Sample records for submillimeter-selected high-redshift galaxies

  1. Galaxies at High Redshift (United States)

    Bauer, F. E.


    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in finding and charactering star-forming galaxies at high redshifts across the electromagnetic spectrum, giving us a more complete picture of how galaxies evolve, both in terms of their stellar and gas content, as well as the growth of their central supermassive black holes. A wealth of studies now demonstrate that star formation peaked at roughly half the age of the Universe and drops precariously as we look back to very early times, and that their central monsters apparently growth with them. At the highest-redshifts, we are pushing the boundaries via deep surveys at optical, X-ray, radio wavelengths, and more recently using gamma-ray bursts. I will review some of our accomplishments and failures. Telescope have enabled Lyman break galaxies to be robustly identified, but the UV luminosity function and star formation rate density of this population at z = 6 - 8 seems to be much lower than at z = 2 - 4. High escape fractions and a large contribution from faint galaxies below our current detection limits would be required for star-forming galaxies to reionize the Universe. We have also found that these galaxies have blue rest-frame UV colours, which might indicate lower dust extinction at z > 5. There has been some spectroscopic confirmation of these Lyman break galaxies through Lyman-α emission, but the fraction of galaxies where we see this line drops at z > 7, perhaps due to the onset of the Gunn-Peterson effect (where the IGM is opaque to Lyman-α).

  2. Red galaxies at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuyts, Stijn Elisabeth Raphaël


    From its origin at the center of a star to the edge, through the surrounding gas and dust in the distant galaxy, through the intergalactic medium, traveling billions of light years only to be reflected by a mirror and captured by a detector; the little amount of light observed from galaxies in the

  3. Search for High Redshift Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Haarsma, D. B.; Butler, A. R.; Donahue, M. E.; Bruch, S. S.


    Distant galaxy clusters are key to understanding many current questions in cosmology, structure formation, and galaxy evolution, yet few z>1 clusters have been identified. The ROSAT Optical X-ray Survey (Donahue et al. 2002 ApJ 569, 689) searched for galaxy clusters using both optical and x-ray detection methods. While many clusters appeared in both wavebands, 10 targets which showed extended x-ray emission (a unique signature of cluster gas) did not show significant I-band emission (expected from elliptical galaxies in the cluster). These targets may be galaxy clusters with redshift greater than 1, which would appear faint in I due to the 400 nm break in elliptical galaxy spectra. In J and K bands, such galaxies would be easier to detect, and in April 2005 we imaged the 10 fields in J and K with the FLAMINGOS camera on the NOAO 4m telescope. The infrared colors are useful in identifying clusters, because all elliptical galaxies in a cluster are expected to have similar colors (i.e. the red sequence). We report preliminary identifications of high redshift galaxy clusters in our sample.

  4. Galaxy luminosity function: evolution at high redshift (United States)

    Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Guennou, L.; Adami, C.


    There are some disagreements about the abundance of faint galaxies in high redshift clusters. DAFT/FADA (Dark energy American French Team) is a medium redshift (0.4galaxy clusters ideal to tackle these problems. We present cluster galaxy luminosity functions (GLFs) based on photometric redshifts for 30 clusters in B, V, R and I restframe bands. We show that completeness is a key parameter to understand the different observed behaviors when fitting the GLFs. We also investigate the evolution of GLFs with redshift for red and blue galaxy populations separately. We find a drop of the faint end of red GLFs which is more important at higher redshift while the blue GLF faint end remains flat in our redshift range. These results can be interpreted in terms of galaxy quenching. Faint blue galaxies transform into red ones which enrich the red sequence from high to low redshifts in clusters while some blue galaxies are still accreted from the environment, compensating for this evolution so that the global GLF does not seem to evolve.

  5. The intergalactic medium near high-redshift galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakic, Olivera


    Over the past 15 years, the field of extragalactic astronomy has pushed to high redshift and our knowledge of natal galaxies has grown dramatically. Galaxies are now routinely detected at redshifts z ! 6−7 (e.g. Bouwens et al. 2010; Labb´e et al. 2010; Oesch et al. 2010; Bouwens et al. 2011;

  6. Probing the Circumgalactic Gas around High Redshift Galaxies with VUDS (United States)

    Méndez-Hernández, Hugo; Cassata, Paolo; Ibar, Eduardo


    We probe the CGM of high redshift galaxies belonging to VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey. We used deep spectroscopy of different lines-of-sight around foreground galaxies to get useful information on the overall kinematics, chemical abundances, and (in some cases) estimates of the mass flux of cool material entrained in an in-outflow.We have selected a sample of 1244 close (0 150 kpc) galaxy pairs from the Vimos Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS) to probe the circumgalactic medium (CGM) around galaxies at 2CIV, OISiII, CIV, AlII) out to galactocentric radii of ˜150 kpc on stacked spectra, and found that the CGM of galaxies at 2< z <5 are rich in metals even at ˜150 kpc away from the galaxies.

  7. High-Redshift galaxies light from the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Appenzeller, Immo


    This book provides a comprehensive account of the scientific results on high-redshift galaxies accumulated during the past ten years. Apart from summarizing and critically discussing the wealth of observational data, the observational methods which made it possible to study these very distant and extremely faint objects are described in detail. Moreover, the technical feasibilities and physical limitations for existing and for future ground-based and space-based telescopes are discussed. Thus, apart from summarizing the knowledge accumulated so far, the book is designed as a tool for planning future observational and instrumental programs and projects. In view of the potential importance of the observational results of the high-redshift universe for basic physics the book is written for astronomers as well as for physicists without prior astronomical knowledge. For this purpose it contains introductory chapters describing the basic concepts and notations used in modern astronomy and a brief overview of the pr...

  8. Estimating Luminosity Function Constraints from High-Redshift Galaxy Surveys (United States)

    Robertson, Brant E.


    The installation of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) will revolutionize the study of high-redshift galaxy populations. Initial observations of the HST Ultra Deep Field (UDF) have yielded multiple z >~ 7 dropout candidates. Supplemented by the GOODS Early Release Science (ERS) and further UDF pointings, these data will provide crucial information about the most distant known galaxies. However, achieving tight constraints on the z ~ 7 galaxy luminosity function (LF) will require even more ambitious photometric surveys. Using a Fisher matrix approach to fully account for Poisson and cosmic sample variance, as well as covariances in the data, we estimate the uncertainties on LF parameters achieved by surveys of a given area and depth. Applying this method to WFC3 z ~ 7 dropout galaxy samples, we forecast the LF parameter uncertainties for a variety of model surveys. We demonstrate that performing a wide area (~1 deg2) survey to H AB ~ 27 depth or increasing the UDF depth to H AB ~ 30 provides excellent constraints on the high-z LF when combined with the existing Ultradeep Field Guest Observation and GOODS ERS data. We also show that the shape of the matter power spectrum may limit the possible gain of splitting wide area (gsim0.5 deg2) high-redshift surveys into multiple fields to probe statistically independent regions; the increased rms density fluctuations in smaller volumes mostly offset the improved variance gained from independent samples.

  9. Galaxy Merger Candidates in High-redshift Cluster Environments (United States)

    Delahaye, A. G.; Webb, T. M. A.; Nantais, J.; DeGroot, A.; Wilson, G.; Muzzin, A.; Yee, H. K. C.; Foltz, R.; Noble, A. G.; Demarco, R.; Tudorica, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Lidman, C.; Perlmutter, S.; Hayden, B.; Boone, K.; Surace, J.


    We compile a sample of spectroscopically and photometrically selected cluster galaxies from four high-redshift galaxy clusters (1.59Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (SpARCS), and a comparison field sample selected from the UKIDSS Deep Survey. Using near-infrared imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope, we classify potential mergers involving massive ({M}* ≥slant 3× {10}10 {M}⊙ ) cluster members by eye, based on morphological properties such as tidal distortions, double nuclei, and projected near neighbors within 20 kpc. With a catalog of 23 spectroscopic and 32 photometric massive cluster members across the four clusters and 65 spectroscopic and 26 photometric comparable field galaxies, we find that after taking into account contamination from interlopers, {11.0}-5.6+7.0 % of the cluster members are involved in potential mergers, compared to {24.7}-4.6+5.3 % of the field galaxies. We see no evidence of merger enhancement in the central cluster environment with respect to the field, suggesting that galaxy-galaxy merging is not a stronger source of galaxy evolution in cluster environments compared to the field at these redshifts.

  10. Angular Momentum Evolution Of Disk Galaxies At High Redshift (United States)

    Okamura, Taku; Kazuhiro, Shimasaku; Ryota, Kawamata


    The stellar disk size of a galaxy depends on the fraction of the dark-halo mass settled as disk stars, m★= M★/Mdh, and the fraction of the dark-halo angular momentum transferred to the disk, j★ = J★/Jdh. Since j★ is also determined by various star-formation related mechanisms such as inflows and feedbacks, measuring j★ and m★ at high redshifts is needed to understand the formation history of disk galaxies. We use the 3D-HST GOODS-S, COSMOS, and AEGIS imaging data and photo-z catalogs to examine j★ and m★ for star-forming galaxies at z 2,3,4, when disks are actively forming. We find that the j★/m★ ratio is roughly constant at ≃ 0.8 for all three redshifts over the entire halo mass range examined. This high ratio is close to those of local disk galaxies but a factor of a few higher than predicted (at z 2) by galaxy formation models. We also find that a significant fraction of our galaxies appear to be unstable against bar formation.

  11. The formation and evolution of high-redshift dusty galaxies (United States)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Ge, Jian; Vieira, Joaquin D.; Prochaska, Jason X.; Spilker, Justin; Strandet, Maria; Ashby, Matthew; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Lundgren, Britt; Zhao, Yinan; Ji, Tuo; Zhang, Shaohua; Caucal, Paul; SPT SMG Collaboration


    Star formation and chemical evolution are among the biggest questions in galaxy formation and evolution. High-redshift dusty galaxies are the best sites to investigate mass assembly and growth, star formation rates, star formation history, chemical enrichment, and physical conditions. My thesis is based on two populations of high-redshift dusty galaxies, submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) and quasar 2175 Å dust absorbers, which are selected by dust emission and dust absorption, respectively.For the SMG sample, I have worked on the gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 2.8 thesis is focused on the stellar masses and star formation rates of these objects by means of multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) modelling. The data include HST/WFC3, Spitzer/IRAC, Herschel/PACS, Herschel/SPIRE, APEX/Laboca and SPT. Compared to the star-forming main sequence (MS), these DSFGs have specific SFRs that lie above the MS, suggesting that we are witnessing ongoing strong starburst events that may be driven by major mergers. SPT0346-52 at z = 5.7, the most extraordinary source in the SPT survey for which we obtained Chandra X-ray and ATCA radio data, was confirmed to have the highest star formation surface density of any known galaxy at high-z.The other half of my thesis is focused on a new population of quasar absorption line systems, 2175 Å dust absorbers, which are excellent probes of gas and dust properties, chemical evolution and physical conditions in the absorbing galaxies. This sample was selected from the SDSS and BOSS surveys and followed up with the Echelle Spectrographs and Imager on the Keck-II telescope, the Red & Blue Channel Spectrograph on the Multiple Mirror Telescope, and the Ultraviolet and Visible Echelle Spectrograph onboard the Very Large Telescope. We found a correlation between the presence of the 2175 Å bump and other ingredients including high metallicity, high depletion level, overall low ionization state of gas, neutral

  12. The infrared-dark dust content of high redshift galaxies (United States)

    Ferrara, A.; Hirashita, H.; Ouchi, M.; Fujimoto, S.


    We present a theoretical model aimed at explaining the IRX-β relation for high redshift (z ≳ 5) galaxies. Recent observations have shown that early Lyman-Break Galaxies, although characterized by a large ultraviolet (UV) attenuation (e.g. flat UV β slopes), show a striking far-infrared (FIR) deficit, i.e. they are `infrared-dark'. This marked deviation from the local IRX-β relation can be explained by the larger molecular gas content of these systems. While dust in the diffuse interstellar medium attains relatively high temperatures (Td ≃ 45 K for typical size a = 0.1 μm; smaller grains can reach Td ≳ 60 K), a sizable fraction of the dust mass is embedded in dense gas, and therefore remains cold. If confirmed, the FIR deficit might represent a novel, powerful indicator of the molecular content of high-z galaxies which can be used to pre-select candidates for follow-up deep CO observations. Thus, high-z CO line searches with ALMA might be much more promising than currently thought.

  13. Quantitative Morphology of High-Redshift Galaxies Using GALEX Ultraviolet Images of Nearby Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum-Suk Yeom


    Full Text Available We present simulations of the optical-band images of high-redshift galaxies utilizing 845 near-ultraviolet (NUV images of nearby galaxies obtained through the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX. We compute the concentration (C, asymmetry (A, Gini (G, and M20 parameters of the GALEX NUV/Sloan Digital Sky Survey r-band images at z ~ 0 and their artificially redshifted optical images at z = 0.9 and 1.6 in order to quantify the morphology of galaxies at local and high redshifts. The morphological properties of nearby galaxies in the NUV are presented using a combination of morphological parameters, in which earlytype galaxies are well separated from late-type galaxies in the G–M20, C–M20, A–C, and A–M20 planes. Based on the distribution of galaxies in the A–C and G–M20 planes, we examine the morphological K-correction (i.e., cosmological distance effect and bandshift effect. The cosmological distance effect on the quantitative morphological parameters is found to be significant for early-type galaxies, while late-type galaxies are more greatly affected by the bandshift effect. Knowledge of the morphological K-correction will set the foundation for forthcoming studies on understanding the quantitative assessment of galaxy evolution.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 160 Concord Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, B. T. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Armus, L.; Desai, V.; Soifer, B. T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Brown, M. J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Melbourne, J., E-mail: [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    The Spitzer Space Telescope has identified a population of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z {approx} 2 that may play an important role in the evolution of massive galaxies. We measure the stellar masses (M{sub *}) of two populations of Spitzer-selected ULIRGs that have extremely red R - [24] colors (dust-obscured galaxies, or DOGs) and compare our results with submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs). One set of 39 DOGs has a local maximum in their mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectral energy distribution (SED) at rest frame 1.6 {mu}m associated with stellar emission ({sup b}ump DOGs{sup )}, while the other set of 51 DOGs have power-law mid-IR SEDs that are typical of obscured active galactic nuclei ({sup p}ower-law DOGs{sup )}. We measure M{sub *} by applying Charlot and Bruzual stellar population synthesis models to broadband photometry in the rest-frame ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared of each of these populations. Assuming a simple stellar population and a Chabrier initial mass function, we find that power-law DOGs and bump DOGs are on average a factor of 2 and 1.5 more massive than SMGs, respectively (median and inter-quartile M{sub *} values for SMGs, bump DOGs, and power-law DOGs are log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 10.42{sup +0.42}{sub -0.36}, 10.62{sup +0.36}{sub -0.32}, and 10.71{sup +0.40}{sub -0.34}, respectively). More realistic star formation histories drawn from two competing theories for the nature of ULIRGs at z {approx} 2 (major merger versus smooth accretion) can increase these mass estimates by up to 0.5 dex. A comparison of our stellar masses with the instantaneous star formation rate (SFR) in these z {approx} 2 ULIRGs provides a preliminary indication supporting high SFRs for a given M{sub *}, a situation that arises more naturally in major mergers than in smooth accretion-powered systems.

  15. From Nearby Low Luminosity AGN to High Redshift Radio Galaxies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    'radio-quiet' AGN (Croton et al. 2006; Best & Heckman 2012). There is also evidence to suggest that galaxy mergers influence the radio-loudness of sources (Heckman et al. 1986; Deane et al. 2014). We know that galaxy mergers are an important phase of galaxy evolution (Schweizer 1982; Mihos & Hernquist. 1996; Cox et ...

  16. Simulating the [CII] emission of high redshift galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Pardos; Greve, Thomas Rodriguez; Narayanan, Desika


    and radiative transfer, the photoionization code CLOUDY isimplemented. I will show results for z=2 star-forming galaxies yet to beobserved, as well as preliminary results for galaxies at z~6-7 whereobservations have presented contradictory detections and non-detectionsof star-forming galaxies.......he fine structure line of [CII] at 158 microns can arise throughout theinterstellar medium (ISM) and has been proposed as a tracer of starformation rate (SFR). But the origin of [CII] and how it depends on e.g.metallicity and radiation field of a galaxy remain uncertain.Simulating[CII] can be done...... by combining the output from galaxy simulations withprescriptions for the subgrid physics, as has now been demonstrated byseveral groups. However, these models are either built on analyticaldiscs or contain other simplifying assumptions. SÍGAME (Simulatorof GAlaxy Millimeter/submillimeter emission) avoids...

  17. Spitzer's View of Galaxies in the High-Redshift Universe (United States)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.

    One of the most important observations made by the Spitzer Space Telescope has been the detection of luminous galaxies back to the era of reionization (z ~ 8), when the universe was less than 700 million years old. The key advance made by Spitzer imaging isthe ability, for the first time, to sample the redshifted rest-frame visible light of these galaxies. When combined with broadband multi-wavelength data, Spitzer observations can be fit to stellar population synthesis models to determine the spectral energy distribution of these galaxies and to constrain their stellar masses and ages and their star formation histories. As a result, there is evidence that most of the stellar mass of these galaxies formed at even higher redshifts (z > 10 to 12) and that asignificant number of galaxies should exist in this region.Searches for galaxies at z ~ 9 to 10 continue. Spitzer observations of massive lensing clusters have also played a pivotal role in this study. The first IRAC detection of a z >6 galaxy came from such observations. Since most of these results were obtained with Spitzer/IRAC 3.6/4.5 μm bands, the Spitzer Warm Mission, when combined with future HST/WFC3 observations, will provide a unique opportunity to obtain the first complete census of the assembly of stellar mass as a function of cosmic time back to the era of reionization, yielding unique information on galaxy formation in the early universe.

  18. Stellar Population Maps of High-Redshift Galaxies (United States)

    Fetherolf, Tara; Reddy, Naveen; MOSDEF


    A comprehensive study of resolved galaxy structure can shed light on the formation and evolution of galactic properties, such as the distribution of stars and interstellar dust that obscures starlight. This requires high-resolution, multi-waveband photometry and spectroscopy to completely characterize the galaxies. Previous studies lacked key spectroscopic information, were comprised of small samples, or focused on the local universe. We use HST ACS/WFC3 high-resolution, multi-waveband imaging from the CANDELS project in parallel with moderate-resolution Keck I MOSFIRE spectra from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey to produce resolved stellar population and dust maps of ~500 galaxies at redshifts 1.4 < z < 2.6—covering the key epoch when galaxies accreted most of their mass. For data preparation and analysis we develop an automated Python program to process our large, comprehensive dataset. From the multi-waveband imaging and spectroscopic redshifts, we model the spectral energy distribution for every resolution element within each galaxy and compare these results to the spectroscopically measured global properties. From our stellar population and dust maps we identify resolved structures within these galaxies. We also investigate if spectroscopically measured galaxy properties are biased when compared with that of localized sub-galactic structures.

  19. Simulating the [CII] emission of high redshift galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pardos Olsen, Karen; Greve, Thomas Rodriguez; Narayanan, Desika


    The fine structure line of [CII] at 158 microns can arise throughout the interstellar medium (ISM) and has been proposed as a tracer of star formation rate (SFR). But the origin of [CII] and how it depends on e.g. metallicity and radiation field of a galaxy remain uncertain.Simulating [CII] can...... be done by combining the output from galaxy simulations with prescriptions for the subgrid physics, as has now been demonstrated by several groups. However, these models are either built on analytical discs or contain other simplifying assumptions. SÍGAME (Simulator of GAlaxy Millimeter....../submillimeter emission) avoids these issues by using cosmological simulations and calculates [CII] emission reliably on resolved scales within each galaxy. The local metallicity is that of the simulation, whereas the far-ultraviolet radiation field and cosmic ray intensity are both scaled with local star formation rate...

  20. Strong magnetic fields in normal galaxies at high redshift (United States)

    Bernet, Martin L.; Miniati, Francesco; Lilly, Simon J.; Kronberg, Philipp P.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava


    The origin and growth of magnetic fields in galaxies is still something of an enigma. It is generally assumed that seed fields are amplified over time through the dynamo effect, but there are few constraints on the timescale. It was recently demonstrated that field strengths as traced by rotation measures of distant (and hence ancient) quasars are comparable to those seen today, but it was unclear whether the high fields were in the unusual environments of the quasars themselves or distributed along the lines of sight. Here we report high-resolution spectra that demonstrate that the quasars with strong MgII absorption lines are unambiguously associated with larger rotation measures. Because MgII absorption occurs in the haloes of normal galaxies along the sightlines to the quasars, this association requires that organized fields of surprisingly high strengths are associated with normal galaxies when the Universe was only about one-third of its present age.

  1. On the Number of Galaxies at High Redshift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Zaninetti


    Full Text Available The number of galaxies at a given flux as a function of the redshift, z, is derived when the z-distance relation is non-standard. In order to compare different models, the same formalism is also applied to the standard cosmology. The observed luminosity function for galaxies of the zCOSMOS catalog at different redshifts is modeled by a new luminosity function for galaxies, which is derived by the truncated beta probability density function. Three astronomical tests, which are the photometric maximum as a function of the redshift for a fixed flux, the mean value of the redshift for a fixed flux, and the luminosity function for galaxies as a function of the redshift, compare the theoretical values of the standard and non-standard model with the observed value. The tests are performed on the FORS Deep Field (FDF catalog up to redshift z = 1.5 and on the zCOSMOS catalog extending beyond z = 4. These three tests show minimal differences between the standard and the non-standard models.

  2. Kinematics of a high-redshift galaxy: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković M.M.


    Full Text Available A kinematics of a z = 2.81 galaxy toward bright QSO 0528-250, as inferred from the absorption spectroscopy is discussed. There are sufficient arguments for a far-reaching conclusion that we are observing an older, uninvolved version of the local Galactic interstellar medium.

  3. Selection and Physical Properties of High-redshift Galaxies (United States)

    Fang, G. W.


    Extremely Red Objects (EROs) and BzKs continue to attract considerable interest. It has been suggested that they may be the direct progenitors of present-day massive E/S0 galaxies, and can provide crucial constraints on the current galaxy formation and evolution models. Therefore, the key question is to measure the relative fraction of OGs (old galaxies) and DGs (young, and dusty starburst galaxies) in the sample of EROs. Many groups have been currently investigating the fractions of these two ERO populations using a variety of observational approaches, but the fraction of OGs and DGs from different surveys is different. In the meantime, a number of observations suggest that the epoch of z˜2 also plays an important role in galaxy formation and evolution for various reasons: the cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD) begins to drop at z˜2 from a flat plateau at higher redshifts; the morphological type mix of field galaxies changes remarkably at z˜2; the number density of QSOs has a peak at z˜2; and about 50% to 70% of the stellar mass assembly of galaxies took place in the redshift range 1UDF and COSMOS field, (2) a study on physical properties of passive and star-forming galaxies at z˜2 in the AEGIS field, and (3) the mid-infrared spectroscopy and multi-wavelength study of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z˜2 in the AEGIS field. Chapter 1 gives a brief review on the research progresses of EROs at z˜1, BzKs at z˜2, and ULIRGs at z˜2, respectively. In Chapter 2 we present a quantitative study of the classification of EROs in the UDF and COSMOS field. Our sample includes 5264 (COSMOS, K_{Vega} ≤19.2) and 24 EROs (UDF, K_{Vega}≤22.0) with (i-K)_{AB}≥2.45. Using the fitting method of spectral energy distribution (SED), [3.6]-[8.0] color, and the nonparametric measures of galaxy morphology, we classify EROs into two classes: DGs and OGs. We find that the fraction of OGs and DGs in our sample (COSMOS) is similar, about 52% of them are DGs, and

  4. Are high-redshift quasars hidden by dusty galaxies? (United States)

    Wright, Edward L.


    A Monte Carlo technique has been developed to compute the joint probability distribution for the reddening and extinction of quasars by galaxies along the line of sight with a realistic dust extinction curve including the 220 nm feature. Galaxies are treated as disks with random inclinations, having exponential or modified Gaussian radial profiles. This technique is used to find the distribution of the reddened quasars on multicolor diagrams such as the (U-J, J-F) plots used by Koo and Kron (1982) to find faint quasars. The multicolor search technique is not a simple UV excess approach, and the resulting color selection does not add significantly to the flux selection discussed by Wright (1981), Ostriker and Heisler (1984), and Heisler and Ostriker (1988). The quasar reddening trend observed by Wright and Malkan (1987) is about 0.35 + or - 0.50 times the mean reddening of the selected sample predicted by the Heisler and Ostriker model.

  5. Host galaxies of high-redshift quasars with extreme outflows (United States)

    Zakamska, Nadia


    Feedback from accreting supermassive black holes is now a standard ingredient in galaxy formation models. It has long been speculated that powerful quasars, triggered in major gas-rich mergers, had a profound impact on galaxy formation via quasar-driven winds. This process must have been at its peak during the epoch of most active galaxy formation and quasar activity at z=2-3, yet there is not yet any direct observational support for this long-hypothesized process. We have discovered a population of extremely luminous (L>1e47 erg/s) red quasars with peculiar line properties at z=2-3 which show unprecedented signatures of powerful v>2000 km/s outflows in their [OIII]5007A lines. We propose to image eleven of these objects with the HST in two filters, one probing rest-frame UV and one probing the rest-frame optical. The rest-frame optical observations will directly probe the dynamical state and extent of the hosts of luminous obscured quasars and search for companions and merger signatures. We will determine the masses of the stellar component to determine if the bulges of the quasar hosts have already become apparent in this epoch. Using the rest-frame UV observations, we will probe the distribution of the gas in quasar hosts by observing the morphology of ongoing star formation and scattered light from the central engine. Our targets are the best candidates to probe the long-speculated merger-driven scenario for quasar activity, and our proposed HST observations will definitively determine whether this process drives the evolution of massive galaxies.

  6. Constraining omega from X-ray properties of clusters of galaxies at high redshifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadat, R.; Blanchard, A.; Oukbir, J.


    Properties of high redshift clusters are a fundamental source of information for cosmology. It has been shown by Oukbir and Blanchard (1997) that the combined knowledge of the redshift distribution of X-ray clusters of galaxies and the luminosity-temperature correlation, L-X - T-X, provides a pow...

  7. Predicting the High Redshift Galaxy Population for JWST (United States)

    Flynn, Zoey; Benson, Andrew


    The James Webb Space Telescope will be launched in Oct 2018 with the goal of observing galaxies in the redshift range of z = 10 - 15. As redshift increases, the age of the Universe decreases, allowing us to study objects formed only a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. This will provide a valuable opportunity to test and improve current galaxy formation theory by comparing predictions for mass, luminosity, and number density to the observed data. We have made testable predictions with the semi-analytical galaxy formation model Galacticus. The code uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to determine viable sets of model parameters that match current astronomical data. The resulting constrained model was then set to match the specifications of the JWST Ultra Deep Field Imaging Survey. Predictions utilizing up to 100 viable parameter sets were calculated, allowing us to assess the uncertainty in current theoretical expectations. We predict that the planned UDF will be able to observe a significant number of objects past redshift z > 9 but nothing at redshift z > 11. In order to detect these faint objects at redshifts z = 11-15 we need to increase exposure time by at least a factor of 1.66.

  8. The fate of high redshift massive compact galaxies in dense environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Tobias; /Zurich, ETH; Mayer, Lucio; /Zurich U.; Carollo, Marcella; /Zurich, ETH; Feldmann, Robert; /Fermilab /Chicago U., KICP


    Massive compact galaxies seem to be more common at high redshift than in the local universe, especially in denser environments. To investigate the fate of such massive galaxies identified at z {approx} 2 we analyse the evolution of their properties in three cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that form virialized galaxy groups of mass {approx} 10{sup 13} M{sub {circle_dot}} hosting a central massive elliptical/S0 galaxy by redshift zero. We find that at redshift {approx} 2 the population of galaxies with M{sub *} > 2 x 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} is diverse in terms of mass, velocity dispersion, star formation and effective radius, containing both very compact and relatively extended objects. In each simulation all the compact satellite galaxies have merged into the central galaxy by redshift 0 (with the exception of one simulation where one of such satellite galaxy survives). Satellites of similar mass at z = 0 are all less compact than their high redshift counterparts. They form later than the galaxies in the z = 2 sample and enter the group potential at z < 1, when dynamical friction times are longer than the Hubble time. Also, by z = 0 the central galaxies have increased substantially their characteristic radius via a combination of in situ star formation and mergers. Hence in a group environment descendants of compact galaxies either evolve towards larger sizes or they disappear before the present time as a result of the environment in which they evolve. Since the group-sized halos that we consider are representative of dense environments in the {Lambda}CDM cosmology, we conclude that the majority of high redshift compact massive galaxies do not survive until today as a result of the environment.

  9. Selection Effects in the Study of High-Redshift Galaxy Morphology (United States)

    Elmegreen, Debra M.; Elmegreen, B.


    Selection effects from bandshifting, angular resolution limitations, surface brightness dimming, and intergalactic absorption skew our view of high redshift galaxies so that we primarily see those that are extremely bright, massive, and star-bursting. Bandshifting shows a galaxy in its restframe NUV or FUV at z>1, and also biases the determination of age from BViz colors to lower values. The rapid increase in resolvable physical size with redshift for zUDF) noise by redshift z 2. Intergalactic absorption further decreases the brightness of galaxies by factors of a few at this z. These effects combine to make the average star formation rate in an observable clump increase as (1+z)8 for z<1. None of these selection effects directly causes the clump mass to increase with redshift in clumpy galaxies, however. Clumps are well separated from each other and they show up over a wide range of wavelengths. The increase in clump mass with redshift is mostly from an increase in observable galaxy mass. This is because there is a nearly constant ratio of clump mass to galaxy luminosity and the primary selection effect is for bright galaxies, considering that the intrinsic surface brightness for anything observable increases sharply with z. Redshifted versions of local grand design, multiple arm, and flocculent spiral galaxies, along with dwarf irregulars and interacting galaxies, will be shown to indicate which features are observable at high redshift.

  10. Using r-process enhanced galaxies to estimate the neutron star merger rate at high redshift (United States)

    Roederer, Ian


    The rapid neutron-capture process, or r-process, is one of the fundamental ways that stars produce heavy elements. I describe a new approach that uses the existence of r-process enhanced galaxies, like the recently discovered ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum II, to derive a rate for neutron star mergers at high redshift. This method relies on three assertions. First, several lines of reasoning point to neutron star mergers as a rare yet prolific producer of r-process elements, and one merger event is capable of enriching most of the stars in a low-mass dwarf galaxy. Second, the Local Group is cosmologically representative of the halo mass function at the mass scales of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies, and the volume that their progenitors spanned at high redshifts can be estimated from simulations. Third, many of these dwarf galaxies are extremely old, and the metals found in their stars today date from the earliest times at high redshift. These galaxies occupy a quantifiable volume of the Universe, from which the frequency of r-process enhanced galaxies can be estimated. This frequency may be interpreted as lower limit to the neutron star merger rate at a redshift (z ~ 5-10) that is much higher than is accessible to gravitational wave observatories. I will present a proof of concept demonstration using medium-resolution multi-object spectroscopy from the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) to recover the known r-process galaxy Reticulum II, and I will discuss future plans to apply this method to other Local Group dwarf galaxies.

  11. The rest-frame submillimeter spectrum of high-redshift, dusty, star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aguirre, J. E. [University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Aravena, M. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001 Vitacura Santiago (Chile); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Béthermin, M. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bradford, C. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bothwell, M. S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thompson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Carlstrom, J. E.; Crawford, T. M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); De Breuck, C.; Gullberg, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fassnacht, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hezaveh, Y. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Holzapfel, W. L., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others


    We present the average rest-frame spectrum of high-redshift dusty, star-forming galaxies from 250 to 770 GHz. This spectrum was constructed by stacking Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 3 mm spectra of 22 such sources discovered by the South Pole Telescope and spanning z = 2.0-5.7. In addition to multiple bright spectral features of {sup 12}CO, [C I], and H{sub 2}O, we also detect several faint transitions of {sup 13}CO, HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN, and use the observed line strengths to characterize the typical properties of the interstellar medium of these high-redshift starburst galaxies. We find that the {sup 13}CO brightness in these objects is comparable to that of the only other z > 2 star-forming galaxy in which {sup 13}CO has been observed. We show that the emission from the high-critical density molecules HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN is consistent with a warm, dense medium with T {sub kin} ∼ 55 K and n{sub H{sub 2}}≳10{sup 5.5} cm{sup –3}. High molecular hydrogen densities are required to reproduce the observed line ratios, and we demonstrate that alternatives to purely collisional excitation are unlikely to be significant for the bulk of these systems. We quantify the average emission from several species with no individually detected transitions, and find emission from the hydride CH and the linear molecule CCH for the first time at high redshift, indicating that these molecules may be powerful probes of interstellar chemistry in high-redshift systems. These observations represent the first constraints on many molecular species with rest-frame transitions from 0.4 to 1.2 mm in star-forming systems at high redshift, and will be invaluable in making effective use of ALMA in full science operations.

  12. Detecting Massive, High-Redshift Galaxy Clusters Using the Thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (United States)

    Adams, Carson; Steinhardt, Charles L.; Loeb, Abraham; Karim, Alexander; Staguhn, Johannes; Erler, Jens; Capak, Peter L.


    We develop the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect as a direct astrophysical measure of the mass distribution of dark matter halos. The SZ effect increases with cosmological distance, a unique astronomical property, and is highly sensitive to halo mass. We find that this presents a powerful methodology for distinguishing between competing models of the halo mass function distribution, particularly in the high-redshift domain just a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. Recent surveys designed to probe this epoch of initial galaxy formation such as CANDELS and SPLASH report an over-abundance of highly massive halos as inferred from stellar ultraviolet (UV) luminosities and the stellar mass to halo mass ratio estimated from nearby galaxies. If these UV luminosity to halo mass relations hold to high-redshift, observations estimate several orders of magnitude more highly massive halos than predicted by hierarchical merging and the standard cosmological paradigm. Strong constraints on the masses of these galaxy clusters are essential to resolving the current tension between observation and theory. We conclude that detections of thermal SZ sources are plausible at high-redshift only for the halo masses inferred from observation. Therefore, future SZ surveys will provide a robust determination between theoretical and observational predictions.

  13. Local Counterparts to High-Redshift Turbulent Galaxies: What are the Stellar Kinematics? (United States)

    Bassett, Robert; Glazebrook, Karl; Fisher, David; Abraham, Roberto; Damjanov, Ivana


    We aim to measure the stellar kinematics of 4 low redshift turbulent, clumpy disks with the GMOS IFU. Recent observations of high redshift galaxies show that gaseous disks in high redshift (z 2) galaxies are turbulent. The source of this turbulence remains an open question. A possible scenario is that turbulent disks are fed by streams of cold gas, flowing along cosmic filaments, which drive the large H-alpha velocity dispersions and clumpy star formation observed (for example by the SINS survey). However, the recent discovery of low redshift disk galaxies with clumpy-high velocity dispersion disks shows that galaxies with similar properties to high-z clumpy disks can exists in absence of cold flows, therefore an alternate driver for turbulence seems likely to explain, at least these nearby galaxies. A contrasting scenario is that the turbulence is driven by feedback from extreme star formation originating from a thin stellar disk. These nearby star forming disks are very rare, yet they provide an oppurtunity to study clumpy disks with techniques which are impossible at high redshift (due to both resolution and surface brightness dimming). Here we propose one such study, to measure the stellar kinematics from Balmer absorption lines. If the stars and gas have similar velocity dispersion, this would favor externally driven turbulence by gas accretion (a rare thing in the low redshift Universe); conversely if the gas and stars have different dynamics then this would suggest that internally driven turbelence from feedback is a plausible scenario. We currently have GMOS IFU observations of two disk systems, and we propose here to extend our sample. To identify galaxies as disks we use lower resolution IFU emission line kinematics from AAO, surface photometry from UKIDSS and SDSS, and Halpha maps from Hubble Space Telescope.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VANDELS High-Redshift Galaxy Evolution (McLure+, 2017) (United States)

    McLure, R.; Pentericci, L.; Vandels Team


    This is the first data release (DR1) of the VANDELS survey, an ESO public spectroscopy survey targeting the high-redshift Universe. The VANDELS survey uses the VIMOS spectrograph on ESO's VLT to obtain ultra-deep, medium resolution, optical spectra of galaxies within the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS) and Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) survey fields (0.2 sq. degree total area). Using robust photometric redshift pre-selection, VANDELS is targeting ~2100 galaxies in the redshift interval 1.0=3. In addition, VANDELS is targeting a substantial number of passive galaxies in the redshift interval 1.0survey is obtaining ultra-deep optical spectroscopy with the VIMOS MR grism and GG475 order-sorting filter, which covers the wavelength range 4800-10000Å at a dispersion of 2.5Å/pix and a spectral resolution of R~600. Each galaxy receives between a minimum of 20-hours and a maximum of 80-hours of on-source integration time. The fundamental aim of the survey is to provide the high signal-to-noise spectra necessary to measure key physical properties such as stellar population ages, metallicities and outflow velocities from detailed absorption-line studies. By targeting two extra-galactic survey fields with superb multi-wavelength imaging data, VANDELS is designed to produce a unique legacy dataset for exploring the physics underpinning high-redshift galaxy evolution. (2 data files).

  15. The Main Sequences of Star-forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei at High Redshift (United States)

    Mancuso, C.; Lapi, A.; Shi, J.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Béthermin, M.; Danese, L.


    We provide a novel, unifying physical interpretation on the origin, average shape, scatter, and cosmic evolution for the main sequences of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high redshift z≳ 1. We achieve this goal in a model-independent way by exploiting: (i) the redshift-dependent star formation rate functions based on the latest UV/far-IR data from HST/Herschel, and related statistics of strong gravitationally lensed sources; (ii) deterministic evolutionary tracks for the history of star formation and black hole accretion, gauged on a wealth of multiwavelength observations including the observed Eddington ratio distribution. We further validate these ingredients by showing their consistency with the observed galaxy stellar mass functions and AGN bolometric luminosity functions at different redshifts via the continuity equation approach. Our analysis of the main sequence for high-redshift galaxies and AGNs highlights that the present data are consistently interpreted in terms of an in situ coevolution scenario for star formation and black hole accretion, envisaging these as local, time-coordinated processes.

  16. Shocks and Cool Cores: An ALMA View of Massive Galaxy Cluster Formation at High Redshifts (United States)

    Basu, Kaustuv


    These slides present some recent results on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect imaging of galaxy cluster substructures. The advantage of SZ imaging at high redshifts or in the low density cluster outskirts is already well-known. Now with ALMA a combination of superior angular resolution and high sensitivity is available. One example is the first ALMA measurement of a merger shock at z=0.9 in the famous El Gordo galaxy cluster. Here comparison between SZ, X-ray and radio data enabled us to put constraints on the shock Mach number and magnetic field strength for a high-z radio relic. Second example is the ALMA SZ imaging of the core region of z=1.4 galaxy cluster XMMU J2235.2-2557. Here ALMA data provide an accurate measurement of the thermal pressure near the cluster center, and from a joint SZ/X-ray analysis we find clear evidence for a reduced core temperature. This result indicate that a cool core establishes itself early enough in the cluster formation history while the gas accumulation is still continuing. The above two ALMA measurements are among several other recent SZ results that shed light on the formation process of massive clusters at high redshifts.

  17. Luminous compact blue galaxies in the local Universe: A key reference for high-redshift studies (United States)

    Pérez Gallego, J.; Guzmán, R.; Castander, F. J.; Garland, C. A.; Pisano, D. J.


    Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) are high surface brightness starburst galaxies, bluer than a typical Sbc and brighter than ˜0.25Lstar. LCBGs have evolved more than any other galaxy class in the last ˜8 Gyr, and are a major contributor to the observed enhancement of the UV luminosity density of the Universe at z≤1. Despite the key role LCBGs may play in galaxy evolution, their statistical properties are still largely unknown. We have selected a complete sample of ˜25 LCBGs within 100 Mpc, after investigating over 106 nearby galaxies from the DR1 of the SDSS database. This sample, although small, provides an excellent reference for comparison with current and future surveys of similar galaxies at high redshift, including the population of Lyman-break galaxies. We present preliminary results of this study using 3D spectroscopic observations obtained over a very wide range in wavelength, using WIYN/DENSEPAK in the optical, FISICA in the infrared, and the VLA at cm wavelengths.

  18. Massive Clumps in Local Galaxies: Comparisons with High-redshift Clumps (United States)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Dewberry, J.; Putko, J.; Teich, Y.; Popinchalk, M.


    Local UV-bright galaxies in the Kiso survey include clumpy systems with kiloparsec-size star complexes that resemble clumpy young galaxies in surveys at high redshift. We compare clump masses and underlying disks in several dozen galaxies from each of these surveys to the star complexes and disks of normal spirals. Photometry and spectroscopy for the Kiso and spiral sample come from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that the largest Kiso clumpy galaxies resemble Ultra Deep Field (UDF) clumpies in terms of the star formation rates, clump masses, and clump surface densities. Clump masses and surface densities in normal spirals are smaller. If the clump masses are proportional to the turbulent Jeans mass in the interstellar medium, then for the most luminous galaxies in the sequence of normal:Kiso:UDF, the turbulent speeds and surface densities increase in the proportions 1.0:4.7:5.0 and 1.0:4.0:5.1, respectively, for fixed restframe B-band absolute magnitude. For the least luminous galaxies in the overlapping magnitude range, the turbulent speed and surface density trends are 1.0:2.7:7.4 and 1.0:1.4:3.0, respectively. We also find that while all three types have radially decreasing disk intensities when measured with ellipse-fit azimuthal averages, the average profiles are more irregular for UDF clumpies (which are viewed in their restframe UV) than for Kiso galaxies (viewed at g-band), and major axis intensity scans are even more irregular for the UDF than Kiso galaxies. Local clumpy galaxies in the Kiso survey appear to be intermediate between UDF clumpies and normal spirals.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Hts., NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Dewberry, J.; Putko, J.; Teich, Y.; Popinchalk, M. [Vassar College, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Sanchez Almeida, J.; Munoz-Tunon, C. [Instituto de Astrof' sica de Canarias, C/via Lactea, s/n, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)


    Local UV-bright galaxies in the Kiso survey include clumpy systems with kiloparsec-size star complexes that resemble clumpy young galaxies in surveys at high redshift. We compare clump masses and underlying disks in several dozen galaxies from each of these surveys to the star complexes and disks of normal spirals. Photometry and spectroscopy for the Kiso and spiral sample come from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that the largest Kiso clumpy galaxies resemble Ultra Deep Field (UDF) clumpies in terms of the star formation rates, clump masses, and clump surface densities. Clump masses and surface densities in normal spirals are smaller. If the clump masses are proportional to the turbulent Jeans mass in the interstellar medium, then for the most luminous galaxies in the sequence of normal:Kiso:UDF, the turbulent speeds and surface densities increase in the proportions 1.0:4.7:5.0 and 1.0:4.0:5.1, respectively, for fixed restframe B-band absolute magnitude. For the least luminous galaxies in the overlapping magnitude range, the turbulent speed and surface density trends are 1.0:2.7:7.4 and 1.0:1.4:3.0, respectively. We also find that while all three types have radially decreasing disk intensities when measured with ellipse-fit azimuthal averages, the average profiles are more irregular for UDF clumpies (which are viewed in their restframe UV) than for Kiso galaxies (viewed at g-band), and major axis intensity scans are even more irregular for the UDF than Kiso galaxies. Local clumpy galaxies in the Kiso survey appear to be intermediate between UDF clumpies and normal spirals.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanasz, M.; Kowalik, K.; Wóltański, D. [Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Toruń (Poland); Lesch, H. [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Naab, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching bei München (Germany); Gawryszczak, A., E-mail: [Poznań Supercomputing and Networking Centre, ul. Noskowskiego 10, PL-61-704 Poznań (Poland)


    We present simulations of the magnetized interstellar medium (ISM) in models of massive star-forming (40 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) disk galaxies with high gas surface densities (Σ{sub gas} ∼ 100 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2}) similar to observed star-forming high-redshift disks. We assume that type II supernovae deposit 10% of their energy into the ISM as cosmic rays (CRs) and neglect the additional deposition of thermal energy or momentum. With a typical Galactic diffusion coefficient for CRs (3 × 10{sup 28} cm{sup 2} s{sup –1}), we demonstrate that this process alone can trigger the local formation of a strong low-density galactic wind maintaining vertically open field lines. Driven by the additional pressure gradient of the relativistic fluid, the wind speed can exceed 10{sup 3} km s{sup –1}, much higher than the escape velocity of the galaxy. The global mass loading, i.e., the ratio of the gas mass leaving the galactic disk in a wind to the star formation rate, becomes of order unity once the system has settled into an equilibrium. We conclude that relativistic particles accelerated in supernova remnants alone provide a natural and efficient mechanism to trigger winds similar to observed mass-loaded galactic winds in high-redshift galaxies. These winds also help in explaining the low efficiencies for the conversion of gas into stars in galaxies, as well as the early enrichment of the intergalactic medium with metals. This mechanism may be at least of similar importance to the traditionally considered momentum feedback from massive stars and thermal and kinetic feedback from supernova explosions.

  1. High-Redshift Type Ia Supernova Rates in Galaxy Cluster and Field Environments (United States)

    Barbary, Kyle Harris

    This thesis presents Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rates from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cluster Supernova Survey, a program designed to efficiently detect and observe high-redshift supernovae by targeting massive galaxy clusters at redshifts 0.9 z z > 0.9 SNe. The SN Ia rate is found to be 0.50+0.23-0.19 (stat) +0.10-0.09 (sys) h 702 SNuB (SNuB = 10-12 SNe Lsun,B-1 yr-1), or in units of stellar mass, 0.36+0.16-0.13 (stat) +0.07-0.06 (sys) h 702 SNuM (SNuM = 10-12 SNe M sun-1 yr-1). This represents a factor of approximately 5 +/- 2 increase over measurements of the cluster rate at z influence of younger stellar populations the rate is also calculated specifically in cluster red-sequence galaxies and in morphologically early-type galaxies, with results similar to the full cluster rate. Finally, the upper limit of one host-less cluster SN Ia detected in the survey implies that the fraction of stars in the intra-cluster medium is less than 0.47 (95% confidence), consistent with measurements at lower redshifts. The volumetric SN Ia rate can also be used to constrain the SN Ia delay time distribution. However, there have been discrepancies in recent analyses of both the high-redshift rate and its implications for the delay time distribution. Here, the volumetric SN Ia rate out to z ˜ 1.6 is measured, based on ˜12 SNe Ia in the foregrounds and backgrounds of the clusters targeted in the survey. The rate is measured in four broad redshift bins. The results are consistent with previous measurements at z > 1 and strengthen the case for a SN Ia rate that is greater than approximately 0.6 x 10-4 h70 3 yr-1 Mpc-3 at z ˜ 1 and flattening out at higher redshift. Assumptions about host-galaxy dust extinction used in different high-redshift rate measurements are examined. Different assumptions may account for some of the difference in published results for the z ˜ 1 rate.

  2. Lyα excess in high-redshift radio galaxies: a signature of star formation (United States)

    Villar-Martín, M.; Humphrey, A.; De Breuck, C.; Fosbury, R.; Binette, L.; Vernet, J.


    About 54 per cent of radio galaxies at z >= 3 and 8 per cent of radio galaxies at 2 ~ 2) radio galaxies. These Lyα-excess objects (LAEs) show Lyα/HeII values consistent with or above standard photoionization model predictions. We reject with confidence several scenarios to explain the unusual strength of Lyα in these objects: shocks, low nebular metallicities, high gas densities and absorption/scattering effects. We show that the most successful explanation is the presence of a young stellar population which provides the extra supply of ionizing photons required to explain the Lyα excess in at least the most extreme LAEs (probably in all of them). This interpretation is strongly supported by the tentative trend found by other authors for z >= 3 radio galaxies to show lower ultraviolet rest-frame polarization levels, or the dramatic increase in the detection rate at submm wavelengths of z > 2.5 radio galaxies. The enhanced star formation activity in LAEs could be a consequence of a recent merger which has triggered both the star formation and the active galactic nucleus/radio activities. The measurement of unusually high Lyα ratios in the extended gas of some high-redshift radio galaxies suggests that star formation activity occurs in spatial scales of tens of kpc. We argue that, although the fraction of LAEs may be incompletely determined, both at 2 = 3, the much larger fraction of LAEs found at z >= 3 is a genuine redshift evolution and not due to selection effects. Therefore, our results suggest that the radio galaxy phenomenon is more often associated with a massive starburst at z > 3 than at z < 3. Unpublished results are presented in this paper for the radio galaxy 1338-1941, based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal (Chile) for the ESO project 69.B-0078(B). E-mail:

  3. The [CII] 158 μm line emission in high-redshift galaxies (United States)

    Lagache, G.; Cousin, M.; Chatzikos, M.


    Gas is a crucial component of galaxies, providing the fuel to form stars, and it is impossible to understand the evolution of galaxies without knowing their gas properties. The [CII] fine structure transition at 158 μm is the dominant cooling line of cool interstellar gas, and is the brightest of emission lines from star forming galaxies from FIR through metre wavelengths, almost unaffected by attenuation. With the advent of ALMA and NOEMA, capable of detecting [CII]-line emission in high-redshift galaxies, there has been a growing interest in using the [CII] line as a probe of the physical conditions of the gas in galaxies, and as a star formation rate (SFR) indicator at z ≥ 4. In this paper, we have used a semi-analytical model of galaxy evolution (G.A.S.) combined with the photoionisation code CLOUDY to predict the [CII] luminosity of a large number of galaxies (25 000 at z ≃ 5) at 4 ≤ z ≤ 8. We assumed that the [CII]-line emission originates from photo-dominated regions. At such high redshift, the CMB represents a strong background and we discuss its effects on the luminosity of the [CII] line. We studied the L[CII ]-SFR and L[ CII ]-Zg relations and show that they do not strongly evolve with redshift from z = 4 and to z = 8. Galaxies with higher [CII] luminosities tend to have higher metallicities and higher SFRs but the correlations are very broad, with a scatter of about 0.5 and 0.8 dex for L[ CII ]-SFR and L[ CII ]-Zg, respectively. Our model reproduces the L[ CII ]-SFR relations observed in high-redshift star-forming galaxies, with [CII] luminosities lower than expected from local L[ CII ]-SFR relations. Accordingly, the local observed L[ CII ]-SFR relation does not apply at high-z (z ≳ 5), even when CMB effects are ignored. Our model naturally produces the [CII] deficit (i.e. the decrease of L[ CII ]/LIR with LIR), which appears to be strongly correlated with the intensity of the radiation field in our simulated galaxies. We then predict the

  4. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy-formation simulation - VII. The sizes of high-redshift galaxies (United States)

    Liu, Chuanwu; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Angel, P. W.; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.


    We investigate high-redshift galaxy sizes using a semi-analytic model constructed for the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulation project. Our fiducial model, including strong feedback from supernovae and photoionization background, accurately reproduces the evolution of the stellar mass function and ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function. Using this model, we study the size-luminosity relation of galaxies and find that the effective radius scales with UV luminosity as Re ∝ L0.25 at z ∼ 5-9. We show that recently discovered very luminous galaxies at z ∼ 7 and 11 lie on our predicted size-luminosity relations. We find that a significant fraction of galaxies at z > 8 will not be resolved by James Webb Space Telescope, but Giant Magellan Telescope will have the ability to resolve all galaxies in haloes above the atomic cooling limit. We show that our fiducial model successfully reproduces the redshift evolution of average galaxy sizes at z > 5. We also explore galaxy sizes in models without supernova feedback. The no-supernova feedback models produce galaxy sizes that are smaller than observations. We therefore confirm that supernova feedback plays an important role in determining the size-luminosity relation of galaxies and its redshift evolution during reionization.

  5. Local analogues of high-redshift star-forming galaxies: integral field spectroscopy of green peas (United States)

    Lofthouse, E. K.; Houghton, R. C. W.; Kaviraj, S.


    We use integral field spectroscopy, from the SWIFT and PALM3K instruments, to perform a spatially resolved spectroscopic analysis of four nearby highly star-forming 'green pea' (GP) galaxies, that are likely analogues of high-redshift star-forming systems. By studying emission-line maps in H α, [N II] λλ6548,6584 and [S II] λλ6716,6731, we explore the kinematic morphology of these systems and constrain properties such as gas-phase metallicities, electron densities and gas-ionization mechanisms. Two of our GPs are rotationally supported while the others are dispersion-dominated systems. The rotationally supported galaxies both show evidence for recent or ongoing mergers. However, given that these systems have intact discs, these interactions are likely to have low-mass ratios (I.e. minor mergers), suggesting that the minor-merger process may be partly responsible for the high star formation rates seen in these GPs. Nevertheless, the fact that the other two GPs appear morphologically undisturbed suggests that mergers (including minor mergers) are not necessary for driving the high star formation rates in such galaxies. We show that the GPs are metal-poor systems (25-40 per cent of solar) and that the gas ionization is not driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) in any of our systems, indicating that the AGN activity is not coeval with star formation in these starbursting galaxies.

  6. Mass and metallicity scaling relations of high-redshift star-forming galaxies selected by GRBs (United States)

    Arabsalmani, M.; Møller, P.; Perley, D. A.; Freudling, W.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Le Floc'h, E.; Zwaan, M. A.; Schulze, S.; Tanvir, N. R.; Christensen, L.; Levan, A. J.; Jakobsson, P.; Malesani, D.; Cano, Z.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Goldoni, P.; Gomboc, A.; Heintz, K. E.; Sparre, M.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vergani, S. D.


    We present a comprehensive study of the relations between gas kinematics, metallicity and stellar mass in a sample of 82 gamma-ray burst (GRB)-selected galaxies using absorption and emission methods. We find the velocity widths of both emission and absorption profiles to be a proxy of stellar mass. We also investigate the velocity-metallicity correlation and its evolution with redshift. Using 33 GRB hosts with measured stellar mass and metallicity, we study the mass-metallicity relation for GRB host galaxies in a stellar mass range of 108.2-1011.1 M⊙ and a redshift range of z ∼ 0.3-3.4. The GRB-selected galaxies appear to track the mass-metallicity relation of star-forming galaxies but with an offset of 0.15 towards lower metallicities. This offset is comparable with the average error bar on the metallicity measurements of the GRB sample and also the scatter on the mass-metallicity relation of the general population. It is hard to decide whether this relatively small offset is due to systematic effects or the intrinsic nature of GRB hosts. We also investigate the possibility of using absorption-line metallicity measurements of GRB hosts to study the mass-metallicity relation at high redshifts. Our analysis shows that the metallicity measurements from absorption methods can significantly differ from emission metallicities and assuming identical measurements from the two methods may result in erroneous conclusions.

  7. A search for faint high-redshift radio galaxy candidates at 150 MHz (United States)

    Saxena, A.; Jagannathan, P.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Best, P. N.; Intema, H. T.; Zhang, M.; Duncan, K. J.; Carilli, C. L.; Miley, G. K.


    Ultra-steep spectrum (USS) radio sources are good tracers of powerful radio galaxies at z > 2. Identification of even a single bright radio galaxy at z > 6 can be used to detect redshifted 21cm absorption due to neutral hydrogen in the intervening IGM. Here we describe a new sample of high-redshift radio galaxy (HzRG) candidates constructed from the TGSS ADR1 survey at 150 MHz. We employ USS selection (α ≤ -1.3) in ˜10000 square degrees, in combination with strict size selection and non-detections in all-sky optical and infrared surveys. We apply flux density cuts that probe a unique parameter space in flux density (50 < S150 < 200 mJy) to build a sample of 32 HzRG candidates. Follow-up Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations at 1.4 GHz with an average beam size of 1.3 arcseconds (″) revealed ˜48% of sources to have a single radio component. P-band (370 MHz) imaging of 17 of these sources revealed a flattening radio SED for ten sources at low frequencies, which is expected from compact HzRGs. Two of our sources lie in fields where deeper multi-wavelength photometry and ancillary radio data are available and for one of these we find a best-fit photo-z of 4.8 ± 2.0. The other source has zphot = 1.4 ± 0.1 and a small angular size (3.7″), which could be associated with an obscured star forming galaxy or with a `dead' elliptical. One USS radio source not part of the HzRG sample but observed with the VLA nonetheless is revealed to be a candidate giant radio galaxy with a host galaxy photo-z of 1.8 ± 0.5, indicating a size of 875 kpc.

  8. Can planet formation resolve the dust budget crisis in high-redshift galaxies? (United States)

    Forgan, D. H.; Rowlands, K.; Gomez, H. L.; Gomez, E. L.; Schofield, S. P.; Dunne, L.; Maddox, S.


    The process of planet formation offers a rich source of dust production via grain growth in protostellar discs, and via grinding of larger bodies in debris disc systems. Chemical evolution models, designed to follow the build up of metals and dust in galaxies, do not currently account for planet formation. We consider the possibility that the apparent underprediction of dust mass in high-redshift galaxies by chemical evolution models could be in part, due to these models neglecting this process, specifically due to their assumption that a large fraction of the dust mass is removed from the interstellar medium during star formation (so-called astration). By adding a planet formation phase into galaxy chemical evolution, we demonstrate that the dust budget crisis can be partially ameliorated by a factor of 1.3-1.5 only if (I) circumstellar discs prevent a large fraction of the dust mass entering the star during its birth, and (II) that dust mass is preferentially liberated via jets, winds and outflows rather than accreted into planetary-mass bodies.

  9. Herschel And Alma Observations Of The Ism In Massive High-Redshift Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Wu, John F.; Aguirre, Paula; Baker, Andrew J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Hilton, Matt; Hughes, John P.; Infante, Leopoldo; Lindner, Robert R.; Sifón, Cristóbal


    The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) can be used to select samples of galaxy clusters that are essentially mass-limited out to arbitrarily high redshifts. I will present results from an investigation of the star formation properties of galaxies in four massive clusters, extending to z 1, which were selected on the basis of their SZE decrements in the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) survey. All four clusters have been imaged with Herschel/PACS (tracing star formation rate) and two with ALMA (tracing dust and cold gas mass); newly discovered ALMA CO(4-3) and [CI] line detections expand an already large sample of spectroscopically confirmed cluster members. Star formation rate appears to anti-correlate with environmental density, but this trend vanishes after controlling for stellar mass. Elevated star formation and higher CO excitation are seen in "El Gordo," a violent cluster merger, relative to a virialized cluster at a similar high (z 1) redshift. Also exploiting ATCA 2.1 GHz observations to identify radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) in our sample, I will use these data to develop a coherent picture of how environment influences galaxies' ISM properties and evolution in the most massive clusters at early cosmic times.

  10. High-redshift Post-starburst Galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (United States)

    Pattarakijwanich, Petchara

    in the same object. Given that AGN feedback is thought to be a likely mechanism responsible for quenching star-formation, post-starburst quasars provide ideal laboratory for studying this link. We explored various ways to identify post-starburst quasars, and construct our sample with more than 600 objects at high-redshift. This is the largest sample of post-starburst quasars available in the literature, and will be useful for AGN feedback studies. Finally, we studied the clustering properties of post-starburst galaxies through cross-correlation with CMASS galaxies. The real-space cross correlation function is a power-law with correlation length r0 ˜ 9.2 Mpc, and power-law index gamma ˜ 1.8. We also measure the linear bias of post-starburst galaxies to be bPSG ˜ 1.74 at redshift z = 0.62, corresponding to a dark matter halo mass of Mhalo ˜ 1.5 x 1013 M [special characters removed]. We found no evidence for redshift evolution in clustering properties for post-starburst galaxies.

  11. Are High-redshift Galaxies Hot? Temperature of z > 5 Galaxies and Implications for Their Dust Properties (United States)

    Faisst, Andreas L.; Capak, Peter L.; Yan, Lin; Pavesi, Riccardo; Riechers, Dominik A.; Barišić, Ivana; Cooke, Kevin C.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Masters, Daniel C.


    Recent studies have found a significant evolution and scatter in the relationship between the UV spectral slope (β UV) and the infrared excess (IRX; L IR/L UV) at z > 4, suggesting different dust properties of these galaxies. The total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity is key for this analysis, but it is poorly constrained in normal (main-sequence) star-forming z > 5 galaxies, where often only one single FIR point is available. To better inform estimates of the FIR luminosity, we construct a sample of local galaxies and three low-redshift analogues of z > 5 systems. The trends in this sample suggest that normal high-redshift galaxies have a warmer infrared (IR) spectral energy distribution (SED) compared to average z total FIR luminosities, which removes some tension between the dust attenuation models and observations of the IRX-β relation at z > 5. Despite this, some galaxies still fall below the minimum IRX-β relation derived with standard dust cloud models. We propose that radiation pressure in these highly star-forming galaxies causes a spatial offset between dust clouds and young star-forming regions within the lifetime of O/B stars. These offsets change the radiation balance and create viewing-angle effects that can change UV colors at fixed IRX. We provide a modified model that can explain the location of these galaxies on the IRX-β diagram.

  12. Physical conditions of the interstellar medium in high-redshift submillimetre bright galaxies (United States)

    Yang, Chentao


    The discovery of a population of high- redshift dust-obscured submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) from ground-based submm cameras has revolutionised our understanding of galaxy evolution and star formation in extreme conditions. They are the strongest starbursts in the Universe approaching the Eddington limit and are believed to be the progenitors of the most massive galaxies today. However, theoretical models of galaxy evolution have even been challenged by a large number of detections of high-redshift SMGs. A very few among them are gravitationally lensed by an intervening galaxy. Recent wide-area extragalactic surveys have discovered hundreds of such strongly lensed SMGs, opening new exciting opportunities for observing the interstellar medium in these exceptional objects. We have thus carefully selected a sample of strongly gravitational lensed SMGs based on the submillimeter flux limit from the Herschel-ATLAS sample. Using IRAM telescopes, we have built a rich H2O-line-detected sample of 16 SMGs. We found a close-to-linear tight correlation between the H2O line and total infrared luminosity. This indicates the importance of far-IR pumping to the excitation of the H2O lines. Using a far-IR pumping model, we have derived the physical properties of the H2O gas and the dust. We showed that H2O lines trace a warm dense gas that may be closely related to the active star formation. Along with the H2O lines, several H2O+ lines have also been detected in three of our SMGs. We also find a tight correlation between the luminosity of the lines of H2O and H2O+ from local ULIRGs to high-redshift SMGs. The flux ratio between H2O+ and H2O suggests that cosmic rays from strong star forming activities are possibly driving the related oxygen chemistry. Another important common molecular gas tracer is the CO line. We have observed multiple transitions of the CO lines in each of our SMGs with IRAM 30m telescope. By analysing the CO line profile, we discovered a significant differential

  13. Gas clump formation via thermal instability in high-redshift dwarf galaxy mergers (United States)

    Arata, Shohei; Yajima, Hidenobu; Nagamine, Kentaro


    Star formation in high-redshift dwarf galaxies is a key to understand early galaxy evolution in the early Universe. Using the three-dimensional hydrodynamics code GIZMO, we study the formation mechanism of cold, high-density gas clouds in interacting dwarf galaxies with halo masses of ˜3 × 107 M⊙, which are likely to be the formation sites of early star clusters. Our simulations can resolve both the structure of interstellar medium on small scales of ≲ 0.1 pc and the galactic disk simultaneously. We find that the cold gas clouds form in the post-shock region via thermal instability due to metal-line cooling, when the cooling time is shorter than the galactic dynamical time. The mass function of cold clouds shows almost a power-law initially with an upper limit of thermally unstable scale. We find that some clouds merge into more massive ones with ≳ 104 M⊙ within ˜ 2 Myr. Only the massive cold clouds with ≳ 103 M⊙ can keep collapsing due to gravitational instability, resulting in the formation of star clusters. We find that the clump formation is more efficient in the prograde-prograde merger than the prograde-retrograde case due to the difference in the degree of shear flow. In addition, we investigate the dependence of cloud mass function on metallicity and {H2} abundance, and show that the cases with low metallicities (≲ 10-2 Z⊙) or high {H2} abundance (≳ 10-3) cannot form massive cold clouds with ≳ 103 M⊙.

  14. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation-XI. Clustering and halo masses of high redshift galaxies (United States)

    Park, Jaehong; Kim, Han-Seek; Liu, Chuanwu; Trenti, Michele; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.


    We investigate the clustering properties of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z ∼ 6 - 8. Using the semi-analytical model MERAXES constructed as part of the dark-ages reionization and galaxy-formation observables from numerical simulation (DRAGONS) project, we predict the angular correlation function (ACF) of LBGs at z ∼ 6 - 8. Overall, we find that the predicted ACFs are in good agreement with recent measurements at z ∼ 6 and z ∼ 7.2 from observations consisting of the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and cosmic sssembly near-infrared deep extragalactic legacy survey field. We confirm the dependence of clustering on luminosity, with more massive dark matter haloes hosting brighter galaxies, remains valid at high redshift. The predicted galaxy bias at fixed luminosity is found to increase with redshift, in agreement with observations. We find that LBGs of magnitude MAB(1600) < -19.4 at 6 ≲ z ≲ 8 reside in dark matter haloes of mean mass ∼1011.0-1011.5 M⊙, and this dark matter halo mass does not evolve significantly during reionisation.

