WorldWideScience

Sample records for submillimeter wave technology

  1. The role of THz and submillimeter wave technology in DHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coty, Thomas; Fuller-Tedeschi, Anna

    2011-06-01

    THz and submillimeter wave technology is of great interest to DHS S&T due to the non-ionizing and clothing penetrating properties of the spectral region. Imaging in the region allows for standoff imaging of concealed threats such as Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) at operationally relevant distances. DHS S&T is investing in this area with the development of components such as detectors and sources for active imaging as well as full sensor systems in the future. The fundamental characterization of the region is also being explored with DHS funding by imaging well-characterized rough surface scattering targets. Analysis of these images will yield data to be used in evaluating assumptions currently made in current performance models. This along with the relevant field applications will be addressed.

  2. New technologies for the detection of millimeter and submillimeter waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, P.L.; Clarke, J.; Gildemeister, J.M.; Lanting, T.; Lee, A.T.; Myers, M.J.; Schwan, D.; Skidmore, J.T.; Spieler, H.G.; Yoon, Jongsoo

    2001-09-20

    Voltage-biased superconducting bolometers have many operational advantages over conventional bolometer technology including sensitivity, linearity, speed, and immunity from environmental disturbance. A review is given of the Berkeley program for developing this new technology. Developments include fully lithographed individual bolometers in the spiderweb configuration, arrays of 1024 close-packed absorber-coupled bolometers, antenna-coupled bolometers, and a frequency-domain SQUID readout multiplexer.

  3. Submillimeter Wave Antenna With Slow Wave Feed Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor; Kotiranta, Mikko

    2009-01-01

    Submillimeter wave radiation, which is also referred to as terahertz radiation, has not been extensively explored until recently due to a lack of reliable components and devices in this frequency range. Current advances in technology have made it possible to explore this portion of the electromag...

  4. Filters for Submillimeter Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    New manufacturing process produces filters strong, yet have small, precise dimensions and smooth surface finish essential for dichroic filtering at submillimeter wavelengths. Many filters, each one essentially wafer containing fine metal grid made at same time. Stacked square wires plated, fused, and etched to form arrays of holes. Grid of nickel and tin held in brass ring. Wall thickness, thickness of filter (hole depth) and lateral hole dimensions all depend upon operating frequency and filter characteristics.

  5. Superconducting submillimeter and millimeter wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahum, M.

    1992-10-20

    The series of projects described in this dissertation was stimulated by the discovery of high temperature superconductivity. Our goal was to develop useful applications which would be competitive with the current state of technology. The high-[Tc] microbolometer was developed into the most sensitive direct detector of millimeter waves, when operated at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The thermal boundary resistance of thin YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]0[sub 7-[delta

  6. Compact Receiver Front Ends for Submillimeter-Wave Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Imran; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Schlecht, Erich T.; Lin, Robert H.; Sin, Seth; Peralta, Alejandro; Lee, Choonsup; Gill, John J.; Gulkis, Samuel; Thomas, Bertrand C.

    2012-01-01

    The current generation of submillimeter-wave instruments is relatively mass and power-hungry. The receiver front ends (RFEs) of a submillimeter instrument form the heart of the instrument, and any mass reduction achieved in this subsystem is propagated through the instrument. In the current implementation, the RFE consists of different blocks for the mixer and LO circuits. The motivation for this work is to reduce the mass of the RFE by integrating the mixer and LO circuits in one waveguide block. The mixer and its associated LO chips will all be packaged in a single waveguide package. This will reduce the mass of the RFE and also provide a number of other advantages. By bringing the mixer and LO circuits close together, losses in the waveguide will be reduced. Moreover, the compact nature of the block will allow for better thermal control of the block, which is important in order to reduce gain fluctuations. A single waveguide block with a 600- GHz RFE functionality (based on a subharmonically pumped Schottky diode pair) has been demonstrated. The block is about 3x3x3 cubic centimeters. The block combines the mixer and multiplier chip in a single package. 3D electromagnetic simulations were carried out to design the waveguide circuit around the mixer and multiplier chip. The circuit is optimized to provide maximum output power and maximum bandwidth. An integrated submillimeter front end featuring a 520-600-GHz sub-harmonic mixer and a 260-300-GHz frequency tripler in a single cavity was tested. Both devices used GaAs MMIC membrane planar Schottky diode technology. The sub-harmonic mixer/tripler circuit has been tested using conventional metal-machined blocks. Measurement results on the metal block give best DSB (double sideband) mixer noise temperature of 2,360 K and conversion losses of 7.7 dB at 520 GHz. The LO input power required to pump the integrated tripler/sub-harmonic mixer is between 30 and 50 mW.

