotyping, ID was found to be closely linked to the region between GGA_rs16127903 and GGA_rs14685542 (8406919 bp on chromosome Z, which contains ten functional genes. The expression of these genes was characterized in the embryo and 4 days after hatching and it was concluded that MTAP, encoding methylthioadenosinephosphorylase, would be the most likely candidate gene. Finally, target DNA capture and sequence analysis was performed, but no specific SNP(s was found in the targeted region of the Silkie genome. Further work is necessary to identify the causal ID mutation located on chromosome Z.

  2. Eyelid reconstruction with acellular human dermal allograft after chemical and thermal burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaqi, Chen; Zheng, Wang; Jianjun, Gu

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of eyelid reconstruction with acellular dermal allograft in patients with eyelid defect after chemical and thermal burns. Eyelid reconstruction was performed in 15 eyelids of 13 patients during the period of June 2001-October 2004 by a single senior surgeon (Chen). Among them five patients had thermal burns, and eight patients had chemical burns. The acellular dermal allograft was used as a tarsus substitute that was sutured into the place between the levator aponeurosis in upper lid or retractor in lower eyelid and the remaining tarsus. After a mean follow-up of 9 months, satisfactory function and cosmesis were obtained. No implant rejection or severe complications were observed. Acellular dermal allograft may be used safely as a posterior lamellar spacer graft after chemical and thermal burns; the allograft appears to be biocompatible and does not aggravate the inflammation in the injured eyelid.

  3. Submissive display in young helmeted guineafowl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-06-04

    Jun 4, 1984 ... guardian lightly on the breast and to crawl under the guar- dian (Figure Ib). The reaction of the guardian is often ag- gressive e.g. pecking, trampling and dart chases; but these do not deter the chick. Submissive display may also be given after the guardian or a senior member has threatened the.

  4. International Journal of Health Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maximum length of manuscripts should be 6000 words (24 double-spaced typewritten pages) for review, 4000 words for research articles, 1,500 for technical notes, commentaries and short communications. Submission of Manuscript With effect from June 2006 all manuscripts (most be in English) and should be ...

  5. 17 CFR 201.222 - Prehearing submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PRACTICE Rules of Practice Initiation of Proceedings and Prehearing Rules § 201.222 Prehearing submissions... information as deemed appropriate, including any or all of the following: (1) An outline or narrative summary of its case or defense; (2) The legal theories upon which it will rely; (3) Copies and a list of...

  6. Southern African Journal of Critical Care: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Authorship should be based on: (i) substantial contribution to conceptualisation, design, analysis and interpretation of data; (ii) drafting or critical revision of important scientific ... If authors' names are added or deleted after submission of an article, or the order of the names is changed, all authors must agree to this in writing.

  7. Critical Studies in Teaching and Learning: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Submissions must be original research, and must be between 5000 and 8000 words excluding references and endnotes. STYLE GUIDE ... The journal uses U.K. punctuation and spelling, following The Oxford English Dictionary (OED). Foreign words .... In Jones, C., Turner, J. & Street, B.V. Students Writing in the University.

  8. International Journal of Humanistic Studies: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manuscripts are refereed anonymously; therefore, the author's name, e-mail address, and brief contributor information (not exceeding fifty words) should appear on the title page only. All pages must be numbered. The Journal prefers submissions sent as an e-mail attachment editoruniswaijhs@yahoo.com in Microsoft Word.

  9. Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Paper Submission Guidelines. A Submitted manuscript must be an original contribution, not previously published, and, not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. We prefer the articles and other material to be sent in a formatted text file like 'Microsoft word'. The articles can be sent by either ...

  10. Journal of Applied Science and Technology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. AIMS & SCOPE. The Journal of Applied Science and Technology (JAST) seeks to promote and disseminate knowledge of various research topics in the applied sciences which address issues of technological developments in the Tropics. GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS. 1. All submissions to the Journal of ...

  11. Journal of East African Natural History: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... Author Guidelines. Submission: manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document in an email attachment, to the Editor-in-Chief, Journal of East African Natural History at office@naturekenya.org. The manuscript should be accompanied by a covering letter from the author, or in the case of multiple ...

  12. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sci is not contingent upon the author's ability to pay the charges. Neither is acceptance to pay the processing fee a guarantee that the paper will be accepted for publication. Authors may still request (in advance) that the editorial office waive some of the processing fee under special circumstances. Submission checklist

  13. 77 FR 60160 - Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Industrial Classification Codes: All. Description of Affected Public: U.S. companies or citizens investing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Submission for OMB Review AGENCY: Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC). ACTION: Request...

  14. 76 FR 38219 - Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Industrial Classification Codes: All. Description of Affected Public: U.S. companies or citizens investing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Submission for OMB Review AGENCY: Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC). ACTION: Request...

  15. 77 FR 33497 - Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Industrial Classification Codes: All. Description of Affected Public: U.S. companies or citizens investing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Submission for OMB Review AGENCY: Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC). ACTION: Request...

  16. 76 FR 38220 - Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...); individuals. Standard Industrial Classification Codes: All. Description of Affected Public: U.S. companies or... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Submission for OMB Review AGENCY: Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC). ACTION: Request...

  17. Notebook paper: TNO instance search submission 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Eendebak, P.T.; Staalduinen, M. van; Kraaij, W.

    2011-01-01

    The TNO instance search submission to TRECVID 2011 consisted of three different runs: one is using an exhaustive keypoint search, one is using a bag-of-visual-words approach and one is using open-source face-recognition software. Our run approaches: Briefly, what approach or combination of

  18. Histology of the heterostracan dermal skeleton: Insight into the origin of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Chloe L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Living vertebrates are divided into those that possess a fully formed and fully mineralised skeleton (gnathostomes) versus those that possess only unmineralised cartilaginous rudiments (cyclostomes). As such, extinct phylogenetic intermediates of these living lineages afford unique insights into the evolutionary assembly of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton and its canonical tissue types. Extinct jawless and jawed fishes assigned to the gnathostome stem evidence the piecemeal assembly of skeletal systems, revealing that the dermal skeleton is the earliest manifestation of a homologous mineralised skeleton. Yet the nature of the primitive dermal skeleton, itself, is poorly understood. This is principally because previous histological studies of early vertebrates lacked a phylogenetic framework required to derive evolutionary hypotheses. Nowhere is this more apparent than within Heterostraci, a diverse clade of primitive jawless vertebrates. To this end, we surveyed the dermal skeletal histology of heterostracans, inferred the plesiomorphic heterostracan skeleton and, through histological comparison to other skeletonising vertebrate clades, deduced the ancestral nature of the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Heterostracans primitively possess a four‐layered skeleton, comprising a superficial layer of odontodes composed of dentine and enameloid; a compact layer of acellular parallel‐fibred bone containing a network of vascular canals that supply the pulp canals (L1); a trabecular layer consisting of intersecting radial walls composed of acellular parallel‐fibred bone, showing osteon‐like development (L2); and a basal layer of isopedin (L3). A three layered skeleton, equivalent to the superficial layer L2 and L3 and composed of enameloid, dentine and acellular bone, is possessed by the ancestor of heterostracans + jawed vertebrates. We conclude that an osteogenic component is plesiomorphic with respect to the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Consequently, we

  19. Cell therapy for full-thickness wounds: are fetal dermal cells a potential source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akershoek, J J; Vlig, M; Talhout, W; Boekema, B K H L; Richters, C D; Beelen, R H J; Brouwer, K M; Middelkoop, E; Ulrich, M M W

    2016-04-01

    The application of autologous dermal fibroblasts has been shown to improve burn wound healing. However, a major hurdle is the availability of sufficient healthy skin as a cell source. We investigated fetal dermal cells as an alternative source for cell-based therapy for skin regeneration. Human (hFF), porcine fetal (pFF) or autologous dermal fibroblasts (AF) were seeded in a collagen-elastin substitute (Novomaix, NVM), which was applied in combination with an autologous split thickness skin graft (STSG) to evaluate the effects of these cells on wound healing in a porcine excisional wound model. Transplantation of wounds with NVM+hFF showed an increased influx of inflammatory cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages, CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes) compared to STSG, acellular NVM (Acell-NVM) and NVM+AF at post-surgery days 7 and/or 14. Wounds treated with NVM+pFF presented only an increase in CD8(+) lymphocyte influx. Furthermore, reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression in wound areas and reduced contraction of the wounds was observed with NVM+AF compared to Acell-NVM. Xenogeneic transplantation of NVM+hFF increased αSMA expression in wounds compared to NVM+AF. An improved scar quality was observed for wounds treated with NVM+AF compared to Acell-NVM, NVM+hFF and NVM+pFF at day 56. In conclusion, application of autologous fibroblasts improved the overall outcome of wound healing in comparison to fetal dermal cells and Acell-NVM, whereas application of fetal dermal fibroblasts in NVM did not improve wound healing of full-thickness wounds in a porcine model. Although human fetal dermal cells demonstrated an increased immune response, this did not seem to affect scar quality.

  20. Cd1d is expressed on dermal dendritic cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlini, G; Hefti, H P; Kleinhans, M; Nickoloff, B J; Burg, G; Nestle, F O

    2001-09-01

    CD1 proteins are a family of cell surface molecules that present lipid antigens to T cells. We investigated skin dendritic cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells for expression of CD1 molecules using a panel of 10 different monoclonal antibodies focusing on the recently described CD1d molecule. By immunohistochemical analysis, CD1d expression in normal human skin was restricted to dendritic appearing cells in the papillary dermis mainly located in a perivascular localization. Langerhans cells did not show detectable CD1d expression in situ. Epidermal/dermal cell suspensions analyzed by flow cytometry demonstrated distinct subpopulations of HLA-DR positive dermal dendritic cells expressing CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c. CD1d was expressed on HLA-DRbright dermal antigen-presenting cells in dermal suspensions (16% +/- 3.6%), as well as on highly enriched dermal dendritic cells migrating out of skin explants (60.5% +/- 8.0%). Migrated mature dermal dendritic cells coexpressed CD83 and CD1d. Western blot analysis on microdissected skin sections revealed the presence of a 50-55 kDa CD1d molecule in dermis, suggesting that CD1d is highly glycosylated in skin. Both immature and mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells cultured in autologous plasma expressed CD1d molecules. In contrast, culture in fetal bovine serum downregulated CD1d expression. In conclusion, antigen-presenting cells in skin express different sets of CD1 molecules including CD1d and might play a role in lipid antigen presentation in various skin diseases. Differential expression of CD1 molecules depending on culture conditions might have an impact on clinical applications of dendritic cells for immunotherapy.

  1. Review of data on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, T; Bury, D; Fautz, R; Hauser, M; Huber, B; Markowetz, A; Mishra, S; Rettinger, K; Schuh, W; Teichert, T

    2017-10-05

    Mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic products, also referred to as "personal care products" outside the European Union, are mixtures of predominantly saturated hydrocarbons consisting of straight-chain, branched and ring structures with carbon chain lengths greater than C16. They are used in skin and lip care cosmetic products due to their excellent skin tolerance as well as their high protecting and cleansing performance and broad viscosity options. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding potential adverse health effects of mineral oils and waxes from dermal application of cosmetics. In order to be able to assess the risk for the consumer the dermal penetration potential of these ingredients has to be evaluated. The scope and objective of this review are to identify and summarize publicly available literature on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products. For this purpose, a comprehensive literature search was conducted. A total of 13 in vivo (human, animal) and in vitro studies investigating the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes has been identified and analysed. The majority of the substances were dermally adsorbed to the stratum corneum and only a minor fraction reached deeper skin layers. Overall, there is no evidence from the various studies that mineral oils and waxes are percutaneously absorbed and become systemically available. Thus, given the absence of dermal uptake, mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products do not present a risk to the health of the consumer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective Effects of Triphala on Dermal Fibroblasts and Human Keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep R Varma

    Full Text Available Human skin is body's vital organ constantly exposed to abiotic oxidative stress. This can have deleterious effects on skin such as darkening, skin damage, and aging. Plant-derived products having skin-protective effects are well-known traditionally. Triphala, a formulation of three fruit products, is one of the most important rasayana drugs used in Ayurveda. Several skin care products based on Triphala are available that claim its protective effects on facial skin. However, the skin protective effects of Triphala extract (TE and its mechanistic action on skin cells have not been elucidated in vitro. Gallic acid, ellagic acid, and chebulinic acid were deduced by LC-MS as the major constituents of TE. The identified key compounds were docked with skin-related proteins to predict their binding affinity. The IC50 values for TE on human dermal fibroblasts (HDF and human keratinocytes (HaCaT were 204.90 ± 7.6 and 239.13 ± 4.3 μg/mL respectively. The antioxidant capacity of TE was 481.33 ± 1.5 mM Trolox equivalents in HaCaT cells. Triphala extract inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 induced RBC haemolysis (IC50 64.95 μg/mL, nitric oxide production by 48.62 ± 2.2%, and showed high reducing power activity. TE also rescued HDF from H2O2-induced damage; inhibited H2O2 induced cellular senescence and protected HDF from DNA damage. TE increased collagen-I, involucrin and filaggrin synthesis by 70.72 ± 2.3%, 67.61 ± 2.1% and 51.91 ± 3.5% in HDF or HaCaT cells respectively. TE also exhibited anti-tyrosinase and melanin inhibition properties in a dose-dependent manner. TE increased the mRNA expression of collagen-I, elastin, superoxide dismutase (SOD-2, aquaporin-3 (AQP-3, filaggrin, involucrin, transglutaminase in HDF or HaCaT cells, and decreased the mRNA levels of tyrosinase in B16F10 cells. Thus, Triphala exhibits protective benefits on skin cells in vitro and can be used as a potential ingredient in skin care formulations.

  3. Dermatokinetics of didecyldimethylammonium chloride and the influence of some commercial biocidal formulations on its dermal absorption in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Heer, C. de; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Sandt, J.J.M. van de

    2007-01-01

    The in vitro dermal absorption kinetics of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) was studied after single and multiple exposure. In addition, the influence of biocidal formulations on the absorption of DDAC was investigated. Following dermal exposure to DDAC in aqueous solution, less than 0.5% of

  4. A structured observational method to assess dermal exposure to manufactured nanoparticles: DREAM as an initial assessment tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren-Stuurman, B. van; Pelzer, J.; Moehlmann, C.; Berges, M.; Bard, D.; Wake, D.; Mark, D.; Jankowska, E.; Brouwer, D.

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary results of inventories of exposure scenarios for nanomaterials have indicated possible dermal exposure. Within the NANOSH project focused on occupational safety and health aspects of nanotechnology a shortened version of the observational DeRmal Exposure AssessMent (DREAM) method was

  5. Free and total urinary 2-butoxyacetic acid following dermal and inhalation exposure to 2-butoxyethanol in human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kezic, S.; Meuling, W. J. A.; Jakasa, I.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess excretion kinetics of free and total (free + conjugated) 2-butoxyacetic acid (BAA) following dermal and inhalation exposure to butoxyethanol (BE). Methods: Six male volunteers were dermally exposed for 4 h to a 50% aqueous solution of BE on an area of 40 cm(2) of the volar

  6. Effect of pore size and cross-linking of a novel collagen-elastin dermal substitute on wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, B.K.H.L.; Vlig, M.; Damink, L.O.; Middelkoop, E.; Eummelen, L.; Buhren, A.V.; Ulrich, M.M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Collagen-elastin (CE) scaffolds are frequently used for dermal replacement in the treatment of full-thickness skin defects such as burn wounds. But little is known about the optimal pore size and level of cross-linking. Different formulations of dermal substitutes with unidirectional pores were

  7. Calvarial Regeneration With Use of Acellular Dermal Matrix in Aplasia Cutis Congenita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericli, Alexander F; Chen, Kevin; Murariu, Daniel; Jane, John A; Lin, Kant Y

    2015-09-01

    Aplasia cutis congenital (ACC) is a rare congenital anomaly, most commonly affecting the scalp, with a variable penetrance ranging from a small (cutis aplasia defect associated with absent skin, subcutaneous tissue, calvarium, dura, and with exposed cortical surface and sagittal sinus. This defect was successfully reconstructed in a single stage with the use of an acellular dermal matrix/skin graft construct. The acelluar dermal matrix served as a scaffold for tissue ingrowth, promoting regeneration of the bony calvarium as well as soft tissue. At 18-month follow-up, the patient exhibits a 50% smaller calvarial defect as well as stable skin coverage.

  8. Immediate nipple reconstruction in combination with implant reconstruction using dermal sling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filobbos, George; Hamnett, Nathan; Hardwicke, Joseph; Skillman, Joanna

    2017-11-01

    The inferior de-epithelialized dermal flap with implant is increasingly used for immediate breast reconstruction. We have adapted the technique to provide concurrent immediate nipple reconstruction by recruiting the triangle of skin above the excised nipple as a modified C-V flap. The safety and efficacy of this technique has been assessed in 15 patients, of which eight were bilateral and seven were unilateral cases. We suggest that this is a safe, reliable, and original technique for immediate nipple reconstruction in patients undergoing immediate breast reconstruction with an inferior dermal sling and implant. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Measurements of dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air and clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, Glenn C.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    a shirt previously exposed to tobacco smoke. Urine samples were subsequently analyzed for nicotine and two of its metabolites. The results demonstrate that nicotine can be dermally absorbed directly from air at rates comparable to passive smoking. Wearing clean clothes significantly decreases uptake......-skinned subjects together with a subject wearing clean clothes were dermally exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) for three hours in a climate chamber; during the exposure all three subjects breathed clean air through hoods covering their heads. The clothed subject later repeated his exposure wearing...

  10. Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and magnesium oxide in vitro dermal absorption in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Deon; Tawde, Snehal; Pickrell, John A; Erickson, Larry E

    2009-01-01

    The dermal absorption potential of a nanocrystalline magnesium oxide (MgO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) mixture in dermatomed human skin was assessed in vitro using Bronaugh-type flow-through diffusion cells. Nanocrystalline material was applied to the skin surface at a dose rate of 50 mg/cm(2) as a dry powder, as a water suspension, and as a water/surfactant (sodium lauryl sulfate) suspension, for 8 hours. Dermal absorption of nanocrystalline MgO and TiO(2) through human skin with intact, functional stratum corneum was not detectable under the conditions of this experiment.

  11. Autologous smashed dermal graft with epidermal re-closure: Modified technique for acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umashankar Nagaraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional technique of dermal grafting for acne scars where the source of filler material used is the patient′s own dermis requires longer surgical time, recovery period and can result in unsightly scars at the donor area. Hence, it is not suitable for treating a larger number of scars. Furthermore, these dermal grafts are firm and cannot be contoured to fit all types of acne scars. Occurrence of epidermal cyst and secondary infection is another complication if epidermis is not completely removed. Enzymatic techniques need trypsinisation which is expensive and requires laboratory facilities.

  12. Mechanisms of Mycotoxin-induced Dermal Toxicity and Tumorigenesis Through Oxidative Stress-related Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kunio; Uetsuka, Koji

    2014-04-01

    Among the many mycotoxins, T-2 toxin, citrinin (CTN), patulin (PAT), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are known to have the potential to induce dermal toxicity and/or tumorigenesis in rodent models. T-2 toxin, CTN, PAT and OTA induce apoptosis in mouse or rat skin. PAT, AFB1 and OTA have tumor initiating properties, and OTA is also a tumor promoter in mouse skin. This paper reviews the molecular mechanisms of dermal toxicity and tumorigenesis induced in rodent models by these mycotoxins especially from the viewpoint of oxidative stress-mediated pathways.

  13. Mechanisms of Mycotoxin-induced Dermal Toxicity and Tumorigenesis Through Oxidative Stress-related Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Doi, Kunio; Uetsuka, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Among the many mycotoxins, T-2 toxin, citrinin (CTN), patulin (PAT), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are known to have the potential to induce dermal toxicity and/or tumorigenesis in rodent models. T-2 toxin, CTN, PAT and OTA induce apoptosis in mouse or rat skin. PAT, AFB1 and OTA have tumor initiating properties, and OTA is also a tumor promoter in mouse skin. This paper reviews the molecular mechanisms of dermal toxicity and tumorigenesis induced in rodent models by these mycoto...

  14. Sensory evaluation and chemical analysis of exhaled and dermally emitted bioeffluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsushima, S.; Wargocki, Pawel; Tanabe, S.

    2017-01-01

    Conditions in which exhaled and dermally emitted bioeffluents could be sampled separately or together (whole-body emission) were created. Five lightly dressed males exhaled the air through a mask to another, identical chamber or without a mask to the chamber in which they were sitting; the outdoor...... air supply rate was the same in both chambers. The carbon dioxide concentration in the chamber with exhaled air was 2000 ppm. Chamber temperatures were 23°C or 28°C, and ozone was present or absent in the supply airflow. When dermally emitted bioeffluents were present, the perceived air quality (PAQ...

  15. Evaluation of a 2-aminoimidazole variant as adjuvant treatment for dermal bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draughn, G Logan; Allen, C Leigh; Routh, Patricia A; Stone, Maria R; Kirker, Kelly R; Boegli, Laura; Schuchman, Ryan M; Linder, Keith E; Baynes, Ronald E; James, Garth; Melander, Christian; Pollard, Angela; Cavanagh, John

    2017-01-01

    2-Aminoimidazole (2-AI)-based compounds have been shown to efficiently disrupt biofilm formation, disperse existing biofilms, and resensitize numerous multidrug-resistant bacteria to antibiotics. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, we provide initial pharmacological studies regarding the application of a 2-AI as a topical adjuvant for persistent dermal infections. In vitro assays indicated that the 2-AI H10 is nonbactericidal, resensitizes bacteria to antibiotics, does not harm the integument, and promotes wound healing. Furthermore, in vivo application of H10 on swine skin caused no gross abnormalities or immune reactions. Taken together, these results indicate that H10 represents a promising lead dermal adjuvant compound.

  16. Effect of Dermal Thickness on Scars in Women with Type III-IV Fitzpatrick Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Bilsev; Dadaci, Mehmet; Oltulu, Pembe; Altuntas, Zeynep; Bilgen, Fatma

    2015-06-01

    Both patients and physicians desire minimal scarring after surgical procedures. The removal of foreign bodies from around the wound, prevention of infection, and wound closure without tension is recommended for reducing scarring. The reasons underlying the differing appearance of scars between different anatomical regions of the same individual are not fully understood. Moreover, to our knowledge, the relationship between incision width and dermal thickness in different anatomical regions has yet to be investigated. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of dermal thickness on scar formation. Fifty patients who were treated and followed up for breast hypertrophy between 2010 and 2013 were retrospectively investigated. In all patients, a 2 × 2-cm skin biopsy specimen was obtained from the medial right breast at the horizontal line of the T scar. A routine superomedial pedicle breast reduction was subsequently performed. The extracted excision materials and skin biopsy specimens were examined pathologically. Dermal thickness was measured from the starting point of the subcutaneous tissue to the end point of the epidermis, at four different sites. The average dermal thickness was then calculated for each patient. The skin color of all patients was determined according to the Fitzpatrick classification. Scar width was measured in three different regions, including a combination of the vertical and horizontal portions of the T scar and the flap confluence. After the measurements, the scars were evaluated for vascularity, pigmentation, elasticity, thickness, and height by two plastic surgeons and a clinical nurse, who were blinded to patient data. The mean age of the 50 female patients was 40.8 years (range 18-65 years). The average follow-up period was 16 months (range 12-18 months). An average of 987.5 g (range 505-1621 g) of breast and fatty tissue was removed. The average dermal thickness was 4.99 mm (range 3.5-6.8 mm). The most common skin

  17. Dermal absorption of aromatic amines in workers with different skin lesions: a report on 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angerer Jürgen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are only few studies about the relationship of skin lesions and the percutaneous uptake of hazardous substances in exposed workers. Several aromatic amines are well known carcinogens for humans and/or animals. This case report emphasizes the relevance of dermal absorption of the aromatic amine ortho-toluidine considering four workers with different skin status (healthy, erythematous and burned skin as well as dishydrotic eczema during the vulcanisation process of rubber products in a components supplier plant for automobile industry. The results of our case report show that dermal absorption of o-toluidine through damaged epidermal barrier is significantly higher than through healthy skin.