  15. First light: exploring the spectra of high-redshift galaxies in the Renaissance Simulations (United States)

    Barrow, Kirk S. S.; Wise, John H.; Norman, Michael L.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Xu, Hao


    We present synthetic observations for the first generations of galaxies in the Universe and make predictions for future deep field observations for redshifts greater than 6. Due to the strong impact of nebular emission lines and the relatively compact scale of H II regions, high-resolution cosmological simulations and a robust suite of analysis tools are required to properly simulate spectra. We created a software pipeline consisting of fsps, hyperion, cloudy and our own tools to generate synthetic IR observations from a fully three-dimensional arrangement of gas, dust, and stars. Our prescription allows us to include emission lines for a complete chemical network and tackle the effect of dust extinction and scattering in the various lines of sight. We provide spectra, 2D binned photon imagery for both HST and JWST IR filters, luminosity relationships, and emission-line strengths for a large sample of high-redshift galaxies in the Renaissance Simulations. Our resulting synthetic spectra show high variability between galactic haloes with a strong dependence on stellar mass, metallicity, gas mass fraction, and formation history. Haloes with the lowest stellar mass have the greatest variability in [O III]/Hβ, [O III], and C III], while haloes with higher masses are seen to show consistency in their spectra and [O III] equivalent widths between 1 and 10 Å. Viewing angle accounted for threefold difference in flux due to the presence of ionized gas channels in a halo. Furthermore, JWST colour plots show a discernible relationship between redshift, colour, and mean stellar age.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapi, A.; Mancuso, C.; Celotti, A.; Danese, L. [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)


    We provide a holistic view of galaxy evolution at high redshifts z ≳ 4, which incorporates the constraints from various astrophysical/cosmological probes, including the estimate of the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density from UV/IR surveys and long gamma-ray burst (GRBs) rates, the cosmic reionization history following the latest Planck measurements, and the missing satellites issue. We achieve this goal in a model-independent way by exploiting the SFR functions derived by Mancuso et al. on the basis of an educated extrapolation of the latest UV/far-IR data from HST / Herschel , and already tested against a number of independent observables. Our SFR functions integrated down to a UV magnitude limit M {sub UV} ≲ −13 (or SFR limit around 10{sup −2} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) produce a cosmic SFR density in excellent agreement with recent determinations from IR surveys and, taking into account a metallicity ceiling Z ≲ Z {sub ⊙}/2, with the estimates from long GRB rates. They also yield a cosmic reionization history consistent with that implied by the recent measurements of the Planck mission of the electron scattering optical depth τ {sub es} ≈ 0.058; remarkably, this result is obtained under a conceivable assumption regarding the average value f {sub esc} ≈ 0.1 of the escape fraction for ionizing photons. We demonstrate via the abundance-matching technique that the above constraints concurrently imply galaxy formation becoming inefficient within dark matter halos of mass below a few 10{sup 8} M {sub ⊙}; pleasingly, such a limit is also required so as not to run into the missing satellites issue. Finally, we predict a downturn of the Galaxy luminosity function faintward of M {sub UV} ≲ −12, and stress that its detailed shape, to be plausibly probed in the near future by the JWST , will be extremely informative on the astrophysics of galaxy formation in small halos, or even on the microscopic nature of the dark matter.

  17. Imaging Cold Gas to 1 kpc scales in high-redshift galaxies with the ngVLA (United States)

    Casey, Caitlin; Narayanan, Desika; Dave, Romeel; Hung, Chao-Ling; Champagne, Jaclyn; Carilli, Chris Luke; Decarli, Roberto; Murphy, Eric J.; Popping, Gergo; Riechers, Dominik; Somerville, Rachel S.; Walter, Fabian


    The next generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) will revolutionize our understanding of the distant Universe via the detection of cold molecular gas in the first galaxies. Its impact on studies of galaxy characterization via detailed gas dynamics will provide crucial insight on dominant physical drivers for star-formation in high redshift galaxies, including the exchange of gas from scales of the circumgalactic medium down to resolved clouds on mass scales of ~10^5 M_sun. In this study, we employ a series of high-resolution, cosmological, hydrodynamic zoom simulations from the MUFASA simulation suite and a CASA simulator to generate mock ngVLA observations. Based on a direct comparison between the inferred results from our mock observations and the cosmological simulations, we investigate the capabilities of ngVLA to constrain the mode of star formation, dynamical mass, and molecular gas kinematics in individual high-redshift galaxies using cold gas tracers like CO(1-0) and CO(2-1). Using the Despotic radiative transfer code that encompasses simultaneous thermal and statistical equilibrium in calculating the molecular and atomic level populations, we generate parallel mock observations of high-J transitions of CO and C+ from ALMA for comparison. The factor of 100 times improvement in mapping speed for the ngVLA beyond the Jansky VLA and the proposed ALMA Band 1 will make these detailed, high-resolution imaging and kinematic studies routine at z=2 and beyond.

  18. The long lives of giant clumps and the birth of outflows in gas-rich galaxies at high redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bournaud, Frédéric; Renaud, Florent; Daddi, Emanuele; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared M.; Juneau, Stéphanie; Kraljic, Katarina; Le Floch' , Emeric [CEA, IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Perret, Valentin; Amram, Philippe; Epinat, Benoit [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille), F-13388 Marseille (France); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, Debra M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Teyssier, Romain [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)


    Star-forming disk galaxies at high redshift are often subject to violent disk instability, characterized by giant clumps whose fate is yet to be understood. The main question is whether the clumps disrupt within their dynamical timescale (≤50 Myr), like the molecular clouds in today's galaxies, or whether they survive stellar feedback for more than a disk orbital time (≈300 Myr) in which case they can migrate inward and help building the central bulge. We present 3.5-7 pc resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of high-redshift disks including photoionization, radiation pressure, and supernovae feedback. Our modeling of radiation pressure determines the mass loading and initial velocity of winds from basic physical principles. We find that the giant clumps produce steady outflow rates comparable to and sometimes somewhat larger than their star formation rate, with velocities largely sufficient to escape the galaxy. The clumps also lose mass, especially old stars, by tidal stripping, and the stellar populations contained in the clumps hence remain relatively young (≤200 Myr), as observed. The clumps survive gaseous outflows and stellar loss, because they are wandering in gas-rich turbulent disks from which they can reaccrete gas at high rates compensating for outflows and tidal stripping, overall keeping realistic and self-regulated gaseous and stellar masses. The outflow and accretion rates have specific timescales of a few 10{sup 8} yr, as opposed to rapid and repeated dispersion and reformation of clumps. Our simulations produce gaseous outflows with velocities, densities, and mass loading consistent with observations, and at the same time suggest that the giant clumps survive for hundreds of Myr and complete their migration to the center of high-redshift galaxies. These long-lived clumps are gas-dominated and contain a moderate mass fraction of stars; they drive inside-out disk evolution, thickening, spheroid growth, and fueling of the central


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirzkal, N.; Rothberg, B.; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Nilsson, Kim K. [ST-ECF, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Finkelstein, S. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James, E-mail: [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)


    We have developed a new method for fitting spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to identify and constrain the physical properties of high-redshift (4 < z < 8) galaxies. Our approach uses an implementation of Bayesian based Markov Chain Monte Carlo that we have dubbed '{pi}MC{sup 2}'. It allows us to compare observations to arbitrarily complex models and to compute 95% credible intervals that provide robust constraints for the model parameters. The work is presented in two sections. In the first, we test {pi}MC{sup 2} using simulated SEDs to not only confirm the recovery of the known inputs but to assess the limitations of the method and identify potential hazards of SED fitting when applied specifically to high-redshift (z > 4) galaxies. In the second part of the paper we apply {pi}MC{sup 2} to thirty-three 4 < z < 8 objects, including the spectroscopically confirmed Grism ACS Program for Extragalactic Science Ly{alpha} sample (4 < z < 6), supplemented by newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 near-IR observations, and several recently reported broadband selected z > 6 galaxies. Using {pi}MC{sup 2}, we are able to constrain the stellar mass of these objects and in some cases their stellar age and find no evidence that any of these sources formed at a redshift larger than z = 8, a time when the universe was Almost-Equal-To 0.6 Gyr old.

  20. The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Molecular Gas Reservoirs in High-redshift Galaxies (United States)

    Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F.; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C.; Cox, Pierre; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Inami, Hanae; Ivison, Rob; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kazuaki; Popping, Gergö; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul


    We study the molecular gas properties of high-z galaxies observed in the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey (ASPECS) that targets an ˜1 arcmin2 region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF), a blind survey of CO emission (tracing molecular gas) in the 3 and 1 mm bands. Of a total of 1302 galaxies in the field, 56 have spectroscopic redshifts and correspondingly well-defined physical properties. Among these, 11 have infrared luminosities {L}{IR}\\gt {10}11 {L}⊙ , i.e., a detection in CO emission was expected. Out of these, 7 are detected at various significance in CO, and 4 are undetected in CO emission. In the CO-detected sources, we find CO excitation conditions that are lower than those typically found in starburst/sub-mm galaxy/QSO environments. We use the CO luminosities (including limits for non-detections) to derive molecular gas masses. We discuss our findings in the context of previous molecular gas observations at high redshift (star formation law, gas depletion times, gas fractions): the CO-detected galaxies in the UDF tend to reside on the low-{L}{IR} envelope of the scatter in the {L}{IR}{--}{L}{CO}\\prime relation, but exceptions exist. For the CO-detected sources, we find an average depletion time of ˜1 Gyr, with significant scatter. The average molecular-to-stellar mass ratio ({M}{{H}2}/M *) is consistent with earlier measurements of main-sequence galaxies at these redshifts, and again shows large variations among sources. In some cases, we also measure dust continuum emission. On average, the dust-based estimates of the molecular gas are a factor ˜2-5× smaller than those based on CO. When we account for detections as well as non-detections, we find large diversity in the molecular gas properties of the high-redshift galaxies covered by ASPECS.

  1. Efficient cold outflows driven by cosmic rays in high redshift galaxies and their global effects on the IGM (United States)

    Samui, Saumyadip; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Srianand, Raghunathan


    We present semi-analytical models of galactic outflows in high redshift galaxies driven by both hot thermal gas and non-thermal cosmic rays. Thermal pressure alone may not sustain a large scale outflow in low mass galaxies (i.e M ˜ 108 M⊙), in the presence of supernovae (SNe) feedback with large mass loading. We show that inclusion of cosmic ray pressure allows outflow solutions even in these galaxies. In massive galaxies for the same energy efficiency, cosmic ray driven winds can propagate to larger distances compared to pure thermally driven winds. On an average gas in the cosmic ray driven winds has a lower temperature which could aid detecting it through absorption lines in the spectra of background sources. Using our constrained semi-analytical models of galaxy formation (that explains the observed UV luminosity functions of galaxies) we study the influence of cosmic ray driven winds on the properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at different redshifts. In particular, we study the volume filling factor, average metallicity, cosmic ray and magnetic field energy densities for models invoking atomic cooled and molecular cooled halos. We show that the cosmic rays in the IGM could have enough energy that can be transferred to the thermal gas in presence of magnetic fields to influence the thermal history of the intergalactic medium. The significant volume filling and resulting strength of IGM magnetic fields can also account for recent γ-ray observations of blazars.

  2. High-Redshift Galaxy Surveys and the Reionization of the Universe


    Bouwens, Rychard J.


    Star-forming galaxies in the early universe provide us with perhaps the most natural way of explaining the reionization of the universe. Current observational results are sufficiently comprehensive, as to allow us to approximately calculate how the ionizing radiation from galaxies varies as a function of cosmic time. Important uncertainties in modeling reionization by galaxies revolve around the escape fraction and its luminosity and redshift dependence, a possible truncation of the galaxy lu...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Orianne; Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Gabor, Jared M., E-mail: [CEA-Saclay, F-91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    The effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on their host galaxies depend on the coupling between the injected energy and the interstellar medium (ISM). Here, we model and quantify the impact of long-range AGN ionizing radiation—in addition to the often considered small-scale energy deposition—on the physical state of the multi-phase ISM of the host galaxy and on its total star formation rate (SFR). We formulate an AGN spectral energy distribution matched with observations, which we use with the radiative transfer (RT) code Cloudy to compute AGN ionization in a simulated high-redshift disk galaxy. We use a high-resolution (∼6 pc) simulation including standard thermal AGN feedback and calculate RT in post-processing. Surprisingly, while these models produce significant AGN-driven outflows, we find that AGN ionizing radiation and heating reduce the SFR by a few percent at most for a quasar luminosity (L {sub bol} = 10{sup 46.5} erg s{sup –1}). Although the circumgalactic gaseous halo can be kept almost entirely ionized by the AGN, most star-forming clouds (n ≳ 10{sup 2} {sup –} {sup 3} cm{sup –3}) and even the reservoirs of cool atomic gas (n ∼ 0.3-10 cm{sup –3})—which are the sites of future star formation (SF; 100-200 Myr), are generally too dense to be significantly affected. Our analysis ignores any absorption from a putative torus, making our results upper limits on the effects of ionizing radiation. Therefore, while the AGN-driven outflows can remove substantial amounts of gas in the long term, the impact of AGN feedback on the SF efficiency in the interstellar gas in high-redshift galaxies is marginal, even when long-range radiative effects are accounted for.

  4. A robust morphological classification of high-redshift galaxies using support vector machines on seeing limited images. I. Method description (United States)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Rouan, D.; Tasca, L.; Soucail, G.; Le Fèvre, O.


    Context: Morphology is the most accessible tracer of the physical structure of galaxies, but its interpretation in the framework of galaxy evolution still remains a problem. Its dependence on wavelength renders the comparison between local and high redshift populations difficult. Furthermore, the quality of the measured morphology being strongly dependent on the image resolution, the comparison between different surveys is also a problem. Aims: We present a new non-parametric method to quantify morphologies of galaxies based on a particular family of learning machines called support vector machines. The method, which can be seen as a generalization of the classical C/A classification but with an unlimited number of dimensions and non-linear boundaries between decision regions, is fully automated and thus particularly well adapted to large cosmological surveys. The source code is available for download at Methods: To test the method, we use a seeing limited near-infrared (Ks band, 2,16 μm) sample observed with WIRCam at CFHT at a median redshift of z ~ 0.8. The machine is trained with a simulated sample built from a local visually classified sample from the SDSS, chosen in the high-redshift sample's rest-frame (i band, 0.77 μm) and artificially redshifted to match the observing conditions. We use a 12-dimensional volume, including 5 morphological parameters, and other characteristics of galaxies such as luminosity and redshift. A fraction of the simulated sample is used to test the machine and assess its accuracy. Results: We show that a qualitative separation in two main morphological types (late type and early type) can be obtained with an error lower than 20% up to the completeness limit of the sample (KAB ~ 22), which is more than 2 times better that what would be obtained with a classical C/A classification on the same sample and indeed comparable to space data. The method is optimized to solve a specific problem

  5. The bispectrum of galaxies from high-redshift galaxy surveys: Primordial non-Gaussianity and non-linear galaxy bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefusatti, Emiliano; /Fermilab; Komatsu, Eiichiro; /Texas U., Astron. Dept.


    The greatest challenge in the interpretation of galaxy clustering data from any surveys is galaxy bias. Using a simple Fisher matrix analysis, we show that the bispectrum provides an excellent determination of linear and non-linear bias parameters of intermediate and high-z galaxies, when all measurable triangle configurations down to mildly non-linear scales, where perturbation theory is still valid, are included. The bispectrum is also a powerful probe of primordial non-Gaussianity. The planned galaxy surveys at z {approx}> 2 should yield constraints on non-Gaussian parameters, f{sub NL}{sup loc.} and f{sub NL}{sup eq.}, that are comparable to, or even better than, those from CMB experiments. We study how these constraints improve with volume, redshift range, as well as the number density of galaxies. Finally we show that a halo occupation distribution may be used to improve these constraints further by lifting degeneracies between gravity, bias, and primordial non-Gaussianity.

  6. Pieces to the puzzle of high-redshift galaxies falling into place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geier, Stefan Johannes

    Our Universe is filled with a mind-blowing diversity and different types and appearances of galaxies. Finding out about how they formed and evolved is one of the most challenging tasks in astronomy. When looking about 10 billion years back, to an epoch about 3 billion years after the big bang, we...... can see galaxies at earlier stages of their lives. In this thesis studies of different kinds of galaxies in the early universe are presented. Two examples of the very intriguing population of massive quiescent z~2 galaxies were analyzed in terms of their stellar populations and morphologies. Although...... during the past decade big steps forward have been made in the study of this particular population of galaxies, key questions about their formation and evolution remain unsolved and the observational sample is still small, especially for galaxies at the faint end of the luminosity function. To make...

  7. Fluctuating feedback-regulated escape fraction of ionizing radiation in low-mass, high-redshift galaxies (United States)

    Trebitsch, Maxime; Blaizot, Jérémy; Rosdahl, Joakim; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne


    Low-mass galaxies are thought to provide the bulk of the ionizing radiation necessary to reionize the Universe. The amount of photons escaping the galaxies is poorly constrained theoretically, and difficult to measure observationally. Yet it is an essential parameter of reionization models. We study in detail how ionizing radiation can leak from high-redshift galaxies. For this purpose, we use a series of high-resolution radiation hydrodynamics simulations, zooming on three dwarf galaxies in a cosmological context. We find that the energy and momentum input from the supernova explosions has a pivotal role in regulating the escape fraction by disrupting dense star-forming clumps, and clearing sightlines in the halo. In the absence of supernovae, photons are absorbed very locally, within the birth clouds of massive stars. We follow the time evolution of the escape fraction and find that it can vary by more than six orders of magnitude. This explains the large scatter in the value of the escape fraction found by previous studies. This fast variability also impacts the observability of the sources of reionization: a survey even as deep as M1500 = -14 would miss about half of the underlying population of Lyman-continuum emitters.

  8. Pieces to the puzzle of high-redshift galaxies falling into place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geier, Stefan Johannes

    mass models. Our findings indicate older ages for these galaxies than expected. Also, their remarkable compactness was corroborated. Further conclusions such as about the validity of the downsizing paradigm are not possible given the very small sample of just two such galaxies. Furthermore, we present...

  9. Comparing Local Starbursts to High-Redshift Galaxies: A Search for Lyman-Break Analogs (United States)

    Petty, Sara M.; de Mello, Duila F.; Gallagher III, John S.; Gardner, Jonathan; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Mountain, C. Matt; Smith, Linda J.


    We compare the restframe far-ultraviolet (FUV) morphologies of 8 nearby interacting and starburst galaxies (Arp 269, M 82, Mrk 08, NGC 0520, NGC 1068, NGC 3079, NGC 3310, NGC 7673) with 54 galaxies at z approx.1.5 and 46 galaxies at z approx.4 in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. We calculate the Gini coefficient (G), the second order moment of 20% of the brightest pixels (M20), and the S ersic index (n). We find that 20% (11/54) of z approx.1.5 and 37% (17/46) of z approx.4 galaxies are bulge-like, using G and M20. We also find approx.70% of the z approx.1.5 and z approx.4 galaxies have exponential disks with n > 0.8. The 2D profile combined with the nonparametric methods provides more detail, concerning the nature of disturbed systems, such as merger and post-merger types. We also provide qualitative descriptions of each galaxy system and at each redshift. We conclude that Mrk 08, NGC 3079, and NGC 7673 have similar morphologies as the starburst FUV restframe galaxies and Lyman-break galaxies at z approx.1.5 and 4, and determine that they are Lyman-break analogs.

  10. High-Redshift Galaxy Surveys and the Reionization of the Universe (United States)

    Bouwens, Rychard

    Star-forming galaxies in the early universe provide us with perhaps the most natural way of explaining the reionization of the universe. Current observational results are sufficiently comprehensive, as to allow us to approximately calculate how the ionizing radiation from galaxies varies as a function of cosmic time. Important uncertainties in modeling reionization by galaxies revolve around the escape fraction and its luminosity and redshift dependence, a possible truncation of the galaxy luminosity function at the faint end, and an evolution in the production efficiency of Lyman-continuum photons with cosmic time. Despite these uncertainties, plausible choices for these parameters naturally predict a cosmic ionizing emissivity at z ˜ 6 - 10 z ˜ 6-10 whose evolution and overall normalization is in excellent agreement with that derived from current observational constraints. This strongly suggests that galaxies provide the necessary photons to reionize the universe.

  11. How Accurately Can We Measure Galaxy Environment at High Redshift Using Only Photometric Redshifts? (United States)

    Florez, Jonathan; Jogee, Shardha; Sherman, Sydney; Papovich, Casey J.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Stevans, Matthew L.; Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; SHELA/HETDEX


    We use a powerful synergy of six deep photometric surveys (Herschel SPIRE, Spitzer IRAC, NEWFIRM K-band, DECam ugriz, and XMM X-ray) and a future optical spectroscopic survey (HETDEX) in the Stripe 82 field to study galaxy evolution during the 1.9 environment using only our photometric redshifts. We compare both local and large-scale measures of environment (e.g., projected two-point correlation function, projected nearest neighbor densities, and galaxy counts within some projected aperture) at different photometric redshifts to cosmological simulations in order to quantify the uncertainty in our estimates of environment. We also explore how robustly one can recover the variation of galaxy properties with environment, when using only photometric redshifts. In the era of large photometric surveys, this work has broad implications for studies addressing the impact of environment on galaxy evolution at early cosmic epochs. We acknowledge support from NSF grants AST-1614798, AST-1413652 and NSF GRFP grant DGE-1610403.

  12. How Environment Affects Star Formation: Tracing Activity in High Redshift Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Alberts, Stacey; Pope, A.; Brodwin, M.; Atlee, D. W.; Lin, Y.; Chary, R.; Dey, A.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Jannuzi, B.; Mancone, C.; Moustakas, J.; Snyder, G. F.; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, D.; Weiner, B. J.; Zeimann, G.


    The emerging picture of the evolution of cluster galaxies indicates that the epoch of z>1 is a crucial period of active star formation and mass assembly in clusters. In this dissertation, I leverage a uniformly-selected cluster sample from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS) with Herschel imaging to analyse the star formation (SF) activity in cluster galaxies over the past ten billion years. This analysis is two-fold: 1) using 274 clusters across the 9 square degree Bootes field, I perform a stacking analysis of mass-limited samples of cluster and field galaxies using wide-field Herschel observations over a long redshift baseline, z=0.3-1.5. I find that the average SF activity in cluster galaxies is evolving faster than in the field, with field-like SF in the cluster cores and enhanced SF activity in the cluster outskirts at z>1.2. By further breaking down my analysis by galaxy mass and type, I determine which mechanisms are capable of driving this evolution. 2) I use unique, deep Herschel imaging of 11 spectroscopically-confirmed clusters from z=1.1-1.8 to study the properties of individual infrared bright cluster galaxies as a function of redshift and cluster-centric radius. Combined with ancillary data, I determine the star formation, dust, and AGN properties of the most active cluster galaxies and tie the evolution of these properties back to the environment by comparing to field populations. By combining these two approaches, I constrain cluster galaxy properties during a pivotal epoch of dust-obscured star formation activity and mass assembly in some of the most extreme structures in the Universe.

  13. Large turbulent reservoirs of cold molecular gas around high-redshift starburst galaxies (United States)

    Falgarone, E.; Zwaan, M. A.; Godard, B.; Bergin, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Andreani, P. M.; Bournaud, F.; Bussmann, R. S.; Elbaz, D.; Omont, A.; Oteo, I.; Walter, F.


    Starburst galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation are among the most extreme star-forming engines in the Universe, producing stars over about 100 million years (ref. 2). The star-formation rates of these galaxies, which exceed 100 solar masses per year, require large reservoirs of cold molecular gas to be delivered to their cores, despite strong feedback from stars or active galactic nuclei. Consequently, starburst galaxies are ideal for studying the interplay between this feedback and the growth of a galaxy. The methylidyne cation, CH+, is a most useful molecule for such studies because it cannot form in cold gas without suprathermal energy input, so its presence indicates dissipation of mechanical energy or strong ultraviolet irradiation. Here we report the detection of CH+ (J = 1-0) emission and absorption lines in the spectra of six lensed starburst galaxies at redshifts near 2.5. This line has such a high critical density for excitation that it is emitted only in very dense gas, and is absorbed in low-density gas. We find that the CH+ emission lines, which are broader than 1,000 kilometres per second, originate in dense shock waves powered by hot galactic winds. The CH+ absorption lines reveal highly turbulent reservoirs of cool (about 100 kelvin), low-density gas, extending far (more than 10 kiloparsecs) outside the starburst galaxies (which have radii of less than 1 kiloparsec). We show that the galactic winds sustain turbulence in the 10-kiloparsec-scale environments of the galaxies, processing these environments into multiphase, gravitationally bound reservoirs. However, the mass outflow rates are found to be insufficient to balance the star-formation rates. Another mass input is therefore required for these reservoirs, which could be provided by ongoing mergers or cold-stream accretion. Our results suggest that galactic feedback, coupled jointly to turbulence and gravity, extends the starburst phase of a galaxy instead of quenching it.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Cooper, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Reddy, Naveen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Jannuzi, Buell T. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)


    We present Keck DEIMOS spectroscopic observations of the most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies at redshifts 3.2 < z < 4.6. Our sample, selected in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey, contains galaxies with luminosities of L* {approx}< L{sub UV} {approx}< 7 L* and is one of the largest samples to date of the most UV-luminous galaxies at these redshifts. Our spectroscopic data confirm 41 candidates as star-forming galaxies at 3.2 < z < 4.6 and validate the relatively clean selection of the photometric candidates with a contamination rate of 11%-28%. We find that the fraction of Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies increases with decreasing UV luminosity. None of the 12 galaxies with M{sub UV} < -22 (i.e., L{sub UV} > 3 L*) exhibit strong Ly{alpha} emission. We find strong evidence of large-scale outflows, transporting the neutral/ionized gas in the interstellar medium away from the galaxy. Galaxies exhibiting both interstellar absorption and Ly{alpha} emission lines show a significant offset between the two features, with a relative velocity of 200-1150 km s{sup -1}. We find tentative evidence that this measure of the outflow velocity increases with UV luminosity and/or stellar mass. The luminosity- and mass-dependent outflow strengths suggest that the efficiency of feedback and enrichment of the surrounding medium depend on these galaxy parameters. We also stack the individual spectra to construct composite spectra of the absorption-line-only and Ly{alpha}-emitting subsets of the UV luminous galaxies at z {approx_equal} 3.7. The composite spectra are very similar to those of lower-redshift and lower-luminosity Lyman break galaxy (LBG) samples, but with some subtle differences. Analyses of the composite spectra suggest that the UV luminous LBGs at z {approx_equal} 3.7 may have a higher covering fraction of absorbing gas, and may be older (or have had more prolonged star formation histories) than their lower-redshift and lower-luminosity counterparts. In

  15. Deep Grism Spectroscopy of High Redshift Galaxies with the HST GRAPES and PEARS Surveys (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, S.; Pirzkal, N.; GRAPES Team; PEARS Team


    We have obtained the deepest slitless spectroscopic samples ever using the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys, in two related projects, the "Grism ACS Program for Extragalactic Science" (GRAPES) and "Probing Evolution and Reionization Spectroscopically" (PEARS). In combination, these two programs obtained deep public spectroscopy of about 100 square arcminutes in the GOODS north and south fields. We are using these data to study galaxy evolution over a wide range of cosmic history. We are able to spectroscopically confirm Lyman break galaxies from redshift 4 to 6.5, down to AB magnitudes fainter than i=27.5. We use these samples to study a range of galaxy properties, including spatial clustering, Lyman alpha emitter fraction, and spatial extent of Lyman alpha emission.

  16. The Hy-Redshift Universe: Galaxy Formation and Evolution at High Redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunker, A.J.; van Breugel, W.J.M.


    Hyron Spinrad's career has spanned several decades, and has stretched from our neighboring planets to the most remote galaxies in the Universe, pausing in between to ''enrich'' our knowledge of the compositions of stars.

  17. GTC optical imaging of extremely red 5C radio galaxies at high redshift (United States)

    Humphrey, A.; Villar-Martín, M.; Lagos, P.


    Aims: We investigate the nature of seven unusual radio galaxies from the 5C catalogue that were previously known to have extremely red R-K colours, and for which emission lines were previously found to be weak or absent in their optical spectra. Methods: We present and discuss u, g, or r images of these radio galaxies, obtained using the Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) at the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). Results: We have detected all seven targets in our g-band imaging. Their optical emission is extended, and we tentatively detect a radio-optical alignment effect in this sample. A subset of our sample (three sources) shows broad-band spectral energy distributions that flatten out near the wavelength range of the g-band, implying a dominant contribution there due to young stars and/or scattered or reprocessed radiation from the active nucleus.

  18. CLUES to the past: Local Group progenitors amongst high-redshift Lyman break galaxies (United States)

    Dayal, Pratika; Libeskind, Noam I.; Dunlop, James S.


    We use state-of-the-art numerical simulations to explore the observability and the expected physical properties of the progenitors of the Local Group galaxies at z ≃ 6-8, within 1 billion years of the big bang. We find that the most massive progenitors of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) at z ≃ 6 and 7 are predicted to have absolute ultraviolet (UV) continuum magnitudes MUV ≃ -17 to -18, suggesting that their analogues lie close to the detection limits of the deepest near-infrared (IR) surveys conducted to date [i.e. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3/IR Ultra Deep Field (UDF)12]. This in turn confirms that the majority of currently known z ≃ 6-8 galaxies are expected to be the seeds of present-day galaxies which are more massive than L* spirals. We also discuss the properties of the Local Group progenitors at these early epochs, extending down to absolute magnitudes MUV ≃ -13. The most massive MW/M31 progenitors at z ≃ 7 have stellar masses M* ≃ 107.5-8 M⊙, stellar metallicities Z* ˜ 3-6 per cent Z⊙, and predicted observed UV continuum slopes β ≃ -2.4 to -2.5.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakhaleva-Li, Zimu [Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gnedin, Nickolay Y., E-mail:, E-mail: [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)


    We compare the properties of stellar populations of model galaxies from the Cosmic Reionization On Computers (CROC) project with the exiting ultraviolet (UV) and IR data. Since CROC simulations do not follow cosmic dust directly, we adopt two variants of the dust-follows-metals ansatz to populate model galaxies with dust. Using the dust radiative transfer code Hyperion, we compute synthetic stellar spectra, UV continuum slopes, and IR fluxes for simulated galaxies. We find that the simulation results generally match observational measurements, but, perhaps, not in full detail. The differences seem to indicate that our adopted dust-follows-metals ansatzes are not fully sufficient. While the discrepancies with the exiting data are marginal, the future James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) data will be of much higher precision, rendering highly significant any tentative difference between theory and observations. It is, therefore, likely, that in order to fully utilize the precision of JWST observations, fully dynamical modeling of dust formation, evolution, and destruction may be required.

  20. The combined effect of AGN and supernovae feedback in launching massive molecular outflows in high-redshift galaxies (United States)

    Biernacki, Pawel; Teyssier, Romain


    We have recently improved our model of active galactic nucleus (AGN) by attaching the supermassive black hole (SMBH) to a massive nuclear star cluster (NSC). Here we study the effects of this new model in massive, gas-rich galaxies with several simulations of different feedback recipes with the hydrodynamics code RAMSES. These simulations are compared to a reference simulation without any feedback, in which the cooling halo gas is quickly consumed in a burst of star formation. In the presence of strong supernovae (SN) feedback, we observe the formation of a galactic fountain that regulates star formation over a longer period, but without halting it. If only AGN feedback is considered, as soon as the SMBH reaches a critical mass, strong outflows of hot gas are launched and prevent the cooling halo gas from reaching the disk, thus efficiently halting star formation, leading to the so-called "quenching". If both feedback mechanisms act in tandem, we observe a non-linear coupling, in the sense that the dense gas in the supernovae-powered galactic fountain is propelled by the hot outflow powered by the AGN at much larger radii than without AGN. We argue that these particular outflows are able to unbind dense gas from the galactic halo, thanks to the combined effect of SN and AGN feedback. We speculate that this mechanism occurs at the end of the fast growing phase of SMBH, and is at the origin of the dense molecular outflows observed in many massive high-redshift galaxies.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Brian D.; O’Shea, Brian W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA—Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Tumlinson, Jason, E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    This paper presents the first results from a model for chemical evolution that can be applied to N-body cosmological simulations and quantitatively compared to measured stellar abundances from large astronomical surveys. This model convolves the chemical yield sets from a range of stellar nucleosynthesis calculations (including asymptotic giant branch stars, Type Ia and II supernovae, and stellar wind models) with a user-specified stellar initial mass function (IMF) and metallicity to calculate the time-dependent chemical evolution model for a “simple stellar population” (SSP) of uniform metallicity and formation time. These SSP models are combined with a semianalytic model for galaxy formation and evolution that uses merger trees from N-body cosmological simulations to track several α- and iron-peak elements for the stellar and multiphase interstellar medium components of several thousand galaxies in the early (z ≥ 6) universe. The simulated galaxy population is then quantitatively compared to two complementary data sets of abundances in the Milky Way stellar halo and is capable of reproducing many of the observed abundance trends. The observed abundance ratio distributions are best reproduced with a Chabrier IMF, a chemically enriched star formation efficiency of 0.2, and a redshift of reionization of 7. Many abundances are qualitatively well matched by our model, but our model consistently overpredicts the carbon-enhanced fraction of stars at low metallicities, likely owing to incomplete coverage of Population III stellar yields and supernova models and the lack of dust as a component of our model.

  2. Local Group Dwarf Galaxies and the Star Formation Law at High Redshift. (United States)



    I show how the existing observational data on Local Group dwarf galaxies can be used to estimate the average star formation law during the first 3 Gyr of the history of the universe. I find that the observational data are consistent with the orthodox Schmidt law with a star formation efficiency of about 4% if the star formation is continuous (during the first 3 Gyr). The efficiency is proportionally higher if most of the gas in the dwarfs was consumed (and never replenished) in a short time interval well before the universe turned 3 Gyr.

  3. The Bright and Dark Sides of High-redshift Starburst Galaxies from Herschel and Subaru Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Mancini, C.; Franceschini, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Daddi, E.; Valentino, F.; Calabrò, A.; Jin, S. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Renzini, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio, 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Silverman, J. D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Kashino, D. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Mainieri, V.; Man, A. [ESO, Karl-Schwarschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Darvish, B. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Maier, C. [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Kartaltepe, J. S. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)


    We present rest-frame optical spectra from the FMOS-COSMOS survey of 12 z ∼ 1.6 Herschel starburst galaxies, with star formation rate (SFR) elevated by ×8, on average, above the star-forming main sequence (MS). Comparing the H α to IR luminosity ratio and the Balmer decrement, we find that the optically thin regions of the sources contain on average only ∼10% of the total SFR, whereas ∼90% come from an extremely obscured component that is revealed only by far-IR observations and is optically thick even in H α . We measure the [N ii]{sub 6583}/H α ratio, suggesting that the less obscured regions have a metal content similar to that of the MS population at the same stellar masses and redshifts. However, our objects appear to be metal-rich outliers from the metallicity–SFR anticorrelation observed at fixed stellar mass for the MS population. The [S ii]{sub 6732}/[S ii]{sub 6717} ratio from the average spectrum indicates an electron density n {sub e} ∼ 1100 cm{sup −3} , larger than what was estimated for MS galaxies but only at the 1.5 σ level. Our results provide supporting evidence that high- z MS outliers are analogous of local ULIRGs and are consistent with a major-merger origin for the starburst event.

  4. The Interstellar Medium in High-redshift Submillimeter Galaxies as Probed by Infrared Spectroscopy* (United States)

    Wardlow, Julie L.; Cooray, Asantha; Osage, Willow; Bourne, Nathan; Clements, David; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Eales, Steve; Farrah, Duncan; Furlanetto, Cristina; Ibar, Edo; Ivison, Rob; Maddox, Steve; Michałowski, Michał M.; Riechers, Dominik; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Scott, Douglas; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Wang, Lingyu; van der Werf, Paul; Valiante, Elisabetta; Valtchanov, Ivan; Verma, Aprajita


    Submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z≳ 1 are luminous in the far-infrared, and have star formation rates, SFR, of hundreds to thousands of solar masses per year. However, it is unclear whether they are true analogs of local ULIRGs or whether the mode of their star formation is more similar to that in local disk galaxies. We target these questions by using Herschel-PACS to examine the conditions in the interstellar medium (ISM) in far-infrared luminous SMGs at z˜ 1-4. We present 70-160 μm photometry and spectroscopy of the [O IV]26 μm, [Fe II]26 μm, [S III]33 μm, [Si II]34 μm, [O III]52 μm, [N III]57 μm, and [O I]63 μm fine-structure lines and the S(0) and S(1) hydrogen rotational lines in 13 lensed SMGs identified by their brightness in early Herschel data. Most of the 13 targets are not individually spectroscopically detected; we instead focus on stacking these spectra with observations of an additional 32 SMGs from the Herschel archive—representing a complete compilation of PACS spectroscopy of SMGs. We detect [O I]63 μm, [Si II]34 μm, and [N III]57 μm at ≥slant 3σ in the stacked spectra, determining that the average strengths of these lines relative to the far-IR continuum are (0.36+/- 0.12)× {10}-3, (0.84+/- 0.17)× {10}-3, and (0.27+/- 0.10)× {10}-3, respectively. Using the [O III]52 μm/[N III]57 μm emission line ratio, we show that SMGs have average gas-phase metallicities ≳ {Z}⊙ . By using PDR modeling and combining the new spectral measurements with integrated far-infrared fluxes and existing [C II]158 μm data, we show that SMGs have average gas densities, n, of ˜ {10}1-3 {{cm}}-3 and FUV field strengths, {G}0˜ {10}2.2-4.5 (in Habing units: 1.6× {10}-3 {erg} {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1), consistent with both local ULIRGs and lower luminosity star-forming galaxies. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia, and important participation from NASA.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, N.; Dickinson, M.; Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Elbaz, D.; Daddi, E.; Magdis, G.; Aussel, H.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dasyra, K.; Hwang, H. S. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Morrison, G. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Giavalisco, M. [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Ivison, R. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Papovich, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Scott, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Buat, V.; Burgarella, D. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-Marseille, CNRS, 38 Rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Murphy, E. [Spitzer Science Center, MC 314-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Altieri, B. [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain); and others


    We take advantage of the sensitivity and resolution of the Herschel Space Observatory at 100 and 160 {mu}m to directly image the thermal dust emission and investigate the infrared luminosities (L{sub IR}) and dust obscuration of typical star-forming (L*) galaxies at high redshift. Our sample consists of 146 UV-selected galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts 1.5 {<=} z{sub spec} < 2.6 in the GOODS-North field. Supplemented with deep Very Large Array and Spitzer imaging, we construct median stacks at the positions of these galaxies at 24, 100, and 160 {mu}m, and 1.4 GHz. The comparison between these stacked fluxes and a variety of dust templates and calibrations implies that typical star-forming galaxies with UV luminosities L{sub UV} {approx}> 10{sup 10} L{sub Sun} at z {approx} 2 are luminous infrared galaxies with a median L{sub IR} = (2.2 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }. Their median ratio of L{sub IR} to rest-frame 8 {mu}m luminosity (L{sub 8}) is L{sub IR}/L{sub 8} = 8.9 {+-} 1.3 and is Almost-Equal-To 80% larger than that found for most star-forming galaxies at z {approx}< 2. This apparent redshift evolution in the L{sub IR}/L{sub 8} ratio may be tied to the trend of larger infrared luminosity surface density for z {approx}> 2 galaxies relative to those at lower redshift. Typical galaxies at 1.5 {<=} z < 2.6 have a median dust obscuration L{sub IR}/L{sub UV} = 7.1 {+-} 1.1, which corresponds to a dust correction factor, required to recover the bolometric star formation rate (SFR) from the unobscured UV SFR, of 5.2 {+-} 0.6. This result is similar to that inferred from previous investigations of the UV, H{alpha}, 24 {mu}m, radio, and X-ray properties of the same galaxies studied here. Stacking in bins of UV slope ({beta}) implies that L* galaxies with redder spectral slopes are also dustier and that the correlation between {beta} and dustiness is similar to that found for local starburst galaxies. Hence, the rest-frame {approx_equal} 30 and

  6. Newborn spheroids at high redshift: when and how did the dominant, old stars in today's massive galaxies form? (United States)

    Kaviraj, S.; Cohen, S.; Ellis, R. S.; Peirani, S.; Windhorst, R. A.; O'Connell, R. W.; Silk, J.; Whitmore, B. C.; Hathi, N. P.; Ryan, R. E.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Dekel, A.


    We study ˜330 massive (M* > 109.5 M⊙), newborn spheroidal galaxies (SGs) around the epoch of peak star formation (1 explore the high-redshift origin of SGs and gain insight into when and how the old stellar populations that dominate today's Universe formed. The sample is drawn from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 Early-Release Science programme, which provides deep 10-filter (0.2-1.7 μm) HST imaging over one-third of the GOODS-South field. We find that the star formation episodes that built our SGs likely peaked in the redshift range 2 values ( 1010.5 M⊙, and an age trend becomes evident in this mass regime: SGs with M* > 1011.5 M⊙ are ˜2 Gyr older than their counterparts with M* violent disc instability driven by cold streams and/or minor mergers) likely play a dominant role in building SGs, and creating a significant fraction of the old stellar populations that dominate today's Universe.

  7. Constraints on dark matter scenarios from measurements of the galaxy luminosity function at high redshifts (United States)

    Corasaniti, P. S.; Agarwal, S.; Marsh, D. J. E.; Das, S.


    We use state-of-the-art measurements of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) at z =6 , 7, and 8 to derive constraints on warm dark matter (WDM), late-forming dark matter, and ultralight axion dark matter models alternative to the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. To this purpose, we have run a suite of high-resolution N -body simulations to accurately characterize the low-mass end of the halo mass function and derive dark matter (DM) model predictions of the high-z luminosity function. In order to convert halo masses into UV magnitudes, we introduce an empirical approach based on halo abundance matching, which allows us to model the LF in terms of the amplitude and scatter of the ensemble average star formation rate halo mass relation, ⟨SFR (Mh ,z )⟩, of each DM model. We find that, independent of the DM scenario, the average SFR at fixed halo mass increases from z =6 to 8, while the scatter remains constant. At halo mass Mh≳1012 M⊙ h-1 , the average SFR as a function of halo mass follows a double power law trend that is common to all models, while differences occur at smaller masses. In particular, we find that models with a suppressed low-mass halo abundance exhibit higher SFR compared to the CDM results. Thus, different DM models predict a different faint-end slope of the LF which causes the goodness of fit to vary within each DM scenario for different model parameters. Using deviance statistics, we obtain a lower limit on the WDM thermal relic particle mass, mWDM≳1.5 keV at 2 σ . In the case of LFDM models, the phase transition redshift parameter is bounded to zt≳8 ×105 at 2 σ . We find ultralight axion dark matter best-fit models with axion mass ma≳1.6 ×10-22 eV to be well within 2 σ of the deviance statistics. We remark that measurements at z =6 slightly favor a flattening of the LF at faint UV magnitudes. This tends to prefer some of the non-CDM models in our simulation suite, although not at a statistically significant level to distinguish

  8. Properties of z ~ 3-6 Lyman break galaxies. II. Impact of nebular emission at high redshift (United States)

    de Barros, S.; Schaerer, D.; Stark, D. P.


    Context. To gain insight on the mass assembly and place constraints on the star formation history (SFH) of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), it is important to accurately determine their properties. Aims: We estimate how nebular emission and different SFHs affect parameter estimation of LBGs. Methods: We present a homogeneous, detailed analysis of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of ~1700 LBGs from the GOODS-MUSIC catalogue with deep multi-wavelength photometry from the U band to 8 μm to determine stellar mass, age, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. Using our SED fitting tool, which takes into account nebular emission, we explore a wide parameter space. We also explore a set of different star formation histories. Results: Nebular emission is found to significantly affect the determination of the physical parameters for the majority of z ~ 3-6 LBGs. We identify two populations of galaxies by determining the importance of the contribution of emission lines to broadband fluxes. We find that ~65% of LBGs show detectable signs of emission lines, whereas ~35% show weak or no emission lines. This distribution is found over the entire redshift range. We interpret these groups as actively star-forming and more quiescent LBGs, respectively. We find that it is necessary to considerer SED fits with very young ages (affected by strong emission lines. Other arguments favouring episodic star formation and relatively short star formation timescales are also discussed. Considering nebular emission generally leads to a younger age, lower stellar mass, higher dust attenuation, higher star formation rate, and a large scatter in the SFR-M⋆ relation. Our analysis yields a trend of increasing specific star formation rate with redshift, as predicted by recent galaxy evolution models. Conclusions: The physical parameters of approximately two thirds of high redshift galaxies are significantly modified when we account for nebular emission. The SED models, which include nebular

  9. High-redshift Galaxies and Black Holes Detectable with the JWST: A Population Synthesis Model from Infrared to X-Rays (United States)

    Volonteri, Marta; Reines, Amy E.; Atek, Hakim; Stark, Daniel P.; Trebitsch, Maxime


    The first billion years of the Universe has been a pivotal time: stars, black holes (BHs), and galaxies formed and assembled, sowing the seeds of galaxies as we know them today. Detecting, identifying, and understanding the first galaxies and BHs is one of the current observational and theoretical challenges in galaxy formation. In this paper we present a population synthesis model aimed at galaxies, BHs, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high redshift. The model builds a population based on empirical relations. The spectral energy distribution of galaxies is determined by age and metallicity, and that of AGNs by BH mass and accretion rate. We validate the model against observations, and predict properties of galaxies and AGN in other wavelength and/or luminosity ranges, estimating the contamination of stellar populations (normal stars and high-mass X-ray binaries) for AGN searches from the infrared to X-rays, and vice versa for galaxy searches. For high-redshift galaxies with stellar ages < 1 {Gyr}, we find that disentangling stellar and AGN emission is challenging at restframe UV/optical wavelengths, while high-mass X-ray binaries become more important sources of confusion in X-rays. We propose a color–color selection in the James Webb Space Telescope bands to separate AGN versus star-dominated galaxies in photometric observations. We also estimate the AGN contribution, with respect to massive, hot, and metal-poor stars, at driving high-ionization lines, such as C iv and He ii. Finally, we test the influence of the minimum BH mass and occupation fraction of BHs in low-mass galaxies on the restframe UV/near-IR and X-ray AGN luminosity function.

  10. Effect of primordial non-Gaussianities on the far-UV luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies: implications for cosmic reionization (United States)

    Chevallard, Jacopo; Silk, Joseph; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Habouzit, Melanie; Mamon, Gary A.; Peirani, Sébastien


    Understanding how the intergalactic medium (IGM) was reionized at z ≳ 6 is one of the big challenges of current high-redshift astronomy. It requires modelling the collapse of the first astrophysical objects (Pop III stars, first galaxies) and their interaction with the IGM, while at the same time pushing current observational facilities to their limits. The observational and theoretical progress of the last few years have led to the emergence of a coherent picture in which the budget of hydrogen-ionizing photons is dominated by low-mass star-forming galaxies, with little contribution from Pop III stars and quasars. The reionization history of the Universe therefore critically depends on the number density of low-mass galaxies at high redshift. In this work, we explore how changes in the cosmological model, and in particular in the statistical properties of initial density fluctuations, affect the formation of early galaxies. Following Habouzit et al. (2014), we run five different N-body simulations with Gaussian and (scale-dependent) non-Gaussian initial conditions, all consistent with Planck constraints. By appealing to a phenomenological galaxy formation model and to a population synthesis code, we compute the far-UV galaxy luminosity function down to MFUV = -14 at redshift 7 ≤ z ≤ 15. We find that models with strong primordial non-Gaussianities on ≲ Mpc scales show a far-UV luminosity function significantly enhanced (up to a factor of 3 at z = 14) in low-mass galaxies. We adopt a reionization model calibrated from state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations and show that such scale-dependent non-Gaussianities leave a clear imprint on the Universe reionization history and electron Thomson scattering optical depth τe. Although current uncertainties in the physics of reionization and on the determination of τe still dominate the signatures of non-Gaussianities, our results suggest that τe could ultimately be used to constrain the statistical properties

  11. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation - XIII. AGN quenching of high-redshift star formation in ZF-COSMOS-20115 (United States)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Mutch, Simon J.; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Poole, Gregory B.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.


    Massive quiescent galaxies (MQGs) are thought to have formed stars rapidly at early times followed by a long period of quiescence. The recent discovery of a MQG, ZF-COSMOS-20115 at z ˜ 4, only 1.5 Gyr after the big bang, places new constraints on galaxy growth and the role of feedback in early star formation. Spectroscopic follow-up confirmed ZF-COSMOS-20115 as a MQG at z = 3.717 with an estimated stellar mass of ˜1011 M⊙, showing no evidence of recent star formation. We use the Meraxes semi-analytic model to investigate how ZF-COSMOS-20115 analogues build stellar mass, and why they become quiescent. We identify three analogue galaxies with similar properties to ZF-COSMOS-20115. We find that ZF-COSMOS-20115 is likely hosted by a massive halo with virial mass of ˜1013 M⊙, having been through significant mergers at early times. These merger events drove intense growth of the nucleus, which later prevented cooling and quenched star formation. Therefore, ZF-COSMOS-20115 is unlikely to have experienced strong or extended star formation events at z black holes in our simulation and were luminous quasars at z ˜ 5, indicating that ZF-COSMOS-20115 and other MQGs may be the descendants of high-redshift quasars. In addition, the model suggests that ZF-COSMOS-20115 formed in a region of intergalactic medium that was reionized early.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, Sirio; Ellis, Richard S. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jones, Tucker [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Richard, Johan [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Charles Andre, F-69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex (France)


    We present rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of nine low-mass star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.5 < z < 3 which are gravitationally lensed by foreground clusters. We used Triplespec, an echelle spectrograph at the Palomar 200 inch telescope that is very effective for this purpose as it samples the entire near-infrared spectrum simultaneously. By measuring the flux of nebular emission lines, we derive gas-phase metallicities and star formation rates, and by fitting the optical to infrared spectral energy distributions we obtain stellar masses. Taking advantage of the high magnification due to strong lensing, we are able to probe the physical properties of galaxies with stellar masses in the range 7.8 < log M/M{sub Sun} < 9.4 whose star formation rates are similar to those of typical star-forming galaxies in the local universe. We compare our results with the locally determined relation between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate. Our data are in excellent agreement with this relation, with an average offset ({Delta}log (O/H)) = 0.01 {+-} 0.08, suggesting a universal relationship. Remarkably, the scatter around the fundamental metallicity relation is only 0.24 dex, smaller than that observed locally at the same stellar masses, which may provide an important additional constraint for galaxy evolution models.

  13. Mapping the Dark Matter From UV Light at High Redshift: An Empirical Approach to Understand Galaxy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; /Yale Ctr. Astron. Astrophys.; Giavalisco, Mauro; /Massachusetts U., Amherst; Conroy, Charlie; /Princeton U. Observ.; Wechsler, Risa H; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ferguson, Henry C.; Somerville, Rachel S.; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Dickinson, Mark E.; /NOAO, Tucson; Urry, Claudia M.; /Yale Ctr. Astron. Astrophys.


    We present a simple formalism to interpret the observations of two galaxy statistics, the UV luminosity function (LF) and two-point correlation functions for star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 4, 5 and 6 in the context of {Lambda}CDM cosmology. Both statistics are the result of how star formation takes place in dark matter halos, and thus are used to constrain how UV light depends on halo properties, in particular halo mass. The two physical quantities we explore are the star formation duty cycle, and the range of UV luminosity that a halo of mass M can have (mean and variance). The former directly addresses the typical duration of star formation activity in halos while the latter addresses the averaged star formation history and regularity of gas inflow into these systems. In the context of this formalism, we explore various physical models consistent with all the available observational data, and find the following: (1) the typical duration of star formation observed in the data is {approx}< 0.4 Gyr (1{sigma}), (2) the inferred scaling law between the observed L{sub UV} and halo mass M from the observed faint-end slope of the luminosity functions is roughly linear out to M {approx} 10{sup 11.5} - 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} at all redshifts probed in this work, and (3) the observed L{sub UV} for a fixed halo mass M decreases with time, implying that the star formation efficiency (after dust extinction) is higher at earlier times. We explore several different physical scenarios relating star formation to halo mass, but find that these scenarios are indistinguishable due to the limited range of halo mass probed by our data. In order to discriminate between different scenarios, we discuss the possibility of using the bright-faint galaxy cross-correlation functions and more robust determination of luminosity-dependent galaxy bias for future surveys.

  14. Planck intermediate results. XXVII. High-redshift infrared galaxy overdensity candidates and lensed sources discovered by Planck and confirmed by Herschel-SPIRE (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Altieri, B.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Beelen, A.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Canameras, R.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Danese, L.; Dassas, K.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Falgarone, E.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frye, B.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guéry, D.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Floc'h, E.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacKenzie, T.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martinache, C.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Omont, A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Valtchanov, I.; Van Tent, B.; Vieira, J. D.; Vielva, P.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.


    We have used the Planck all-sky submillimetre and millimetre maps to search for rare sources distinguished by extreme brightness, a few hundred millijanskies, and their potential for being situated at high redshift. These "cold" Planck sources, selected using the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) directly from the maps and from the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS), all satisfy the criterion of having their rest-frame far-infrared peak redshifted to the frequency range 353-857 GHz. This colour-selection favours galaxies in the redshift range z = 2-4, which we consider as cold peaks in the cosmic infrared background. With a 4.´5 beam at the four highest frequencies, our sample is expected to include overdensities of galaxies in groups or clusters, lensed galaxies, and chance line-of-sight projections. We perform a dedicated Herschel-SPIRE follow-up of 234 such Planck targets, finding a significant excess of red 350 and 500μm sources, in comparison to reference SPIRE fields. About 94% of the SPIRE sources in the Planck fields are consistent with being overdensities of galaxies peaking at 350μm, with 3% peaking at 500μm, and none peaking at 250μm. About 3% are candidate lensed systems, all 12 of which have secure spectroscopic confirmations, placing them at redshifts z> 2.2. Only four targets are Galactic cirrus, yielding a success rate in our search strategy for identifying extragalactic sources within the Planck beam of better than 98%. The galaxy overdensities are detected with high significance, half of the sample showing statistical significance above 10σ. The SPIRE photometric redshifts of galaxies in overdensities suggest a peak at z ≃ 2, assuming a single common dust temperature for the sources of Td = 35 K. Under this assumption, we derive an infrared (IR) luminosity for each SPIRE source of about 4 × 1012L⊙, yielding star formation rates of typically 700 M⊙ yr-1. If the observed overdensities are actual gravitationally-bound structures

  15. An Infrared Census of DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS). IV. Discovery of High-redshift AGB Analogs (United States)

    Boyer, M. L.; McQuinn, K. B. W.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Whitelock, P. A.; van Loon, J. Th.; Sonneborn, G.; Sloan, G. C.; Skillman, E. D.; Meixner, M.; McDonald, I.; Jones, O. C.; Javadi, A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Britavskiy, N.; Bonanos, A. Z.


    The survey for DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS) identified several candidate Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars in nearby dwarf galaxies and showed that dust can form even in very metal-poor systems ({\\boldsymbol{Z}}∼ 0.008 {Z}ȯ ). Here, we present a follow-up survey with WFC3/IR on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), using filters that are capable of distinguishing carbon-rich (C-type) stars from oxygen-rich (M-type) stars: F127M, F139M, and F153M. We include six star-forming DUSTiNGS galaxies (NGC 147, IC 10, Pegasus dIrr, Sextans B, Sextans A, and Sag DIG), all more metal-poor than the Magellanic Clouds and spanning 1 dex in metallicity. We double the number of dusty AGB stars known in these galaxies and find that most are carbon rich. We also find 26 dusty M-type stars, mostly in IC 10. Given the large dust excess and tight spatial distribution of these M-type stars, they are most likely on the upper end of the AGB mass range (stars undergoing Hot Bottom Burning). Theoretical models do not predict significant dust production in metal-poor M-type stars, but we see evidence for dust excess around M-type stars even in the most metal-poor galaxies in our sample (12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.26{--}7.50). The low metallicities and inferred high stellar masses (up to ∼10 {M}ȯ ) suggest that AGB stars can produce dust very early in the evolution of galaxies (∼30 Myr after they form), and may contribute significantly to the dust reservoirs seen in high-redshift galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-14073.

  16. The Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey. II. The Type Ia Supernova Rate in High-redshift Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Barbary, K.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Brodwin, M.; Connolly, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Doi, M.; Eisenhardt, P.; Faccioli, L.; Fadeyev, V.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fruchter, A. S.; Gilbank, D. G.; Gladders, M. D.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Hattori, T.; Hsiao, E.; Huang, X.; Ihara, Y.; Kashikawa, N.; Koester, B.; Konishi, K.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Lubin, L.; Meyers, J.; Morokuma, T.; Oda, T.; Panagia, N.; Perlmutter, S.; Postman, M.; Ripoche, P.; Rosati, P.; Rubin, D.; Schlegel, D. J.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stanford, S. A.; Strovink, M.; Suzuki, N.; Takanashi, N.; Tokita, K.; Yasuda, N.; Supernova Cosmology Project


    We report a measurement of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate in galaxy clusters at 0.9 z z > 0.9 SNe. Finding 8 ± 1 cluster SNe Ia, we determine an SN Ia rate of 0.50+0.23 -0.19 (stat) +0.10 -0.09 (sys) h 2 70 SNuB (SNuB ≡ 10-12 SNe L -1 ⊙, B yr-1). In units of stellar mass, this translates to 0.36+0.16 -0.13 (stat) +0.07 -0.06 (sys) h 2 70 SNuM (SNuM ≡ 10-12 SNe M -1 ⊙ yr-1). This represents a factor of ≈5 ± 2 increase over measurements of the cluster rate at z influence of younger stellar populations by calculating the rate specifically in cluster red-sequence galaxies and in morphologically early-type galaxies, finding results similar to the full cluster rate. Finally, the upper limit of one hostless cluster SN Ia detected in the survey implies that the fraction of stars in the intra-cluster medium is less than 0.47 (95% confidence), consistent with measurements at lower redshifts. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Institute. STScI is operated by the association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under the NASA contract NAS 5-26555. The observations are associated with program GO-10496.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Faro, B.; Franceschini, A.; Vaccari, M.; Rodighiero, G.; Feltre, A.; Marchetti, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio, 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Silva, L. [INAF-OATs, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B. [MPE, Postfach 1312, D-85741, Garching (Germany); Bock, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burgarella, D.; Buat, V. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-Marseille, CNRS, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cava, A. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Farrah, D.; Hurley, P. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Solares, E. A. Gonzalez [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Magdis, G., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); and others


    We combine far-infrared photometry from Herschel (PEP/HerMES) with deep mid-infrared spectroscopy from Spitzer to investigate the nature and the mass assembly history of a sample of 31 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) at z {approx} 1 and 2 selected in GOODS-S with 24 {mu}m fluxes between 0.2 and 0.5 mJy. We model the data with a self-consistent physical model (GRASIL) which includes a state-of-the-art treatment of dust extinction and reprocessing. We find that all of our galaxies appear to require massive populations of old (>1 Gyr) stars and, at the same time, to host a moderate ongoing activity of star formation (SFR {<=} 100 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). The bulk of the stars appear to have been formed a few Gyr before the observation in essentially all cases. Only five galaxies of the sample require a recent starburst superimposed on a quiescent star formation history. We also find discrepancies between our results and those based on optical-only spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting for the same objects; by fitting their observed SEDs with our physical model we find higher extinctions (by {Delta}A {sub V} {approx} 0.81 and 1.14) and higher stellar masses (by {Delta}log(M {sub *}) {approx} 0.16 and 0.36 dex) for z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 2 (U)LIRGs, respectively. The stellar mass difference is larger for the most dust-obscured objects. We also find lower SFRs than those computed from L {sub IR} using the Kennicutt relation due to the significant contribution to the dust heating by intermediate-age stellar populations through 'cirrus' emission ({approx}73% and {approx}66% of the total L {sub IR} for z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 2 (U)LIRGs, respectively).

  18. Constraints on cold dark matter theories from observations of massive x-ray-luminous clusters of galaxies at high redshift (United States)

    Luppino, G. A.; Gioia, I. M.


    During the course of a gravitational lensing survey of distant, X-ray selected Einstein Observatory Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) clusters of galaxies, we have studied six X-ray-luminous (L(sub x) greater than 5 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) clusters at redshifts exceeding z = 0.5. All of these clusters are apparently massive. In addition to their high X-ray luminosity, two of the clusters at z approximately 0.6 exhibit gravitationally lensed arcs. Furthermore, the highest redshift cluster in our sample, MS 1054-0321 at z = 0.826, is both extremely X-ray luminous (L(sub 0.3-3.5keV)=9.3 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) and exceedingly rich with an optical richness comparable to an Abell Richness Class 4 cluster. In this Letter, we discuss the cosmological implications of the very existence of these clusters for hierarchical structure formation theories such as standard Omega = 1 CDM (cold dark matter), hybrid Omega = 1 C + HDM (hot dark matter), and flat, low-density Lambda + CDM models.

  19. Cluster Mass Calibration at High Redshift: HST Weak Lensing Analysis of 13 Distant Galaxy Clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrabback, T.; et al.


    We present an HST/ACS weak gravitational lensing analysis of 13 massive high-redshift (z_median=0.88) galaxy clusters discovered in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey. This study is part of a larger campaign that aims to robustly calibrate mass-observable scaling relations over a wide range in redshift to enable improved cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster sample. We introduce new strategies to ensure that systematics in the lensing analysis do not degrade constraints on cluster scaling relations significantly. First, we efficiently remove cluster members from the source sample by selecting very blue galaxies in V-I colour. Our estimate of the source redshift distribution is based on CANDELS data, where we carefully mimic the source selection criteria of the cluster fields. We apply a statistical correction for systematic photometric redshift errors as derived from Hubble Ultra Deep Field data and verified through spatial cross-correlations. We account for the impact of lensing magnification on the source redshift distribution, finding that this is particularly relevant for shallower surveys. Finally, we account for biases in the mass modelling caused by miscentring and uncertainties in the mass-concentration relation using simulations. In combination with temperature estimates from Chandra we constrain the normalisation of the mass-temperature scaling relation ln(E(z) M_500c/10^14 M_sun)=A+1.5 ln(kT/7.2keV) to A=1.81^{+0.24}_{-0.14}(stat.) +/- 0.09(sys.), consistent with self-similar redshift evolution when compared to lower redshift samples. Additionally, the lensing data constrain the average concentration of the clusters to c_200c=5.6^{+3.7}_{-1.8}.

  20. Accurate Emission Line Diagnostics at High Redshift (United States)

    Jones, Tucker


    How do the physical conditions of high redshift galaxies differ from those seen locally? Spectroscopic surveys have invested hundreds of nights of 8- and 10-meter telescope time as well as hundreds of Hubble orbits to study evolution in the galaxy population at redshifts z 0.5-4 using rest-frame optical strong emission line diagnostics. These surveys reveal evolution in the gas excitation with redshift but the physical cause is not yet understood. Consequently there are large systematic errors in derived quantities such as metallicity.We have used direct measurements of gas density, temperature, and metallicity in a unique sample at z=0.8 to determine reliable diagnostics for high redshift galaxies. Our measurements suggest that offsets in emission line ratios at high redshift are primarily caused by high N/O abundance ratios. However, our ground-based data cannot rule out other interpretations. Spatially resolved Hubble grism spectra are needed to distinguish between the remaining plausible causes such as active nuclei, shocks, diffuse ionized gas emission, and HII regions with escaping ionizing flux. Identifying the physical origin of evolving excitation will allow us to build the necessary foundation for accurate measurements of metallicity and other properties of high redshift galaxies. Only then can we expoit the wealth of data from current surveys and near-future JWST spectroscopy to understand how galaxies evolve over time.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atek, H.; Colbert, J.; Shim, H. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Siana, B.; Bridge, C. [Department of Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Scarlata, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McCarthy, P.; Dressler, A.; Hathi, N. P. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Teplitz, H. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Henry, A.; Martin, C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bunker, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Fosbury, R. A. E. [Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)


    The WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey uses the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared grism capabilities to obtain slitless spectra of thousands of galaxies over a wide redshift range including the peak of star formation history of the universe. We select a population of very strong emission-line galaxies with rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) higher than 200 A. A total of 176 objects are found over the redshift range 0.35 < z < 2.3 in the 180 arcmin{sup 2} area that we have analyzed so far. This population consists of young and low-mass starbursts with high specific star formation rates (sSFR). After spectroscopic follow-up of one of these galaxies with Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, we report the detection at z = 0.7 of an extremely metal-poor galaxy with 12 + log(O/H) =7.47 {+-} 0.11. After estimating the active galactic nucleus fraction in the sample, we show that the high-EW galaxies have higher sSFR than normal star-forming galaxies at any redshift. We find that the nebular emission lines can substantially affect the total broadband flux density with a median brightening of 0.3 mag, with some examples of line contamination producing brightening of up to 1 mag. We show that the presence of strong emission lines in low-z galaxies can mimic the color-selection criteria used in the z {approx} 8 dropout surveys. In order to effectively remove low-redshift interlopers, deep optical imaging is needed, at least 1 mag deeper than the bands in which the objects are detected. Without deep optical data, most of the interlopers cannot be ruled out in the wide shallow HST imaging surveys. Finally, we empirically demonstrate that strong nebular lines can lead to an overestimation of the mass and the age of galaxies derived from fitting of their spectral energy distribution (SED). Without removing emission lines, the age and the stellar mass estimates are overestimated by a factor of 2 on average and up to a factor of 10 for the high-EW galaxies

  2. The Galaxy-Halo Connection in High-redshift Universe: Details and Evolution of Stellar-to-halo Mass Ratios of Lyman Break Galaxies on CFHTLS Deep Fields (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shogo; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Toshikawa, Jun; Tanaka, Masayuki; Hamana, Takashi; Niino, Yuu; Ichikawa, Kohei; Uchiyama, Hisakazu


    We present the results of clustering analyses of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z˜ 3, 4, and 5 using the final data release of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). Deep- and wide-field images of the CFHTLS Deep Survey enable us to obtain sufficiently accurate two-point angular correlation functions to apply a halo occupation distribution analysis. The mean halo masses, calculated as ={10}11.7{--}{10}12.8 {h}-1 {M}⊙ , increase with the stellar-mass limit of LBGs. The threshold halo mass to have a central galaxy, {M}\\min , follows the same increasing trend as the low-z results, whereas the threshold halo mass to have a satellite galaxy, M 1, shows higher values at z=3{--}5 than z=0.5{--}1.5, over the entire stellar mass range. Satellite fractions of dropout galaxies, even at less massive halos, are found to drop sharply, from z = 2 down to less than 0.04, at z=3{--}5. These results suggest that satellite galaxies form inefficiently within dark halos at z=3{--}5, even for less massive satellites with {M}\\star pivot}, which is the halo mass at a peak in the star-formation efficiency, at 3 3. In addition, {M}{{h}}{pivot} and its normalization are found to be almost unchanged during 0< z< 5. Our study provides observational evidence that galaxy formation is ubiquitously most efficient near a halo mass of {M}{{h}}˜ {10}12 {M}⊙ over cosmic time.