  18. Dermal absorption of fumigant gases during HAZMAT incident exposure scenarios-Methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride, and chloropicrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Sharyn; Heath, Linda; Pisaniello, Dino; Edwards, John W; Logan, Michael; Baxter, Christina

    2017-07-01

    Accidental or intentional releases of toxic gases or vapors are the most common occurrence in hazardous material (HAZMAT) incidents that result in human injuries. The most serious hazard from exposure to gases or vapors is via the respiratory system. Dermal uptake, as a secondary route, is still a concern, most acutely for the unprotected public. There is a limited evidence base describing skin absorption of toxic gases and vapors in HAZMAT exposure scenarios, which are relatively brief compared with traditional test periods for skin absorption studies. We describe research designed to provide experimental data to support decision-making by first responders regarding skin decontamination in HAZMAT-focused exposure scenarios involving toxic gases. We present findings for three common fumigants, methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride, and chloropicrin assessed using an Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development in vitro toxicology protocol utilizing human skin and gas/vapor exposures. Results indicate that for atmospheric concentrations that would be lethal via inhalation (LCLo), intact skin provides an excellent barrier to exposures up to 30 min, with little influence of common clothing fabric and high temperature and humidity conditions. The findings may challenge the current HAZMAT dogma requiring mass personal decontamination by strip and shower for short-term exposures to sulfuryl fluoride and chloropicrin gas/vapor.

  19. African Journal of Psychiatry: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peter S. Acute hamstring injuries. Am J Sports Med 1994; 12(7):395-400. Book references should be set out as follows: a. Williams G. Textbook of Sports Medicine. 2nd Edition: Butterworth, 1989: 101-104. b. Vandermere P, Russel P. Biomechanics of the hip joint. In:Nordien PE. Jeffcoat A, eds, Clinical Biomechanics.

  20. STROMAL CELLS FROM SUBCUTANEOUS ADIPOSE-TISSUE SEEDED IN A NATIVE COLLAGEN/ELASTIN DERMAL SUBSTITUTE REDUCE WOUND CONTRACTION IN FULL-THICKNESS SKIN DEFECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, HJC; MIDDELKOOP, E; VANHEEMSTRAHOEN, M; WILDEVUUR, CHR; WESTERHOF, W

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dermal substitutes seeded with cultured fibroblasts have been developed to improve dermal regeneration in full thickness wounds. Because of cell cultivation, 3 weeks are required before patients can be treated with these autologous cellular substitutes. We developed a dermal substitute

  1. Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa acutely increases microcirculation in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukam, Karin; Stahl, Wilhelm; Tronnier, Hagen; Sies, Helmut; Heinrich, Ulrike

    2007-02-01

    Long term cocoa ingestion leads to an increased resistance against UV-induced erythema and a lowered transepidermal water loss. To investigate the acute effects of a single dose of cocoa rich in flavanols on dermal microcirculation. In a crossover design study, 10 healthy women ingested a cocoa drink (100 ml) with high (329 mg) or low (27 mg) content of flavanols. The major flavanol monomer in both drinks was epicatechin, 61 mg in the high flavanol, and 6.6 mg in the low flavanol product per 100 ml. Dermal blood flow and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin were examined by laser Doppler flowmetry and spectroscopically at 1 mm skin depth at t = 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h. At the same time points, plasma levels of total epicatechin (free compound plus conjugates) were measured by means of HPLC. Subsequent to the intake of high flavanol cocoa, dermal blood flow was significantly increased by 1.7-fold at t = 2 h and oxygen saturation was elevated 1.8-fold. No statistically significant changes were found upon intake of low flavanol cocoa. Maximum plasma levels of total epicatechin were observed 1 h after ingestion of the high flavanol cocoa drink, 11.6 +/- 7.4 nmol/l at baseline, and 62.9 +/- 35.8 nmol/l at 1 h. No change of total epicatechin was found in the low flavanol group. Flavanol-rich cocoa consumption acutely increases dermal blood flow and oxygen saturation.

  2. 76 FR 77831 - 2012 Presidential Candidate Matching Fund Submission Dates and Post Date of Ineligibility Dates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... 2012 Presidential Candidate Matching Fund Submission Dates and Post Date of Ineligibility Dates To...: Notice of matching fund submission dates and submission dates for statements of net outstanding campaign... fund submission dates for publicly funded 2012 presidential primary candidates. Eligible candidates may...

  3. 76 FR 8371 - Notice Correction; Generic Submission of Technology Transfer Center (TTC) External Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Notice Correction; Generic Submission of Technology... December 23, 2010 (75 FR 80830) announcing the submission to OMB of the project titled, ``Technology... submission ] is now being presented as a generic submission which will include multiple customer satisfaction...

  4. A Toolkit for Dermal Risk Assessment: Toxicological Approach for Hazard Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuhmacher-Wolz, U.; Kalberlah, F.; Oppl, R.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    The toxicological background for hazard assessment using a simple to use toolkit for assessment and management of health risks from occupational dermal exposure is presented. Hazard assessment is intended to answer the following questions: (i) is the substance under consideration capable of damaging

  5. Assessment of dermal exposure during airless spray painting using a quantitative visualisation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Lansink, C.M.; Cherrie, J.W.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2000-01-01

    The range of dermal exposure to non-volatile compounds during spray painting was studied in a semi-experimental study involving three enterprises and 12 painters. A fluorescent tracer was added to the paint and deposition of the tracer on clothing and uncovered parts of the skin was assessed using

  6. Soil organic matter content effects on dermal pesticide bioconcentration in American toads (Bufo americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides have been implicated as a major factor in global amphibian declines and may pose great risk to terrestrial phase amphibians moving to and from breeding ponds on agricultural landscapes. Dermal uptake from soil is known to occur in amphibians, but predicting pesticide a...

  7. A COMPARISON OF CYTOKINE MESSAGE AND PROTEIN PROFILES OBTAINED FOLLOWING DERMAL EXPOSURE TO DIISOCYANATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to certain low molecular weight chemicals is associated with asthma. A simple method to identify this hazard is needed. Increased expression of Th2 cytokine mRNA in draining lymph nodes following dermal exposure and increased production of Th2 cytokines by cultured cell...

  8. Incidence of Seromas and Infections Using Fenestrated versus Nonfenestrated Acellular Dermal Matrix in Breast Reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Palaia, David A.; Arthur, Karen S.; Cahan, Anthony C.; Rosenberg, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) provide clinical benefits in breast reconstruction but have been associated with increased postoperative complications, most frequently seromas. Fenestration of the ADM before insertion into the reconstructed breast may reduce the incidence of postoperative complications. In this retrospective analysis, postoperative complications were assessed after breast reconstruction with or without fenestrated ADMs. Methods: Patients who underwent immediate 2...

  9. Dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing: Comparison of model to human participant results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, G. C.; Weschler, Charles J.; Beko, G.

    2017-01-01

    coefficients between 104 and 107. In the absence of direct measurements of cotton cloth-air partition coefficients, dermal exposure may be predicted using equilibrium data for compounds in equilibrium with cellulose and water, in combination with computational methods of predicting partition coefficients....

  10. Teratogenicity study of N-methylpyrrolidone after dermal application to Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becci, P J; Knickerbocker, M J; Reagan, E L; Parent, R A; Burnette, L W

    1982-01-01

    Teratogenicity studies were performed in rats given N-methylpyrrolidone, a solvent used in chemical processing. Dosages of 75,237 and 750 mg of N-methylpyrrolidone/kg body weight/day were administered dermally to groups of 25 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats on days 6 through 15 of gestation. Additionally, the study used a positive dermal control. Hexafluoroacetone, was chosen based on its dermal teratogenic activity. An oral positive control, aspirin, was included in order to add significance to the data generated in the experimental positive dermal control group. All animals were killed and subjected to uterine examination on day 20 of gestation. Maternal toxicity was indicated at 750 mg of N-methylpyrrolidone/kg by reduced body weight gain during gestation. Treatment with N-methylpyrrolidone resulted in dose-dependent brightly colored yellow urine and dry skin. Treatment at the high dosage level resulted in fewer live fetuses per dam, an increase in the percentage of resorption sites and skeletal abnormalities. These effects could be the result of maternal toxicity. There was no evidence of teratogenic effects nor effects on the dams at 75 and 237 mg/kg of body weight.

  11. Use of PCR for diagnosis of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, O. F.; Oskam, L.; Kroon, N. C.; Schoone, G. J.; Khalil, E. T.; El-Hassan, A. M.; Zijlstra, E. E.; Kager, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    Microscopy and PCR were compared for use in the diagnosis of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in 63 patients. Aspirates of lymph nodes (samples from 52 patients), skin (23 samples), and bone marrow (18 samples) were used. For 11 patients lymph node aspiration could be repeated 6 months

  12. The kinetics of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether crosslinking of dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, R.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Wachem, Pauline B.; van Luyn, Marja J.A.; Hendriks, Marc; Cahalan, Patrick T.; Feijen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Dermal sheep collagen was crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE) or modified with glycidyl isopropyl ether (PGE). The reduction in amine groups as a function of time was followed to study the overall reaction kinetics of collagen with either BDDGE or PGE. Linearization of the

  13. The kinetics of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether crosslinking of dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, R; Dijkstra, PJ; van Wachem, PB; van Luyn, MJA; Hendriks, M; Cahalan, PT; Feijen, J

    2000-01-01

    Dermal sheep collagen was crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE) or modified with glycidyl isopropyl ether (PGE). The reduction in amine groups as a function of time was followed to study the overall reaction kinetics of collagen with either BDDGE or PGE;. Linearization of the

  14. High prevalence of dermal parasites among coral reef fishes of Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernal, M.A.; Floeter, S.R.; Gaither, M.R.; Longo, G.O.; Morais, R.; Ferreira, C.E.L.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Rocha, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    During expeditions to Curaçao in August and October of 2013, a large number of fish infected with dermal parasites was observed. Infected individuals presented black spots and white blemishes on their skin and fins that were easily observed by divers, and which have been associated with infections

  15. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damink, LHHO; Dijkstra, PJ; vanLuyn, MJA; vanWachem, PB; Nieuwenhuis, P; Feijen, J

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) cross-inked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EIN-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to

  16. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; van Wachem, P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) crosslinked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (E/N-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to

  17. Dermal connective tissue development in mice: an essential role for tenascin-X.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egging, D.; Vlijmen-Willems, I.M.J.J. van; Starcher, B.; Gijsen, Y.; Zweers, M.C.; Blankevoort, L.; Bristow, J.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2006-01-01

    Deficiency of the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-X (TNX) causes a recessive form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) characterized by hyperextensible skin and hypermobile joints. It is not known whether the observed alterations of dermal collagen fibrils and elastic fibers in these patients are

  18. Dermal connective tissue development in mice: an essential role for tenascin-X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egging, D. F.; van Vlijmen, I.; Starcher, B.; Gijsen, Y.; Zweers, M. C.; Blankevoort, L.; Bristow, J.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2006-01-01

    Deficiency of the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-X (TNX) causes a recessive form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) characterized by hyperextensible skin and hypermobile joints. It is not known whether the observed alterations of dermal collagen fibrils and elastic fibers in these patients are

  19. Comparison of Calcium and Barium Microcapsules as Scaffolds in the Development of Artificial Dermal Papillae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lin, Changmin; Zeng, Yang; Li, Haihong; Cai, Bozhi; Huang, Keng; Yuan, Yanping; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate barium and calcium microcapsules as candidates for scaffolding in artificial dermal papilla. Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) were isolated and cultured by one-step collagenase treatment. The DPC-Ba and DPC-Ca microcapsules were prepared by using a specially designed, high-voltage, electric-field droplet generator. Selected microcapsules were assessed for long-term inductive properties with xenotransplantation into Sprague-Dawley rat ears. Both barium and calcium microcapsules maintained xenogenic dermal papilla cells in an immunoisolated environment and induced the formation of hair follicle structures. Calcium microcapsules showed better biocompatibility, permeability, and cell viability in comparison with barium microcapsules. Before 18 weeks, calcium microcapsules gathered together, with no substantial immune response. After 32 weeks, some microcapsules were near inflammatory cells and wrapped with fiber. A few large hair follicles were found. Control samples showed no marked changes at the implantation site. Barium microcapsules were superior to calcium microcapsules in structural and mechanical stability. The cells encapsulated in hydrogel barium microcapsules exhibited higher short-term viability. This study established a model to culture DPCs in 3D culture conditions. Barium microcapsules may be useful in short-term transplantation study. Calcium microcapsules may provide an effective scaffold for the development of artificial dermal papilla.

  20. Factors influencing success of pelvic organ prolapse repair using porcine dermal implant Pelvicol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, T.A. de; Gietelink, D.A.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors influencing pelvic organ prolapse (POP) recurrence after repair surgery with a porcine dermal collagen implant (Pelvicol). STUDY DESIGN: From December 2003 to August 2005, 78 patients with mainly stage 3 pelvic organ prolapse by the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification

  1. Monitoring of pesticide applicators for potential dermal exposure to malathion and biomarkers in urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuomainen, A.; Kangas, J.A.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Glass, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Malathion was applied to roses in three Finnish greenhouses by hand held lance sprayers. The potential dermal exposure of applicators to this insecticide was measured. Total urine production of each applicator was also collected up to 24 h post application. In the urine samples the specific

  2. Application of dermal microdialysis for the evaluation of bioequivalence of a ketoprofen topical gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tettey-Amlalo, Ralph Nii Okai; Kanfer, Isadore; Skinner, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate dermal microdialysis (DMD) for the assessment of the bioavailability of a ketoprofen topical gel formulation and to evaluate this technique as a tool for the determination of bioequivalence. Four microdialysis probes were inserted into the dermis on the volar aspect...

  3. Refinement of risk assessment of dermally and intermittently exposed pesticide workers : a critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkert, B.C.

    2001-01-01

    The regulatory requirements for the registration of pesticides are mainly evolved from concern about dietary exposure and risk, i.e. chronic oral exposure. Pesticide workers, however, are predominantly exposed dermally and intermittently. The present critique provides suggestions for improvement of

  4. Augmentation Phalloplasty With Autologous Dermal Fat Graft in the Treatment of "Small Penis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lisi; Zhao, Muxin; Chen, Wen; Li, Yangqun; Yang, Zhe; Ma, Ning; Wang, Weixin; Feng, Jun; Liu, Qiyu; Ma, Tong

    2016-02-01

    Our objective is to report on the efficacy and safety of dermal fat graft in augmentation phalloplasty performed on patients who presented complaining of "small penis," and evaluate the cosmetic and psychological outcomes of it. From April 2010 and January 2015, 23 Chinese adult patients aged 18 to 33 years (average, 23 years) with subjective perception of small penis were included; all who requested an increase in the penile dimension underwent penile elongation (suprapubic skin advancement-ligamentolysis) and girth enhancement by dermal fat graft. Besides objective measurement, Male Genital Image Scale was used to facilitate selection of patients and evaluate the outcome, respectively. The change and shrinkage of the dermal fat strips was evaluated by ultrasound examination and computed tomography. No major complications or erection deficiencies occurred during the postoperative follow-up period. After 6 months, the mean flaccid length was increased by 2.27 ± 0.54 cm, whereas the mean flaccid circumference gain was 1.67 ± 0.46 cm. Significant improvement of genital satisfaction was reported during the follow-up. The shrinkage of dermal fat strips was inconspicuous, and no curvature was observed due to fibrosis. With strict patient selection, this procedure is proved to be a plausible and reasonable option for patients with penile dysmorphophobia. Also, it provides a potential alternative procedure to current dominant methods and promotes the aesthetic results with penile lengthening.

  5. Do acellularized dermal matrices change the rationale for immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Lawrence B; Disa, Joseph J

    2012-04-01

    This article focuses on the contribution of acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) to immediate breast reconstruction. The current literature on ADMs is reviewed and the potential advantages and disadvantages of their use are highlighted. Technical considerations on how to effectively use these materials is presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Local anaesthetics modifying the dermal response of irradiation. An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsen, L.; Evers, H.; Segerstroem, K.; Hagelqvist, E.; Graffman, S.

    1987-01-01

    In a series of experiments in rabbits the dermal reaction, provoked by a single dose or intermittent doses of irradiation, was prevented or modified by topical or parenteral administration of local anaesthetics, compared to irradiated control animals. The topical application of a eutectic lidocaine/prilocaine cream, EMLA 5%, was found to be more effective than intravenously injected lidocaine (Xylocain 1%).

  7. Multipotent adult progenitor cells : their role in wound healing and the treatment of dermal wounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdrich, B. J.; Lind, R. C.; Liechty, K. W.

    2008-01-01

    The use of cellular therapy in the treatment of dermal wounds is currently an active area of investigation. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) are an attractive choice for cytotherapy because they have a large proliferative potential, the ability to differentiate into different cell types and

  8. Growth, nutritional, and gastrointestinal aspects of focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz-Gorlin syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the PORCN gene located on the X-chromosome. In the present study, we characterized the pattern of growth, body composition, and the nutritional and gastrointestinal aspects of children and adults (n'='19) affected with t...

  9. Mapping of Id locus for dermal shank melanin in a Chinese ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping of Id locus for dermal shank melanin in a Chinese indigenous chicken breed ... Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, and Key Lab of Chicken Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong, People's Republic of China ...

  10. Handling of thermal paper: Implications for dermal exposure to bisphenol A and its alternatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan R Bernier

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an endocrine disrupting chemical used in a wide range of consumer products including photoactive dyes used in thermal paper. Recent studies have shown that dermal absorption of BPA can occur when handling these papers. Yet, regulatory agencies have largely dismissed thermal paper as a major source of BPA exposure. Exposure estimates provided by agencies such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA are based on assumptions about how humans interact with this material, stating that 'typical' exposures for adults involve only one handling per day for short periods of time (30% of individuals hold thermal paper with more than three fingertips, and >60% allow the paper to touch their palm. Only 11% of the participants we observed were consistent with the EFSA model for time of contact and dermal surface area. Mathematical modeling based on handling times we measured and previously published transfer coefficients, concentrations of BPA in paper, and absorption factors indicate the most conservative estimated intake from handling thermal paper in this population is 51.1 ng/kg/day, similar to EFSA's estimates of 59 ng/kg/day from dermal exposures. Less conservative estimates, using published data on concentrations in thermal paper and transfer rates to skin, indicate that exposures are likely significantly higher. Based on our observational data, we propose that the current models for estimating dermal BPA exposures are not consistent with normal human behavior and should be reevaluated.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus induces hypoxia and cellular damage in porcine dermal explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can infect wounds and produce difficult-to- treat biofilms. To determine the extent that MRSA biofilms can deplete oxygen, change pH and damage host tissue, we developed a porcine dermal explant model on which we cultured GFP-labeled MRSA biofilms. ...

  12. Immunopathology of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL): T-cell phenotypes and cytokine profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, A; El Hassan, A M; Kemp, K

    1999-01-01

    In Sudan, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) caused by Leishmania donovani develops in half of the patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). In most patients lesions heal spontaneously, but in others symptoms are severe and persist for years. This study examined...

  13. Burn injury suppresses human dermal dendritic cell and Langerhans cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Linda M.; de Jong, Marein A. W. P.; Witte, Lot de; Ulrich, Magda M. W.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2011-01-01

    Human skin contains epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) and dermal dendritic cells (DCs) that are key players in induction of adaptive immunity upon infection. After major burn injury, suppressed adaptive immunity has been observed in patients. Here we demonstrate that burn injury affects adaptive

  14. RESEARCH ARTICLE Map the locus of Id for dermal shank melanin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... Unfortunately, we do not know currently which gene is responsible for the trait of dermal shank melanin. Gushi chicken, a famous indigenous chicken breed in China, has four types of shank skin color (white, yellow, green and slate) (Figure 1). The green and slate shank skin colors are controlled by id locus ...

  15. Outcome of dermal grafting in the management of atrophic facial scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanathur Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scars over the face are cosmetically and psychologically disturbing. Various techniques have been described and are being practiced in the management of these scars. Aims and Objectives: This study was undertaken to study the safety, effectiveness of using dermal grafts as fillers in the management of facial scars due to acne, chickenpox, trauma or any others. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients with atrophic facial scars of varied aetiology and willing for surgery were considered for dermal graft technique. After pre-operative workup, subcision was done 2 weeks before planned surgery. Depending on the type of scar, grafts were inserted using pocket or road railing techniques. Scar improvement was assessed based on patient satisfaction. Results: Linear scars showed excellent improvement. Acne, varicella and traumatic scars also showed good improvement. However, two patients did not appreciate improvement due to marked surface irregularities as the scars were elevated. They were further subjected to LASER and chemical peel resurfacing. Conclusion: Dermal grafting can be used in the management of any round to oval facial scar which is soft, prominent and at least 4-5 mm across; linear scars at least 2-3 mm across and 3-4 cm in length. However, scars with prominent surface irregularities need further resurfacing techniques along with dermal grafting. Limitations: Limitations of the study include small sample size, and only subjective assessment of the scar has been taken into consideration to assess the outcome.

  16. Twist1 contributes to cranial bone initiation and dermal condensation by maintaining Wnt signaling responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnough, L. Henry; DiNuoscio, Gregg J.; Atit, Radhika P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Specification of cranial bone and dermal fibroblast progenitors in the supraorbital arch mesenchyme is Wnt/β-catenin signaling-dependent. The mechanism underlying how these cells interpret instructive signaling cues and differentiate into these two lineages is unclear. Twist1 is a target of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and is expressed in cranial bone and dermal lineages. Results Here, we show that onset of Twist1 expression in the mouse cranial mesenchyme is dependent on ectodermal Wnts and mesenchymal β-catenin activity. Conditional deletion of Twist1 in the supraorbital arch mesenchyme leads to cranial bone agenesis and hypoplastic dermis, as well as craniofacial malformation of eyes and palate. Twist1 is preferentially required for cranial bone lineage commitment by maintaining Wnt responsiveness. In the conditional absence of Twist1, the cranial dermis fails to condense and expand apically leading to extensive cranial dermal hypoplasia with few and undifferentiated hair follicles. Conclusions Thus, Twist1, a target of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, also functions to maintain Wnt responsiveness and is a key effector for cranial bone fate selection and dermal condensation. PMID:26677825

  17. Dermal phospho-alpha-synuclein deposits confirm REM sleep behaviour disorder as prodromal Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doppler, Kathrin; Jentschke, Hanna-Maria; Schulmeyer, Lena; Vadasz, David; Janzen, Annette; Luster, Markus; Höffken, Helmut; Mayer, Geert; Brumberg, Joachim; Booij, Jan; Musacchio, Thomas; Klebe, Stephan; Sittig-Wiegand, Elisabeth; Volkmann, Jens; Sommer, Claudia; Oertel, Wolfgang H.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (p-alpha-syn) deposits, one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), have recently been detected in dermal nerve fibres in PD patients with good specificity and sensitivity. Here, we studied whether p-alpha-syn may serve as a biomarker in

  18. Dermal-fat graft for anophthalmic socket in children enucleated for retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Canto, V; Cruz, C; Ordaz-Favila, J C

    2018-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most frequent intraocular tumour in childhood. The definitive treatment is enucleation. The management of the anophthalmic socket consists in the use of a plastic implant. The problem is that they are expensive and they usually extrude. The use of dermal-fat grafts minimises the hemi-facial hypoplasia. They usually grow with the face, and help to expand the orbital bones, thus avoiding the psychological and physical consequences. To determine if there is hemi-facial hypoplasia, using MRI images after the use of a dermal-fat implant in patients enucleated for RB. The study included patients enucleated for RB in which a dermal-fat implant was used and MRI images were taken in the period between June 2010 and December 2012. Facial growth and cosmesis was measured. The study included 12 patients, aged between 6 to 41 months. After 24 months of follow up, none of them developed hemifacial hypoplasia. All had a good cosmesis with the prosthesis. There were no complications after the surgery. The use of dermal-fat implant is a good option for the anophthalmic socket in patients with RB after enucleation. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Dermal regeneration in native non-cross-linked collagen sponges with different extracellular matrix molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H. J.; Middelkoop, E.; Mekkes, J. R.; Dutrieux, R. P.; Wildevuur, C. H.; Westerhof, H.

    1994-01-01

    Collagenous dermal templates can prevent scarring and wound contraction in the healing of full-thickness defects. In a porcine wound model, full-thickness wounds were substituted by reconstituted and native collagen sponges in combination with autologous split-skin mesh grafts and covered with a

  20. Dermal substitutes for full-thickness wounds in a one-stage grafting model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H. J.; Mekkes, J. R.; Middelkoop, E.; Hinrichs, W. L.; Wildevuur, C. R.; Westerhof, W.