  3. High Redshift GRBs (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.


    The Swift mission has opened a new, high redshift window on the universe. In this review we provide an overview of gamma-ray burst (GRB) science, describe the Swift mission, discuss high-z GRBs and tools for high-z studies, and look forward at future capabilities. A new mission concept - Lobster - is described that would monitor the X-ray sky at order of magnitude higher sensitivity than current missions.

  4. The high redshift universe and cosmology (United States)

    Hook, Isobel


    The ELTs, assisted by adaptive optics, will revolutionise observations of the high redshift universe. Using examples taken primarily from the science case of the E-ELT, this talk will cover prospects and requirements for studying distant galaxies and point sources at cosmological distances including gamma ray bursts, quasars and supernovae. The impact these observations will have on cosmology and our understanding of the early universe will be discussed.

  5. High-redshift cosmography (United States)

    Vitagliano, Vincenzo; Xia, Jun-Qing; Liberati, Stefano; Viel, Matteo


    We constrain the parameters describing the kinematical state of the universe using a cosmographic approach, which is fundamental in that it requires a very minimal set of assumptions (namely to specify a metric) and does not rely on the dynamical equations for gravity. On the data side, we consider the most recent compilations of Supernovae and Gamma Ray Bursts catalogues. This allows to further extend the cosmographic fit up to z = 6.6, i.e. up to redshift for which one could start to resolve the low z degeneracy among competing cosmological models. In order to reliably control the cosmographic approach at high redshifts, we adopt the expansion in the improved parameter y = z/(1+z). This series has the great advantage to hold also for z > 1 and hence it is the appropriate tool for handling data including non-nearby distance indicators. We find that Gamma Ray Bursts, probing higher redshifts than Supernovae, have constraining power and do require (and statistically allow) a cosmographic expansion at higher order than Supernovae alone. Exploiting the set of data from Union and GRBs catalogues, we show (for the first time in a purely cosmographic approach parametrized by deceleration q0, jerk j0, snap s0) a definitively negative deceleration parameter q0 up to the 3σ confidence level. We present also forecasts for realistic data sets that are likely to be obtained in the next few years.

  6. High-redshift cosmography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitagliano, Vincenzo; Xia, Jun-Qing; Liberati, Stefano [SISSA, Via Beirut 2-4, 34151 Trieste (Italy); Viel, Matteo, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [INFN sez. Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)


    We constrain the parameters describing the kinematical state of the universe using a cosmographic approach, which is fundamental in that it requires a very minimal set of assumptions (namely to specify a metric) and does not rely on the dynamical equations for gravity. On the data side, we consider the most recent compilations of Supernovae and Gamma Ray Bursts catalogues. This allows to further extend the cosmographic fit up to z = 6.6, i.e. up to redshift for which one could start to resolve the low z degeneracy among competing cosmological models. In order to reliably control the cosmographic approach at high redshifts, we adopt the expansion in the improved parameter y = z/(1+z). This series has the great advantage to hold also for z > 1 and hence it is the appropriate tool for handling data including non-nearby distance indicators. We find that Gamma Ray Bursts, probing higher redshifts than Supernovae, have constraining power and do require (and statistically allow) a cosmographic expansion at higher order than Supernovae alone. Exploiting the set of data from Union and GRBs catalogues, we show (for the first time in a purely cosmographic approach parametrized by deceleration q{sub 0}, jerk j{sub 0}, snap s{sub 0}) a definitively negative deceleration parameter q{sub 0} up to the 3σ confidence level. We present also forecasts for realistic data sets that are likely to be obtained in the next few years.

  7. A robust morphological classification of high-redshift galaxies using support vector machines on seeing limited images. II. Quantifying morphological k-correction in the COSMOS field at 1 < z < 2: Ks band vs. I band (United States)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Tasca, L.; Rouan, D.; Pelat, D.; Kneib, J. P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Capak, P.; Kartaltepe, J.; Koekemoer, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Willott, C.


    Context: Morphology is the most accessible tracer of galaxies physical structure, but its interpretation in the framework of galaxy evolution still remains problematic. Its quantification at high redshift requires deep high-angular resolution imaging, which is why space data (HST) are usually employed. At z > 1, the HST visible cameras however probe the UV flux, which is dominated by the emission of young stars, which could bias the estimated morphologies towards late-type systems. Aims: In this paper we quantify the effects of this morphological k-correction at 1 Methods: In Paper I we presented a new non-parametric method of quantifying morphologies of galaxies on seeing-limited images based on support vector machines. Here we use this method to classify ~50 000 Ks selected galaxies in the COSMOS area observed with WIRCam at CFHT. We use a 10-dimensional volume, including 5 morphological parameters, and other characteristics of galaxies such as luminosity and redshift. The obtained classification is used to investigate the redshift distributions and number counts per morphological type up to z ~ 2 and to compare them to the results obtained with HST/ACS in the I-band on the same objects. We associate to every galaxy with Ks find less early-type galaxies than the Ks-band one by a factor ~1.5, which might be a consequence of morphological k-correction effects. Conclusions: We argue therefore that studies based on I-band HST/ACS classifications at z > 1 could be underestimating the elliptical population. Using our method in a Ks ≤ 21.5 magnitude-limited sample, we observe that the fraction of the early-type population is (21.9% ± 8%) at z ~ 1.5-2 and (32.0% ± 5%) at the present time. We will discuss the evolution of the fraction of galaxies in types from volume-limited samples in a forthcoming paper. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des

  8. Fast-Growing SMBHs in Fast-Growing Galaxies, at High Redshifts: The Role of Major Mergers As Revealed by ALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Trakhtenbrot


    Full Text Available We present a long-term, multi-wavelength project to understand the epoch of fastest growth of the most massive black holes by using a sample of 40 luminous quasars at z ≃ 4.8. These quasars have rather uniform properties, with typical accretion rates and black hole masses of L/LEdd ≃ 0.7 and MBH ≃ 109M⊙. The sample consists of “FIR-bright” sources with a previous Herschel/SPIRE detection, suggesting SFR > 1,000 M⊙ yr−1, as well as of “FIR-faint” sources for which Herschel stacking analysis implies a typical SFR of ~400 M⊙ yr−1. Six of the quasars have been observed by ALMA in [C ii] λ157.74μm line emission and adjacent rest-frame 150μm continuum, to study the dusty cold ISM. ALMA detected companion, spectroscopically confirmed sub-mm galaxies (SMGs for three sources—one FIR-bright and two FIR-faint. The companions are separated by ~14–45 kpc from the quasar hosts, and we interpret them as major galaxy interactions. Our ALMA data therefore clearly support the idea that major mergers may be important drivers for rapid, early SMBH growth. However, the fact that not all high-SFR quasar hosts are accompanied by interacting SMGs, and their ordered gas kinematics observed by ALMA, suggest that other processes may be fueling these systems. Our analysis thus demonstrates the diversity of host galaxy properties and gas accretion mechanisms associated with early and rapid SMBH growth.

  9. Gas inflow and outflow in an interacting high-redshift galaxy. The remarkable host environment of GRB 080810 at z = 3.35 (United States)

    Wiseman, P.; Perley, D. A.; Schady, P.; Prochaska, J. X.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Krühler, T.; Yates, R. M.; Greiner, J.


    We reveal multiple components of an interacting galaxy system at z ≈ 3.35 through a detailed analysis of the exquisite high-resolution Keck/HIRES spectrum of the afterglow of a gamma-ray burst (GRB). Through Voigt-profile fitting of absorption lines from the Lyman series, we constrain the neutral hydrogen column density to NH I ≤ 1018.35 cm-2 for the densest of four distinct systems at the host redshift of GRB 080810, which is among the lowest NH I ever observed in a GRB host, even though the line of sight passes within a projected 5 kpc of the galaxy centres. By detailed analysis of the corresponding metal absorption lines, we derive chemical, ionic, and kinematic properties of the individual absorbing systems, and thus build a picture of the host as a whole. Striking differences between the systems imply that the line of sight passes through several phases of gas: the star-forming regions of the GRB host; enriched material in the form of a galactic outflow; the hot and ionised halo of a second interacting galaxy falling towards the host at a line-of-sight velocity of 700 km s-1; and a cool metal-poor cloud that may represent one of the best candidates yet for the inflow of metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. The reduced spectrum is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, B.; Chiaberge, M.; Kotyla, J. P.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tremblay, G. R. [Yale University, Department of Astronomy, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Stanghellini, C. [INAF—Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via P. Gobetti, 101 I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Baum, S.; O’Dea, C. P. [University of Manitoba, Dept of Physics and Astronomy, 66 Chancellors Circle, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Capetti, A. [Osservatorio Astronomico de Torino, Corso Savona, I-10024 Moncalieri TO (Italy); Miley, G. K. [Universiteit Leiden, Rapenburg 70, 2311 EZ Leiden (Netherlands); Perlman, E. S. [Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Quillen, A. [Rochester Institute of Technology, School of Physics and Astronomy, 84 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)


    We present new rest-frame UV and visible observations of 22 high- z (1 < z < 2.5) 3C radio galaxies and QSOs obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope ’s Wide Field Camera 3 instrument. Using a custom data reduction strategy in order to assure the removal of cosmic rays, persistence signal, and other data artifacts, we have produced high-quality science-ready images of the targets and their local environments. We observe targets with regions of UV emission suggestive of active star formation. In addition, several targets exhibit highly distorted host galaxy morphologies in the rest frame visible images. Photometric analyses reveal that brighter QSOs generally tend to be redder than their dimmer counterparts. Using emission line fluxes from the literature, we estimate that emission line contamination is relatively small in the rest frame UV images for the QSOs. Using archival VLA data, we have also created radio map overlays for each of our targets, allowing for analysis of the optical and radio axes alignment.

  11. Velocity-metallicity correlation for high-z DLA galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledoux, C.; Petitjean, P.; Fynbo, J.P.U.


    Galaxies: halos, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM, quasars: absorption lines, cosmology: observations Udgivelsesdato: Oct.......Galaxies: halos, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM, quasars: absorption lines, cosmology: observations Udgivelsesdato: Oct....

  12. Detection of Lyman/alpha emission from a DLA galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Fynbo, Johan Peter Uldall; Fall, S.M



  13. A High Redshift Survey of Lyman Limit Systems (United States)

    Beltz, Hayley; Jorgenson, Regina A.; Rafelski, Marc


    Lyman Limit Systems (LLSs), a class of quasar absorption line system detected towards background quasars, are ubiquitous in quasar spectra and provide a crucial tool for understanding high redshift galaxy formation and evolution. At moderate neutral hydrogen (HI) column densities, 1017.5complement to these previous studies, we present a survey of LLSs in a sample of twenty-six, high redshift (z>5) quasars with VLT/X-Shooter spectra. These high redshift systems unlock information about the universe during its first few gigayears. We calculate the number of systems per unit redshift, l(X), at z >4.4, extending the redshift evolution of LLSs presented in Fumagalli et al. (2015). For those systems with associated metal line absorption, we provide an estimate of the LLSs metallicity. This project was supported in part by the NSF REU grant AST-1358980 and by the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

  14. Photometry of High-Redshift Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae (United States)

    Haynie, Annastasia


    Out of more than 1100 well-identified Type Ia Supernovae, only roughly 10 of them are at z> 1.5. High redshift supernovae are hard to detect but this is made easier by taking advantage of the effects of gravitational lensing, which magnifies objects in the background field of massive galaxy clusters. Supernova Nebra (z= ~1.8), among others, was discovered during observations taken as part of the RELICS survey, which focused on fields of view that experience strong gravitational lensing effects. SN Nebra, which sits behind galaxy cluster Abell 1763, is magnified and therefore appears closer and easier to see than with HST alone. Studying high-redshift supernovae like SN Nebra is an important step towards creating cosmological models that accurately describe the behavior of dark energy in the early Universe. Recent efforts have been focused on improving photometry and the building and fitting of preliminary light curves.

  15. Planck intermediate results XXVII. High-redshift infrared galaxy overdensity candidates and lensed sources discovered by Planck and confirmed by Herschel-SPIRE⋆

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Altieri, B.; Arnaud, M.


    We have used the Planck all-sky submillimetre and millimetre maps to search for rare sources distinguished by extreme brightness, a few hundred millijanskies, and their potential for being situated at high redshift. These "cold" Planck sources, selected using the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) d...

  16. Revealing the ISM in high redshift starburst galaxies: An analysis of Herschel PACS and SPIRE FTS spectroscopic observations of HerMES and H-ATLAS-selected lensed galaxies (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha

    In the quest to develop a fundamental understanding of galaxy formation and evolution, observations of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) promise significant progress this decade. The importance of DSFGs is highlighted by the fact that half of the energy emitted by extragalactic sources emerges as dust-reprocessed light at infrared (IR) to sub millimeter wavelength. In the post-herschel\\ era, we are now at a unique position to tackle some of the key questions on galaxy formation and evolution because of the large area Herschel's Key Project surveys (HerMES and H-ATLAS). In particular those surveys have allowed us to identify a sample of 250 strongly gravitationally lensed DSFGs at z > 1. They give us a unique opportunity to dissect the detailed structures and kinematics of DSFGs. The Herschel Science Archive also contains individual follow up data on 44 and 25 of the brightest sources with SPIRE-FTS and PACS, respectively, in the spectroscopy mode, taking over 250 hours in four open-time programs. Only one of the 44 SPIRE FTS targets has yet to appear in the published literature. One of the four include an open-time 2 PACS spectroscopy program that was led at UCI by a former postdoc from the PI's group. That program was initially approved at Priority 2 in 2011, but was triggered in late 2012 and achieved 100% completion during the last two weeks of Herschel lifetime in May 2013. This archival analysis, interpretation, and modeling program involves two parts: (i) PACS spectroscopy in 50 to 200 microns of 25 lensed galaxies in the fine-structure emission lines [SiII]34, [SIII]33, [OIV]26, [OIII]52, [NIII]57 and [OI]63, and the molecular hydrogen H_2 S(0) and S(1). (ii) SPIRE FTS spectroscopy of 44 lensed galaxies, including above 25, over the wavelength range of 200 to 600 microns targeting [CII]158, [OIII]88, [OI]63/145, and [NI]122. The analysis will lead to a better understanding of the ISM of starbursting galaxies that span 1 z generation astrophysicists in the

  17. Close companions to two high-redshift quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Bian, Fuyan [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Strauss, Michael A. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Haiman, Zoltàn [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Jiang, Linhua [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and the Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)


    We report the serendipitous discoveries of companion galaxies to two high-redshift quasars. SDSS J025617.7+001904 is a z = 4.79 quasar included in our recent survey of faint quasars in the SDSS Stripe 82 region. The initial MMT slit spectroscopy shows excess Lyα emission extending well beyond the quasar's light profile. Further imaging and spectroscopy with LBT/MODS1 confirms the presence of a bright galaxy (i {sub AB} = 23.6) located 2'' (12 kpc projected) from the quasar with strong Lyα emission (EW{sub 0} ≈ 100 Å) at the redshift of the quasar, as well as faint continuum. The second quasar, CFHQS J005006.6+344522 (z = 6.25), is included in our recent HST SNAP survey of z ∼ 6 quasars searching for evidence of gravitational lensing. Deep imaging with ACS and WFC3 confirms an optical dropout ∼4.5 mag fainter than the quasar (Y {sub AB} = 25) at a separation of 0.''9. The red i {sub 775} – Y {sub 105} color of the galaxy and its proximity to the quasar (5 kpc projected if at the quasar redshift) strongly favor an association with the quasar. Although it is much fainter than the quasar, it is remarkably bright when compared to field galaxies at this redshift, while showing no evidence for lensing. Both systems may represent late-stage mergers of two massive galaxies, with the observed light for one dominated by powerful ongoing star formation and for the other by rapid black hole growth. Observations of close companions are rare; if major mergers are primarily responsible for high-redshift quasar fueling then the phase when progenitor galaxies can be observed as bright companions is relatively short.

  18. Magnetically Regulated Gas Accretion in High-Redshift Galactic Disks (United States)

    Birnboim, Yuval


    Disk galaxies are in hydrostatic equilibrium along their vertical axis. The pressure allowing for this configuration consists of thermal, turbulent, magnetic, and cosmic-ray components. For the Milky Way the thermal pressure contributes ~10% of the total pressure near the plane, with this fraction dropping toward higher altitudes. Out of the rest, magnetic fields contribute ~1/3 of the pressure to distances of ~3 kpc above the disk plane. In this Letter, we attempt to extrapolate these local values to high-redshift, rapidly accreting, rapidly star-forming disk galaxies and study the effect of the extra pressure sources on the accretion of gas onto the galaxies. In particular, magnetic field tension may convert a smooth cold-flow accretion to clumpy, irregular star formation regions and rates. The infalling gas accumulates on the edge of the magnetic fields, supported by magnetic tension. When the mass of the infalling gas exceeds some threshold mass, its gravitational force cannot be balanced by magnetic tension anymore, and it falls toward the disk's plane, rapidly making stars. Simplified estimations of this threshold mass are consistent with clumpy star formation observed in SINS, UDF, GOODS, and GEMS surveys. We discuss the shortcomings of pure hydrodynamic codes in simulating the accretion of cold flows into galaxies, and emphasize the need for magnetohydrodynamic simulations.

  19. Science from the Avo 1ST Light: the High Redshift Universe (United States)

    Walton, Nicholas A.

    The Astrophysical Virtual Observatory science working group defined a number of key science drivers for which the AVO should develop capabilities. At the AVO's Jan 2003 'First Light' event the AVO prototype data access and manipulation tool was demonstrated. In particular its use in enabling discovery in deep multi wavelength data sets was highlighted. In this presentation I will describe how the AVO demonstrator has enabled investigation into the high redshift universe and in particular its use in discovering rare populations of high redshift galaxies from deep Hubble and ground based imaging data obtained through the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) programme.

  20. Radio-loud high-redshift protogalaxy canidates in Bootes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, S; van Breugel, W; Brown, M J; de Vries, W; Dey, A; Eisenhardt, P; Jannuzi, B; Rottgering, H; Stanford, S A; Stern, D; Willner, S P


    We used the Near Infrared Camera (NIRC) on Keck I to obtain K{sub s}-band images of four candidate high-redshift radio galaxies selected using optical and radio data in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey in Bootes. Our targets have 1.4 GHz radio flux densities greater than 1 mJy, but are undetected in the optical. Spectral energy distribution fitting suggests that three of these objects are at z > 3, with radio luminosities near the FR-I/FR-II break. The other has photometric redshift z{sub phot} = 1.2, but may in fact be at higher redshift. Two of the four objects exhibit diffuse morphologies in K{sub s}-band, suggesting that they are still in the process of forming.

  1. The High-Redshift Clusters Occupied by Bent Radio AGN (COBRA) Survey (United States)

    Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Blanton, Elizabeth L.; Wing, Joshua; Ashby, M. L. N.; Brodwin, Mark; Golden-Marx, Emmet

    The number of confirmed, high-redshift galaxy clusters is very low compared to the number of well-studied clusters nearby. Bent, double-lobed radio sources are frequently found in galaxy clusters, and thus can be used as tracers for efficiently locating high-redshift clusters. Using our Spitzer Snapshot Survey, we have identified approximately 300 potential new clusters with redshifts 0.7 COBRA) survey. We have created color-magnitude diagrams using infrared and optical data. Using the colors of the radio source host and the red sequence we can estimate redshifts for our clusters, as well as examine the evolution of the cluster galaxies over a large range of cosmic time.

  2. Lyman Break Analogs: Constraints on the Formation of Extreme Starbursts at Low and High Redshift (United States)

    Goncalves, Thiago S.; Overzier, Roderik; Basu-Zych, Antara; Martin, D. Christopher


    Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs), characterized by high far-UV luminosities and surface brightnesses as detected by GALEX, are intensely star-forming galaxies in the low-redshift universe (z approximately equal to 0.2), with star formation rates reaching up to 50 times that of the Milky Way. These objects present metallicities, morphologies and other physical properties similar to higher redshift Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs), motivating the detailed study of LBAs as local laboratories of this high-redshift galaxy population. We present results from our recent integral-field spectroscopy survey of LBAs with Keck/OSIRIS, which shows that these galaxies have the same nebular gas kinematic properties as high-redshift LBGs. We argue that such kinematic studies alone are not an appropriate diagnostic to rule out merger events as the trigger for the observed starburst. Comparison between the kinematic analysis and morphological indices from HST imaging illustrates the difficulties of properly identifying (minor or major) merger events, with no clear correlation between the results using either of the two methods. Artificial redshifting of our data indicates that this problem becomes even worse at high redshift due to surface brightness dimming and resolution loss. Whether mergers could generate the observed kinematic properties is strongly dependent on gas fractions in these galaxies. We present preliminary results of a CARMA survey for LBAs and discuss the implications of the inferred molecular gas masses for formation models.

  3. Observations of GRBs at high redshift. (United States)

    Tanvir, Nial R; Jakobsson, Páll


    The extreme luminosity of gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows means they are detectable, in principle, to very high redshifts. Although the redshift distribution of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is difficult to determine, due to incompleteness of present samples, we argue that for Swift-detected bursts, the median redshift is between 2.5 and 3, with a few per cent probably at z>6. Thus, GRBs are potentially powerful probes of the era of reionization and the sources responsible for it. Moreover, it seems probable that they can provide constraints on the star-formation history of the Universe and may also help in the determination of the cosmological parameters.

  4. Quasar Elemental Abundances at High Redshifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Hamann, F.; Shields, J. C.


    We examine rest-frame ultraviolet spectra of 70 high redshift quasars (z>3.5) to study the chemical enrichment history of the gas closely related to the quasars, and thereby estimate the epoch of first star formation. The fluxes of several ultraviolet emission lines were investigated within...... scale of t_evol = 0.5 - 0.8 Gyrs for the chemical enrichment of the gas, the first major star formation for quasars with z>=4 should have started at a redshift of z_f = 6 - 8, corresponding to an age of the universe of several 10^8 yrs (H_o = 65 km/s/Mpc, Omega_M = 0.3, Omega_Lambda = 0.7). We note...

  5. Dust Formation, Evolution, and Obscuration Effects in the Very High-Redshift Universe (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacs, Attila; Su, Ting; Benford, Dominic J.


    The evolution of dust at redshifts z > or approx. 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally-condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production comported to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This "silicate-UV break" may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxies' photometric redshift. In this paper we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high redshift universe. Subject headings: galaxies: high-redshift - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: individual (MACS1149- JD) - Interstellar medium (ISM), nebulae: dust, extinction - physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances.

  6. High Redshift Lyman-α Hunt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kochiashvili, Ia

    .85.I used the near-infrared data from NB1060, Y and J filters to perform colour-colourand colour-magnitude selections. With the broad-band data from CANDELS catalogue,I performed SED fitting and derived photometric redshifts and other physical propertiesfor the candidate emission-line galaxies....... Significant differences between the two selectionmethods have been found. The colour-colour selection method, tends to pick galaxieswith high colour excess and can leave some strong emission-line candidates with relativelylower colour excess out of the sample. The populations of selected galaxies can also...... bevery biased. The colour-magnitude selection method picks not only “normal” galaxies,but also starburst ones.I investigated the physical properties and colour indices for the selected galaxies,obtaining the following results. I) Stellar masses for narrow-band selected galaxies arefound...

  7. Identifying gamma-ray bursts at very high redshifts (United States)

    Tanvir, Nial


    Gamma-ray bursts are bright enough to be seen to very great distances and their afterglows can provide redshifts and positions for their host galaxies, and in some cases details of the ISM and the IGM close to the burst, irrespective of the host magnitude itself. Thus GRBs, despite their small numbers, offer a unique and powerful tracer of early star formation and the galaxy populations in the era of reionization. Our efforts to identify high-z GRBs have been rewarded with the discoveries of GRB 090423 and GRB 120923A at spectroscopic redshifts of 8.2 and 7.8 respectively. However, it remains the case that some good candidate high-z GRBs cannot be followed up quickly or deeply enough with ground-based IR spectroscopy, and indeed for others the Ly-alpha break may fall in regions of the IR spectrum difficult to access from the ground. GRB 090429B is an example, which had a photo-z of 9.4, but for which spectroscopy was curtailed due to bad weather. WFC3/IR on HST can obtain redshifts based on the location of the Ly-alpha break via slitless grism spectroscopy to considerably deeper limits (and hence later times) than is possible from the ground, thus offering a solution to this problem. This proposal aims to continue to build the sample of z>7 GRBs by obtaining spectroscopy for up to two candidates for which photometry suggests a very high redshift, but where the redshift could not be secured from the ground. This will provide an important legacy of host galaxy targets with known redshifts for future studies with JWST. The low rate of z>7 GRBs leads us to request a long-term ToO program, spanning cycles 25 and 26.

  8. The impact of star formation and gamma-ray burst rates at high redshift on cosmic chemical evolution and reionization (United States)

    Vangioni, Elisabeth; Olive, Keith A.; Prestegard, Tanner; Silk, Joseph; Petitjean, Patrick; Mandic, Vuk


    Recent observations in the total luminosity density have led to significant progress in establishing the star formation rate (SFR) at high redshift. Concurrently observed gamma-ray burst rates have also been used to extract the SFR at high redshift. The SFR in turn can be used to make a host of predictions concerning the ionization history of the Universe, the chemical abundances, and supernova rates. We compare the predictions made using a hierarchical model of cosmic chemical evolution based on three recently proposed SFRs: two based on extracting the SFR from the observed gamma-ray burst rate at high redshift, and one based on the observed galaxy luminosity function at high redshift. Using the WMAP/Planck data on the optical depth and epoch of reionization, we find that only the SFR inferred from gamma-ray burst data at high redshift suffices to allow a single mode (in the initial mass function - IMF) of star formation which extends from z = 0 to redshifts >10. For the case of the SFR based on the observed galaxy luminosity function, the reionization history of the Universe requires a bimodal IMF which includes at least a coeval high- (or intermediate-) mass mode of star formation at high redshift (z > 10). Therefore, we also consider here a more general bimodal case which includes an early-forming high-mass mode as a fourth model to test the chemical history of the Universe. We conclude that observational constraints on the global metallicity and optical depth at high redshift favour unseen faint but active star-forming galaxies as pointed out in many recent studies.

  9. Tracing a high redshift cosmic web with quasar systems (United States)

    Einasto, Maret; Tago, Erik; Lietzen, Heidi; Park, Changbom; Heinämäki, Pekka; Saar, Enn; Song, Hyunmi; Liivamägi, Lauri Juhan; Einasto, Jaan


    Context. To understand the formation, evolution, and present-day properties of the cosmic web we need to study it at low and high redshifts. Aims: We trace the cosmic web at redshifts that range from 1.0 ≤ z ≤ 1.8 by using the quasar (QSO) data from the SDSS DR7 QSO catalogue. Methods: We apply a friend-of-friend algorithm to the quasar and random catalogues to determine systems at a series of linking length and analyse richness and sizes of these systems. Results: At the linking lengths l ≤ 30 h-1 Mpc, the number of quasar systems is larger than the number of systems detected in random catalogues, and the systems themselves have smaller diameters than random systems. The diameters of quasar systems are comparable to the sizes of poor galaxy superclusters in the local Universe. The richest quasar systems have four members. The mean space density of quasar systems, ≈ 10-7 (h-1 Mpc)-3, is close to the mean space density of local rich superclusters. At intermediate linking lengths (40 ≤ l ≤ 70 h-1 Mpc), the richness and length of quasar systems are similar to those derived from random catalogues. Quasar system diameters are similar to the sizes of rich superclusters and supercluster chains in the local Universe. The percolating system, which penetrate the whole sample volume appears in a quasar sample at a smaller linking length than in random samples (85 h-1 Mpc). At the linking length 70 h-1 Mpc, the richest systems of quasars have diameters exceeding 500 h-1 Mpc. Quasar luminosities in systems are not correlated with the system richness. Conclusions: Quasar system catalogues in our web pages and at the Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center (CDS) serve as a database for searching superclusters of galaxies and for tracing the cosmic web at high redshifts. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe catalogues are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via http://cdsarc

  10. Highly Accreting Quasars at High Redshift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L. Martínez-Aldama


    Full Text Available We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic analysis for a sample of type 1 highly accreting quasars (L/LEdd ~ 1.0 at high redshift, z ~2–3. The quasars were observed with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC 10.4 m telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The highly accreting quasars were identified using the 4D Eigenvector 1 formalism, which is able to organize type 1 quasars over a broad range of redshift and luminosity. The kinematic and physical properties of the broad line region have been derived by fitting the profiles of strong UV emission lines such as Aliiiλ1860, Siiii]λ1892 and Ciii]λ1909. The majority of our sources show strong blueshifts in the high-ionization lines and high Eddington ratios which are related with the productions of outflows. The importance of highly accreting quasars goes beyond a detailed understanding of their physics: their extreme Eddington ratio makes them candidates standard candles for cosmological studies.

  11. Constraints from high redshift supernovae upon scalar field cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frieman, J.A. [NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois60510 (United States)]|[Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois60637 (United States); Waga, I. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21945-970 (Brazil)


    Recent observations of high-redshift type Ia supernovae have placed stringent constraints on the cosmological constant {Lambda}. We explore the implications of these SNe observations for cosmological models in which a classically evolving scalar field currently dominates the energy density of the Universe. Such models have been shown to share the advantages of {Lambda} models: compatibility with the spatial flatness predicted by inflation; a Universe older than the standard Einstein{endash}de Sitter model; and, combined with cold dark matter, predictions for large-scale structure formation in good agreement with data from galaxy surveys. Compared to the cosmological constant, these scalar field models are consistent with the SNe observations for a lower matter density, {Omega}{sub m0}{approximately}0.2, and a higher age, H{sub 0}t{sub 0}{approx_gt}1. Combined with the fact that scalar field models imprint a distinctive signature on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, they remain currently viable and should be testable in the near future. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. The High-redshift Clusters Occupied by Bent Radio AGN (COBRA) Survey: The Spitzer Catalog (United States)

    Paterno-Mahler, R.; Blanton, E. L.; Brodwin, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Golden-Marx, E.; Decker, B.; Wing, J. D.; Anand, G.


    We present 190 galaxy cluster candidates (most at high redshift) based on galaxy overdensity measurements in the Spitzer/IRAC imaging of the fields surrounding 646 bent, double-lobed radio sources drawn from the Clusters Occupied by Bent Radio AGN (COBRA) Survey. The COBRA sources were chosen as objects in the Very Large Array FIRST survey that lack optical counterparts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to a limit of m r = 22, making them likely to lie at high redshift. This is confirmed by our observations: the redshift distribution of COBRA sources with estimated redshifts peaks near z = 1 and extends out to z≈ 3. Cluster candidates were identified by comparing our target fields to a background field and searching for statistically significant (≥slant 2σ ) excesses in the galaxy number counts surrounding the radio sources; 190 fields satisfy the ≥slant 2σ limit. We find that 530 fields (82.0%) have a net positive excess of galaxies surrounding the radio source. Many of the fields with positive excesses but below the 2σ cutoff are likely to be galaxy groups. Forty-one COBRA sources are quasars with known spectroscopic redshifts, which may be tracers of some of the most distant clusters known.

  13. From Nearby Low Luminosity AGN to High Redshift Radio Galaxies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Sector-125, Noida, India. Astronomy & Astrophysics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009, India. Raman Research Institute, C. V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560 080, India. Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de ...

  14. High-Redshift Radio Galaxies from Deep Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    2. National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Post Bag No. 3, Ganeshkind, Pune 411 007, India. International Centre for Radio Astronomical Research, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

  15. Near-Infrared Follow-up of High Redshift X-ray Clusters (United States)

    Barkhouse, Wayne; Green, Paul; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Kim, Dong-Woo


    Clusters of galaxies provide an intimate view of galaxy evolution over a wide range in cosmic look-back time and environment. From a large Chandra/NOAO serendipitous survey, we have culled a high- confidence list of high redshift cluster candidates to facilitate the investigation of galaxy cluster evolution and provide strong constraints on cosmological parameters. We propose to use FLAMINGOS on the KPNO 4-m telescope to obtain deep near-IR imaging in the J- and K_s-band of 6 extended X-ray sources discovered serendipitously in Chandra images, but undetected in deep 4m/MOSAIC imaging. Our FLAMINGOS observations will measure cluster redshifts (out to z~ 1.5) using the location of the cluster red-sequence in the color-magnitude plane. Cluster attributes, such as the luminosity function, richness, color-magnitude relation, and correlations between near-IR and X-ray properties, will be measured and contrasted with our more local serendipitous sample. These observations promise to substantially increase the number of known high redshift galaxy clusters.

  16. Star-forming galactic contrails as a source of metal enrichment and ionizing radiation at high redshift (United States)

    Rauch, Michael; Becker, George D.; Haehnelt, Martin G.; Gauthier, Jean-Rene


    A spectroscopically detected Lyman α emitting halo at redshift 3.216 in the GOODS-N field is found to reside at the convergence of several line-emitting filaments. Spatially extended emission apparently by He II 1640 Å and several metal transitions is seen within several arcseconds from the position of the central galaxy. The V = 24.9 galaxy mainly responsible for the continuum emission at the centre of the halo has broad-band colours and spectral features consistent with a z = 3.216 star-forming galaxy. Hubble Space Telescope images show that some of the filaments coincide, in projection, with several, mostly blue galaxies, with pronounced head-tail structures partly aligned with each other. These objects, for which we cannot rule that they are foreground, chance projections in front of the high-redshift halo, are seen over an area with a linear extent of at least 12 arcsec. The broad-band images of some galaxies suggest the presence of ram-pressure stripping, including possible evidence for recent star formation in the stripped contrails. Spatial gradients in the appearance of several galaxies may represent a stream of galaxies passing from a colder to a hotter intergalactic medium. The release of the enriched interstellar medium from galaxies and the occurrence of star formation and stellar feedback in the galactic contrails suggest a mechanism for the metal enrichment of the high-redshift intergalactic medium that does not require long-range galactic winds. If these galaxies are at the same redshift as the Lyα halo, their very blue colours may be a consequence of the stripping of gas. A stripped stellar population and star formation in galactic contrails suggest promising sites for the escape of ionizing radiation from high-redshift galaxies.

  17. Demography of High-Redshift AGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Fiore


    Universe during its infancy. We review the latest searches for high-z AGN in the deepest X-ray field so far, the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS 4 Msecond exposure. We do not confirm the positive detection of a signal in the stacked Chandra images at the position of z~6 galaxies recently reported by Treister and collaborators (2011. We present z>3 X-ray sources number counts in the 0.5–2 keV band, obtained joining CDFS faint detections (see Fiore et al. (2011, with Chandra-COSMOS and XMM-COSMOS detections. We use these number counts to make predictions for surveys with three mission concepts: Athena, WFXT, and a Super-Chandra.

  18. Feeding cosmic star formation: exploring high-redshift molecular gas with CO intensity mapping (United States)

    Breysse, Patrick C.; Rahman, Mubdi


    The study of molecular gas is crucial for understanding star formation, feedback and the broader ecosystem of a galaxy as a whole. However, we have limited understanding of its physics and distribution in all but the nearest galaxies. We present a new technique for studying the composition and distribution of molecular gas in high-redshift galaxies inaccessible to existing methods. Our proposed approach is an extension of carbon monoxide intensity mapping methods, which have garnered significant experimental interest in recent years. These intensity mapping surveys target the 115 GHz 12CO (1-0) line, but also contain emission from the substantially fainter 110 GHz 13CO (1-0) transition. The method leverages the information contained in the 13CO line by cross-correlating pairs of frequency channels in an intensity mapping survey. Since 13CO is emitted from the same medium as the 12CO, but saturates at a much higher column density, this cross-correlation provides valuable information about both the gas density distribution and isotopologue ratio, inaccessible from the 12CO alone. Using a simple model of these molecular emission lines, we show that a future intensity mapping survey can constrain the abundance ratio of these two species and the fraction of emission from optically thick regions to order ˜30 per cent. These measurements cannot be made by traditional CO observations, and consequently the proposed method will provide unique insight into the physics of star formation, feedback and galactic ecology at high redshifts.

  19. Highlights And Shadows Of High Redshift Starbursts: A Herschel­Fmos Joint Effort (United States)

    Puglisi, Annagrazia


    Starburst galaxies represent a critical stage in galaxy evolution as they are the likely progenitors of passively evolving ellipticals. The properties of high-redshift starbursts are however still debated as it is not clear to which extent their vigorous star formation rate is caused by an enhanced gas fraction or an enhanced star formation efficiency, and what physical processes trigger such violent activity. Our study of the rest-frame optical spectra from the FMOS-COSMOS survey of twelve z 1.6 Herschel starbursts combined with a rich ancillary data-set from UV to ALMA, is shedding light on some of these questions. By measuring the nebular extinction from different indicators, we find that 90% of their extreme SFR arises from an heavily obscured component which is thick in the optical. We also measure their gas-phase metallicity, showing that starbursts are metal-rich outliers from the metallicity-SFR anticorrelation observed at fixed stellar mass for the main sequence population. Our findings are consistent with a major merger origin for the starburst event. I will present this study discussing its implications on our interpretation of the high-redshift starbursts physics. I will also briefly discuss possible extensions of this work with the future PFS survey and how we can take advantage of the IFU capabilities of JWST/NIRspec to unveil the complex structure of these elusive systems.

  20. Five New High-Redshift Quasar Lenses from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Shin, Min-Su; Kayo, Issha; Strauss, Michael A.; Morokuma, Tomoki; Schneider, Donald P.; Becker, Robert H.; Bahcall, Neta A.; York, Donald G.


    We report the discovery of five gravitationally lensed quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). All five systems are selected as two-image lensed quasar candidates from a sample of high-redshift (z > 2.2) SDSS quasars. We confirmed their lensing nature with additional imaging and spectroscopic observations. The new systems are SDSS J0819+5356 (source redshift z{sub s} = 2.237, lens redshift z{sub l} = 0.294, and image separation {theta} = 4.04 inch), SDSS J1254+2235 (z{sub s} = 3.626, {theta} = 1.56 inch), SDSS J1258+1657 (z{sub s} = 2.702, {theta} = 1.28 inch), SDSS J1339+1310 (z{sub s} = 2.243, {theta} = 1.69 cin), and SDSS J1400+3134 (z{sub s} = 3.317, {theta} = 1.74 inch). We estimate the lens redshifts of the latter four systems to be z{sub l} = 0.4-0.6 from the colors and magnitudes of the lensing galaxies. We find that the image configurations of all systems are well reproduced by standard mass models. Although these lenses will not be included in our statistical sample of z{sub s} < 2.2 lenses, they expand the number of lensed quasars which can be used for high-redshift galaxy and quasar studies.

  1. The Impact of Foregrounds on Redshift Space Distortion Measurements With the Highly-Redshifted 21 cm Line


    Pober, Jonathan C.


    The highly redshifted 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen has become recognized as a unique probe of cosmology from relatively low redshifts (z ~ 1) up through the Epoch of Reionization (z ~ 8) and even beyond. To date, most work has focused on recovering the spherically averaged power spectrum of the 21 cm signal, since this approach maximizes the signal-to-noise in the initial measurement. However, like galaxy surveys, the 21 cm signal is affected by redshift space distortions, and is inherently...

  2. The Cycle of Dust in the Milky Ways: Clues from the High-Redshift and the Local Universe (United States)

    Dwek, Eli


    Massive amount of dust has been observed at high-redshifts when the universe was a mere 900 Myr old. The formation and evolution of dust is there dominated by massive stars and interstellar processes. In contrast, in the local universe lower mass stars, predominantly 2-5 Msun AGB stars, play the dominant role in the production of interstellar dust. These two extreme environments offer fascinating clues about the evolution of dust in the Milky Way galaxy

  3. Exploring the Chemical Link Between Local Ellipticals and Their High-Redshift Progenitors (United States)

    Leja, Joel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabriel; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Andrews, Brett H.; Franx, Marijn; Kriek, Mariska; Van Der Wel, Arjen; hide


    We present Keck/MOSFIRE K-band spectroscopy of the first mass-selected sample of galaxies at z approximately 2.3. Targets are selected from the 3D-Hubble Space Telescope Treasury survey. The six detected galaxies have a mean [N II]lambda6584/H-alpha ratio of 0.27 +/- 0.01, with a small standard deviation of 0.05. This mean value is similar to that of UV-selected galaxies of the same mass. The mean gas-phase oxygen abundance inferred from the [N II]/Halpha ratios depends on the calibration method, and ranges from 12+log(O/H)(sub gas) = 8.57 for the Pettini & Pagel calibration to 12+log(O/H)(sub gas) = 8.87 for the Maiolino et al. calibration. Measurements of the stellar oxygen abundance in nearby quiescent galaxies with the same number density indicate 12+log(O/H)(sub stars) = 8.95, similar to the gas-phase abundances of the z approximately 2.3 galaxies if the Maiolino et al. calibration is used. This suggests that these high-redshift star forming galaxies may be progenitors of today's massive early-type galaxies. The main uncertainties are the absolute calibration of the gas-phase oxygen abundance and the incompleteness of the z approximately 2.3 sample: the galaxies with detected Ha tend to be larger and have higher star formation rates than the galaxies without detected H-alpha, and we may still be missing the most dust-obscured progenitors.

  4. Investigating the Local and High Redshift Universe With Deep Survey Data and Ground-Based Spectroscopy (United States)

    Masters, Daniel Charles

    Large multiwavelength surveys are now driving the frontiers of astronomical research. I describe results from my work using data from two large astronomical surveys: the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), which has obtained deep photometric and spectroscopic data on two square degrees of the sky using many of the most powerful telescopes in the world, and the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) Survey, which uses the highly sensitive slitless spectroscopic capability of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 to detect star-forming galaxies over most of the universe's history. First I describe my work on the evolution of the high-redshift quasar luminosity function, an important observational quantity constraining the growth of the supermassive black holes in the early universe. I show that the number density of faint quasars declines rapidly above z ˜ 3. This result is discussed in the context of cosmic reionization and the coevolution of galaxies and their central black holes. Next I present results of a multi-year campaign of near-infrared spectroscopy with FIRE, a world-class near-infrared spectrometer on the Magellan Baade 6.5 meter telescope in Chile, targeting emission-line galaxies at z ˜ 2 discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope. Our results showed that the typical emission-line galaxy at this redshift has low-metallicity, low dust obscuration, high ionization parameter, and little evidence for significant active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the emission lines. We also find evidence that high redshift star-forming galaxies have enhanced nitrogen abundances. This result has interesting implications for the nature of the star formation in such galaxies -- in particular, it could mean that a large fraction of such galaxies harbor substantial populations of Wolf-Rayet stars, which are massive, evolved stars ejecting large amounts of enriched matter into the interstellar medium. Finally, I will discuss the discovery of three

  5. Probing the bias of radio sources at high redshift

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Passmoor, S


    Full Text Available The relationship between the clustering of dark matter and that of luminous matter is often described using the bias parameter. Here, we provide a new method to probe the bias of intermediate-to-high-redshift radio continuum sources for which...

  6. Overdensities of SMGs around WISE-selected, ultraluminous, high-redshift AGNs (United States)

    Jones, Suzy F.; Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Lonsdale, Carol; Condon, James; Farrah, Duncan; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Bridge, Carrie; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.; Jarrett, Tom


    We investigate extremely luminous dusty galaxies in the environments around Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) and WISE/radio-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at average redshifts of z = 2.7 and 1.7, respectively. Previous observations have detected overdensities of companion submillimetre-selected sources around 10 Hot DOGs and 30 WISE/radio AGNs, with overdensities of ˜2-3 and ˜5-6, respectively. We find that the space densities in both samples to be overdense compared to normal star-forming galaxies and submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) Cosmology Legacy Survey (S2CLS). Both samples of companion sources have consistent mid-infrared (mid-IR) colours and mid-IR to submm ratios as SMGs. The brighter population around WISE/radio AGNs could be responsible for the higher overdensity reported. We also find that the star formation rate densities are higher than the field, but consistent with clusters of dusty galaxies. WISE-selected AGNs appear to be good signposts for protoclusters at high redshift on arcmin scales. The results reported here provide an upper limit to the strength of angular clustering using the two-point correlation function. Monte Carlo simulations show no angular correlation, which could indicate protoclusters on scales larger than the SCUBA-2 1.5-arcmin scale maps.

  7. The Origin and Evolution of Interstellar Dust in the Local and High-redshift Universe (United States)

    Dwek, Eliahu


    In this talk I will begin by reviewing our current state of knowledge regarding the origin and evolution of dust in the local solar neighborhood. using chemical evolution models, I will discuss their many different input parameters and their uncertainties. An important consequence of these models is the delayed injection of dust from AGB stars, compared to supernova-condensed dust, into the interstellar medium. I will show that these stellar evolutionary effects on dust composition are manifested in the infrared spectra of local galaxies. The delayed production of dust in AGB stars has also important consequences for the origin of the large amount of dust detected in high-redshift galaxies, when the universe was less that approx. 1 Gyr old. Supernovae may have been the only viable dust sources in those galaxies. Recent observations of sN1987a show a significant mass of dust in the ejecta of this SN. Is that production rate high enough to account for the observed dust mass in these galaxies? If not, what are the alternative viable sources of dust, and how do they depend on the nature of the galaxy (starburst or AGN) and its star formation history .

  8. A unified model for the maximum mass scales of molecular clouds, stellar clusters and high-redshift clumps (United States)

    Reina-Campos, Marta; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik


    We present a simple, self-consistent model to predict the maximum masses of giant molecular clouds (GMCs), stellar clusters and high-redshift clumps as a function of the galactic environment. Recent works have proposed that these maximum masses are set by shearing motions and centrifugal forces, but we show that this idea is inconsistent with the low masses observed across an important range of local-Universe environments, such as low-surface density galaxies and galaxy outskirts. Instead, we propose that feedback from young stars can disrupt clouds before the global collapse of the shear-limited area is completed. We develop a shear-feedback hybrid model that depends on three observable quantities: the gas surface density, the epicylic frequency and the Toomre parameter. The model is tested in four galactic environments: the Milky Way, the Local Group galaxy M31, the spiral galaxy M83 and the high-redshift galaxy zC406690. We demonstrate that our model simultaneously reproduces the observed maximum masses of GMCs, clumps and clusters in each of these environments. We find that clouds and clusters in M31 and in the Milky Way are feedback-limited beyond radii of 8.4 and 4 kpc, respectively, whereas the masses in M83 and zC406690 are shear-limited at all radii. In zC406690, the maximum cluster masses decrease further due to their inspiral by dynamical friction. These results illustrate that the maximum masses change from being shear-limited to being feedback-limited as galaxies become less gas rich and evolve towards low shear. This explains why high-redshift clumps are more massive than GMCs in the local Universe.

  9. Discerning dark energy models with high redshift standard candles (United States)

    Andersen, P.; Hjorth, J.


    Following the success of type Ia supernovae in constraining cosmologies at lower redshift (z ≲ 2), effort has been spent determining if a similarly useful standardizable candle can be found at higher redshift. In this work, we determine the largest possible magnitude discrepancy between a constant dark energy ΛCDM cosmology and a cosmology in which the equation of state w(z) of dark energy is a function of redshift for high redshift standard candles (z ≳ 2). We discuss a number of popular parametrizations of w(z) with two free parameters, wzCDM cosmologies, including the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder and generalization thereof, nCPL, as well as the Jassal-Bagla-Padmanabhan parametrization. For each of these parametrizations, we calculate and find the extrema of Δμ, the difference between the distance modulus of a wzCDM cosmology and a fiducial ΛCDM cosmology as a function of redshift, given 68 per cent likelihood constraints on the parameters P = (Ωm, 0, w0, wa). The parameters are constrained using cosmic microwave background, baryon acoustic oscillations and type Ia supernovae data using CosmoMC. We find that none of the tested cosmologies can deviate more than 0.05 mag from the fiducial ΛCDM cosmology at high redshift, implying that high redshift standard candles will not aid in discerning between the wzCDM cosmology and the fiducial ΛCDM cosmology. Conversely, this implies that if high redshift standard candles are found to be in disagreement with ΛCDM at high redshift, then this is a problem not only for ΛCDM but for the entire family of wzCDM cosmologies.

  10. Planck intermediate results. XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.


    The Planck mission, thanks to its large frequency range and all-sky coverage, has a unique potential for systematically detecting the brightest, and rarest, submillimetre sources on the sky, including distant objects in the high-redshift Universe traced by their dust emission. A novel method, based on a component-separation procedure using a combination of Planck and IRAS data, has been validated and characterized on numerous simulations, and applied to select the most luminous cold submillimetre sources with spectral energy distributions peaking between 353 and 857 GHz at 5' resolution. A total of 2151 Planck high-z source candidates (the PHZ) have been detected in the cleanest 26% of the sky, with flux density at 545 GHz above 500 mJy. Embedded in the cosmic infrared background close to the confusion limit, these high-z candidates exhibit colder colours than their surroundings, consistent with redshifts z > 2, assuming a dust temperature of Txgal = 35 K and a spectral index of βxgal = 1.5. Exhibiting extremely high luminosities, larger than 1014L⊙, the PHZ objects may be made of multiple galaxies or clumps at high redshift, as suggested by a first statistical analysis based on a comparison with number count models. Furthermore, first follow-up observations obtained from optical to submillimetre wavelengths, which can be found in companion papers, have confirmed that this list consists of two distinct populations. A small fraction (around 3%) of the sources have been identified as strongly gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at redshift 2 to 4, while the vast majority of the PHZ sources appear as overdensities of dusty star-forming galaxies, having colours consistent with being at z > 2, and may be considered as proto-cluster candidates. The PHZ provides an original sample, which is complementary to the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich Catalogue (PSZ2); by extending the population of virialized massive galaxy clusters detected below z 1.5, the PHZ may contain

  11. Probing the Intergalactic Medium with high-redshift quasars (United States)

    Calverley, Alexander Peter


    Clues about the timing of reionization and the nature of the ionizing sources responsible are imprinted in the ionization and thermal state of the IGM. In this thesis, I use high-resolution quasar spectra in conjunction with state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations to probe the IGM at high redshift, focusing on the ionization and thermal state of the gas. After reionization, the ionization state of the IGM is set by the intensity of the ultraviolet background (UVB), quantified by the hydrogen photoionization rate, Γ_bkg. At high redshifts this has been estimated by measuring the mean flux in the Lyα forest, and scaling Γ_bkg in simulations such that the simulated mean flux matches the observed value. In Chapter 3 I investigate whether the precision of these estimates can be improved by using the entire flux probability distribution function (PDF) instead of only the mean flux. Although I find it cannot improve the precision directly, the flux PDF can potentially be used to constrain other sources of error in observational estimates of Γ_bkg, and so may increase the precision indirectly. The ionizing output of a quasar will locally dominate over the UVB, and this leads to enhanced transmission bluewards of the quasar Lyα line, known as the proximity effect. In Chapter 4 I present the first measurements of Γ_bkg at z > 5 from the proximity effect. The UVB intensity declines smoothly with redshift over 4.6 6.4. There is a drop in Γ_bkg by roughly a factor of five, which corresponds to a drop in the ionizing emissivity by about a factor of two. Such a redshift evolution in the emissivity cannot continue to much higher redshift without reionization failing to complete, which suggests that reionization cannot have ended much higher than z = 6.4. Estimates of Γ_bkg from the proximity effect and the mean flux are generally discrepant at z ∼ 2-4, with those from the proximity effect systematically higher. This is generally attributed to effects of the

  12. A new method to search for high-redshift clusters using photometric redshifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castignani, G.; Celotti, A. [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Chiaberge, M.; Norman, C., E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    We describe a new method (Poisson probability method, PPM) to search for high-redshift galaxy clusters and groups by using photometric redshift information and galaxy number counts. The method relies on Poisson statistics and is primarily introduced to search for megaparsec-scale environments around a specific beacon. The PPM is tailored to both the properties of the FR I radio galaxies in the Chiaberge et al. sample, which are selected within the COSMOS survey, and to the specific data set used. We test the efficiency of our method of searching for cluster candidates against simulations. Two different approaches are adopted. (1) We use two z ∼ 1 X-ray detected cluster candidates found in the COSMOS survey and we shift them to higher redshift up to z = 2. We find that the PPM detects the cluster candidates up to z = 1.5, and it correctly estimates both the redshift and size of the two clusters. (2) We simulate spherically symmetric clusters of different size and richness, and we locate them at different redshifts (i.e., z = 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) in the COSMOS field. We find that the PPM detects the simulated clusters within the considered redshift range with a statistical 1σ redshift accuracy of ∼0.05. The PPM is an efficient alternative method for high-redshift cluster searches that may also be applied to both present and future wide field surveys such as SDSS Stripe 82, LSST, and Euclid. Accurate photometric redshifts and a survey depth similar or better than that of COSMOS (e.g., I < 25) are required.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwek, Eli; Benford, Dominic J. [Observational Cosmology Lab., Code 665, NASA at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Staguhn, Johannes; Su, Ting [Also at Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. (United States); Arendt, Richard G. [Also at CRESST, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA. (United States); Kovacks, Attila, E-mail: [Also at Astronomy Department, CalTech, Pasadena, CA 90025, USA. (United States)


    The evolution of dust at redshifts z ≳ 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production compared to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This ''silicate-UV break'' may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxy's photometric redshift. In this Letter we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2 mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high-redshift universe.

  14. Detectability of Gravitational Waves from High-Redshift Binaries. (United States)

    Rosado, Pablo A; Lasky, Paul D; Thrane, Eric; Zhu, Xingjiang; Mandel, Ilya; Sesana, Alberto


    Recent nondetection of gravitational-wave backgrounds from pulsar timing arrays casts further uncertainty on the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries. We study the capabilities of current gravitational-wave observatories to detect individual binaries and demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, some are, in principle, detectable throughout the Universe. In particular, a binary with rest-frame mass ≳10^{10}M_{⊙} can be detected by current timing arrays at arbitrarily high redshifts. The same claim will apply for less massive binaries with more sensitive future arrays. As a consequence, future searches for nanohertz gravitational waves could be expanded to target evolving high-redshift binaries. We calculate the maximum distance at which binaries can be observed with pulsar timing arrays and other detectors, properly accounting for redshift and using realistic binary waveforms.

  15. The high redshift Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect (United States)

    Xia, Jun-Qing; Viel, Matteo; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Matarrese, Sabino


    In this paper we rely on the quasar (QSO) catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Six (SDSS DR6) of about one million photometrically selected QSOs to compute the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect at high redshift, aiming at constraining the behavior of the expansion rate and thus the behaviour of dark energy at those epochs. This unique sample significantly extends previous catalogs to higher redshifts while retaining high efficiency in the selection algorithm. We compute the auto-correlation function (ACF) of QSO number density from which we extract the bias and the stellar contamination. We then calculate the cross-correlation function (CCF) between QSO number density and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature fluctuations in different subsamples: at high z > 1.5 and low z analysis. We find an overall evidence for a cross-correlation different from zero at the 2.7 σ level, while this evidence drops to 1.5 σ at z > 1.5. We focus on the capabilities of the ISW to constrain the behaviour of the dark energy component at high redshift both in the Λ CDM and Early Dark Energy cosmologies, when the dark energy is substantially unconstrained by observations. At present, the inclusion of the ISW data results in a poor improvement compared to the obtained constraints from other cosmological datasets. We study the capabilities of future high-redshift QSO survey and find that the ISW signal can improve the constraints on the most important cosmological parameters derived from Planck CMB data, including the high redshift dark energy abundance, by a factor ~ 1.5.

  16. High-redshift SDSS Quasars with Weak Emission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, W. N.


    We identify a sample of 74 high-redshift quasars (z > 3) with weak emission lines from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and present infrared, optical, and radio observations of a subsample of four objects at z > 4. These weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) constitute a prominent...... rest-frame 0.1-5 µm spectral energy distributions that are quite similar to those of normal quasars. The variability, polarization, and radio properties of WLQs are also different from those of BL Lacs, making continuum boosting by a relativistic jet an unlikely physical interpretation. The most...

  17. Short-term optical variability of high-redshift QSO's


    Bachev, R.; Strigachev, A.; Semkov, E.


    This paper presents results of a search for short-term variability in the optical band of selected high-luminosity, high-redshift radio-quiet quasars. Each quasar has been monitored typically for 2 - 4 hours with a time resolution of 2 - 5 minutes and a photometric accuracy of about 0.01 - 0.02 mag. Due to the significant redshift (z>2), the covered wavelength range falls into the UV region (typically 1500 - 2500A). We found no statistical evidence for any continuum variations larger than 0.0...

  18. A spectroscopic study of the high-redshift Universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, Wouter


    Galaxies are systems in which stars are formed out of gas and dust. In each galaxy, millions to hundreds of billions of stars reside and evolve as time moves on. The first galaxies were probably formed as early as 200 million years after the Big Bang, in other words, 13.6 billion years ago. Young


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    galaxies exhibited primarily two radio morphologies: the. Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I galaxies had broad jets that flared into diffuse radio plumes / lobes, while the FR type II galaxies had collimated jets that terminated in regions of high surface brightness called “hot spots” with the back-flowing plasma or the plasma left behind ...

  20. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  1. Dark matter annihilation in the circumgalactic medium at high redshifts (United States)

    Schön, S.; Mack, K. J.; Wyithe, J. S. B.


    Annihilating dark matter (DM) models offer promising avenues for future DM detection, in particular via modification of astrophysical signals. However, when modelling such potential signals at high redshift, the emergence of both DM and baryonic structure, as well as the complexities of the energy transfer process, needs to be taken into account. In the following paper, we present a detailed energy deposition code and use this to examine the energy transfer efficiency of annihilating DM at high redshift, including the effects on baryonic structure. We employ the PYTHIA code to model neutralino-like DM candidates and their subsequent annihilation products for a range of masses and annihilation channels. We also compare different density profiles and mass-concentration relations for 105-107 M⊙ haloes at redshifts 20 and 40. For these DM halo and particle models, we show radially dependent ionization and heating curves and compare the deposited energy to the haloes' gravitational binding energy. We use the `filtered' annihilation spectra escaping the halo to calculate the heating of the circumgalactic medium and show that the mass of the minimal star-forming object is increased by a factor of 2-3 at redshift 20 and 4-5 at redshift 40 for some DM models.

  2. Infrared-faint radio sources in the SERVS deep fields. Pinpointing AGNs at high redshift (United States)

    Maini, A.; Prandoni, I.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Mignano, A.; Lacy, M.; Morganti, R.


    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) represent an unexpected class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelength, but unusually faint at infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. A recent and extensive campaign on the radio-brightest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≳ 10 mJy) has provided evidence that most of them (if not all) contain an active galactic nuclei (AGN). Still uncertain is the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≲ 1 mJy). Aims: The scope of this paper is to assess the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs, testing their classification and improving the knowledge of their IR properties by making use of the most sensitive IR survey available so far: the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). We also explore how the criteria of IFRSs can be fine-tuned to pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at very high redshift (z > 4). Methods: We analysed a number of IFRS samples identified in SERVS fields, including a new sample (21 sources) extracted from the Lockman Hole. 3.6 and 4.5 μm IR counterparts of the 64 sources located in the SERVS fields were searched for and, when detected, their IR properties were studied. Results: We compared the radio/IR properties of the IR-detected IFRSs with those expected for a number of known classes of objects. We found that IR-detected IFRSs are mostly consistent with a mixture of high-redshift (z ≳ 3) radio-loud AGNs. The faintest ones (S1.4 GHz 100 μJy), however, could be also associated with nearer (z 2) dust-enshrouded star-burst galaxies. We also argue that, while IFRSs with radio-to-IR ratios >500 can very efficiently pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at redshift 2 < z < 4, lower radio-to-IR ratios ( 100-200) are expected for higher redshift radio-loud AGNs.

  3. High Redshift Radio Galaxies: Laboratories for Massive Galaxy and Cluster Formation in the Early Universe (United States)


    description of the major emitting components which provide important diagnostics about various physical constituents of the early Universe. A list of known...HzRG building blocks is given in Table 1, together with a summary of techniques used to study them. Also included are a list of the resultant...detection of supernovae in z ∼ 2 protoclusters will become possible. On a longer timescale, tracing the detailed history of the formation and evolution of


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eitan, Assaf; Behar, Ehud, E-mail:, E-mail: [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)


    The soft X-ray photoelectric absorption of high-z quasars has been known for two decades, but has no unambiguous astrophysical context. We construct the largest sample to date of 58 high-redshift quasars (z > 0.45) selected from the XMM-Newton archive based on a high photon count criterion (>1800). We measure the optical depth {tau} at 0.5 keV and find that 43% of the quasars show significant absorption. We aim to find which physical parameters of the quasars, e.g., redshift, radio luminosity, radio loudness, or X-ray luminosity, drive their observed absorption. We compare the absorption behavior with redshift with the pattern expected if the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) is responsible for the observed absorption. We also compare the absorption with a comparison sample of gamma-ray burst (GRB) X-ray afterglows. Although the z > 2 quasar opacity is consistent with diffuse IGM absorption, many intermediate-z (0.45 < z < 2) quasars are not sufficiently absorbed for this scenario, and are appreciably less absorbed than GRBs. Only 10/37 quasars at z < 2 are absorbed, and only 5/30 radio-quiet quasars are absorbed. We find a weak correlation between {tau} and z, and an even weaker correlation between {tau} and radio luminosity. These findings lead to the conclusion that although a diffuse IGM origin for the quasar absorption is unlikely, the optical depth does seem to increase with redshift, roughly as (1 + z){sup 2.2{+-}0.6}, tending to {tau} Almost-Equal-To 0.4 at high redshifts, similar to the high-z GRBs. This result can be explained by an ionized and clumpy IGM at z < 2, and a cold, diffuse IGM at higher redshift. If, conversely, the absorption occurs at the quasar, and owing to the steep L{sub x} {proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 7.1{+-}0.5} correlation in the present sample, the host column density scales as N{sub H}{proportional_to}L{sub x}{sup 0.7{+-}0.1}.

  5. Comparing Low-Redshift Compact Dwarf Starbursts in the RESOLVE Survey with High-Redshift Blue Nuggets (United States)

    Palumbo, Michael Louis; Kannappan, Sheila; Snyder, Elaine; Eckert, Kathleen; Norman, Dara; Fraga, Luciano; Quint, Bruno; Amram, Philippe; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; RESOLVE Team


    We identify and characterize a population of compact dwarf starburst galaxies in the RESOLVE survey, a volume-limited census of galaxies in the local universe, to probe the possibility that these galaxies are related to “blue nuggets,” a class of intensely star-forming and compact galaxies previously identified at high redshift. Blue nuggets are thought to form as the result of intense compaction events that drive fresh gas to their centers. They are expected to display prolate morphology and rotation along their minor axes. We report IFU observations of three of our compact dwarf starburst galaxies, from which we construct high-resolution velocity fields, examining the evidence for minor axis or otherwise misaligned rotation. We find multiple cases of double nuclei in our sample, which may be indicative of a merger origin as in some blue nugget formation scenarios. We compare the masses, radii, gas-to-stellar mass ratios, star formation rates, stellar surface mass densities, and environmental contexts of our sample to expectations for blue nuggets.

  6. The discovery of high-redshift supernovae and their cosmological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Alex G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics


    In this thesis the author discusses the methodology for doing photometry from procedure of extracting supernova counts from images that contain combined supernova plus galaxy flux, to standard star calibration, to additional instrumental corrections that arise due to the multiple telescopes used for observations. He discusses the different sources of photometric error and their correlations, and the construction of the covariance matrix for all the points in the light curve. He then describes the K corrections which account for the redshifting of spectra that are necessary to compare the photometry of the high-redshift data with those from nearby (z < 0.1) supernovae. Finally, he uses the first seven of the supernovae to test the hypothesis that they live in an under-dense bubble where the locally measured Hubble constant differs significantly from the true Hubble constant. He also uses the data to place limits on the value of the Hubble constant. Discussions of several other important aspects of the data analysis are or will be included in other papers. These topics include a description of how the covariance matrix is used to generate light-curve fits, a discussion of non-photometric systematic errors that also effect the measurements, and a discussion of the application of the supernovae to address other scientific/cosmological problems.

  7. Low Masses and High Redshifts: The Evolution of the Mass-Metallicity Relation (United States)

    Henry, Alaina; Scarlata, Claudia; Dominguez, Alberto; Malkan, Matthew; Martin, Crystal L.; Siana, Brian; Atek, Hakim; Bedregal, Alejandro G.; Colbert, James W.; Rafelski, Marc; hide


    We present the first robust measurement of the high redshift mass-metallicity (MZ) relation at 10(exp 8) grism spectroscopy with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 is sensitive to the R23 metallicity diagnostic: ([O II] (lambda)(lambda)3726, 3729 + [OIII] (lambda)(lambda)4959, 5007)/H(beta). Using spectra stacked in four mass quartiles, we find a MZ relation that declines significantly with decreasing mass, extending from 12+log(O/H) = 8.8 at M = 10(exp 9.8) Stellar Mass to 12+log(O/H)= 8.2 at M = 10(exp 8.2) Stellar Mass. After correcting for systematic offsets between metallicity indicators, we compare our MZ relation to measurements from the stacked spectra of galaxies with M > or approx. 10(exp 9.5) Stellar Mass and z approx. 2.3. Within the statistical uncertainties, our MZ relation agrees with the z approx. 2.3 result, particularly since our somewhat higher metallicities (by around 0.1 dex) are qualitatively consistent with the lower mean redshift (z = 1.76) of our sample. For the masses probed by our data, the MZ relation shows a steep slope which is suggestive of feedback from energy-driven winds, and a cosmological downsizing evolution where high mass galaxies reach the local MZ relation at earlier times. In addition, we show that our sample falls on an extrapolation of the star-forming main sequence (the SFR-M* relation) at this redshift. This result indicates that grism emission-line selected samples do not have preferentially high star formation rates (SFRs). Finally, we report no evidence for evolution of the mass-metallicity-SFR plane; our stack-averaged measurements show excellent agreement with the local relation.

  8. Large fluctuations in the high-redshift metagalactic ionizing background (United States)

    D'Aloisio, Anson; McQuinn, Matthew; Davies, Frederick B.; Furlanetto, Steven R.


    Recent observations have shown that the scatter in opacities amongst coeval segments of the Ly α forest increases rapidly at z > 5. In this paper, we assess whether the large scatter can be explained by fluctuations in the ionizing background in the post-reionization intergalactic medium. We find that matching the observed scatter at z ≈ 5.5 requires a short spatially averaged mean free path of 〈λmfp912〉 ≲ 15 h- 1 comoving Mpc, a factor of ≳3 shorter than direct measurements at z = 5.2. We argue that such rapid evolution in the mean free path is difficult to reconcile with our measurements of the global H I photoionization rate, which stay approximately constant over the interval z ≈ 4.8-5.5. However, we also show that measurements of the mean free path at z > 5 are likely biased towards higher values by the quasar proximity effect. This bias can reconcile the short values of 〈λmfp912〉 that are required to explain the large scatter in opacities. We discuss the implications of this scenario for cosmological reionization. Finally, we investigate whether other statistics applied to the z > 5 Ly α forest can shed light on the origin of the scatter. Compared to a model with a uniform ionizing background, models that successfully account for the scatter lead to enhanced power in the line-of-sight flux power spectrum on scales k ≲0.1 h Mpc-1. We find tentative evidence for this enhancement in observations of the high-redshift Ly α forest.

  9. UV Continuum Slope and Dust Obscuration from z ~ 6 to z ~ 2: The Star Formation Rate Density at High Redshift (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Franx, M.; Chary, R.-R.; Meurer, G. R.; Conselice, C. J.; Ford, H.; Giavalisco, M.; van Dokkum, P.


    We provide a systematic measurement of the rest-frame UV continuum slope β over a wide range in redshift (z ~ 2-6) and rest-frame UV luminosity (0.1 L* z = 3 to 2 L* z = 3) to improve estimates of the star formation rate (SFR) density at high redshift. We utilize the deep optical and infrared data (Advanced Camera for Surveys/NICMOS) over the Chandra Deep Field-South and Hubble Deep Field-North Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields, as well as the UDF for our primary UBVi "dropout" Lyman Break Galaxy sample. We also use strong lensing clusters to identify a population of very low luminosity, high-redshift dropout galaxies. We correct the observed distributions for both selection biases and photometric scatter. We find that the UV-continuum slope of the most luminous galaxies is substantially redder at z ~ 2-4 than it is at z ~ 5-6 (from ~-2.4 at z ~ 6 to ~-1.5 at z ~ 2). Lower luminosity galaxies are also found to be bluer than higher luminosity galaxies at z ~ 2.5 and z ~ 4. We do not find a large number of galaxies with β's as red as -1 in our dropout selections at z ~ 4, and particularly at z gsim 5, even though such sources could be readily selected from our data (and also from Balmer Break Galaxy searches at z ~ 4). This suggests that star-forming galaxies at z gsim 5 almost universally have very blue UV-continuum slopes, and that there are not likely to be a substantial number of dust-obscured galaxies at z gsim 5 that are missed in "dropout" searches. Using the same relation between UV-continuum slope and dust extinction as has been found to be appropriate at both z ~ 0 and z ~ 2, we estimate the average dust extinction of galaxies as a function of redshift and UV luminosity in a consistent way. As expected, we find that the estimated dust extinction increases substantially with cosmic time for the most UV luminous galaxies, but remains small (lsim2 times) at all times for lower luminosity galaxies. Because these same lower luminosity galaxies

  10. Stellar populations a guide from low to high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Renzini, Alvio


    This up-to-date reference on stellar populations and development models includes coverage of distant galaxies, chemical evolution and supernovae. Written by highly acclaimed authorities in the field, the book makes use of specific problems to reveal the ""kitchen secrets.""

  11. Opening the low frequency window to the high redshift Universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedantham, Harish


    The epoch of formation of the first luminous structures (stars and galaxies) called the Comic Dawn, is one of the last unexplored periods in the history of the Universe. A new generation of radio telescopes such as LOFAR aim to revolutionize our understanding of structure formation in the early

  12. Probing Pre-Galactic Metal Enrichment with High-Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts (United States)

    Wang, F. Y.; Bromm, Volker; Greif, Thomas H.; Stacy, Athena; Dai, Z. G.; Loeb, Abraham; Cheng, K. S.


    We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Population III (Pop III) GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature approximately greater than10(exp 4) K.We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1 + z) with values of about a few cm(exp -3). In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n approximately greater than100 cm(exp -3). The resulting afterglow fluxes are weakly dependent on redshift at a fixed observed time, and may be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope and Very Large Array in the near-IR and radio wavebands, respectively, out to redshift z approximately greater than 20. We predict that the maximum of the afterglow emission shifts from near-IR to millimeter bands with peak fluxes from mJy to Jy at different observed times. The metal absorption line signature is expected to be detectable in the near future. GRBs are ideal tools for probing the metal enrichment in the early IGM, due to their high luminosities and featureless power-law spectra. The metals in the first galaxies produced by the first supernova (SN) explosions are likely to reside in low-ionization stages (C II, O I, Si II and Fe II). We show that, if the afterglow can be observed sufficiently early, analysis of the metal lines may

  13. Galaxy population properties of the massive X-ray luminous galaxy cluster XDCP J0044.0-2033 at z = 1.58. Red-sequence formation, massive galaxy assembly, and central star formation activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fassbender, R; Nastasi, A; Santos, J. S; Lidman, C; Verdugo, M; Koyama, Y; Rosati, P; Pierini, D; Padilla, N; Romeo, A. D; Menci, N; Bongiorno, A; Castellano, M; Cerulo, P; Fontana, A; Galametz, A; Grazian, A; Lamastra, A; Pentericci, L; Sommariva, V; Strazzullo, V; Šuhada, R; Tozzi, P


    Context. Recent observational progress has enabled the detection of galaxy clusters and groups out to very high redshifts and for the first time allows detailed studies of galaxy population properties...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Alaina; Straughn, Amber [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Scarlata, Claudia; Bedregal, Alejandro G. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Domínguez, Alberto; Siana, Brian; Masters, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Malkan, Matthew; Ross, Nathaniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' astrophysique, École Polytechniuqe Fédérale de Lausanne, Observatoire de Sauverny, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Colbert, James W.; Rafelski, Marc [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Teplitz, Harry [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bunker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Dressler, Alan; Hathi, Nimish; McCarthy, Patrick, E-mail: [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)


    We present the first robust measurement of the high redshift mass-metallicity (MZ) relation at 10{sup 8} ∼< M/M {sub ☉} ∼< 10{sup 10}, obtained by stacking spectra of 83 emission-line galaxies with secure redshifts between 1.3 ∼< z ∼< 2.3. For these redshifts, infrared grism spectroscopy with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 is sensitive to the R {sub 23} metallicity diagnostic: ([O II] λλ3726, 3729 + [O III] λλ4959, 5007)/Hβ. Using spectra stacked in four mass quartiles, we find a MZ relation that declines significantly with decreasing mass, extending from 12+log(O/H) = 8.8 at M = 10{sup 9.8} M {sub ☉}, to 12+log(O/H) = 8.2 at M = 10{sup 8.2} M {sub ☉}. After correcting for systematic offsets between metallicity indicators, we compare our MZ relation to measurements from the stacked spectra of galaxies with M ∼> 10{sup 9.5} M {sub ☉} and z ∼ 2.3. Within the statistical uncertainties, our MZ relation agrees with the z ∼ 2.3 result, particularly since our somewhat higher metallicities (by around 0.1 dex) are qualitatively consistent with the lower mean redshift (z = 1.76) of our sample. For the masses probed by our data, the MZ relation shows a steep slope which is suggestive of feedback from energy-driven winds, and a cosmological downsizing evolution where high mass galaxies reach the local MZ relation at earlier times. In addition, we show that our sample falls on an extrapolation of the star-forming main sequence (the SFR-M {sub *} relation) at this redshift. This result indicates that grism emission-line selected samples do not have preferentially high star formation rates (SFRs). Finally, we report no evidence for evolution of the mass-metallicity-SFR plane; our stack-averaged measurements show excellent agreement with the local relation.

  15. Three types of galaxy disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohlen, M.; Erwin, P.; Trujillo, I.; Beckman, J. E.; Knapen, JH; Mahoney, TJ; Vazdekis, A


    We present our new scheme for the classification of radial stellar surface brightness profiles for disk galaxies. We summarize the current theoretical attempts to understand their origin and give an example of an application by comparing local galaxies with their counterparts at high redshift (z

  16. Quantitative comparison between Type Ia supernova spectra at low and high redshifts: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supernova Cosmology Project; Nugent, Peter E; Garavini, G.; Folatelli, G.; Nobili, S.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Blanc, G.; Bronder, J.; Burns, M.S.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S. E.; Doi, M.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hook, I.; Howell, D. A.; Kashikawa, N.; Kim, A. G.; Kowalski, M.; Kuznetsova, N.; Lee, B. C.; Lidman, C.; Mendez, J.; Morokuma, T.; Motohara, K.; Nugent, P. E.; Pain, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Quimby, R.; Raux, J.; Regnault, N.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Sainton, G.; Schahmaneche, K.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stanishev, V.; Thomas, R. C.; Walton, N. A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Yasuda, N.


    We develop a method to measure the strength of the absorption features in type Ia supernova (SN Ia) spectra and use it to make a quantitative comparisons between the spectra of type Ia supernovae at low and high redshifts. In this case study, we apply the method to 12 high-redshift (0.212 = z = 0.912) SNe Ia observed by the Supernova Cosmology Project. Through measurements of the strengths of these features and of the blueshift of theabsorption minimum in Ca ii H&K, we show that the spectra of the high-redshift SNe Ia are quantitatively similar to spectra of nearby SNe Ia (z< 0.15). One supernova in our high redshift sample, SN 2002fd at z = 0.279, is found to have spectral characteristics that are associated with peculiar SN 1991T/SN 1999aa-like supernovae.

  17. High-redshift gamma-ray bursts: observational signatures of superconducting cosmic strings? (United States)

    Cheng, K S; Yu, Yun-Wei; Harko, T


    The high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), GRBs 080913 and 090423, challenge the conventional GRB progenitor models by their short durations, typical for short GRBs, and their high energy releases, typical for long GRBs. Meanwhile, the GRB rate inferred from high-redshift GRBs also remarkably exceeds the prediction of the collapsar model, with an ordinary star formation history. We show that all these contradictions could be eliminated naturally, if we ascribe some high-redshift GRBs to electromagnetic bursts of superconducting cosmic strings. High-redshift GRBs could become a reasonable way to test the superconducting cosmic string model because the event rate of cosmic string bursts increases rapidly with increasing redshifts, whereas the collapsar rate decreases.

  18. Probing Primordial Magnetic Fields with 21-cm Line Observations of the High-redshift Intergalactic Medium (United States)

    Oklopcic, Antonija; Gluscevic, V.; Hirata, C. M.; Mishra, A.; Venumadhav, T. N.


    Coherent magnetic fields with strengths of the order of 10^(-5) G are observed on scales of individual galaxies, including the Milky Way. They are thought to be organized and maintained by a dynamo mechanism. However, the nature and origin of the seed magnetic field, required for the dynamo effect to take place, are still unknown. Here, we propose a method of probing the magnetic field in the intergalactic medium before the Epoch of Reionization through observations of redshifted 21-cm radiation of neutral hydrogen. The 21-cm line is created during the spin-flip transition between the hyperfine levels of the hydrogen ground state. The upper hyperfine level is a triplet consisting of atomic states with three different projections of the total angular momentum vector. Anisotropic 21-cm radiation, resulting from perturbations in the high-redshift IGM, unevenly populates triplet sublevels. If an atom is located in an external magnetic field, it precesses between the three states; this causes an additional anisotropy in the 21-cm radiation, which could be imprinted in the 21-cm power spectrum. In order to evaluate the effect of the magnetic field, we need to consider in full detail all mechanisms that affect the distribution of atoms in hyperfine sublevels, such as the interaction of hydrogen atoms with the 21-cm radiation, optical pumping by Lyman-alpha photons, and spin-exchange in hydrogen-hydrogen collisions. Preliminary calculations suggest that this method could be sensitive to extremely weak magnetic fields, of the order of 10^(-17) G.

  19. From nearby low-mass protostars to high redshift starbursts: protostellar outflows tracing the IMF (United States)

    Kristensen, Lars E.; Bergin, Edwin


    Embedded low-mass protostars are notoriously difficult to observe even in the nearest Galactic high-mass clusters where they outnumber the high-mass protostars by orders of magnitude. Thus, without a good tracer of the low-mass population, we do not have a good handle on the shape of the initial (core) mass function, leaving little hope for extrapolating to extragalactic regions where we will never have neither the sensitivity nor the resolution to directly observe this population. A good tracer of the low-mass population is needed.One such physical tracer is outflows. Outflow emission is directly proportional to envelope mass, and outflows are predominantly active during the deeply embedded phases of star formation. What is required for this method to work is species and transitions tracing outflows uniquely such that any signal is not diluted by the surrounding cloud, such as certain methanol transitions, water, high-J CO (J > 10).I will present a statistical model of a forming high-mass cluster. The model includes what we currently know about Galactic high-mass clusters and incorporates outflow emission from low-mass protostars. The latter component is obtained from observations of tens of nearby embedded low-mass protostellar outflows in the above-mentioned tracers. The model is benchmarked against ALMA and Herschel-HIFI observations of Galactic clusters proving the concept, and preliminary extrapolations to the extragalactic regime are presented. With this new probe, and traditional probes of the distant star formation which predominantly trace high mass stars, we will be able to explore the IMF in starburst galaxies from low to high redshift.

  20. Jetted tidal disruptions of stars as a flag of intermediate mass black holes at high redshifts (United States)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham


    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) of stars by single or binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) brighten galactic nuclei and reveal a population of otherwise dormant black holes. Adopting event rates from the literature, we aim to establish general trends in the redshift evolution of the TDE number counts and their observable signals. We pay particular attention to (I) jetted TDEs whose luminosity is boosted by relativistic beaming and (II) TDEs around binary black holes. We show that the brightest (jetted) TDEs are expected to be produced by massive black hole binaries if the occupancy of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in low-mass galaxies is high. The same binary population will also provide gravitational wave sources for the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. In addition, we find that the shape of the X-ray luminosity function of TDEs strongly depends on the occupancy of IMBHs and could be used to constrain scenarios of SMBH formation. Finally, we make predictions for the expected number of TDEs observed by future X-ray telescopes finding that a 50 times more sensitive instrument than the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board the Swift satellite is expected to trigger ˜10 times more events than BAT, while 6-20 TDEs are expected in each deep field observed by a telescope 50 times more sensitive than the Chandra X-ray Observatory if the occupation fraction of IMBHs is high. Because of their long decay times, high-redshift TDEs can be mistaken for fixed point sources in deep field surveys and targeted observations of the same deep field with year-long intervals could reveal TDEs.

  1. Mining the Infrared Sky for High-Redshift Quasars (United States)

    Richards, Gordon

    The Spitzer and WISE satellites have opened up new avenues for the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN) by peering through the dust shrouding half (or more) of AGNs. However, despite being more sensitive to shrouded AGNs, current selection methods being used in the mid-IR are still largely blind to the highest redshift quasars-both those that are shrouded and those that are not (and should therefore be easy to find). We describe projects to identify both unobscured (at z>3) and obscured quasars (at z>2) that have heretofore been missed in significant numbers. Finding the high-z obscured quasars in large numbers is crucial for fulfilling the legacy of NASA missions in the IR and X-ray. With these quasars we will be able to perform clustering analyses that break the degeneracy of models describing how black holes can ``feed back" energy to the large-scale host galaxy, significantly influencing its evolution. We will further trace the luminosity function of galaxies undergoing active accretion from low-luminosity AGNs to luminous quasars—probing the growth of the supermassive black holes that we see today in the local universe. Our new insights come about from leveraging new Spitzer data, primarily from the PI's SpitzerIRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES). The Spitzer data are 2.5 magnitudes deeper than the "AllWISE" survey in a 125 square degree, multiwavelength-rich, equatorial region known as SDSS "Stripe 82". These data are crucial for extending mid-IR investigations to higher redshifts, both for unobscured and obscured sources. The PI's team are among the world's experts in using the proposed machine learning techniques to find both unobscured (type-1) and obscured (type- 2) quasars and in using quasar clustering and luminosity functions to do cutting-edge science. The luminosity function and clustering algorithms are already in place, allowing for timely completion of this project once the multi-wavelength NASA data have been incorporated. This project is directly

  2. LOFAR VLBI studies at 55 MHz of 4C 43.15, a z = 2.4 radio galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morabito, Leah K.; Deller, Adam T.; Röttgering, Huub; Miley, George; Varenius, Eskil; Shimwell, Timothy W.; Moldón, Javier; Jackson, Neal; Morganti, Raffaella; van Weeren, Reinout J.; Oonk, J. B. R.


    The correlation between radio spectral index and redshift has been exploited to discover high-redshift radio galaxies, but its underlying cause is unclear. It is crucial to characterize the particle acceleration and loss mechanisms in high-redshift radio galaxies to understand why their radio

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SCUBA-2 high-redshift galaxies sample (Barger+, 2014) (United States)

    Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.; Chen, C.-C.; Owen, F. N.; Wang, W.-H.; Casey, C. M.; Lee, N.; Sanders, D. B.; Williams, J. P.


    We obtained 25.4 hr of observations on the CDF-N with SCUBA-2 on the JCMT during observing runs in 2012 and 2013. The data were obtained using a mixture of scanning modes and under a variety of weather conditions. Using the CV Daisy scanning mode (detailed information about the SCUBA-2 scan patterns can be found in Holland et al. 2013MNRAS.430.2513H), we obtained a 2.2 hr observation in band 1 weather (225 GHz opacity<0.05) and a 16.5 hr observation in band 2 weather (225 GHz opacity ~0.05-0.08). We also obtained a 6.7 hr observation in band 2 weather using the pong-900 scanning mode. While SCUBA-2 observes at both 450 um and 850 um simultaneously, there are too few sources directly detected at 450 um in our data to be interesting. Thus, we only use the 850 um data in our subsequent analysis. (1 data file).

  4. High-Redshift Radio Galaxies from Deep Fields C. H. Ishwara ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2International Centre for Radio Astronomical Research, University of Western Australia,. Perth, Western Australia, Australia. ∗ e-mail: Abstract. Most of the radio ... cating that the known HzRGs represent the tip of the ice-berg in luminosity. There are, potentially, a large number of HzRGs yet to be ...

  5. High-redshift quasars host galaxies: is there a stellar mass crisis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valiante, Rosa; Schneider, Raffaella; Salvadori, Stefania; Gallerani, Simona


    We investigate the evolutionary properties of a sample of quasars (QSOs) at 5

  6. The potential of INTEGRAL for the detection of high redshift GRBs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Lund, Niels; Brandt, Søren Kristian


    We discuss INTEGRAL's ability to detect a high redshift population of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) in comparison to other high-energy missions. Emphasis is placed on the study of the relative capabilities of IBIS on board INTEGRAL with respect to SWIFT and HETE 2 in detecting a high redshift population...... of GRBs. We conclude that, if the GRB rate is proportional to the star formation rate, INTEGRAL's ability to study GRBs are complementary to the ones of missions like SWIFT and HETE 2, devoted to prompt localisations of GRBs. Whereas SWIFT and HETE 2 would detect a higher number of GRBs than INTEGRAL......, IBIS might be able to detect high redshift (z greater than or similar to 7) GRBs, unreachable by SWIFT and HETE 2. We discuss the relevance of performing near-infrared (NIR) observations of the INTEGRAL GRBs and the strategy that large-class telescopes might follow....

  7. High-redshift AGN in the Chandra Deep Fields: the obscured fraction and space density of the sub-L* population (United States)

    Vito, F.; Brandt, W. N.; Yang, G.; Gilli, R.; Luo, B.; Vignali, C.; Xue, Y. Q.; Comastri, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Liu, T.; Paolillo, M.; Ranalli, P.; Schneider, D. P.; Shemmer, O.; Volonteri, M.; Wang, J.


    We investigate the population of high-redshift (3 ≤ z Deep Field-South and 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North. Their outstanding sensitivity and spectral characterization of faint sources allow us to focus on the sub-L* regime (logLX ≲ 44), poorly sampled by previous works using shallower data, and the obscured population. Taking fully into account the individual photometric-redshift probability distribution functions, the final sample consists of ≈102 X-ray-selected AGN at 3 ≤ z 23 is ∼0.6-0.8, once incompleteness effects are taken into account, with no strong dependence on redshift or luminosity. We derived the high-redshift AGN number counts down to F0.5-2 keV = 7 × 10-18 erg cm-2 s-1, extending previous results to fainter fluxes, especially at z > 4. We put the tightest constraints to date on the low-luminosity end of AGN luminosity function at high redshift. The space density, in particular, declines at z > 3 at all luminosities, with only a marginally steeper slope for low-luminosity AGN. By comparing the evolution of the AGN and galaxy densities, we suggest that such a decline at high luminosities is mainly driven by the underlying galaxy population, while at low luminosities there are hints of an intrinsic evolution of the parameters driving nuclear activity. Also, the black hole accretion rate density and star formation rate density, which are usually found to evolve similarly at z ≲ 3, appear to diverge at higher redshifts.

  8. Expanding the Gamma-ray Universe: High Redshift Fermi-LAT Blazars (United States)

    Ojha, Roopesh; Paliya, Vaidehi; Gasparrini, Dario; Ajello, Marco; Cutini, Sara; Fermi-LAT Collaboration


    High-redshift blazars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) are of great astrophysical import as they are extreme objects whose energetics remain a mystery. Such blazars are intrinsically interesting since they inform us about the evolution of gamma-ray blazars and are, by definition, some of the more luminous blazars in the Fermi-LAT sample. These blazars appear to host very massive black holes and could shed light on the origin and growth of black holes in the early Universe. We present the latest high redshift blazar detections in the LAT and discuss some of their implications.

  9. High-redshift Ly alpha emitters : clues on the Milky Way infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, Stefania; Dayal, Pratika; Ferrara, Andrea

    With the aim of determining if Milky Way (MW) progenitors could be identified as high-redshift Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs), we have derived the intrinsic properties of z approximate to 5.7 MW progenitors, which are then used to compute their observed Ly alpha luminosity, L(alpha), and equivalent

  10. Planck intermediate results XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.


    The Planck mission, thanks to its large frequency range and all-sky coverage, has a unique potential for systematically detecting the brightest, and rarest, submillimetre sources on the sky, including distant objects in the high-redshift Universe traced by their dust emission. A novel method, bas...

  11. FeII/MgII Emission Line Ratio in High Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Hamann, F.; Appenzeller, I.


    We present results of the analysis of near infrared spectroscopic observations of 6 high-redshift quasars (z > 4), emphasizing the measurement of the ultraviolet FeII/MgII emission line strength in order to estimate the beginning of intense star formation in the early universe. To investigate the...

  12. Dust in External Galaxies


    Calzetti, Daniela


    Existing (Spitzer Space Telescope) and upcoming (Herschel Space Telescope) facilities are deepening our understanding of the role of dust in tracing the energy budget and chemical evolution of galaxies. The tools we are developing while exploring the local Universe will in turn become pivotal in the interpretation of the high redshift Universe when near--future facilities (the Atacama Large Millimeter Array [ALMA], the Sub--Millimeter Array [SMA], the Large Millimeter Telescope [LMT], the Jam...

  13. MaNGA: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (United States)

    Weijmans, A.-M.; MaNGA Team


    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) is a galaxy integral-field spectroscopic survey within the fourth generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV). It will be mapping the composition and kinematics of gas and stars in 10,000 nearby galaxies, using 17 differently sized fiber bundles. MaNGA's goal is to provide new insights in galaxy formation and evolution, and to deliver a local benchmark for current and future high-redshift studies.



    Zackrisson, Erik; Scott, Pat; Rydberg, Claes-Erik; Iocco, Fabio; Edvardsson, Bengt; Ostlin, Goran; Sivertsson, Sofia; Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom; Gondolo, Paolo


    The first stars in the history of the universe are likely to form in the dense central regions of similar to 10(5)-10(6) M-circle dot cold dark matter halos at z approximate to 10-50. The annihilation of dark matter particles in these environments may lead to the formation of so-called dark stars, which are predicted to be cooler, larger, more massive, and potentially more long-lived than conventional population III stars. Here, we investigate the prospects of detecting high-redshift dark sta...

  15. Dwarf Galaxies from Deep Fields to the Near Field (United States)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael


    We propose to use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations - both zoom-in and large-volume - to study the connections between the faintest observable galaxies in the high-redshift Universe and dwarf galaxies locally.Studies of the likely descendants of very faint HUDF / Frontier Field galaxies will provide a powerful complement to direct observations at z 8 for investigating the physical processes in the high-redshift Universe and, in connection with properties of low-mass galaxies in the nearby Universe, will produce strong constraints on reionization scenarios and dark matter models. Understanding the relationship between high-redshift and local galaxy populations through simulations requires an accurate knowledge of the links between galaxy populations at cosmic dawn and those locally. All existing results on this topic either suffer from poor statistics or are unable to resolve the hosts of Frontier Field galaxies, however. Our program will address this shortcoming by combining a series of zoom-in hydrodynamical simulations with the next generation of large-volume hydrodynamical simulations of the galaxy population from the Illustris project.HST has made unique and invaluable contributions to surveys of galaxies at high redshifts and to detailed, resolved-star studies of individual galaxies in the very nearby Universe. Our study will help cement links between these two HST legacies. We will quantify the relationships between faint populations at low and high redshifts, characterize the merger histories of dwarf galaxies (both forward and backward in time), and test the validity of various popular models such as abundance matching based on UV luminosity functions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Stalin, C. S. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Block II, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Ramya, S. [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Covino, S.; Tagliaferri, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Sahayanathan, S. [Astrophysical Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ravikumar, C. D., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Calicut, Malappuram 673635 (India)


    CGRaBS J0809+5341, a high-redshift blazar at z = 2.144, underwent a giant optical outburst on 2014 April 19 when it brightened by ∼5 mag and reached an unfiltered apparent magnitude of 15.7 mag. This implies an absolute magnitude of −30.5 mag, making it one of the brightest quasars in the universe. This optical flaring triggered us to carry out observations during the decaying part of the flare covering a wide energy range using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, Swift, and ground-based optical facilities. For the first time, the source is detected in γ-rays by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. A high optical polarization of ∼10% is also observed. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum, the accretion disk luminosity and black hole mass are estimated as 1.5 × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup −1} and 10{sup 8.4} M{sub ⊙}, respectively. Using a single zone leptonic emission model, we reproduce the spectral energy distribution of the source during the flaring activity. This analysis suggests that the emission region is probably located outside the broad-line region, and the jet becomes radiatively efficient. We also show that the overall properties of CGRaBS J0809+5341 seem to not be in agreement with the general properties observed in high-redshift blazars up to now.

  17. Awakening of The High-Redshift Blazar CGRaBS J0809+5341 (United States)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Parker, M. L.; Stalin, C. S.; Fabian, A. C.; Ramya, S.; Covino, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Sahayanathan, S.; Ravikumar, C. D.


    CGRaBS J0809+5341, a high-redshift blazar at z = 2.144, underwent a giant optical outburst on 2014 April 19 when it brightened by ˜5 mag and reached an unfiltered apparent magnitude of 15.7 mag. This implies an absolute magnitude of -30.5 mag, making it one of the brightest quasars in the universe. This optical flaring triggered us to carry out observations during the decaying part of the flare covering a wide energy range using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, Swift, and ground-based optical facilities. For the first time, the source is detected in γ-rays by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. A high optical polarization of ˜10% is also observed. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum, the accretion disk luminosity and black hole mass are estimated as 1.5 × 1045 erg s-1 and 108.4 M⊙, respectively. Using a single zone leptonic emission model, we reproduce the spectral energy distribution of the source during the flaring activity. This analysis suggests that the emission region is probably located outside the broad-line region, and the jet becomes radiatively efficient. We also show that the overall properties of CGRaBS J0809+5341 seem to not be in agreement with the general properties observed in high-redshift blazars up to now.

  18. The implications of dust for high-redshift protogalaxies and the formation of binary disks


    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Spaans, M.


    Numerical simulations suggest that the first galaxies are formed in protogalactic halos with virial temperatures ≥104 K. It is likely that such halos are polluted with trace amounts of metals produced by the first generation of stars. The presence of dust can significantly change the chemistry and dynamics of early galaxies. In this article, we aim to assess the role of dust on the thermal and dynamical evolution of the first galaxies in the presence of a background UV flux, and its ...

  19. Blueberry Galaxies: The Lowest Mass Young Starbursts (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Wang, Junxian


    Searching for extreme emission line galaxies allows us to find low-mass metal-poor galaxies that are good analogs of high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies. These low-mass extreme emission line galaxies are also potential Lyman-continuum leakers. Finding them at very low redshifts (z≲ 0.05) allows us to be sensitive to even lower stellar masses and metallicities. We report on a sample of extreme emission line galaxies at z≲ 0.05 (blueberry galaxies). We selected them from SDSS broadband images on the basis of their broadband colors and studied their properties with MMT spectroscopy. From the entire SDSS DR12 photometric catalog, we found 51 photometric candidates. We spectroscopically confirm 40 as blueberry galaxies. (An additional seven candidates are contaminants, and four remain without spectra.) These blueberries are dwarf starburst galaxies with very small sizes (<1 kpc) and very high ionization ([O III]/[O II] ˜ 10-60). They also have some of the lowest stellar masses ({log}(M/{M}⊙ )˜ 6.5{--}7.5) and lowest metallicities (7.1< 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})< 7.8) of starburst galaxies. Thus, they are small counterparts to green pea galaxies and high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies.

  20. Star formation at high redshift and the importance of dust obscuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalowski, Michal

    observing program targeting these galaxies at the radio wavelengths. The obtained data are analysed simultaneously together with the literature data by means of spectral energy distribution (SED) modelling. I use the radiative transfer code called GRASIL, which calculates the entire UV-to-radio SED...... by dust obscuration. My analysis is based on two samples of galaxies,which have been confirmed to be associated with recent star formation, namely gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies and submillimeterselected galaxies (SMGs). For GRB hosts the long-wavelength data are scarce, so I have started a large...

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: KMOS AGN Survey at High redshift (KASHz) (Harrison+, 2016) (United States)

    Harrison, C. M.; Alexander, D. M.; Mullaney, J. R.; Stott, J. P.; Swinbank, A. M.; Arumugam, V.; Bauer, F. E.; Bower, R. G.; Bunker, A. J.; Sharples, R. M.


    KASHz is designed to ultimately obtain spatially resolved emission-line kinematics of ~(100-200) high-redshift (z~0.6-3.6) AGN. For our target selection we make use of deep X-ray surveys performed in extragalactic fields (COSMOS, see Scoville et al., 2007, Cat. J/ApJS/171/1; CDF-S, see Giacconi et al. 2001ApJ...551..624G and Xue et al., 2011, Cat. J/ApJS/195/10 (CDFS); UDS, SXDS: see Furusawa et al. 2008, Cat. J/ApJS/176/1 (UDS) and SSA22, see Steidel et al. 1998ApJ...492..428S). (1 data file).

  2. Dynamical masses of early-type galaxies at z ~ 2 (United States)

    Cappellari, Michele


    The evolution of masses and sizes of passive (early-type) galaxies with redshift provides ideal constraints to galaxy formation models. These parameters can in principle be obtained for large galaxy samples from multi-band photometry alone. However the accuracy of photometric masses is limited by the non-universality of the IMF. Galaxy sizes can be biased at high redshift due to the inferior quality of the imaging data. Both problems can be avoided using galaxy dynamics, and in particular by measuring the galaxies stellar velocity dispersion. Here we provide an overview of the efforts in this direction.

  3. Gemini Spectroscopy of Supernovae from the Supernova Legacy Survey: Improving High-Redshift Supernova Selection and Classification (United States)

    Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Perrett, K.; Bronder, T. J.; Hook, I. M.; Astier, P.; Aubourg, E.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J. D.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Knop, R.; McMahon, R. G.; Perlmutter, S.; Walton, N. A.


    We present new techniques for improving the efficiency of supernova (SN) classification at high redshift using 64 candidates observed at Gemini North and South during the first year of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). The SNLS is an ongoing 5 year project with the goal of measuring the equation of state of dark energy by discovering and following over 700 high-redshift SNe Ia using data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. We achieve an improvement in the SN Ia spectroscopic confirmation rate: at Gemini 71% of candidates are now confirmed as SNe Ia, compared to 54% using the methods of previous surveys. This is despite the comparatively high redshift of this sample, in which the median SN Ia redshift is z=0.81 (0.155Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. DSM/DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.

  4. A Strongly Lensed Massive Ultracompact Quiescent Galaxy at z ~ 2.4 in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muzzin, Adam; Labbe, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; van Dokkum, Pieter; Holt, J.; Szomoru, Daniel; van de Sande, Jesse; Brammer, Gabriel; Marchesini, Danilo; Stefanon, Mauro; Buitrago, F.; Caputi, K. I.; Dunlop, James; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Le Fevre, Olivier; McCracken, Henry J.; Milvang-Jensen, Bo


    We report the discovery of a massive ultracompact quiescent galaxy that has been strongly lensed into multiple images by a foreground galaxy at z = 0.960. This system was serendipitously discovered as a set of extremely K-s-bright high-redshift galaxies with red J - K-s colors using new data from

  5. Infrared-faint radio sources are at high redshifts. Spectroscopic redshift determination of infrared-faint radio sources using the Very Large Telescope (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Sharp, R.; Spitler, L. R.; Parker, Q. A.


    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are characterised by relatively high radio flux densities and associated faint or even absent infrared and optical counterparts. The resulting extremely high radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousands were previously known only for high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs), suggesting a link between the two classes of object. However, the optical and infrared faintness of IFRS makes their study difficult. Prior to this work, no redshift was known for any IFRS in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) fields which would help to put IFRS in the context of other classes of object, especially of HzRGs. Aims: This work aims at measuring the first redshifts of IFRS in the ATLAS fields. Furthermore, we test the hypothesis that IFRS are similar to HzRGs, that they are higher-redshift or dust-obscured versions of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of IFRS was spectroscopically observed using the Focal Reducer and Low Dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The data were calibrated based on the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) and redshifts extracted from the final spectra, where possible. This information was then used to calculate rest-frame luminosities, and to perform the first spectral energy distribution modelling of IFRS based on redshifts. Results: We found redshifts of 1.84, 2.13, and 2.76, for three IFRS, confirming the suggested high-redshift character of this class of object. These redshifts and the resulting luminosities show IFRS to be similar to HzRGs, supporting our hypothesis. We found further evidence that fainter IFRS are at even higher redshifts. Conclusions: Considering the similarities between IFRS and HzRGs substantiated in this work, the detection of IFRS, which have a significantly higher sky density than HzRGs, increases the number of active galactic nuclei in the early universe and adds to the problems of explaining the formation of

  6. Approaching reionization from two directions: high-redshift Lyman-alpha emitters and local analogs (United States)

    Bagley, Micaela


    The dark ages that followed the recombination of the universe ended with the appearance of metal-free stars and the subsequent formation of numerous low-mass, metal-poor galaxies. The collective ionizing background from these newly-forming galaxies is thought to be responsible for the reionization of the diffuse hydrogen in the intergalactic medium between redshifts 10 and 6.5. The progression of the reionization history depends on the nature of these first sources -- their number densities, luminosities, clustering, and production rates of ionizing photons -- which is currently the subject of considerable observational and theoretical efforts.I will present results of a two-pronged approach to studying the Epoch of Reionization: a systematic search for Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshifts greater than 6, and an analysis of high S/N spectra of a sample of local galaxies that are potential analogs to those responsible for the reionization. Selected for their large [OIII]/[OII] ratios and high H-alpha equivalent widths, the local galaxies have very low masses and are consistent with photoionization by stars with effective temperatures of 10^5 K. Both the emission lines and continua of the spectra are spatially extended, allowing for an analysis of galaxy properties such as gas temperature, elemental abundance, and ionizing power at different radii.

  7. The Clustering of High-Redshift (2.9 < z < 5.4) Quasars in SDSS Stripe 82 (United States)

    Timlin, John; Ross, Nicolas; Richards, Gordon; Myers, Adam; Bauer, Franz Erik; Lacy, Mark; Schneider, Donald; Wollack, Edward; Zakamska, Nadia


    We present the data from the Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES) along with our first high-redshift (2.9SpIES is a mid-infrared survey covering ~100 square degrees of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 (S82) field. The SpIES field is optimally located to overlap with the optical data from SDSS and to complement the area of the pre-existing Spitzer data from the Spitzer-HETDEX Exploratory Large-area (SHELA) survey, which adds ~20 square degrees of infrared coverage on S82. SpIES probes magnitudes significantly fainter than WISE; depth that is crucial to detect faint, high-redshift quasars. Using the infrared data from SpIES and SHELA, and the deep optical data from SDSS, we employ multi-dimensional empirical selection algorithms to identify high-redshift quasar candidates in this field. We then combine these candidates with spectroscopically confirmed high-redshift quasars and measure the angular correlation function. Using these results, we compute the linear bias to try to constrain quasar feedback models akin to those in Hopkins et al. 2007.

  8. Dynamical dark energy simulations: high accuracy power spectra at high redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarini, Luciano; Bonometto, Silvio A. [Department of Physics G. Occhialini-Milano-Bicocca University, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Maccio, Andrea V., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)


    Accurate predictions on non-linear power spectra, at various redshift z, will be a basic tool to interpret cosmological data from next generation mass probes, so obtaining key information on Dark Energy nature. This calls for high precision simulations, covering the whole functional space of w(z) state equations and taking also into account the admitted ranges of other cosmological parameters; surely a difficult task. A procedure was however suggested, able to match the spectra at z = 0, up to k {approx} 3 hMpc{sup -1}, in cosmologies with an (almost) arbitrary w(z), by making recourse to the results of N-body simulations with w = const. In this paper we extend such procedure to high redshift and test our approach through a series of N-body gravitational simulations of various models, including a model closely fitting WMAP5 and complementary data. Our approach detects w = const. models, whose spectra meet the requirement within 1% at z = 0 and perform even better at higher redshift, where they are close to a permil precision. Available Halofit expressions, extended to (constant) w{ne}-1 are unfortunately unsuitable to fit the spectra of the physical models considered here. Their extension to cover the desired range should be however feasible, and this will enable us to match spectra from any DE state equation.

  9. Spectroscopic confirmation of high-redshift supernovae with the ESO VLT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidman, C.; Howell, D.A.; Folatelli, G.; Garavini, G.; Nobili, S.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Blanc, G.; Burns, M.S.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S.E.; Doi, M.; Ellis, R.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Hook, I.; Kashikawa, N.; Kim, A.G.; Knop, R.A.; Lee, B.C.; Mendez, J.; Morokuma, T.; Motohara, K.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Prasad, V.; Quimby, R.; Raux, J.; Regnault, N.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Sainton, G.; Schaefer, B.E.; Schahmaneche, K.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A.L.; Stanishev, V.; Walton, N.A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Yasuda,


    We present VLT FORS1 and FORS2 spectra of 39 candidate high-redshift supernovae that were discovered as part of a cosmological study using type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) over a wide range of redshifts. From the spectra alone, 20 candidates are spectrally classified as SNe Ia with redshifts ranging from z = 0.212 to z = 1.181. Of the remaining 19 candidates, 1 might be a type II supernova and 11 exhibit broad supernova-like spectral features and/or have supernova-like light curves. The candidates were discovered in 8 separate ground-based searches. In those searches in which SNe Ia at z {approx} 0.5 were targeted, over 80 percent of the observed candidates were spectrally classified as SNe Ia. In those searches in which SNe Ia with z > 1 were targeted, 4 candidates with z > 1 were spectrally classified as SNe Ia and later followed with ground and space based observatories. We present the spectra of all candidates, including those that could not be spectrally classified as supernova.

  10. A new method to obtain the broad line region size of high redshift quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrete, C. Alenka [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (Mexico); Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (Spain)


    We present high signal-to-noise ratio UV spectra for eight quasars at z ∼ 3 obtained with Very Large Telescope/FORS. The spectra enable us to analyze in detail the strong and weak emission features in the rest frame range 1300-2000 Å of each source (C III] λ1909, Si III] λ1892, Al III λ1860, Si II λ1814, C IV λ1549 and blended Si IV λ1397+O IV] λ1402). The flux ratios Al III λ1860/Si III] λ1892, C IV λ1549/Al III λ1860, Si IV λ1397+O IV] λ1402/Si III] λ1892 and Si IV λ1397+O IV] λ1402/C IV λ1549 strongly constrain ionizing photon flux and metallicity through the use of diagnostic maps built from CLOUDY simulations. The radius of the broad line region is then derived from the ionizing photon flux applying the definition of the ionization parameter. The r {sub BLR} estimate and the width of a virial component isolated in prominent UV lines yields an estimate of black hole mass. We compare our results with previous estimates obtained from the r {sub BLR}-luminosity correlation customarily employed to estimate the black hole masses of high redshift quasars.

  11. Precessing Jet in the High-Redshift Blazar J0017+8135

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristóf Rozgonyi


    Full Text Available The prominent flat-spectrum radio quasar J0017+8135 (S5 0014+81 at z = 3.366 is one of the most luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN known. Its milliarcsecond-scale radio jet structure has been studied with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI since the 1980s. The quasar was selected as one of the original defining objects of the International Celestial Reference Frame, but left out from its current second realization (ICRF2 because of systematic long-term positional variations. Here we analyse archival 8.6- and 2.3-GHz VLBI imaging data collected at nearly 100 different epochs during more than 20 years, to obtain information about the kinematics of jet components. Because of the cosmological time dilation, extensive VLBI monitoring data are essential to reveal changes in the jet structure of high-redshift AGN. In the case of J0017+8135, the data can be described with a simple kinematic model of jet precession with a 12-year periodicity in the observer’s frame.

  12. The impact of coupled dark energy cosmologies on the high-redshift intergalactic medium (United States)

    Baldi, M.; Viel, M.


    We present an analysis of high-resolution hydrodynamical N-body simulations of coupled dark energy cosmologies which focuses on the statistical properties of the transmitted Lyman α flux in the high-redshift intergalactic medium (IGM). In these models the growth of the diffuse cosmic web differs from the standard ΛCDM case: the density distribution is skewed towards underdense regions and the matter power spectra are typically larger (in a scale-dependent way). These differences are also appreciable in the Lyman α flux and are larger than 5 per cent (10 per cent) at z = 2-4 in the flux probability distribution function (pdf) for high-transmissivity regions and for values of the coupling parameter β = 0.08 (β = 0.2). The flux power spectrum is also affected at the ~2 per cent (~5-10 per cent) level for β = 0.08 (β = 0.2) in a redshift-dependent way. We infer the behaviour of flux pdf and flux power for a reasonable range of couplings and present constraints using present high- and low-resolution data sets. We find an upper limit β <~ 0.15 (at 2σ confidence level), which is obtained using only IGM data and is competitive with those inferred from other large-scale structure probes.

  13. The XMM-Newton Very Large Program on Cosmology with High-Redshift Quasars (United States)

    Risaliti, G.


    The non-linear relation between the X-ray and UV emission in quasars can be used to estimate the distance of quasars with a precision of 0.2 dex. Based on this property, we built a Hubble Diagram of quasars up to z˜6. This provides a new way to test the cosmological model at high redshift, and to measure the cosmological parameters. So far, we filled the Hubble Diagram with SDSS quasars with serendipitous XMM observation. This is an efficient method up to z˜2-2.5, but at higher redshifts pointed observations are needed in order to constrain the cosmological models. XMM-Newton will observe 30 optically bright quasars at z 3, allowing to measure the expansion rate of the Universe at z=3 with a 8% precision. This will provide a tight test of the standard LCDM model, and an improvement of the constraints on the possible evolution of the equation of state of the dark energy.

  14. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation - IX. Economics of reionizing galaxies (United States)

    Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Geil, Paul M.; Kim, Han-Seek; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.


    Using a series of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations we show that during the rapid growth of high-redshift (z > 5) galaxies, reserves of molecular gas are consumed over a time-scale of 300 Myr, almost independent of feedback scheme. We find that there exists no such simple relation for the total gas fractions of these galaxies, with little correlation between gas fractions and specific star formation rates. The bottleneck or limiting factor in the growth of early galaxies is in converting infalling gas to cold star-forming gas. Thus, we find that the majority of high-redshift dwarf galaxies are effectively in recession, with demand (of star formation) never rising to meet supply (of gas), irrespective of the baryonic feedback physics modelled. We conclude that the basic assumption of self-regulation in galaxies - that they can adjust total gas consumption within a Hubble time - does not apply for the dwarf galaxies thought to be responsible for providing most UV photons to reionize the high-redshift Universe. We demonstrate how this rapid molecular time-scale improves agreement between semi-analytic model predictions of the early Universe and observed stellar mass functions.

  15. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. II. Spectroscopic redshifts and comparisons to color selections of high-redshift galaxies (United States)

    Inami, H.; Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Conseil, S.; Hamer, S.; Akhlaghi, M.; Bouché, N.; Clément, B.; Desprez, G.; Drake, A. B.; Hashimoto, T.; Leclercq, F.; Maseda, M.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Paalvast, M.; Tresse, L.; Ventou, E.; Kollatschny, W.; Boogaard, L. A.; Finley, H.; Marino, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Wisotzki, L.


    We have conducted a two-layered spectroscopic survey (1' × 1' ultra deep and 3' × 3' deep regions) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE). The combination of a large field of view, high sensitivity, and wide wavelength coverage provides an order of magnitude improvement in spectroscopically confirmed redshifts in the HUDF; i.e., 1206 secure spectroscopic redshifts for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) continuum selected objects, which corresponds to 15% of the total (7904). The redshift distribution extends well beyond z> 3 and to HST/F775W magnitudes as faint as ≈ 30 mag (AB, 1σ). In addition, 132 secure redshifts were obtained for sources with no HST counterparts that were discovered in the MUSE data cubes by a blind search for emission-line features. In total, we present 1338 high quality redshifts, which is a factor of eight increase compared with the previously known spectroscopic redshifts in the same field. We assessed redshifts mainly with the spectral features [O II] at z ( or via

  16. CLASS B 1359 + 154: Modelling Lensing by a Group of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Both models call for, in addition to non-singular galaxy-type lenses, a larger scale mass component that resembles the extended dark matter distributions seen in relatively low-redshift galaxy groups. It is presently observationally impossible to study the extended X-ray emission from a group at such a high redshift, hence ...

  17. CLASS B 1359+ 154: Modelling Lensing by a Group of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Both models call for, in addition to non-singular galaxy-type lenses, a larger scale mass component that resembles the extended dark matter distributions seen in relatively low-redshift galaxy groups. It is presently observationally impossible to study the extended X-ray emission from a group at such a high redshift, hence ...

  18. A young star-forming galaxy at z = 3.5 with an extended Ly\\,$α$ halo seen with MUSE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrício, Vera; Richard, Johan; Verhamme, Anne


    Spatially resolved studies of high redshift galaxies, an essential insight into galaxy formation processes, have been mostly limited to stacking or unusually bright objects. We present here the study of a typical (L$^{*}$, M$_\\star$ = 6 $\\times 10^9$ $M_\\odot$) young lensed galaxy at $z=3...

  19. A break in the high-redshift stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation (United States)

    Christensen, Lise; Hjorth, Jens


    We investigate the stellar-mass Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) between the stellar mass and the integrated gas velocity dispersion, quantified by the kinematic estimator S0.5 measured from strong emission lines in spectra of galaxies at 0 law slope and normalization of the TFR are independent of redshift out to z ∼ 3. The scatter in the TFR is 3, the scatter increases and the existence of a correlation is not obvious. The high-luminosity sample exhibits a flatter slope of 1.5 ± 0.2 at z natural consequence of galaxy models with a mass-dependent stellar-to-halo mass ratio.

  20. Early Growth and Efficient Accretion of Massive Black Holes at High Redshift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne


    and the lack of similarly large black-hole masses in the nearby Universe does not rule out their existence at high-z. However, AGN host galaxies do not typically appear fully formed or evolved at these early epochs. This supports scenarios in which black holes build up mass very fast in a radiatively...... inefficient (or obscured) phase relative to the stars in their galaxies. Additionally, upper envelopes of black-hole mass of approximately 10^{10} solar masses and bolometric luminosity of ~ 10^{48} erg/s are observed at all redshifts....

  1. Clustering of High Redshift (z>2.9) Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Fan, Xiaohui; Richards, Gordon T.; Hall, Patrick B.; Schneider, Donald P.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thakar, Anirudda R.; Berk, Daniel E.Vanden; Anderson, Scott F.; Bahcall, Neta A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park


    We study the two-point correlation function of a uniformly selected sample of 4,428 optically selected luminous quasars with redshift 2.9 {le} z {le} 5.4 selected over 4041 deg{sup 2} from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We fit a power-law to the projected correlation function w{sub p}(r{sub p}) to marginalize over redshift space distortions and redshift errors. For a real-space correlation function of the form {zeta}(r) = (r/r{sub 0}){sup -{gamma}}, the fitted parameters in comoving coordinates are r{sub 0} = 15.2 {+-} 2.7 h{sup -1} Mpc and {gamma} = 2.0 {+-} 0.3, over a scale range 4 {le} r{sub p} {le} 150 h{sup -1} Mpc. Thus high-redshift quasars are appreciably more strongly clustered than their z {approx} 1.5 counterparts, which have a comoving clustering length r{sub 0} {approx} 6.5 h{sup -1} Mpc. Dividing our sample into two redshift bins: 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5 and z {ge} 3.5, and assuming a power-law index {gamma} = 2.0, we find a correlation length of r{sub 0} = 16.9 {+-} 1.7 h{sup -1} Mpc for the former, and r{sub 0} = 24.3 {+-} 2.4 h{sup -1} Mpc for the latter. Strong clustering at high redshift indicates that quasars are found in very massive, and therefore highly biased, halos. Following Martini & Weinberg, we relate the clustering strength and quasar number density to the quasar lifetimes and duty cycle. Using the Sheth & Tormen halo mass function, the quasar lifetime is estimated to lie in the range 4 {approx} 50 Myr for quasars with 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5; and 30 {approx} 600 Myr for quasars with z {ge} 3.5. The corresponding duty cycles are 0.004 {approx} 0.05 for the lower redshift bin and 0.03 {approx} 0.6 for the higher redshift bin. The minimum mass of halos in which these quasars reside is 2-3 x 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} for quasars with 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5 and 4-6 x 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} for quasars with z {ge} 3.5; the effective bias factor b{sub eff} increases with redshift, e.g., b

  2. Submillimeter Galaxies as Progenitors of Compact Quiescent Galaxies (United States)

    Toft, S.; Smolcic, V.; Magnelli, B.; Karim, A.; Zirm, A.; Michalowski, M.; Capak, P.; Sheth, K.; Schawinski, K.; Krogager, J.-K.; hide


    Three billion years after the big bang (at redshift z = 2), half of the most massive galaxies were already old, quiescent systems with little to no residual star formation and extremely compact with stellar mass densities at least an order of magnitude larger than in low-redshift ellipticals, their descendants. Little is known about how they formed, but their evolved, dense stellar populations suggest formation within intense, compact starbursts 1-2 Gyr earlier (at 3 < z < 6). Simulations show that gas-rich major mergers can give rise to such starbursts, which produce dense remnants. Submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) are prime examples of intense, gas-rich starbursts.With a new, representative spectroscopic sample of compact, quiescent galaxies at z = 2 and a statistically well-understood sample of SMGs, we show that z = 3-6 SMGs are consistent with being the progenitors of z = 2 quiescent galaxies, matching their formation redshifts and their distributions of sizes, stellar masses, and internal velocities. Assuming an evolutionary connection, their space densities also match if the mean duty cycle of SMG starbursts is 42(sup+40) -29 Myr (consistent with independent estimates), which indicates that the bulk of stars in these massive galaxies were formed in a major, early surge of star formation. These results suggest a coherent picture of the formation history of the most massive galaxies in the universe, from their initial burst of violent star formation through their appearance as high stellar-density galaxy cores and to their ultimate fate as giant ellipticals.

  3. Submillimeter galaxies as progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, S.; Zirm, A.; Krogager, J.-K.; Man, A. W. S. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Smolčić, V.; Krpan, J. [Physics Department, University of Zagreb, Bijenička cesta 32, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Magnelli, B.; Karim, A. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 71, Bonn, D-53121 (Germany); Michalowski, M. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, 314-6 Caltech, 1201 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sheth, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Schawinski, K. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Wuyts, S.; Lutz, D.; Staguhn, J.; Berta, S. [MPE, Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Sanders, D. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Mccracken, H. [Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Riechers, D., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)


    Three billion years after the big bang (at redshift z = 2), half of the most massive galaxies were already old, quiescent systems with little to no residual star formation and extremely compact with stellar mass densities at least an order of magnitude larger than in low-redshift ellipticals, their descendants. Little is known about how they formed, but their evolved, dense stellar populations suggest formation within intense, compact starbursts 1-2 Gyr earlier (at 3 < z < 6). Simulations show that gas-rich major mergers can give rise to such starbursts, which produce dense remnants. Submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) are prime examples of intense, gas-rich starbursts. With a new, representative spectroscopic sample of compact, quiescent galaxies at z = 2 and a statistically well-understood sample of SMGs, we show that z = 3-6 SMGs are consistent with being the progenitors of z = 2 quiescent galaxies, matching their formation redshifts and their distributions of sizes, stellar masses, and internal velocities. Assuming an evolutionary connection, their space densities also match if the mean duty cycle of SMG starbursts is 42{sub −29}{sup +40} Myr (consistent with independent estimates), which indicates that the bulk of stars in these massive galaxies were formed in a major, early surge of star formation. These results suggest a coherent picture of the formation history of the most massive galaxies in the universe, from their initial burst of violent star formation through their appearance as high stellar-density galaxy cores and to their ultimate fate as giant ellipticals.

  4. The galaxy ancestor problem (United States)

    Disney, M. J.; Lang, R. H.


    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) findsgalaxies whose Tolman dimming exceeds 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore the latter hypothesis and argue that surface brightness selection effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus, the HST z = 7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighbourhood easily today. Conversely, the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbours would have completely sunk below the sky at z > 1.2, unless they were more luminous in the past, although their diffused light could account for the missing re-ionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well even without evolution, including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightness found in deep fields, the angular size ˜(1 + z)-1 law, 'downsizing' which turns out to be an 'illusion' in the sense that it does not imply evolution, 'infant mortality', that is, the discrepancy between stars born and stars seen, the existence of 'red nuggets', and finally the recently discovered and unexpected excess of quasar absorption line damped Lyα systems at high redshift. If galaxies were not significantly brighter in the past and the SPDH were true, then a large proportion of galaxies could remain sunk from sight, possibly at all redshifts, and these sunken galaxies could supply the missing re-ionization flux. We show that fishing these sunken galaxies out of the sky by their optical emissions alone is practically impossible, even when they are nearby. More ingenious methods are needed to detect them. It follows that disentangling galaxy evolution through studying ever higher redshift galaxies may be a forlorn hope because one could

  5. Inside-out formation of massive galaxies (United States)

    de la Rosa, I. G.


    A significant fraction of the present day massive galaxies have compact cores embedded inside their disks or halos. Strikingly, those compact cores are similar to the massive high-redshift quiescent compact galaxies, nicknamed red-nuggets. We present observational evidence supporting an inside-out formation scenario, where present-day massive galaxies can begin as dense spheroidal cores (red-nuggets), around which either a spheroidal halo or a disk are accreted later. This contribution is based on the paper by de la Rosa et al. (2016).

  6. Compact quiescent galaxies at intermediate redshifts {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi [Institute of Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)


    From several searches of the area common to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, we have selected 22 luminous galaxies between z ∼ 0.4 and z ∼ 0.9 that have colors and sizes similar to those of the compact quiescent galaxies at z > 2. By exploring structural parameters and stellar populations, we found that most of these galaxies actually formed most of their stars at z < 2 and are generally less compact than those found at z > 2. Several of these young objects are disk-like or possibly prolate. This lines up with several previous studies that found that massive quiescent galaxies at high redshifts often have disk-like morphologies. If these galaxies were to be confirmed to be disk-like, their formation mechanism must be able to account for both compactness and disks. On the other hand, if these galaxies were to be confirmed to be prolate, the fact that prolate galaxies do not exist in the local universe would indicate that galaxy formation mechanisms have evolved over cosmic time. We also found five galaxies forming over 80% of their stellar masses at z > 2. Three of these galaxies appear to have been modified to have spheroid-like morphologies, in agreement with the scenario of 'inside-out' buildup of massive galaxies. The remaining galaxies, SDSS J014355.21+133451.4 and SDSS J115836.93+021535.1, have truly old stellar populations and disk-like morphologies. These two objects would be good candidates for nearly unmodified compact quiescent galaxies from high redshifts that are worth future study.

  7. High Redshift Intergalactic C IV Abundance Measurements from the Near-Infrared Spectra of Two z~6 QSOs


    Simcoe, Robert A.


    New measurements of the z~6 intergalactic CIV abundance are presented, using moderate resolution IR spectra of two QSOs taken with GNIRS on Gemini South. These data were systematically searched for high redshift CIV absorption lines, using objective selection criteria. Comprehensive tests were performed to quantify sample incompleteness, as well as the rate of false positive CIV identifications. The trend of constant $\\Omega_{CIV}(z)$ observed at z~2-5 appears to continue to z~6, the highest ...

  8. Galaxy clusters as probes for cosmology and dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battistelli, Elia S.; Burigana, Carlo; De Bernardis, Paolo


    In recent years, significant progress has been made in building new galaxy clusters samples, at low and high redshifts, from wide-area surveys, particularly exploiting the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. A large effort is underway to identify and characterize these new systems with optical/NIR an...

  9. The optical afterglow and host galaxy of GRB 000926

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, J.U.; Gorosabel, J.; Dall, T.H.


    In this paper we illustrate with the case of GRB 000926 how Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) can be used as cosmological lighthouses to identify and study star forming galaxies at high redshifts. The optical afterglow of the burst was located with optical imaging at the Nordic Optical Telescope 20.7 hours...

  10. Is cold gas fuelling the radio galaxy NGC 315?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, R.; Peck, A. B.; Oosterloo, T. A.; van Moorsel, G.; Capetti, A.; Fanti, R.; Parma, P.; Ruiter de, H.R.


    We present WSRT, VLA and VLBI observations of the Hi absorption in the radio galaxy NGC 315. The main result is that two Hi absorbing systems are detected against the central region. In addition to the known highly redshifted, very narrow component, we detect relatively broad (FWZI similar to 150 km

  11. Ultraviolet spectropolarimetry of high-redshift quasars with the Hubble Space Telescope (United States)

    Impey, C. D.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Webb, Wayne; Petry, C. E.


    Ultraviolet spectropolarimetry of three bright high-redshift low-polarization quasars (LPQs) was obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Two of the quasars, PG 1634+706 and PG 2302+029, had polarizations p approximately = 0.5%-1.0% throughout the ultraviolet, and showed no significant variation of polarization amplitude or position angle with wavelength. PG 2302+029 was also marginally (2.4 sigma) circularly polarized in the optical continuum. For the highest redshift quasar, PG 1222+228 (Ton 1530), the polarization was measured down to rest wavelengths below 800 A. Although the continuum of PG 1222+228 was weakened by Lyman limit absorption from an intergalactic gas cloud, the polarization increased sharply from 1% to about 4.5%, a change of 4 sigma significance. This abrupt rise in polarization does not appear attributable to any known instrumental artifact. These UV polarizations were only slightly less than those previously observed for these same objects in the optical. The polarization spectra were flat with a typical slope of the polarized flux pF(sub nu) proportional to nu(exp -0.8 +/- 0.5). Unlike the case of several high luminosity Seyfert 1 nuclei studied previously, polarization caused by scattering from dust grains does not provide the best fit to the polarization spectra of these luminous quasars. These observed spectra are consistent with a wavelength-independent polarization proportional to the total nonstellar light or, possibly, to the contribution of the blue thermal component. The polarization spectra have insufficient signal-to-noise to locate the scatterers with respect to the continuum source and the much larger broad line region. A decrease in amplitude and rotation of the position angle of the polarization vector at the shortest wavelengths, which could result from general relativistic effects near a spinning black hole, was not observed. In fact, in PG 1222+228, the polarization was observed to

  12. Submillimetre observations of WISE-selected high-redshift, luminous AGN and their surrounding overdense environments (United States)

    Jones, Suzy F.


    We present JCMT SCUBA-2 850 μm submillimetre (submm) observations of 10 mid-infrared (mid-IR) luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs), detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky IR survey and 30 that have also been detected by the NVSS/FIRST radio survey. These rare sources are selected by their extremely red mid-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Further investigations show that they are highly obscured, have abundant warm AGN-heated dust and are thought to be experiencing intense AGN feedback. When comparing the number of submm galaxies detected serendipitously in the surrounding 1.5 arcmin to those in blank-field submm surveys, there is a very significant overdensity, of order 3-5, but no sign of radial clustering centred at our primary objects. The WISE-selected AGN thus reside in 10-Mpc-scale overdense environments that could be forming in pre-viralized clusters of galaxies. WISE-selected AGNs appear to be the strongest signposts of high-density regions of active, luminous and dusty galaxies. SCUBA-2 850 μm observations indicate that their submm fluxes are low compared to many popular AGN SED templates, hence the WISE/radio-selected AGNs have either less cold and/or more warm dust emission than normally assumed for typical AGN. Most of the targets have total IR luminosities ≥1013 L⊙, with known redshifts of 20 targets between z ˜ 0.44-4.6.

  13. The Origin of Dust in High-z Galaxies (United States)

    Dwek, Eli


    The discovery of massive amounts of dust in the high-redshift galaxy Jl148+5251, when the universe was merely'" 900 Myr old, presents a unique opportunity for studying the role of massive stars in the formation and destruction of dust grains, and the potential role of AGB as dust sources as well. In this talk I will review the different models for the presence of dust and the origin of the infrared emission in these galaxies.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Tracy M. A.; Bonaventura, Nina [McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Muzzin, Adam [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, P.O. Box 9514, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Noble, Allison; Yee, H. K. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Geach, James [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL109AB (United Kingdom); Hezevah, Yashar [Kavli Institue for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Lidman, Chris [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Wilson, Gillian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shupe, David [NASA Herschel Science Center, IPAC, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    We present the results of an MIPS-24 μm study of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) of 535 high-redshift galaxy clusters. The clusters are drawn from the Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey, which effectively provides a sample selected on total stellar mass, over 0.2 < z < 1.8 within the Spitzer Wide-Area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) Survey fields. Twenty percent, or 106 clusters, have spectroscopically confirmed redshifts, and the rest have redshifts estimated from the color of their red sequence. A comparison with the public SWIRE images detects 125 individual BCGs at 24 μm ≳ 100 μJy, or 23%. The luminosity-limited detection rate of BCGs in similar richness clusters (N{sub gal} > 12) increases rapidly with redshift. Above z ∼ 1, an average of ∼20% of the sample have 24 μm inferred infrared luminosities of L{sub IR} > 10{sup 12} L{sub ⊙}, while the fraction below z ∼ 1 exhibiting such luminosities is <1%. The Spitzer-IRAC colors indicate the bulk of the 24 μm detected population is predominantly powered by star formation, with only 7/125 galaxies lying within the color region inhabited by active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Simple arguments limit the star formation activity to several hundred million years and this may therefore be indicative of the timescale for AGN feedback to halt the star formation. Below redshift z ∼ 1, there is not enough star formation to significantly contribute to the overall stellar mass of the BCG population, and therefore BCG growth is likely dominated by dry mergers. Above z ∼ 1, however, the inferred star formation would double the stellar mass of the BCGs and is comparable to the mass assembly predicted by simulations through dry mergers. We cannot yet constrain the process driving the star formation for the overall sample, though a single object studied in detail is consistent with a gas-rich merger.

  15. Statistical issues in galaxy cluster cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantz, Adam; Allen, Steven W.; Rapetti Serra, David Angelo


    The number and growth of massive galaxy clusters is a sensitive probe of cosmological structure formation and dark energy. Surveys at various wavelengths can detect clusters to high redshift, but the fact that cluster mass is not directly observable complicates matters, requiring us to simultaneo......The number and growth of massive galaxy clusters is a sensitive probe of cosmological structure formation and dark energy. Surveys at various wavelengths can detect clusters to high redshift, but the fact that cluster mass is not directly observable complicates matters, requiring us...... to simultaneously constrain scaling relations of observable signals with mass. The problem can be cast in the form of a regression, in which the data set is truncated, the (cosmology-dependent) underlying population must be modeled, and strong, complex correlations between measurements often exist....

  16. A model for the origin of bursty star formation in galaxies (United States)

    Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André


    We propose a simple analytic model to understand when star formation is time steady versus bursty in galaxies. Recent models explain the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt relation between star formation rate and gas surface densities in galaxies as resulting from a balance between stellar feedback and gravity. We argue that bursty star formation occurs when such an equilibrium cannot be stably sustained, and identify two regimes in which galaxy-scale star formation should be bursty: (i) at high redshift (z ≳ 1) for galaxies of all masses, and (ii) at low masses (depending on gas fraction) for galaxies at any redshift. At high redshift, characteristic galactic dynamical time-scales become too short for supernova feedback to effectively respond to gravitational collapse in galactic discs (an effect recently identified for galactic nuclei), whereas in dwarf galaxies star formation occurs in too few bright star-forming regions to effectively average out. Burstiness is also enhanced at high redshift owing to elevated gas fractions in the early Universe. Our model can thus explain the bursty star formation rates predicted in these regimes by recent high-resolution galaxy formation simulations, as well as the bursty star formation histories observationally inferred in both local dwarf and high-redshift galaxies. In our model, bursty star formation is associated with particularly strong spatiotemporal clustering of supernovae. Such clustering can promote the formation of galactic winds and our model may thus also explain the much higher wind mass loading factors inferred in high-redshift massive galaxies relative to their z ∼ 0 counterparts.