    1993-01-01

    We tested different biodegradable matrix materials as dermal substitutes in a porcine wound model. Matrixes were covered with a split-skin mesh graft and protected with a microporous, semipermeable membrane, which prevents blister formation, wound infection and provides ultimate healing conditions.

  1. Secondary cytotoxicity of (crosslinked) dermal sheep collagen during repeated exposure to human fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luyn, M.J.A.; van Wachem, P.B.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Nieuwenhuis, P.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated commercially available dermal sheep collagen either cross-linked with hexamethylenediisocyanate, or cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. In previous in vitro studies we could discriminate primary, i.e. extractable, and secondary cytotoxicity, due to cell-biomaterial interactions, i.e.

  2. SECONDARY CYTOTOXICITY OF CROSS-LINKED DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGENS DURING REPEATED EXPOSURE TO HUMAN FIBROBLASTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLUYN, MJA; VANWACHEM, PB; DAMINK, LHHO; DIJKSTRA, PJ; FEIJEN, J; NIEUWENHUIS, P

    1992-01-01

    We investigated commercially available dermal sheep collagen either cross-linked with hexamethylenedlisocyanate, or cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. In previous in vitro studies we could discriminate primary, i.e. extractable, and secondary cytotoxicity, due to cell-biomaterial interactions, i.e.

  3. Determinants of Dermal Exposure Relevant for Exposure Modelling in Regulatory Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, J.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gijsbers, J.H.J.; Links, I.H.M.; Warren, N.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals requires assessment of the exposure levels of workers. In the absence of adequate specific measured data, models are often used to estimate exposure levels. For dermal exposure only a few models exist, which are not validated externally. In the scope of a large European

  4. Experimental dermatological surgery: An animal model for developing skills with dermal fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Catucci Boza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of laboratory experiments in the formation of physicians is well recognized since they facilitate scientific development and enhance technical skills. Dermal filling procedures are performed for the correction of wrinkles, rhytids, scars, and lipodystrophy. Till date, experimental models for the training of dermal filling techniques have not been studied. To demonstrate an experimental laboratory model for the training of dermal filling techniques in an animal model. The heads of pigs were used for this purpose, together with Carbopol gel at different densities, which was used to simulate the fillers available in the market. Needles and specific cannulas were used to apply the fillers into the creases and other areas of the pig skin. The pig head appears to be a suitable model for this training. Carbopol gel is a good choice for simulating fillers. This model of laboratory experiment requires a minimum of infrastructure; it is a low-cost alternative and facilitates practical training in the application of dermal fillers.

  5. Development and characterization of hyaluronic acid-lysine nanoparticles with potential as innovative dermal filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Carneiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Skin aging causes changes such as wrinkles and flaccidity leading to a large demand for aesthetic procedures, including dermal filling. A key agent in dermal filling is hyaluronic acid (HA, which is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan. However, it is a hydrophilic macromolecule that experiences great difficulty in crossing the skin barrier causing most commercial formulations containing it to be injectable, which in turn brings risks since they involve an invasive technique. In that sense, the aim of this study was to develop and characterize nanoparticles obtained from ionic interaction between HA and lysine (Lys for use as a potential agent of dermal filling for topical application, increasing and improving its applicability and safety. To this end, nanoparticles were obtained by dripping of Lys over HA under magnetic stirring. A nanometric size was confirmed and a suitable surface charge was obtained by zeta potential. Nanoparticles were almost spherical in shape with a smooth surface. Interaction between raw materials for preparing nanoparticles was studied by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy and an ionic interaction was confirmed. These physicochemical features suggest that obtained nanoparticles can be further used as a topical dermal filling.

  6. Mapping of Id locus for dermal shank melanin in a Chinese ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JIGUO XU

    2017-12-08

    Dec 8, 2017 ... yellow shank were obtained from Sangao Agriculture and. Animal Husbandry Limited by Share, Henan, China and were selected to fine-map the Id locus for the dermal shank melanin. At 52 weeks of age, 1 mL blood samples were with- drawn from all the chickens (192 birds) through the wing veins into the ...

  7. Effect of 3D microstructure of dermal papillae on SED concentration at a mechanoreceptor location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Trung Quang; Hoshi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Sano, Akihito

    2017-01-01

    The feeling of touch is an essential human sensation. Four types of mechanoreceptors (i.e., FA-I, SA-I, FA-II, and SA-II) in human skin signalize physical properties, such as shape, size, and texture, of an object that is touched and transmit the signal to the brain. Previous studies attempted to investigate the mechanical properties of skin microstructure and their effect on mechanoreceptors by using finite element modeling. However, very few studies have focused on the three-dimensional microstructure of dermal papillae, and this is related to that of FA-I receptors. A gap exists between conventional 2D models of dermal papillae and the natural configuration, which corresponds to a complex and uneven structure with depth. In this study, the three-dimensional microstructure of dermal papillae is modeled, and the differences between two-dimensional and three-dimensional aspects of dermal papillae on the strain energy density at receptor positions are examined. The three-dimensional microstructure has a focalizing effect and a localizing effect. Results also reveal the potential usefulness of these effects for tactile sensor design, and this may improve edge discrimination.

  8. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    , to be replaced by synthesis of other components including type I and III collagens. It seems likely therefore that the dermal papilla cells in vivo synthesize a basement membrane type of extracellular matrix, although a contribution from epithelial, and in some cases capillary endothelial, cells cannot be ruled...

  9. Bronchitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflamed tissue in the main ... present only for a short time. Causes When acute bronchitis occurs, it almost always comes after having a ...

  10. Acute cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000264.htm Acute cholecystitis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute cholecystitis is sudden swelling and irritation of the gallbladder. ...

  11. Mapping of Id locus for dermal shank melanin in a Chinese indigenous chicken breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiguo; Lin, Shudai; Gao, Xinfeng; Nie, Qinghua; Luo, Qingbin; Zhang, Xiquan

    2017-12-01

    The dermal shank pigmentation, one of the defining traits of chicken breeds, is caused by an abnormal deposition of melanin in the dermis of the shank. The abnormal deposition is controlled by the sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin (Id). In this study, we aim to locate the gene responsible for the dermal shank pigmentation in chickens by an association analysis and a differential expression analysis. Based on our results, 72 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in Z chromosome (chrZ): 71-73 Mb (galGal3) were selected to further explore their relationships with the dermal shank pigmentation in pure lines of 96 Gushi hens and 96 Gushi hens with a yellow shank skin colour. The results of the association analysis showed that the SNPs located in chrZ: 72.58-72.99 Mb (galGal3) (chrZ: 79.02-79.44 Mb (galGal4)) are significantly associated with the dermal shank pigmentation. Based on the results of our previous studies and the present association analysis, the zinc-finger protein 608 (ZNF608), GRAM domain containing 3 (GRAMD3), aldehyde dehydrogenase 7 family member A1 (ALDH7A1), fem-1 homologue C (FEM1C), beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (B4GALT1) and versican (VCAN) genes were selected for the differential expression analysis. The gene expression profiles showed that the expression of GRAMD3 gene in the dermis tissues of the shank was significantly (P = 0.010738 < 0.05) higher in 350-day-old Gushi chickens characterized by the dermal shank pigmentation than in one-day-old Gushi chickens. The dermal shank pigmentation was not present in the one-day-old Gushi chickens. Additionally, the results of the association analysis and the expression analysis showed that GRAMD3 could be the most likely candidate gene for the Id locus. However, we did not detect a mutation, i.e. significantly associated with this trait within GRAMD3. Therefore, we concluded that the variations located in the flanking region of GRAMD3 led to the abnormal expression of GRAMD3, which

  12. Clinical Performance of a Dermal Filler Containing Natural Glycolic Acid and a Polylactic Acid Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchetto, Pedro Cervantes; Durán Páramo, Rosa Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Lipoatrophy is a condition that affects certain individuals, most commonly those who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.1–3 Injectable fillers are used for the treatment of these dermal contour deformities to smooth dermal depressions formed by the loss of volume. These dermal fillers (also known as soft tissue augmentation devices) can correct contour deformities caused by lipoatrophy in patients who are human immunodeficiency virus positive or negative. The product used in this study is a patented, second-generation, injectable, dermal collagen stimulator that combines glycolic acid and polylactic acid. The glycolic acid used is not a polymer, but rather an acid derived from sugar cane. Its chemical structure corresponds to that of an alpha-hydroxy acid. Glycolic acid is a well-characterized agent that is present in a number of cosmetic products. Polylactic acid is a synthetic, biocompatible, biodegradable, inert, synthetic polymer from the poly a-hydroxy-acid family that is believed to stimulate fibroblasts to produce more collagen, thus increasing facial volume. Together, polylactic acid and glycolic acid act in concert to 1) stimulate collagen production and 2) hydrate the outer layers of the skin. A multicenter, clinical investigation authorized by the Mexican Secretariat of Health was conducted between September 20, 2002, and September 19, 2004. This clinical study was conducted in male patients between 32 and 60 years of age with lipoatrophy as a result of highly active antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The study objective was to measure the improvement of contour deformities after the injection of a dermal collagen stimulator containing glycolic acid and polylactic acid. In addition to safety, this dermal filler was assessed when used to correct volume deformities caused by lipoatrophy in subjects who are human immunodeficiency virus positive. Thirty male subjects participated and were treated as follows

  13. Differentiation within autologous fibrin scaffolds of porcine dermal cells with the mesenchymal stem cell phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puente, Pilar de la, E-mail: pilardelapuentegarcia@gmail.com [Tissue Bank, San Francisco Clinic Foundation, Av./Facultad 51, 5°, 24004 León (Spain); Ludeña, Dolores [Pathology Service, University Hospital of Salamanca, P/San Vicente 58-182, 37007 Salamanca (Spain); López, Marta; Ramos, Jennifer; Iglesias, Javier [Tissue Bank, San Francisco Clinic Foundation, Av./Facultad 51, 5°, 24004 León (Spain)

    2013-02-01

    Porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) are an attractive source of cells for tissue engineering because their properties are similar to those of human stem cells. pMSCs can be found in different tissues but their dermal origin has not been studied in depth. Additionally, MSCs differentiation in monolayer cultures requires subcultured cells, and these cells are at risk of dedifferentiation when implanting them into living tissue. Following this, we attempted to characterize the MSCs phenotype of porcine dermal cells and to evaluate their cellular proliferation and differentiation in autologous fibrin scaffolds (AFSs). Dermal biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 12 pigs. Dermal cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Frozen autologous plasma was used to prepare AFSs. pMSC differentiation was studied in standard structures (monolayers and pellets) and in AFSs. The pMSCs expressed the CD90 and CD29 markers of the mesenchymal lineage. AFSs afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The porcine dermis can be proposed to be a good source of MSCs with adequate proliferative capacity and a suitable expression of markers. The pMSCs also showed optimal proliferation and differentiation in AFSs, such that these might serve as a promising autologous and implantable material for use in tissue engineering. -- Highlights: ► Low fibrinogen concentration provides a suitable matrix for cell migration and differentiation. ► Autologous fibrin scaffolds is a promising technique in tissue engineering. ► Dermal cells are an easily accessible mesenchymal stem cell source. ► Fibrin scaffolds afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation.

  14. Dermal permeation of biocides and aromatic chemicals in three generic formulations of metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Vikrant; White, Eugene M; Kaminski, Michael D; Riviere, Jim E; Baynes, Ronald E

    2009-01-01

    Metalworking fluids (MWF) are complex mixtures consisting of a variety of components and additives. A lack of scientific data exists regarding the dermal permeation of its components, particularly biocides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermal permeation of biocides and other aromatic chemicals in water and in three generic soluble oil, semi-synthetic, and synthetic MWF types in order to evaluate any differences in their permeation profiles. An in vitro flow-through diffusion cell study was performed to determine dermal permeation. An infinite dose of different groups of chemicals (6 biocides and 29 aromatic chemicals) was applied to porcine skin, with perfusate samples being collected over an 8-h period. Perfusate samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS), and permeability was calculated from the analysis of the permeated chemical concentration-time profile. In general, the permeation of chemicals was highest in aqueous solution, followed by synthetic, semi-synthetic, and soluble oil MWF. The absorption profiles of most of the chemicals including six biocides were statistically different among the synthetic and soluble oil MWF formulations, with reduced permeation occurring in oily formulations. Permeation of almost all chemicals was statistically different between aqueous and three MWF formulation types. Data from this study show that permeation of chemicals is higher in a generic synthetic MWF when compared to a soluble oil MWF. This indicates that a soluble oil MWF may be safer than a synthetic MWF in regard to dermal permeation of chemicals to allow for an increased potential of systemic toxicity. Therefore, one may conclude that a synthetic type of formulation has more potential to produce contact dermatitis and induce systemic toxicological effects. The dilution of these MWF formulations with water may increase dermal permeability of biocides

  15. 47 CFR 90.807 - Submission of upfront payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submission of upfront payments. 90.807 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for 900 MHz Specialized Mobile Radio Service § 90.807 Submission of upfront payments. Each bidder in the 900 MHz SMR auction will be...

  16. 7 CFR 1703.146 - Submission of applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan Program § 1703.146 Submission of... Representatives (GFRs), by Rural Development State Directors, or by applicants themselves. Applications for loans... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of applications. 1703.146 Section 1703.146...

  17. 15 CFR 2009.0 - Submission of representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of representation. 2009.0... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE PROCEDURES FOR REPRESENTATIONS UNDER SECTION 422 OF THE TRADE AGREEMENTS ACT OF 1979 § 2009.0 Submission of representation. (a) Any—(1) Part to the Agreement; or (2...

  18. 77 FR 2947 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... techniques or other forms of information technology should be addressed to: Desk Officer for Agriculture... full effect if received within 30 days of this notification. Copies of the submission(s) may be...), as well as making sure they have no negative record that could be a negative reflection to USDA. The...

  19. 77 FR 73611 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... techniques or other forms of information technology should be addressed to: Desk Officer for Agriculture... full effect if received within 30 days of this notification. Copies of the submission(s) may be... Nutrition Service Title: Negative Quality Control Review Schedule. OMB Control Number: 0584-0034. Summary of...

  20. 40 CFR 82.180 - Agency review of SNAP submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency review of SNAP submissions. 82... review of SNAP submissions. (a) Processing of SNAP notices—(1) 90-day review process. The 90-day review...) Initial review of notice. The SNAP Document Control Officer will review the notice to ensure that basic...

  1. 40 CFR 145.22 - Elements of a program submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elements of a program submission. 145.22 Section 145.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE UIC PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 145.22 Elements of a...

  2. 40 CFR 271.5 - Elements of a program submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elements of a program submission. 271.5 Section 271.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Authorization § 271.5 Elements of a program submission. (a) Any State that seeks to administer a program under...

  3. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification and/or...

  4. East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The editors welcome submissions of relevance to human rights, peace, constitutional and administrative law, free=edom of information, gender, law and development, good governance and public international law. Interdisciplinary articles on the above topics are encouraged. All submissions should be ...

  5. XML Schema Guide for Primary CDR Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents the extensible markup language (XML) schema guide for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics’ (OPPT) e-CDRweb tool. E-CDRweb is the electronic, web-based tool provided by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the submission of Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) information. This document provides the user with tips and guidance on correctly using the version 1.7 XML schema. Please note that the order of the elements must match the schema.

  6. Acute Porphyrias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besur, Siddesh; Schmeltzer, Paul; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

    2015-09-01

    Porphyrias are a group of eight metabolic disorders characterized by defects in heme biosynthesis. Porphyrias are classified into two major categories: 1) the acute or inducible porphyrias and 2) the chronic cutaneous porphyrias. The acute hepatic porphyrias are further classified into acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), hereditary coproporphyria, variegate porphyria, and porphyria due to severe deficiency of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase (ALADP). AIP is the most common, and ALADP is the least common acute porphyria. The clinical presentations of acute porphyrias are nonspecific. There are no pathognomonic signs or symptoms. The most frequent presenting symptom is abdominal pain, but pain in the chest, back, or lower extremities may also occur. Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality during acute attacks, and hypomagnesemia is also common. Both are risk factors for development of seizures, which occur in ∼ 20-30% of acute attacks. Once suspected, the diagnosis of porphyria can be rapidly established by checking random urinary porphobilinogen. Initial management of acute porphyria includes discontinuation of all potentially harmful drugs and management of symptoms. Acute attacks should be treated emergently with intravenous heme and glucose to avoid considerable morbidity and mortality. Acute attacks last a few days, and the majority of patients are asymptomatic between attacks. Prognosis is good if the condition is recognized early and treated aggressively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards Development of a Dermal Pain Model: In Vitro Activation of Rat and Human Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin Repeat 1 and Safe Dermal Injection of o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile to Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, Anita; Berg, Anna-Lena; Nyman, Eva; Meijer, Thomas; Lundgren, Viveka; Franzén, Bo; Ståhle, Lars

    2015-12-01

    During clinical development of analgesics, it is important to have access to pharmacologically specific human pain models. o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS) is a selective and potent agonist of the transient receptor potential ankyrin repeat 1 (TRPA1), which is a transducer molecule in nociceptors sensing reactive chemical species. While CS has been subject to extensive toxicological investigations in animals and human beings, its effects on intradermal or subcutaneous injection have not previously been reported. We have investigated the potential of CS to be used as an agonist on TRPA1 in human experimental pain studies. A calcium influx assay was used to confirm the capacity of CS to activate TRPA1 with >100,000 times the selectivity over the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1. CS dose-dependently (EC50 0.9 μM) released calcitonin gene-related peptide in rat dorsal root ganglion cultures, supporting involvement in pain signalling. In a local tolerance study, injection of a single intradermal dose of 20 mM CS to rats resulted in superficial, circular crusts at the injection sites after approximately 4 days. The histopathology evaluation revealed a mild, acute inflammatory reaction in the epidermis and dermis at the intradermal CS injection site 1 day after administration. After 14 days, the epidermal epithelium was fully restored. The symptoms were not considered to be adverse, and it is suggested that doses up to 20 μL of 20 mM CS can be safely administered to human beings. In conclusion, our data support development of a CS human dermal pain model. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  8. Human amniotic fluid derived cells can competently substitute dermal fibroblasts in a tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal skin analog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; Hosper, Nynke; Luginbuehl, Joachim; Biedermann, Thomas; Reichmann, Ernst; Meuli, Martin

    Human amniotic fluid comprises cells with high differentiation capacity, thus representing a potential cell source for skin tissue engineering. In this experimental study, we investigated the ability of human amniotic fluid derived cells to substitute dermal fibroblasts and support epidermis

  9. Efficient dermal delivery of retinyl palmitate: Progressive polarimetry and Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the structure and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Bae; Lee, Dong Ryeol; Choi, Nak Cho; Jang, Jihui; Park, Chun Ho; Yoon, Moung Seok; Lee, Miyoung; Won, Kyoungae; Hwang, Jae Sung; Kim, B Moon

    2015-10-12

    Over the past decades, there has been a growing interest in dermal drug delivery. Although various novel delivery devices and methods have been developed, dermal delivery is still challenging because of problems such as poor drug permeation, instability of vesicles and drug leakage from vesicles induced by fusion of vesicles. To solve the vesicle instability problems in current dermal delivery systems, we developed materials comprised of liquid crystals as a new delivery vehicle of retinyl palmitate and report the characterization of the liquid crystals using a Mueller matrix polarimetry. The stability of the liquid-crystal materials was evaluated using the polarimeter as a novel evaluation tool along with other conventional methods. The dermal delivery of retinyl palmitate was investigated through the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the permeation of retinyl palmitate was enhanced by up to 106% compared to that using an ordinary emulsion with retinyl palmitate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ornamentation of dermal bones of Placodermi from the Lower Devonian of Morocco as a measure of biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antczak Mateusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dermal bones are formed early during growth and thus constitute an important tool in studies of ontogenetic and evolutionary changes amongst early vertebrates. Ornamentation of dermal bones of terrestrial vertebrates is often used as a taxonomic tool, for instance in Aetosauria, extant lungfishes (Dipnoi and ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii, for which it have been proved to be of use in differentiating specimens to species level. However, it has not been utilised to the same extent in placoderms. Several features of the ornamentation of Early Devonian placoderms from Hamar Laghdad (Morocco were examined using both optical and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether it is possible to distinguish armoured Palaeozoic fishes. Four distinct morphotypes, based on ornamentation of dermal bones, are differentiated. These distinct types of ornamentation may be the result of either different location of dermal plates on the body or of ontogenetic (intraspecific and/or interspecific variation.

  11. Ornamentation of dermal bones of Placodermi from the Lower Devonian of Morocco as a measure of biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antczak, Mateusz; Berkowski, Błażej

    2017-06-01

    Dermal bones are formed early during growth and thus constitute an important tool in studies of ontogenetic and evolutionary changes amongst early vertebrates. Ornamentation of dermal bones of terrestrial vertebrates is often used as a taxonomic tool, for instance in Aetosauria, extant lungfishes (Dipnoi) and ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), for which it have been proved to be of use in differentiating specimens to species level. However, it has not been utilised to the same extent in placoderms. Several features of the ornamentation of Early Devonian placoderms from Hamar Laghdad (Morocco) were examined using both optical and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether it is possible to distinguish armoured Palaeozoic fishes. Four distinct morphotypes, based on ornamentation of dermal bones, are differentiated. These distinct types of ornamentation may be the result of either different location of dermal plates on the body or of ontogenetic (intraspecific) and/or interspecific variation.

  12. INFLUENCE OF ETHYLENE-OXIDE GAS TREATMENT ON THE IN-VITRO DEGRADATION BEHAVIOR OF DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAMINK, LHHO; DIJKSTRA, PJ; VANLUYN, MJA; VANWACHEM, PB; NIEUWENHUIS, P; FEIJEN, J

    The influence of ethylene oxide gas treatment on the in vitro degradation behavior of noncrosslinked, glutaraldehyde crosslinked or hexamethylene diisocyanate crosslinked dermal sheep collagen (DSC) using bacterial collagenase is described. The results obtained were compared with the degradation

  13. Acute cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fialkowski, Elizabeth; Halpin, Valerie; Whinney, Robb R

    2008-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis causes unremitting right upper quadrant pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and fever, and if untreated can lead to perforations, abscess formation, or fistulae. About 95% of people with acute cholecystitis have gallstones.It is thought that blockage of the bile duct by a gallstone or local inflammation can lead to acute cholecystitis, but we don't know whether bacterial infection is also necessary.

  14. Acute cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Halpin, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis causes unremitting right upper quadrant pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and fever, and if untreated can lead to perforations, abscess formation, or fistulae. About 95% of people with acute cholecystitis have gallstones.It is thought that blockage of the cystic duct by a gallstone or local inflammation can lead to acute cholecystitis, but we don't know whether bacterial infection is also necessary.

  15. Acute cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Halpin, Valerie; Gupta, Aditya

    2011-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis causes unremitting right upper quadrant pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and fever, and if untreated can lead to perforations, abscess formation, or fistulae. About 95% of people with acute cholecystitis have gallstones.It is thought that blockage of the bile duct by a gallstone or local inflammation can lead to acute cholecystitis, but we don't know whether bacterial infection is also necessary.

  16. Application of dermal microdialysis for the determination of bioavailability of clobetasol propionate applied to the skin of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Au, W L; Skinner, M F; Benfeldt, E

    2012-01-01

    Dermal microdialysis was used to assess the bioavailability of a topical corticosteroid, clobetasol propionate, following application onto the skin of human subjects. The penetration of clobetasol propionate from a 4% m/v ethanolic solution applied onto 4 sites on one forearm of healthy human vol...... drug of interest. Furthermore, the study clearly demonstrated the application of dermal microdialysis as a valuable tool to assess the bioavailability/bioequivalence of clobetasol propionate penetration into the skin following topical application....

  17. Ornamentation of dermal bones of Placodermi from the Lower Devonian of Morocco as a measure of biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Antczak, Mateusz; Berkowski, Błażej

    2017-01-01

    Dermal bones are formed early during growth and thus constitute an important tool in studies of ontogenetic and evolutionary changes amongst early vertebrates. Ornamentation of dermal bones of terrestrial vertebrates is often used as a taxonomic tool, for instance in Aetosauria, extant lungfishes (Dipnoi) and ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), for which it have been proved to be of use in differentiating specimens to species level. However, it has not been utilised to the same extent in plac...