  17. Fueling the central engine of radio galaxies. II. The footprints of AGN feedback on the ISM of 3C 236

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labiano, A.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Usero, A.; Soria-Ruiz, R.; Tremblay, G.; Neri, R.; Fuente, A.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T.

    Context. There is growing observational evidence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback on the interstellar medium (ISM) of radio-quiet and radio-loud galaxies. While AGN feedback is expected to be more common at high-redshift objects, studying local universe galaxies helps to better characterize

  18. Examining High Redshift Rotation Curves and Dark Matter Profiles Outside the Local Universe (United States)

    Cutler, Sam Edward


    Examination of galactic rotation curves in the local universe has yielded evidence of both cusp and core type dark matter profiles. We present one of the first studies of a galactic rotation curve for a distant gravitationally-lensed massive, dusty star-forming galaxy, CL2244-1, with a spectroscopic redshift 1.77. Using VLT/XSHOOTER spectroscopy, we perform a 2D spectral analysis of the H-alpha emission. With this rotation curve, we fit a dark matter density profile and determine the functional form of the profile (cusp or core). Predictions from comparing the shape of the rotation curve of CL2244-1 to that of M33 and other galaxies in the local universe suggest that the dark matter profile of CL2244-1 is best represented by a cuspy profile. Though this cuspy profile supports the cold dark matter cosmological model, we cannot rule out self-interacting dark matter, whose interactions may not have had time to shift the density profile to a core at such early times.

  19. Optical study of the DAFT/FADA galaxy cluster survey (United States)

    Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Clowe, D.; Adami, C.


    DAFT/FADA (Dark energy American French Team) is a large survey of ˜90 high redshift (0.42×10^{14} M_{⊙}) clusters with HST weak lensing oriented data, plus BVRIZJ 4m ground based follow up to compute photometric redshifts. The main goals of this survey are to constrain dark energy parameters using weak lensing tomography and to study a large homogeneous sample of high redshift massive clusters. We will briefly review the latest results of this optical survey, focusing on two ongoing works: the calculation of galaxy luminosity functions from photometric redshift catalogs and the weak lensing analysis of ground based data.

  20. RadioAstron space VLBI imaging of polarized radio emission in the high-redshift quasar 0642+449 at 1.6 GHz (United States)

    Lobanov, A. P.; Gómez, J. L.; Bruni, G.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Anderson, J.; Bach, U.; Kraus, A.; Zensus, J. A.; Lisakov, M. M.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Voytsik, P. A.


    Context. Polarization of radio emission in extragalactic jets at a sub-milliarcsecond angular resolution holds important clues for understanding the structure of the magnetic field in the inner regions of the jets and in close vicinity of the supermassive black holes in the centers of active galaxies. Aims: Space VLBI observations provide a unique tool for polarimetric imaging at a sub-milliarcsecond angular resolution and studying the properties of magnetic field in active galactic nuclei on scales of less than 104 gravitational radii. Methods: A space VLBI observation of high-redshift quasar TXS 0642+449 (OH 471), made at a wavelength of 18 cm (frequency of 1.6 GHz) as part of the early science programme (ESP) of the RadioAstron mission, is used here to test the polarimetric performance of the orbiting Space Radio Telescope (SRT) employed by the mission, to establish a methodology for making full Stokes polarimetry with space VLBI at 1.6 GHz, and to study the polarized emission in the target object on sub-milliarcsecond scales. Results: Polarization leakage of the SRT at 18 cm is found to be within 9% in amplitude, demonstrating the feasibility of high fidelity polarization imaging with RadioAstron at this wavelength. A polarimetric image of 0642+449 with a resolution of 0.8 mas (signifying an ~4 times improvement over ground VLBI observations at the same wavelength) is obtained. The image shows a compact core-jet structure with low (≈2%) polarization and predominantly transverse magnetic field in the nuclear region. The VLBI data also uncover a complex structure of the nuclear region, with two prominent features possibly corresponding to the jet base and a strong recollimation shock. The maximum brightness temperature at the jet base can be as high as 4 × 1013 K.

  1. Tackling The Dragon: Investigating Lensed Galaxy Structure (United States)

    Fortenberry, Alexander; Livermore, Rachael


    Galaxies have been seen to have a rapid decrease in star formation beginning at a redshift of around 1-2 up to the present day. To understand the processes underpinning this change, we need to observe the inner structure of galaxies and understand where and how the stellar mass builds up. However, at high redshifts our observable resolution is limited, which hinders the accuracy of the data. The lack of resolution at high redshift can be counteracted with the use of gravitational lensing. The magnification provided by the gravitational lens between us and the galaxies in question enables us to see extreme detail within the galaxies. To begin fine-tuning this process, we used Hubble data of Abell 370, a galaxy cluster, which lenses a galaxy know as “The Dragon” at z=0.725. With the increased detail proved by the gravitational lens we provide a detailed analysis of the galaxy’s spatially resolved star formation rate, stellar age, and masses.

  2. A study of high-redshift AGN feedback in SZ cluster samples (United States)

    Bîrzan, L.; Rafferty, D. A.; Brüggen, M.; Intema, H. T.


    We present a study of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback at higher redshifts (0.3 HERGs) in massive clusters at z > 0.6, implying a transition from HERG-mode accretion to lower power low-excitation radio galaxy (LERG)-mode accretion at intermediate redshifts. Additionally, we use local radio-to-jet power scaling relations to estimate feedback power and find that half of the CF systems in our sample probably have enough heating to balance cooling. However, we postulate that the local relations are likely not well suited to predict feedback power in high-luminosity HERGs, as they are derived from samples composed mainly of lower luminosity LERGs.

  3. Outskirts of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Janice; Paz, Armando


    This book consists of invited reviews written by world-renowned experts on the subject of the outskirts of galaxies, an upcoming field which has been understudied so far. These regions are faint and hard to observe, yet hide a tremendous amount of information on the origin and early evolution of galaxies. They thus allow astronomers to address some of the most topical problems, such as gaseous and satellite accretion, radial migration, and merging. The book is published in conjunction with the celebration of the end of the four-year DAGAL project, an EU-funded initial training network, and with a major international conference on the topic held in March 2016 in Toledo. It thus reflects not only the views of the experts, but also the scientific discussions and progress achieved during the project and the meeting. The reviews in the book describe the most modern observations of the outer regions of our own Galaxy, and of galaxies in the local and high-redshift Universe. They tackle disks, haloes, streams, and a...

  4. The number density of quiescent compact galaxies at intermediate redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damjanov, Ivana [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hwang, Ho Seong; Geller, Margaret J.; Chilingarian, Igor, E-mail: [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    Massive compact systems at 0.2 < z < 0.6 are the missing link between the predominantly compact population of massive quiescent galaxies at high redshift and their analogs and relics in the local volume. The evolution in number density of these extreme objects over cosmic time is the crucial constraining factor for the models of massive galaxy assembly. We select a large sample of ∼200 intermediate-redshift massive compacts from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) spectroscopy by identifying point-like Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric sources with spectroscopic signatures of evolved redshifted galaxies. A subset of our targets have publicly available high-resolution ground-based images that we use to augment the dynamical and stellar population properties of these systems by their structural parameters. We confirm that all BOSS compact candidates are as compact as their high-redshift massive counterparts and less than half the size of similarly massive systems at z ∼ 0. We use the completeness-corrected numbers of BOSS compacts to compute lower limits on their number densities in narrow redshift bins spanning the range of our sample. The abundance of extremely dense quiescent galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.6 is in excellent agreement with the number densities of these systems at high redshift. Our lower limits support the models of massive galaxy assembly through a series of minor mergers over the redshift range 0 < z < 2.

  5. Simulating the detection and classification of high-redshift supernovae with HARMONI on the ELT (United States)

    Bounissou, S.; Thatte, N.; Zieleniewski, S.; Houghton, R. C. W.; Tecza, M.; Hook, I.; Neichel, B.; Fusco, T.


    We present detailed simulations of integral field spectroscopic observations of a supernova in a host galaxy at z ˜ 3, as observed by the HARMONI spectrograph on the Extremely Large Telescope, asssisted by laser tomographic adaptive optics. The goal of the simulations, using the HSIM simulation tool, is to determine whether HARMONI can discern the supernova Type from spectral features in the supernova spectrum. We find that in a 3 hour observation, covering the near-infrared H and K bands, at a spectral resolving power of ˜3000, and using the 20×20 mas spaxel scale, we can classify supernova Type Ia and their redshift robustly up to 80 days past maximum light (20 days in the supernova rest frame). We show that HARMONI will provide spectra at z ˜ 3 that are of comparable (or better) quality to the best spectra we can currently obtain at z ˜ 1, thus allowing studies of cosmic expansion rates to be pushed to substantially higher redshifts.

  6. Lyα Forest Tomography from Background Galaxies: The First Megaparsec-resolution Large-scale Structure Map at z > 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Stark, Casey; Prochaska, J. Xavier; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Eilers, Anna-Christina; Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Suzuki, Nao; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Caputi, Karina I.; Cassata, Paolo; Ilbert, Olivier; Garilli, Bianca; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Le Brun, Vincent; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Maccagni, Dario; Nugent, Peter; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Tasca, Lidia A. M.; Tresse, Laurence; Zamorani, Gianni; Zucca, Elena


    We present the first observations of foreground Lyα forest absorption from high-redshift galaxies, targeting 24 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with z ~ 2.3-2.8 within a 5' × 14' region of the COSMOS field. The transverse sightline separation is ~2 h -1 Mpc comoving, allowing us to create a tomographic

  7. CI, [CII] and CO observations towards TNJ 1338–1942: Probing the ISM in a massive proto-cluster galaxy at z = 4.11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, S; Greve, T R; Seymour, N


    A number of studies have dealt with the link between distant powerful radio sources and the most massive galaxies in the early Universe. Despite major advances in our understanding of high redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs), we still only have a rudimentary picture of the physical conditions (i.e. gas...

  8. The variance of dispersion measure of high-redshift transient objects as a probe of ionized bubble size during reionization (United States)

    Yoshiura, Shintaro; Takahashi, Keitaro


    The dispersion measure (DM) of high-redshift (z ≳ 6) transient objects such as fast radio bursts can be a powerful tool to probe the intergalactic medium during the Epoch of Reionization. In this paper, we study the variance of the DMs of objects with the same redshift as a potential probe of the size distribution of ionized bubbles. We calculate the DM variance with a simple model with randomly distributed spherical bubbles. It is found that the DM variance reflects the characteristics of the probability distribution of the bubble size. We find that the variance can be measured precisely enough to obtain the information on the typical size with a few hundred sources at a single redshift.

  9. Star Formation in Tadpole Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casiana Muñoz-Tuñon


    Full Text Available Tadpole Galaxies look like a star forming head with a tail structure to the side. They are also named cometaries. In a series of recent works we have discovered a number of issues that lead us to consider them extremely interesting targets. First, from images, they are disks with a lopsided starburst. This result is rmly  established with long slit spectroscopy in a nearby representative sample. They rotate with the head following the rotation pattern but displaced from the rotation center. Moreover, in a search for extremely metal poor (XMP galaxies, we identied tadpoles as the dominant shapes in the sample - nearly 80% of the local XMP galaxies have a tadpole morphology. In addition, the spatially resolved analysis of the metallicity shows the remarkable result that there is a metallicity drop right at the position of the head. This is contrary to what intuition would say and dicult to explain if star formation has happened from gas processed in the disk. The result could however be understood if the star formation is driven by pristine gas falling into the galaxy disk. If conrmed, we could be unveiling, for the rst time, cool  ows in action in our nearby world. The tadpole class is relatively frequent at high redshift - 10% of resolvable galaxies in the Hubble UDF but less than 1% in the local Universe. They are systems that could track cool ows and test models of galaxy formation.

  10. Feedback and the structure of simulated galaxies at redshift z=2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sales, Laura V.; Navarro, Julio F.; Schaye, Joop; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Springel, Volker; Booth, C. M.


    We study the properties of simulated high-redshift galaxies using cosmological N-body/gasdynamical runs from the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations (OWLS) project. The runs contrast several feedback implementations of varying effectiveness: from no feedback, to supernova-driven winds to powerful

  11. Lyman alpha emission from the first galaxies : Implications of UV backgrounds and the formation of molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Spaans, Maarten; Zaroubi, S.

    The Lyman alpha line is a robust tracer of high redshift galaxies. We present estimates of Lyman alpha emission from a protogalactic halo illuminated by UV background radiation fields with various intensities. For this purpose, we performed cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with the adaptive

  12. Serendipitous ALMA detections of faint submm galaxies in SERVS (United States)

    Patil, Pallavi; Lacy, Mark; Nyland, Kristina


    We present a preliminary ALMA study of faint (piece of information is their morphologies at rest-frame optical wavelengths, which for high-redshift submm galaxies is only accessible through ALMA observations. The high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and positional accuracy of ALMA have enabled us to probe the nature of the sub-mJy population by resolving their spatial extents and improving constraints on their SEDS and photometric redshifts. We are building a catalog of sources by searching the ALMA archive for moderate to deep observations in the area covered by SERVS. This study will help us begin to understand the contribution of obscured star formation to the total star formation rate at high redshift and guide future wide-area surveys of submm galaxies with ALMA.

  13. Indirect Evidence for Escaping Ionizing Photons in Local Lyman Break Galaxy Analogs


    Alexandroff, Rachael; Heckman, Timothy; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Overzier, Roderik; Leitherer, Claus


    A population of early star-forming galaxies is the leading candidate for the re-ionization of the universe. It is still unclear what conditions and physical processes would enable a significant fraction of the ionizing photons to escape from these gas-rich galaxies. In this paper we present the results of the analysis of HST COS far-UV spectroscopy plus ancillary multi-waveband data of a sample of 22 low-redshift galaxies that are good analogs to typical star-forming galaxies at high-redshift...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    We have made sensitive VLA observations of virtually all known high-redshift (z > 1.5) radio-loud QSOs with extended radio morphologies. The resulting images (at 6 and 2 cm wavelength, including linear polarization) have angular resolutions of typically 0.''4 and 0.''15 and are compiled here. This

  15. Spatial correlation between submillimetre and Lyman-alpha galaxies in the SSA 22 protocluster. (United States)

    Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Iono, Daisuke; Wilson, Grant W; Yun, Min S; Takata, Tadafumi; Matsuda, Yuichi; Tosaki, Tomoka; Ezawa, Hajime; Perera, Thushara A; Scott, Kimberly S; Austermann, Jason E; Hughes, David H; Aretxaga, Itziar; Chung, Aeree; Oshima, Tai; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Kawabe, Ryohei


    Lyman-alpha emitters are thought to be young, low-mass galaxies with ages of approximately 10(8) yr (refs 1, 2). An overdensity of them in one region of the sky (the SSA 22 field) traces out a filamentary structure in the early Universe at a redshift of z approximately 3.1 (equivalent to 15 per cent of the age of the Universe) and is believed to mark a forming protocluster. Galaxies that are bright at (sub)millimetre wavelengths are undergoing violent episodes of star formation, and there is evidence that they are preferentially associated with high-redshift radio galaxies, so the question of whether they are also associated with the most significant large-scale structure growing at high redshift (as outlined by Lyman-alpha emitters) naturally arises. Here we report an imaging survey of 1,100-microm emission in the SSA 22 region. We find an enhancement of submillimetre galaxies near the core of the protocluster, and a large-scale correlation between the submillimetre galaxies and the low-mass Lyman-alpha emitters, suggesting synchronous formation of the two very different types of star-forming galaxy within the same structure at high redshift. These results are in general agreement with our understanding of the formation of cosmic structure.

  16. The Spitzer/Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (United States)

    Perley, Daniel; Berger, Edo; Butler, Nathaniel; Cenko, S. Bradley; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cucchiara, Antonino; Ellis, Richard; Fong, Wen-fai; Fruchter, Andrew; Fynbo, Johan; Gehrels, Neil; Graham, John; Greiner, Jochen; Hjorth, Jens; Hunt, Leslie; Jakobsson, Pall; Kruehler, Thomas; Laskar, Tanmoy; Le Floc'h, Emerich; Levan, Andrew; Levesque, Emily; Littlejohns, Owen; Malesani, Daniele; Michalowski, Michal; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Salvaterra, Ruben; Schulze, Steve; Schady, Patricia; Tanvir, Nial; de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; Vergani, Susanna; Watson, Darach


    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts act as beacons to the sites of star-formation in the distant universe. GRBs reveal galaxies too faint and star-forming regions too dusty to characterize in detail using any other method, and provide a powerful independent constraint on the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate density at high-redshift. However, a full understanding of the GRB phenomenon and its relation to cosmic star-formation requires connecting the observations obtained from GRBs to the properties of the galaxies hosting them. The large majority of GRBs originate at moderate to high redshift (z>1) and Spitzer has proven crucial for understanding the host population, given its unique ability to observe the rest-frame NIR and its unrivaled sensitivity and efficiency. We propose to complete a comprehensive public legacy survey of the Swift GRB host population to build on our earlier successes and push beyond the statistical limits of previous, smaller efforts. Our survey will enable a diverse range of GRB and galaxy science including: (1) to quantitatively and robustly map the connection between GRBs and cosmic star-formation to constrain the GRB progenitor and calibrate GRB rate-based measurements of the high-z cosmic star-formation rate; (2) to constrain the luminosity function of star-forming galaxies at the faint end and at high redshift; (3) to understand how the ISM properties seen in absorption in high-redshift galaxies unveiled by GRBs - metallicity, dust column, dust properties - connect to global properties of the host galaxies such as mass and age. Building on a decade of experience at both observatories, our observations will create an enduring joint Swift-Spitzer legacy sample - providing the definitive resource with which to examine all aspects of the GRB/galaxy connection for years to come and setting the stage for intensive JWST follow-up of the most interesting sources from our sample.

  17. Multiwavelength Mapping of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Renzini, Alvio; ESO Workshop


    The possibilities of astronomical observation have dramatically increased over the last decade. Major satellites, like the Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra and XMM Newton, are complemented by numerous large ground-based observatories, from 8m-10m optical telescopes to sub-mm and radio facilities. As a result, observational astronomy has access to virtually the whole electromagnetic spectrum of galaxies, even at high redshifts. Theoretical models of galaxy formation and cosmological evolution now face a serious challenge to match the plethora of observational data. In October 2003, over 170 astronomers from 15 countries met for a 4-day workshop to extensively illustrate and discuss all major observational projects and ongoing theoretical efforts to model galaxy formation and evolution. This volume contains the complete proceedings of this meeting and is therefore a unique and timely overview of the current state of research in this rapidly evolving field.

  18. GRB 120521C at z ∼ 6 and the properties of high-redshift γ-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskar, Tanmoy; Berger, Edo; Zauderer, B. Ashley; Margutti, Raffaella; Fong, Wen-fai [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tanvir, Nial; Wiersema, Klaas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Levan, Andrew [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Perley, Daniel [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Menten, Karl [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Hrudkova, Marie [Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, Apartado de Correos 321, E-387 00 Santa Cruz de la Palma, Canary Islands (Spain)


    We present optical, near-infrared, and radio observations of the afterglow of GRB 120521C. By modeling the multi-wavelength data set, we derive a photometric redshift of z ≈ 6.0, which we confirm with a low signal-to-noise ratio spectrum of the afterglow. We find that a model with a constant-density environment provides a good fit to the afterglow data, with an inferred density of n ≲ 0.05 cm{sup –3}. The radio observations reveal the presence of a jet break at t {sub jet} ≈ 7 d, corresponding to a jet opening angle of θ{sub jet} ≈ 3°. The beaming-corrected γ-ray and kinetic energies are E {sub γ} ≈ E{sub K} ≈ 3 × 10{sup 50} erg. We quantify the uncertainties in our results using a detailed Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis, which allows us to uncover degeneracies between the physical parameters of the explosion. To compare GRB 120521C to other high-redshift bursts in a uniform manner we re-fit all available afterglow data for the two other bursts at z ≳ 6 with radio detections (GRBs 050904 and 090423). We find a jet break at t {sub jet} ≈ 15 d for GRB 090423, in contrast to previous work. Based on these three events, we find that γ-ray bursts (GRBs) at z ≳ 6 appear to explode in constant-density environments, and exhibit a wide range of energies and densities that span the range inferred for lower redshift bursts. On the other hand, we find a hint for narrower jets in the z ≳ 6 bursts, potentially indicating a larger true event rate at these redshifts. Overall, our results indicate that long GRBs share a common progenitor population at least to z ∼ 8.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jingwen; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Tsai, Chao-Wei; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger; Jarrett, Thomas [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sayers, Jack; Bridge, Carrie [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Benford, Dominic [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blain, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, LE1 7RH Leicester (United Kingdom); Petty, Sara; Lake, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bussmann, Shane [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Comerford, Julia M.; Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78731 (United States); Lonsdale, Carol [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Rho, Jeonghee [SETI Institute, 189 BERNARDO Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Stanford, S. Adam, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others


    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare ({approx}1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at z = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 {mu}m. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (z > 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 {mu}m, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature. We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60-120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe. We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  20. Tidal dwarf galaxies in cosmological simulations (United States)

    Ploeckinger, Sylvia; Sharma, Kuldeep; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Barber, Christopher


    The formation and evolution of gravitationally bound, star forming substructures in tidal tails of interacting galaxies, called tidal dwarf galaxies (TDG), has been studied, until now, only in idealized simulations of individual pairs of interacting galaxies for pre-determined orbits, mass ratios and gas fractions. Here, we present the first identification of TDG candidates in fully cosmological simulations, specifically the high-resolution simulations of the EAGLE suite. The finite resolution of the simulation limits their ability to predict the exact formation rate and survival time-scale of TDGs, but we show that gravitationally bound baryonic structures in tidal arms already form in current state-of-the-art cosmological simulations. In this case, the orbital parameter, disc orientations as well as stellar and gas masses and the specific angular momentum of the TDG forming galaxies are a direct consequence of cosmic structure formation. We identify TDG candidates in a wide range of environments, such as multiple galaxy mergers, clumpy high-redshift (up to z = 2) galaxies, high-speed encounters and tidal interactions with gas-poor galaxies. We present selection methods, the properties of the identified TDG candidates and a road map for more quantitative analyses using future high-resolution simulations.

  1. Candidate z~8-9 Galaxies from WFC3 Imaging


    Lorenzoni, Silvio; Bunker, Andrew; Wilkins, Stephen; Stanway, Elizabeth; Jarvis, Matt; Caruana, Joseph


    We present a search for galaxies at 7.6 < z < 9.8 using the latest Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared data, based on the Lyman-break technique. We search for galaxies which have large (Y−J) colours (the ‘Y-drops’) on account of the Lyman α forest absorption, and with (J−H) colours inconsistent with being low-redshift contaminants. We identify 24 candidates at redshift z≈ 8–9 (15 are robust and a further nine more marginal but consistent with being high redshift) o...

  2. Starbursts From 30 Doradus to Lyman Break Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Grijs, Richard


    Starbursts are important features of early galaxy evolution. Many of the distant, high-redshift galaxies we are able to detect are in a starbursting phase, often apparently provoked by a violent gravitational interaction with another galaxy. In fact, if we did not know that major starbursts existed, these conference proceedings testify that we would indeed have difficulties explaining the key properties of the Universe! These conference proceedings cover starbursts from the small-scale star-forming regions in nearby galaxies to galaxy-wide events at high redshifts; one of the major themes of the conference proved to be "scalability", i.e., can we scale up the small-scale events to describe the physics on larger scales. The key outcome of this meeting – and these proceedings – is a resounding "yes" as answer to this fundamental, yet profound question. The enhanced synergy facilitated by the collaboration among observers using cutting-edge ground and space-based facilities, theorists and modellers has made ...

  3. Host galaxies are the obscurers of Gamma-ray bursts (United States)

    Buchner, Johannes; Schulze, Steve; Bauer, Franz E.


    The luminous, high-energy emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) makes them efficient probes of the high-redshift universe. The origin of the obscuration of gamma-ray burst afterglow is still unclear. We study the afterglows metal column densities along the line-of-sight of all Swift-detected long GRBs with an improved hierarchical Bayesian analysis methodology. We characterise follow-up biases and side-step them using SHOALS, an unbiased sub-sample with highly complete follow-up. That survey also measures Spitzer host masses. Overall, the column densities shows little redshift evolution but a significant correlation with host stellar mass. A simple geometrical model explains the width and shape of the column density distribution and the trend with galaxy mass correlation. Our findings implicate the host's galaxy-scale metal gas as the dominant obscurer. From a galaxy evolution perspective, our study places new constraints on the metal gas mass inside galaxies at z=0.5-4. We compare these with modern cosmological simulations (Illustris and EAGLE) and discuss implications for the obscuration of other sources inside high redshift galaxies, such as active galactic nuclei.

  4. Investigating the properties of gamma ray bursts and gravitational wave standard sirens as high redshift distance indicators (United States)

    Speirits, Fiona Claire

    In a discipline commonly faulted for ad hoc assumptions and models with very little discriminating observational evidence, cosmologists are continually trying, and in many cases succeeding, to improve both the data and models. However, the desire to support currently favoured models often dominates research and may lead to a systematic bias being introduced in favour of a model before a strong body of supporting evidence has been accumulated. This is perhaps most evident in literature supporting the viability of Gamma Ray Bursts as cosmological distance indicators, where aside from subjective data-selection, the basic statistical methods are at best questionable and at worst incorrect. To this end, we construct a simple cosmology-independent illustration of the effect that the application of these methods has on parameter estimation and discuss the correct method to apply to current data. We also investigate the constraints potential future Gamma Ray Burst data may place on alternatives to the status quo Concordance Model in the shape of Conformal Gravity and Unified Dark Matter through a widely applicable and transferable Bayesian model comparison technique and the development of a representative mock data set. Finally, we investigate gravitational wave standard sirens as an alternative high-redshift distance indicator. We first illustrate their strong diagnostic potential through a Bayesian model comparison between the standard Unified Dark Matter model and a variant in which the dark component is redshift dependent. By drawing mock data from a known cosmological model, thus fixing the expected values of the model parameters, we find that while 182 Type 1a Supernovae are readily confused between constant and evolving models, just 2 standard sirens are able to successfully identify the correct model. Having established standard sirens as an effective tool in cosmological model comparison, we then address the potential confusion of models with dynamical dark energy

  5. Massive post-starburst galaxies at z > 1 are compact proto-spheroids (United States)

    Almaini, Omar; Wild, Vivienne; Maltby, David T.; Hartley, William G.; Simpson, Chris; Hatch, Nina A.; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Rowlands, Kate


    We investigate the relationship between the quenching of star formation and the structural transformation of massive galaxies, using a large sample of photometrically selected post-starburst galaxies in the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey field. We find that post-starburst galaxies at high redshift (z > 1) show high Sérsic indices, significantly higher than those of active star-forming galaxies, but with a distribution that is indistinguishable from the old quiescent population. We conclude that the morphological transformation occurs before (or during) the quenching of star formation. Recently quenched galaxies are also the most compact; we find evidence that massive post-starburst galaxies (M* > 1010.5 M⊙) at high redshift (z > 1) are on average smaller than comparable quiescent galaxies at the same epoch. Our findings are consistent with a scenario in which massive passive galaxies are formed from three distinct phases: (1) gas-rich dissipative collapse to very high densities, forming the proto-spheroid, (2) rapid quenching of star formation to create the 'red nugget' with post-starburst features and (3) a gradual growth in size as the population ages, perhaps as a result of minor mergers.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Dahlen, Tomas; Grogin, Norman [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wiklind, Tommy [ALMA/ESO, Santiago (Chile); Dickinson, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Giavalisco, Mauro; Guo, Yicheng [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Messias, Hugo [Departamento de Astronomia, Av. Esteban Iturra 6to piso, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Lin, Lihwai [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)


    We investigate how star-forming galaxies typically assemble their masses at high redshift. Taking advantage of the deep multi-wavelength coverage of the GOODS data set, we select two of the largest samples of high-redshift star-forming galaxies based on their UV colors and measure stellar mass of individual galaxies. We use template-fitting photometry to obtain optimal estimates of the fluxes in lower-resolution ground-based and Spitzer images using prior information about galaxy positions, shapes, and orientations. By combining the data and realistic simulations to understand measurement errors and biases, we make a statistically robust determination of stellar mass function (SMF) of the UV-selected star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 4 and 5. We report a broad correlation between stellar mass and UV luminosity, such that more UV-luminous galaxies are, on average, also more massive. However, we show that the correlation has a substantial intrinsic scatter, particularly for UV-faint galaxies, evidenced by the fact there is a non-negligible number of UV faint but massive galaxies. Furthermore, we find that the low-mass end of the SMF does not rise as steeply as the UV luminosity function ({alpha}{sub UVLF} Almost-Equal-To - (1.7-1.8) while {alpha}{sub SMF} Almost-Equal-To - (1.3-1.4)) of the same galaxies. In a smooth and continuous formation scenario where star formation rates (SFRs) are sustained at the observed rates for a long time, these galaxies would have accumulated more stellar mass (by a factor of Almost-Equal-To 3) than observed and therefore the SMF would mirror more closely that of the UV luminosity function. The relatively shallow slope of the SMF is due to the fact that many of the UV-selected galaxies are not massive enough, and therefore are too faint in their rest-frame optical bands, to be detected in the current observations. Our results favor a more episodic formation history in which SFRs of low-mass galaxies vary significantly over cosmic time

  7. Observing Star Formation on Sub-Kiloparsec Scales in the High-Redshift (z~1.8) Galaxy SDP.11 Using Gravitational Lensing (United States)

    Lamarche, Cody James; Stacey, Gordon; Verma, Aprajita; Vishwas, Amit; Nikola, Thomas; Brisbin, Drew; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven


    Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have recently conducted high-resolution (~ 0.2”) observations of the [CII] 158um line in SDP.11, a strongly lensed source at z ~ 1.8. Accounting for the lensing magnification of 10.9 (Bussmann et al. 2013), these observations are probing the interstellar medium (ISM) of SDP.11 at ~ 500pc scales! These observations are in agreement with our previous Redshift (z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2) [CII] observations (Ferkinhoff et al. 2014), namely that the mean [CII]/FIR ratio (~0.08%) is consistent with SDP.11 hosting an intense starburst. We additionally see variations in the [CII]/FIR ratio from ~ 0.02 – 0.2% across the source, indicating that the intense star formation is also localized. We spectrally resolve the [CII] line into two velocity components, separated by ~ 320 km/s, which, interestingly, appear in the image plane as two spatially offset Einstein rings, with the dust continuum emission lying neatly between the two. A comparison of the observed 158um dust continuum with the previous lens model indicates that the model needs to be updated to capture the details seen in the higher resolution data.

  8. Report on the ESO Workshop "Early Stages of Galaxy Cluster Formation 2017 (GCF2017)" (United States)

    Mroczkowski, T.; Stroe, A.; Andreani, P.; Arnaud, M.; Arrigoni Battaia, F..; De Breuck, C..; Sobral, D.


    The formation of the largest gravitationally bound structures in the Universe, clusters of galaxies, and how these environments affect the galaxies within them are major themes in cosmology and galaxy evolution. The high-redshift progenitors of clusters, called "protoclusters", are still in the process of hierarchical assembly. The transition from protocluster to cluster is gradual, driven by accretion and spectacular mergers that are expected to last roughly one billion years. This workshop aimed to address open questions in protocluster and cluster formation, to define the similarities and distinctions between the two, and to evaluate the best tools and methods for their detection and study.

  9. Faint Submillimeter Galaxies Behind Lensing Clusters (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Lauchlan Cowie, Lennox; Barger, Amy J.; Desai, Vandana; Murphy, Eric J.


    Faint submillimeter galaxies are the major contributors to the submillimeter extragalactic background light and hence the dominant star-forming population in the dusty universe. Determining how much these galaxies overlap the optically selected samples is critical to fully account for the cosmic star formation history. Observations of massive cluster fields are the best way to explore this faint submillimeter population, thanks to gravitational lensing effects. We have been undertaking a lensing cluster survey with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to map nine galaxy clusters, including the northern five clusters in the HST Frontier Fields program. We have also been using the Submillimeter Array and the Very Large Array to determine the accurate positions of our detected sources. Our observations have discovered high-redshift dusty galaxies with far-infrared luminosities similar to that of the Milky Way or luminous infrared galaxies. Some of these galaxies are still undetected in deep optical and near-infrared images. These results suggest that a substantial amount of star formation in even the faint submillimeter population may be hidden from rest-frame optical surveys.

  10. Enhanced X-ray Emission from Early Universe Analog Galaxies (United States)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip; Prestwich, Andrea H.; Mirabel, I. Felix; Feng, Hua


    X-rays from binaries containing compact objects may have played an important role in heating the early Universe. Here we discuss our findings from X-ray studies of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), Lyman break analogs (LBAs), and Green Pea galaxies (GP), all of which are considered local analogs to high redshift galaxies. We find enhanced X-ray emission per unit star-formation rate which strongly correlates with decreasing metallicity. We find evidence for the existence of a L_X-SFR-Metallicity plane for star-forming galaxies. The exact properties of X-ray emission in the early Universe affects the timing and morphology of reionization, both being observable properties of current and future radio observations of the redshifted 21cm signal from neutral hydrogen.

  11. Resolving Gas-Phase Metallicity In Galaxies (United States)

    Carton, David


    Chapter 2: As part of the Bluedisk survey we analyse the radial gas-phase metallicity profiles of 50 late-type galaxies. We compare the metallicity profiles of a sample of HI-rich galaxies against a control sample of HI-'normal' galaxies. We find the metallicity gradient of a galaxy to be strongly correlated with its HI mass fraction {M}{HI}) / {M}_{\\ast}). We note that some galaxies exhibit a steeper metallicity profile in the outer disc than in the inner disc. These galaxies are found in both the HI-rich and control samples. This contradicts a previous indication that these outer drops are exclusive to HI-rich galaxies. These effects are not driven by bars, although we do find some indication that barred galaxies have flatter metallicity profiles. By applying a simple analytical model we are able to account for the variety of metallicity profiles that the two samples present. The success of this model implies that the metallicity in these isolated galaxies may be in a local equilibrium, regulated by star formation. This insight could provide an explanation of the observed local mass-metallicity relation. Chapter 3 We present a method to recover the gas-phase metallicity gradients from integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations of barely resolved galaxies. We take a forward modelling approach and compare our models to the observed spatial distribution of emission line fluxes, accounting for the degrading effects of seeing and spatial binning. The method is flexible and is not limited to particular emission lines or instruments. We test the model through comparison to synthetic observations and use downgraded observations of nearby galaxies to validate this work. As a proof of concept we also apply the model to real IFS observations of high-redshift galaxies. From our testing we show that the inferred metallicity gradients and central metallicities are fairly insensitive to the assumptions made in the model and that they are reliably recovered for galaxies

  12. Lyman alpha emission from the first galaxies: implications of UV backgrounds and the formation of molecules : implications of UV backgrounds and the formation of molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Spaans, M.; Zaroubi, S.

    The Lyman alpha line is a robust tracer of high redshift galaxies. We present estimates of Lyman alpha emission from a protogalactic halo illuminated by UV background radiation fields with various intensities. For this purpose, we performed cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with the adaptive

  13. Herschel Extreme Lensing Line Observations: [CII] Variations in Galaxies at Redshifts z=1-3* (United States)

    Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Finkelstein, K.; Yang, Huan; Carilli, Chris; Combes, Francoise; Dassas, Karine; Finkelstein, Steven; Frye, Brenda; Gerin, Maryvonne; hide


    We observed the [C II] line in 15 lensed galaxies at redshifts 1 less than z less than 3 using HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory and detected 14/15 galaxies at 3sigma or better. High magnifications enable even modestly luminous galaxies to be detected in [C II] with Herschel. The [C II] luminosity in this sample ranges from 8 × 10(exp 7) solar luminosity to 3.7 × 10(exp 9) solar luminosity (after correcting for magnification), confirming that [C II] is a strong tracer of the ISM at high redshifts. The ratio of the [C II] line to the total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity serves as a measure of the ratio of gas to dust cooling and thus the efficiency of the grain photoelectric heating process. It varies between 3.3% and 0.09%. We compare the [C II]/FIR ratio to that of galaxies at z = 0 and at high redshifts and find that they follow similar trends. The [C II]/FIR ratio is lower for galaxies with higher dust temperatures. This is best explained if increased UV intensity leads to higher FIR luminosity and dust temperatures, but gas heating does not rise due to lower photoelectric heating efficiency. The [C II]/FIR ratio shows weaker correlation with FIR luminosity. At low redshifts highly luminous galaxies tend to have warm dust, so the effects of dust temperature and luminosity are degenerate. Luminous galaxies at high redshifts show a range of dust temperatures, showing that [C II]/FIR correlates most strongly with dust temperature. The [C II] to mid-IR ratio for the HELLO sample is similar to the values seen for low-redshift galaxies, indicating that small grains and PAHs dominate the heating in the neutral ISM, although some of the high [CII]/FIR ratios may be due to turbulent heating.

  14. The Galaxy Luminosity Function at Redshifts 7 < z < 9 from the Hubble Ultradeep Field 2012 (United States)

    Schenker, Matthew; McLure, R.; Ono, Y.; Ellis, R. S.; Dunlop, J.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Robertson, B. E.; UDF12 Team


    The UV-selected galaxy luminosity function at z > 6 provides a crucial observational constraint on the earliest phases of galaxy evolution and the likely role galaxies play in cosmic reionization. Within this context, we present new results on the galaxy luminosity function at redshifts 7 UDF12) program undertaken with the near-infrared arm of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3/IR). Compared to previous data in the UDF, the new UDF12 program quadruples the integration time in the vital Y-band filter (F105W), reaching a 5-sigma detection limit of 30.0 AB, and provides the first ultra-deep imaging (5-sigma limit=29.8 AB) in the previously unused J-band/F140W filter. Using a combination of traditional drop-out selection and photometric redshift techniques we have assembled a well defined sample of over 200 galaxies at z>6.5, drawn from UDF12 and wider field HST imaging sampling a total area of 300 square arcmin. Our combined analyses provide the most accurate measures to data of the faint end of the luminosity function at z=7 and z=8, and the first census of the population at z=9. High redshift galaxy samples derived from the UDF12 program will provide a premier resource for studying high-redshift galaxy evolution in the era prior to the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope.

  15. Monolithic View of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Chiosi


    Full Text Available We review and critically discuss the current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution limited to Early Type Galaxies (ETGs as inferred from the observational data and briefly contrast the hierarchical and quasi-monolithic paradigms of formation and evolution. Since in Cold Dark Matter (CDM cosmogony small scale structures typically collapse early and form low-mass haloes that subsequently can merge to assembly larger haloes, galaxies formed in the gravitational potential well of a halo are also expected to merge thus assembling their mass hierarchically. Mergers should occur all over the Hubble time and large mass galaxies should be in place only recently. However, recent observations of high redshift galaxies tell a different story: massive ETGs are already in place at high redshift. To this aim, we propose here a revision of the quasi-monolithic scenario as an alternative to the hierarchical one, in which mass assembling should occur in early stages of a galaxy lifetime and present recent models of ETGs made of Dark and Baryonic Matter in a Λ-CDM Universe that obey the latter scheme. The galaxies are followed from the detachment from the linear regime and Hubble flow at z ≥ 20 down to the stage of nearly complete assembly of the stellar content (z ∼ 2 − 1 and beyond.  It is found that the total mass (Mh = MDM + MBM and/or initial over-density of the proto-galaxy drive the subsequent star formation histories (SFH. Massive galaxies (Mh ~ _1012M⊙ experience a single, intense burst of star formation (with rates ≥ 103M⊙/yr at early epochs, consistently with observations, with a weak dependence on the initial over-density; intermediate mass haloes (Mh~_ 1010 − 1011M⊙ have star formation histories that strongly depend on their initial over-density; finally, low mass haloes (Mh ~_ 109M⊙ always have erratic, burst-like star forming histories. The present-day properties (morphology, structure, chemistry and photometry of the

  16. X-ray Investigations of Quasars with XMM-Newton: Outflow Energetics and High- Redshift Intrinsic Absorption (United States)

    Brandt, William

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are among the most extreme physical environments in the Universe, and it now appears that feedback from AGN winds and jets plays a critical role in the evolution of typical massive galaxies and larger-scale structures. This proposal requests funding to support work on two XMM-Newton guest investigator projects that have already won competitive observing time to study quasars, the most luminous examples of AGNs. The first project is an approved XMM-Newton Large Program that won 350 ks of priority A observation time in AO-9. This project involves an ambitious long-look observation that will obtain the first high-quality grating spectroscopy of a mini-Broad Absorption Line (mini-BAL) quasar, with the aim of assessing the kinetic luminosity of its outflow (the target is PG 1114+445). Grating spectroscopy of a small sample of local Seyfert galaxies has led to highly regarded accurate determinations of their wind properties. The planned extension of grating spectroscopy to the first mini-BAL quasar level AGN will determine if the outflow becomes as powerful as proposed in current AGN feedback scenarios. The 375,000 count EPIC CCD spectra from this long-look will enable unprecedented complementary studies of high-energy absorption features and iron K emission. The data for this project will be gathered over the coming year starting in 2010 May. The second project is an investigation of X-ray absorption in the most-distant radio-loud quasars. Here we are extending our systematic X-ray studies of the most-distant known quasars with XMM-Newton spectroscopy of typical radio-loud quasars (RLQs) at z ~ 4- 5. Our targets are more representative of the overall RLQ population than the small number of highly radio-loud blazars studied at these redshifts. We will search for X-ray absorption in the quasars' environments to determine if it is common among typical RLQs at the highest redshifts. We will also measure X-ray continuum shapes and search for

  17. Probing the Most Luminous Galaxies in the Universe at the Peak of Galaxy Assembly (United States)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan


    What drives the most luminous galaxies in the universe at z~2, the peak of galaxy assembly? Is it the major merger of two gas rich disk systems as is the case in the local universe or can these extreme luminosities be driven by secular processes, such as the steady accretion of cold gas along filaments thought to play an important role in the early universe? Recent studies on the structure of high redshift luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs, respectively) have stirred up this controversy but have found a range of results leading to a confused picture of star formation in the early universe. In order to solve this question, we will search for unambiguous merger signatures (i.e., pairs, double nuclei, and tidal features) among a large sample of the more rare, extremely luminous HyLIRGs (L_IR > 10^13 L_sun) and the highest luminosity ULIRGs with a wide range of properties and separate them from galaxies that are clearly not mergers (e.g., structured disks). For those objects that remain ambiguous, particularly irregular clumpy systems, we will obtain ground-based IFU follow up observations to add detailed velocity information to the observed morphologies. The large volume probed by the COSMOS field at these high redshifts is an excellent complement to the smaller area fields covered by the CANDELS survey. While CANDELS imaging is excellent for studying the properties of less luminous but more common LIRGs and ULIRGs, it completely misses the more rare, extreme sources. Combined, these data will allow the detailed study of IR galaxies across a range of luminosities spanning over two orders of magnitude.

  18. A Lyman Break Galaxy in the Epoch of Reionization from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Grism Spectroscopy (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel K.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Dickinson, Mark; Pirzkal, Norbert; Spinrad, Hyron; Reddy, Naveen; Dey, Arjun; Hathi, Nimish; hide


    Slitless grism spectroscopy from space offers dramatic advantages for studying high redshift galaxies: high spatial resolution to match the compact sizes of the targets, a dark and uniform sky background, and simultaneous observation over fields ranging from five square arcminutes (HST) to over 1000 square arcminutes (Euclid). Here we present observations of a galaxy at z = 6.57 the end of the reioinization epoch identified using slitless HST grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) and reconfirmed with Keck + DEIMOS. This high redshift identification is enabled by the depth of the PEARS survey. Substantially higher redshifts are precluded for PEARS data by the declining sensitivity of the ACS grism at greater than lambda 0.95 micrometers. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms.

  19. Tidal Dwarf Galaxies and Missing Baryons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Bournaud


    Full Text Available Tidal dwarf galaxies form during the interaction, collision, or merger of massive spiral galaxies. They can resemble “normal” dwarf galaxies in terms of mass, size, and become dwarf satellites orbiting around their massive progenitor. They nevertheless keep some signatures from their origin, making them interesting targets for cosmological studies. In particular, they should be free from dark matter from a spheroidal halo. Flat rotation curves and high dynamical masses may then indicate the presence of an unseen component, and constrain the properties of the “missing baryons,” known to exist but not directly observed. The number of dwarf galaxies in the Universe is another cosmological problem for which it is important to ascertain if tidal dwarf galaxies formed frequently at high redshift, when the merger rate was high, and many of them survived until today. In this paper, “dark matter” is used to refer to the nonbaryonic matter, mostly located in large dark halos, that is, CDM in the standard paradigm, and “missing baryons” or “dark baryons” is used to refer to the baryons known to exist but hardly observed at redshift zero, and are a baryonic dark component that is additional to “dark matter”.

  20. What Drives the Kinematic Evolution of Galaxies? (United States)

    Hung, Chao-Ling


    One important result from recent large integral field spectrograph (IFS) surveys is that the intrinsic velocity dispersion of galaxies increases at high redshift. While massive, rotation-dominated disks are already in place at z 2, they are dynamically hotter compared to spiral galaxies in the local Universe. Although several plausible mechanisms have been proposed (e.g., star formation feedback, elevated gas supply, or galaxy interaction), it remains unclear what is the fundamental driver of the velocity dispersion enhancement at high-z. We investigate the origin of this kinematic evolution using a suite of cosmological simulations from the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project. Although the velocity dispersion of simulated galaxies is systematically lower compared to the observed values, the simulations successfully reproduce the observed trends between velocity dispersion, SFR, and redshift. In the FIRE simulations, the variation in velocity dispersion is highly dynamic across cosmic time, and it can vary significantly within a timescale of 100 Myr. These variations closely mirror the evolution of star formation and gas inflow histories. By cross-correlating any two parameters of velocity dispersion, gas inflow rates, and SFR, we show that the increase of gas inflowing into the galaxy lead to the subsequent star formation activities, and the enhancement of velocity dispersion follows closely in time with the increasing gas inflow rates and SFR.

  1. Galaxy Evolution at the Frontier: The Rate of Galaxy Buildup Between z~11 and z~8 (United States)

    Bradley, Larry


    Understanding the evolution of early galaxies and their contribution to reionization has been a longstanding goal of observational astronomy. Hubble's WFC3/IR camera has revolutionized our knowledge of 7 8 galaxies due to their faint luminosities {M*> -20.3} and low volume densities. In particular, blank-field studies suggest a very dramatic buildup in cosmic star-formation rate density {SFRD} in the 165 Myr between z 8-10. These results are in tension with lensed-field studies which suggest a smooth buildup of galaxies from z 10 to 4. To distinguish between these scenarios, deeper observations are required to increase z > 9 number statistics and to reduce the significant cosmic variance due to a single blank field with sufficient depth {UDF + surrounding regions}. The upcoming HST Frontier Fields {HSTFF} program will obtain ultra deep observations of both "blank" and cluster-lensed fields. The latter are more efficient for high-z searches but introduce magnification uncertainties which we have quantified and found to be subdominant to Poisson uncertainties. Based on the archival first-year HSTFF data, we will identify a large sample of 35-54 galaxies at 89 galaxy evolution and placing new constraints on reionization. Additionally, we will measure the rest-frame UV continuum slopes of z 6-8 galaxies to improve dust extinction estimates at high redshift, a key ingredient in SFRD measurements. We will also perform strong lensing analyses to produce some of the highest resolution cluster dark matter maps to date.

  2. Spatially-resolved star formation histories of CALIFA galaxies. Implications for galaxy formation (United States)

    González Delgado, R. M.; Pérez, E.; Cid Fernandes, R.; García-Benito, R.; López Fernández, R.; Vale Asari, N.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; de Amorim, A. L.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; Sánchez, S. F.; Lehnert, M. D.; Walcher, C. J.


    This paper presents the spatially resolved star formation history (SFH) of nearby galaxies with the aim of furthering our understanding of the different processes involved in the formation and evolution of galaxies. To this end, we apply the fossil record method of stellar population synthesis to a rich and diverse data set of 436 galaxies observed with integral field spectroscopy in the CALIFA survey. The sample covers a wide range of Hubble types, with stellar masses ranging from M⋆ 109 to 7 × 1011 M⊙. Spectral synthesis techniques are applied to the datacubes to retrieve the spatially resolved time evolution of the star formation rate (SFR), its intensity (ΣSFR), and other descriptors of the 2D SFH in seven bins of galaxy morphology (E, S0, Sa, Sb, Sbc, Sc, and Sd) and five bins of stellar mass. Our main results are that (a) galaxies form very fast independently of their current stellar mass, with the peak of star formation at high redshift (z > 2). Subsequent star formation is driven by M⋆ and morphology, with less massive and later type spirals showing more prolonged periods of star formation. (b) At any epoch in the past, the SFR is proportional to M⋆, with most massive galaxies having the highest absolute (but lowest specific) SFRs. (c) While today, the ΣSFR is similar for all spirals and significantly lower in early-type galaxies (ETG), in the past, the ΣSFR scales well with morphology. The central regions of today's ETGs are where the ΣSFR reached the highest values (> 103 M⊙ Gyr-1 pc-2), similar to those measured in high-redshift star-forming galaxies. (d) The evolution of ΣSFR in Sbc systems matches that of models for Milky Way-like galaxies, suggesting that the formation of a thick disk may be a common phase in spirals at early epochs. (e) The SFR and ΣSFR in outer regions of E and S0 galaxies show that they have undergone an extended phase of growth in mass between z = 2 and 0.4. The mass assembled in this phase is in agreement with

  3. Topics in Galaxy Evolution: Early Star Formation and Quenching (United States)

    Goncalves, Thiago Signorini

    In this thesis, we present three projects designed to shed light on yet unanswered questions on galaxy formation and evolution. The first two concern a sample of UV-bright starburst galaxies in the local universe (z ˜0.2). These objects are remarkably similar to star-forming galaxies that were abundant at high redshifts (2 manipulating our observations to mimic our objects at greater distances, we show how low resolution and signal-to-noise ratios can lead to erroneous conclusions, in particular when attempting to diagnose mergers as the origin of the starburst. Then, we present results from a pilot survey to study the cold, molecular gas reservoir in such objects. Again, we show that the observed properties are analogous to those observed at high redshift, in particular with respect to baryonic gas fractions in the galaxy, higher than normally found in low-extinction objects in the local universe. Furthermore, we show how gas surface density and star-formation surface density follow the same relation as local galaxies, albeit at much higher values. Finally, we discuss an observational project designed to measure the mass flux density from the blue sequence to the red sequence across the so-called green valley. We obtain the deepest spectra ever observed of green valley galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z˜0.8) in order to measure spectral features from which we can measure the star formation histories of individual galaxies. We measure a mass flux ratio that is higher than observed in the local universe, indicating the red sequence was growing faster when the universe was half its present age than today.

  4. Associated HI Absorption in the = 3.4 Radio Galaxy B2 0902+ 343 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have made observations of the associated HI absorption of a high redshift radio galaxy 0902+34 at = 3.395 with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope in the 323+1 MHz band. We find a narrow absorption line with a flux density of 11.5 mJy at a redshift of 3.397 consistent with that observed by Uson et al. (1991) ...

  5. The influence of halo evolution on galaxy structure (United States)

    White, Simon


    If Einstein-Newton gravity holds on galactic and larger scales, then current observations demonstrate that the stars and interstellar gas of a typical bright galaxy account for only a few percent of its total nonlinear mass. Dark matter makes up the rest and cannot be faint stars or any other baryonic form because it was already present and decoupled from the radiation plasma at z = 1000, long before any nonlinear object formed. The weak gravito-sonic waves so precisely measured by CMB observations are detected again at z = 4 as order unity fluctuations in intergalactic matter. These subsequently collapse to form today's galaxy/halo systems, whose mean mass profiles can be accurately determined through gravitational lensing. High-resolution simulations link the observed dark matter structures seen at all these epochs, demonstrating that they are consistent and providing detailed predictions for all aspects of halo structure and growth. Requiring consistency with the abundance and clustering of real galaxies strongly constrains the galaxy-halo relation, both today and at high redshift. This results in detailed predictions for galaxy assembly histories and for the gravitational arena in which galaxies live. Dark halos are not expected to be passive or symmetric but to have a rich and continually evolving structure which will drive evolution in the central galaxy over its full life, exciting warps, spiral patterns and tidal arms, thickening disks, producing rings, bars and bulges. Their growth is closely related to the provision of new gas for galaxy building.

  6. Growth of First Galaxies: Impacts of Star Formation and Stellar Feedback (United States)

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Nagamine, Kentaro; Zhu, Qirong; Khochfar, Sadegh; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio


    Recent observations have detected galaxies at high-redshift z˜ 6{--}11, and revealed the diversity of their physical properties, from normal star-forming galaxies to starburst galaxies. To understand the properties of these observed galaxies, it is crucial to understand the star formation (SF) history of high-redshift galaxies under the influence of stellar feedback. In this work, we present the results of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with zoom-in initial conditions, and investigate the formation of the first galaxies and their evolution toward observable galaxies at z˜ 6. We focus on three different galaxies that end up in halos with masses {M}{{h}}=2.4× {10}10 {h}-1 {M}⊙ (Halo-10), 1.6× {10}11 {h}-1 {M}⊙ (Halo-11), and 0.7× {10}12 {h}-1 {M}⊙ (Halo-12) at z = 6. Our simulations also probe the impacts of different subgrid assumptions, I.e., SF efficiency and cosmic reionization, on SF histories in the first galaxies. We find that SF occurs intermittently due to supernova (SN) feedback at z≳ 10, and then it proceeds more smoothly as the halo mass grows at lower redshifts. Galactic disks are destroyed due to SN feedback, while galaxies in simulations with no feedback or lower SF efficiency models can sustain a galactic disk for long periods ≳ 10 {Myr}. The expulsion of gas at the galactic center also affects the inner dark matter density profile for a short period. Our simulated galaxies in Halo-11 and Halo-12 reproduce the SF rates and stellar masses of observed Lyα emitters at z˜ 7{--}8 fairly well given the observational uncertainties.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J. D.; Rujopakarn, W. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Daddi, E.; Liu, D. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay (France); Rodighiero, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio, 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sargent, M. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Renzini, A. [Instituto Nazionale de Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Feruglio, C. [IRAM—Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Kashino, D. [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sanders, D. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Nagao, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Arimoto, N. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI-96720 (United States); Berta, S.; Lutz, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-84571 Garching (Germany); Béthermin, M. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Koekemoer, A., E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); and others


    Local starbursts have a higher efficiency of converting gas into stars, as compared to typical star-forming galaxies at a given stellar mass, possibly indicative of different modes of star formation. With the peak epoch of galaxy formation occurring at z > 1, it remains to be established whether such an efficient mode of star formation is occurring at high redshift. To address this issue, we measure the molecular gas content of seven high-redshift (z ∼ 1.6) starburst galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and IRAM/Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our targets are selected from the sample of Herschel far-infrared-detected galaxies having star formation rates (∼300–800 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) elevated (≳4×) above the star-forming main sequence (MS) and included in the FMOS-COSMOS near-infrared spectroscopic survey of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.6 with Subaru. We detect CO emission in all cases at high levels of significance, indicative of high gas fractions (∼30%–50%). Even more compelling, we firmly establish with a clean and systematic selection that starbursts, identified as MS outliers, at high redshift generally have a lower ratio of CO to total infrared luminosity as compared to typical MS star-forming galaxies, although with a smaller offset than expected based on past studies of local starbursts. We put forward a hypothesis that there exists a continuous increase in star formation efficiency with elevation from the MS with galaxy mergers as a possible physical driver. Along with a heightened star formation efficiency, our high-redshift sample is similar in other respects to local starbursts, such as being metal rich and having a higher ionization state of the interstellar medium.

  8. Young Galaxy Candidates in the Hubble Frontier Fields. IV. MACS J1149.5+2223 (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zitrin, Adi; Infante, Leopoldo; Laporte, Nicolas; Huang, Xingxing; Moustakas, John; Ford, Holland C.; Shu, Xinwen; Wang, Junxian; Diego, Jose M.; Bauer, Franz E.; Troncoso Iribarren, Paulina; Broadhurst, Tom; Molino, Alberto


    We search for high-redshift dropout galaxies behind the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) galaxy cluster MACS J1149.5+2223, a powerful cosmic lens that has revealed a number of unique objects in its field. Using the deep images from the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes, we find 11 galaxies at z > 7 in the MACS J1149.5+2223 cluster field, and 11 in its parallel field. The high-redshift nature of the bright z ≃ 9.6 galaxy MACS1149-JD, previously reported by Zheng et al., is further supported by non-detection in the extremely deep optical images from the HFF campaign. With the new photometry, the best photometric redshift solution for MACS1149-JD reduces slightly to z = 9.44 ± 0.12. The young galaxy has an estimated stellar mass of (7+/- 2)× {10}8 {M}⊙ , and was formed at z={13.2}-1.6+1.9 when the universe was ≈300 Myr old. Data available for the first four HFF clusters have already enabled us to find faint galaxies to an intrinsic magnitude of {M}{UV}≃ -15.5, approximately a factor of 10 deeper than the parallel fields.

  9. What can distant galaxies teach us about massive stars? (United States)

    Stanway, Elizabeth R.


    Observations of star-forming galaxies in the distant Universe (z > 2) are starting to confirm the importance of massive stars in shaping galaxy emission and evolution. Inevitably, these distant stellar populations are unresolved, and the limited data available must be interpreted in the context of stellar population synthesis models. With the imminent launch of JWST and the prospect of spectral observations of galaxies within a gigayear of the Big Bang, the uncertainties in modelling of massive stars are becoming increasingly important to our interpretation of the high redshift Universe. In turn, these observations of distant stellar populations will provide ever stronger tests against which to gauge the success of, and flaws in, current massive star models.

  10. Insights from WISP, an Unbiased Search for Distant Emission-line Galaxies (United States)

    Malkan, M.; WISP Team


    The search for true physical pairs of galaxies at high redshifts has been greatly hindered by the difficulty of obtaining good spectroscopic redshifts. Multi-object near-infrared spectroscopy is especially effective, since it reaches the strongest rest-frame spectral features, especially emission lines. From ground-based telescopes, this is still very difficult to obtain for faint galaxies. However, the near-IR grism spectrographs on Hubble Space Telescope are ideal for a large, unbiased survey for galaxy groups and pairs. Without any pre-selection based on continuum properties, slitless spectroscopic surveys are extremely effective at uncovering large numbers of extreme dwarf galaxies, with very high specific star formation rates, and very low metallicities. We discuss preliminary results on pairs and other properties of galaxies found in the most ambitious of these surveys, the WFC-3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP).

  11. X-Ray Temperatures for the Extended Medium-Sensitivity Survey High-Redshift Cluster Sample: Constraints on Cosmology and the Dark Energy Equation of State (United States)

    Henry, J. Patrick


    We measure the X-ray temperature (and luminosity) with ASCA of all but one cluster in the Einstein Extended Medium-Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) high-redshift (z>=0.3) sample. We compare these data to a complete sample of low-redshift clusters that also has temperature measurements, thereby providing cosmological constraints. Improvements over our previous work include (1) an enlarged high-redshift sample; (2) temperatures for the low-redshift comparison sample that come from the same instrument as the high-redshift sample; (3) the elimination of three EMSS clusters with the same redshift as the target (i.e., not truly serendipitous) and a fourth with an ASCA flux well below the completeness limit; (4) using a theoretical cluster mass function that more closely matches N-body simulations (the Sheth-Torman function); (5) using a cold dark matter power spectrum instead of a power law; (6) using a general cosmology with arbitrary matter density and cosmological constant; (7) using a cosmology that generalizes the cosmological constant to quintessence; (8) including the effects of temperature measurement errors and scatter in the cluster luminosity-temperature relation; and (9) marginalizing over the poorly known normalization of the mass-temperature relation. We find an allowed band in the Ωm0-ΩΛ0 plane of different orientation to the band of constraints provided by the supernovae Ia Hubble diagram and the cosmic microwave background fluctuations. All three bands intersect at the same place: Ωm0~0.3, ΩΛ0~0.7. We measure the quintessence equation-of-state parameter to be w=-(0.42+/-0.21) (68% confidence for one interesting parameter), consistent with previously determined upper limits. We measure the normalization of the mass fluctuation power spectrum to be σ8=0.66+/-0.16 (68% confidence for three interesting parameters). Systematic errors are larger than the statistical errors only for σ8 with our sample; thus the errors for it depend on the details of the

  12. Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece

    one is related to the mass estimates of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Mass estimates of SMBHs are important to understand the formation and evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. Black hole masses in Type 1 AGN are measured with the reverberation mapping (RM) technique. Reverberation mapping......Galaxy formation and evolution is one of the main research themes of modern astronomy. Active galaxies such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are important evolutionary stages of galaxies. The ULIRG stage is mostly associated with galaxy mergers...... and interactions. During the interactions of gas-rich galaxies, the gas inflows towards the centers of the galaxies and can trigger both star formation and AGN activity. The ULIRG stage includes rapid star formation activity and fast black hole growth that is enshrouded by dust. Once the AGN emission...

  13. Green Peas emit X-rays: Extreme Star Formation in Early Universe Analog Galaxies (United States)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip


    Luminous compact galaxies (LCGs), Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs), and Lyman Break Analog galaxies (LBAs) are all used as proxies for star-forming galaxies in the early Universe (z ≥ 6). The X-ray emission from such galaxies has been found to be elevated compared to other star-forming galaxies in our local Universe. It has been suggested that this may be due to the lower metallicity seen in these proxies to high-redshift galaxies and the elevated X-ray emission may affect the heating and Reionization evolution of the early Universe. Our previous studies have suggested the existence of an LX-SFR-metallicity plane for all star-forming galaxies. We present these results in the context of our newest Joint Chandra/HST study containing the first X-ray detection of the Green Pea galaxies, a population of compact starburst galaxies discovered by volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo Project (Cardamone+2009). The galaxies were given the name Green Peas due to their compact size and green appearance in the gri composite images from SDSS. The green color is caused by a strong [OIII]λ5007Å emission line, an indicator of recent star formation. We observed a few of the most promising candidates with joint Chandra/HST observation and discuss our findings here.

  14. The Universe's Most Extreme Star-forming Galaxies (United States)

    Casey, Caitlin


    Dusty star-forming galaxies host the most intense stellar nurseries in the Universe. Their unusual characteristics (SFRs=200-2000Msun/yr, Mstar>1010 Msun) pose a unique challenge for cosmological simulations and galaxy formation theory, particularly at early times. Although rare today, they were factors of 1000 times more prevalent at z~2-5, contributing significantly to the buildup of the Universe's stellar mass and the formation of high-mass galaxies. At even earlier times (within 1Gyr post Big Bang) they could have played a pivotal role in enriching the IGM. However, an ongoing debate lingers as to their evolutionary origins at high-redshift, whether or not they are triggered by major mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies, or if they are solitary galaxies continually fed pristine gas from the intergalactic medium. Furthermore, their presence in early protoclusters, only revealed quite recently, pose intriguing questions regarding the collapse of large scale structure. I will discuss some of the latest observational programs dedicated to understanding dust-obscuration in and gas content of the early Universe, their context in the cosmic web, and future long-term observing campaigns that may reveal their relationship to `normal’ galaxies, thus teaching us valuable lessons on the physical mechanisms of galaxy growth and the collapse of large scale structure in an evolving Universe.

  15. What the UV SED Tells us About Stellar Populations and Galaxies (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.


    The UV SED parameter b as in f(sub 1) 1(sup b), is commonly used to estimate fundamental properties of high-redshift galaxies including age and metallicity. However, sources and processes other than age and metallicity can influence the value of b. We use the local starforming dwarf galaxy, I Zw 18, in a case study to investigate uncertainties in age and metallicity inferred from b due errors or uncertainties in: mode of star formation (instantaneous starburst vs. continuous SF), dust extinction, nebular continuous emission (2-photon emission, Balmer continuum flux), and presence of older stars.

  16. A physical model for z ~ 2 dust-obscured galaxies (United States)

    Narayanan, Desika; Dey, Arjun; Hayward, Christopher C.; Cox, Thomas J.; Bussmann, R. Shane; Brodwin, Mark; Jonsson, Patrik; Hopkins, Philip F.; Groves, Brent; Younger, Joshua D.; Hernquist, Lars


    We present a physical model for the origin of z ~ 2 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), a class of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) selected at 24μm which are particularly optically faint (F24μm/FR > 1000). By combining N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of high-redshift galaxy evolution with 3D polychromatic dust radiative transfer models, we find that luminous DOGs (with F24 >~ 0.3mJy at z ~ 2) are well modelled as extreme gas-rich mergers in massive (~5 × 1012-1013Msolar) haloes, with elevated star formation rates (SFR; ~500-1000Msolaryr-1) and/or significant active galactic nuclei (AGN) growth , whereas less luminous DOGs are more diverse in nature. At final coalescence, merger-driven DOGs transition from being starburst dominated to AGN dominated, evolving from a `bump' to a power-law (PL) shaped mid-IR (Infrared Array Camera, IRAC) spectral energy distribution (SED). After the DOG phase, the galaxy settles back to exhibiting a `bump' SED with bluer colours and lower SFRs. While canonically PL galaxies are associated with being AGN dominated, we find that the PL mid-IR SED can owe both to direct AGN contribution and to a heavily dust obscured stellar bump at times that the galaxy is starburst dominated. Thus, PL galaxies can be either starburst or AGN dominated. Less luminous DOGs can be well-represented either by mergers or by massive (Mbaryon ~ 5 × 1011Msolar) secularly evolving gas-rich disc galaxies (with SFR >~ 50Msolaryr-1). By utilizing similar models as those employed in the submillimetre galaxy (SMG) formation study of Narayanan et al., we investigate the connection between DOGs and SMGs. We find that the most heavily star-forming merger-driven DOGs can be selected as submillimetre galaxies, while both merger-driven and secularly evolving DOGs typically satisfy the BzK selection criteria. The model SEDs from the simulated galaxies match observed data reasonably well, though Mrk 231 and Arp 220 templates provide

  17. Simple stellar population modelling of low S/N galaxy spectra and quasar host galaxy applications (United States)

    Mosby, G.; Tremonti, C. A.; Hooper, E. J.; Wolf, M. J.; Sheinis, A. I.; Richards, J. W.


    To study the effect of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) on their host galaxies it is important to study the hosts when the SMBH is near its peak activity. A method to investigate the host galaxies of high luminosity quasars is to obtain optical spectra at positions offset from the nucleus where the relative contribution of the quasar and host is comparable. However, at these extended radii the galaxy surface brightness is often low (20-22 mag arcsec-2) and the resulting spectrum might have such low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) that it hinders analysis with standard stellar population modelling techniques. To address this problem, we have developed a method that can recover galaxy star formation histories (SFHs) from rest-frame optical spectra with S/N ˜ 5 Å-1. This method uses the statistical technique diffusion k-means to tailor the stellar population modelling basis set. Our diffusion k-means minimal basis set, composed of four broad age bins, is successful in recovering a range of galaxy SFHs. Additionally, using an analytic prescription for seeing conditions, we are able to simultaneously model scattered quasar light and the SFH of quasar host galaxies (QHGs). We use synthetic data to compare results of our novel method with previous techniques. We also present the modelling results on a previously published QHG and show that galaxy properties recovered from a diffusion k-means basis set are less sensitive to noise added to this QHG spectrum. Our new method has a clear advantage in recovering information from QHGs and could also be applied to the analysis of other low S/N galaxy spectra such as those typically obtained for high redshift objects or integral field spectroscopic surveys.

  18. Herschel-ATLAS: The Angular Correlation Function of Submillimetre Galaxies at High and Low Redshift (United States)

    Maddox, S. J.; Dunne, L.; Rigby, E.; Eales, S.; Cooray, A.; Scott, D.; Peacock, J. A.; Negrello, M.; Smith, D. J. B.; Benford, D.; hide


    We present measurements of the angular correlation function of galaxies selected from the first field of the H-ATLAS survey. Careful removal of the background from galactic cirrus is essential, and currently dominates the uncertainty in our measurements. For our 250 micrometer-selected sample we detect no significant clustering, consistent with the expectation that the 250 pm-selected sources are mostly normal galaxies at z < or equal to 1. For our 350 micrometer and 500 micrometer-selected samples we detect relatively strong clustering with correlation amplitudes A of 0.2 and 1.2 at 1', but with relatively large uncertainties. For samples which preferentially select high redshift galaxies at z approx. 2-3 we detect significant strong clustering, leading to an estimate of r(0) approx. 7-11/h Mpc. The slope of our clustering measurements is very steep. delta approx. 2. The measurements are consistent with the idea that sub-mm sources consist of a low redshift population of normal galaxies and a high redshift population of highly clustered star-bursting galaxies.

  19. Evidence of Cosmic Accretion in Local Tadpole Galaxies (United States)

    Elmegreen, Debra M.; Elmegreen, Bruce; Sanchez Almeida, Jorge; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Rafelski, Marc; Gallagher, John S.; Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Amorin, R.; Filho, M.; Ascasibar, Y.; Papaderos, P.; Vilchez, J.; Perez-Montero, E.


    Star formation in galaxies over cosmic time may be driven by gas accretion from the cosmic web. Spectra of local extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs), obtained using the Gran Telescopio Canarias, show oxygen abundances that decrease by a factor of 5 to 10 in the main star-forming regions compared with the disks in 9 of 10 observed galaxies. The results suggest that the galaxies have accreted metal-poor gas in the starburst regions. Tadpole galaxies, which have a main star-forming head and a tail, are common at high redshift but rare locally. Local tadpoles tend to be XMPs. We present multiband HST WFC3 observations of Kiso 5639, one of the tadpole XMPs in our GTC sample. There are faint extended H alpha filaments, and dense star clusters in the midst of a powerful starburst. The clusters, with log masses of 4 to 5, are reminiscent of those found in other dwarf irregular galaxies where impacting gas streams have been suggested.

  20. Clumpy Star Formation in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (United States)

    Larson, Kirsten; Armus, Lee; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; GOALS Team


    We present HST narrow-band imaging of Paβ and Paα emission in 50 local Luminous Infrared Galaxies from the Great Observatory All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). These data allow us to study spatially resolved star forming regions and directly compare to star forming clumps found in both local and high-redshift galaxies. We find that the ionized gas is concentrated in star-forming clumps with sizes ranging from 70-700pc and star formation rates (SFRs) of .001 to 5 Msun yr-1. The SFRs of the clumps in GOALS spans the range from normal local galaxies to clump SFRs found in z=1-3 galaxies. The clumps have stellar ages of 5 x 106 to 4.5 x 107 yr with a median age of 8.6 x 106 yr and stellar masses of 106 to 109 Msun. The LIRGs in our sample cover the entire merger sequence from isolated galaxies to advanced staged mergers and allow us to study how the size, number, luminosity, and distribution of the clumpy star formation varies with the galaxy's merger stage, mass, and global star formation rates. Finally, we compare our results to clumpy star formation in high resolution hydrodynamical FIRE simulations and find that observed star forming clumps match the same size and star formation rate properties of those found in simulations.

  1. Size evolution of normal and compact galaxies in the EAGLE simulation (United States)

    Furlong, M.; Bower, R. G.; Crain, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Theuns, T.; Trayford, J. W.; Qu, Y.; Schaller, M.; Berthet, M.; Helly, J. C.


    We present the evolution of galaxy sizes, from redshift 2 to 0, for actively star forming and passive galaxies in the cosmological hydrodynamical 1003 cMpc3 simulation of the EAGLE project. We find that the sizes increase with stellar mass, but that the relation weakens with increasing redshift. Separating galaxies by their star formation activity, we find that passive galaxies are typically smaller than active galaxies at a fixed stellar mass. These trends are consistent with those found in observations and the level of agreement between the predicted and observed size-mass relations is of the order of 0.1 dex for z < 1 and 0.2-0.3 dex from redshift 1 to 2. We use the simulation to compare the evolution of individual galaxies with that of the population as a whole. While the evolution of the size-stellar mass relation for active galaxies provides a good proxy for the evolution of individual galaxies, the evolution of individual passive galaxies is not well represented by the observed size-mass relation due to the evolving number density of passive galaxies. Observations of z ˜ 2 galaxies have revealed an abundance of massive red compact galaxies, which depletes below z ˜ 1. We find that a similar population forms naturally in the simulation. Comparing these galaxies with their z = 0 descendants, we find that all compact galaxies grow in size due to the high-redshift stars migrating outwards. Approximately 60 per cent of the compact galaxies increase in size further due to renewed star formation and/or mergers.

  2. Effect Of Feedback On The Escape Of Ionizing Radiation From High-Z Galaxies (United States)

    Trebitsch, Maxime; Blaizot, Jérémy; Rosdahl, Joakim; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne


    Quantifying how much of the ionizing radiation produced in high-redshift galaxies escapes in the IGM is one of the main challenges in understanding the sources of reionization. We investigate the radiative properties of simulated low mass galaxies (halos of a few 109 Msun at z=6), where radiation is modelled on-the-fly, and different sources of feedback (from stars and AGN) are included. Using radiation-hydrodynamic simulations performed with Ramses-RT we study how the energy and momentum input from supernovae and black hole activity modulates the properties of the interstellar medium and therefore how, and how many, photons can escape from the galaxy. I will present simulations showing (Trebitsch et al. 2017, that stellar feedback has a pivotal role in regulating the escape fraction in dwarf galaxies. Supernovae carve holes in the gas distribution, through which ionizing photons can escape.

  3. The effect of metal enrichment and galactic winds on galaxy formation in cosmological zoom simulations (United States)

    Hirschmann, Michaela; Naab, Thorsten; Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Oser, Ludwig; Genzel, Reinhard; Tacconi, Linda J.; Förster-Schreiber, Natascha M.; Burkert, Andreas; Genel, Shy


    We investigate the differential effects of metal cooling and galactic stellar winds on the cosmological formation of individual galaxies with three sets of cosmological, hydrodynamical zoom simulations of 45 haloes in the mass range 1011 < Mhalo < 1013 M⊙. Models including both galactic winds and metal cooling (i) suppress early star formation at z ≳ 1 and predict reasonable star formation histories for galaxies in present-day haloes of ≲1012 M⊙, (ii) produce galaxies with high cold gas fractions (30-60 per cent) at high redshift, (iii) significantly reduce the galaxy formation efficiencies for haloes (Mhalo ≲ 1012 M⊙) at all redshifts in overall good agreement with recent observational data and constraints from abundance matching, (iv) result in high-redshift galaxies with reduced circular velocities in agreement with the observed Tully-Fisher relation at z ˜ 2 and (v) significantly increase the sizes of low-mass galaxies (Mstellar ≲ 3 × 1010 M⊙) at high redshift resulting in a weak size evolution - a trend in agreement with observations. However, the low-redshift (z < 0.5) star formation rates of more massive galaxies are higher than observed (up to 10 times). No tested model predicts the observed size evolution for low-mass and high-mass galaxies simultaneously. Without winds the sizes of low-mass galaxies evolve rapidly, and with winds the size evolution of massive galaxies is too weak. Due to the delayed onset of star formation in the wind models, the metal enrichment of gas and stars is delayed and agrees well with observational constraints. Metal cooling and stellar winds are both found to increase the ratio of in situ formed to accreted stars - the relative importance of dissipative versus dissipationless assembly. For halo masses below ˜1012 M⊙, this is mainly caused by less stellar accretion and compares well to predictions from semi-analytical models and but differs from abundance matching models as the in situ formed fractions of

  4. Probing Galaxy Formation and Submillimeter Surveys (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Moseley, Harvey S.; Shafer, Richard A.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)


    Multiwavelength observations of galaxies have revealed that a significant fraction of the their stellar or accretion luminosity is absorbed and reradiated by dust at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter (submm) wavelengths. Submillimeter (850 micron) surveys conducted by the SCUBA instrument on the JCMT have detected a population of high redshift (z approximately equal to 1-4) ultraluminous infrared galaxies, that dominate the luminosity densities at those redshifts. Their cumulative contribution to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) detected by the COBE satellite is comparable to the observations, suggesting that at 850 microns the CIB is resolved into its constituent sources. This suggests that the early universe was much more dust enshrouded than the present one. FIR and submm surveys can therefore address fundamental questions regarding the early processes of galaxy formation and their evolution in number and luminosity over cosmic history. The scientific information that can be obtained from such surveys depend on a number of parameters, the most important of which are the diameter of the telescope and the wavelengths of the survey. We summarize the effect of these parameters on the scientific return from such surveys.

  5. Dust extinction in the first galaxies (United States)

    Jaacks, Jason; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Bromm, Volker


    Using cosmological volume simulations and a custom built sub-grid model for Pop III star formation, we examine the baseline dust extinction in the first galaxies due to Pop III metal enrichment in the first billion years of cosmic history. We find that while the most enriched, high-density lines of sight in primordial galaxies can experience a measurable amount of extinction from Pop III dust (E(B - V)max = 0.07, AV, max ≈ 0.28), the average extinction is very low with ≲10-3. We derive a power-law relationship between dark matter halo mass and extinction of E(B-V)∝ M_halo^{0.80}. Performing a Monte Carlo parameter study, we establish the baseline reddening of the UV spectra of dwarf galaxies at high redshift due to Pop III enrichment only. With this method, we find -2.51 ± 0.07, which is both nearly halo mass and redshift independent.

  6. The formation of submillimetre-bright galaxies from gas infall over a billion years. (United States)

    Narayanan, Desika; Turk, Matthew; Feldmann, Robert; Robitaille, Thomas; Hopkins, Philip; Thompson, Robert; Hayward, Christopher; Ball, David; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan


    Submillimetre-bright galaxies at high redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe and are characterized by prodigious emission in the far-infrared, with a flux of at least five millijanskys at a wavelength of 850 micrometres. They reside in haloes with masses about 10(13) times that of the Sun, have low gas fractions compared to main-sequence disks at a comparable redshift, trace complex environments and are not easily observable at optical wavelengths. Their physical origin remains unclear. Simulations have been able to form galaxies with the requisite luminosities, but have otherwise been unable to simultaneously match the stellar masses, star formation rates, gas fractions and environments. Here we report a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation that is able to form a submillimetre galaxy that simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints. We find that groups of galaxies residing in massive dark matter haloes have increasing rates of star formation that peak at collective rates of about 500-1,000 solar masses per year at redshifts of two to three, by which time the interstellar medium is sufficiently enriched with metals that the region may be observed as a submillimetre-selected system. The intense star formation rates are fuelled in part by the infall of a reservoir gas supply enabled by stellar feedback at earlier times, not through major mergers. With a lifetime of nearly a billion years, our simulations show that the submillimetre-bright phase of high-redshift galaxies is prolonged and associated with significant mass buildup in early-Universe proto-clusters, and that many submillimetre-bright galaxies are composed of numerous unresolved components (for which there is some observational evidence).

  7. Cluster galaxy population evolution from the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam survey: brightest cluster galaxies, stellar mass distribution, and active galaxies (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Lin, Sheng-Chieh; Oguri, Masamune; Chen, Kai-Feng; Tanaka, Masayuki; Chiu, I.-non; Huang, Song; Kodama, Tadayuki; Leauthaud, Alexie; More, Surhud; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Bundy, Kevin; Lin, Lihwai; Miyazaki, Satoshi; HSC Collaboration


    The unprecedented depth and area surveyed by the Subaru Strategic Program with the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC-SSP) have enabled us to construct and publish the largest distant cluster sample out to z~1 to date. In this exploratory study of cluster galaxy evolution from z=1 to z=0.3, we investigate the stellar mass assembly history of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), and evolution of stellar mass and luminosity distributions, stellar mass surface density profile, as well as the population of radio galaxies. Our analysis is the first high redshift application of the top N richest cluster selection, which is shown to allow us to trace the cluster galaxy evolution faithfully. Our stellar mass is derived from a machine-learning algorithm, which we show to be unbiased and accurate with respect to the COSMOS data. We find very mild stellar mass growth in BCGs, and no evidence for evolution in both the total stellar mass-cluster mass correlation and the shape of the stellar mass surface density profile. The clusters are found to contain more red galaxies compared to the expectations from the field, even after the differences in density between the two environments have been taken into account. We also present the first measurement of the radio luminosity distribution in clusters out to z~1.

  8. Massive stars in the Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy (United States)

    Garcia, Miriam


    Low metallicity massive stars hold the key to interpret numerous processes in the past Universe including re-ionization, starburst galaxies, high-redshift supernovae, and γ-ray bursts. The Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy [SagDIG, 12+log(O/H) = 7.37] represents an important landmark in the quest for analogues accessible with 10-m class telescopes. This Letter presents low-resolution spectroscopy executed with the Gran Telescopio Canarias that confirms that SagDIG hosts massive stars. The observations unveiled three OBA-type stars and one red supergiant candidate. Pending confirmation from high-resolution follow-up studies, these could be the most metal-poor massive stars of the Local Group.

  9. An Inclination-Dependent IRX-beta Relation for Galaxies at z~1.5 (United States)

    Wang, Weichen; Kassin, Susan A.; Pacifici, Camilla; de la Vega, Alexander; Simons, Raymond C.; Barro, Guillermo; Gordon, Karl D.; Snyder, Gregory


    Star-forming galaxies near cosmic noon are substantially obscured by dust. Therefore, to measure galaxy star-formation rates (SFRs), it is crucial to accurately account for dust obscuration. This is usually done by measuring the slopes of spectra in the rest-frame ultraviolet (i.e., β). Another independent method is to measure the infrared excess IRX, defined as the ratio between infrared and ultraviolet luminosity. In this work, we present the discovery that the relation between IRX and β varies systematically with galaxy inclination at z~1.5. Edge-on galaxies are on average ~0.5 dex higher in IRX than face-on galaxies at fixed β. Furthermore, we find that the difference between SFR(UV+IR) and β-corrected SFR(UV) is correlated with inclination. Our finding is consistent with the study of local galaxies (Wild et al. 2011), where the dust attenuation curve is found to flatten with increasing inclination. We interpret our results using a picture where dust and young stars are spatially mixed. In this case, β is more sensitive to the optically-thin regions near the surface of galaxy disks. Therefore, compared to the case of face-on galaxies, β measures a smaller fraction of the total dust optical depth for the edge-on galaxies, whereas IRX always probes the total optical depth. We conclude that inclination must be taken into account when evaluating dust attenuation with β at high redshift.

  10. The properties of the first galaxies in the BlueTides simulation (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen M.; Feng, Yu; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Lovell, Christopher C.; Waters, Dacen


    We employ the very large cosmological hydrodynamical simulation BlueTides to investigate the predicted properties of the galaxy population during the epoch of reionization (z > 8). BlueTides has a resolution and volume ((400/h ≈ 577)3 cMpc3) providing a population of galaxies that is well matched to depth and area of current observational surveys targeting the high-redshift Universe. At z = 8, BlueTides includes almost 160 000 galaxies with stellar masses >108 M⊙. The population of galaxies predicted by BlueTides closely matches observational constraints on both the galaxy stellar mass function and far-UV (150 nm) luminosity function. Galaxies in BlueTides are characterized by rapidly increasing star formation histories. Specific star formation rates decrease with redshift though remain largely insensitive to stellar mass. As a result of the enhanced surface density of metals, more massive galaxies are predicted to have higher dust attenuation resulting in a significant steepening of the observed far-UV luminosity function at high luminosities. The contribution of active supermassive black holes (SMBHs) to the UV luminosities of galaxies with stellar masses 109-10 M⊙ is around 3 per cent on average. Approximately 25 per cent of galaxies with M* ≈ 1010 M⊙ are predicted to have active SMBHs that contribute >10 per cent of the total UV luminosity.

  11. Swift multi-wavelength observations of the high-redshift Blazar S5 0836+710 (4C 71.07) (United States)

    Vercellone, Stefano; Romano, Patrizia; Raiteri, Claudia Maria; Acosta Pulido, Jose; Villata, Massimo; Carnerero Martin, Maria Isabel


    We present the preliminary results of a year-long Swift monitoring campaign of the high-redshift (z=2.172) flat-spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) S5 0836+710 (4C 71.07). The campaign, based on one observation per month, 5 ks each observation, for 12 months, allowed us to investigate the synchrotron and nuclear emission contributions to the optical-UV frequency range of its spectral energy distribution and the X-ray spectral variations along a baseline of a year. We obtained a high-accuracy determination of UVOT magnitudes, an X-ray photon index with an uncertainty of the order of 5%, and well-sampled light curves both in the optical-UV and X-ray energy bands to study their possible modulations and correlations. Our study allowed us to exploit the unique Swift capabilities in terms of both simultaneous energy coverage and schedule flexibility. The Swift monitoring campaign was supported by observations by the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) Collaboration, which provided radio, near-infrared, and optical photometric data as well as optical polarimetry. Moreover, a spectroscopic monitoring was obtained at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT). All these observations will allow us to obtain a comprehensive picture of the jet as well as of the nuclear source emission.

  12. Modelling high resolution ALMA observations of strongly lensed highly star forming galaxies detected by Herscheltype="fn" rid="fn1" /> (United States)

    Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S. A.; Negrello, M.; Nayyeri, H.; van der Werf, P. P.; Serjeant, S.; Farrah, D.; Michałowski, M. J.; Baes, M.; Marchetti, L.; Cooray, A.; Riechers, D. A.; Amvrosiadis, A.


    We have modelled ˜0.1 arcsec resolution ALMA imaging of six strong gravitationally lensed galaxies detected by the Herschel Space Observatory. Our modelling recovers mass properties of the lensing galaxies and, by determining magnification factors, intrinsic properties of the lensed sub-millimetre sources. We find that the lensed galaxies all have high ratios of star formation rate to dust mass, consistent with or higher than the mean ratio for high redshift sub-millimetre galaxies and low redshift ultra-luminous infra-red galaxies. Source reconstruction reveals that most galaxies exhibit disturbed morphologies. Both the cleaned image plane data and the directly observed interferometric visibilities have been modelled, enabling comparison of both approaches. In the majority of cases, the recovered lens models are consistent between methods, all six having mass density profiles that are close to isothermal. However, one system with poor signal to noise shows mildly significant differences.

  13. Galaxy Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruit, P. C.; Freeman, K. C.

    The disks of disk galaxies contain a substantial fraction of their baryonic matter and angular momentum, and much of the evolutionary activity in these galaxies, such as the formation of stars, spiral arms, bars and rings, and the various forms of secular evolution, takes place in their disks. The

  14. Multiband Observations of a Local Tadpole Galaxy (United States)

    Elmegreen, Bruce


    We propose WFC3 broadband and Halpha observations of a local tadpole galaxy with a starburst and low metallicity in the head suggestive of ram pressure triggering from cosmological inflow. Such head-tail structure dominates local ultra-low metallicity Blue Compact Dwarfs and it represents 10% of resolved galaxies in the Hubble UDF. We will identify star clusters and measure their properties, including masses and ages, two-point correlations for position as a function of mass and age, and the cluster mass distribution as a function of age. We will also determine the star formation fraction in clusters. These measurements can suggest definite processes for star formation including the importance of turbulent fragmentation. The presence of a super star cluster, if found, will be a model for the formation of metal-poor globular clusters in high redshift dwarf galaxies, which could have formed in similar conditions. The Halpha observations will also show bright rims and nebular structures down to 10's of pc scales. Such structures can indicate pressure sources and nebular flow directions that allow us to understand gas motions inside the starburst head, including pressurized outflows and cosmological inflows. The head is so bright in Halpha that even if only 25% of the ionizing radiation escapes, an inflowing halo stream as far away as 1' will be ionized sufficiently on the surface for our observations to detect it. Thus the proposed galaxy, Kiso 5639, is a prime laboratory to study processes that may be related to cosmic accretion, starburst conditions in primitive galaxies, and the formation of metal-poor globular clusters.

  15. The Molecular ISM of Quasar Host Galaxies in the Early Universe (United States)

    Riechers, D. A.


    Detailed studies of the molecular gas phase in the host galaxies of the highest redshift quasars are important for our understanding of the formation and evolution of quasars and their bulges, since the molecular gas is the prerequisite material for star formation. This investigation capitalizes on state-of-the-art observations in the radio/millimeter wavelength regime to study the key properties of the molecular interstellar medium in some of the most distant, gas-rich quasars. To search for evolutionary, luminosity-dependent, or galaxy type-dependent trends in the conditions under which star formation takes place, results are interpreted in the context of studies of nearby galaxies and high redshift galaxy populations. From the first high-resolution CO(J=1→0) spectroscopy of high-z quasars, the total molecular gas mass of their host galaxies is determined. By more than doubling the number of molecules known in the distant universe [from 2 (CO/HCN) to 5], it is found that multiple molecular probes of dense gas predict similar star formation rates within the dense molecular regions of high redshift galaxies, out to the first 2Gyr after the Big Bang. Together with other studies, these results indicate an increase in star formation efficiency toward the most luminous distant gas-rich systems, possibly due to a higher median gas density. In a connected, time consuming interferometric study, the host galaxies of three z>4 quasars are resolved, for the first time, both spatially (at up to 0.15", or 1.0 kpc) and in velocity space, revealing that the molecular reservoirs show a wealth of morphologies. The derived dynamical masses are large enough to account for both the central supermassive black holes and the full reservoirs of molecular gas, but do not leave much room for a stellar bulge as predicted by the local relation between black hole mass and bulge velocity dispersion. Quasar host galaxies are thus prime laboratories to study the coevolution of supermassive

  16. Distributions of Gas and Galaxies from Galaxy Clusters to Larger Scales (United States)

    Patej, Anna

    blue galaxies at z 0.6 using the CMASS sample of galaxies from the 12th Data Release of SDSS-III. The stochasticity between these two samples is quantified via the correlation coefficient r, which can be constructed from two different statistics. Both statistics indicate that on intermediate scales (20 < R < 100 Mpc/h) there is low stochasticity between the two samples of galaxies, providing a constraint on a key systematic in using large galaxy redshift surveys for cosmology. In cosmology, dense redshift surveys permit the measurement of the scale of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), which appear as a modest amplification at scales of about R = 105 Mpc/h in the two-point auto-correlation function of galaxies, provided that there is a sufficiently high density of galaxies with accurately measured three-dimensional positions. As a result, due to the expense of spectroscopic observations, to date most BAO analyses have been performed at fairly low redshifts where present surveys can attain the requisite densities without sacrificing efficiency. We present a new method of measuring the BAO using the cross-correlation of a sparse spectroscopic sample with a denser, photometric sample of galaxies that will allow us to extend BAO measurements to higher redshifts than are presently accessible with spectroscopy alone. We discuss applications of this new method to current and upcoming datasets. Finally, we connect galaxies both near--the Local Group dwarf galaxies--and far--the high-redshift galaxies discovered by space-based observatories like Hubble and Spitzer. We evolve the local dwarfs back in time using stellar population synthesis code and juxtapose the properties of their ancient selves against those of the galaxies already discovered at high redshift. We additionally compare the properties of the dwarfs' progenitors with the detection limits of the future James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), finding that JWST should be able to detect the progenitors of galaxies similar

  17. The Influence of Galaxy Environment on the Stellar Initial Mass Function of Early-Type Galaxies (United States)

    Rosani, Giulio; Pasquali, Anna; La Barbera, Francesco; Ferreras, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre


    In this paper we investigate whether the stellar initial mass function of early-type galaxies depends on their host environment. To this purpose, we have selected a sample of early-type galaxies from the SPIDER catalogue, characterized their environment through the group catalogue of Wang et al. and used their optical SDSS spectra to constrain the IMF slope, through the analysis of IMF-sensitive spectral indices. To reach a high enough signal-to-noise ratio, we have stacked spectra in velocity dispersion (σ0) bins, on top of separating the sample by galaxy hierarchy and host halo mass, as proxies for galaxy environment. In order to constrain the IMF, we have compared observed line strengths to predictions of MIUSCAT/EMILES synthetic stellar population models, with varying age, metallicity, and "bimodal" (low-mass tapered) IMF slope (Γ _b). Consistent with previous studies, we find that Γ _b increases with σ0, becoming bottom-heavy (i.e. an excess of low-mass stars with respect to the Milky-Way-like IMF) at high σ0. We find that this result is robust against the set of isochrones used in the stellar population models, as well as the way the effect of elemental abundance ratios is taken into account. We thus conclude that it is possible to use currently state-of-the-art stellar population models and intermediate resolution spectra to consistently probe IMF variations. For the first time, we show that there is no dependence of Γb on environment or galaxy hierarchy, as measured within the 3″ SDSS fibre, thus leaving the IMF as an intrinsic galaxy property, possibly set already at high redshift.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Perley, R. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Michałowski, M. J. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Cenko, S. B. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Krühler, T. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)


    Luminous infrared galaxies and submillimeter galaxies contribute significantly to stellar mass assembly and provide an important test of the connection between the gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate and that of overall cosmic star formation. We present sensitive 3 GHz radio observations using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of 32 uniformly selected GRB host galaxies spanning a redshift range from 0 < z < 2.5, providing the first fully dust- and sample-unbiased measurement of the fraction of GRBs originating from the universe's most bolometrically luminous galaxies. Four galaxies are detected, with inferred radio star formation rates (SFRs) ranging between 50 and 300 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Three of the four detections correspond to events consistent with being optically obscured 'dark' bursts. Our overall detection fraction implies that between 9% and 23% of GRBs between 0.5 < z < 2.5 occur in galaxies with S {sub 3GHz} > 10 μJy, corresponding to SFR > 50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at z ∼ 1 or >250 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at z ∼ 2. Similar galaxies contribute approximately 10%-30% of all cosmic star formation, so our results are consistent with a GRB rate that is not strongly biased with respect to the total SFR of a galaxy. However, all four radio-detected hosts have stellar masses significantly lower than IR/submillimeter-selected field galaxies of similar luminosities. We suggest that the GRB rate may be suppressed in metal-rich environments but independently enhanced in intense starbursts, producing a strong efficiency dependence on mass but little net dependence on bulk galaxy SFR.

  19. Physical and observable properties of the first galaxies (United States)

    Wise, John; Simeon Barrow, Kirk Stuart; O'Shea, Brian W.; Norman, Michael L.; Xu, Hao


    The Hubble Ultra Deep Field and Frontier Fields have discovered over 1,500 galaxies at redshifts greater than 6. We present observational predictions for this high-redshift population, using the Renaissance Simulations, a suite of high-resolution cosmological simulations, that enables the correlation between key observables and the physical properties of the first galaxies in the Universe. Using a sample of over 3,000 resolved galaxies along with the formation of 10,000 massive Population III stars, we show that the luminosity function flattens above a UV magnitude of -14 but does not drop to zero even to our resolution limit of M_UV = -4. We find that dark matter halos below the atomic cooling limit (~10^8 M_sun) can form stars if they are chemically enriched, and they have similar mass-to-light ratios as local ultra-faint dwarfs. We utilize stellar population synthesis models, dust extinction using Monte Carlo methods, and photo-ionization modeling, all sourced from the simulation data, to obtain synthetic observations of the first galaxies. Using these results, we will be able to constrain the following properties of the first galaxies: (1) star formation histories and stellar populations, (2) nebular emission and dust extinction, and (3) the faint end of the luminosity function.

  20. The origin of compact galaxies with anomalously high black hole masses (United States)

    Barber, Christopher; Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom


    Observations of local galaxies harbouring supermassive black holes (BH) of anomalously high mass, MBH, relative to their stellar mass, M*, appear to be at odds with simple models of the co-evolution between galaxies and their central BHs. We study the origin of such outliers in a Λ cold dark matter context using the EAGLE cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. We find 15 `MBH(M*)-outlier' galaxies, defined as having MBH more than 1.5 dex above the median MBH(M*) relation in the simulation, MBH, med(M*). All MBH(M*)-outliers are satellite galaxies, typically with M* ˜ 1010 M⊙ and MBH ˜ 108 M⊙. They have all become outliers due to a combination of tidal stripping of their outer stellar component acting over several Gyr and early formation times leading to rapid BH growth at high redshift, with the former mechanism being most important for 67 per cent of these outliers. The same mechanisms also cause the MBH(M*)-outlier satellites to be amongst the most compact galaxies in the simulation, making them ideal candidates for ultracompact dwarf galaxy progenitors. The 10 most extreme central galaxies found at z = 0 (with log10(MBH/MBH, med(M*)) ∈ [1.2, 1.5]) grow rapidly in MBH to lie well above the present-day MBH - M* relation at early times (z ≳ 2), and either continue to evolve parallel to the z = 0 relation or remain unchanged until the present day, making them `relics' of the high-redshift universe. This high-z formation mechanism may help to explain the origin of observed MBH(M*)-outliers with extended dark matter haloes and undisturbed morphologies.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groves, Brent A.; Schinnerer, Eva; Walter, Fabian [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Leroy, Adam [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Galametz, Maud [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bolatto, Alberto [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Hunt, Leslie [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Dale, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Croxall, Kevin [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 4051 McPherson Laboratory, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert Jr., E-mail: [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)


    We use a sample of 36 galaxies from the KINGFISH (Herschel IR), HERACLES (IRAM CO), and THINGS (Very Large Array H I) surveys to study empirical relations between Herschel infrared (IR) luminosities and the total mass of the interstellar gas (H{sub 2} + H I). Such a comparison provides a simple empirical relationship without introducing the uncertainty of dust model fitting. We find tight correlations, and provide fits to these relations, between Herschel luminosities and the total gas mass integrated over entire galaxies, with the tightest, almost linear, correlation found for the longest wavelength data (SPIRE 500). However, we find that accounting for the gas-phase metallicity (affecting the dust to gas ratio) is crucial when applying these relations to low-mass, and presumably high-redshift, galaxies. The molecular (H{sub 2}) gas mass is found to be better correlated with the peak of the IR emission (e.g., PACS160), driven mostly by the correlation of stellar mass and mean dust temperature. When examining these relations as a function of galactocentric radius, we find the same correlations, albeit with a larger scatter, up to a radius of r ∼ 0.7 r {sub 25} (containing most of a galaxy's baryonic mass). However, beyond that radius, the same correlations no longer hold, with increasing gas (predominantly H I) mass relative to the infrared emission. The tight relations found for the bulk of the galaxy's baryonic content suggest that total gas masses of disk-like (non-merging/ULIRG) galaxies can be inferred from far-infrared continuum measurements in situations where only the latter are available, e.g., in ALMA continuum observations of high-redshift galaxies.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, c/Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205-La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ferré-Mateu, Anna [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Balcells, Marc [Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Canary Islands (Spain); Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia, E-mail: [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)


    As early as 10 Gyr ago, galaxies with more than 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} of stars already existed. While most of these massive galaxies must have subsequently transformed through on-going star formation and mergers with other galaxies, a small fraction (≲0.1%) may have survived untouched until today. Searches for such relic galaxies, useful windows to explore the early universe, have been inconclusive to date: galaxies with masses and sizes like those observed at high redshift (M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}; R{sub e} ≲ 1.5 kpc) have been found in the local universe, but their stars are far too young for the galaxy to be a relic galaxy. This paper explores the first case of a nearby galaxy, NGC 1277 (at a distance of 73 Mpc in the Perseus galaxy cluster), which fulfills many criteria to be considered a relic galaxy. Using deep optical spectroscopy, we derive the star formation history along the structure of the galaxy: the stellar populations are uniformly old (>10 Gyr) with no evidence for more recent star formation episodes. The metallicity of their stars is super-solar ([Fe/H] = 0.20 ± 0.04 with a smooth decline toward the outer regions) and α-enriched ([α/Fe] = 0.4 ± 0.1). This suggests a very short formation time scale for the bulk of the stars in this galaxy. This object also rotates very fast (V {sub rot} ∼ 300 km s{sup –1}) and has a large central velocity dispersion (σ > 300 km s{sup –1}). NGC 1277 allows the exploration in full detail of properties such as the structure, internal dynamics, metallicity, and initial mass function as they were at ∼10-12 Gyr ago when the first massive galaxies were built.

  3. Outflows in low-mass galaxies at z >1 (United States)

    Maseda, Michael V.; MUSE GTO Consortium


    Star formation histories of local dwarf galaxies, derived through resolved stellar populations, appear complex and varied. The general picture derived from hydrodynamical simulations is one of cold gas accretion and bursty star formation, followed by feedback from supernovae and winds that heat and eject the central gas reservoirs. This ejection halts star formation until the material cools and re-accretes, resulting in an episodic SFH, particularly at stellar masses below ~ 109 M⊙. Such feedback has often been cited as the driving force behind the observed slowly-rising rotation curves in local dwarfs, due to an under-density of dark matter compared to theoretical models, which is one of the primary challenges to LCDM cosmology. However, these events have not yet been directly observed at high-redshift. Recently, using HST imaging and grism spectroscopy, we have uncovered an abundant population of low-mass galaxies (M* < 109 M⊙) at z = 1 - 2 that are undergoing strong bursts of star formation, in agreement with the theoretical predictions. These Extreme Emission Line Galaxies, with high specific SFRs and shallow gravitational potential wells, are ideal places to test the theoretical prediction of strong feedback-driven outflows. Here we use deep MUSE spectroscopy to search these galaxies for signatures of outflowing material, namely kinematic offsets between absorption lines (in the restframe optical and UV), which trace cool gas, and the nebular emission lines, which define the systemic redshift of the galaxy. Although the EELGs are intrinsically very faint, stacked spectra reveal blueshifted velocity centroids for Fe II absorption, which is indicative of outflowing cold gas. This represents the first constraint on outflows in M* < 109 M⊙ galaxies at z = 1 - 2. These outflows should regulate the star formation histories of low-mass galaxies at early cosmic times and thus play a crucial role in galaxy growth and evolution.

  4. A high abundance of massive galaxies 3-6 billion years after the Big Bang. (United States)

    Glazebrook, Karl; Abraham, Roberto G; McCarthy, Patrick J; Savaglio, Sandra; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Crampton, David; Murowinski, Rick; Jørgensen, Inger; Roth, Kathy; Hook, Isobel; Marzke, Ronald O; Carlberg, R G


    Hierarchical galaxy formation is the model whereby massive galaxies form from an assembly of smaller units. The most massive objects therefore form last. The model succeeds in describing the clustering of galaxies, but the evolutionary history of massive galaxies, as revealed by their visible stars and gas, is not accurately predicted. Near-infrared observations (which allow us to measure the stellar masses of high-redshift galaxies) and deep multi-colour images indicate that a large fraction of the stars in massive galaxies form in the first 5 Gyr (refs 4-7), but uncertainties remain owing to the lack of spectra to confirm the redshifts (which are estimated from the colours) and the role of obscuration by dust. Here we report the results of a spectroscopic redshift survey that probes the most massive and quiescent galaxies back to an era only 3 Gyr after the Big Bang. We find that at least two-thirds of massive galaxies have appeared since this era, but also that a significant fraction of them are already in place in the early Universe.

  5. Eight per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons from a compact, star-forming dwarf galaxy. (United States)

    Izotov, Y I; Orlitová, I; Schaerer, D; Thuan, T X; Verhamme, A; Guseva, N G; Worseck, G


    One of the key questions in observational cosmology is the identification of the sources responsible for ionization of the Universe after the cosmic 'Dark Ages', when the baryonic matter was neutral. The currently identified distant galaxies are insufficient to fully reionize the Universe by redshift z ≈ 6 (refs 1-3), but low-mass, star-forming galaxies are thought to be responsible for the bulk of the ionizing radiation. As direct observations at high redshift are difficult for a variety of reasons, one solution is to identify local proxies of this galaxy population. Starburst galaxies at low redshifts, however, generally are opaque to Lyman continuum photons. Small escape fractions of about 1 to 3 per cent, insufficient to ionize much surrounding gas, have been detected only in three low-redshift galaxies. Here we report far-ultraviolet observations of the nearby low-mass star-forming galaxy J0925+1403. The galaxy is leaking ionizing radiation with an escape fraction of about 8 per cent. The total number of photons emitted during the starburst phase is sufficient to ionize intergalactic medium material that is about 40 times as massive as the stellar mass of the galaxy.

  6. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S


    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  7. Galaxy structure searches by photometric redshifts in the CFHTLS (United States)

    Adami, C.; Durret, F.; Benoist, C.; Coupon, J.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Ilbert, O.; Blaizot, J.; Arnouts, S.; Cappi, A.; Garilli, B.; Guennou, L.; Lebrun, V.; Lefèvre, O.; Maurogordato, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Mellier, Y.; Slezak, E.; Tresse, L.; Ulmer, M. P.


    Context. Counting clusters is one of the methods to constrain cosmological parameters, but has been limited up to now both by the redshift range and by the relatively small sizes of the homogeneously surveyed areas. Aims: In order to enlarge publicly available optical cluster catalogs, in particular at high redshift, we have performed a systematic search for clusters of galaxies in the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). Methods: We considered the deep 2, 3 and 4 CFHTLS Deep fields (each 1 × 1 deg2), as well as the wide 1, 3 and 4 CFHTLS Wide fields. We used the Le Phare photometric redshifts for the galaxies detected in these fields with magnitude limits of i'=25 and 23 for the Deep and Wide fields respectively. We then constructed galaxy density maps in photometric redshift bins of 0.1 based on an adaptive kernel technique and detected structures with SExtractor at various detection levels. In order to assess the validity of our cluster detection rates, we applied a similar procedure to galaxies in Millennium simulations. We measured the correlation function of our cluster candidates. We analyzed large scale properties and substructures, including filaments, by applying a minimal spanning tree algorithm both to our data and to the Millennium simulations. Results: We detected 1200 candidate clusters with various masses (minimal masses between 1.0 × 1013 and 5.5 × 1013 and mean masses between 1.3 × 1014 and 12.6 × 1014~M_⊙) in the CFHTLS Deep and Wide fields, thus notably increasing the number of known high redshift cluster candidates. We found a correlation function for these objects comparable to that obtained for high redshift cluster surveys. We also show that the CFHTLS deep survey is able to trace the large scale structure of the universe up to z ≥ 1. Our detections are fully consistent with those made in various CFHTLS analyses with other methods. We now need accurate mass determinations of these structures to constrain

  8. Stellar Archaeology and Galaxy Genesis: The Need for Large Area Multi-Object Spectrograph on 8 m-Class Telescopes (United States)

    Irwin, Mike J.; Lewis, Geraint F.

    The origin and evolution of galaxies like the Milky Way and M31 remain among the key questions in astrophysics. The galaxies we see today in and around the Local Group are representatives of the general field population of the Universe and have been evolving for the majority of cosmic time. As our nearest neighbour systems they can be studied in far more detail than their distant counterparts and hence provide our best hope for understanding star formation and prototypical galaxy evolution over the lifetime of the Universe [K. Freeman, J. Bland-Hawthorn in Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 487 (2002)]. Significant observational progress has been made, but we are still a long way from understanding galaxy genesis. To unravel this formative epoch, detailed large area multi-object spectroscopy of spatial, kinematic and chemical structures on 8 m-class telescopes are required, to provide the link between local near-field cosmology and predictions from the high-redshift Universe.

  9. Groups of Galaxies in the Nearby Universe Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held at Santiago de Chile

    CERN Document Server

    Saviane, Ivo; Borissova, Jordanka


    For every galaxy in the field or in clusters, there are about three galaxies in groups. The Milky Way itself resides in a group, and groups can be found at high redshift. The current generation of 10-m class telescopes and space facilities allows the observation of the members of nearby groups with exquisite detail, and their properties can be correlated with the global properties of their host group. Groups in the local Universe offer us the chance to study galaxies in environments characterized by strong interactions. In the cosmological context, groups trace large-scale structures better than clusters, and the evolution of groups and clusters appears to be related. All these aspects of research on groups of galaxies are summarized in this book written by scientists working in various fields.

  10. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .4. Association of sources with Hubble Deep Field galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.


    We discuss the identification of sources detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at 6.7 and 15 mu m in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region. We conservatively associate ISO sources with objects in existing optical and near-infrared HDF catalogues using the likelihood ratio method, confirmi...... and one star), Amongst optically bright HDF galaxies, ISO tends to detect luminous, star-forming galaxies at fairly high redshift and with disturbed morphologies, in preference to nearby ellipticals....... these results (and, in one case, clarifying them) with independent visual searches, We find 15 ISO sources to be reliably associated with bright [I-814(AB) galaxies in the HDF, and one with an I-814(AB)=19.9 star, while a further 11 are associated with objects in the Hubble Flanking Fields (10 galaxies...

  11. The distribution of local star formation activity as a function of galaxy stellar mass, environment and morphology (United States)

    Lofthouse, E. K.; Kaviraj, S.; Smith, D. J. B.; Hardcastle, M. J.


    We present a detailed inventory of star formation in the local Universe, dissecting the cosmic star formation budget as a function of key variables that influence the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies: stellar mass, local environment and morphology. We use a large homogeneous data set from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to first study how the star formation budget in galaxies with stellar masses greater than log(M*/M⊙) = 10 splits as a function of each parameter separately. We then explore how the budget behaves as a simultaneous function of these three parameters. We show that the bulk of the star formation at z place in spiral galaxies that reside in the field, and have stellar masses between 10 work at high redshift, will enable us to understand the changes in SFR that have occurred over cosmic time and offers a strong constraint on models of galaxy formation.

  12. Identifying and Tracing the Stellar Mass Growth of Brightest Cluster Galaxy Ancestors (United States)

    Cooke, Kevin C.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Tyler, Krystal; COSMOS Collaboration


    The most massive galaxies in the present-day universe are the Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs), which formed through a complex process of mergers and star formation episodes yet to be fully understood. The age and high total mass of their stellar populations hint toward intense star formation episodes long ago, with the further delivery of additional stars through galaxy mergers. To investigate when this high redshift in-situ mass growth occurs, I use the constant and evolving number density methods to identify progenitors of low redshift BCGs. I use publically available multiwavelength observations from the COSMOS survey to construct a SED for each ancestor candidate, which is then fit to stellar, dust, and AGN models when appropriate. By tracing the specific star formation and stellar mass of BCG ancestors in the early universe, we gain a new understanding of when the largest individual structures in the universe formed their stars.

  13. HST Grism observations of the highest-z massive galaxy cluster (United States)

    Canning, Rebecca


    We propose to observe the most massive galaxy cluster, \\xlssu, at a redshift of >2. By observing this cluster with 12 orbits HST G141 grism and F140W filter observations plus one orbit F105W, we will be able to precisely identify cluster members, as well as study how the dense cluster environment effects these members at an unprecedentedly high redshift and minimizing biases from cluster selection. With this data set, we will examine the fraction of AGN and star forming galaxies as a function of cluster radius as well as incidences of merging, allowing key insights into the triggering and quenching mechanisms at play. Furthermore, we will examine the quiescent galaxy fraction to probe the the build-up of the red sequence at an early cosmological time. Finally, looking forward, we will use our observations to quantify the amount of star formation contamination that is likely to effect the next generation SZ surveys at other wavelengths.

  14. Low-Metallicity Star Formation: From the First Stars to Dwarf Galaxies (United States)

    Hunt, Leslie K.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Schneider, Raffaella


    Preface; SOC and LOC; Participants; Life at the conference; Conference photo; Session I. Population III and Metal-Free Star Formation: 1. Open questions in the study of population III star formation S. C. O. Glover, P. C. Clark, T. H. Greif, J. L. Johnson, V. Bromm, R. S. Klessen and A. Stacy; 2. Protostar formation in the early universe Naoki Yoshida; 3. Population III.1 stars: formation, feedback and evolution of the IMF Jonathan C. Tan; 4. The formation of the first galaxies and the transition to low-mass star formation T. H. Greif, D. R. G. Schleicher, J. L. Johnson, A.-K. Jappsen, R. S. Klessen, P. C. Clark, S. C. O. Glover, A. Stacy and V. Bromm; 5. Low-metallicity star formation: the characteristic mass and upper mass limit Kazuyuki Omukai; 6. Dark stars: dark matter in the first stars leads to a new phase of stellar evolution Katherine Freese, Douglas Spolyar, Anthony Aguirre, Peter Bodenheimer, Paolo Gondolo, J. A. Sellwood and Naoki Yoshida; 7. Effects of dark matter annihilation on the first stars F. Iocco, A. Bressan, E. Ripamonti, R. Schneider, A. Ferrara and P. Marigo; 8. Searching for Pop III stars and galaxies at high redshift Daniel Schaerer; 9. The search for population III stars Sperello di Serego Alighieri, Jaron Kurk, Benedetta Ciardi, Andrea Cimatti, Emanuele Daddi and Andrea Ferrara; 10. Observational search for population III stars in high-redshift galaxies Tohru Nagao; Session II. Metal Enrichment, Chemical Evolution, and Feedback: 11. Cosmic metal enrichment Andrea Ferrara; 12. Insights into the origin of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation Henry Lee, Eric F. Bell and Rachel S. Somerville; 13. LSD and AMAZE: the mass-metallicity relation at z > 3 F. Mannucci and R. Maiolino; 14. Three modes of metal-enriched star formation at high redshift Britton D. Smith, Matthew J. Turk, Steinn Sigurdsson, Brian W. O'Shea and Michael L. Norman; 15. Primordial supernovae and the assembly of the first galaxies Daniel Whalen, Bob Van Veelen, Brian W. O

  15. A novel technique to characterize the merging channel of the galaxies (United States)

    Peralta de Arriba, L.; Balcells, M.; Trujillo, I.; Falcón-Barroso, J.


    Most massive galaxies have grown their sizes during cosmic time. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this growth, being minor mergers the most promising way. The key feature of this mechanism is that it can reproduce in a very efficient way the observed size growth. The number of satellites around the massive galaxies has also been used to support observationally minor-merging mechanism; however, this evidence has a big uncertainty because a merger time scale needs to be assumed. In this poster we will use velocity dispersion measurements at high redshift as an opportunity to explore the structural properties of massive galaxies. This will allow us to constrain the different evolutionary mechanisms, and in particular to check whether minor mergers remain as the most favoured growth channel.

  16. Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium in Star-forming Galaxies at z1.5 (United States)

    Hayashi, Masao; Ly, Chun; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Malkan, Matthew A.; Nagao, Tohru; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Goto, Ryosuke; Naito, Yoshiaki


    We present results from Subaru/FMOS near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of 118 star-forming galaxies at z approximately equal to 1.5 in the Subaru Deep Field. These galaxies are selected as [O II] lambda 3727 emitters at z approximately equal to 1.47 and 1.62 from narrow-band imaging. We detect H alpha emission line in 115 galaxies, [O III] lambda 5007 emission line in 45 galaxies, and H Beta, [N II] lambda 6584, and [S II]lambda lambda 6716, 6731 in 13, 16, and 6 galaxies, respectively. Including the [O II] emission line, we use the six strong nebular emission lines in the individual and composite rest-frame optical spectra to investigate physical conditions of the interstellar medium in star-forming galaxies at z approximately equal to 1.5. We find a tight correlation between H alpha and [O II], which suggests that [O II] can be a good star formation rate (SFR) indicator for galaxies at z approximately equal to 1.5. The line ratios of H alpha / [O II] are consistent with those of local galaxies. We also find that [O II] emitters have strong [O III] emission lines. The [O III]/[O II] ratios are larger than normal star-forming galaxies in the local Universe, suggesting a higher ionization parameter. Less massive galaxies have larger [O III]/[O II] ratios. With evidence that the electron density is consistent with local galaxies, the high ionization of galaxies at high redshifts may be attributed to a harder radiation field by a young stellar population and/or an increase in the number of ionizing photons from each massive star.

  17. Star formation history and chemical enrichment in the early Universe: clues from the rest-optical and rest-UV spectra of z~2-3 star-forming galaxies in the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey (United States)

    Strom, Allison L.


    Galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation (z~2-3) exhibit significantly higher star formation rates and gas fractions at fixed stellar mass than nearby galaxies. These z~2-3 galaxies are also distinct in terms of their nebular spectra, reflecting important differences not only in the physical conditions of their interstellar medium (e.g., electron density and gas-phase metallicity), but also in the details of their massive stellar populations, especially their ionizing radiation fields. Jointly observing galaxies' HII regions, at rest-UV and rest-optical wavelengths, and massive stars, at rest-UV wavelengths, is central to constructing a framework for understanding the differences between z~2-3 and z~0 star-forming galaxies and for self-consistently explaining the trends observed in the high-redshift population. My thesis is based on data from the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey (KBSS), which uniquely combines observations of individual galaxies in these two bandpasses. In total, the near-infrared component of the KBSS includes spectra of >700 z~2-3 galaxies obtained with Keck/MOSFIRE. I will present these results along with a detailed analysis of the full rest-optical (3600-7000 Ang) nebular spectra of ~400 galaxies, showing that high-redshift galaxies exhibit uniformly high degrees of ionization and excitation with respect to most z~0 galaxies. Combined with observations of the same galaxies' rest-UV spectra (obtained with Keck/LRIS) and photoionization model predictions, these results suggest that the disparity arises from differences in the shape of the ionizing radiation field at fixed gas-phase oxygen abundance, most likely due to the effects of Fe-poor massive binary stars. My comprehensive spectroscopic study of an unprecedentedly large sample of z~2-3 galaxies offers compelling evidence that the distinct chemical abundance patterns observed in these galaxies are the result of systematic differences in their star formation histories.

  18. Implications for Primordial Non-Gaussianity ($f_{NL}$) from weak lensing masses of high-z galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Raul


    The recent weak lensing measurement of the dark matter mass of the high-redshift galaxy cluster XMMUJ2235.3-2557 of (8.5 +- 1.7) x 10^{14} Msun at z=1.4, indicates that, if the cluster is assumed to be the result of the collapse of dark matter in a primordial gaussian field in the standard LCDM model, then its abundance should be 3-10 if the non-Gaussianity parameter f^local_NL is in the range 150-200. This value is comparable to the limit for f_NL obtained by current constraints from the CMB. We conclude that mass determination of high-redshift, massive clusters can offer a complementary probe of primordial non-gaussianity.

  19. CI as a Tracer of Gas Mass in Star Forming Galaxies (United States)

    Bourne, Nathan


    Research in galaxy evolution aims to understand the cosmic industry of converting gas into stars. While SFR and stellar mass evolution are well constrained by current data, our knowledge of gas in galaxies throughout cosmic time is comparatively lacking. Almost all high-redshift gas measurements to date rely on CO as a tracer, but this is subject to systematic uncertainties due to optically thick emission and poorly constrained dependences on gas density, distribution and metallicity. Recently, some attention has been given to dust continuum as an alternative gas tracer, which shows promise for large samples but still requires accurate calibration on a direct gas tracer at high redshift. The [CI] 492GHz emission line could overcome much of the systematic uncertainty, as it is optically thin and has similar excitation conditions to CO(1-0), but observational limitations have so far restricted CI measurements to very small samples. I will presen t some new data from ALMA, for the first time testing the CI/dust correlation in a representative sample of star-forming galaxies at z=1, and discuss how future observations could be designed to more widely exploit this independent gas tracer.

  20. Semi-numerical simulation of reionization with semi-analytical modeling of galaxy formation (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Guo, Qi; Liu, Gao-Chao; Yue, Bin; Xu, Yi-Dong; Chen, Xue-Lei


    In a semi-numerical model of reionization, the evolution of ionization fraction is approximately simulated by the criterion of ionizing photon to baryon ratio. We incorporate a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation based on the Millennium II N-body simulation into the semi-numerical modeling of reionization. The semi-analytical model is used to predict the production of ionizing photons, then we use the semi-numerical method to model the reionization process. Such an approach allows more detailed modeling of the reionization, and also connects observations of galaxies at low and high redshifts to the reionization history. The galaxy formation model we use was designed to match the low-z observations, and it also fits the high redshift luminosity function reasonably well, but its prediction about star formation falls below the observed value, and we find that it also underpredicts the stellar ionizing photon production rate, hence the reionization cannot be completed at z ~ 6. We also consider simple modifications of the model with more top heavy initial mass functions, which can allow the reionization to occur at earlier epochs. The incorporation of the semi-analytical model may also affect the topology of the HI regions during the epoch of reionization, and the neutral regions produced by our simulations with the semi-analytical model, which appeared less poriferous than the simple halo-based models.

  1. The nature of giant clumps in distant galaxies probed by the anatomy of the cosmic snake (United States)

    Cava, Antonio; Schaerer, Daniel; Richard, Johan; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Mayer, Lucio; Tamburello, Valentina


    Giant stellar clumps are ubiquitous in high-redshift galaxies1,2. They are thought to play an important role in the build-up of galactic bulges3 and as diagnostics of star formation feedback in galactic discs4. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) blank field imaging surveys have estimated that these clumps have masses of up to 109.5 M⊙ and linear sizes of ≳1 kpc5,6. Recently, gravitational lensing has also been used to get higher spatial resolution7-9. However, both recent lensed observations10,11 and models12,13 suggest that the clumps' properties may be overestimated by the limited resolution of standard imaging techniques. A definitive proof of this observational bias is nevertheless still missing. Here we investigate directly the effect of resolution on clump properties by analysing multiple gravitationally lensed images of the same galaxy at different spatial resolutions, down to 30 pc. We show that the typical mass and size of giant clumps, generally observed at 1 kpc resolution in high-redshift galaxies, are systematically overestimated. The high spatial resolution data, only enabled by strong gravitational lensing using currently available facilities, support smaller scales of clump formation by fragmentation of the galactic gas disk via gravitational instabilities.

  2. HiZELS: a high-redshift survey of Hα emitters - I. The cosmic star formation rate and clustering at z = 2.23 (United States)

    Geach, J. E.; Smail, Ian; Best, P. N.; Kurk, J.; Casali, M.; Ivison, R. J.; Coppin, K.


    We present results from a near-infrared narrow-band survey of emission-line galaxies at z = 2.23, using the Wide Field Camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. The H2S1 narrow-band filter (λc = 2.121μm) we employ selects the Hα emission-line redshifted to z = 2.23, and is thus suitable for selecting `typical' star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei at this epoch. The pilot study was undertaken in the well-studied Cosmological Evolution Survey field (COSMOS) and is already the largest near-infrared narrow-band survey at this depth, with a line flux limit of FHα ~ 10-16ergs-1cm-2 over 0.60deg2, probing ~220 × 103Mpc3 (comoving) down to a limiting star formation rate of ~30Msolaryr-1 (3σ). In this paper, we present the results from our pilot survey and evaluate the Hα luminosity function and estimate the clustering properties of Hα emitters at z = 2.23 from 55 detected galaxies. The integrated luminosity function is used to estimate the volume-averaged star formation rate at z = 2.23: ρSFR = 0.17+0.16-0.09Msolaryr-1Mpc-3 for LHα > 1042ergs-1. For the first time, we use the Hα star formation tracer to reliably constrain ρSFR out to z = 2.23 demonstrating the rapid increase in ρSFR out to this redshift as well as confirming the flattening in ρSFR between z ~ 1 and 2. In addition to the luminosity distribution, we analyse the clustering properties of these galaxies. Using the two-point angular correlation function, ω(θ), we estimate a real-space correlation length of r0 = 4.2+0.4-0.2h-1Mpc. In comparison to models of clustering which take into account bias evolution, we estimate that these galaxies are hosted by dark matter haloes of mass Mhalo ~ 1012Msolar consistent with the progenitors of the Milky Way. Based on observations obtained with the Wide Field CAMera (WFCAM) on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). E-mail:

  3. Radio Selection of the Most Distant Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Daddi, E.; Jin, S.; Strazzullo, V.; Sargent, M. T.; Wang, T.; Ferrari, C.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčić, V.; Calabró, A.; Coogan, R.; Delhaize, J.; Delvecchio, I.; Elbaz, D.; Gobat, R.; Gu, Q.; Liu, D.; Novak, M.; Valentino, F.


    We show that the most distant X-ray-detected cluster known to date, Cl J1001 at {z}{spec}=2.506, hosts a strong overdensity of radio sources. Six of them are individually detected (within 10\\prime\\prime ) in deep 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 75 resolution VLA 3 GHz imaging, with {S}3{GHz}> 8 μ {Jy}. Of the six, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) likely affects the radio emission in two galaxies, while star formation is the dominant source powering the remaining four. We searched for cluster candidates over the full COSMOS 2 deg2 field using radio-detected 3 GHz sources and looking for peaks in {{{Σ }}}5 density maps. Cl J1001 is the strongest overdensity by far with > 10σ , with a simple {z}{phot}> 1.5 preselection. A cruder photometric rejection of zgeneration of forming galaxy clusters. In these remarkable structures, widespread star formation and AGN activity of massive galaxy cluster members, residing within the inner cluster core, will ultimately lead to radio continuum as one of the most effective means for their identification, with detection rates expected in the ballpark of 0.1-1 per square degree at z≳ 2.5. Samples of hundreds such high-redshift clusters could potentially constrain cosmological parameters and test cluster and galaxy formation models.

  4. The Lyman-alpha signature of the first galaxies (United States)

    Smith, Aaron


    Radiation from the first stars and galaxies initiated the dramatic phase transition marking an end to the cosmic dark ages. The emission and absorption signatures from the Lyman-alpha (Lyα) transition of neutral hydrogen have been indispensable in extending the observational frontier for high-redshift galaxies into the epoch of reionization. Lyα radiative transfer provides clues about the processes leading to Lyα escape from individual galaxies and the subsequent transmission through the intergalactic medium. Cosmological simulations incorporating Lyα radiative transfer enhance our understanding of fundamental physics by supplying the inferred spectra and feedback on the gas. In this talk, I will discuss the dynamical impact of Lyα radiation pressure on galaxy formation throughout cosmic reionization with the first fully coupled Lyα radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. Based on a suite of spherically symmetric models and high-resolution ab initio cosmological simulations we find that Lyα radiation pressure is dynamically important during the assembly of direct collapse black holes (DCBHs), which may be the seeds of the first supermassive black holes in the universe. Finally, I will discuss recent advances in Lyα modeling based on current state-of-the-art simulations and observational insights.

  5. What drives the kinematic evolution of star-forming galaxies? (United States)

    Hung, Chao-Ling


    One important result from recent large integral field spectrograph (IFS) surveys is that the intrinsic velocity dispersion of galaxies increases with redshift. Massive, rotationdominated discs are already in place at z ∼ 2, but they are dynamically hotter than spiral galaxies in the local Universe. Although several plausible mechanisms for this elevated velocity dispersion (e.g. star formation feedback, elevated gas supply, or more frequent galaxy interactions) have been proposed, the fundamental driver of the velocity dispersion enhancement at high redshift remains unclear. We investigate the origin of this kinematic evolution using a suite of cosmological simulations from the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project. These simulations reproduce the observed trends between intrinsic velocity dispersion (σ intr), SFR, and z. In both the observed and simulated galaxies, σ intr is positively correlated with SFR. σ intr increases with redshift out to z ∼ 1 and then flattens beyond that. In the FIRE simulations, σ intr can vary significantly on timescales of ≲ 100 Myr. These variations closely mirror the time evolution of the SFR and gas inflow rate ( Ṁ gas). By cross-correlating pairs of σ intr Ṁ gas, and SFR, we show that the increased gas inflow leads to subsequent enhanced star formation, and enhancements in σ intr tend to temporally coincide with increases in Ṁ gas and SFR.

  6. The Origin of Dust in the Early Universe: Probing the Star Formation History of Galaxies by Their Dust Content (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Cherchneff, Isabelle


    Two distinct scenarios for the origin of the approximately 4 x 10(exp 8) Solar Mass of dust observed in the high-redshift (z = 6.4) quasar J1148+5251 have been proposed. The first assumes that this galaxy is much younger than the age of the universe at that epoch so that only supernovae, could have produced this dust. The second scenario assumes a significantly older galactic age, so that the dust could have formed in lower-mass AGB stars. Presenting new integral solutions for the chemical evolution of metals and dust in galaxies, we offer a critical evaluation of these two scenarios. ^N;"(,, show that the AGB scenario is sensitive to the details of the galaxy's star formation history (SFH), which must consist of an early intense starburst followed by a period of low stellar activity. The presence or absence of massive amounts of dust in high-redshift galaxies can therefore be used to infer their SFH. However, a problem with the AGB scenario is that it produces a stellar mass that is significantly larger than the inferred dynamical mass of J1148+5251, an yet unresolved discrepancy. If this problem persists, then additional sites for the growth or formation of dust, such as molecular clouds or dense clouds around active galactic nuclei, must be considered.

  7. A Sneak Peek at the JWST Era: Observing Galaxies Below the Hubble Limit with Gravitational Lensing (United States)

    Livermore, Rachael C.


    The installation of WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope pushed the frontier of high-redshift galaxy studies to only 500 Myr after the Big Bang. However, observations in this epoch remain challenging and are limited to the brightest galaxies; the fainter sources believed to be responsible for reionizing the Universe remain beyond the grasp of Hubble. With gravitational lensing, however, we can benefit from the magnification of faint sources, which brings them within reach of today's telescopes. The Hubble Frontier Fields program is a deep survey of strongly lensing clusters observed in the optical and near-infrared. Unfortunately, detecting highly magnified, intrinsically faint galaxies in these fields has proved challenging due to the bright foregound cluster galaxies and intracluster light. We have developed a technique using wavelet decomposition to overcome these difficulties and detect galaxies at z~7 with intrinsic UV magnitudes as faint as MUV = -13. We present this method and the resulting luminosity functions, which support a steep faint-end slope extending out to the observational limits. Our method has uncovered hundreds of galaxies at z > 6 fainter than any that have been seen before, providing our first insight into the small galaxy population during the epoch of reionization and a preview of the capabilities of JWST.

  8. The pair and major merger history of galaxies up to z=6 over 3 square degrees (United States)

    Conselice, Christopher; Mundy, Carl; Duncan, Kenneth


    A major goal in extragalactic astronomy is understanding how stars and gas are put into galaxies. As such we present the pair fraction and derived major merger and stellar mass assembly histories of galaxies up to z = 6. We do this using new techniques from photometric redshift probability distribution functions, and state of the art deep near-infrared data from the UDS, VIDEO and UltraVISTA COSMOS fields for galaxies at z mergers at high redshift are not the dominant mode of placing stars into galaxies, but that star formation is a more important process by factors of 10 or higher. At z mergers will at most double the masses of galaxies, depending on the stellar mass or number density selection method. At z mergers deposit more stellar mass into galaxies than star formation, the reverse of the process seen at higher redshifts. However, at z > 1 there must be a very important unknown mode of baryonic acquisition within galaxies that is not associated with major mergers. We further discuss how the merger history stays relatively constant at higher redshifts, and show the comparison of our results to theoretical predictions.

  9. On the Nature of the First Galaxies Selected at 350 Micrometers (United States)

    Khan, Sophia A.; Chanial, Pierre F.; Willner, S. P.; Pearson, Chris P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Benford, Dominic J.; Clements, David L.; Dye, Simon; Farrah, Duncan; Fazio, G. G.; hide


    We present constraints on the nature of the first galaxies selected at 350 micrometers. The sample includes galaxies discovered in the deepest blank-field survey at 350 micrometers (in the Bo6tes Deep Field) and also later serendipitous detections in the Lockman Hole. In determining multiwavelength identifications, the 350 lam position and map resolution of the second generation Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera are critical, especially in the cases where multiple radio sources exist and the 24 micrometer counterparts are unresolved. Spectral energy distribution templates are fitted to identified counterparts, and the sample is found to comprise IR-luminous galaxies at 1 nature of the dominant source of the 350 micrometers background-star-forming galaxies in the epoch of peak star formation in the universe-could be more effectively probed using ground-based instruments with their angular resolution and sensitivity offering significant advantages over space-based imaging. Key words: galaxies: high-redshift galaxies: starburst infrared: galaxies submillimeter

  10. The dust content of galaxies from z = 0 to z = 9 (United States)

    Popping, Gergö; Somerville, Rachel S.; Galametz, Maud


    We study the dust content of galaxies from z = 0 to z = 9 in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation that include new recipes to track the production and destruction of dust. We include condensation of dust in stellar ejecta, the growth of dust in the interstellar medium (ISM), the destruction of dust by supernovae and in the hot halo, and dusty winds and inflows. The rate of dust growth in the ISM depends on the metallicity and density of molecular clouds. Our fiducial model reproduces the relation between dust mass and stellar mass from z = 0 to z = 7, the number density of galaxies with dust masses less than 108.3 M⊙ and the cosmic density of dust at z = 0. The model accounts for the double power-law trend between dust-to-gas (DTG) ratio and gas-phase metallicity of local galaxies and the relation between DTG ratio and stellar mass. The dominant mode of dust formation is dust growth in the ISM, except for galaxies with M* < 107 M⊙, where condensation of dust in supernova ejecta dominates. The dust-to-metal ratio of galaxies depends on the gas-phase metallicity, unlike what is typically assumed in cosmological simulations. Model variants, including higher condensation efficiencies, a fixed time-scale for dust growth in the ISM, or no growth at all reproduce some of the observed constraints, but fail to simultaneously reproduce the shape of dust scaling relations and the dust mass of high-redshift galaxies.