  18. Temporal localization of immunoreactive transforming growth factor beta1 in normal equine skin and in full-thickness dermal wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoret, Christine L; Barber, Spencer M; Gordon, John R

    2002-01-01

    To describe the localization of immunoreactive transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 in both normal skin and full-thickness dermal wounds of the limb and the thorax of the horse. Six full-thickness excisional wounds were created on the lateral aspect of one metacarpal region and on the midthoracic area of each horse. Sequentially collected tissue specimens from wound margins were assessed for TGF-beta1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Four horses (2 to 4 years of age). A neutralizing monoclonal anti-human TGF-beta1 antibody was used to detect the spatial expression of TGF-beta1 protein by immunohistochemical localization in biopsies obtained before wounding and at 12 and 24 hours, and 5, 10, and 14 days. No differences in localization of immunoreactive TGF-beta1 were detected between limb and thorax, for either intact skin or wounds. Unwounded epidermis stained moderately for TGF-beta1 protein throughout all layers, whereas the dermis was relatively devoid of immunoreactivity. During the acute stage of repair, migrating epithelium lost its stain, whereas cells of epidermal appendages remained strongly immunoreactive. The epithelium recovered its TGF-beta1 immunoreactivity during wound remodeling, although cells of the stratum corneum remained negative. Macrophages of the inflammatory exudate had positive cytoplasmic staining that diminished with time. Immunoreactivity of granulation tissue fibroblasts was evident early on and increased throughout the repair process. TGF-beta1 is constitutively expressed in normal, unwounded equine epithelium. Its expression is upregulated within the skin on injury and is associated with the cells involved in wound repair. A more precise understanding of the temporal and spatial expression of TGF-beta1 during wound repair in horses should provide the groundwork for possible future manipulations of both normal and aberrant tissue repair. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  19. A multicenter prospective trial evaluating fetal bovine dermal graft (Xenform® Matrix) for pelvic reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Howard B; Maccarone, Joseph; Naughton, Martin J; Aguirre, Oscar A; Patel, Rakesh C

    2010-12-13

    A prospective multicenter clinical study was performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a bovine dermal graft (Xenform® Matrix, Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) during vaginal reconstructive surgery. Forty-five women with ICS stage 2 or higher pelvic organ prolapse (POP) were enrolled at 4 centers. POP-Q, pelvic floor function (PFDI-20), sexual function (PISQ-12), and patient satisfaction tools were used to assess subjects at baseline, and at 2 and 6 weeks, and 3, 6 and 12 months post surgery. The significance of symptom score changes at 6 months and 1 year were determined by the t-test for paired data. Forty-three of the 45 patients completed the 12 month study. The majority of the subjects had cystocele (98%) and/or rectocele (84%) defects at study entry. At 12 months, 74% of the defects had improved to a stage 0 or 1. Mean PFDI-20 scores improved by 72% (p constipation) was deemed by the study physician to be unrelated to Xenform®. One subject had severe pyelonephritis resulting in dialysis. This subject had a previous history of pyelonephritis, sepsis and acute renal failure. The third subject had a reported recurrent cystocele of moderate severity, possibly related to the device. No graft related erosions or pain lasting more than 30 days were reported. No subjects withdrew due to an adverse event. This study is the first to investigate the use of Xenform® Matrix in vaginal reconstructive surgery among patients with POP. Significant improvement was maintained at 12 months utilizing both objective and subjective assessment tools, confirming the safety and efficacy of this material in vaginal surgery. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01244165.

  20. A multicenter prospective trial evaluating fetal bovine dermal graft (Xenform® Matrix for pelvic reconstructive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Oscar A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective multicenter clinical study was performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a bovine dermal graft (Xenform® Matrix, Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA during vaginal reconstructive surgery. Methods Forty-five women with ICS stage 2 or higher pelvic organ prolapse (POP were enrolled at 4 centers. POP-Q, pelvic floor function (PFDI-20, sexual function (PISQ-12, and patient satisfaction tools were used to assess subjects at baseline, and at 2 and 6 weeks, and 3, 6 and 12 months post surgery. The significance of symptom score changes at 6 months and 1 year were determined by the t-test for paired data. Forty-three of the 45 patients completed the 12 month study. Results The majority of the subjects had cystocele (98% and/or rectocele (84% defects at study entry. At 12 months, 74% of the defects had improved to a stage 0 or 1. Mean PFDI-20 scores improved by 72% (p ®. One subject had severe pyelonephritis resulting in dialysis. This subject had a previous history of pyelonephritis, sepsis and acute renal failure. The third subject had a reported recurrent cystocele of moderate severity, possibly related to the device. No graft related erosions or pain lasting more than 30 days were reported. No subjects withdrew due to an adverse event. Conclusion This study is the first to investigate the use of Xenform® Matrix in vaginal reconstructive surgery among patients with POP. Significant improvement was maintained at 12 months utilizing both objective and subjective assessment tools, confirming the safety and efficacy of this material in vaginal surgery. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01244165

  1. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP): A review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, Jesse; Schwartz, Robert A

    2015-11-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a severe cutaneous adverse reaction characterized by the rapid development of nonfollicular, sterile pustules on an erythematous base. It is attributed to drugs in the majority of cases. Antibiotics are the most common cause of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis; however, a wide variety of drugs has been associated with this condition. Typically, within 48 hours of ingesting the causative medication, there is acute onset of fever and pustulosis with leukocytosis. In severe cases there can be mucous membrane and systemic organ involvement. Histologic findings include intracorneal, subcorneal, and/or intraepidermal pustules with papillary dermal edema containing neutrophils and eosinophils. Treatment focuses on removal of the causative drug, supportive care, infection prevention, and the often beneficial use of a potent topical steroid. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dermal γδ T cells--a new player in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yihua; Fleming, Chris; Yan, Jun

    2013-07-01

    Psoriasis is considered as a T-cell driven chronic inflammatory skin disease. Both T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 cells have been demonstrated to participate in psoriasis pathogenesis. Recently, a new subset of γδ T cells residing in the dermis has been identified. Dermal γδ T cells are the major source of interleukin (IL)-17 in the skin upon IL-23 stimulation. More importantly, they are also shown to be involved in psoriasis development. In this review, we focus on this newly discovered cell population both in mice and human, particularly discussing its role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The biologic therapeutics targeting dermal γδ T cell and its related molecules in the treatment of psoriasis are also included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acellular Dermal Matrix: Treating Periocular Melanoma in a Patient with Xeroderma Pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlen Pillay, MBChB

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a 7-year-old girl with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP, who presented in our clinic with a large melanoma (35 × 50 × 20 mm, Breslow depth 18 mm in the zygomatic-malar area. Palliative surgery was performed to maintain her residual vision and to reduce the pain caused by the compression of local structures. Because of the limited access of autologous skin grafts in pediatric patients with XP who are severely affected, we opted to use an acellular dermal matrix. There was 100% graft uptake, and the pain due to compression by the tumor was alleviated. This case demonstrates that acellular dermal matrices can be safely and effectively used in oncological facial reconstruction, especially in patients with progressive conditions such as XP.

  4. Isolation of fungi belonging to the genera Geotrichum and Trichosporum from human dermal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, A; De Uribe, L

    1976-08-30

    Isolates of Geotrichum and Trichosporum spp. obtained from patients with a variety of dermal lesions were studied. Among 2,202 cases examined, microorganisms of these genera were recovered from 100 (4,5%); there were 38 isolated of Geotrichum- and 62 of Trichosporum- spp. Most isolations were obtained from nails: 52 cases. The species most frequently found were T. beigelii (25 cases) and G. candidum (30 cases). In 50 of the patients, these fungi were isolated in pure culture, in an additional 40 Trichosporum spp. were found. Mixed cultures with C. albicans were observed in 28 patients, with other Candida spp. in 16 and with dermatophytes in 6. Among the patients whose isolations occurred in pure cultures, the number of colonies recovered was large in 20 cases, 1 with Geotrichum candidum - 19 with Trichosporum (16 T. beigelii, 3 T. capitatum). The relationship between the isolated yeast-like fungi and the dermal lesion was considered to be direct in these 20 patients.

  5. Probe depth matters in dermal microdialysis sampling of benzoic acid after topical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, R; Benfeldt, E; Bangsgaard, N

    2012-01-01

    Microdialysis (MD) in the skin - dermal microdialysis (DMD) - is a unique technique for sampling of topically as well as systemically administered drugs at the site of action, e.g. sampling of dermatological drug concentrations in the dermis. Debate has concerned the existence of a correlation...... chromatography. Probe depth was measured by 20-MHz ultrasound scanning. The area under the time-versus-concentration curve (AUC) describes the drug exposure in the tissue during the experiment and is a relevant parameter to compare for the 3 dermal probe depths investigated. The AUC(0-12) were: superficial...... be predicted that the differences in sampling at different probe depths will have a more significant impact in the beginning of a study or in studies of short duration. Based on this study it can be recommended that studies of topical drug penetration using DMD sampling should include measurements of probe...

  6. [Irritating effect and dermal toxicity of virkon, a disinfectant widely used in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, B; Stetkiewicz, J; Kieć-Swierczyńska, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the threshold irritating effect of Virkon, a disinfectant widely used in Poland, on the rabbit's skin and eye, and its dermal toxicity in single exposure. The studies were carried out according to the OECD guidelines, modified by Krysiak. A 10% aqueous solution of Virkon in the conditions of multiple open exposure was defined as the threshold concentration evoking small inflammatory reaction. After a single administration of Virkon in aqueous solutions into the rabbit's eye, the value of sensitising effect index was 1.5 for 1% solution of the disinfectant in question which indicates weak inflammatory reaction. The study of dermal toxicity in a single exposure revealed neither animal death nor morphological changes in internal organs which suggests non-cutaneous absorption of Virkon. The present study may provide the basis for assessing dermatological changes in people exposed to disinfectants.

  7. Recent knowledge: Concepts of dermal absorption in relation to skin decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Christina; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Skin decontamination is an important step mitigating percutaneous absorption through the stratum corneum (SC), which is also a highly complex process. Thus, understanding diffusion mechanisms and measuring dermal absorption rates are critical to protect humans from toxic exposures. Here, highly varied literature is placed in a biological and clinical perspective in regards to decontamination. Literature from PubMed and Surge Laboratory library files were searched and reviewed for relevance. Recent data have shown multiple layers of SC structural heterogeneity, which results in unique substance partitioning characteristics across the membrane. As such, attempts to model and understand this behavior in alternative in vitro membranes prove difficult. More synthetic and natural membranes are being explored as models for in vivo behavior. In addition, commonly accepted decontamination methods are undergoing risk assessment. These recent and varied literature findings update available knowledge regarding skin decontamination and its challenges, with a focus on dermal absorption. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Skin Pigmentation and Pigmentary Disorders: Focus on Epidermal/Dermal Cross-Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastonini, Emanuela; Kovacs, Daniela; Picardo, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    Variation in human skin and hair color is the most notable aspect of human variability and several studies in evolution, genetics and developmental biology contributed to explain the mechanisms underlying human skin pigmentation, which is responsible for differences in skin color across the world's populations. Despite skin pigmentation is primarily related to melanocytes functionality, the surrounding keratinocytes and extracellular matrix proteins and fibroblasts in the underlying dermal compartment actively contribute to cutaneous homeostasis. Many autocrine/paracrine secreted factors and cell adhesion mechanisms involving both epidermal and dermal constituents determine constitutive skin pigmentation and, whenever deregulated, the occurrence of pigmentary disorders. In particular, an increased expression of such mediators and their specific receptors frequently lead to hyperpigmentary conditions, such as in melasma and in solar lentigo, whereas a defect in their expression/release is related to hypopigmented disorders, as seen in vitiligo. All these interactions underline the relevant role of pigmentation on human evolution and biology.

  9. Association of versican with dermal matrices and its potential role in hair follicle development and cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Cros, D L; LeBaron, R G; Couchman, J R

    1995-01-01

    Versican is a member of the group of aggregating proteoglycans involved in matrix assembly and structure and in cell adhesion. We examined changes in the distribution of versican in mammalian skin, with emphasis on hair follicle development and cycling. In adult human skin, immunostaining...... for versican appeared predominantly in the dermis, with intense staining of the reticular dermis. Weak staining was observed at the dermoepidermal junction and the connective tissue sheath of hair follicles. Versican expression was also noted in the reticular dermis of rat skin, within dermal papillae......, and possibly associated with follicle basement membranes. During mouse hair follicle development, versican was not expressed until the hair follicles were beginning to produce fibers. With follicle maturation, versican expression intensified in the dermal papillae, reaching a maximum at the height...

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF RESULTS AND TREATMENT TIMING OF DEEP DERMAL BURNS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Константин Александрович Афоничев

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Untreated deep dermal burns in children are the cause of long-term treatment and severe cicatricial deformities, resulting in poor cosmetic results and greatly impairing functional outcome. The problem of optimizing the results and timing of treatment of deep burns in children in recent years has become particularly urgent. We observed 1853 children with III-A degree burns. Some of the children's burns healed spontaneously, which led to the development of scar deformities during the first six months after injury. Risk factors for their development, depending on the patient's age and location of the lesion, are pointed out. Other children underwent early tangential excision of eschar. The analysis of the treatment results showed that the use of early surgery in children with deep dermal burns can reduce treatment time, as well as significantly to improve the cosmetic and functional outcomes of trauma.

  11. The focal facial dermal dysplasias: phenotypic spectrum and molecular genetic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Beom Hee; Aggarwal, Aneel; Slavotinek, Anne; Edelmann, Lisa; Chen, Brenden; Desnick, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Focal facial dermal dysplasias (FFDDs) are rare genetic/developmental disorders characterised by bilateral 'scar-like' facial lesions. Four subtypes are classified by the bitemporal (FFDD1-3) or preauricular (FFDD4) lesion location. FFDD1-3 are differentiated by additional facial abnormalities and inheritance patterns. Although the genetic defects causing FFDD1 and FFDD2 remain unknown, recent studies identified defects causing FFDD3 and FFDD4. Here, the clinical phenotypes, genetic defects and inheritance of the four FFDD subtypes are described. In addition, the overlapping facial abnormalities in FFDD3 and two other genetic disorders, Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome and Barber-Say syndrome, are noted. Familiarity with the FFDDs by clinicians will further delineate the phenotypes and genetic/developmental defects of these dermal facial disorders. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Repair of Postoperative Abdominal Hernia in a Child with Congenital Omphalocele Using Porcine Dermal Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lambropoulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Incisional hernias are a common complication appearing after abdominal wall defects reconstruction, with omphalocele and gastroschisis being the most common etiologies in children. Abdominal closure of these defects represents a real challenge for pediatric surgeons with many surgical techniques and various prosthetic materials being used for this purpose. Case Report. We present a case of repair of a postoperative ventral hernia occurring after congenital omphalocele reconstruction in a three-and-a-half-year-old child using an acellular, sterile, porcine dermal mesh. Conclusion. Non-cross-linked acellular porcine dermal matrix is an appropriate mesh used for the reconstruction of abdominal wall defects and their postoperative complications like large ventral hernias with success and preventing their recurrence.

  13. Twenty years of Hendra virus: laboratory submission trends and risk factors for infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C S; McLAUGHLIN, A; Field, H E; Edson, D; Mayer, D; Ossedryver, S; Barrett, J; Waltisbuhl, D

    2016-11-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) was first described in 1994 in an outbreak of acute and highly lethal disease in horses and humans in Australia. Equine cases continue to be diagnosed periodically, yet the predisposing factors for infection remain unclear. We undertook an analysis of equine submissions tested for HeV by the Queensland government veterinary reference laboratory over a 20-year period to identify and investigate any patterns. We found a marked increase in testing from July 2008, primarily reflecting a broadening of the HeV clinical case definition. Peaks in submissions for testing, and visitations to the Government HeV website, were associated with reported equine incidents. Significantly differing between-year HeV detection rates in north and south Queensland suggest a fundamental difference in risk exposure between the two regions. The statistical association between HeV detection and stockhorse type may suggest that husbandry is a more important risk determinant than breed per se. The detection of HeV in horses with neither neurological nor respiratory signs poses a risk management challenge for attending veterinarians and laboratory staff, reinforcing animal health authority recommendations that appropriate risk management strategies be employed for all sick horses, and by anyone handling sick horses or associated biological samples.

  14. Marjolin's ulcer in two horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia

    OpenAIRE

    Badial, Peres R. [UNESP; Rashmir-Raven, Ann M.; Cagnini, Didier Q. [UNESP; Oliveira-Filho, José P. [UNESP; Cooley, Avery J.; Cunha, Paulo Henrique J.; Kitchell, Barbara E.; Conceição, Lissandro G.; Mochal, Cathleen A.; Borges, Alexandre Secorun [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    Two Quarter Horse mares with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) were diagnosed with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) associated with chronic nonhealing wounds. The lesions were similar to the development of SCC from chronic nonhealing ulcers, known as Marjolin's ulcers in humans. The horses showed recurrent skin wounds in the saddle and paralumbar regions and were confirmed by molecular techniques as having HERDA. Both horses were maintained as research animals for pro...

  15. Protective effect of vitamin C in female Swiss mice dermally-exposed to the tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Letícia Martins; Estrela, Fernanda Neves; E Silva, Bianca Costa; Mendes, Bruna de Oliveira; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo; Rodrigues, Aline Sueli de Lima; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies involving the oral exposure of mice to tannery effluents have found neurotoxic effects. However, studies about the effects the dermal exposure to pollutant have on the cognitive function of females have not been found in the literature. Thus, the aim of the current study is to investigate whether the dermal exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluents (2 h/day for 20 days) can cause cognitive impairment, as it was already evidenced in male Swiss mice. Furthermore, based on the administration of vitamin C (before or after the exposure to the xenobiotic), the current study also aims to assess the protective effect of vitamin C in female Swiss mice dermally-exposed to the tannery effluent. Female Swiss mice exposed to the tannery effluent (without vitamin supplementation) have shown lower novel object recognition index during the test session of the novel object recognition task, and they have descended significantly faster from the inhibitory avoidance platform when they were compared to mice belonging to the other groups, therefore evidencing memory deficit. However, the test performance of females receiving vitamin C was similar to that of control animals. Thus, the current study confirms the initial hypothesis that the dermal exposure to the pollutant, even for a short period, causes cognitive deficit in female Swiss mice. The herein presented findings also provide evidence that the mechanisms of action of the tannery effluent in these animals are related to oxidative damages in specific brain regions directed to the formation of short memory to perform aversive and object recognition tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nano-TiO2 modulates the dermal sensitization potency of dinitrochlorobenzene after topical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, S; Golanski, L; Smolders, E; Vanoirbeek, J; Hoet, P H M

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about the impact of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on skin sensitization caused by chemicals. We determined the ability of different ENPs (TiO2 , Ag and SiO2 ) and aged paint particles containing ENPs to modulate dermal sensitization by a known potent dermal sensitizer. The fur of BALB/c mice in the area around the ears was cut with scissors 1 day prior to topical exposure to ENPs (0·4, 4 or 40 mg mL(-1) ), paint particles containing ENPs (4 mg mL(-1) ) or vehicle (day 0). On days 1, 2 and 3, the mice received dermal applications on the back of both ears of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) or vehicle. The stimulation index (SI) was calculated on day 6. Topical exposure to TiO2 , Ag or SiO2 ENPs, or aged paint particles followed by vehicle treatment as a control, did not influence the SI. When 4 mg mL(-1) TiO2 ENPs were applied prior to DNCB sensitization, we found an increased SI compared with vehicle-exposed mice prior to DNCB sensitization. Furthermore, an increased titanium concentration was found in the draining lymph node cells of this group. Topical exposure to Ag or SiO2 ENPs or aged paint particles prior to DNCB sensitization did not influence the SI. We have demonstrated that topical exposure to TiO2 ENPs increases chemical-induced dermal sensitization. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Sensory evaluation and chemical analysis of exhaled and dermally emitted bioeffluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsushima, S.; Wargocki, Pawel; Tanabe, S.

    2018-01-01

    ) was less acceptable, and the odor intensity was higher than when only exhaled bioeffluents were present. The presence or absence of exhaled bioeffluents in the unoccupied chamber made no significant difference to sensory assessments. At 28°C and with ozone present, the odor intensity increased and the PAQ...... at 28°C. Dermally emitted bioeffluents seem to play a major role in the sensory nuisance experienced when occupied volumes are inadequately ventilated....

  18. A multicenter prospective trial evaluating fetal bovine dermal graft (Xenform? Matrix) for pelvic reconstructive surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Oscar A; Naughton Martin J; Maccarone Joseph; Goldstein Howard B; Patel Rakesh C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A prospective multicenter clinical study was performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a bovine dermal graft (Xenform® Matrix, Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) during vaginal reconstructive surgery. Methods Forty-five women with ICS stage 2 or higher pelvic organ prolapse (POP) were enrolled at 4 centers. POP-Q, pelvic floor function (PFDI-20), sexual function (PISQ-12), and patient satisfaction tools were used to assess subjects at baseline, and at 2 and 6 weeks...

  19. Handling of thermal paper: Implications for dermal exposure to bisphenol A and its alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Meghan R; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical used in a wide range of consumer products including photoactive dyes used in thermal paper. Recent studies have shown that dermal absorption of BPA can occur when handling these papers. Yet, regulatory agencies have largely dismissed thermal paper as a major source of BPA exposure. Exposure estimates provided by agencies such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) are based on assumptions about how humans interact with this material, stating that 'typical' exposures for adults involve only one handling per day for short periods of time (paper in one common setting: a cafeteria providing short-order meals. We observed thermal paper handling in a college-aged population (n = 698 subjects) at the University of Massachusetts' dining facility. We find that in this setting, individuals handle receipts for an average of 11.5 min, that >30% of individuals hold thermal paper with more than three fingertips, and >60% allow the paper to touch their palm. Only 11% of the participants we observed were consistent with the EFSA model for time of contact and dermal surface area. Mathematical modeling based on handling times we measured and previously published transfer coefficients, concentrations of BPA in paper, and absorption factors indicate the most conservative estimated intake from handling thermal paper in this population is 51.1 ng/kg/day, similar to EFSA's estimates of 59 ng/kg/day from dermal exposures. Less conservative estimates, using published data on concentrations in thermal paper and transfer rates to skin, indicate that exposures are likely significantly higher. Based on our observational data, we propose that the current models for estimating dermal BPA exposures are not consistent with normal human behavior and should be reevaluated.

  20. Patient-recorded outcome to assess therapeutic efficacy in protoporphyria-induced dermal phototoxicity: a proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Minder Christoph E; Schneider-Yin Xiaoye; Minder Elisabeth I

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Protoporphyria (PP) resulting from two rare, inherited diseases of heme biosynthesis leads to dermal phototoxicity by accumulation of the heme precursor protoporphyrin IX. No standardized tools to quantify the degree of PP-related phototoxicity and its change by medical intervention have been published. Methods Results from a questionnaire completed by 17 affected individuals were used to determine the relative importance of two main components of PP-related phototoxicity,...

  1. Lack of nephrotoxicity and renal cell proliferation following subchronic dermal application of a hydroquinone cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, R M; English, J C; Totman, L C; Moyer, C; O'Donoghue, J L

    1998-07-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is used in over-the-counter formulations of skin-lightening creams sold in the United States and European Union. HQ was introduced into these formulations to provide a safe and effective alternative to mercury and other less effective ingredients. Recent studies involving subchronic oral exposure of male F344 rats to HQ have shown nephrotoxicity and renal tubule cell proliferation (English et al., 1994), while chronic exposures of male F344 rats were reported to cause renal cell adenomas (NTP, 1989). Previous subchronic dermal toxicity studies (CTFA, 1986; NTP, 1989) with HQ failed to detect nephrotoxicity; however, these studies were not specifically designed to assess renal structure and function. More sensitive endpoints were used in the present subchronic study to address concerns over potential toxicity from repeated dermal exposure to HQ. Male and female F344 rats were given topical applications with 0, 2.0, 3.5, or 5.0% HQ in an oil-in-water emulsion cream for 13 wk (5 days/wk). Body weights, feed consumption and water consumption were monitored, and animals were observed for clinical signs of toxicity and dermal irritation. Blood taken at termination was analysed for haematological and clinical chemistry effects. Erythema, which abated when exposure stopped, was the only dermatological effect seen at the HQ-cream application sites. Cell proliferation in the kidneys was evaluated after 3, 6 and 13 wk of treatment using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling, but no changes indicative of sustained cell proliferation were seen. The renal histopathological lesions noted after oral exposure to HQ were not present after dermal exposure. Thus, topical exposure to HQ does not result in the renal toxicity observed in previous studies with F344 rats given HQ orally.

  2. Evaluation of the Dermal Bioavailability of Aqueous Xylene in F344 Rats and Human Volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrall, Karla D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Woodstock, Angie D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-07-11

    Xylene is a clear, colorless liquid used as a solvent in the printing, rubber, and leather industries and is commonly found in paint thinners, paints, varnishes, and adhesives. Although humans are most likely to be exposed to xylene via inhalation, xylene is also found in well and surface water. Therefore, an assessment of the dermal contribution to total xylene uptake is useful for understanding human exposures. To evaluate the significance of these exposures, the dermal absorption of o-xylene was assessed in F344 male rats and human volunteers using a combination of real-time exhaled breath analysis and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Animals were exposed to o-xylene dermally. Immediately following the initiation of exposure, individual animals were placed in a glass off-gassing chamber and exhaled breath was monitored. Human volunteers participating in the study placed both legs into a stainless steel hydrotherapy tub containing an initial concentration of approximately 500 g/L o-xylene. Exhaled breath was continually analyzed from each volunteer before, during, and post-exposure to track absorption and subsequent elimination of the compound in real time. In both animal and human studies, a PBPK model was used to estimate the dermal permeability coefficient (Kp) to describe each set of exhaled breath data. Rat skin was found to be approximately 12 times more permeable to aqueous o-xylene than human skin. The estimated human and rat aqueous o-xylene Kp values were 0.005+/- 0.001 cm/hr and 0.058+/- 0.009 cm/hr, respectively.

  3. Fossil Fishes from China Provide First Evidence of Dermal Pelvic Girdles in Osteichthyans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Yu, Xiaobo; Choo, Brian; Qu, Qingming; Jia, Liantao; Zhao, Wenjin; Qiao, Tuo; Lu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background The pectoral and pelvic girdles support paired fins and limbs, and have transformed significantly in the diversification of gnathostomes or jawed vertebrates (including osteichthyans, chondrichthyans, acanthodians and placoderms). For instance, changes in the pectoral and pelvic girdles accompanied the transition of fins to limbs as some osteichthyans (a clade that contains the vast majority of vertebrates – bony fishes and tetrapods) ventured from aquatic to terrestrial environments. The fossil record shows that the pectoral girdles of early osteichthyans (e.g., Lophosteus, Andreolepis, Psarolepis and Guiyu) retained part of the primitive gnathostome pectoral girdle condition with spines and/or other dermal components. However, very little is known about the condition of the pelvic girdle in the earliest osteichthyans. Living osteichthyans, like chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fishes), have exclusively endoskeletal pelvic girdles, while dermal pelvic girdle components (plates and/or spines) have so far been found only in some extinct placoderms and acanthodians. Consequently, whether the pectoral and pelvic girdles are primitively similar in osteichthyans cannot be adequately evaluated, and phylogeny-based inferences regarding the primitive pelvic girdle condition in osteichthyans cannot be tested against available fossil evidence. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the first discovery of spine-bearing dermal pelvic girdles in early osteichthyans, based on a new articulated specimen of Guiyu oneiros from the Late Ludlow (Silurian) Kuanti Formation, Yunnan, as well as a re-examination of the previously described holotype. We also describe disarticulated pelvic girdles of Psarolepis romeri from the Lochkovian (Early Devonian) Xitun Formation, Yunnan, which resemble the previously reported pectoral girdles in having integrated dermal and endoskeletal components with polybasal fin articulation. Conclusions/Significance The new findings reveal

  4. Collagen and Fractionated Platelet-Rich Plasma Scaffold for Dermal Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdek, Matthew T; Wyles, Cody C; Stalboerger, Paul G; Terzic, Andre; Behfar, Atta; Moran, Steven L

    2016-05-01

    Current options for in vivo regeneration of dermal tissue remain limited. The purpose of this study was to engineer a unique scaffold capable of recruiting dermal stem cells from adjacent tissue, thus circumventing the need to seed the scaffolds with stem cells before implantation, leading to skin regeneration. A hydrogel scaffold was created through combination of type I collagen along with fractionated platelet-rich plasma. This was compared to a control hydrogel consisting of type I collagen and fetal bovine serum. Hydrogels were cultured with fresh human skin tissue and incubated with supplemental media. Gels were digested weekly for cellular content as examined by flow cytometry at the 4- and 8-week time points. The fractionated platelet-rich plasma and collagen gels were then implanted onto full-thickness skin defects on the backs of rats and compared to wounds healing by secondary intention. Wound area was evaluated for epithelialization and neovascularization. Platelet-rich plasma fractionation increased platelet-derived growth factors. In contrast to collagen scaffolds, fractionated platelet-rich plasma-supplemented scaffolds recruited more dermal-derived stem cells from fresh skin tissue compared with collagen hydrogels at the 4- and 8-week time points. Furthermore, fractionated platelet-rich plasma-supplemented hydrogels accelerated wound healing, angiogenesis, and hair and sweat gland formation, ultimately regenerating a dermis-like tissue. Generation of hydrogels with fractionated platelet-rich plasma was able to improve cellular recruitment and growth and differentiation of dermal-derived stem cells, leading to hair growth and sweat gland formation. This provides a novel approach to regenerate skin for treating large defects.

  5. Allogeneic human dermal fibroblasts are viable in peripheral blood mononuclear co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Syamsul Hadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Transplanted allogeneic dermal fibroblasts retain stem cell subpopulations, and are easily isolated, expanded and stored using standard techniques. Their potential for regenerative therapy of chronic wounds should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine allogeneic fibroblast viability in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Methods In this experimental study, fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin explants, expanded in the presence of serum, and stored using slow-freezing. We used one intervention group of allogeneic fibroblasts co-cultured with PBMC and 2 control groups of separate fibroblast and PBMC cultures.Fibroblasts were characterized by their collagen secretion and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 expression. Viability was evaluated using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1 proliferation assay. Absorbances were measured at 450 nm. Data analysis was performed by student’s paired t-test. Results Dermal fibroblasts were shown to secrete collagen, express OCT4, be recoverable after cryopreservation, and become attached to the culture dish in a co-culture with PBMC. Co-cultured and control fibroblasts had no significantly different cell viabilities (p>0.05. Calculated viable cell numbers increased 1.8 and 5.1-fold, respectively, at days 2 and 4 in vitro. Both groups showed comparable doubling times at days 2 and 4 in vitro. PBMC did not interfere with allogeneic fibroblast viability and proliferative capacity Conclusions Allogeneic fibroblasts remain viable and proliferate in the presence of host PBMC. Future research should evaluate allogeneic human dermal fibroblast competency in clinical settings. Dermal fibroblasts are a potential source for cell therapy in chronic wound management.

  6. Dermal sinus with dermoid cyst in the upper cervical spine: case note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, W.C. [Department of Radiology, and School of Medicine, China Medical College, China Medical College Hospital, Taiwan (Taiwan); Chiou, T.L. [Department of Neurosurgery, China Medical College Hospital, No. 2 Yuh-Der Road, 407 Taichung, Taiwan (Taiwan); Lin, T.Y. [Department of Pathology, China Medical College Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2000-01-01

    We describe a 5 year-old girl who had a skin dimple of the back of her upper neck. MRI showed a dermal sinus tract in the upper cervical spine, associated with an intramedullary dermoid cyst at C 2-3, and spina bifida. A laminectomy was performed, the dermoid cyst and the sinus tract were completely removed. This congenital complex is very rare. (orig.)

  7. Quantification of chemical mixture interactions modulating dermal absorption using a multiple membrane fiber array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Ronald E; Xia, Xin Rui; Imran, Mudassar; Riviere, Jim E

    2008-03-01

    Dermal exposures to chemical mixtures can potentially increase or decrease systemic bioavailability of toxicants in the mixture. Changes in dermal permeability can be attributed to changes in physicochemical interactions between the mixture, the skin, and the solute of interest. These physicochemical interactions can be described as changes in system coefficients associated with molecular descriptors described by Abraham's linear solvation energy relationship (LSER). This study evaluated the effects of chemical mixtures containing either a solvent (ethanol) or a surfactant (sodium lauryl sulfate, SLS) on solute permeability and partitioning by quantifying changes in system coefficients in skin and a three-membrane-coated fiber (MCF) system, respectively. Regression analysis demonstrated that changes in system coefficients in skin were strongly correlated ( R2 = 0.89-0.98) to changes in system coefficients in the three-membrane MCF array with mixtures containing either 1% SLS or 50% ethanol. The PDMS fiber appeared to play a significant role (R2 = 0.84-0.85) in the MCF array in predicting changes in solute permeability, while the WAX fiber appeared to contribute less (R2 = 0.59-0.77) to the array than the other two fibers. On the basis of changes in system coefficients that are part of a LSER, these experiments were able to link physicochemical interactions in the MCF with those interactions in skin when either system is exposed to 1% SLS or 50% ethanol. These experiments further demonstrated the utility of a MCF array to adequately predict changes in dermal permeability when skin is exposed to mixtures containing either a surfactant or a solvent and provide some insight into the nature of the physiochemical interactions that modulate dermal absorptions.

  8. Allogeneic human dermal fibroblasts are viable in peripheral blood mononuclear co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Syamsul Hadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Transplanted allogeneic dermal fibroblasts retain stem cell subpopulations, and are easily isolated, expanded and stored using standard techniques. Their potential for regenerative therapy of chronic wounds should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine allogeneic fibroblast viability in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. METHODS In this experimental study, fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin explants, expanded in the presence of serum, and stored using slow-freezing. We used one intervention group of allogeneic fibroblasts co-cultured with PBMC and 2 control groups of separate fibroblast and PBMC cultures.Fibroblasts were characterized by their collagen secretion and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 expression. Viability was evaluated using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1 proliferation assay. Absorbances were measured at 450 nm. Data analysis was performed by student’s paired t-test. RESULTS Dermal fibroblasts were shown to secrete collagen, express OCT4, be recoverable after cryopreservation, and become attached to the culture dish in a co-culture with PBMC. Co-cultured and control fibroblasts had no significantly different cell viabilities (p>0.05. Calculated viable cell numbers increased 1.8 and 5.1- fold, respectively, at days 2 and 4 in vitro. Both groups showed comparable doubling times at days 2 and 4 in vitro. PBMC did not interfere with allogeneic fibroblast viability and proliferative capacity CONCLUSIONS Allogeneic fibroblasts remain viable and proliferate in the presence of host PBMC. Future research should evaluate allogeneic human dermal fibroblast competency in clinical settings. Dermal fibroblasts are a potential source for cell therapy in chronic wound management.

  9. Dermal exposure assessment to pesticides in farming systems in developing countries: comparison of models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Fabian, Camilo Lesmes; Binder, Claudia R

    2015-04-29

    In the field of occupational hygiene, researchers have been working on developing appropriate methods to estimate human exposure to pesticides in order to assess the risk and therefore to take the due decisions to improve the pesticide management process and reduce the health risks. This paper evaluates dermal exposure models to find the most appropriate. Eight models (i.e., COSHH, DERM, DREAM, EASE, PHED, RISKOFDERM, STOFFENMANAGER and PFAM) were evaluated according to a multi-criteria analysis and from these results five models (i.e., DERM, DREAM, PHED, RISKOFDERM and PFAM) were selected for the assessment of dermal exposure in the case study of the potato farming system in the Andean highlands of Vereda La Hoya, Colombia. The results show that the models provide different dermal exposure estimations which are not comparable. However, because of the simplicity of the algorithm and the specificity of the determinants, the DERM, DREAM and PFAM models were found to be the most appropriate although their estimations might be more accurate if specific determinants are included for the case studies in developing countries.

  10. Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middelveen MJ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marianne J Middelveen,1 Peter J Mayne,1 Douglas G Kahn,2 Raphael B Stricker11International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Olive View–UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, USAAbstract: Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either self-implanted by patients or accidentally adhering to lesions, and conclude that patients with this disease have delusions of infestation. We present histological observations and electron microscopic imaging from representative Morgellons disease samples revealing that dermal filaments in these cases are keratin and collagen in composition and result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the epidermis. Spirochetes were detected in the dermatological specimens from our study patients, providing evidence that Morgellons disease is associated with an infectious process.Keywords: Morgellons disease, digital dermatitis, Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, spirochetes, keratin, keratinocytes, collagen, fibroblasts

  11. Dermatopharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of ethosomes of griseofulvin designed for dermal delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Nidhi; Goindi, Shishu

    2013-10-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluation of the dermal delivery potential of griseofulvin-loaded ethosomes. Griseofulvin-loaded ethosomes were prepared using "Cold technique" (Indian Patent Application 208/DEL/2009). The optimized formulation was characterized for vesicular shape and size, drug entrapment efficiency, drug content, pH, stability, and spreadability. Ex vivo skin permeation, dermatopharmacokinetics, and skin sensitivity studies were carried out using male Laca mice. In vivo antifungal activity was assessed against Microsporum canis using guinea pig model for dermatophytosis. The optimized formulation E7 possessing 2 % phospholipid (PL) and 30 % ethanol exhibited the highest drug entrapment (72.94 ± 0.80 %) and optimum vesicle size (148.5 ± 0.48 nm). E7 illustrated remarkably higher drug permeation and skin retention when compared with liposomes. Pharmacodynamic studies in guinea pigs induced with M. canis revealed that the dermal fungal infection was completely cured in 8 days upon twice daily topical application of griseofulvin-loaded ethosomes whereas liposomes led to complete cure in 14 days. The formulation was observed to be non-sensitizing, histopathologically safe, and stable at 5 ± 3, 25 ± 2, and 40 ± 2 °C for a period of 1 year. Results indicated that dermal delivery of griseofulvin employing ethosomes could be a commendable alternative to reduce the bio-burden associated with conventional oral formulations.

  12. Dermatopharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of ethosomes of griseofulvin designed for dermal delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Nidhi; Goindi, Shishu, E-mail: shishugoindi@yahoo.co.in [Panjab University, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India)

    2013-10-15

    The present study is aimed at evaluation of the dermal delivery potential of griseofulvin-loaded ethosomes. Griseofulvin-loaded ethosomes were prepared using 'Cold technique' (Indian Patent Application 208/DEL/2009). The optimized formulation was characterized for vesicular shape and size, drug entrapment efficiency, drug content, pH, stability, and spreadability. Ex vivo skin permeation, dermatopharmacokinetics, and skin sensitivity studies were carried out using male Laca mice. In vivo antifungal activity was assessed against Microsporum canis using guinea pig model for dermatophytosis. The optimized formulation E7 possessing 2 % phospholipid (PL) and 30 % ethanol exhibited the highest drug entrapment (72.94 {+-} 0.80 %) and optimum vesicle size (148.5 {+-} 0.48 nm). E7 illustrated remarkably higher drug permeation and skin retention when compared with liposomes. Pharmacodynamic studies in guinea pigs induced with M. canis revealed that the dermal fungal infection was completely cured in 8 days upon twice daily topical application of griseofulvin-loaded ethosomes whereas liposomes led to complete cure in 14 days. The formulation was observed to be non-sensitizing, histopathologically safe, and stable at 5 {+-} 3, 25 {+-} 2, and 40 {+-} 2 Degree-Sign C for a period of 1 year. Results indicated that dermal delivery of griseofulvin employing ethosomes could be a commendable alternative to reduce the bio-burden associated with conventional oral formulations.

  13. Dual-dermal-barrier fashion flaps for the treatment of sacral pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chuang, Shiow-Shuh

    2015-02-01

    The sacral region is one of the most vulnerable sites for the development of pressure sores. Even when surgical reconstruction is performed, there is a high chance of recurrence. Therefore, the concept of dual-dermal-barrier fashion flaps for sacral pressure sore reconstruction was proposed. From September 2007 to June 2010, nine patients with grade IV sacral pressures were enrolled. Four patients received bilateral myocutaneous V-Y flaps, four patients received bilateral fasciocutaneous V-Y flaps, and one patient received bilateral rotation-advanced flaps for sacral pressure reconstruction. The flaps were designed based on the perforators of the superior gluteal artery in one patient's reconstructive procedure. All flaps' designs were based on dual-dermal-barrier fashion. The mean follow-up time was 16 months (range = 12-25). No recurrence was noted. Only one patient had a complication of mild dehiscence at the middle suture line, occurring 2 weeks after the reconstructive surgery. The dual-dermal fashion flaps are easily duplicated and versatile. The study has shown minimal morbidity and a reasonable outcome.

  14. Acellular dermal matrix allograft used to gain attached gingiva in a case of epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buduneli, Eralp; Ilgenli, Tunç; Buduneli, Nurcan; Ozdemir, Fezal

    2003-11-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is an acquired disease or inherited as either autosomal dominant or recessive with an incidence of 1/50,000. The prominent clinical characteristic of the disease is the development of bullae or vesicles in mucosa or skin in response to minor trauma. A female patient with a dystrophic type of EB had been put in a maintenance regimen after completion of the initial phase of periodontal therapy and followed for 7 years. The purpose of this report is to document acellular dermal matrix allograft application to increase the width of the attached gingiva in this patient experiencing difficulty in chewing and performing plaque control due to the dramatic loss of attached gingiva after 7 years of supportive periodontal therapy. Under local anaesthesia and antibiotic coverage, the acellular dermal matrix allograft was applied in the anterior region of the upper jaw in order to increase the width of attached gingiva, thereby improving patient comfort. The healing was uneventful and a significant gain in attached gingiva dimensions was observed 9 months after the periodontal surgery. The procedure avoided a second surgical site, provided satisfactory results from an aesthetic point of view, and improved patient comfort. Acellular dermal matrix allograft may be regarded as an alternative in the treatment of EB cases to increase the width of attached gingiva and facilitate maintenance of the dentition.

  15. Low-Dose UVA Radiation-Induced Adaptive Response in Cultured Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongrong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the mechanism of the adaptive response induced by low-dose ultraviolet A (UVA radiation. Methods. Cultured dermal fibroblasts were irradiated by a lethal dose of UVA (86.4 J/cm2 with preirradiation of single or repetitive low dose of UVA (7.2 J/cm2. Alterations of cellular morphology were observed by light microscope and electron microscope. Cell cycle and cellular apoptosis were assayed by flow cytometer. The extent of DNA damage was determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE. Results. The cultured dermal fibroblasts, with pretreatment of single or repetitive irradiation of 7.2 J/cm2 UVA relieved toxic reaction of cellular morphology and arrest of cell cycle, decreased apoptosis ratio, reduced DNA chain breakage, and accelerated DNA repair caused by subsequent 86.4 J/cm2 UVA irradiation. Compared with nonpretreatment groups, all those differences were significant (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Conclusions. The adaptation reaction might depend on the accumulated dose of low-dose UVA irradiation. Low-dose UVA radiation might induce adaptive response that may protect cultured dermal fibroblasts from the subsequent challenged dose of UVA damage. The duration and protective capability of the adaptive reaction might be related to the accumulated dose of low-dose UVA Irradiation.

  16. DOXYCYCLINE HYDROGELS WITH REVERSIBLE DISULFIDE CROSSLINKS FOR DERMAL WOUND HEALING OF MUSTARD INJURIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumolu, SivaNaga S; Menjoge, Anupa R.; Deshmukh, Manjeet; Gerecke, Donald; Stein, Stanley; Laskin, Jeffrey; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Doxycycline hydrogels containing reversible disulfide crosslinks were investigated for a dermal wound healing application. Nitrogen mustard (NM) was used as a surrogate to mimic the vesicant effects of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard. An 8-arm-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymer containing multiple thiol (-SH) groups was crosslinked using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 hydrogel) or 8-arm-S-thiopyridyl (S-TP hydrogel) to form a hydrogel in situ. Formulation additives (glycerin, PVP and PEG 600) were found to promote dermal hydrogel retention for up to 24 h. Hydrogels demonstrated high mechanical strength and a low degree of swelling (Doxycycline release from the hydrogels was biphasic and sustained for up to 10-days in vitro. Doxycycline (8.5 mg/cm3) permeability through NM-exposed skin was elevated as compared to non vesicant-treated controls at 24, 72 and 168 h post exposure with peak permeability at 72 h. The decrease in doxycycline permeability at 168 h correlates to epidermal reepithelialization and wound healing. Histology studies of skin showed that doxycycline-loaded (0.25% w/v) hydrogels provided improved wound healing response on NM-exposed skin as compared to untreated skin and skin treated with placebo hydrogels in a SKH-1 mouse model. In conclusion, PEG-based doxycycline hydrogels are promising for dermal wound healing application of mustard injuries. PMID:20950853

  17. Analyses of the correlation between dermal and blood carotenoids in female cattle by optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Julia; Darvin, Maxim E.; Meinke, Martina C.; Schweigert, Florian J.; Müller, Kerstin E.; Lademann, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    Herd health programs for the maintenance of welfare and productivity in cattle need efficient tools for monitoring the health of individual animals. Recent reports demonstrate that the oxidative status is related to various stress conditions in dairy cows. Biomarkers, among other carotenoids, could serve as indicators of stress originating from the environment (e.g., heat stress or sun radiation) or from the animal itself (e.g., disease). To date, only invasive in vitro tests are available to assess the oxidative status in cattle. The present study compares the results of optical noninvasive in vivo measurements of dermal carotenoids in cattle udder skin using an LED-based miniaturized spectroscopic system (MSS) with those obtained by photometric analysis of beta carotene in whole blood samples using a portable device. Correlations between the concentrations of dermal and blood carotenoids were calculated under consideration of the nutritional status of the animals. Significant correlation (R=0.86) was found for cattle with a moderate to obese body condition. Thus, the blood and skin concentrations of the marker substance beta carotene are comparable under stable stress conditions of the cattle. This demonstrates that the MSS is suitable for noninvasive assessment of dermal carotenoid concentrations in cattle.

  18. Dermal bioaccessibility of flame retardants from indoor dust and the influence of topically applied cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Gopal; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; de Sáa, Eugenia Villaverde; Harrad, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Despite extensive literature on their potential adverse health effects, there is a lack of information on human dermal exposure to organic flame retardant chemicals (FRs). This study applies an in vitro physiologically based extraction test to provide new insights into the dermal bioaccessibility of various FRs from indoor dust to synthetic sweat/sebum mixture (SSSM). The bioaccessible fractions of α-, β- and γ-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) to 1:1 (sweat/sebum) mixture were 41%, 47%, 50% and 40%, respectively. For Tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris-1,3-dichloropropyl phosphate (TDCIPP), bioaccessible fractions were 10%, 17% and 19%. Composition of the SSSM and compound-specific physicochemical properties were the major factors influencing the bioaccessibility of target FRs. Except for TBBPA, the presence of cosmetics (moisturising cream, sunscreen lotion, body spray and shower gel) had a significant effect (Pcosmetics decreased the bioaccessibility of HBCDs from indoor dust, whereas shower gel and sunscreen lotion enhanced the bioaccessibility of target PFRs. Our bioaccessibility data were applied to estimate the internal exposure of UK adults and toddlers to the target FRs via dermal contact with dust. Our worst-case scenario exposure estimates fell far below available health-based limit values for TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP. However, future research may erode the margin of safety for these chemicals.

  19. Differential expression of wound fibrotic factors between facial and trunk dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Masakazu; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Kaminishi-Tanikawa, Akiko; Niikura, Mamoru; Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    Clinically, wounds on the face tend to heal with less scarring than those on the trunk, but the causes of this difference have not been clarified. Fibroblasts obtained from different parts of the body are known to show different properties. To investigate whether the characteristic properties of facial and trunk wound healing are caused by differences in local fibroblasts, we comparatively analyzed the functional properties of superficial and deep dermal fibroblasts obtained from the facial and trunk skin of seven individuals, with an emphasis on tendency for fibrosis. Proliferation kinetics and mRNA and protein expression of 11 fibrosis-associated factors were investigated. The proliferation kinetics of facial and trunk fibroblasts were identical, but the expression and production levels of profibrotic factors, such as extracellular matrix, transforming growth factor-β1, and connective tissue growth factor mRNA, were lower in facial fibroblasts when compared with trunk fibroblasts, while the expression of antifibrotic factors, such as collagenase, basic fibroblast growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor, showed no clear trends. The differences in functional properties of facial and trunk dermal fibroblasts were consistent with the clinical tendencies of healing of facial and trunk wounds. Thus, the differences between facial and trunk scarring are at least partly related to the intrinsic nature of the local dermal fibroblasts.