  11. S0 galaxies in Formax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedregal...[], A. G.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Merrifield, M. R.


    Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1......Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1...

  12. Galaxy growth from redshift 5 to 0 at fixed comoving number density (United States)

    van de Voort, Freeke


    Studying the average properties of galaxies at a fixed comoving number density over a wide redshift range has become a popular observational method, because it may trace the evolution of galaxies statistically. We test this method by comparing the evolution of galaxies at fixed number density and by following individual galaxies through cosmic time (z = 0-5) in cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations from the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations project. Comparing progenitors, descendants, and galaxies selected at fixed number density at each redshift, we find differences of up to a factor of 3 for galaxy and interstellar medium (ISM) masses. The difference is somewhat larger for black hole masses. The scatter in ISM mass increases significantly towards low redshift with all selection techniques. We use the fixed number density technique to study the assembly of dark matter, gas, stars, and black holes and the evolution in accretion and star formation rates. We find three different regimes for massive galaxies, consistent with observations: at high redshift the gas accretion rate dominates, at intermediate redshifts the star formation rate is the highest, and at low redshift galaxies grow mostly through mergers. Quiescent galaxies have much lower ISM masses (by definition) and much higher black hole masses, but the stellar and halo masses are fairly similar. Without active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, massive galaxies are dominated by star formation down to z = 0 and most of their stellar mass growth occurs in the centre. With AGN feedback, stellar mass is only added to the outskirts of galaxies by mergers and they grow inside-out.

  13. The cosmological x-ray evolution of stars, AGN, and galaxies (United States)

    Watson, Casey R.

    It is of great importance for our understanding of galaxy evolution to determine whether there is a break or a continuum in these processes from the powerful quasars and starbursts of the past, to the seemingly dormant, "normal" galaxies more typical of the present epoch. To help settle the question, we combined optical data from the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS), X-ray data from the XBootes survey, and spectral information from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES) in order to simultaneously obtain deep and wide coverage of the normal galaxy population. In this manner, my collaborators and I were able to bridge the gap in normal galaxy X-ray coverage between large- area local surveys and high redshift, small volume deep fields. In particular, I present the X-ray evolution of normal galaxies as a function of absolute optical luminosity, redshift, and spectral type over the largely unexplored redshift range 0 [Special characters omitted.] z [Special characters omitted.] 0.5. We use radial emission profiles of low redshift galaxies, hardness ratios, and X-ray to optical luminosity ratios to estimate the relative contributions of stellar and nuclear sources. These tests suggest that the X-ray emission from spectroscopically late-type galaxies is dominated by star formation, while that from early-type galaxies is dominated by AGN. To extend our analysis of AGN to higher redshifts, we investigated the X-ray luminosity evolution of 3316 red galaxies selected over a wide range in redshift (0.3 global decline in accretion onto the central, supermassive black holes of early-type galaxies has proceeded in a similar manner at both the faint and the bright (individually detectable) ends of the AGN luminosity function. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, D. J.; Wuyts, S.; Nandra, K. [Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, D-85748 (Germany); Mozena, M.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C. [Astronomy Department and UCO-Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Koekemoer, A.; Ferguson, H.; Grogin, N. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); McGrath, E. [Department of Physics, Colby College, Waterville, ME 04901 (United States); Hathi, N. P. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Dekel, A. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Donley, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Dunlop, J. S. [Institute for Astronomy, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Giavalisco, M.; Guo, Y. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Kocevski, D. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington KY 40506-0055 (United States); Laird, E.; Rangel, C. [Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Newman, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); and others


    We use multi-band spatially resolved photometry from the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Legacy Survey in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South to explore the nuclear and extended colors, color gradients, and stellar populations of the host galaxies of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) out to z = 3. Based on a study of their central light, we develop X-ray based criteria to exclude objects with strong AGN contamination. We use stellar masses from the FIREWORKS database to understand and account for stellar mass selection effects and carefully study, for the first time, the resolved host galaxy properties of AGNs at z {approx} 2 in their rest-frame optical light without substantial nuclear contamination. AGN hosts span a sizable range of stellar masses, colors, and color gradients at these redshifts. Their colors, color gradients, and stellar population properties are very similar to inactive galaxies of the same stellar mass. At z {approx} 1, we find a slightly narrower range in host colors compared to inactive galaxies, as well as hints of more recent star formation. These differences are weaker or non-existent among AGN hosts at z {approx} 2. We discuss the importance of AGN-driven feedback in the quenching of galaxies at z {approx}> 1 and speculate on possible evolution in the relationship between black hole accretion and the host galaxy toward high redshifts.

  15. Erratum: ``The Fundamental Plane for z = 0.8-0.9 Cluster Galaxies'' ( ApJ 639, L9 [2006]) (United States)

    Jørgensen, Inger; Chiboucas, Kristin; Flint, Kathleen; Bergmann, Marcel; Barr, Jordi; Davies, Roger


    In the above-mentioned Letter, an incorrect calibration of the photometry to the rest-frame B band was used for the two high-redshift clusters RX J0152.7-1357 (z=0.83) and RX J1226.9+3332 (z=0.89). This error was identified with the help of P. van Dokkum. To correct for the error, the photometry for the two high-redshift clusters should be offset to brighter luminosities with a factor (1+zcluster), corresponding to an average offset in logL for the two clusters of log(1+0.86)=0.27. With this error corrected, the fundamental plane (FP) for the two high-redshift clusters (eq. [2] in the above-mentioned Letter) should readlogre=(0.60+/-0.22)logσ-(0.70+/-0.06)loge+1.32. (1)The relation between the galaxy masses and the mass-to-light ratio (eq. [4] in the above-mentioned Letter) should readlog(M/L)=(0.54+/-0.08)logM-5.74. (2)We include a revised version of Figure 1 that reflects these changes. The discussion of the possible systematic effects and the simulations supporting the conclusion that the FP is steeper for the high-redshift sample compared to that of the Coma Cluster remain unchanged (§ 4 and Fig. 2 of the above-mentioned Letter). The offsets and relations stated in § 5 in the above-mentioned Letter change as follows. The median offset of log(M/L) for the high-redshift sample relative to the Coma sample is -0.65, corresponding to an epoch of the last major star formation episode of zform~1.3. The mass-dependent difference in log(M/L) between the high- and low-redshift samples is Δlog(M/L)=-0.30logM+3.99, equivalent to Δlog(age)=-0.32logM+4.27. Thus, for the lowest mass galaxies (1010.3 Msolar), the last epoch of star formation may have been as recent as zform~1.1. This is only ~1 Gyr prior to when the light that we now observe was emitted from the galaxies in the high-redshift sample. For galaxies with M~1010.8 Msolar, we find zform~1.25, while for galaxies with M>1011.3 Msolar, we find zform>~1.6. As the revised Figure 1 shows, the predictions from Thomas

  16. Caltech Faint Galaxy Redshift Survey. VIII. Analysis of the Field J0053+1234 (United States)

    Cohen, Judith G.; Blandford, Roger; Hogg, David W.; Pahre, Michael A.; Shopbell, Patrick L.


    dust. A measure of the UV extinction at 2400 Å for the emission-line galaxies of a factor of 2 is obtained, implying only modest UV extinction in high-redshift star-forming galaxies. Based in large part on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the California Institute of Technology and the University of California

  17. The evolution of the cluster optical galaxy luminosity function between z = 0.4 and 0.9 in the DAFT/FADA survey (United States)

    Martinet, Nicolas; Durret, Florence; Guennou, Loïc; Adami, Christophe; Biviano, Andrea; Ulmer, Melville P.; Clowe, Douglas; Halliday, Claire; Ilbert, Olivier; Márquez, Isabel; Schirmer, Mischa


    Context. There is some disagreement about the abundance of faint galaxies in high-redshift clusters, with contradictory results in the literature arising from studies of the optical galaxy luminosity function (GLF) for small cluster samples. Aims: We compute GLFs for one of the largest medium-to-high-redshift (0.4 ≤ z DAFT/FADA survey in the B,V,R, and I rest-frame bands. We used photometric redshifts computed from BVRIZJ images to constrain galaxy cluster membership. We carried out a detailed estimate of the completeness of our data. We distinguished the red-sequence and blue galaxies using a V - I versus I colour-magnitude diagram. We studied the evolution of these two populations with redshift. We fitted Schechter functions to our stacked GLFs to determine average cluster characteristics. Results: We find that the shapes of our GLFs are similar for the B,V,R, and I bands with a drop at the red GLF faint ends that is more pronounced at high redshift: αred ~ -0.5 at 0.40 ≤ z 0.1 at 0.65 ≤ z < 0.90. The blue GLFs have a steeper faint end (αblue ~ -1.6) than the red GLFs, which appears to be independent of redshift. For the full cluster sample, blue and red GLFs meet at MV = -20, MR = -20.5, and MI = -20.3. A study of how galaxy types evolve with redshift shows that late-type galaxies appear to become early types between z ~ 0.9 and today. Finally, the faint ends of the red GLFs of more massive clusters appear to be richer than less massive clusters, which is more typical of the lower redshift behaviour. Conclusions: Our results indicate that these clusters form at redshifts higher than z = 0.9 from galaxy structures that already have an established red sequence. Late-type galaxies then appear to evolve into early types, enriching the red sequence between this redshift and today. This effect is consistent with the evolution of the faint-end slope of the red sequence and the galaxy type evolution that we find. Finally, faint galaxies accreted from the field


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crighton, Neil H. M.; Hennawi, Joseph F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, Heidelberg D-69117 (Germany); Prochaska, J. Xavier, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fueled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R = 58 kpc from a star-forming galaxy at z = 2.44. Besides strong neutral hydrogen (N{sub H{sup 0}}=10{sup 19.50±0.16} cm{sup -2}) we detect neutral deuterium and oxygen, allowing a precise measurement of the metallicity: log{sub 10}(Z/Z {sub ☉}) = –2.0 ± 0.17, or (7-15) × 10{sup –3} solar. Furthermore, the narrow deuterium linewidth requires a cool temperature <20,000 K. Given the striking similarities between this system and the predictions of simulations, we argue that it represents the direct detection of a high-redshift cold-accretion stream. The low-metallicity gas cloud is a single component of an absorption system exhibiting a complex velocity, ionization, and enrichment structure. Two other components have metallicities >0.1 solar, 10 times larger than the metal-poor component. We conclude that the photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of this galaxy is highly inhomogeneous: the majority of the gas is in a cool, metal-poor and predominantly neutral phase, but the majority of the metals are in a highly ionized phase exhibiting weak neutral hydrogen absorption but strong metal absorption. If such inhomogeneity is common, then high-resolution spectra and detailed ionization modeling are critical to accurately appraise the distribution of metals in the high-redshift CGM.

  19. A Wide Dispersion in Star Formation Rate and Dynamical Mass of 108 Solar Mass Black Hole Host Galaxies at Redshift 6 (United States)

    Willott, Chris J.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain


    Atacama Large Millimeter Array [C II] line and continuum observations of five redshift z> 6 quasars are presented. This sample was selected to probe quasars with lower black hole mass than most previous studies. We find a wide dispersion in properties with CFHQS J0216-0455, a low-luminosity quasar with absolute magnitude {M}1450=-22.2, remaining undetected implying a limit on the star formation rate in the host galaxy of ≲ 10 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1, whereas other host galaxies have star formation rates up to hundreds of solar masses per year. Two other quasars have particularly interesting properties. VIMOS2911 is one of the least luminous z> 6 quasars known with {M}1450=-23.1, yet its host galaxy is experiencing a very powerful starburst. PSO J167-13 has a broad and luminous [C II] line and a neighboring galaxy a projected distance of 5 kpc away that is also detected in the [C II] line and continuum. Combining with similar observations from the literature, we study the ratio of the [C II] line to the far-infrared luminosity, finding that this ratio increases at high redshift at a fixed far-infrared luminosity, likely due to lower dust content, lower metallicity and/or higher gas masses. We compile a sample of 21 high-redshift quasars with dynamical masses and investigate the relationship between black hole mass and dynamical mass. The new observations presented here reveal dynamical masses consistent with the relationship defined by local galaxies. However, the full sample shows a very wide scatter across the black hole mass-dynamical mass plane, whereas both the local relationship and simulations of high-redshift quasars show a much lower dispersion in dynamical mass.

  20. Galaxy distances and deviations from universal expansion; Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Kona, HI, Jan. 13-17, 1986 (United States)

    Madore, Barry F. (Editor); Tully, R. Brent (Editor)


    A collection of papers on galaxy distances and deviations from universal expansion is presented. Individual topics addressed include: new results on the distance scale and the Hubble constant, Magellanic Clouds and the distance scale, CCD observations of Cepheids in nearby galaxies, distances using A supergiant stars, infrared calibration of the Cepheid distance scale, two stepping stones to the Hubble constant, physical models of supernovae and the distance scale, 21 cm line widths and distances of spiral galaxies, infrared color-luminosity relations for field galaxies, minimizing the scatter in the Tully-Fisher relation, photometry of galaxies and the local peculiar motion, elliptical galaxies and nonuniformities in the Hubble flow, and large-scale anisotropy in the Hubble flow. Also discussed are: improved distance indicator for elliptical galaxies, anisotropy of galaxies detected by IRAS, the local gravitational field, measurements of the CBR, measure of cosmological times, ages from nuclear cosmochronology, extragalactic gas at high redshift, supercluster infall models, Virgo infall and the mass density of the universe, dynamics of superclusters and Omega(0), distribution of galaxies versus dark matter, peculiar velocities and galaxy formation, cosmological shells and blast waves.

  1. Scalar field dark matter in clusters of galaxies (United States)

    Bernal, Tula; Robles, Victor H.; Matos, Tonatiuh


    One alternative to the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm is the scalar field dark matter (SFDM) model, which assumes dark matter is a spin-0 ultra-light scalar field (SF) with a typical mass m ˜ 10-22 eV/c2 and positive self-interactions. Due to the ultra-light boson mass, the SFDM could form Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in the very early Universe, which are interpreted as the dark matter haloes. Although cosmologically the model behaves as CDM, they differ at small scales: SFDM naturally predicts fewer satellite haloes, cores in dwarf galaxies and the formation of massive galaxies at high redshifts. The ground state (or BEC) solution at zero temperature suffices to describe low-mass galaxies but fails for larger systems. A possible solution is adding finite-temperature corrections to the SF potential which allows combinations of excited states. In this work, we test the finite-temperature multistate SFDM solution at galaxy cluster scales and compare our results with the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) and BEC profiles. We achieve this by fitting the mass distribution of 13 Chandra X-ray clusters of galaxies, excluding the region of the brightest cluster galaxy. We show that the SFDM model accurately describes the clusters' DM mass distributions offering an equivalent or better agreement than the NFW profile. The complete disagreement of the BEC model with the data is also shown. We conclude that the theoretically motivated multistate SFDM profile is an interesting alternative to empirical profiles and ad hoc fitting-functions that attempt to couple the asymptotic NFW decline with the inner core in SFDM.

  2. Jet-induced star formation in gas-rich galaxies (United States)

    Gaibler, V.; Khochfar, S.; Krause, M.; Silk, J.


    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) has become a major component in simulations of galaxy evolution, in particular for massive galaxies. AGN jets have been shown to provide a large amount of energy and are capable of quenching cooling flows. Their impact on the host galaxy, however, is still not understood. Subgrid models of AGN activity in a galaxy evolution context so far have been mostly focused on the quenching of star formation. To shed more light on the actual physics of the 'radio mode' part of AGN activity, we have performed simulations of the interaction of a powerful AGN jet with the massive gaseous disc (1011 M⊙) of a high-redshift galaxy. We spatially resolve both the jet and the clumpy, multi-phase interstellar medium (ISM) and include an explicit star formation model in the simulation. Following the system over more than 107 yr, we find that the jet activity excavates the central region, but overall causes a significant change to the shape of the density probability distribution function and hence the star formation rate due to the formation of a blast wave with strong compression and cooling in the ISM. This results in a ring- or disc-shaped population of young stars. At later times, the increase in star formation rate also occurs in the disc regions further out since the jet cocoon pressurizes the ISM. The total mass of the additionally formed stars may be up to 1010 M⊙ for one duty cycle. We discuss the details of this jet-induced star formation (positive feedback) and its potential consequences for galaxy evolution and observable signatures.

  3. Catching a glimpse of the X-ray emission from galaxies in the early Universe by studying nearby low-metallicity galaxies (United States)

    Basu-Zych, Antara; Hornschemeier, Ann; Lehmer, Bret; Ptak, Andrew; Yukita, Mihoko


    Deep studies of X-ray emission from galaxies, such as the Chandra Deep Field-South 4 Ms (soon to be 7Ms) survey, have allowed us to peer back in history at X-ray binary formation and evolution over cosmic timescales. X-ray stacking observations of z=1-4 star-forming galaxies reveal that the metallicity evolution of the Universe drives the evolution of the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity per star formation rate (SFR), which is dominated by high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). By finding local (z=0.02-0.2), rare, analogs of these high redshift galaxies, we have found further evidence that the X-ray emission per SFR is elevated compared to typical local star-forming galaxies and this appears to be due to the lower metallicities of these galaxies. Theoretically, metal poor stars produce weaker stellar winds, which results in higher numbers of more massive binaries and therefore leads to higher X-ray luminosities in metal poor populations. Since galaxies in the early universe (and their binaries) formed in a more pristine universe, with few metals, the analogs that we have been studying have cosmological significance. X-ray emission from X-ray binaries and hot gas within galaxies at these early epochs is expected to be important for heating and reionization of the Universe. We will present our current results on the study of HMXB populations in nearby metal-poor starbursts. These primordial analog galaxies represent a challenge for current X-ray facilities, but with modest exposures with Athena, we will obtain high-resolution X-ray spectra permitting detailed study of their properties. We use simulations of the X-ray spectra from these galaxies with Athena to explore the potential capability for measuring column densities (n_H) and metallicities, as well as line shifts to detect outflows that may ultimately enrich the intergalactic medium (IGM).

  4. The nature of massive transition galaxies in CANDELS, GAMA and cosmological simulations (United States)

    Pandya, Viraj; Brennan, Ryan; Somerville, Rachel S.; Choi, Ena; Barro, Guillermo; Wuyts, Stijn; Taylor, Edward N.; Behroozi, Peter; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Faber, Sandra M.; Primack, Joel; Koo, David C.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Kocevski, Dale; Bell, Eric F.; Dekel, Avishai; Fang, Jerome J.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lu, Yu; Mantha, Kameswara; Mobasher, Bahram; Newman, Jeffrey; Pacifici, Camilla; Papovich, Casey; van der Wel, Arjen; Yesuf, Hassen M.


    We explore observational and theoretical constraints on how galaxies might transition between the `star-forming main sequence' (SFMS) and varying `degrees of quiescence' out to z = 3. Our analysis is focused on galaxies with stellar mass M* > 1010 M⊙, and is enabled by GAMA and CANDELS observations, a semi-analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation, and a cosmological hydrodynamical `zoom in' simulation with momentum-driven AGN feedback. In both the observations and the SAM, transition galaxies tend to have intermediate Sérsic indices, half-light radii, and surface stellar mass densities compared to star-forming and quiescent galaxies out to z = 3. We place an observational upper limit on the average population transition time-scale as a function of redshift, finding that the average high-redshift galaxy is on a `fast track' for quenching whereas the average low-redshift galaxy is on a `slow track' for quenching. We qualitatively identify four physical origin scenarios for transition galaxies in the SAM: oscillations on the SFMS, slow quenching, fast quenching, and rejuvenation. Quenching time-scales in both the SAM and the hydrodynamical simulation are not fast enough to reproduce the quiescent population that we observe at z ˜ 3. In the SAM, we do not find a clear-cut morphological dependence of quenching time-scales, but we do predict that the mean stellar ages, cold gas fractions, SMBH (supermassive black hole) masses and halo masses of transition galaxies tend to be intermediate relative to those of star-forming and quiescent galaxies at z < 3.

  5. A magnified young galaxy from about 500 million years after the Big Bang. (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Postman, Marc; Zitrin, Adi; Moustakas, John; Shu, Xinwen; Jouvel, Stephanie; Høst, Ole; Molino, Alberto; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan; Moustakas, Leonidas A; Carrasco, Mauricio; Ford, Holland; Benítez, Narciso; Lauer, Tod R; Seitz, Stella; Bouwens, Rychard; Koekemoer, Anton; Medezinski, Elinor; Bartelmann, Matthias; Broadhurst, Tom; Donahue, Megan; Grillo, Claudio; Infante, Leopoldo; Jha, Saurabh W; Kelson, Daniel D; Lahav, Ofer; Lemze, Doron; Melchior, Peter; Meneghetti, Massimo; Merten, Julian; Nonino, Mario; Ogaz, Sara; Rosati, Piero; Umetsu, Keiichi; van der Wel, Arjen


    Re-ionization of the intergalactic medium occurred in the early Universe at redshift z ≈ 6-11, following the formation of the first generation of stars. Those young galaxies (where the bulk of stars formed) at a cosmic age of less than about 500 million years (z ≲ 10) remain largely unexplored because they are at or beyond the sensitivity limits of existing large telescopes. Understanding the properties of these galaxies is critical to identifying the source of the radiation that re-ionized the intergalactic medium. Gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters allows the detection of high-redshift galaxies fainter than what otherwise could be found in the deepest images of the sky. Here we report multiband observations of the cluster MACS J1149+2223 that have revealed (with high probability) a gravitationally magnified galaxy from the early Universe, at a redshift of z = 9.6 ± 0.2 (that is, a cosmic age of 490 ± 15 million years, or 3.6 per cent of the age of the Universe). We estimate that it formed less than 200 million years after the Big Bang (at the 95 per cent confidence level), implying a formation redshift of ≲14. Given the small sky area that our observations cover, faint galaxies seem to be abundant at such a young cosmic age, suggesting that they may be the dominant source for the early re-ionization of the intergalactic medium.

  6. A new 3-D View of Ionized Gas Conditions in Galaxies (United States)

    Juneau, Stephanie


    We present a 3D version of common emission line diagnostic diagrams used to identify the source of ionization in galaxies, and highlight interesting features in this new 3D space, which are associated with global galaxy properties. Namely, we combine the BPT and Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagrams, and apply it to a set of >300,000 galaxies from the SDSS survey. Among other features, we show that the usual “branch” of star-forming galaxies becomes a curved surface in the new 3D space. Understanding the underlying reasons can shed light on the nearby galaxy population but also aid our interpretation of high-redshift surveys, which indicate a strong evolution of emission line ratios. Despite efforts to explain the origin of this strong evolution, a consensus has not yet been reached. Yet, the implications are crucial to our understanding of galaxy growth across cosmic time, and in particular to assess how star forming regions differed at earlier times (gas properties? stellar properties? a combination?). We perform this analysis within the framework of the NOAO Data Lab ( jointly with public visualization tools. The final workflow will be released publicly.

  7. CO(J = 3-2) on-the-fly mapping of the nearby spiral galaxies NGC 628 and NGC 7793: Spatially resolved CO(J = 3-2) star-formation law (United States)

    Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Takeda, Miho; Yanagitani, Kazuki; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kuno, Nario; Sorai, Kazuo; Tosaki, Tomoka; Kohno, Kotaro


    We present the results of CO(J = 3-2) on-the-fly mappings of two nearby non-barred spiral galaxies, NGC 628 and NGC 7793, with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment at an effective angular resolution of 25″. We successfully obtained global distributions of CO(J = 3-2) emission over the entire disks at a sub-kpc resolution for both galaxies. We examined the spatially resolved (sub-kpc) relationship between CO(J = 3-2) luminosities (L^' }_CO(3-2)) and infrared (IR) luminosities (LIR) for NGC 628, NGC 7793, and M 83, and compared it with global luminosities of a JCMT (James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) Nearby Galaxy Legacy Survey sample. We found a striking linear L^' }_CO(3-2)-LIR correlation over the four orders of magnitude, and the correlation is consistent even with that for ultraluminous IR galaxies and submillimeter-selected galaxies. In addition, we examined the spatially resolved relationship between CO(J = 3-2) intensities (ICO(3-2)) and extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs) for NGC 628, NGC 7793, and M 83, and compared it with that for Giant Molecular Clouds in M 33 and 14 nearby galaxy centers. We found a linear ICO(3-2)-SFR correlation with ˜1 dex scatter. We conclude that the CO(J = 3-2) star-formation law (i.e., linear L^' }_CO(3-2)-LIR and ICO(3-2)-SFR correlations) is universally applicable to various types and spatial scales of galaxies; from spatially resolved nearby galaxy disks to distant IR-luminous galaxies, within ˜1 dex scatter.

  8. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution (United States)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.


    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark-matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  9. Measuring Alignments between Galaxies and the Cosmic Web at z ˜ 2-3 Using IGM Tomography (United States)

    Krolewski, Alex; Lee, Khee-Gan; Lukić, Zarija; White, Martin


    Many galaxy formation models predict alignments between galaxy spin and the cosmic web (I.e., directions of filaments and sheets), leading to an intrinsic alignment between galaxies that creates a systematic error in weak-lensing measurements. These effects are often predicted to be stronger at high redshifts (z ≳ 1) that are inaccessible to massive galaxy surveys on foreseeable instrumentation, but IGM tomography of the Lyα forest from closely spaced quasars and galaxies is starting to measure the z ˜ 2-3 cosmic web with requisite fidelity. Using mock surveys from hydrodynamical simulations, we examine the utility of this technique, in conjunction with coeval galaxy samples, to measure alignment between galaxies and the cosmic web at z ˜ 2.5. We show that IGM tomography surveys with ≲5 h -1 Mpc sightline spacing can accurately recover the eigenvectors of the tidal tensor, which we use to define the directions of the cosmic web. For galaxy spins and shapes, we use a model parameterized by the alignment strength, {{Δ }} , with respect to the tidal tensor eigenvectors from the underlying density field, and also consider observational effects such as errors in the galaxy position angle, inclination, and redshift. Measurements using the upcoming ˜1 deg2 CLAMATO tomographic survey and 600 coeval zCOSMOS-Deep galaxies should place 3σ limits on extreme alignment models with {{Δ }} ˜ 0.1, but much larger surveys encompassing >10,000 galaxies, such as Subaru PFS, will be required to constrain models with {{Δ }} ˜ 0.03. These measurements will constrain models of galaxy-cosmic web alignment and test tidal torque theory at z ˜ 2, improving our understanding of the physics of intrinsic alignments.

  10. Faraday rotation signatures of fluctuation dynamos in young galaxies (United States)

    Sur, Sharanya; Bhat, Pallavi; Subramanian, Kandaswamy


    Observations of Faraday rotation through high-redshift galaxies has revealed that they host coherent magnetic fields that are of comparable strengths to those observed in nearby galaxies. These fields could be generated by fluctuation dynamos. We use idealized numerical simulations of such dynamos in forced compressible turbulence up to rms Mach number of 2.4 to probe the resulting rotation measure (RM) and the degree of coherence of the magnetic field. We obtain rms values of RM at dynamo saturation of the order of 45 - 55 per cent of the value expected in a model where fields are assumed to be coherent on the forcing scale of turbulence. We show that the dominant contribution to the RM in subsonic and transonic cases comes from the general sea of volume filling fields, rather than from the rarer structures. However, in the supersonic case, strong field regions as well as moderately overdense regions contribute significantly. Our results can account for the observed RMs in young galaxies.

  11. Active Galactic Nucleus Environments and Feedback to Neighboring Galaxies at z ˜ 5 Probed by Lyα Emitters (United States)

    Kikuta, Satoshi; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Matsuda, Yuichi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakata, Fumiaki


    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the high-redshift universe are thought to reside in overdense environments. However, recent works provide controversial results, partly due to the use of different techniques and possible suppression of nearby galaxy formation by AGN feedback. We conducted deep and wide-field imaging observations with the Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope and searched for Lyα emitters (LAEs) around two quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) at z ˜ 4.9 and a radio galaxy at z ˜ 4.5 by using narrowband filters to address these issues more robustly. In the QSO fields, we obtained additional broadband images to select Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ˜ 5 for comparison. We constructed a photometric sample of 301 LAEs and 170 LBGs in total. A wide field of view (34‧ × 27‧, corresponding to 80 × 60 comoving Mpc2) of the Suprime-Cam enabled us to probe galaxies in the immediate vicinities of the AGNs and in the blank fields simultaneously and compare various properties of them in a consistent manner. The two QSOs are located near local density peaks (<2σ), and one of the QSOs has a close companion LAE with projected separation of 80 physical kpc. The radio galaxy is found to be near a void of LAEs. The number densities of LAEs/LGBs in a larger spatial scale around the AGNs are not significantly different from those in blank fields. No sign of feedback is found down to {L}{Lyα }˜ {10}41.8 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. Our results suggest that high-redshift AGNs are not associated with extreme galaxy overdensity and that this cannot be attributed to the effect of AGN feedback. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  12. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. IX. Evolution of galaxy merger fraction since z ≈ 6 (United States)

    Ventou, E.; Contini, T.; Bouché, N.; Epinat, B.; Brinchmann, J.; Bacon, R.; Inami, H.; Lam, D.; Drake, A.; Garel, T.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Pello, R.; Steinmetz, M.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Wisotzki, L.; Carollo, M.


    We provide, for the first time, robust observational constraints on the galaxy major merger fraction up to z ≈ 6 using spectroscopic close pair counts. Deep Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) and Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) are used to identify 113 secure close pairs of galaxies among a parent sample of 1801 galaxies spread over a large redshift range (0.2 SED) fitting over the extensive UV-to-NIR HST photometry available in these deep Hubble fields, adding Spitzer IRAC bands to better constrain masses for high-redshift (z ⩾ 3) galaxies. These stellar masses are used to isolate a sample of 54 major close pairs with a galaxy mass ratio limit of 1:6. Among this sample, 23 pairs are identified at high redshift (z ⩾ 3) through their Lyα emission. The sample of major close pairs is divided into five redshift intervals in order to probe the evolution of the merger fraction with cosmic time. Our estimates are in very good agreement with previous close pair counts with a constant increase of the merger fraction up to z ≈ 3 where it reaches a maximum of 20%. At higher redshift, we show that the fraction slowly decreases down to about 10% at z ≈ 6. The sample is further divided into two ranges of stellar masses using either a constant separation limit of 109.5 M⊙ or the median value of stellar mass computed in each redshift bin. Overall, the major close pair fraction for low-mass and massive galaxies follows the same trend. These new, homogeneous, and robust estimates of the major merger fraction since z ≈ 6 are in good agreement with recent predictions of cosmological numerical simulations. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla-Paranal Observatory under programmes 094.A-0289(B), 095.A-0010(A), 096.A-0045(A) and 096.A-0045(B).

  13. Do Young Galaxies Grow Inside-Out? The Deepest Probe of this Open Question Using New WFC3 Images of the Ultra Deep Field from HST (United States)

    Mozena, Mark; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Dutton, A. A.


    The recent release of the deepest (limiting magnitudes 29 AB mag) WFC3 images of the UDF provides an exciting new opportunity for studying galaxy structure at z 1-3. Previously, the highest spatial resolution data of distant galaxies were limited to the visible wavelength bands of ACS from HST. These optical wavebands shift to rest-frame UV bands (at z 1-3), which trace young stellar populations. In order to probe the mature stellar populations in galaxies, rest-frame optical to NIR bands are needed. WFC3's Y, J, and H filters allow us to observe rest-frame optical and NIR wavelengths at high redshifts with high spatial resolution and thus study a galaxy's structure, formation history, and formation mechanism in terms of its underlying stellar mass and not just its most luminous young stars. Using the galaxy fitting package GIM2D, we measure the sizes and Sersic profiles of 150 distant galaxies (z 1-3) in the UDF in ACS (bviz) and WFC3 (Y, J, H) bands. We present the deepest measurements of the radial gradient of young versus old stars of these distant galaxies and compare them to local galaxies to track inside-out galaxy growth and their evolution.

  14. Constraining the galaxy-halo connection over the last 13.3 Gyr: star formation histories, galaxy mergers and structural properties (United States)

    Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Primack, Joel R.; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Faber, S. M.


    We present new determinations of the stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) at z = 0-10 that match the evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function, the star formation rate (SFR)-M* relation and the cosmic SFR. We utilize a compilation of 40 observational studies from the literature and correct them for potential biases. Using our robust determinations of halo mass assembly and the SHMR, we infer star formation histories, merger rates and structural properties for average galaxies, combining star-forming and quenched galaxies. Our main findings are as follows: (1) The halo mass M50 above which 50 per cent of galaxies are quenched coincides with sSFR/sMAR ˜ 1, where sSFR is the specific SFR and sMAR is the specific halo mass accretion rate. (2) M50 increases with redshift, presumably due to cold streams being more efficient at high redshifts, while virial shocks and active galactic nucleus feedback become more relevant at lower redshifts. (3) The ratio sSFR/sMAR has a peak value, which occurs around {M_vir}˜ 2× 10^{11} M_{⊙}. (4) The stellar mass density within 1 kpc, Σ1, is a good indicator of the galactic global sSFR. (5) Galaxies are statistically quenched after they reach a maximum in Σ1, consistent with theoretical expectations of the gas compaction model; this maximum depends on redshift. (6) In-situ star formation is responsible for most galactic stellar mass growth, especially for lower mass galaxies. (7) Galaxies grow inside-out. The marked change in the slope of the size-mass relation when galaxies became quenched, from d log {R_eff}/d log {M_*}˜ 0.35 to ˜2.5, could be the result of dry minor mergers.

  15. Relations between the Sizes of Galaxies and Their Dark Matter Halos at Redshifts 0 < z < 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kuang-Han [University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Fall, S. Michael; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Lee, Seong-Kook [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pérez-González, Pablo G. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Facultad de CC. Física, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Wuyts, Stijn, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)


    We derive relations between the effective radii R {sub eff} of galaxies and the virial radii R {sub 200} {sub c} of their dark matter halos over the redshift range 0 < z < 3. For galaxies, we use the measured sizes from deep images taken with Hubble Space Telescope for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey; for halos, we use the inferred sizes from abundance matching to cosmological dark matter simulations via a stellar mass–halo mass (SMHM) relation. For this purpose, we derive a new SMHM relation based on the same selection criteria and other assumptions as for our sample of galaxies with size measurements. As a check on the robustness of our results, we also derive R {sub eff}–R {sub 200} {sub c} relations for three independent SMHM relations from the literature. We find that galaxy R {sub eff} is proportional on average to halo R {sub 200} {sub c}, confirming and extending to high redshifts the z = 0 results of Kravtsov. Late-type galaxies (with low Sérsic index and high specific star formation rate (sSFR)) follow a linear R {sub eff}– R {sub 200} {sub c} relation, with effective radii at 0.5 < z < 3 close to those predicted by simple models of disk formation; at z < 0.5, the sizes of late-type galaxies appear to be slightly below this prediction. Early-type galaxies (with high Sérsic index and low sSFR) follow a roughly parallel R {sub eff}– R {sub 200} {sub c} relation, ∼0.2–0.3 dex below the one for late-type galaxies. Our observational results, reinforced by recent hydrodynamical simulations, indicate that galaxies grow quasi-homologously with their dark matter halos.

  16. The Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae Discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (United States)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Sullivan, M.; McGuire, K.; Hook, I. M.; Nugent, P. E.; Howell, D. A.; Arcavi, I.; Botyanszki, J.; Cenko, Stephen Bradley; DeRose, J.


    We present spectroscopic observations of the host galaxies of 82 low-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We determine star-formation rates, gas-phase stellar metallicities, and stellar masses and ages of these objects. As expected, strong correlations between the SN Ia light-curve width (stretch) and the host age mass metallicity are found: fainter, faster-declining events tend to be hosted by older massive metal-rich galaxies. There is some evidence that redder SNe Ia explode in higher metallicity galaxies, but we found no relation between the SN colour and host galaxy extinction based on the Balmer decrement, suggesting that the colour variation of these SNe does not primarily arise from this source. SNe Ia in higher-mass metallicity galaxies also appear brighter after stretch colour corrections than their counterparts in lower mass hosts, and the stronger correlation is with gas-phase metallicity suggesting this may be the more important variable. We also compared the host stellar mass distribution to that in galaxy targeted SN surveys and the high-redshift untargeted Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). SNLS has many more low mass galaxies, while the targeted searches have fewer. This can be explained by an evolution in the galaxy stellar mass function, coupled with a SN delay-time distribution proportional to t1. Finally, we found no significant difference in the mass--metallicity relation of our SN Ia hosts compared to field galaxies, suggesting any metallicity effect on the SN Ia rate is small.

  17. Integrated HI emission in galaxy groups and clusters (United States)

    Ai, Mei; Zhu, Ming; Fu, Jian


    The integrated HI emission from hierarchical structures such as groups and clusters of galaxies can be detected by FAST at intermediate redshifts. Here we propose to use FAST to study the evolution of the global HI content of clusters and groups over cosmic time by measuring their integrated HI emissions. We use the Virgo Cluster as an example to estimate the detection limit of FAST, and have estimated the integration time to detect a Virgo type cluster at different redshifts (from z = 0.1 to z = 1.5).We have also employed a semi-analytic model (SAM) to simulate the evolution of HI contents in galaxy clusters. Our simulations suggest that the HI mass of a Virgo-like cluster could be 2-3 times higher and the physical size could be more than 50% smaller when redshift increases from z = 0.3 to z = 1. Thus the integration time could be reduced significantly and gas rich clusters at intermediate redshifts can be detected by FAST in less than 2 hours of integration time. For the local Universe, we have also used SAM simulations to create mock catalogs of clusters to predict the outcomes from FAST all sky surveys. Comparing with the optically selected catalogs derived by cross matching the galaxy catalogs from the SDSS survey and the ALFALFA survey, we find that the HI mass distribution of the mock catalog with 20 s of integration time agrees well with that of observations. However, the mock catalog with 120 s of integration time predicts many more groups and clusters that contain a population of low mass HI galaxies not detected by the ALFALFA survey. A future deep HI blind sky survey with FAST would be able to test such prediction and set constraints on the numerical simulation models. The observational strategy and sample selections for future FAST observations of galaxy clusters at high redshifts are also discussed.

  18. The nature of ultra-massive lens galaxies (United States)

    Canameras, Raoul


    During the past decade, strong gravitational lensing analyses have contributed tremendously to the characterization of the inner properties of massive early-type galaxies, beyond the local Universe. Here we intend to extend studies of this kind to the most massive lens galaxies known to date, well outside the mass limits investigated by previous lensing surveys. This will allow us to probe the physics of the likely descendants of the most violent episodes of star formation and of the compact massive galaxies at high redshift. We propose WFC3 imaging (F438W and F160W) of four extremely massive early-type lens galaxies at z 0.5, in order to put them into context with the evolutionary trends of ellipticals as a function of mass and redshift. These systems were discovered in the SDSS and show one single main lens galaxy with a stellar mass above 1.5x10^12 Msun and large Einstein radii. Our high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up with VLT/X-shooter provides secure lens and source redshifts, between 0.3 and 0.7 and between 1.5 and 2.5, respectively, and confirm extreme stellar velocity dispersions > 400 km/s for the lenses. The excellent angular resolution of the proposed WFC3 imaging - not achievable from the ground - is the remaining indispensable piece of information to :(1) Resolve the lens structural parameters and obtain robust measurements of their stellar mass distributions,(2) Model the amount and distribution of the lens total masses and measure their M/L ratios and stellar IMF with joint strong lensing and stellar dynamics analyses,(3) Enhance our on-going lens models through the most accurate positions and morphologies of the blue multiply-imaged sources.

  19. Statistical Issues in Galaxy Cluster Cosmology (United States)

    Mantz, Adam


    The number and growth of massive galaxy clusters are sensitive probes of cosmological structure formation. Surveys at various wavelengths can detect clusters to high redshift, but the fact that cluster mass is not directly observable complicates matters, requiring us to simultaneously constrain scaling relations of observable signals with mass. The problem can be cast as one of regression, in which the data set is truncated, the (cosmology-dependent) underlying population must be modeled, and strong, complex correlations between measurements often exist. Simulations of cosmological structure formation provide a robust prediction for the number of clusters in the Universe as a function of mass and redshift (the mass function), but they cannot reliably predict the observables used to detect clusters in sky surveys (e.g. X-ray luminosity). Consequently, observers must constrain observable-mass scaling relations using additional data, and use the scaling relation model in conjunction with the mass function to predict the number of clusters as a function of redshift and luminosity.

  20. CO-dark molecular gas at high redshift: very large H2 content and high pressure in a low-metallicity damped Lyman alpha system (United States)

    Balashev, S. A.; Noterdaeme, P.; Rahmani, H.; Klimenko, V. V.; Ledoux, C.; Petitjean, P.; Srianand, R.; Ivanchik, A. V.; Varshalovich, D. A.


    We present a detailed analysis of an H2-rich, extremely strong intervening damped Ly α absorption system (DLA) at zabs = 2.786 towards the quasar J 0843+0221, observed with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The total column density of molecular (resp. atomic) hydrogen is log N(H2) = 21.21 ± 0.02 (resp. log N(H I) = 21.82 ± 0.11), making it to be the first case in quasar absorption line studies with H2 column density as high as what is seen in 13CO-selected clouds in the Milky Way. We find that this system has one of the lowest metallicity detected among H2-bearing DLAs, with [Zn/H] = -1.52^{+0.08}_{-0.10}. This can be the reason for the marked differences compared to systems with similar H2 column densities in the local Universe: (I) the kinetic temperature, T ˜ 120 K, derived from the J = 0, 1 H2 rotational levels is at least twice higher than expected; (II) there is little dust extinction with AV 2 × 1023 cm-2/(km s-1 K), in the very low metallicity gas. Low CO and high H2 contents indicate that this system represents 'CO-dark/faint' gas. We investigate the physical conditions in the H2-bearing gas using the fine-structure levels of C I, C II, Si II and the rotational levels of HD and H2. We find the number density to be about n ˜ 260-380 cm-3, implying a high thermal pressure of 3-5 × 104 cm-3 K. We further identify a trend of increasing pressure with increasing total hydrogen column density. This independently supports the suggestion that extremely strong DLAs (with log N(H) ˜22) probe high-z galaxies at low impact parameters.

  1. Star formation rates and stellar masses in z ~ 1 gamma-ray burst hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro Cerón, José María; Michalowski, Michal; Hjorth, J.


    Cosmology: Observations, ISM: Dust, Extinction, Galaxies: High-Redshift, Galaxies: ISM, Gamma Rays: Bursts, Infrared: Galaxies Udgivelsesdato: Dec. 4......Cosmology: Observations, ISM: Dust, Extinction, Galaxies: High-Redshift, Galaxies: ISM, Gamma Rays: Bursts, Infrared: Galaxies Udgivelsesdato: Dec. 4...

  2. Unveiling the Galaxy Population at 1.3 < z < 4: the HUDF05 NICMOS Parallel Fields (United States)

    Petty, Sara M.; deMello, Duilia F.; Wiklind, Tomy; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Mountain, Matt


    Using the Hubble Ultra Deep Field Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (HUDF-NICMOS) UDF05 parallel fields, we cross-matched 301 out of 630 galaxies with the ACS filters V606 and z850, NICMOS filters J110 and H160, and Spitzer IRAC filters at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 , and 8.0 (mu)m. We modeled the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to estimate: photometric redshifts, dust extinction, stellar mass, bolometric luminosity, starburst age and metallicity. To validate the photometric redshifts, comparisons with 16 spectroscopic redshifts give 75% within Delta or approx. 1.3. Based on the robustness of the photometric redshifts, we analyze a subsample of the 301 galaxies at 1.3 < or = z < or = 2 (35 objects) and 3 < or = z < or = 4 (31 objects) and determine that L(BoI) and the star formation rate increase significantly from z approx. 1.5 to 4. The Balmer decrement is indicative of more evolved galaxies, and at high redshifts, they serve as records of some of the first galaxies. Therefore, the galaxies in this sample are great candidates for future surveys with the James Webb Space Telescope and Atacama Large Millimeter Array.

  3. The unexpectedly large dust and gas content of quiescent galaxies at z > 1.4 (United States)

    Gobat, R.; Daddi, E.; Magdis, G.; Bournaud, F.; Sargent, M.; Martig, M.; Jin, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Béthermin, M.; Hwang, H. S.; Renzini, A.; Wilson, G. W.; Aretxaga, I.; Yun, M.; Strazzullo, V.; Valentino, F.


    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) contain most of the stars present in the local Universe and, above a stellar mass content of 5 × 1010 solar masses, vastly outnumber spiral galaxies such as the Milky Way. These massive spheroidal galaxies have, in the present day, very little gas or dust in proportion to their mass1, and their stellar populations have been evolving passively for over 10 billion years. The physical mechanisms that led to the termination of star formation in these galaxies and depletion of their interstellar medium remain largely conjectural. In particular, there are currently no direct measurements of the amount of residual gas that might still be present in newly quiescent spheroidals at high redshift2. Here we show that quiescent ETGs at redshift z 1.8, close to their epoch of quenching, contained at least two orders of magnitude more dust at a fixed stellar mass compared with local ETGs. This implies the presence of substantial amounts of gas (5-10%), which has been consumed less efficiently than in more active galaxies, probably due to their spheroidal morphology, consistent with our simulations. This lower star formation efficiency, combined with an extended hot gas halo possibly maintained by persistent feedback from an active galactic nucleus, keep ETGs mostly passive throughout cosmic time.

  4. Unveiling the merger fraction, sizes and morphologies of the brightest z ~ 7 galaxies (United States)

    Bowler, Rebecca


    The study of ultra-high-redshift galaxies has undoubtedly been led by HST, with surveys such as the UDF, CANDELS and BoRG leading to the discovery of hundreds of Lyman-break galaxies at z > 6. Furthermore, the unrivalled near-infrared sensitivity and resolution of WFC3 has enabled the first measurement of galaxy size and morphology at the highest redshifts, showing that the faintest galaxies are extremely compact and revealing disturbed morphologies for a subset of objects. The galaxies studied to-date however, are predominantly sub-L* due to the small cosmological volumes probed by the HST imaging used to select them. Our recent work has exploited the combined 1.7 square degrees of the UltraVISTA and UDS surveys (Bowler et al. 2014, 2012) to select the first robust sample of 20 extremely bright (-23.0 < M_UV < -21.5) Lyman-break galaxies at z ~ 7. However, the available ground-based imaging is insufficient to reliably unveil the sizes and morphologies of this unique galaxy sample. Therefore, we propose to obtain follow-up imaging of the sample with HST, to utilize the unrivalled high-resolution imaging capabilities of WFC3 in answering the following key questions: i) what is the merger fraction amongst the brightest z ~ 7 galaxies? ii) how does this impact on the (currently controversial) form of the luminosity function at the bright end? iii) is there a strong size-luminosity relation already in place at z ~ 7?

  5. Exploring the Role of Galaxy Morphology in the Mass-Metallicity-Star Formation Rate Relation (United States)

    Pahl, Anthony; Rafelski, Marc; Scarlata, Claudia; Pacifici, Camilla; Henry, Alaina L.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Elmegreen, Debra M.


    The Mass-Metallicity-Star Formation Rate (M-Z-SFR) fundamental relation reveals the underlying physics behind galaxy evolution: the mechanics of gas inflow, outflow, and the formation of stars are intimately connected. At higher redshift, we observe galaxies which are believed to be more actively accreting from the cosmic web, and as a result bright star-forming clumps are expected to form due to the increased gravitational instability of the galactic medium. We investigate these “clumpy” galaxies in context of their location on the M-Z-SFR plane to search for evidence of metal-poor gas inflows as predicted by theoretical models, and to help us understand how galaxies form and change at a higher redshift (1.3 imaging. We create stamps in their rest-frame UV light to investigate recent star formation and visually classify the morphology of the galaxies. We also utilize stellar population fits of the photometric data to determine properties such as mass and star formation rate. From the grism data of the 3D-HST survey, we select 1861 galaxies based on the strong detection of the [OIII_5007] line, and determine metallicity through the line-diagnostic R_23 using [OIII_5007], [OII_3727] and H_beta. We improve these results through the stacking of spectra to remove a sample bias of requiring strong detections on weak emission lines. Using mass, star formation rate, and metallicity we compare the location of clumpy galaxies on the fundamental plane to investigate possible diminished metallicity and heightened star formation rate compared to the remainder of the sample. This will enable us to better understand the theoretical underpinnings of gas accretion and galaxy evolution at high redshift.

  6. The relationship between galaxy and dark matter halo size from z ˜ 3 to the present (United States)

    Somerville, Rachel S.; Behroozi, Peter; Pandya, Viraj; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, S. M.; Fontana, Adriano; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Koo, David C.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Primack, Joel R.; Santini, Paola; Taylor, Edward N.; van der Wel, Arjen


    We explore empirical constraints on the statistical relationship between the radial size of galaxies and the radius of their host dark matter haloes from z ∼ 0.1-3 using the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) and Cosmic Assembly Near Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) surveys. We map dark matter halo mass to galaxy stellar mass using relationships from abundance matching, applied to the Bolshoi-Planck dissipationless N-body simulation. We define SRHR ≡ re/Rh as the ratio of galaxy radius to halo virial radius, and SRHRλ ≡ re/(λRh) as the ratio of galaxy radius to halo spin parameter times halo radius. At z ∼ 0.1, we find an average value of SRHR ≃ 0.018 and SRHRλ ≃ 0.5 with very little dependence on stellar mass. Stellar radius-halo radius (SRHR) and SRHRλ have a weak dependence on cosmic time since z ∼ 3. SRHR shows a mild decrease over cosmic time for low-mass galaxies, but increases slightly or does not evolve for more massive galaxies. We find hints that at high redshift (z ∼ 2-3), SRHRλ is lower for more massive galaxies, while it shows no significant dependence on stellar mass at z ≲ 0.5. We find that for both the GAMA and CANDELS samples, at all redshifts from z ∼ 0.1-3, the observed conditional size distribution in stellar mass bins is remarkably similar to the conditional distribution of λRh. We discuss the physical interpretation and implications of these results.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papovich, C.; Quadri, R.; Tilvi, V.; Tran, K.-V. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Labbé, I.; Straatman, C. M. S. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Behroozi, P.; Ferguson, H. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Glazebrook, K.; Kacprzak, G. G. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Spitler, L.; Cowley, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Davé, R. [University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Dekel, A. [Center of Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Dickinson, M.; Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Gawiser, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Faber, S. M., E-mail: [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); and others


    Galaxies with stellar masses near M* contain the majority of stellar mass in the universe, and are therefore of special interest in the study of galaxy evolution. The Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) have present-day stellar masses near M*, at 5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} (defined here to be MW-mass) and 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} (defined to be M31-mass). We study the typical progenitors of these galaxies using the FOURSTAR Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). ZFOURGE is a deep medium-band near-IR imaging survey, which is sensitive to the progenitors of these galaxies out to z ∼ 3. We use abundance-matching techniques to identify the main progenitors of these galaxies at higher redshifts. We measure the evolution in the stellar mass, rest-frame colors, morphologies, far-IR luminosities, and star formation rates, combining our deep multiwavelength imaging with near-IR Hubble Space Telescope imaging from Cosmic Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), and Spitzer and Herschel far-IR imaging from Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-Herschel and CANDELS-Herschel. The typical MW-mass and M31-mass progenitors passed through the same evolution stages, evolving from blue, star-forming disk galaxies at the earliest stages to redder dust-obscured IR-luminous galaxies in intermediate stages and to red, more quiescent galaxies at their latest stages. The progenitors of the MW-mass galaxies reached each evolutionary stage at later times (lower redshifts) and with stellar masses that are a factor of two to three lower than the progenitors of the M31-mass galaxies. The process driving this evolution, including the suppression of star formation in present-day M* galaxies, requires an evolving stellar-mass/halo-mass ratio and/or evolving halo-mass threshold for quiescent galaxies. The effective size and SFRs imply that the baryonic cold-gas fractions drop as galaxies evolve from high redshift to z ∼ 0 and are strongly anticorrelated with an increase in the S

  8. The Properties of Galaxies in the First Billion Years, as Revealed by the Hubble Ultra Deep Field 2012 (United States)

    Dunlop, James; McLure, R.; Rogers, S.; Ono, Y.; Ouchi, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Ellis, R. S.; Schenker, M.; Robertson, B. E.; UDF12 Team


    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Ultra Deep Field 2012 (UDF12) provides the deepest near-infrared imaging to date of the high redshift Universe. By effectively doubling the depth of the Wide Field Camera 3 near-infrared imaging in the UDF, with valuable diagnostic imaging through a new additional filter, the UDF12 program considerably enhances our understanding of the rest-frame UV properties of star-forming galaxies in the crucial redshift range z=7-10 when the reionization process is ending. We present the first unbiased measurements of the UV continuum slopes of galaxies at z=7 (and the first meaningful measures at z=8), thereby setting new constraints on the age, metallicity and ionizing photon escape fractions for early galaxies . We also present new results on the sizes of these primeval galaxies with more accuracy than hitherto, and set new constraints on their stellar masses. These new measurements of the physical properties of the emerging population of young galaxies are compared with the predictions of the latest theoretical models of galaxy formation.

  9. Determining the stellar masses of submillimetre galaxies: the critical importance of star formation histories (United States)

    Michałowski, Michał J.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Dunlop, James S.; Bruce, Victoria A.; Cirasuolo, Michele; Cullen, Fergus; Hernquist, Lars


    Submillimetre (submm) galaxies are among the most rapidly star-forming and most massive high-redshift galaxies; thus, their properties provide important constraints on galaxy evolution models. However, there is still a debate about their stellar masses and their nature in the context of the general galaxy population. To test the reliability of their stellar mass determinations, we used a sample of simulated submm galaxies for which we created synthetic photometry. The photometry were used to derived their stellar masses via spectral energy distribution (SED) modelling, as is generally done with real observations. We used various SED codes (Grasil, Magphys, Hyperz, and LePhare) and various alternative assumed star formation histories (SFHs). We found that the assumption of SFHs with two independent components enables the SED modelling codes to most accurately recover the true stellar masses of the simulated submm galaxies. Exponentially declining SFHs (tau models) lead to lower masses (albeit still formally consistent with the true stellar masses), while the assumption of single-burst SFHs results in a significant underestimation of the stellar masses. Thus, we conclude that studies based on the higher masses inferred from fitting the SEDs of real submm galaxies with double SFHs are most likely to be correct, implying that submm galaxies lie on the high-mass end of the main sequence of star-forming galaxies. This conclusion appears robust to assumptions of whether submm galaxies are driven by major mergers, since the suite of simulated galaxies modelled here contains examples of both merging and isolated galaxies. We identified discrepancies between the true and inferred stellar ages (rather than the dust attenuation) as the primary determinant of the success or failure of the mass recovery. Regardless of the choice of SFH, the SED-derived stellar masses exhibit a factor of ~2 scatter around the true value, and this scatter is an inherent limitation of the SED

  10. Combining Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngsoo [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Krause, Elisabeth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Jain, Bhuvnesh [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Amara, Adam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Becker, Matt [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bridle, Sarah [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Clampitt, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Crocce, Martin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gaztanaga, Enrique [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sanchez, Carles [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wechsler, Risa [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    Combining galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth rate of large scale structure, a quantity that will shed light on the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a prime candidate for such an analysis, with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies on the sky and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. By constructing an end-to-end analysis that combines large-scale galaxy clustering and small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing, we also forecast the potential of a combined probes analysis on DES datasets. In particular, we develop a practical approach to a DES combined probes analysis by jointly modeling the assumptions and systematics affecting the different components of the data vector, employing a shared halo model, HOD parametrization, photometric redshift errors, and shear measurement errors. Furthermore, we study the effect of external priors on different subsets of these parameters. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/ optimistically constraining the growth function to 8%/4.9% with its first-year data covering 1000 square degrees, and to 4%/2.3% with its full five-year data covering 5000 square degrees.

  11. The Abundance of Star-forming Galaxies in the Redshift Range 8.5-12: New Results from the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field Campaign (United States)

    Ellis, Richard S.; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Robertson, Brant E.; Ono, Yoshiaki; Schenker, Matthew A.; Koekemoer, Anton; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Ouchi, Masami; Rogers, Alexander B.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Schneider, Evan; Charlot, Stephane; Stark, Daniel P.; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Cirasuolo, Michele


    We present the results of the deepest search to date for star-forming galaxies beyond a redshift z ~= 8.5 utilizing a new sequence of near-infrared Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3/IR) images of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF). This "UDF12" campaign completed in 2012 September doubles the earlier exposures with WFC3/IR in this field and quadruples the exposure in the key F105W filter used to locate such distant galaxies. Combined with additional imaging in the F140W filter, the fidelity of high-redshift candidates is greatly improved. Using spectral energy distribution fitting techniques on objects selected from a deep multi-band near-infrared stack, we find seven promising z > 8.5 candidates. As none of the previously claimed UDF candidates with 8.5 10 galaxies with James Webb Space Telescope.

  12. Morphology of Seyfert Galaxies


    Chen, Yen-Chen; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan


    We probed the relation between properties of Seyfert nuclei and morphology of their host galaxies. We selected Seyfert galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with redshifts less 0.2 identified by the V\\'{e}ron Catalog (13th). We used the "{\\it{FracDev}}" parameter from SDSS galaxy fitting models to represent the bulge fractions of the Seyfert host galaxies. We found that the host galaxies of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 are dominated by large bulge fractions, and Seyfert 2 galaxies are more li...

  13. 3D Spectroscopic Surveys: Exploring Galaxy Evolution Mechanisms (United States)

    Epinat, Benoît


    I review the major surveys of high redshift galaxies observed using integral field spectroscopy techniques in the visible and in the infrared. The comparison of various samples has to be done with care since they have different properties linked to their parent samples, their selection criteria and the methods used to study them. I present the various kinematic types of galaxies that are identified within these samples (rotators, mergers, etc.) and summarize the discussions on the mass assembly processes at various redshifts deduced from these classifications: at intermediate redshift (z ~ 0.6) merger may be the main mass assembly process whereas the role of cold gas accretion along cosmic web filaments may increase with redshift. The baryonic Tully-Fisher relation is also discussed. This relation seems to be already in place 3 Gyr after the Big-Bang and is then evolving until the present day. This evolution is interpreted as an increase of the stellar mass content of dark matter haloes of a given mass. The discovery of positive abundance gradients in MASSIV and LSD/AMAZE samples is highlighted. At z ~ 3 this discovery might be linked to cold gas accretion along cosmic filaments toward the centre whereas at lower redshift (z ~ 1.3), this may be mainly due to accretion of gas from outer reservoirs toward the centre via tidal tails due to interactions.

  14. Simulating Galaxy Clusters with Dust Formation and Evolution (United States)

    Gjergo, Eda; Granato, Gian Luigi; Murante, Giuseppe; Ragone-Figueroa, Cinthia


    In order to investigate basic properties of galaxies, such as the star formation rate and the masses of baryonic components, it is important to account for dust reprocessing. Dust particles absorb and scatter the stars' optical/UV emission, and they re-radiate thermally in the infrared. A combination of simulations and post-processing radiative transfer computations can produce mock data, which can be compared directly to observations. Until now, however, dust properties have only been included in our simulations by means of post-processing assumptions, leaving room for uncertainties, particularly significant at wavelengths shorter than 100 microns. To reduce these uncertainties, we implemented a state-of-the-art treatment of the production and evolution of dust grains within our simulation code, P-GADGET3. This model traces the creation, evolution, and destruction of dust through various processes. It accounts for the diameter of dust particles with a two-grain-size approximation proposed by H. Hirashita. We will present a first result of our new code applied to zoom-in simulations of massive (M_{200} > 3 × 10^4 M_{⊙}) galaxy clusters, focusing in particular to the early stages of assembly of the cluster at high redshift, around z = 2, where the SF activity is at its maximum and the proto-cluster regions are rich of cold, dust-polluted gas.

  15. A Zoo of Galaxies (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.


    We live in a universe filled with galaxies with an amazing variety of sizes and shapes. One of the biggest challenges for astronomers working in this field is to understand how all these types relate to each other in the background of an expanding universe. Modern astronomical surveys (like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey) have revolutionised this field of astronomy, by providing vast numbers of galaxies to study. The sheer size of the these databases made traditional visual classification of the types galaxies impossible and in 2007 inspired the Galaxy Zoo project (; starting the largest ever scientific collaboration by asking members of the public to help classify galaxies by type and shape. Galaxy Zoo has since shown itself, in a series of now more than 30 scientific papers, to be a fantastic database for the study of galaxy evolution. In this Invited Discourse I spoke a little about the historical background of our understanding of what galaxies are, of galaxy classification, about our modern view of galaxies in the era of large surveys. I finish with showcasing some of the contributions galaxy classifications from the Galaxy Zoo project are making to our understanding of galaxy evolution.

  16. Molecular Gas Content of an Extremely Star-forming Herschel Observed Lensed Dusty Galaxy at z=2.685 (United States)

    Nayyeri, Hooshang; Cooray, Asantha R.; H-ATLAS


    We present the results of combined deep near-infrared, far infrared and millimeter observations of an extremely star forming lensed dusty star-forming galaxy (DSFG) identified from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). The high redshift DSFG is gravitationally lensed by a massive WISE identified cluster at z~1 (spectroscopically confirmed with Keck/DEIMOS and Gemini/GMOS) producing multiply lensed images and arcs observed in the optical. The DSFG is spectroscopically confirmed at z=2.685 from CO(1-0) observations by GBT and separately from CO(3-2) observations by CARMA. We use the combined spectroscopic and imaging observations to construct a detailed lens model of the background DSFG which allowed us to study the sources plane properties of the target. Multi-band data from Keck/NIRC2, HST/WFC3 and Herschel yields star formation rate and stellar mass well above the main sequence. Observations of the dust continuum by the Sub-millimeter Array yields an observed total ISM mass of 6.5E+11 M* which is responsible for the intense observed star formation rates. Comparing the measured SFR with molecular gas measurements from CO(1-0) observations reveals that this system has relatively short gas depletion time scale which is consistent with the starburst phase observed in high redshift sub-millimeter galaxies.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Brant E.; Ellis, Richard S., E-mail: [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    The contemporary discoveries of galaxies and gamma ray bursts (GRBs) at high redshift have supplied the first direct information on star formation when the universe was only a few hundred million years old. The probable origin of long duration GRBs in the deaths of massive stars would link the universal GRB rate to the redshift-dependent star formation rate (SFR) density, although exactly how is currently unknown. As the most distant GRBs and star-forming galaxies probe the reionization epoch, the potential reward of understanding the redshift-dependent ratio {Psi}(z) of the GRB rate to SFR is significant and includes addressing fundamental questions such as incompleteness in rest-frame UV surveys for determining the SFR at high redshift and time variations in the stellar initial mass function. Using an extensive sample of 112 GRBs above a fixed luminosity limit drawn from the Second Swift Burst Alert Telescope catalog and accounting for uncertainty in their redshift distribution by considering the contribution of 'dark' GRBs, we compare the cumulative redshift distribution N(< z) of GRBs with the star formation density {rho}-dot{sub *}(z) measured from UV-selected galaxies over 0 < z <4. Strong evolution (e.g., {Psi}(z){proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 1.5}) is disfavored (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test P < 0.07). We show that more modest evolution (e.g., {Psi}(z){proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 0.5}) is consistent with the data (P Almost-Equal-To 0.9) and can be readily explained if GRBs occur primarily in low-metallicity galaxies which are proportionally more numerous at earlier times. If such trends continue beyond z {approx_equal} 4, we find that the discovery rate of distant GRBs implies an SFR density much higher than that inferred from UV-selected galaxies. While some previous studies of the GRB-SFR connection have concluded that GRB-inferred star formation at high redshift would be sufficient to maintain cosmic reionization over 6

  18. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R., E-mail: [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)


    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  19. The Role of Bars in AGN Fueling in Disk Galaxies Over the Last Seven Billion Years (United States)

    Cisternas, Mauricio; Sheth, Kartik; Salvato, Mara; Knapen, Johan H.; Civano, Francesca; Santini, Paola


    We present empirical constraints on the influence of stellar bars on the fueling of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) out to z = 0.84 using a sample of X-ray-selected AGNs hosted in luminous non-interacting face-on and moderately inclined disk galaxies from the Chandra COSMOS survey. Using high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging to identify bars, we find that the fraction of barred active galaxies displays a similar behavior as that of inactive spirals, declining with redshift from 71% at z∼ 0.3, to 35% at z∼ 0.8. With active galaxies being typically massive, we compare them against a mass-matched sample of inactive spirals and show that, while at face value the AGN bar fraction is slightly higher at all redshifts, we cannot rule out that the bar fractions of active and inactive galaxies are the same. The presence of a bar has no influence on the AGN strength, with barred and unbarred active galaxies showing equivalent X-ray luminosity distributions. From our results, we conclude that the occurrence and the efficiency of the fueling process is independent of the large scale structure of a galaxy. The role of bars, if any, may be restricted to providing the suitable conditions for black hole fueling to occur, i.e., bring a fresh supply of gas to the central 100 pc. At the high-redshift end, we find that roughly 60% of active disk galaxies are unbarred. We speculate this to be related with the known dynamical state of disks at higher redshifts—more gas-rich and prone to instabilities than local spirals—which could also lead to gas inflows without the need of bars.