  20. IFN-Dependent and -Independent Reduction in West Nile Virus Infectivity in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Lisa I.; Fredericksen, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Although dermal fibroblasts are one of the first cell types exposed to West Nile virus (WNV) during a blood meal by an infected mosquito, little is known about WNV replication within this cell type. Here, we demonstrate that neuroinvasive, WNV-New York (WNV-NY), and nonneuroinvasive, WNV-Australia (WNV-AUS60) strains are able to infect and replicate in primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). However, WNV-AUS60 replication and spread within HDFs was reduced compared to that of WNV-NY due to an interferon (IFN)-independent reduction in viral infectivity early in infection. Additionally, replication of both strains was constrained late in infection by an IFN-β-dependent reduction in particle infectivity. Overall, our data indicates that human dermal fibroblasts are capable of supporting WNV replication; however, the low infectivity of particles produced from HDFs late in infection suggests that this cell type likely plays a limited role as a viral reservoir in vivo. PMID:24662674

  1. Nanocrystals of medium soluble actives--novel concept for improved dermal delivery and production strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xuezhen; Lademann, Jürgen; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H

    2014-08-15

    After use in oral pharmaceutical products, nanocrystals are meanwhile applied to improve the dermal penetration of cosmetic actives (e.g. rutin, hesperidin) and of drugs. By now, nanocrystals are only dermally applied made from poorly soluble actives. The novel concept is to formulate nanocrystals also from medium soluble actives, and to apply a dermal formulation containing additionally nanocrystals. The nanocrystals should act as fast dissolving depot, increase saturation solubility and especially accumulate in the hair follicles, to further increase skin penetration. Caffeine was used as model compound with relevance to market products, and a particular process was developed for the production of caffeine nanocrystals to overcome the supersaturation related effect of crystal growth and fiber formation - typical with medium soluble compounds. It is based on low energy milling (pearl milling) in combination with low dielectric constant dispersion media (water-ethanol or ethanol-propylene glycol mixtures) and optimal stabilizers. Most successful was Carbopol(®) 981 (e.g. 20% caffeine in ethanol-propylene glycol 3:7 with 2% Carbopol, w/w). Nanocrystals with varied sizes can now be produced in a controlled process e.g. 660 nm (optimal for hair follicle accumulation) to 250 nm (optimal for fast dissolution). The short term test proved stability over 2 months of the present formulation being sufficient to perform in vivo testing of the novel concept. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn C.; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we measured uptake of selected airborne phthalates for an individual wearing clean clothes or air-exposed clothes and compared these results with dermal uptake for bare-skinned individuals under....... The individual wore either clean (fresh) cotton clothes or cotton clothes that had been exposed to the same chamber air concentrations for 9 days. For a 6-h exposure, the net amounts of DEP and DnBP absorbed when wearing fresh clothes were, respectively, 0.017 and 0.007 μg/kg/(μg/m3); for exposed clothes...... the results were 0.178 and 0.261 μg/kg/(μg/m3), respectively (values normalized by air concentration and body mass). When compared against the average results for bare-skinned participants, clean clothes were protective, whereas exposed clothes increased dermal uptake for DEP and DnBP by factors of 3.3 and 6...

  3. Myeloid Wnt ligands are required for normal development of dermal lymphatic vasculature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Muley

    Full Text Available Resident tissue myeloid cells play a role in many aspects of physiology including development of the vascular systems. In the blood vasculature, myeloid cells use VEGFC to promote angiogenesis and can use Wnt ligands to control vascular branching and to promote vascular regression. Here we show that myeloid cells also regulate development of the dermal lymphatic vasculature using Wnt ligands. Using myeloid-specific deletion of the WNT transporter Wntless we show that myeloid Wnt ligands are active at two distinct stages of development of the dermal lymphatics. As lymphatic progenitors are emigrating from the cardinal vein and intersomitic vessels, myeloid Wnt ligands regulate both their numbers and migration distance. Later in lymphatic development, myeloid Wnt ligands regulate proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC and thus control lymphatic vessel caliber. Myeloid-specific deletion of WNT co-receptor Lrp5 or Wnt5a gain-of-function also produce elevated caliber in dermal lymphatic capillaries. These data thus suggest that myeloid cells produce Wnt ligands to regulate lymphatic development and use Wnt pathway co-receptors to regulate the balance of Wnt ligand activity during the macrophage-LEC interaction.

  4. Fate of ethion in goats after intravenous, oral and dermal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosha, R D; Gyrd-Hansen, N; Nielsen, P

    1990-09-01

    Toxicokinetic parameters and cumulative excretion were studied in goats after intravenous, oral and dermal administration of unlabelled and 14C-ethion. Plasma concentration-time data was subjected to non-compartmental analysis. IV injection studies showed an effective half-life (t1/2) of 2 hr, a total body clearance (ClT) of 3.21.kg-1.hr-1 and a volume of distribution (Vd(ss) of 9.4 1.kg-1. Plasma levels of 14C-ethion (ethion + metabolites) were much higher and more persistent than those of unchanged ethion. Cumulative excretion of 14C-ethion was 78% of the dose with 66% in urine, 8% in faeces and 4% in milk. Oral administration resulted in low plasma levels of unchanged ethion, an absorption half-life (t1/2 abs) of 10 hr and a bioavailability of less than 5%. Cumulative excretion was 80% of the dose with 64% in urine, 14% in faeces and 1.7% in milk. Dermal application showed a t1/2 abs of 85 hr and a bioavailability of 20%. Only 0.05% of the dose was excreted unchanged in milk. It is concluded that (1) orally administered ethion is extensively metabolized in the GIT, (2) dermal application results in prolonged and limited absorption and (3) absorbed ethion is rapidly eliminated through metabolism.

  5. Fate of ethion in goats after intravenous, oral and dermal administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosha, R.D.; Gyrd-Hansen, N.; Nielsen, P. (Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg C (Denmark))

    1990-01-01

    Toxicokinetic parameters and cumulative excretion were studied in goats after intravenous, oral and dermal administration of unlabelled and {sup 14}C-ethion. Plasma concentration-time data was subjected to non-compartmental analysis. IV injection studies showed an effective half-life (t{sub 1/2}) of 2 hr, a total body clearance (Cl{sub T}) of 3.2 lxkg{sup -1}xhr{sup -1} and a volume of distribution (Vd{sub (ss)}) of 9.4 lxkg{sup -1}. Plasma levels of {sup 14}C-ethion (ethion+metabolites) were much higher and more persistent than those of unchanged ethion. Cumulative excretion of {sup 14}C-ethion was 78% of the dose with 66% in urine, 8% in faeces and 4% in milk. Oral administration resulted in low plasma levels of unchanged ethion, an absorption half-life (t{sub 1/2abs}) of 10 hr and a bioavailability of less than 5%. Cumulative excretion was 80% of the dose with 64% in urine, 14% in faeces and 1.7% in milk. Dermal application showed a t{sub 1/2abs} of 85 hr and a bioavailability of 20%. Only 0.05% of the dose was excreted unchanged in milk. It is concluded that (1) orally administered ethion is extensively metabolized in the GIT, (2) dermal application results in prolonged and limited absorption and (3) absorbed ethion is rapidly eliminated through metabolism. (author).

  6. Regulation of gene expression by tobacco product preparations in cultured human dermal fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malpass, Gloria E., E-mail: gloria.malpass@gmail.com [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Arimilli, Subhashini, E-mail: sarimill@wakehealth.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Prasad, G.L., E-mail: prasadg@rjrt.com [R and D Department, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, NC 27102 (United States); Howlett, Allyn C., E-mail: ahowlett@wakehealth.edu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Skin fibroblasts comprise the first barrier of defense against wounds, and tobacco products directly contact the oral cavity. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to smokeless tobacco extract (STE), total particulate matter (TPM) from tobacco smoke, or nicotine at concentrations comparable to those found in these extracts for 1 h or 5 h. Differences were identified in pathway-specific genes between treatments and vehicle using qRT-PCR. At 1 h, IL1α was suppressed significantly by TPM and less significantly by STE. Neither FOS nor JUN was suppressed at 1 h by tobacco products. IL8, TNFα, VCAM1, and NFκB1 were suppressed after 5 h with STE, whereas only TNFα and NFκB1 were suppressed by TPM. At 1 h with TPM, secreted levels of IL10 and TNFα were increased. Potentially confounding effects of nicotine were exemplified by genes such as ATF3 (5 h), which was increased by nicotine but suppressed by other components of STE. Within 2 h, TPM stimulated nitric oxide production, and both STE and TPM increased reactive oxygen species. The biological significance of these findings and utilization of the gene expression changes reported herein regarding effects of the tobacco product preparations on dermal fibroblasts will require additional research. - Highlights: • Tobacco product preparations (TPPs) alter gene expression in dermal fibroblasts. • Some immediate early genes critical to the inflammatory process are affected. • Different TPPs produce differential responses in certain pro-inflammatory genes.

  7. A microanatomical and histological study of the postcranial dermal skeleton of the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Zylberberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Devonian stem-actinoterygian Cheirolepis canadensis is potentially important to understand the evolution of the dermal skeleton of osteichthyans, but the last detailed histological study on this taxon was published more than forty years ago. Here, we present new data about the morphology and the histological structure of scales, fulcra, and fin-rays in the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis through SEM and photomicroscopy. The scales have a typical palaeoniscoid organisation, with ganoine layers overlaying dentine and a bony basal plate, but the ganoine surface lacks the characteristic microtubercles that have been described on the ganoine surface of the scales of polypterids and many other actinopterygians. Fin-rays are composed of segmented and ramified lepidotrichia that show a structure reminiscent of scales, with ganoine and dentine components lying on a thick bony base. We describe articular processes between lepidotrichia that are reminiscent of, and plausibly homologous with, the peg-and-socket articulations between the scales. The analysis of the postcranial dermal skeleton of Cheirolepis canadensis shows that structural similarities between scales and lepidotrichia of this basal actinopterygian are greater than in more recent actinopterygians. The new data on histological and microanatomical structure of the dermal skeleton lend additional support to the hypothesis that lepidotichia are derivatives of scales, though they are also compatible with the more general hypothesis that scales, lepidotrichia and fulcra belong to the same morphogenetic system.

  8. Microneedles for the Noninvasive Structural and Functional Assessment of Dermal Lymphatic Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Davide; Proulx, Steven T; Marschalkova, Patrizia; Detmar, Michael; Leroux, Jean-Christophe

    2016-02-24

    The medical and scientific communities' interest in the lymphatic system has been growing rapidly in recent years. It has become evident that the lymphatic system is much more than simply a homeostasis controller and that it plays key roles in several pathological conditions. This work describes the identification of the optimal combination of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) and a near-infrared dye (indocyanine green) for the manufacturing of soluble microneedles and their application to the imaging of the lymphatic system. Upon application to the skin, the microneedle-bearing indocyanine green is delivered in the dermal layer, where the lymphatic vessels are abundant. The draining lymphatics can then be visualized and the clearance kinetics from the administration site simply determined using a near-infrared camera. This painless functional "tattooing" procedure can be used for quantitative assessment of the dermal lymphatic function in several dermal conditions and treatment-response evaluations. The two components of these microneedles are extensively used in routine medical care, potentially leading to rapid clinical translation. Moreover, this procedure may have a significant impact on preclinical lymphatic studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Measuring Doppler-like power spectra and dermal perfusion using laser speckle contrast with multiple exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, O. B.; Andrews, M. K.

    2010-02-01

    Laser speckle contrast measurements provide effectively instantaneous maps of dermal perfusion, using easily obtainable hardware, but such maps are qualitative. Clinical applications of these techniques require a good theoretical and experimental foundation of understanding before relating them to a physiologically significant, quantitative perfusion value. We have confirmed that multiple-exposure laser speckle methods produce the same spectral information as laser Doppler measurements when applied to targets such as human tissue with embedded moving scatterers. This confirmation is based on both computer simulation of laser speckle data and experimental measurements on Brownian motion and skin perfusion using a laser Doppler system and a multiple-exposure laser speckle system. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) measurements of the light fluctuations derived using both techniques are equivalent. Dermal perfusion images can therefore be measured in exactly equivalent terms by either laser speckle contrast or more laborious scanning laser Doppler methods. Most analyses relating laser speckle contrast to perfusion depend on assuming a particular temporal autocorrelation function for the light intensity fluctuations in biospeckle. Using multiple-exposure laser speckle allows the autocorrelation function to be measured rather than assumed. Measured autocorrelation functions and their related power spectra for dermal perfusion are presented, including measurements under arterial occlusion to investigate a 'biological zero': the speckle blur relating to the remaining movement of tissue constituents when there is no net blood flow.

  10. A Complex Genomic Rearrangement Involving the Endothelin 3 Locus Causes Dermal Hyperpigmentation in the Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorshorst, Ben; Molin, Anna-Maja; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Johansson, Anna M.; Strömstedt, Lina; Pham, Manh-Hung; Chen, Chih-Feng; Hallböök, Finn; Ashwell, Chris; Andersson, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Dermal hyperpigmentation or Fibromelanosis (FM) is one of the few examples of skin pigmentation phenotypes in the chicken, where most other pigmentation variants influence feather color and patterning. The Silkie chicken is the most widespread and well-studied breed displaying this phenotype. The presence of the dominant FM allele results in extensive pigmentation of the dermal layer of skin and the majority of internal connective tissue. Here we identify the causal mutation of FM as an inverted duplication and junction of two genomic regions separated by more than 400 kb in wild-type individuals. One of these duplicated regions contains endothelin 3 (EDN3), a gene with a known role in promoting melanoblast proliferation. We show that EDN3 expression is increased in the developing Silkie embryo during the time in which melanoblasts are migrating, and elevated levels of expression are maintained in the adult skin tissue. We have examined four different chicken breeds from both Asia and Europe displaying dermal hyperpigmentation and conclude that the same structural variant underlies this phenotype in all chicken breeds. This complex genomic rearrangement causing a specific monogenic trait in the chicken illustrates how novel mutations with major phenotypic effects have been reused during breed formation in domestic animals. PMID:22216010

  11. Development of a novel pressure swing adsorption dehydration system for the preservation of dermal tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, S.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Chua, K.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)]. E-mail: mpechuae@nus.edu.sg; Teoh, S.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Lim, K.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Sun, W.Q. [LifeCell Corporation, 1 Millennium Way, Branchburg, NJ 08876-3876 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Due to the perishable nature of bioproducts, the need to preserve them until required is of paramount importance. This is particularly true for tissue engineered products such as the skin. The paper reports on a novel drying technology, Pressure Swing Adsorption Dehydration System (PSAD), for the dehydration of freshly prepared acellular porcine dermal tissue. The aim is to investigate the effectiveness of the PSADS to obtain partially dehydrated mammalian dermal tissue suitable for biomedical preservation. Experiments were carried out by a varying number of parameters such as the chamber pressure level, duration and temperature. Samples were weighed and the surface color was taken periodically to track moisture removal rate and color deterioration due to oxidation. Scanning electron microscopy images of the lyophilized and processed samples were also taken for comparison. Results indicated that the depressurized level, frequency of pressure drops and temperature have positive effects on dehydration rate. Color change was generally low, indicating low level of oxidation. Hence, the PSADS provides a feasible way that can be as good if not better than current drying processes to obtain partially dried dermal tissue while minimizing product deterioration.

  12. Comparison of five dermal substitutes in full-thickness skin wound healing in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philandrianos, Cécile; Andrac-Meyer, Lucile; Mordon, Serge; Feuerstein, Jean-Marc; Sabatier, Florence; Veran, Julie; Magalon, Guy; Casanova, Dominique

    2012-09-01

    The wound healing attributes of five acellular dermal skin substitutes were compared, in a two-step procedure, in a porcine model. Ten pigs were included in this experimental and randomized study. During the first step, dermal substitutes (Integra(®), ProDerm(®), Renoskin(®), Matriderm(®) 2mm and Hyalomatrix(®) PA) were implanted into full-thickness skin wounds and the epidermis was reconstructed during a second step procedure at day 21 using autologous split-thickness skin graft or cultured epithelial autograft. Seven pigs were followed-up for 2 months and 3 pigs for 6 months. Dermal substitute incorporation, epidermal graft takes, wound contraction and Vancouver scale were assessed, and histological study of the wounds was performed. Results showed significant differences between groups in dermis incorporation and in early wound contraction, but there was no difference in wound contraction and in Vancouver scale after 2 and 6 months of healing. We conclude there was no long-term difference of scar qualities in our study between the different artificial dermis. More, there was no difference between artificial dermis and the control group. This study makes us ask questions about the benefit of artificial dermis used in a two-step procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Bronchitis (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Wark, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Acute bronchitis affects more than 40 in 1000 adults per year in the UK. The causes are usually considered to be infective, but only around half of people have identifiable pathogens.The role of smoking or environmental tobacco smoke inhalation in predisposing to acute bronchitis is unclear.One third of people may have longer-term symptoms or recurrence.

  14. Acute nierschade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; van Heurn, L.W.E.; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  15. Longbow: A Lightweight Remote Job Submission Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gebbie-Rayet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present Longbow, a lightweight console-based remote job submission tool and library. Longbow allows the user to quickly and simply run jobs on high performance computing facilities without leaving their familiar desktop environment. Not only does Longbow greatly simplify the management of compute- intensive jobs for experienced researchers, it also lowers the technical barriers surrounding high perfor-mance computation for the next generation of scientists and engineers. Longbow has already been used to remotely submit jobs in a number of projects and has the potential to redefine the manner in which high performance computers are used.

  16. Comparison of native porcine skin and a dermal substitute using tensiometry and digital image speckle correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jason R; Phillips, Brett T; Conkling, Nicole; Fourman, Mitchell; Melendez, Mark M; Bhatnagar, Divya; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Dagum, Alexander B

    2012-10-01

    Dermal substitutes are currently used in plastic surgery to cover various soft tissue defects caused by trauma, burns, or ablative cancer surgery. Little information is available on the biomechanical properties of these dermal substitutes after adequate incorporation as compared to normal skin. Determining parameters such as tensile strength in these skin substitutes will help us further understand their wound healing properties and potential in developing artificial tissue constructs. We hypothesize that a dermal substitute has a lower stress-strain curve and altered stress-induced deformation quantified with tensiometry and digital image speckle correlation (DISC) analysis. Two separate 5×10-cm full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum of 3 female swine. Fibrin glue was applied before either a full-thickness skin graft (FTSG) or application of artificial dermal matrix. On day 42, cultured autologous keratinocytes were applied as a cell sheet to the wound covered with Integra. On day 56, the wounds were fully excised and fresh tissue specimens, including normal skin, were stored in a physiological solution and prepared for analysis. Rectangular samples were excised from the center of each specimen measuring 4×4×30 mm. Using a tensiometer and DISC analysis, we evaluated the tensile strength of 3 different groups of skin, namely, normal, FTSG, and Integra. There is a significant difference between the Integra specimen when compared to normal skin and FTSG. We found a minimal difference in the stress-strain curves of the latter two. Integra alone shows plastic deformation with continued stretching before ultimate midline fracture. There is significant change between the Young's moduli of the normal skin and the Integra, whereas there is little difference between the FTSG and the normal skin; DISC confirms this analysis. The normal skin and FTSG show a convergence of vectors to a linear plane, whereas Integra shows very little organization. Using 2 different

  17. Dermal toxicity of Colloidal Nanosilver in Albino Rabbit: A New Approach to Physicochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoushe Raesian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Silver nanoparticles have been widely used as new potent antimicrobial agents in cosmetic and hygienic products, as well as in new medical devices. Serious concerns have been expressed on the potential health risks of dermal applications of nanosilver containing consumer products (AgNPs, therefore regulatory health risk assessment has become necessary for the safe usage of AgNPs in biomedical products with special emphasis to their dermal toxicity potentials. We aimed in the present study to compare the dermal toxicity of three different AgNP containing disinfectantsin an albino rabbit model and tried to determine the role of size and other physicochemical properties on their possible dermal toxicity. Methods: After the characterization of all three samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS , corrosive and irritant potentials  of AgNPs in three different sizes of three colloidal AgNPs were scored by the OECD 404 guideline with necessary modifications and were applied under the specified concentrations via nanosilver skin patches on the shaved skin of young female albino rabbits. All skin reactions were recorded in 3 min as well as in 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours from the application and compared with the control group and followed up for 14 days. Results: Although short-term observations didn’t show any significant changes in the weight of animals and macroscopic  variables, long-term histopathological abnormalities were seen in the skin of all test groups, which was not associated with the size and other physicochemical properties of AgNP samples. The toxicity manifestations were dry skin, scaling in doses lower than 100 ppm and erythema in higher doses up to 4000 ppm which was reversed. Conclusions: This finding creates a new issue in the possible dermal effects of all colloidal AgNPs, containing nano health products, which should be considered in future studies by

  18. Dermal phospho-alpha-synuclein deposits confirm REM sleep behaviour disorder as prodromal Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppler, Kathrin; Jentschke, Hanna-Maria; Schulmeyer, Lena; Vadasz, David; Janzen, Annette; Luster, Markus; Höffken, Helmut; Mayer, Geert; Brumberg, Joachim; Booij, Jan; Musacchio, Thomas; Klebe, Stephan; Sittig-Wiegand, Elisabeth; Volkmann, Jens; Sommer, Claudia; Oertel, Wolfgang H

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (p-alpha-syn) deposits, one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), have recently been detected in dermal nerve fibres in PD patients with good specificity and sensitivity. Here, we studied whether p-alpha-syn may serve as a biomarker in patients with a high risk of developing PD, such as those with REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). We compared the presence and distribution of p-alpha-syn deposits in dermal nerve fibres in 18 patients with RBD, 25 patients with early PD and 20 normal controls. Skin biopsy was taken at C7, Th10, and the upper and lower leg. Presynaptic dopamine transporter imaging using FP-CIT-SPECT was performed in all patients with RBD and in 11 patients with PD. All RBD patients underwent olfactory function testing. The likelihood ratio (LR) for prodromal PD was calculated for each patient based on published research criteria. Skin serial sections were assessed by double-immunofluorescence labelling with antibodies to pSer129-alpha-syn under blinded conditions. P-alpha-syn was visualized in 10/18 patients with RBD (sensitivity of 55.6%) and in 20/25 early PD patients (sensitivity of 80%) but in none of the controls (specificity of 100%). The percentage of dermal structures innervated by p-alpha-syn-positive fibres was negatively correlated with dopamine transporter binding in the FP-CIT-SPECT (ρ = -0.377, p = 0.048), with olfactory function (ρ = -0.668, p = 0.002), and positively correlated with the total LR for RBD to present prodromal PD (ρ = 0.531, p = 0.023). Dermal p-alpha-syn can be considered a peripheral histopathological marker of synucleinopathy and can be detected in a subgroup of RBD patients presumably representing prodromal PD. Dermal p-alpha-syn is detectable in RBD patients without PD motor symptoms, thereby stratifying a patient group that is of great interest for clinical trials testing disease-modifying drugs.

  19. Clinical Performance of a Dermal Filler Containing Natural Glycolic Acid and a Polylactic Acid Polymer: Results of a Clinical Trial in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Subjects with Facial Lipoatrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Tagle, Jorge M.; Macchetto, Pedro Cervantes; Durán Páramo, Rosa Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Lipoatrophy is a condition that affects certain individuals, most commonly those who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.1–3 Injectable fillers are used for the treatment of these dermal contour deformities to smooth dermal depressions formed by the loss of volume. These dermal fillers (also known as soft tissue augmentation devices) can correct contour deformities caused by lipoatrophy in patients who are human immunodeficiency virus positive or negative. The product used in t...

  20. Serial non-invasive measurements of dermal carotenoid concentrations in dairy cows following recovery from abomasal displacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Klein

    Full Text Available Maintaining the health of farm animals forms the basis for a sustainable and profitable production of food from animal origin. Recently, the effects of carotenoids on the oxidative status as well as on reproductive and immune functions in cattle have been demonstrated. The present study aimed at investigating dermal carotenoid levels in cattle recovering from abomasal displacement. For this purpose, serial in vivo measurements were undertaken using a miniaturized scanner system that relies on reflection spectroscopy (Opsolution GmbH, Kassel, Germany. In a first trial, repeated measurements of dermal carotenoid concentrations were performed on the udder skin of healthy non-lactating cattle (n = 6 for one month in weekly intervals. In a second trial, in vivo dermal carotenoid concentrations were determined in intervals in 23 cows following surgical treatment of abomasal displacement. The results show that dermal carotenoid concentrations, determined on a weekly basis over a period of one month, showed variations of up to 18% in the healthy individuals kept under constant conditions with respect to housing and nutrition. Repeated measurements during the recovery period following surgical treatment of abomasal displacement resulted in an increase in dermal carotenoid concentrations in 18 of 20 animals with a favourable outcome when compared with results obtained within 12 hours following surgery. The mean increase in dermal carotenoid concentrations in subsequent measurements was 53 ± 44%, whereas levels decreased (mean 31 ± 27% in cattle with a fatal outcome.These results indicate potential applications for reflection spectroscopy for non-invasive early detection of changes in the dermal carotenoid concentrations as a reflection of the antioxidant status in an animal.

  1. Quantification and Statistical Modeling—Part II: Dermal Concentrations of Monomeric and Polymeric 1,6-Hexamethylene Diisocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fent, Kenneth W.; Trelles Gaines, Linda G.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Flack, Sheila L.; Ding, Kai; Herring, Amy H.; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a quantitative dermal and inhalation exposure assessment of monomeric and polymeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanates (HDI) in 47 automotive spray painters from North Carolina and Washington State. We report here the use of linear mixed modeling (LMM) to identify the primary determinants of dermal exposure. Dermal concentrations of HDI, uretidone, biuret, and isocyanurate were significantly higher in 15 painters who did not wear coveralls or gloves (N = 51 paint tasks) than in 32 painters who did wear coveralls and gloves (N = 192 paint tasks) during spray painting. Regardless of whether protective clothing was worn, isocyanurate was the predominant species measured in the skin [geometric mean (GM) = 33.8 ng mm−3], with a 95% detection rate. Other polyisocyanates (GM ≤ 0.17 ng mm−3) were detected in skin during <23% of the paint tasks. According to marginal R2 statistics, mixed models generated in this study described no <36% of the variability in dermal concentrations of the different polyisocyanates measured in painters who did not wear protective clothing. These models also described 55% of the variability in dermal concentrations of isocyanurate measured in all painters (N = 288 paint tasks). The product of analyte-specific breathing-zone concentration (BZC) and paint time was the most significant variable in all the models. Through LMM, a better understanding of the exposure pathways governing individual polyisocyanate exposures may be achieved. In particular, we were able to establish a link between BZC and dermal concentration, which may be useful for exposure reconstruction and quantitatively characterizing the protective effect of coveralls and gloves. This information can be used to reduce dermal exposures and better protect automotive spray painters from potential adverse health effects. PMID:19635734

  2. 77 FR 46412 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2012-08-03

    ... collection is necessary to fulfill the mandate of the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act... make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as...

  3. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions AGENCY: Departmental Offices. ACTION..., the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office is seeking comments regarding Litigation Management..., preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record, Suite...

  4. 75 FR 75952 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2010-12-07

    ... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology should be addressed to: Desk... surveillance. APHIS will collect information using VS form 10-4 and 10- 4A, Specimen Submission Form and...

  5. [SDC submission to the Welsh Assembly] [f]ood consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission Wales

    2010-01-01

    The final report of the consultation is entitled 'Food for Wales, food from Wales'. English language version of 'Ymgynghoriad ar fwyd'. Sustainable Development Commission Wales submission to the consultation on a food strategy for Wales. Publisher PDF

  6. 78 FR 66973 - Submission for Review: Representative Payee Survey

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    2013-11-07

    .... chapter 35) as amended by the Clinger-Cohen Act (Pub. L. 104-106), OPM is soliciting comments for this... other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submissions of responses. DATES...

  7. 78 FR 28006 - Submission for Review: Reemployment of Annuitants

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    2013-05-13

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. chapter 35) as amended by the Clinger-Cohen Act... information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submissions of responses. DATES: Comments are encouraged...

  8. 77 FR 66189 - Submission for Review: Reemployment of Annuitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. chapter 35) as amended by the Clinger-Cohen Act... information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submissions of responses. DATES: Comments are encouraged...

  9. 78 FR 45579 - Submission for Review: Information Collection;

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    2013-07-29

    ... Clinger-Cohen Act (Pub. L. 104-106), OPM is soliciting comments for this collection. The Office of... information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submissions of responses. DATES: Comments are encouraged...

  10. 75 FR 56516 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2010-09-16

    ... used to notify the training facility of assignments to classes, and for cost analysis, budget estimates... the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  11. 77 FR 72335 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2012-12-05

    ... metrics and data management reports; to register applicants for classes; to notify users of future events... make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as...

  12. 75 FR 76022 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cost Submission

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    2010-12-07

    ... estimate of the burden of the proposed collection of information, including the validity of the methodology... can be found at http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/toolbox/forms/ . Current Actions: This submission is being...

  13. 75 FR 52307 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    2010-08-25

    ... Archive; 3 hours for the submission of an operational quarterly report; 8 hours for an annual compliance... Internet at [email protected] ). Written comments and recommendations for the proposed information collection...

  14. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  15. Regulatory Submission Coordinator | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides administrative support to the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI’s), Center for Cancer Research (CCR), Protocol Support Office (PSO). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES Performs regulatory submission/administrative duties for the Protocol Support Office, NCI/CCR Assists with the preparation of documents to include protocols, investigator brochures, consent forms, and submissions to the FDA Maintains revision logs and tracking versions of the documents Provides accurate filing of pertinent regulatory documents Provides administrative support related to document control requirements including filing of master documents, formatting and typing of various document Attends regulatory and administrative meetings for taking and typing of minutes, reports and summaries Communicates with clinical, administrative and management personnel to gather or convey information Edits and prepares material for final review Participates in planning functions Works in conjunction with other administrative staff to accomplish program requirements Acts as liaison coordinating tasks/deadlines between the Clinical Research ARC and the Branch This position is located in Rockville, Maryland.

  16. 78 FR 35940 - Content of Premarket Submissions for Management of Cybersecurity in Medical Devices; Draft...

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    2013-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Content of Premarket Submissions for Management of... Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the draft guidance entitled ``Content of Premarket... draft guidance document entitled ``Content of Premarket Submissions for Management of Cybersecurity in...

  17. 77 FR 46763 - Documents to Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability

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    2012-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Documents to Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... documents that support making regulatory submissions in electronic format using the electronic Common...

  18. 78 FR 10181 - Documents To Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability

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    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Documents To Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... versions of documents that support making regulatory submissions in ] electronic format using the...

  19. 76 FR 66311 - Draft Documents To Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Documents To Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... the following draft versions of documents that support making regulatory submissions in electronic...

  20. Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions 2.0 (TSCATS 2.0)

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    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions 2.0 (TSCATS 2.0) tracks the submissions of health and safety data submitted to the EPA either as required or...

  1. 75 FR 65511 - Employee Benefits Security Administration; Submission for OMB Review

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    2010-10-25

    ...., permitting electronic submission of responses. Agency: Employee Benefits Security Administration. Type of... of the Secretary Employee Benefits Security Administration; Submission for OMB Review ACTION: Notice..., Attn: OMB Desk Officer for the Department of Labor--Employee Benefits Security Administration (EBSA...

  2. 78 FR 4418 - Electronic Submission Process for Requesting Export Certificates From the Center for Devices and...

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    2013-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Electronic Submission Process for Requesting Export... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of an electronic submission process for requesting export certificates for products regulated by...

  3. Acute Cholecystitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schuld, Jochen; Glanemann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of acute cholecystitis has been controversially discussed in the literature as there are no high-evidence-level data yet for determining the optimal point in time for surgical intervention...

  4. Bronchitis (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Wark, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Acute bronchitis, with transient inflammation of the trachea and major bronchi, affects over 40/1000 adults a year in the UK. The causes are usually considered to be infective, but only around half of people have identifiable pathogens.The role of smoking or environmental tobacco smoke inhalation in predisposing to acute bronchitis is unclear.A third of people may have longer-term symptoms or recurrence.

  5. A multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing absorbable barbed sutures versus conventional absorbable sutures for dermal closure in open surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, J Peter; Hunstad, Joseph P; Polynice, Alain; Gusenoff, Jeffrey A; Schoeller, Thomas; Dunn, Raymond; Walgenbach, Klaus J; Hansen, Juliana E

    2014-02-01

    Barbed sutures were developed to reduce operative time and improve security of wound closure. The authors compare absorbable barbed sutures (V-Loc, Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts) with conventional (smooth) absorbable sutures for soft tissue approximation. A prospective multicenter randomized study comparing barbed sutures with smooth sutures was undertaken between August 13, 2009, and January 31, 2010, in 241 patients undergoing abdominoplasty, mastopexy, and reduction mammaplasty. Each patient received barbed sutures on 1 side of the body, with deep dermal sutures eliminated or reduced. Smooth sutures with deep dermal and subcuticular closure were used on the other side as a control. The primary endpoint was dermal closure time. Safety was assessed through adverse event reporting through a 12-week follow-up. A total of 229 patients were ultimately treated (115 with slow-absorbing polymer and 114 with rapid-absorbing polymer). Mean dermal closure time was significantly quicker with the barbed suture compared with the smooth suture (12.0 vs 19.2 minutes; Psutures. The rapid-absorbing barbed suture showed a complication profile equivalent to the smooth suture, while the slow-absorbing barbed suture had a higher incidence of minor suture extrusion. Barbed sutures enabled faster dermal closure quicker than smooth sutures, with a comparable complication profile. 1.

  6. MicroRNA 181b regulates decorin production by dermal fibroblasts and may be a potential therapy for hypertrophic scar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kwan

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic scarring is a frequent fibroproliferative complication following deep dermal burns leading to impaired function and lifelong disfigurement. Decorin reduces fibrosis and induces regeneration in many tissues, and is significantly downregulated in hypertrophic scar and normal deep dermal fibroblasts. It was hypothesized that microRNAs in these fibroblasts downregulate decorin and blocking them would increase decorin and may prevent hypertrophic scarring. Lower decorin levels were found in hypertrophic scar as compared to normal skin, and in deep as compared to superficial dermis. A decorin 3' un-translated region reporter assay demonstrated microRNA decreased decorin in deep dermal fibroblasts, and microRNA screening predicted miR- 24, 181b, 421, 526b, or 543 as candidates. After finding increased levels of mir-181b in deep dermal fibroblasts, it was demonstrated that TGF-β1 stimulation decreased miR-24 but increased miR-181b and that hypertrophic scar and deep dermis contained increased levels of miR-181b. By blocking miR-181b with an antagomiR, it was possible to increase decorin protein expression in dermal fibroblasts. This suggests miR-181b is involved in the differential expression of decorin in skin and wound healing. Furthermore, blocking miR-181b reversed TGF-β1 induced decorin downregulation and myofibroblast differentiation in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, suggesting a potential therapy for hypertrophic scar.

  7. Assessment of dermal exposure and histopathologic changes of different sized nano-silver in healthy adult rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koohi, Mohammad kazem; Hejazy, Marzie [Toxicology division, Basic science department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Qareeb Street, Azadi Av. PO Box: 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadi, Farzad [Biochemistry division, Basic science department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Qareeb Street, Azadi Av. PO Box: 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadian, Peyman, E-mail: mkkoohi@ut.ac.ir [Clinical pathology department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-06

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dermal toxicity (Irritation/Corrosion) of three sizes of nanosilver particles (10, 20 and 30 nm) during 3 min, 1 and 4 hours according to the OECD/OCDE guideline Histopathological effects in secondary organs from liver, kidney, heart, spleen and brain 14 day post dermal administration are also reported. 10 and 20 nm Ag nanoparticles treated group showed well defined dermal erythema and oedema. Histopathological findings of 10 and 20 nm (4 hours exposure) on 14-day post dermal administration showed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, hair-filled follicles and papillomatosis in an irregular epidermis, fibrosis, hyperemia, erythema, intracellular oedema and hyalinisation of collagen in dermis of skin. Liver revealed midzonal and periacinar necrosis, portal mononuclear infiltration, liver fatty change, liver congestion and hyperemic central vein. Splenic red pulp congestion and white pulp hyperreactivity, splenic trabeculae and sinusoidal congestion and hyaline change were found in spleen. Fatty degeneration in some cardiovascular cells and subendocardial hemorrhage without inflammation was perceived. Picnotic appearance of pyramidal neurons in the brain cortex, gliosis and mild perineuronal oedema ischemic cell change and hyperemic meninges was observed in brain. Our research concluded that dermal exposure to lesser sizes of silver nanoparticles is more disastrous than greater ones.

  8. One-stage reconstruction of soft tissue defects with the sandwich technique: Collagen-elastin dermal template and skin grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : A full-thickness soft tissue defect closure often needs complex procedures. The use of dermal templates can be helpful in improving the outcome. Objective : The objective was to evaluate a sandwich technique combining the dermal collagen-elastin matrix with skin grafts in a one-stage procedure. Materials and Methods : Twenty-three patients with 27 wounds were enrolled in this prospective single-centre observational study. The mean age was 74.8 ± 17.2 years. Included were full-thickness defects with exposed bone, cartilage and/ or tendons. The dermal collagen-elastin matrix was applied onto the wound bed accomplished by skin transplants, i.e. ′sandwich′ transplantation. In six wounds, the transplants were treated with intermittent negative pressure therapy. Results : The size of defects was ≤875 cm 2 . The use of the dermal template resulted in a complete and stable granulation in 100% of wounds. Seventeen defects showed a complete closure and 19 achieved a complete granulation with an incomplete closure. There was a marked pain relief. No adverse events were noted due to the dermal template usage. Conclusions : Sandwich transplantation with the collagen-elastin matrix is a useful tool when dealing with full-thickness soft tissue defects with exposed bone, cartilage or tendons.

  9. Assessment of dermal exposure and histopathologic changes of different sized nano-silver in healthy adult rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    kazem Koohi, Mohammad; Hejazy, Marzie; Asadi, Farzad; Asadian, Peyman

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dermal toxicity (Irritation/Corrosion) of three sizes of nanosilver particles (10, 20 and 30 nm) during 3 min, 1 and 4 hours according to the OECD/OCDE guideline Histopathological effects in secondary organs from liver, kidney, heart, spleen and brain 14 day post dermal administration are also reported. 10 and 20 nm Ag nanoparticles treated group showed well defined dermal erythema and oedema. Histopathological findings of 10 and 20 nm (4 hours exposure) on 14-day post dermal administration showed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, hair-filled follicles and papillomatosis in an irregular epidermis, fibrosis, hyperemia, erythema, intracellular oedema and hyalinisation of collagen in dermis of skin. Liver revealed midzonal and periacinar necrosis, portal mononuclear infiltration, liver fatty change, liver congestion and hyperemic central vein. Splenic red pulp congestion and white pulp hyperreactivity, splenic trabeculae and sinusoidal congestion and hyaline change were found in spleen. Fatty degeneration in some cardiovascular cells and subendocardial hemorrhage without inflammation was perceived. Picnotic appearance of pyramidal neurons in the brain cortex, gliosis and mild perineuronal oedema ischemic cell change and hyperemic meninges was observed in brain. Our research concluded that dermal exposure to lesser sizes of silver nanoparticles is more disastrous than greater ones.

  10. A decision support framework for characterizing and managing dermal exposures to chemicals during Emergency Management and Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, G Scott; Hudson, Naomi L; Maier, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Emergency Management and Operations (EMO) personnel are in need of resources and tools to assist in understanding the health risks associated with dermal exposures during chemical incidents. This article reviews available resources and presents a conceptual framework for a decision support system (DSS) that assists in characterizing and managing risk during chemical emergencies involving dermal exposures. The framework merges principles of three decision-making techniques: 1) scenario planning, 2) risk analysis, and 3) multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). This DSS facilitates dynamic decision making during each of the distinct life cycle phases of an emergency incident (ie, preparedness, response, or recovery) and identifies EMO needs. A checklist tool provides key questions intended to guide users through the complexities of conducting a dermal risk assessment. The questions define the scope of the framework for resource identification and application to support decision-making needs. The framework consists of three primary modules: 1) resource compilation, 2) prioritization, and 3) decision. The modules systematically identify, organize, and rank relevant information resources relating to the hazards of dermal exposures to chemicals and risk management strategies. Each module is subdivided into critical elements designed to further delineate the resources based on relevant incident phase and type of information. The DSS framework provides a much needed structure based on contemporary decision analysis principles for 1) documenting key questions for EMO problem formulation and 2) a method for systematically organizing, screening, and prioritizing information resources on dermal hazards, exposures, risk characterization, and management.

  11. 7 CFR 400.702 - Confidentiality of submission and duration of confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality of submission and duration of confidentiality. 400.702 Section 400.702 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Submission of Policies, Provisions of Policies and Rates of Premium § 400.702 Confidentiality of submission...

  12. Dermal microdialysis of inflammatory markers induced by aliphatic hydrocarbons in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlolla, Ram R.; Mallampati, Ramya; Fulzele, Suniket V.; Babu, R. Jayachandra; Singh, Mandip

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we made an attempt to understand the skin irritation cascade of selected aliphatic hydrocarbons using microdialysis technique. Microdialysis probes were inserted into dermis in the dorsal skin of hairless rats. After 2 h of probes insertion, occlusive dermal exposure (2 h) was carried out with 230 μl of nonane, dodecane and tetradecane, using Hill top chambers®. Inflammatory biomarkers such as substance P (SP), α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were analyzed in the dialysis samples by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). SP, α-MSH and IL6 were released in significant amounts following the dermal exposure of nonane and dodecane, whereas tetradecane did not induce any of these markers in significant amounts compared to control. Nonane increased the PGE2 levels in significant amounts within 2 h of chemical exposure compared to dodecane and tetradecane. IL-6 response was found to be slow and 2–3-fold increase in IL-6 levels was observed after 5 h following nonane and dodecane application. The magnitude of skin irritation exerted by all three chemicals was in the order of nonane ≥ dodecane ≥ tetradecane. The results demonstrate that microdialysis can be used to measure the inflammatory biomarkers in the skin irritation studies and irritation response of chemicals was quantifiable by this method. In conclusion, microdialysis was found to be an excellent tool to measure several inflammatory biomarkers as a function of time after dermal exposures with irritant chemicals. PMID:19152832

  13. Measurements of dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air and clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekö, G; Morrison, G; Weschler, C J; Koch, H M; Pälmke, C; Salthammer, T; Schripp, T; Toftum, J; Clausen, G

    2017-03-01

    In this preliminary study, we have investigated whether dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air or indirectly from clothing can be a meaningful exposure pathway. Two participants wearing only shorts and a third participant wearing clean cotton clothes were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), generated by mechanically "smoking" cigarettes, for three hours in a chamber while breathing clean air from head-enveloping hoods. The average nicotine concentration (420 μg/m(3) ) was comparable to the highest levels reported for smoking sections of pubs. Urine samples were collected immediately before exposure and 60 hour post-exposure for bare-skinned participants. For the clothed participant, post-exposure urine samples were collected for 24 hour. This participant then entered the chamber for another three-hour exposure wearing a hood and clothes, including a shirt that had been exposed for five days to elevated nicotine levels. The urine samples were analyzed for nicotine and two metabolites-cotinine and 3OH-cotinine. Peak urinary cotinine and 3OH-cotinine concentrations for the bare-skinned participants were comparable to levels measured among non-smokers in hospitality environments before smoking bans. The amount of dermally absorbed nicotine for each bare-skinned participant was conservatively estimated at 570 μg, but may have been larger. For the participant wearing clean clothes, uptake was ~20 μg, and while wearing a shirt previously exposed to nicotine, uptake was ~80 μg. This study demonstrates meaningful dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air or from nicotine-exposed clothes. The findings are especially relevant for children in homes with smoking or vaping. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Interposition Dermal Matrix Xenografts: A Successful Alternative to Traditional Treatment of Massive Rotator Cuff Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Julie A; Zgonis, Miltiadis H; Rickert, Kathleen D; Bradley, Kendall E; Kremen, Thomas J; Boggess, Blake R; Toth, Alison P

    2017-05-01

    Management of massive rotator cuff tears in shoulders without glenohumeral arthritis remains problematic for surgeons. Repairs of massive rotator cuff tears have failure rates of 20% to 94% at 1 to 2 years postoperatively as demonstrated with arthrography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, inconsistent outcomes have been reported with debridement alone of massive rotator cuff tears, and limitations have been seen with other current methods of operative intervention, including arthroplasty and tendon transfers. The use of interposition porcine acellular dermal matrix xenograft in patients with massive rotator cuff tears will result in improved subjective outcomes, postoperative pain, function, range of motion, and strength. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Sixty patients (61 shoulders) were prospectively observed for a mean of 50.3 months (range, 24-63 months) after repair of massive rotator cuff tears with porcine acellular dermal matrix xenograft as an interposition graft. Subjective outcome data were obtained with visual analog scale for pain score (0-10, 0 = no pain) and Modified American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (MASES) score. Active range of motion in flexion, external rotation, and internal rotation were recorded. Strength in the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles was assessed manually on a 10-point scale and by handheld dynamometer. Ultrasound was used to assess the integrity of the repair during latest follow-up. Mean visual analog scale pain score decreased from 4.0 preoperatively to 1.0 postoperatively ( P massive rotator cuff tears with interposition porcine acellular dermal matrix graft have good subjective function as assessed by the MASES score. Patients have significant improvement in pain, range of motion, and manual muscle strength. Postoperative ultrasound demonstrated that the repair was completely intact in 91.8% of patients, a vast improvement compared with results previously reported for primary repairs of

  15. Protective Effect of Tetracycline against Dermal Toxicity Induced by Jellyfish Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changkeun; Jin, Yeung Bae; Kwak, Jeongsoo; Jung, Hongseok; Yoon, Won Duk; Yoon, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously, we have reported that most, if not all, of the Scyphozoan jellyfish venoms contain multiple components of metalloproteinases, which apparently linked to the venom toxicity. Further, it is also well known that there is a positive correlation between the inflammatory reaction of dermal tissues and their tissue metalloproteinase activity. Based on these, the use of metalloproteinase inhibitors appears to be a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of jellyfish envenomation. Methodology and Principal Findings Tetracycline (a metalloproteinase inhibitor) has been examined for its activity to reduce or prevent the dermal toxicity induced by Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) jellyfish venom (NnV) using in vitro and in vivo models. HaCaT (human keratinocyte) and NIH3T3 (mouse fibroblast) incubated with NnV showed decreases in cell viability, which is associated with the inductions of metalloproteinase-2 and -9. This result suggests that the use of metalloproteinase inhibitors, such as tetracycline, may prevent the jellyfish venom-mediated local tissue damage. In vivo experiments showed that comparing with NnV-alone treatment, tetracycline pre-mixed NnV demonstrated a significantly reduced progression of dermal toxicity upon the inoculation onto rabbit skin. Conclusions/Significance It is believed that there has been no previous report on the therapeutic agent of synthetic chemical origin for the treatment of jellyfish venom-induced dermonecrosis based on understanding its mechanism of action except the use of antivenom treatment. Furthermore, the current study, for the first time, has proposed a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for skin damages caused by jellyfish stings. PMID:23536767

  16. protective effect of tetracycline against dermal toxicity induced by Jellyfish venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changkeun Kang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previously, we have reported that most, if not all, of the Scyphozoan jellyfish venoms contain multiple components of metalloproteinases, which apparently linked to the venom toxicity. Further, it is also well known that there is a positive correlation between the inflammatory reaction of dermal tissues and their tissue metalloproteinase activity. Based on these, the use of metalloproteinase inhibitors appears to be a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of jellyfish envenomation. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tetracycline (a metalloproteinase inhibitor has been examined for its activity to reduce or prevent the dermal toxicity induced by Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae jellyfish venom (NnV using in vitro and in vivo models. HaCaT (human keratinocyte and NIH3T3 (mouse fibroblast incubated with NnV showed decreases in cell viability, which is associated with the inductions of metalloproteinase-2 and -9. This result suggests that the use of metalloproteinase inhibitors, such as tetracycline, may prevent the jellyfish venom-mediated local tissue damage. In vivo experiments showed that comparing with NnV-alone treatment, tetracycline pre-mixed NnV demonstrated a significantly reduced progression of dermal toxicity upon the inoculation onto rabbit skin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is believed that there has been no previous report on the therapeutic agent of synthetic chemical origin for the treatment of jellyfish venom-induced dermonecrosis based on understanding its mechanism of action except the use of antivenom treatment. Furthermore, the current study, for the first time, has proposed a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for skin damages caused by jellyfish stings.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) essential oil in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesheng; Parker, Tory L

    2017-12-01

    Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. [Myrtaceae]) essential oil (CEO) has been shown to possess antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. However, few studies have focused on its topical use. We investigated the biological activity of a commercially available CEO in a human skin disease model. We evaluated the effect of CEO on 17 protein biomarkers that play critical roles in inflammation and tissue remodelling in a validated human dermal fibroblast system, which was designed to model chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Four concentrations of CEO (0.011, 0.0037, 0.0012, and 0.00041%, v/v) were studied. The effect of 0.011% CEO on genome-wide gene expression was also evaluated. CEO at a concentration of 0.011% showed robust antiproliferative effects on human dermal fibroblasts. It significantly inhibited the increased production of several proinflammatory biomarkers such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), interferon γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC), and monokine induced by γ interferon (MIG). CEO also significantly inhibited tissue remodelling protein molecules, namely, collagen-I, collagen-III, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2). Furthermore, it significantly modulated global gene expression and altered signalling pathways critical for inflammation, tissue remodelling, and cancer signalling processes. CEO significantly inhibited VCAM-1 and collagen III at both protein and gene expression levels. This study provides important evidence of CEO-induced anti-inflammatory and tissue remodelling activity in human dermal fibroblasts. This study also supports the anticancer properties of CEO and its major active component eugenol.