  20. Escaping Lyman Continuum in Strongly Lensed Galaxies at z=2.0-2.5 (United States)

    Fan, Xiaohui


    We propose to obtain deep WFC3 UVIS channel near ultraviolet {NUV} images of a sample of 6 bright lensed galaxies at z = 2.0 - 2.5 to detect the escaping Lyman continuum {LyC} radiation in order to study the physical properties of the LyC emitting region and the evolution of ionizing photon escape fraction with redshift. The LyC escape fraction is a key parameter in determining the contribution of star-forming galaxies to UV ionization background and to the cosmic reionization. It is, however, poorly constrained with conflicting results. In this proposal, we will use the observations of the brightest lensed galaxies {r<21.0} to provide accurate measurement of escape fraction in high-redshift galaxies, sensitive to the flux ratio between intergalactic medium corrected LyC and 1500A of as low as 0.5-3% in individual galaxies, and 0.2% when stacking all galaxies. In addition, lensing effect will allow us to probe a wide range of intrinsic luminosity {-20.5galaxies provided by existing deep HST imaging and ground-based near-IR spectroscopy to constrain physical models of LyC escape mechanism. Our sample will also fill the gap of the redshift range between 2.0 - 2.5 that has not been probed in previous works, allowing study of the evolution of escape fraction in the redshift range of z = 1 to 3.5.

  1. Galaxy assembly, stellar feedback and metal enrichment: the view from the GAEA model (United States)

    Hirschmann, Michaela; De Lucia, Gabriella; Fontanot, Fabio


    One major problem of current theoretical models of galaxy formation is given by their inability to reproduce the apparently `anti-hierarchical' evolution of galaxy assembly: massive galaxies appear to be in place since z ˜ 3, while a significant increase of the number densities of low-mass galaxies is measured with decreasing redshift. In this work, we perform a systematic analysis of the influence of different stellar feedback schemes, carried out in the framework of GAEA, a new semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. It includes a self-consistent treatment for the timings of gas, metal and energy recycling, and for the chemical yields. We show this to be crucial to use observational measurements of the metallicity as independent and powerful constraints for the adopted feedback schemes. The observed trends can be reproduced in the framework of either a strong ejective or preventive feedback model. In the former case, the gas ejection rate must decrease significantly with cosmic time (as suggested by parametrizations of the cosmological `FIRE' simulations). Irrespective of the feedback scheme used, our successful models always imply that up to 60-70 per cent of the baryons reside in an `ejected' reservoir and are unavailable for cooling at high redshift. The same schemes predict physical properties of model galaxies (e.g. gas content, colour, age, and metallicity) that are in much better agreement with observational data than our fiducial model. The overall fraction of passive galaxies is found to be primarily determined by internal physical processes, with environment playing a secondary role.

  2. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): Exploring the WISE Web in G12 (United States)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Cluver, M. E.; Magoulas, C.; Bilicki, M.; Alpaslan, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Croom, S.; Driver, S.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Loveday, J.; Norberg, P.; Peacock, J. A.; Popescu, C. C.; Sadler, E. M.; Taylor, E. N.; Tuffs, R. J.; Wang, L.


    We present an analysis of the mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) sources seen within the equatorial GAMA G12 field, located in the North Galactic Cap. Our motivation is to study and characterize the behavior of WISE source populations in anticipation of the deep multiwavelength surveys that will define the next decade, with the principal science goal of mapping the 3D large-scale structures and determining the global physical attributes of the host galaxies. In combination with cosmological redshifts, we identify galaxies from their WISE W1 (3.4 μm) resolved emission, and we also perform a star-galaxy separation using apparent magnitude, colors, and statistical modeling of star counts. The resulting galaxy catalog has ≃590,000 sources in 60 deg2, reaching a W1 5σ depth of 31 μJy. At the faint end, where redshifts are not available, we employ a luminosity function analysis to show that approximately 27% of all WISE extragalactic sources to a limit of 17.5 mag (31 μJy) are at high redshift, z> 1. The spatial distribution is investigated using two-point correlation functions and a 3D source density characterization at 5 Mpc and 20 Mpc scales. For angular distributions, we find that brighter and more massive sources are strongly clustered relative to fainter sources with lower mass; likewise, based on WISE colors, spheroidal galaxies have the strongest clustering, while late-type disk galaxies have the lowest clustering amplitudes. In three dimensions, we find a number of distinct groupings, often bridged by filaments and superstructures. Using special visualization tools, we map these structures, exploring how clustering may play a role with stellar mass and galaxy type.

  3. Hubble's Menagerie of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    typ es form an evolutionary sequence: does one type of galaxy evolve into another? 1. T he D iscovery of G alaxies. A stronom ers began to ponder these issues only after they discovered w hat w as m eant by a galaxy. It w as in the 1920s that astronom ers realised that w e live in a separate galaxy, and that other galaxies w ...

  4. A Blind Search for Lyα Emission from Galaxies at z = 6-8 with Deep HST Grism Spectra (United States)

    Larson, Rebecca L.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Tilvi, Vithal; Jung, Intae; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.


    This project aims to detect Lyα emission lines from z = 6-8 galaxies spectroscopically confirm the redshifts of a large sample of galaxies and to probe the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) during the epoch of reionization. We use extremely deep data from the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS; PI: Malhotra) which is currently the most sensitive G102 grism survey, targeting the high-redshift galaxies that were discovered in the CANDELS GOODS fields (Finkelstein et al. 2015). This data set has already proven to be successful as one of these candidates, at redshift z=7.51, has been observed to have Lyα emission detectable with the HST Grism (Tilvi et al 2016). The FIGS data uses five separate roll-angles of HST in an effort to reduce the overall contamination effects of nearby galaxies. We have created a method that accounts for and removes the contamination from surrounding galaxies, and also removes any residual continuum emission from each individual spectrum. We then utilize a MCMC routine to blindly search for significant emission lines using three different methods. First, we compare the results for each galaxy across all roll angles and identify significant lines as those which are detected at the same wavelength in more than one roll angle. Second, we perform a weighted stack of all five roll angles and then search this spectrum for emission lines. Third, we perform a fit to all five roll angles simultaneously. We have found several z >7 candidates using individual methods which, if confirmed, will increase the number of confirmed galaxies at this epoch by ~50%. We have also detected an emission line at 1.03μm in one galaxy using all three of these methods and are comparing these results with broadband photometry measures. We have proposed for ground-based follow-up observations of this, and several other potential Lyα-emitting galaxies in our sample.

  5. Probing galaxy growth through metallicity scaling relations over the past 12 Gyr of cosmic history (United States)

    Sanders, Ryan; MOSDEF team


    A primary goal of galaxy evolution studies is to understand the processes governing the growth of the baryonic content of galaxies over cosmic history. Observations of galaxy metallicity scaling relations and their evolution with redshift, in combination with chemical evolution models, provide unique insight into the interplay between star formation, gas accretion, and feedback/outflows. I present measurements of the stellar mass-gas phase metallicity relation and its evolution over the past 12 Gyr from z~0 to z~3.5, utilizing data from the Mosfire Deep Evolution Field survey that uniquely provides rest-frame optical spectra of >1000 uniformly-selected galaxies at z=1.3-3.8. We find evolution towards lower metallicity at fixed stellar mass with increasing redshift that is consistent with current cosmological simulations including chemical evolution, with a large evolution of ~0.3 dex from z~0 to z~2.5 and minor evolution of 2, and discuss the potential of current and next-generation observational facilities to obtain statistical auroral-line samples at high redshifts.

  6. The GOODS-MUSIC Sample: Evolution of the Luminosity Function of Red and Blue Galaxies (United States)

    Salimbeni, S.; Giallongo, E.; Grazian, A.


    Using data from the GOODS public survey we analysed the galaxy properties in terms of the colour and specific star formation rate (SSFR) distributions. More specifically we analysed the galaxy bimodal distribution up to relatively high redshift (z ≃q 3). We used these properties to separate the galaxy sample in two populations (red-blue using colour; early-late using SSFR). We have then studied the evolution of the red/early and blue/late luminosity function (LF) and of the luminosity density. For the blue galaxies we find a luminosity evolution with a brightening of M^* in the z=0.2-1 interval and at higher redshift a constant LF. For the red sample, we find at the bright-end of the LF a constant density in the range 0.2-0.67 and a density reduction by a factor 5 up to redshift 3.5. For the red population we also find a characteristic shape for the LF, with a minimum around M_B(AB)=-18 and with a turn up at fainter magnitude. This shape has been represented by a double Schechter function.

  7. MaDCoWS: The Most Massive Galaxy Clusters at z 1 (United States)

    Brodwin, Mark; Gonzalez, Anthony; Stanford, Adam; Eisenhardt, Peter; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika; Decker, Bandon; Mo, Wenli; Marrone, Daniel; Moravec, Emily; O'Donnell, Christine


    We propose to obtain deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging of 20 of the richest - and likely extremely massive - stellar mass-selected galaxy clusters at z 1 from the Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS). The proposed IRAC data, along with allocated Gemini spectroscopy and ALMA SZ imaging, will allow us to directly test key predictions of current models of cluster formation. These models posit that galaxy-galaxy merging drives the bursts of star formation and AGN activity seen in high redshift Spitzer studies of low-mass clusters, and predict that the rate of such activity should be an inverse function of total cluster mass. As clusters grow in mass (and hence velocity dispersion), the merging efficiency drops and the growth of the galaxy population, via both mergers and star formation, should slow. By measuring the cluster stellar mass function as a function of halo mass, we will directly confirm or refute this model. We will also identify the IR-bright AGN content in these clusters, permitting a test of the prediction that the incidence of AGN, triggered by the merging activity, should be higher in the lower mass clusters. Finally, we will measure the stellar mass fraction and its scatter as a function of cluster mass, a crucial quantity in calibrating both numerical cluster simulations and scaling relations that are key for cluster abundance cosmology.

  8. Bayesian Redshift Classification of Emission-line Galaxies with Photometric Equivalent Widths (United States)

    Leung, Andrew S.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric; Ciardullo, Robin; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Malz, A. I.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Bridge, Joanna S.; Drory, Niv; Feldmeier, John J.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gebhardt, Karl; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Hill, Gary J.; Schneider, Donald P.


    We present a Bayesian approach to the redshift classification of emission-line galaxies when only a single emission line is detected spectroscopically. We consider the case of surveys for high-redshift Lyα-emitting galaxies (LAEs), which have traditionally been classified via an inferred rest-frame equivalent width (EW {W}{Lyα }) greater than 20 Å. Our Bayesian method relies on known prior probabilities in measured emission-line luminosity functions and EW distributions for the galaxy populations, and returns the probability that an object in question is an LAE given the characteristics observed. This approach will be directly relevant for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), which seeks to classify ˜106 emission-line galaxies into LAEs and low-redshift [{{O}} {{II}}] emitters. For a simulated HETDEX catalog with realistic measurement noise, our Bayesian method recovers 86% of LAEs missed by the traditional {W}{Lyα } > 20 Å cutoff over 2 types of binary classification error by adjusting the stringency of the probability requirement for classifying an observed object as an LAE. In our simulations of HETDEX, this method reduces the uncertainty in cosmological distance measurements by 14% with respect to the EW cut, equivalent to recovering 29% more cosmological information. Rather than using binary object labels, this method enables the use of classification probabilities in large-scale structure analyses. It can be applied to narrowband emission-line surveys as well as upcoming large spectroscopic surveys including Euclid and WFIRST.

  9. Evidence for Galaxy Dynamics Tracing Background Cosmology Below the de Sitter Scale of Acceleration (United States)

    van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.


    Galaxy dynamics probe weak gravity at accelerations below the de Sitter scale of acceleration {a}{dS}={cH}, where c is the velocity of light and H is the Hubble parameter. Low- and high-redshift galaxies hereby offer a novel probe of weak gravity in an evolving cosmology, satisfying H(z)={H}0\\sqrt{1+{ω }m(6z+12{z}2+12{z}3+6{z}4+(6/5){z}5)}/(1+z) with matter content {ω }m=0.2808+/- 0.028 sans tension to H 0 in surveys of the local universe. Galaxy rotation curves show anomalous galaxy dynamics in weak gravity {a}Nconfrontation with data covering 0.003≲ {a}N/{a}{dS}≲ 1 at redshift z˜ 0 in Lellie et al., the modest anomalous behavior in the Genzel et al. sample at redshifts 0.854≤slant z≤slant 2.282 is found to be mostly due to clustering 0.36≲ {a}N/{a}{dS}≲ 1 close to the C 0 onset to weak gravity and an increase of up to 65% in a 0.

  10. Faint blue counts from formation of dwarf galaxies at z approximately equals 1 (United States)

    Babul, Arif; Rees, Martin J.


    The nature of faint blue objects (FBO's) has been a source of much speculation since their detection in deep CCD images of the sky. Their high surface density argues against them being progenitors of present-day bright galaxies and since they are only weakly clustered on small scales, they cannot be entities that merged together to form present-day galaxies. Babul & Rees (1992) have suggested that the observed faint blue counts may be due to dwarf elliptical galaxies undergoing their initial starburst at z is approximately equal to 1. In generic hierarchical clustering scenarios, however, dwarf galaxy halos (M is approximately 10(exp 9) solar mass) are expected to form at an earlier epoch; for example, typical 10(exp 9) solar mass halos will virialize at z is approximately equal to 2.3 if the power-spectrum for the density fluctuations is that of the standard b = 2 cold dark matter (CDM) model. Under 'ordinary conditions' the gas would rapidly cool, collect in the cores, and undergo star-formation. Conditions at high redshifts are far from 'ordinary'. The intense UV background will prevent the gas in the dwarf halos from cooling, the halos being released from their suspended state only when the UV flux has diminished sufficiently.

  11. A new method for finding and characterizing galaxy groups via low-frequency radio surveys (United States)

    Croston, J. H.; Ineson, J.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Mingo, B.


    We describe a new method for identifying and characterizing the thermodynamic state of large samples of evolved galaxy groups at high redshifts using high-resolution, low-frequency radio surveys, such as those that will be carried out with LOFAR and the Square Kilometre Array. We identify a sub-population of morphologically regular powerful [Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II)] radio galaxies and demonstrate that, for this sub-population, the internal pressure of the radio lobes is a reliable tracer of the external intragroup/intracluster medium (ICM) pressure, and that the assumption of a universal pressure profile for relaxed groups enables the total mass and X-ray luminosity to be estimated. Using a sample of well-studied FR II radio galaxies, we demonstrate that our method enables the estimation of group/cluster X-ray luminosities over three orders of magnitude in luminosity to within a factor of ˜2 from low-frequency radio properties alone. Our method could provide a powerful new tool for building samples of thousands of evolved galaxy groups at z > 1 and characterizing their ICM.

  12. Accretion by the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binney, J.; Fraternali, F.; Reylé, C.; Robin, A.; Schultheis, M.

    Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated

  13. A small-scale dynamo in feedback-dominated galaxies - II. The saturation phase and the final magnetic configuration (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Teyssier, Romain


    Magnetic fields in galaxies are believed to be the result of dynamo amplification of initially weak seed fields, reaching equipartition strength inside the interstellar medium. The small-scale dynamo (SSD) appears to be a viable mechanism to explain observations of strong magnetic fields in present-day and high-redshift galaxies, considering the extreme weakness of viable seed fields. Performing high-resolution adaptive mesh magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a small-mass, isolated cooling halo with an initial magnetic seed field strength well below equipartition, we follow the SSD amplification from supernova-induced turbulence up to saturation of the field. We find that saturation occurs when the average magnetic pressure reaches only 3 per cent of the turbulent pressure. The magnetic energy growth transitions from exponential to linear, and finally comes to halt. The saturation level increases slightly with grid resolution. These results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for magnetic Prandtl numbers of the order ofPm ˜ 1 and turbulent Mach numbers of the order of M ˜ 10. When we suppress supernova feedback after our simulation has reached saturation, we find that turbulence decays and that the gas falls back on to a thin disc with the magnetic field in local equipartition in most of the dense gas arms. We propose a scenario in which galactic magnetic fields are amplified from weak seed fields in the early stages of the Universe to sub-equipartition fields, owing to the turbulent environment of feedback-dominated galaxies at high redshift, and are evolved further in a later stage up to equipartition, as galaxies transformed into more quiescent, large spiral discs.

  14. ICLASH: Coherent Views of the Galaxy Formation Puzzle over z~3-10 Through the Looking Glass (United States)

    Bouwens, Rychard; Zheng, Wei; Moustakas, Leonidas; Bradley, Larry; Ford, Holland; Coe, Dan; Benitez, Narciso; Broadhurst, Tom; Donahue, Megan; Regoes, Eniko; Rosati, Piero; Zitrin, Adi; Postman, Marc


    How galaxies build-up and evolve at early times is one of the most fundamental questions in extragalactic cosmology. While well established constraints exist on how this build-up occurs from rest-frame UV studies, an equally important part of the story - the build-up of stellar mass - is far less well understood. Although we have some results on the stellar mass at the brightest magnitudes (like the non-evolution of the specific SFR), the stellar masses of lower luminosity galaxies at high redshift remain essentially unknown. This is a major gap in our knowledge since lower luminosity galaxies dominate the SFR density, UV density, and likely provide the photons that reionize the universe. The only way of obtaining data on these faint sources at high redshift is with Spitzer, but with Spitzer one is faced with serious S/N limitations. To surmount these challenges, we propose to take advantage of gravitational lensing and a large sample of ~200 highly magnified low-luminosity galaxies expected to be found in the large 524-orbit, 25-cluster CLASH MCT program. We propose to obtain deep IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 micron observations over the full suite of CLASH clusters. Since 17 clusters from the program already have deep data, we are requesting data for the final eight. The additional data are important to ensure that these magnified samples remain sizeable after subdividing by redshift and luminosity. This ICLASH program will allow us to robustly derive stellar masses and do stellar population modelling at z>4, determine the stellar mass density at z~7-8 to faint limits, and add significance confidence to z~10 identifications in our program. We waive our right to any proprietary period for this important data set.

  15. Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy Formation Simulation - VIII. Suppressed growth of dark matter haloes during the Epoch of Reionization (United States)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Geil, Paul M.; Angel, Paul W.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.


    We investigate how the hydrostatic suppression of baryonic accretion affects the growth rate of dark matter haloes during the Epoch of Reionization. By comparing halo properties in a simplistic hydrodynamic simulation in which gas only cools adiabatically, with its collisionless equivalent, we find that halo growth is slowed as hydrostatic forces prevent gas from collapsing. In our simulations, at the high redshifts relevant for reionization (between ˜6 and ˜11), haloes that host dwarf galaxies (≲109 M⊙) can be reduced by up to a factor of 2 in mass due to the hydrostatic pressure of baryons. Consequently, the inclusion of baryonic effects reduces the amplitude of the low-mass tail of the halo mass function by factors of 2-4. In addition, we find that the fraction of baryons in dark matter haloes hosting dwarf galaxies at high redshift never exceeds ˜90 per cent of the cosmic baryon fraction. When implementing baryonic processes, including cooling, star formation, supernova feedback and reionization, the suppression effects become more significant with further reductions of 30-60 per cent. Although convergence tests suggest that the suppression may become weaker in higher resolution simulations, this suppressed growth will be important for semi-analytic models of galaxy formation, in which the halo mass inherited from an underlying N-body simulation directly determines galaxy properties. Based on the adiabatic simulation, we provide tables to account for these effects in N-body simulations and present a modification of the halo mass function along with explanatory analytic calculations.

  16. Quantifying the Stellar Mass Density of the Universe out to z~9-10: Ultra-Deep Spitzer Observations of Two Highly Magnified z~9-10 Galaxies (United States)

    Bouwens, Rychard; Zheng, Wei; Moustakas, Leonidas; Postman, Marc; Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Donahue, Megan; Labbe, Ivo; Smit, Renske; Zitrin, Adi


    Measurements of the stellar mass in galaxies to increasingly high redshifts provide us one of the most powerful ways of gauging early galaxy build-up. Combining ultra- deep IRAC imaging observations with deep WFC3/IR observations have allowed astronomers both to identify and estimate masses for sources out to redshifts as high as z~8. However, it has been difficult to extend such studies to even higher redshifts due to the incredible faintness and rarity of typical z~9-10 galaxies. One method for stepping beyond the normal S/N limitations is to take advantage of gravitational lensing by massive galaxy clusters to magnify faint z>8 sources, but to do so, we must know where the magnified sources lie. Fortunately, utilizing the huge investment of HST time in the 524-orbit CLASH program, we have been able to identify 100s of z~5-8 galaxies and even 4 extremely tantalizing z~9-11 galaxy candidates. To extend our measurement of galaxy masses to the earliest possible times, we require ultra-deep Spitzer observations on these candidates to accurately measure their rest-frame optical properties. While two of the z~9-11 candidates are the subject of deep IRAC observations as a result of an approved program, the other two will not be the subject of such observations. Given the considerable galaxy-to-galaxy variations in the mass-to-light ratio, ultra-deep Spitzer observations are needed for all four z~9-11 candidates to establish the typical properties of galaxies in this epoch. We propose to obtain such observations over the two z~9 candidates lacking such observations. Not only will our proposed observations substantially improve our ability to estimate the stellar mass density at z~9-11, but it will play a pivotal role in characterizing the stellar masses and other properties of 20-30 other gravitationally lensed z~4-8 galaxies behind these clusters.

  17. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca


    The term “chemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Labbé, Ivo [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Spitler, Lee R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Allen, Rebecca; Glazebrook, Karl; Kacprzak, Glenn G. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Altieri, Bruno [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC)/ESA, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28691, Madrid (Spain); Brammer, Gabriel B. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Dickinson, Mark; Inami, Hanae [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Kawinwanichakij, Lalit; Mehrtens, Nicola; Papovich, Casey [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kelson, Daniel D.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Monson, Andy; Murphy, David; Persson, S. Eric; Quadri, Ryan, E-mail: [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others


    We report the likely identification of a substantial population of massive M ∼ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} galaxies at z ∼ 4 with suppressed star formation rates (SFRs), selected on rest-frame optical to near-IR colors from the FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). The observed spectral energy distributions show pronounced breaks, sampled by a set of near-IR medium-bandwidth filters, resulting in tightly constrained photometric redshifts. Fitting stellar population models suggests large Balmer/4000 Å breaks, relatively old stellar populations, large stellar masses, and low SFRs, with a median specific SFR of 2.9 ± 1.8 × 10{sup –11} yr{sup –1}. Ultradeep Herschel/PACS 100 μm, 160 μm and Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm data reveal no dust-obscured SFR activity for 15/19(79%) galaxies. Two far-IR detected galaxies are obscured QSOs. Stacking the far-IR undetected galaxies yields no detection, consistent with the spectral energy distribution fit, indicating independently that the average specific SFR is at least 10 × smaller than that of typical star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 4. Assuming all far-IR undetected galaxies are indeed quiescent, the volume density is 1.8 ± 0.7 × 10{sup –5} Mpc{sup –3} to a limit of log{sub 10} M/M {sub ☉} ≥ 10.6, which is 10 × and 80 × lower than at z = 2 and z = 0.1. They comprise a remarkably high fraction (∼35%) of z ∼ 4 massive galaxies, suggesting that suppression of star formation was efficient even at very high redshift. Given the average stellar age of 0.8 Gyr and stellar mass of 0.8 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, the galaxies likely started forming stars before z = 5, with SFRs well in excess of 100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, far exceeding that of similarly abundant UV-bright galaxies at z ≥ 4. This suggests that most of the star formation in the progenitors of quiescent z ∼ 4 galaxies was obscured by dust.

  19. X-Ray Binaries in Local Analogs to the First Galaxies (United States)

    Brorby, Matthew G.


    The focus of this dissertation is to investigate the effect of metallicity on high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) formation and evolution as a means to understand the evolution of the early Universe (z > 6). Understanding the population and X-ray output of HMXBs are vital to modelling the heating and ionization morphology of the intergalactic medium during the epoch of reionization. Current X-ray instruments are unable to directly detect very high redshift HMXBs, making it impossible to constrain population sizes in this way. Instead certain local galaxies may be used as analogs to infer the properties of galaxies in the early Universe. These local analogs should have properties consistent with those expected for the first galaxies, such as low-metallicity, compact morphology, and intense recent star formation. I present an X-ray population study of 25 blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCD), using multiwavelength data and Bayesian analysis techniques. We find a significant enhancement of the HMXB population in low-metallicity environments and suggest the same may be true in the early Universe. I continue the investigation of HMXB populations in a sample of 10 moderate metallicity (Z ≥ 0.3, Z solar masses), local star-forming galaxies known as Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs). I find evidence of a LX-SFR-metallicity plane in the combined sample of BCDs, LBAs, and regular star-forming galaxies. Then I study a third type of local analog to early Universe galaxies, the Green Pea galaxies. These are a subclass of luminous compact galaxies (LCGs) which show strong [OIII]lambda5007A emission indicative of extreme, recent star-formation. This pilot study was carried out to look, for the first time in X-rays, at this recently established class of galaxies and use them to test the LX-SFR-metallicity plane. Determining the spectral properties of bright HMXBs in low-metallicity environments also has important implications for models of X-ray heating leading up to the Epoch of Reionization. I

  20. Evolution of dust extinction curves in galaxy simulation (United States)

    Hou, Kuan-Chou; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Nagamine, Kentaro; Aoyama, Shohei; Shimizu, Ikkoh


    To understand the evolution of extinction curve, we calculate the dust evolution in a galaxy using smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations incorporating stellar dust production, dust destruction in supernova shocks, grain growth by accretion and coagulation, and grain disruption by shattering. The dust species are separated into carbonaceous dust and silicate. The evolution of grain size distribution is considered by dividing grain population into large and small grains, which allows us to estimate extinction curves. We examine the dependence of extinction curves on the position, gas density and metallicity in the galaxy, and find that extinction curves are flat at t ≲ 0.3 Gyr because stellar dust production dominates the total dust abundance. The 2175 Å bump and far-ultraviolet (FUV) rise become prominent after dust growth by accretion. At t ≳ 3 Gyr, shattering works efficiently in the outer disc and low-density regions, so extinction curves show a very strong 2175 Å bump and steep FUV rise. The extinction curves at t ≳ 3 Gyr are consistent with the Milky Way extinction curve, which implies that we successfully included the necessary dust processes in the model. The outer disc component caused by stellar feedback has an extinction curve with a weaker 2175 Å bump and flatter FUV slope. The strong contribution of carbonaceous dust tends to underproduce the FUV rise in the Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curve, which supports selective loss of small carbonaceous dust in the galaxy. The snapshot at young ages also explains the extinction curves in high-redshift quasars.

  1. Companions of Bright Barred Shapley Ames Galaxies


    Garcia-Barreto, J. Antonio; Carrillo, Rene; Vera-Villamizar, Nelson


    Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barred galaxies from the Shapley Ames Catalog is presented. Among spiral barred galaxies there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclear structures, galaxies not associated with any large scale galaxy cloud structure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms) and galaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubble types. The companion galaxy list includes number of companion galaxies within 20...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R. E. Jr. [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); McCarthy, P. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cohen, S. H.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Mechtley, M. R.; Windhorst, R. A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Yan, H. [Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Hathi, N. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Koekemoer, A. M.; Bond, H. E.; Bushouse, H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Crockett, R. M. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Disney, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, J. A. [Galaxies Unlimited, Lutherville, MD 21093 (United States); Hall, D. N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Holtzman, J. A., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); and others


    We present the size evolution of passively evolving galaxies at z {approx} 2 identified in Wide-Field Camera 3 imaging from the Early Release Science program. Our sample was constructed using an analog to the passive BzK galaxy selection criterion, which isolates galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation at z {approx}> 1.5. We identify 30 galaxies in {approx}40 arcmin{sup 2} to H < 25 mag. By fitting the 10-band Hubble Space Telescope photometry from 0.22 {mu}m {approx}< {lambda}{sub obs} {approx}< 1.6 {mu}m with stellar population synthesis models, we simultaneously determine photometric redshift, stellar mass, and a bevy of other population parameters. Based on the six galaxies with published spectroscopic redshifts, we estimate a typical redshift uncertainty of {approx}0.033(1 + z). We determine effective radii from Sersic profile fits to the H-band image using an empirical point-spread function. By supplementing our data with published samples, we propose a mass-dependent size evolution model for passively evolving galaxies, where the most massive galaxies (M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) undergo the strongest evolution from z {approx} 2 to the present. Parameterizing the size evolution as (1 + z){sup -{alpha}}, we find a tentative scaling of {alpha} Almost-Equal-To (- 0.6 {+-} 0.7) + (0.9 {+-} 0.4)log (M{sub *}/10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }), where the relatively large uncertainties reflect the poor sampling in stellar mass due to the low numbers of high-redshift systems. We discuss the implications of this result for the redshift evolution of the M{sub *}-R{sub e} relation for red galaxies.

  3. The concerted impact of galaxies and QSOs on the ionization and thermal state of the intergalactic medium (United States)

    Kakiichi, Koki; Graziani, Luca; Ciardi, Benedetta; Meiksin, Avery; Compostella, Michele; Eide, Marius B.; Zaroubi, Saleem


    We present a detailed analysis of the ionization and thermal structure of the intergalactic medium (IGM) around a high-redshift (z = 10) QSO, using a large suite of cosmological, multifrequency radiative transfer simulations, exploring the contribution from galaxies as well as the QSO, and the effect of X-rays and secondary ionization. We show that in high-z QSO environments both the central QSO and the surrounding galaxies concertedly control the reionization morphology of hydrogen and helium and have a non-linear impact on the thermal structure of the IGM. A QSO imprints a distinctive morphology on H II regions if its total ionizing photon budget exceeds that of the surrounding galaxies since the onset of hydrogen reionization; otherwise, the morphology shows little difference from that of H II regions produced only by galaxies. In addition, the spectral shape of the collective radiation field from galaxies and QSOs controls the thickness of the I-fronts. While a UV-obscured QSO can broaden the I-front, the contribution from other UV sources, either galaxies or unobscured QSOs, is sufficient to maintain a sharp I-front. X-ray photons from the QSO are responsible for a prominent extended tail of partial ionization ahead of the I-front. QSOs leave a unique imprint on the morphology of He II/He III regions. We suggest that, while the physical state of the IGM is modified by QSOs, the most direct test to understand the role of galaxies and QSOs during reionization is to perform galaxy surveys in a region of sky imaged by 21 cm tomography.

  4. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey. I. Sample Selection and Redshift Distribution (United States)

    Perley, D. A.; Krühler, T.; Schulze, S.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Hjorth, J.; Berger, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Chary, R.; Cucchiara, A.; Ellis, R.; Fong, W.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gorosabel, J.; Greiner, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Kim, S.; Laskar, T.; Levan, A. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Tanvir, N. R.; Thöne, C. C.; Wiersema, K.


    We introduce the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (“SHOALS”), a multi-observatory high-redshift galaxy survey targeting the largest unbiased sample of long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts yet assembled (119 in total). We describe the motivations of the survey and the development of our selection criteria, including an assessment of the impact of various observability metrics on the success rate of afterglow-based redshift measurement. We briefly outline our host galaxy observational program, consisting of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging of every field supplemented by similarly deep, multicolor optical/near-IR photometry, plus spectroscopy of events without preexisting redshifts. Our optimized selection cuts combined with host galaxy follow-up have so far enabled redshift measurements for 110 targets (92%) and placed upper limits on all but one of the remainder. About 20% of GRBs in the sample are heavily dust obscured, and at most 2% originate from z\\gt 5.5. Using this sample, we estimate the redshift-dependent GRB rate density, showing it to peak at z∼ 2.5 and fall by at least an order of magnitude toward low (z = 0) redshift, while declining more gradually toward high (z∼ 7) redshift. This behavior is consistent with a progenitor whose formation efficiency varies modestly over cosmic history. Our survey will permit the most detailed examination to date of the connection between the GRB host population and general star-forming galaxies, directly measure evolution in the host population over cosmic time and discern its causes, and provide new constraints on the fraction of cosmic star formation occurring in undetectable galaxies at all redshifts.

  5. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey. I. Sample Selection and Redshift Distribution (United States)

    Perley, D. A.; Kruhler, T.; Schulze, S.; Postigo, A. De Ugarte; Hjorth, J.; Berger, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Chary, R.; Cucchiara, A.; Ellis, R.; hide


    We introduce the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (SHOALS), a multi-observatory high redshift galaxy survey targeting the largest unbiased sample of long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts yet assembled (119 in total). We describe the motivations of the survey and the development of our selection criteria, including an assessment of the impact of various observability metrics on the success rate of afterglow-based redshift measurement. We briefly outline our host galaxy observational program, consisting of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging of every field supplemented by similarly deep, multicolor optical/near-IR photometry, plus spectroscopy of events without preexisting redshifts. Our optimized selection cuts combined with host galaxy follow-up have so far enabled redshift measurements for 110 targets (92%) and placed upper limits on all but one of the remainder. About 20% of GRBs in the sample are heavily dust obscured, and at most 2% originate from z > 5.5. Using this sample, we estimate the redshift-dependent GRB rate density, showing it to peak at z approx. 2.5 and fall by at least an order of magnitude toward low (z = 0) redshift, while declining more gradually toward high (z approx. 7) redshift. This behavior is consistent with a progenitor whose formation efficiency varies modestly over cosmic history. Our survey will permit the most detailed examination to date of the connection between the GRB host population and general star-forming galaxies, directly measure evolution in the host population over cosmic time and discern its causes, and provide new constraints on the fraction of cosmic star formation occurring in undetectable galaxies at all redshifts.

  6. Dependence of galaxy stellar populations on density at z=0.3--1.5 (United States)

    McKenzie, Eric Howie

    I investigate the evolution of galaxy clustering and dependence on environment by comparing galaxies' spatial correlation lengths with their photometrically- determined spectral energy distribution (SED) types. This complements work on the density-morphology relation and expands our understanding of galaxy evolution at high redshifts (z FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey (FLAMEX), extending the techniques developed in the SPICES survey to examine the density-SED relation and its redshift dependence for a much larger sample. The results indicate that the density-SED relation is already established by z = 1.5, with no substantive evolution between that epoch to the present, and that the relation is in place prior to cluster assembly. I also investigate how clustering differs for extremely red objects (EROs) versus non-ERO galaxies and for L > L* versus L > .6L* galaxies, and I compare the spatial correlation lengths for specific clusters to the cluster detection significance. Finally, I present a separate project on the dissipation rates of open star clusters within our own galaxy. Studying the age distribution of the complete sample of 997 clusters for which age values are available, I propose that clusters are disrupted by at least three different mechanisms acting on different timescales: a long-term mechanism that produces a cluster half-life of 354 ± 13 million years, a medium-term mechanism with a cluster half-life of 105 ± 30 million years, and a short-term mechanism with a cluster half-life of 5.0 ± .8 million years. I also estimate that 220 ± 70 clusters are formed per ten million years within our current limits of observation.

  7. Studying the high redshift Universe with Athena (United States)

    O'Brien, P. T.


    Athena is the second large mission selected in the ESA Cosmic Vision plan. With its large collecting area, high spectral-energy resolution (X-IFU instrument) and impressive grasp (WFI instrument), Athena will truly revolutionise X-ray astronomy. The most prodigious sources of high-energy photons are often transitory in nature. Athena will provide the sensitivity and spectral resolution coupled with rapid response to enable the study of the dynamic sky. Potential sources include: distant Gamma-Ray Bursts to probe the reionisation epoch and find ‘missing’ baryons in the cosmic web; tidal disruption events to reveal dormant supermassive and intermediate-mass black holes; and supernova explosions to understand progenitors and their environments.Using detailed simulations, we illustrate Athena’s extraordinary capabilities for transients out to the highest redshifts and show how it will be able to constrain the nature of explosive transients including gas metallicity and dynamics, constraining environments and progenitors.

  8. Concentrated Dark Matter at the Cores of Fossil Galaxies (United States)


    galaxies formed. "The explanation for such a centralised dark matter distribution could be that the system formed at very high redshift - when the Universe was very young and dense," said Khosroshahi. "The great advantage of fossil groups compared to normal groups is that no major galaxy interaction, which can stir the hot gas, is taking place," he added. "Therefore, they provide ideal laboratories to study the properties of visible matter in the form of gas and stars as well as their container, the dark matter." Additional information and images are available at:

  9. A Search for Lyα Emission from Galaxies AT 6 Deep HST Grism Observations: Discovery of a z = 7.5 Galaxy (United States)

    Larson, Rebecca L.; Finkelstein, Steven; Pirzkal, Nor; Ryan, Russell; Tilvi, Vithal; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Finkelstein, Keely; Jung, Intae; Christensen, Lise; Cimatti, Andrea; Ferreras, Ignacio; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton; Hathi, Nimish; O'Connell, Robert; Östlin, Göran; Pasquali, Anna; Rothberg, Barry; Windhorst, Rogier; FIGS Team


    We have built an automated detection method to find Lyα emission lines in HST grism data from 6 state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) during the epoch of reionization. We use 160 orbits of G102 slitless spectroscopy obtained from HST/WFC3 for the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS; PI: Malhotra) that were optimized to sample previously-identified high-redshift galaxy candidates. This dataset has already been used to identify one of these candidates, at redshift z = 7.51, which has been observed to have Lyα emission detectable with the HST Grism (Finkelstein et al. 2013; Tilvi et al. 2016). The FIGS data use five separate roll-angles of HST in an effort to mitigate the overall contamination effects of nearby galaxies and we have created a method that accounts for and removes the contamination from surrounding galaxies, while also removing any dispersed continuum light from each individual spectrum (Pirzkal et al. 2017). Using our new automated process we searched for significant (> 3σ) emission lines via two different methods. First, we compared the results for each galaxy across all roll angles and identified significant lines detected in more than one roll angle. Second, we performed a fit to all five roll angles simultaneously, accounting for the total flux of the emission line across all of our spectra. We have examined the spectra for 64 z > 7 candidates in our sample and found one new candidate Lyα emission line at a (> 5σ) level at 1.03µm (FIGS ID: GS2 1406 also named CANDELS ID: z7 PAR2 2909). After comparing this emission line with the broadband photometric colors, we conclude that this line is Lyα at z = 7.542 ± 0.003. This galaxy has the highest Lyα rest-frame equivalent width (EWLyα) yet published at z > 7 (110 ± 14 A).

  10. Nebular excitation in z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies from the SINS and LUCI surveys: The influence of shocks and active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Sarah F.; Genzel, Reinhard [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Buschkamp, Peter; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Kurk, Jaron; Rosario, David; Davies, Ric; Eisenhauer, Frank; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sternberg, Amiel [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Gnat, Orly [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Mancini, Chiara; Renzini, Alvio [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ETH, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Burkert, Andreas [Universitäts-Sternwarte Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (USM), Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Cresci, Giovanni [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica Osservatorio di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Genel, Shy [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shapiro Griffin, Kristen [Space Sciences Research Group, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Hicks, Erin K. S., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W., Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); and others


    Based on high-resolution, spatially resolved data of 10 z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies from the SINS/zC-SINF survey and LUCI data for 12 additional galaxies, we probe the excitation properties of high-z galaxies and the impact of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), shocks, and photoionization. We explore how these spatially resolved line ratios can inform our interpretation of integrated emission line ratios obtained at high redshift. Many of our galaxies fall in the 'composite' region of the z ∼ 0 [N II]/Hα versus [O III]/Hβ diagnostic (BPT) diagram, between star-forming galaxies and those with AGNs. Based on our resolved measurements, we find that some of these galaxies likely host an AGN, while others appear to be affected by the presence of shocks possibly caused by an outflow or from an enhanced ionization parameter as compared with H II regions in normal, local star-forming galaxies. We find that the Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic, which separates purely star-forming and AGN hosting local galaxies in the [O III]/Hβ versus stellar mass plane, does not properly separate z ∼ 2 galaxies classified according to the BPT diagram. However, if we shift the galaxies based on the offset between the local and z ∼ 2 mass-metallicity relation (i.e., to the mass they would have at z ∼ 0 with the same metallicity), we find better agreement between the MEx and BPT diagnostics. Finally, we find that metallicity calibrations based on [N II]/Hα are more biased by shocks and AGNs at high-z than the [O III]/Hβ/[N II]/Hα calibration.

  11. Power-law Temperature Distribution SED Modeling To Reveal Properties of High-z Starburst Galaxies (United States)

    Su, Ting; Staguhn, J.; Dwek, E.; Kovacs, A.


    Sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs), selected as the most luminous sources in submm/mm surveys in recent decades, are a group of highly dust-obscured massive galaxies at high redshifts energized by starbursts. SMG surveys enable us to study the nature of those sources in detail. Previous samples of SMGs are typically distributed at z ˜ 0.5-3. In order to explore the evolutionary properties of SMGs up to an earlier epoch, we present a sample of 12 sources at average z ˜ 4. Five of our sources are from the GISMO 2mm Deep Field survey-the very first 2mm deep field survey, which favors higher redshift sources with its superior sensitivity and relatively longer wavelength. The other seven are extremely high redshift SMGs (z > 4) including six from Michalowski et al. 2010b and one at z=5.3 from Dwek et al. 2011. Since rest frame far-infrared continuum dust emission is the best tracer of star-formation activities to date, we employ a power-law temperature distribution SED model to analyze the data. This model which fits for dust grains embedded in a radiation field, allows for different dust compositions, size distribution, and emission region geometry. Our fit results represent the data very accurately even in the Wien part of the SED. Our analysis shows that the SED is not optically thin around the SED peak, as is often assumed. In my talk I will present source fitting results of dust mass, dust temperature, index of temperature power-law distribution, and emission region size. Furthermore, I will analyze the evolutionary trends of SMGs properties with redshift and discuss astrophysical implications for those results.

  12. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon


    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  13. Classic Galaxy with Glamour (United States)


    This color composite image of nearby NGC 300 combines the visible-light pictures from Carnegie Institution of Washington's 100-inch telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (colored red and yellow), with ultraviolet views from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Galaxy Evolution Explorer detectors image far ultraviolet light (colored blue). This composite image traces star formation in progress. Young hot blue stars dominate the outer spiral arms of the galaxy, while the older stars congregate in the nuclear regions which appear yellow-green. Gases heated by hot young stars and shocks due to winds from massive stars and supernova explosions appear in pink, as revealed by the visible-light image of the galaxy. Located nearly 7 million light years away, NGC 300 is a member of a nearby group of galaxies known as the Sculptor Group. It is a spiral galaxy like our own Milky Way.

  14. Galaxy evolution. Galactic paleontology. (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline


    Individual low-mass stars have very long lives, comparable to the age of the universe, and can thus be used to probe ancient star formation. At present, such stars can be identified and studied only in the Milky Way and in the very closest of our neighboring galaxies, which are predominantly small dwarf galaxies. These nearby ancient stars are a fossil record that can provide detailed information about the physical processes that dominated the epoch of galaxy formation and subsequent evolution.

  15. Galaxies: The Long Wavelength View

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, J


    ... (more than 2 orders of magnitude) in the [C II]/FIR ratios in galaxies extending from blue compact dwarfs, to normal and starburst galaxies, down to elliptical and ultraluminous galaxies (ULICs...

  16. The evolving far-IR galaxy luminosity function and dust-obscured star formation rate density out to z≃5. (United States)

    Koprowski, M. P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Michałowski, M. J.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Geach, J. E.; McLure, R. J.; Scott, D.; van der Werf, P. P.


    We present a new measurement of the evolving galaxy far-IR luminosity function (LF) extending out to redshifts z ≃ 5, with resulting implications for the level of dust-obscured star formation density in the young Universe. To achieve this, we have exploited recent advances in sub-mm/mm imaging with SCUBA-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, which together provide unconfused imaging with sufficient dynamic range to provide meaningful coverage of the luminosity-redshift plane out to z > 4. Our results support previous indications that the faint-end slope of the far-IR LF is sufficiently flat that comoving luminosity density is dominated by bright objects (≃L*). However, we find that the number density/luminosity of such sources at high redshifts has been severely overestimated by studies that have attempted to push the highly confused Herschel SPIRE surveys beyond z ≃ 2. Consequently, we confirm recent reports that cosmic star formation density is dominated by UV-visible star formation at z > 4. Using both direct (1/Vmax) and maximum likelihood determinations of the LF, we find that its high-redshift evolution is well characterized by continued positive luminosity evolution coupled with negative density evolution (with increasing redshift). This explains why bright sub-mm sources continue to be found at z > 5, even though their integrated contribution to cosmic star formation density at such early times is very small. The evolution of the far-IR galaxy LF thus appears similar in form to that already established for active galactic nuclei, possibly reflecting a similar dependence on the growth of galaxy mass.

  17. Dust-obscured galaxies in the local universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Geller, Margaret J., E-mail:, E-mail: [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    We use Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), AKARI, and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) data to select local analogs of high-redshift (z ∼ 2) dust obscured galaxies (DOGs). We identify 47 local DOGs with S {sub 12μm}/S {sub 0.22μm} ≥ 892 and S {sub 12μm} > 20 mJy at 0.05 < z < 0.08 in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7. The infrared (IR) luminosities of these DOGs are in the range 3.4 × 10{sup 10} (L {sub ☉}) ≲ L {sub IR} ≲ 7.0 × 10{sup 11} (L {sub ☉}) with a median L {sub IR} of 2.1 × 10{sup 11} (L {sub ☉}). We compare the physical properties of local DOGs with a control sample of galaxies that have lower S {sub 12μm}/S {sub 0.22μm} but have similar redshift, IR luminosity, and stellar mass distributions. Both WISE 12 μm and GALEX near-ultraviolet (NUV) flux densities of DOGs differ from the control sample of galaxies, but the difference is much larger in the NUV. Among the 47 DOGs, 36% ± 7% have small axis ratios in the optical (i.e., b/a < 0.6), larger than the fraction among the control sample (17% ± 3%). There is no obvious sign of interaction for many local DOGs. No local DOGs have companions with comparable optical magnitudes closer than ∼50 kpc. The large- and small-scale environments of DOGs are similar to the control sample. Many physical properties of local DOGs are similar to those of high-z DOGs, even though the IR luminosities of local objects are an order of magnitude lower than for the high-z objects: the presence of two classes (active galactic nuclei- and star formation-dominated) of DOGs, abnormal faintness in the UV rather than extreme brightness in the mid-IR, and diverse optical morphology. These results suggest a common underlying physical origin of local and high-z DOGs. Both seem to represent the high-end tail of the dust obscuration distribution resulting from various physical mechanisms rather than a unique phase of galaxy evolution.

  18. The TESIS Project: Revealing Massive Early-Type Galaxies at z > 1 (United States)

    Saracco, P.; Longhetti, M.; Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Braito, V.; Bender, R.; Drory, N.; Feulner, G.; Hopp, U.; Mannucci, F.; Maraston, C.

    How and when present-day massive early-type galaxies built up and what type of evolution has characterized their growth (star formation and/or merging) still remain open issues. The different competing scenarios of galaxy formation predict much different properties of early-type galaxies at z > 1. The "monolithic" collapse predicts that massive spheroids formed at high redshift (z > 2.5-3) and that their comoving density is constant at z 1, their comoving density decreases from z = 0 to z ~ 1.5 and they should experience their last burst of star formation at z 1 can be probed observationally once a well defined sample of massive early-types at z > 1 is available. We are constructing such a sample through a dedicated near-IR very low resolution (λ/Δλ≃50) spectroscopic survey (TNG EROs Spectroscopic Identification Survey, TESIS, [6]) of a complete sample of 30 bright (K < 18.5) Extremely Red Objects (EROs).

  19. KiDS-450: tomographic cross-correlation of galaxy shear with Planck lensing (United States)

    Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Tröster, Tilman; Chisari, Nora Elisa; Heymans, Catherine; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Asgari, Marika; Bilicki, Maciej; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Joudaki, Shahab; Kuijken, Konrad; Merten, Julian; Miller, Lance; Robertson, Naomi; Schneider, Peter; Viola, Massimo


    We present the tomographic cross-correlation between galaxy lensing measured in the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS-450) with overlapping lensing measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), as detected by Planck 2015. We compare our joint probe measurement to the theoretical expectation for a flat Λ cold dark matter cosmology, assuming the best-fitting cosmological parameters from the KiDS-450 cosmic shear and Planck CMB analyses. We find that our results are consistent within 1σ with the KiDS-450 cosmology, with an amplitude re-scaling parameter AKiDS = 0.86 ± 0.19. Adopting a Planck cosmology, we find our results are consistent within 2σ, with APlanck = 0.68 ± 0.15. We show that the agreement is improved in both cases when the contamination to the signal by intrinsic galaxy alignments is accounted for, increasing A by ∼0.1. This is the first tomographic analysis of the galaxy lensing - CMB lensing cross-correlation signal, and is based on five photometric redshift bins. We use this measurement as an independent validation of the multiplicative shear calibration and of the calibrated source redshift distribution at high redshifts. We find that constraints on these two quantities are strongly correlated when obtained from this technique, which should therefore not be considered as a stand-alone competitive calibration tool.

  20. Strong Stellar-driven Outflows Shape the Evolution of Galaxies at Cosmic Dawn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontanot, Fabio; De Lucia, Gabriella [INAF—Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Hirschmann, Michaela [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France)


    We study galaxy mass assembly and cosmic star formation rate (SFR) at high redshift (z ≳ 4), by comparing data from multiwavelength surveys with predictions from the GAlaxy Evolution and Assembly (gaea) model. gaea implements a stellar feedback scheme partially based on cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, which features strong stellar-driven outflows and mass-dependent timescales for the re-accretion of ejected gas. In previous work, we have shown that this scheme is able to correctly reproduce the evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) up to z ∼ 3. We contrast model predictions with both rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) and optical luminosity functions (LFs), which are mostly sensitive to the SFR and stellar mass, respectively. We show that gaea is able to reproduce the shape and redshift evolution of both sets of LFs. We study the impact of dust on the predicted LFs, and we find that the required level of dust attenuation is in qualitative agreement with recent estimates based on the UV continuum slope. The consistency between data and model predictions holds for the redshift evolution of the physical quantities well beyond the redshift range considered for the calibration of the original model. In particular, we show that gaea is able to recover the evolution of the GSMF up to z ∼ 7 and the cosmic SFR density up to z ∼ 10.

  1. The GOGREEN Survey: The Relationship between Quenching, Morphological Transformation and Size Growth of Satellite Galaxies (United States)

    Wilson, Gillian


    Despite a dramatic build-up in the number of quenched galaxies at z 1000 members of 12 Coma- and Virgo-mass progenitor clusters at 1 600 field galaxies). Here, we propose for WFC3/F160W imaging of the GOGREEN sample to 1) measure the relative timing of star-formation quenching and morphological transformation, 2) make the first high-z measurement of satellite quenching by controlling for intrinsic quenching, and 3) constrain the dominant driver of size growth in the early-type population. Our team has the modeling framework to interpret the trends and to place unrivaled constraints on the physical processes that underlie environmental quenching and morphological transformation from late- to early-type galaxies. Because of Gemini Observatory's huge investment in the GOGREEN program, this survey will return the premier high-redshift cluster spectroscopic dataset for the foreseeable future. All reduced images, spectra and catalogs will be made publicly available, including catalogs from the F160W observations proposed here.

  2. SPHEREx: Probing the Physics of Inflation with an All-Sky Spectroscopic Galaxy Survey (United States)

    Dore, Olivier; SPHEREx Science Team


    SPHEREx, a mission in NASA's Medium Explorer (MIDEX) program that was selected for Phase A in August 2017, is an all-sky survey satellite designed to address all three science goals in NASA’s astrophysics division: probe the origin and destiny of our Universe; explore whether planets around other stars could harbor life; and explore the origin and evolution of galaxies. These themes are addressed by a single survey, with a single instrument.In this poster, we describe how SPHEREx can probe the physics of inflationary non-Gaussianity by measuring large-scale structure with galaxy redshifts over a large cosmological volume at low redshifts, complementing high-redshift surveys optimized to constrain dark energy.SPHEREx will be the first all-sky near-infrared spectral survey, creating a legacy archive of spectra. In particular, it will measure the redshifts of over 500 million galaxies of all types, an unprecedented dataset. Using this catalog, SPHEREx will reduce the uncertainty in fNL -- a parameter describing the inflationary initial conditions -- by a factor of more than 10 compared with CMB measurements. At the same time, this catalog will enable strong scientific synergies with Euclid, WFIRST and LSST

  3. The XMM Cluster Survey: A Massive Galaxy Cluster at z = 1.45

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanford, S A; Romer, A K; Sabirli, K; Davidson, M; Hilton, M; Viana, P P; Collins, C A; Kay, S T; Liddle, A R; Mann, R G; Miller, C J; Nichol, R C; West, M J; Conselice, C J; Spinrad, H; Stern, D; Bundy, K


    We report the discovery of XMMXCS J2215.9-1738, a massive galaxy cluster at z = 1.45, which was found in the XMM Cluster Survey. The cluster candidate was initially identified as an extended X-ray source in archival XMM data. Optical spectroscopy shows that 6 galaxies within a {approx}60 arcsec diameter region lie at z = 1.45 {+-} 0.01. Model fits to the X-ray spectra of the extended emission yield kT = 7.4{sub -1.8}{sup +2.7} keV (90% confidence); if there is an undetected central X-ray point source then kT = 6.5{sub -1.8}{sup +2.6} keV. The bolometric X-ray luminosity is L{sub x} = 4.4{sub -0.6}{sup +0.8} x 10{sup 44} ergs s{sup -1} over a 2 Mpc radial region. The measured T{sub x}, which is the highest for any known cluster at z > 1, suggests that this cluster is relatively massive for such a high redshift. The redshift of XMMXCS J2215.9-1738 is the highest currently known for a spectroscopically-confirmed cluster of galaxies.

  4. The Celestial Buffet: multiple populations and globular cluster formation in dwarf galaxies (United States)

    Maxwell, Aaron J.; Wadsley, James; Couchman, H. M. P.; Sills, Alison


    We present a framework that explains the commonly observed variation in light element abundances in globular clusters. If globular clusters form in the centres of dwarf galaxies, they will be pumped on to larger orbits as star formation progresses. The potential well will only retain the moderate velocity asymptotic giant branch (AGB) ejecta, the expected source of enrichment, but not supernova ejecta. There is no need to increase the initial cluster mass, a requirement of self-enrichment scenarios, as all the stars within the dwarf can contribute. As the clusters move through the dwarf centre they sweep up a mix of AGB ejecta and in-falling pristine gas to form a second generation of stars. The specific mix will vary in time and is thus able to explain the spread in second generation abundances observed in different clusters. The globular clusters will survive to the present day or be stripped as part of the hierarchical merging process of larger galaxies. We illustrate how this process may operate using a high-resolution simulation of a dwarf galaxy at high redshift.

  5. Cosmic reionization on computers. II. Reionization history and its back-reaction on early galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Kaurov, Alexander A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)


    We compare the results from several sets of cosmological simulations of cosmic reionization, produced under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers project, with existing observational data on the high-redshift Lyα forest and the abundance of Lyα emitters. We find good consistency with the observational measurements and previous simulation work. By virtue of having several independent realizations for each set of numerical parameters, we are able to explore the effect of cosmic variance on observable quantities. One unexpected conclusion we are forced into is that cosmic variance is unusually large at z > 6, with both our simulations and, most likely, observational measurements still not fully converged for even such basic quantities as the average Gunn-Peterson optical depth or the volume-weighted neutral fraction. We also find that reionization has little effect on the early galaxies or on global cosmic star formation history, because galaxies whose gas content is affected by photoionization contain no molecular (i.e., star-forming) gas in the first place. In particular, measurements of the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function by the James Webb Space Telescope are unlikely to provide a useful constraint on reionization.

  6. Dissecting the IRX-β dust attenuation relation: exploring the physical origin of observed variations in galaxies (United States)

    Popping, Gergö; Puglisi, Annagrazia; Norman, Colin A.


    The use of ultraviolet (UV) emission as a tracer of galaxy star formation rate (SFR) is hampered by dust obscuration. The empirical relationship between UV-slope, β, and the ratio between far-infrared and UV luminosity, IRX, is commonly employed to account for obscured UV emission. We present a simple model that explores the physical origin of variations in the IRX-β dust attenuation relation. A relative increase in FUV compared to NUV attenuation and an increasing stellar population age cause variations towards red UV-slopes for a fixed IRX. Dust geometry effects (turbulence, dust screen with holes, mixing of stars within the dust screen, two-component dust model) cause variations towards blue UV-slopes. Poor photometric sampling of the UV spectrum causes additional observational variations. We provide an analytic approximation for the IRX-β relation invoking a subset of the explored physical processes (dust type, stellar population age, turbulence). We discuss observed variations in the IRX-β relation for local (sub-galactic scales) and high-redshift (normal and dusty star-forming galaxies, galaxies during the epoch of reionization) galaxies in the context of the physical processes explored in our model. High spatial resolution imaging of the UV and sub-mm emission of galaxies can constrain the IRX-β dust attenuation relation for different galaxy types at different epochs, where different processes causing variations may dominate. These constraints will allow the use of the IRX-β relation to estimate intrinsic SFRs of galaxies, despite the lack of a universal relation.

  7. H-Band dropouts in the deepest CANDELS field. A new population of bright massive galaxies at z >3 (United States)

    Alcalde Pampliega, B.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Domínguez Sánchez, H.; Esquej, P.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Barro, G.


    The recent increase in depth, spatial and wavelength coverage of extragalactic surveys has improved dramatically our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution and is revealing a new population of galaxies at high redshift. That is consistent with a downsizing (Cowie, L. L., Songaila, A., Hu, E. M., & Cohen, J. G. 1996, AJ, 112, 839; Heavens, A., Panter, B., Jiménez, R., & Dunlop, J. 2004, Nature, 428, 625; Juneau, S., et al. 2005, ApJ, 619, L135; Bauer, A. E., Drory, N., Hill, G. J., & Feulner, G. 2005, ApJ, 621, L89; Pérez-González et al. 2008, ApJ, 675, 234) scenario, which implies that the most massive galaxies formed early in the history of the universe and evolved quickly. Red color criteria and the analysis of deep mid-IR, has been proven to very useful to identify high-z extremely red galaxies as shown in (Caputi, K. et al. 2012, ApJ, 750, L20 and Huang, J.-S., Zheng, X. Z., Rigopoulou, D. et al., 2011, ApJ, 742, L13). We present our analysis of the deepest near-infrared (F160W/H-band from CANDELS) and mid-infrared (IRAC from GOODS) data taken by HST and Spitzer (in the GOODS fields) to select sources only detected by IRAC and with no CANDELS counterpart (i.e., H>27, [3.6]≤25). These H-Band dropouts constitute a previously unknown population of dust-enshrouded and/or quiescent massive red galaxies at z>3. Using the wealth of data available in the GOODS field, especially the SHARDS data, we characterize the properties of this population of red galaxies and discuss on its relevance for previous estimations of the stellar mass function at z=3-5, and the evolution of massive galaxies in the early Universe.

  8. A unified model for age-velocity dispersion relations in Local Group galaxies: disentangling ISM turbulence and latent dynamical heating (United States)

    Leaman, Ryan; Mendel, J. Trevor; Wisnioski, Emily; Brooks, Alyson M.; Beasley, Michael A.; Starkenburg, Else; Martig, Marie; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Christensen, Charlotte; Cole, Andrew A.; de Boer, T. J. L.; Wills, Drew


    We analyse age-velocity dispersion relations (AVRs) from kinematics of individual stars in eight Local Group galaxies ranging in mass from Carina (M* ∼ 106 M⊙) to M31 (M* ∼ 1011 M⊙). Observationally the σ versus stellar age trends can be interpreted as dynamical heating of the stars by giant molecular clouds, bars/spiral arms or merging subhaloes; alternatively the stars could have simply been born out of a more turbulent interstellar medium (ISM) at high redshift and retain that larger velocity dispersion till present day - consistent with recent integral field unit kinematic studies. To ascertain the dominant mechanism and better understand the impact of instabilities and feedback, we develop models based on observed star formation histories (SFHs) of these Local Group galaxies in order to create an evolutionary formalism that describes the ISM velocity dispersion due to a galaxy's evolving gas fraction. These empirical models relax the common assumption that the stars are born from gas that has constant velocity dispersion at all redshifts. Using only the observed SFHs as input, the ISM velocity dispersion and a mid-plane scattering model fits the observed AVRs of low-mass galaxies without fine tuning. Higher mass galaxies above Mvir ≳ 1011 M⊙ need a larger contribution from latent dynamical heating processes (for example minor mergers), in excess of the ISM model. Using the SFHs, we also find that supernovae feedback does not appear to be a dominant driver of the gas velocity dispersion compared to gravitational instabilities - at least for dispersions σ ≳ 25 km s-1. Together our results point to stars being born with a velocity dispersion close to that of the gas at the time of their formation, with latent dynamical heating operating with a galaxy mass-dependent efficiency. These semi-empirical relations may help constrain the efficiency of feedback and its impact on the physics of disc settling in galaxy formation simulations.

  9. Source-plane reconstruction of the giant gravitational arc in A2667: A candidate Wolf-Rayet galaxy at z ∼ 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Shuo; Zhu, Zong-Hong [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China); Covone, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università di Napoli " Federico II," Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Jullo, Eric [OAMP, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR6110, Traverse du Siphon, F-13012 Marseille (France); Richard, Johan [CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Ch. Andre, F-69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex (France); Izzo, Luca, E-mail: [Dip. di Fisica, Sapienza Universit' a di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)


    We present a new analysis of Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Very Large Telescope imaging and spectroscopic data of a bright lensed galaxy at z = 1.0334 in the lensing cluster A2667. Using this high-resolution imaging, we present an updated lens model that allows us to fully understand the lensing geometry and reconstruct the lensed galaxy in the source plane. This giant arc gives a unique opportunity to view the structure of a high-redshift disk galaxy. We find that the lensed galaxy of A2667 is a typical spiral galaxy with a morphology similar to the structure of its counterparts at higher redshift, z ∼ 2. The surface brightness of the reconstructed source galaxy in the z {sub 850} band reveals the central surface brightness I(0) = 20.28 ± 0.22 mag arcsec{sup –2} and a characteristic radius r{sub s} = 2.01 ± 0.16 kpc at redshift z ∼ 1. The morphological reconstruction in different bands shows obvious negative radial color gradients for this galaxy. Moreover, the redder central bulge tends to contain a metal-rich stellar population, rather than being heavily reddened by dust due to high and patchy obscuration. We analyze the VIMOS/integral field unit spectroscopic data and find that, in the given wavelength range (∼1800-3200 Å), the combined arc spectrum of the source galaxy is characterized by a strong continuum emission with strong UV absorption lines (Fe II and Mg II) and shows the features of a typical starburst Wolf-Rayet galaxy, NGC 5253. More specifically, we have measured the equivalent widths of Fe II and Mg II lines in the A2667 spectrum, and obtained similar values for the same wavelength interval of the NGC 5253 spectrum. Marginal evidence for [C III] 1909 emission at the edge of the grism range further confirms our expectation.

  10. Lopsided spiral galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lopsided spiral galaxies · Outline of the talk: · Collaborators · Background : · Lopsided distribution highlighted first: Baldwin, Lynden-Bell, & Sancisi (1980) · Lopsidedness also seen in an edge-on galaxy : NGC 891 · Slide 7 · Origin of m=1 disk distribution? Early Theoretical models: · Disk response to a lopsided halo ...

  11. Galaxies in Fligh t

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the constellation of Corona Borealis, for example, there is a cluster containing some 400 galaxies. Our Milky Way is a member of a small cluster which embraces among others, the Andromeda Nebula and the two galaxies known as the Magellanic Clouds, which are of a relatively rare type that has no well- defined shape.

  12. The Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction of Emission Line-selected z ∼ 2.5 Galaxies Is Less Than 15%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, Michael J.; Hayes, Matthew [Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Scarlata, Claudia; Mehta, Vihang [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Henry, Alaina; Hathi, Nimish; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Haardt, Francesco [DiSAT, Università dellInsubria, via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Siana, Brian [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)


    Recent work suggests that strong emission line, star-forming galaxies (SFGs) may be significant Lyman continuum leakers. We combine archival Hubble Space Telescope broadband ultraviolet and optical imaging (F275W and F606W, respectively) with emission line catalogs derived from WFC3 IR G141 grism spectroscopy to search for escaping Lyman continuum (LyC) emission from homogeneously selected z ∼ 2.5 SFGs. We detect no escaping Lyman continuum from SFGs selected on [O ii] nebular emission ( N = 208) and, within a narrow redshift range, on [O iii]/[O ii]. We measure 1 σ upper limits to the LyC escape fraction relative to the non-ionizing UV continuum from [O ii] emitters, f {sub esc} ≲ 5.6%, and strong [O iii]/[O ii] > 5 ELGs, f {sub esc} ≲ 14.0%. Our observations are not deep enough to detect f {sub esc} ∼ 10% typical of low-redshift Lyman continuum emitters. However, we find that this population represents a small fraction of the star-forming galaxy population at z ∼ 2. Thus, unless the number of extreme emission line galaxies grows substantially to z ≳ 6, such galaxies may be insufficient for reionization. Deeper survey data in the rest-frame ionizing UV will be necessary to determine whether strong line ratios could be useful for pre-selecting LyC leakers at high redshift.

  13. The Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction of Emission Line-selected z ˜ 2.5 Galaxies Is Less Than 15% (United States)

    Rutkowski, Michael J.; Scarlata, Claudia; Henry, Alaina; Hayes, Matthew; Mehta, Vihang; Hathi, Nimish; Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Haardt, Francesco; Siana, Brian


    Recent work suggests that strong emission line, star-forming galaxies (SFGs) may be significant Lyman continuum leakers. We combine archival Hubble Space Telescope broadband ultraviolet and optical imaging (F275W and F606W, respectively) with emission line catalogs derived from WFC3 IR G141 grism spectroscopy to search for escaping Lyman continuum (LyC) emission from homogeneous