  18. Nanocrystals for dermal penetration enhancement - Effect of concentration and underlying mechanisms using curcumin as model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidlářová, Lucie; Romero, Gregori B; Hanuš, Jaroslav; Štěpánek, František; Müller, Rainer H

    2016-07-01

    Nanocrystals have received considerable attention in dermal application due to their ability to enhance delivery to the skin and overcome bioavailability issues caused by poor water and oil drug solubility. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nanocrystals on the mechanism of penetration behavior of curcumin as a model drug. Curcumin nanocrystals were produced by the smartCrystals® process, i.e. bead milling followed by high pressure homogenization. The mean particle size of the curcumin crystals was about 200nm. Stabilization was performed with alkyl polyglycoside surfactants. The distribution of curcumin within the skin was determined in vitro on cross-sections of porcine skin and visualized by fluorescent microscopy. The skin penetration profile was analyzed for the curcumin nanosuspension with decreasing concentrations (2%, 0.2%, 0.02% and 0.002% by weight) and compared to nanocrystals in a viscous hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) gel. This study demonstrated there was minor difference between low viscous nanosuspension and the gel, but low viscosity seemed to favor skin penetration. Localization of curcumin was observed in the hair follicles, also contributing to skin uptake. Looking at the penetration of curcumin from formulations with decreasing nanocrystal concentration, formulations with 2%, 0.2% and 0.02% showed a similar penetration profile, whereas a significantly weaker fluorescence was observed in the case of a formulation containing 0.002% of curcumin nanocrystals. In this study we have shown that curcumin nanocrystals prepared by the smartCrystal® process are promising carriers in dermal application and furthermore, we identified the ideal concentration of 0.02% nanocrystals in dermal formulations. The comprehensive study of decreasing curcumin concentration in formulations revealed that the saturation solubility (Cs) is not the only determining factor for the penetration. A new mechanism based also on the concentration of the

  19. Asiaticoside induces cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Yulianti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Asiatiocoside, a saponin component isolated from Centella asiatica can improve wound healing by promoting the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF and synthesis of collagen. The skin-renewing cells and type I and III collagen synthesis decrease with aging, resulting in the reduction of skin elasticity and delayed wound healing. Usage of natural active compounds from plants in wound healing should be evaluated and compared to retinoic acid as an active agent that regulates wound healing. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the effect of asiaticoside and retinoic acid to induce greater cell proliferation and type I and III collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblast. Methods Laboratory experiments were conducted using human dermal fibroblasts (HDF isolated from human foreskin explants. Seven passages of HDF were treated with asiaticoside and retinoic acid at several doses and incubated for 24 and 48 hours. Cell viability in all groups was tested with the MTT assay to assess HDF proliferation. Type I and III collagen synthesis was examined using the respective ELISA kits. Analysis of variance was performed to compare the treatment groups. Results Asiaticoside had significantly stronger effects on HDF proliferation than retinoic acid (p<0.05. The type III collagen production was significantly greater induction with asiaticoside compared to retinoic acid (p<0.05. Conclusion Asiaticoside induces HDF proliferation and type I and III collagen synthesis in a time- and dose-dependent pattern. Asiaticoside has a similar effect as retinoic acid on type I and type III collagen synthesis.

  20. Direct Reprogramming of Human Dermal Fibroblasts Into Endothelial Cells Using ER71/ETV2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangho; Park, Changwon; Han, Ji Woong; Kim, Ju Young; Cho, Kyuwon; Kim, Eun Jae; Kim, Sangsung; Lee, Shin-Jeong; Oh, Se Yeong; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Park, In-Hyun; An, Hyo Jae; Shin, Claire Min; Sharma, Shraya; Yoon, Young-Sup

    2017-03-03

    Direct conversion or reprogramming of human postnatal cells into endothelial cells (ECs), bypassing stem or progenitor cell status, is crucial for regenerative medicine, cell therapy, and pathophysiological investigation but has remained largely unexplored. We sought to directly reprogram human postnatal dermal fibroblasts to ECs with vasculogenic and endothelial transcription factors and determine their vascularizing and therapeutic potential. We utilized various combinations of 7 EC transcription factors to transduce human postnatal dermal fibroblasts and found that ER71/ETV2 (ETS variant 2) alone best induced endothelial features. KDR+ (kinase insert domain receptor) cells sorted at day 7 from ER71/ETV2-transduced human postnatal dermal fibroblasts showed less mature but enriched endothelial characteristics and thus were referred to as early reprogrammed ECs (rECs), and did not undergo maturation by further culture. After a period of several weeks' transgene-free culture followed by transient reinduction of ER71/ETV2, early rECs matured during 3 months of culture and showed reduced ETV2 expression, reaching a mature phenotype similar to postnatal human ECs. These were termed late rECs. While early rECs exhibited an immature phenotype, their implantation into ischemic hindlimbs induced enhanced recovery from ischemia. These 2 rECs showed clear capacity for contributing to new vessel formation through direct vascular incorporation in vivo. Paracrine or proangiogenic effects of implanted early rECs played a significant role in repairing hindlimb ischemia. This study for the first time demonstrates that ER71/ETV2 alone can directly reprogram human postnatal cells to functional, mature ECs after an intervening transgene-free period. These rECs could be valuable for cell therapy, personalized disease investigation, and exploration of the reprogramming process. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Mixture component effects on the in vitro dermal absorption of pentachlorophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riviere, J.E.; Qiao, G.; Baynes, R.E.; Brooks, J.D. [Coll. of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Mumtaz, M. [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Interactions between chemicals in a mixture and interactions of mixture components with the skin can significantly alter the rate and extent of percutaneous absorption, as well as the cutaneous disposition of a topically applied chemical. The predictive ability of dermal absorption models, and consequently the dermal risk assessment process, would be greatly improved by the elucidation and characterization of these interactions. Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a compound known to penetrate the skin readily, was used as a marker compound to examine mixture component effects using in vitro porcine skin models. PCP was administered in ethanol or in a 40% ethanol/60% water mixture or a 40% ethanol/60% water mixture containing either the rubefacient methyl nicotinate (MNA) or the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), or both MNA and SLS. Experiments were also conducted with {sup 14}C-labelled 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB). Maximal PCP absorption was 14.12% of the applied dose from the mixture containing SLS, MNA, ethanol and water. However, when PCP was administered in ethanol only, absorption was only 1.12% of the applied dose. There were also qualitative differences among the absorption profiles for the different PCP mixtures. In contrast with the PCP results, absorption of TCB or PCB was negligible in perfused porcine skin, with only 0.14% of the applied TCB dose and 0.05% of the applied PCB dose being maximally absorbed. The low absorption levels for the PCB congeners precluded the identification of mixture component effects. These results suggest that dermal absorption estimates from a single chemical exposure may not reflect absorption seen after exposure as a chemical mixture and that absorption of both TCB and PCB are minimal in this model system. (orig.)

  2. Rapid MR imaging of cryoprotectant permeation in an engineered dermal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidault, N P; Hammer, B E; Hubel, A

    2000-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a powerful technique for monitoring the permeation of cryoprotective agents (CPAs) inside tissues. However, the techniques published until now suffer from inherently long imaging times, limiting the application of these techniques to slow diffusion processes and large CPA concentrations. In this study, we present a rapid MR imaging technique based on a CHESS-FLASH scheme combined with Keyhole image acquisition. This technique can image the fast permeation of Me(2)SO solutions into freeze-dried artificial dermal replacements for concentrations down to 10% v/v. Special attention is given to evaluating the technique for quantitative analysis. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. Predicting dermal absorption of gas-phase chemicals: transient model development, evaluation, and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, M.; Zhang, Y.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    A transient model is developed to predict dermal absorption of gas-phase chemicals via direct air-to-skin-to-blood transport under non-steady-state conditions. It differs from published models in that it considers convective mass-transfer resistance in the boundary layer of air adjacent to the skin....... Results calculated with this transient model are in good agreement with the limited experimental results that are available for comparison. The sensitivity of the modeled estimates to key parameters is examined. The model is then used to estimate air-to-skin-to-blood absorption of six phthalate esters...

  4. Dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after hairwash with coal-tar shampoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooten, F.-J. van; Moonen, E.J.C.; Rhijnsburger, E.; Agen, B. van; Thijssen, H.H.W.; Kleinjans, J.C.S. [University of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology

    1994-11-26

    Describes an experiment to assess the dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after hairwashing with coal tar antidandruff shampoo. The urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-P), a PAH metabolile was used to assess internal dose of PAH. A single use of coal tar shampoo resulted in increased 1-OH-P excretion in all members of the experimental group compared with the control group using a non-coal tar antidandruff shampoo. It is suggested that repeated use of coal tar shampoo would result in a high internal dose of carcinogenic PAH. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  5. A Synthetic Transcriptional Activator of Genes Associated with the Retina in Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Junetha; Chandran, Anandhakumar; Pandian, Ganesh N; Taniguchi, Junichi; Sato, Shinsuke; Hashiya, Kaori; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-07-06

    Small molecules capable of modulating epigenetic signatures can activate the transcription of tissue-restricted genes in a totally unrelated cell type and have potential use in epigenetic therapy. To provide an example for an initial approach, we report here on one synthetic small-molecule compound-termed "SAHA-PIP X"-from our library of conjugates. This compound triggered histone acetylation accompanied by the transcription of retinal-tissue-related genes in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Successful medical and surgical treatment of dermal arteritis of the nasal philtrum in a Saint Bernard dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuolo S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Vuolo, Lisa Peters, Louis Licari Department of Emergency and Critical Care, Fox Valley Animal Referral Center, Appleton, WI, USA Abstract: A four-year-old neutered male Saint Bernard dog presented with a 2 year history of nasal philtrum ulceration and recent recurrent arterial hemorrhage from this region. Dermal arteritis of the nasal philtrum was diagnosed and the patient was started on immunosuppressive medications. Clinical signs continued to recur until surgical resection of the lesions was performed. Dermal arteritis of the nasal philtrum is a rare phenomenon but should be considered in certain breeds. Surgical removal of affected tissue should be considered when medical treatment fails. Long-term management with cyclosporine was initiated which has not been previously described in the literature. Keywords: dermal arteritis, immunology, nasal resection, immunosuppression

  7. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of an Intramedullary Epidermoid Cyst with Dorsal Dermal Sinus Tract in a Toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Fazio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose and manage a rare case of a symptomatic thoracic intramedullary congenital epidermoid cyst with associated dermal sinus in a girl. Congenital intramedullary epidermoid cysts with associated dermal sinuses are very rare occurrences and seldom present symptomatically in very young children. We present a case of a 32-month old with a draining dimpled skin lesion. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated an intramedullary epidermoid with a dorsal dermal sinus tract opening to the skin surface which was confirmed surgically. The patient was treated with debulking to prevent recurrent infection and progression of neurological symptoms. This case demonstrates the use of diffuse-weighted MRI to assist in the diagnosis and surgical management of an atypical presentation of a rare developmental abnormality, which is not well documented in the pediatric radiological literature. Failure to diagnosis may have significant neurological permanent debilitating consequences.

  8. Fall Meeting abstract submission inspires science poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    When the 4 August deadline for submitting Fall Meeting abstracts passed, AGU had received more than 20,000 abstracts, a record-breaking number. The submission process had an unexpected by-product: It inspired some scientists to write haiku on Twitter. (Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry typically having three lines, the first with five syllables, the second with seven, and the third with five.) The following are examples of the haiku tweets, with the hashtag #AGU11AbstractHaiku. (For those who want to keep updated about the Fall Meeting on Twitter, the hashtag is #AGU11.) For more information about the meeting, including registration and housing, visit http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/.

  9. European Strategy Preparatory Group - CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the European Strategy Preparatory Group (ESPG) welcomes submissions on issues related to the strategy from individual physicists, from groups of scientists representing a community (an experiment, a topic of theoretical research, etc.) as well as from Institutions and Organizations (funding agencies, ministries, etc).   These contributions will be discussed at the meetings of the Preparatory Group and during the Open Symposium to be held on 10-12 September 2012 in Cracow, and will be made available to the Strategy Group for drafting the Update of the Strategy. How to submit a contribution? Send your contribution on the scientific issues below using the form under http://indico.cern.ch/event/espg_input (preferably as an attached PDF file): - Accelerator Physics - Astroparticle Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology - Flavour Physics and Symmetries - Physics at High Energy Frontier - Physics of Neutrinos - Strong Interaction Physics...

  10. Implications for burn shock resuscitation of a new in vivo human vascular microdosing technique (microdialysis) for dermal administration of noradrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Anders; Farnebo, Simon; Magnusson, Beatrice; Anderson, Chris; Tesselaar, Erik; Zettersten, Erik; Sjöberg, Folke

    2012-11-01

    Skin has a large dynamic capacity for alterations in blood flow, and is therefore often used for recruitment of blood during states of hypoperfusion such as during burn shock resuscitation. However, little is known about the blood flow and metabolic consequences seen in the dermis secondary to the use vasoactive drugs (i.e. noradrenaline) for circulatory support. The aims of this study were therefore: to develop an in vivo, human microdosing model based on dermal microdialysis; and in this model to investigate effects on blood flow and metabolism by local application of noradrenaline and nitroglycerin by the microdialysis system simulating drug induced circulatory support. Nine healthy volunteers had microdialysis catheters placed intradermally in the volar surface of the lower arm. The catheters were perfused with noradrenaline 3 or 30 mmol/L and after an equilibrium period all catheters were perfused with nitroglycerine (2.2 mmol/L). Dermal blood flow was measured by the urea clearance technique and by laser Doppler imaging. Simultaneously changes in dermal glucose, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations were recorded. Noradrenaline and nitroglycerine delivered to the dermis by the microdialysis probes induced large time- and dose-dependent changes in all variables. We particularly noted that tissue glucose concentrations responded rapidly to hypoperfusion but remained higher than zero. Furthermore, vasoconstriction remained after the noradrenaline administration implicating vasospasm and an attenuated dermal autoregulatory capacity. The changes in glucose and lactate by vasoconstriction (noradrenaline) remained until vasodilatation was actively induced by nitroglycerine. These findings, i.e., compromised dermal blood flow and metabolism are particularly interesting from the burn shock resuscitation perspective where noradrenaline is commonly used for circulatory support. The importance and clinical value of the results obtained in this in vivo dermal model in

  11. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells Inhibit TGF-beta 1-Induced Differentiation of Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Keloid Scar-Derived Fibroblasts in a Paracrine Fashion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiekman, Maroesjka; Przybyt, Ewa; Plantinga, Josee A.; Gibbs, Susan; van der Lei, Berend; Harmsen, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells augment wound healing and skin regeneration. It is unknown whether and how they can also influence dermal scarring. The authors hypothesized that adipose tissue-derived stromal cells inhibit adverse differentiation of dermal fibroblasts induced by the

  12. Default values for assessment of potential dermal exposure of the hands to industrial chemicals in the scope of regulatory risk assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Warren, N.D.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    Dermal exposure needs to be addressed in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals. The models used so far are based on very limited data. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a large number of new measurements on dermal exposure to industrial chemicals in various work situations, together with

  13. Stromal cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue seeded in a native collagen/elastin dermal substitute reduce wound contraction in full thickness skin defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H. J.; Middelkoop, E.; van Heemstra-Hoen, M.; Wildevuur, C. H.; Westerhof, W.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dermal substitutes seeded with cultured fibroblasts have been developed to improve dermal regeneration in full thickness wounds. Because of cell cultivation, 3 weeks are required before patients can be treated with these autologous adipose tissue. This substitute is easily fabricated

  14. [Advances in the research of natural polymeric materials and their derivatives in the manufacture of scaffolds for dermal tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Wang, Hong; Leng, Chongyan; Wang, Kuan; Xie, Ying

    2016-05-01

    Natural polymeric materials and their derivatives are organic macromolecular compounds which exist in plants, animals, and micro-organisms. They have been widely used in the preparation of scaffolds for skin tissue engineering recently because of their good histocompatibility and degradability, and low immunogenicity. With the improvement of the preparation technics, composite materials are more commonly used to make scaffolds for dermal tissue engineering. This article summarizes the classification and research status of the commonly used natural polymer materials, their derivatives, and composite scaffold materials, as well as makes a prospect of the research trends of dermal scaffold in the future.

  15. Efficacy of skin wash on dermal absorption: an in vitro study on four model compounds of varying solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Following dermal exposure to chemicals causing systemic toxicity, the general advice to avoid further systemic exposure is to wash the skin. The present study uses four model compounds (benzoic acid, glyphosat, caffeine, malathion) with varying size and solubility to substantiate...... this advice and quantify the effect of skin wash following 6 h dermal exposure on subsequent extent of skin penetration and deposition within the skin compartment. METHOD: Percutaneous penetration through human skin is studied in an in vitro model with static diffusion cells. RESULTS: The study demonstrates...

  16. Healing rate and autoimmune safety of full-thickness wounds treated with fish skin acellular dermal matrix versus porcine small-intestine submucosa: a noninferiority study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldursson, Baldur Tumi; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Konrádsdóttir, Fífa; Gudnason, Palmar; Sigurjonsson, Gudmundur F; Lund, Sigrún Helga

    2015-03-01

    A novel product, the fish skin acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has recently been introduced into the family of biological materials for the treatment of wounds. Hitherto, these products have been produced from the organs of livestock. A noninferiority test was used to compare the effect of fish skin ADM against porcine small-intestine submucosa extracellular matrix in the healing of 162 full-thickness 4-mm wounds on the forearm of 81 volunteers. The fish skin product was noninferior at the primary end point, healing at 28 days. Furthermore, the wounds treated with fish skin acellular matrix healed significantly faster. These results might give the fish skin ADM an advantage because of its environmental neutrality when compared with livestock-derived products. The study results on these acute full-thickness wounds might apply for diabetic foot ulcers and other chronic full-thickness wounds, and the shorter healing time for the fish skin-treated group could influence treatment decisions. To test the autoimmune reactivity of the fish skin, the participants were tested with the following ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) tests: RF, ANA, ENA, anti ds-DNA, ANCA, anti-CCP, and anticollagen I and II. These showed no reactivity. The results demonstrate the claims of safety and efficacy of fish skin ADM for wound care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Acute Pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertilsson, Sara; Håkansson, Anders; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We aimed to evaluate the potential relation between the incidence of (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) acute pancreatitis (AP) and alcohol consumption in the general population, and whether the occurrence of AP shows any seasonal variation, particularly in relation to periods with expected...... consumption in the general population do not appear to be related to changes in the incidence of AP and there are no significant seasonal differences in the occurrence of AP in Sweden. Short summary: The incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) is increasing, and alcohol is still recognized as one of the most...

  18. Ultraviolet A-induced cathepsin K expression is mediated via MAPK/AP-1 pathway in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfang Xu

    Full Text Available Cathepsin K (CatK, a cysteine protease with the potent elastolytic activity, plays a predominant role in intracellular elastin degradation in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs, and contributes to solar elastosis. In previous studies, CatK expression was downregulated in photoaged skin and fibroblasts, but upregulated in acute UVA-irradiated skin and fibroblasts. The underlying mechanisms regulating UVA-induced CatK expression remain elusive.This study investigates mechanisms involved in the regulation of UVA-induced CatK expression in HDFs.Primary HDFs were exposed to UVA. Cell proliferation was analyzed using a colorimetric assay of relative cell number. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to detect CatK expression in HDFs on three consecutive days after 10 J/cm2 UVA irradiation, or cells treated with increasing UVA doses. UVA-activated MAPK/AP-1 pathway was examined by Western blot. Effects of inhibition of MAPK pathway and knockdown of Jun and Fos on UVA-induced CatK expression were also measured by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot.UVA significantly increased CatK mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. UVA-induced CatK expression occurred along with UVA-activated phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and Jun, UVA-increased expression of Fos. Inactivation of JNK and p38MAPK pathways both remarkably decreased UVA-induced CatK expression, which was suppressed more by inhibition of JNK pathway. Furthermore, knockdown of Jun and Fos significantly attenuated basal and UVA-induced CatK expression.UVA is capable of increasing CatK expression in HDFs, most likely by activation of MAPK pathway and of AP-1, which has been shown to be the case for matrix metalloproteinases. As current strategies for selecting anti-photoaging agents focus on their ability to decrease MMPs' expression through inhibiting UV- activated MAPK pathway, future strategies should also consider their effect on CatK expression.

  19. The effects of topical oxygen therapy on equine distal limb dermal wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Alexandra K.; Alcott, Cody J.; Schleining, Jennifer A.; Safayi, Sina; Zaback, Peter C.; Hostetter, Jesse M.; Reinertson, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    Topical oxygen therapy (TOT) has been used in human medicine to promote healing in chronic wounds. To test the efficacy and safety of TOT in horses, an experimental wound model was created by making 1 standardized dermal wound on each limb of 4 healthy horses (n = 16). Each wound was fitted with an oxygen delivery cannula and covered with a bandage. One limb of each front and hind pair was randomly assigned to the treatment group (fitted with an oxygen concentrator device), with the contralateral limb assigned to the control group (no device). Wound area, epithelial area, and contraction were measured every 3 to 4 d. Biopsy samples and culture swabs were taken on days 16 and 32 to evaluate angiogenesis, fibroplasia, epithelial hyperplasia, inflammation and bacterial growth. Mean healing time in treated wounds (45 d, range: 38 to 52 d) was not significantly different from that in the paired control wounds (50 d, range: 38 to 62 d). Topical oxygen therapy had little effect on dermal wound healing in this experimental wound model in healthy horses. PMID:25477541

  20. Enrichment of skin-derived neural precursor cells from dermal cell populations by altering culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Vahid; Gazor, Rohoullah; Nejatbakhsh, Reza; Negad Dehbashi, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    As stem cells play a critical role in tissue repair, their manipulation for being applied in regenerative medicine is of great importance. Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) may be good candidates for use in cell-based therapy as the only neural stem cells which can be isolated from an accessible tissue, skin. Herein, we presented a simple protocol to enrich neural SKPs by monolayer adherent cultivation to prove the efficacy of this method. To enrich neural SKPs from dermal cell populations, we have found that a monolayer adherent cultivation helps to increase the numbers of neural precursor cells. Indeed, we have cultured dermal cells as monolayer under serum-supplemented (control) and serum-supplemented culture, followed by serum free cultivation (test) and compared. Finally, protein markers of SKPs were assessed and compared in both experimental groups and differentiation potential was evaluated in enriched culture. The cells of enriched culture concurrently expressed fibronectin, vimentin and nestin, an intermediate filament protein expressed in neural and skeletal muscle precursors as compared to control culture. In addition, they possessed a multipotential capacity to differentiate into neurogenic, glial, adipogenic, osteogenic and skeletal myogenic cell lineages. It was concluded that serum-free adherent culture reinforced by growth factors have been shown to be effective on proliferation of skin-derived neural precursor cells (skin-NPCs) and drive their selective and rapid expansion.