  7. Superconducting submillimeter and millimeter wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahum, Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-10-20

    The series of projects described in this dissertation was stimulated by the discovery of high temperature superconductivity. Our goal was to develop useful applications which would be competitive with the current state of technology. The high-Tc microbolometer was developed into the most sensitive direct detector of millimeter waves, when operated at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The thermal boundary resistance of thin YBa2Cu307-δ films was subsequently measured and provided direct evidence for the bolometric response of high-Tc films to fast (ns) laser pulses. The low-Tc microbolometer was developed and used to make the first direct measurements of the frequency dependent optical efficiency of planar lithographed antennas. The hot-electron microbolometer was invented less than a year prior to the writing of this dissertation. Our analysis, presented here, indicates that it should be possible to attain up to two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than that of the best available direct detectors when operated at the same temperature. The temperature readout scheme for this device could also be used to measure the intrinsic interaction between electrons and phonons in a metal with a sensitivity that is five orders of magnitude better than in previous measurements. Preliminary measurements of quasiparticle trapping effects at the interface between a metal and a superconductor are also presented.

  8. Linewidth of submillimeter wave flux-flow oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Shitov, S.V.; Shchukin, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    A reliable technique for wide band measurements of the spectral linewidth of superconducting oscillators integrated on-chip with superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) detectors has been, developed, The spectral linewidth of flux-flow oscillators (FFO) based on the unidirectional and visco...... reference source has been demonstrated. The proposed technique may improve the sensitivity, frequency resolution, and stability of the fully superconducting integrated submillimeter wave receiver. (C) 1996 American Institute of Physics....

  9. Diamond Heat-Spreader for Submillimeter-Wave Frequency Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Robert H.; Schlecht, Erich T.; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, Peter H.; Ward, John S.; Lee, Choonsup; Thomas, Bertrand C.; Maestrini, Alain

    2010-01-01

    The planar GaAs Shottky diode frequency multiplier is a critical technology for the local oscillator (LO) for submillimeter- wave heterodyne receivers due to low mass, tenability, long lifetime, and room-temperature operation. The use of a W-band (75-100 GHz) power amplifier followed by a frequency multiplier is the most common for submillimeter-wave sources. Its greatest challenge is to provide enough input power to the LO for instruments onboard future planetary missions. Recently, JPL produced 800 mW at 92.5 GHz by combining four MMICs in parallel in a balanced configuration. As more power at W-band is available to the multipliers, their power-handling capability be comes more important. High operating temperatures can lead to degradation of conversion efficiency or catastrophic failure. The goal of this innovation is to reduce the thermal resistance by attaching diamond film as a heat-spreader on the backside of multipliers to improve their power-handling capability. Polycrystalline diamond is deposited by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This diamond film acts as a heat-spreader to both the existing 250- and 300-GHz triplers, and has a high thermal conductivity (1,000-1,200 W/mK). It is approximately 2.5 times greater than copper (401 W/mK) and 20 times greater than GaAs (46 W/mK). It is an electrical insulator (resistivity approx. equals 10(exp 15) Ohms-cm), and has a low relative dielectric constant of 5.7. Diamond heat-spreaders reduce by at least 200 C at 250 mW of input power, compared to the tripler without diamond, according to thermal simulation. This superior thermal management provides a 100-percent increase in power-handling capability. For example, with this innovation, 40-mW output power has been achieved from a 250-GHz tripler at 350-mW input power, while the previous triplers, without diamond, suffered catastrophic failures. This breakthrough provides a stepping-stone for frequency multipliers-based LO up to 3 THz. The future work

  10. InP HEMT Integrated Circuits for Submillimeter Wave Radiometers in Earth Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, William R.; Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    The operating frequency of InP integrated circuits has pushed well into the Submillimeter Wave frequency band, with amplification reported as high as 670 GHz. This paper provides an overview of current performance and potential application of InP HEMT to Submillimeter Wave radiometers for earth remote sensing.

  11. Novel transmission lines for the submillimeter-wave region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1992-01-01

    Accounts are given of the two approaches to the design of low-loss sub-mm-wave transmission lines for intelligent computer control guidance, command systems for space applications, and sensors operating in an optically opaque environment. These are: (1) the extension of the mm-wave monolithic technology to higher frequencies, although this approach is restricted to the lower end of the sub-mm spectrum, up to 500 GHz, due to ohmic losses; and (2) the extension of optical techniques to lower frequencies. This second approach is also limited, to the higher end of the sub-mm spectrum. Available characterizations of these technologies' electrical properties are presented.

  12. T-shaped emitter metal heterojunction bipolar transistors for submillimeter wave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Andy; Samoska, Lorene; Velebir, Jim; Siege, Peter; Rodwell, Mark; Paidi, Vamsi; Griffth, Zach; Urteaga, Miguel; Malik, Roger

    2004-01-01

    We report on the development of submillimeter wave transistors at JPL. The goal of the effort is to produce advance-reliable high frequency and high power amplifiers, voltage controlled oscillators, active multipliers, and high-speed mixed-signal circuits for space borne applications. The technology in development to achieve this is based on the Indium Phosphide (InP) Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT). The HBT is well suited for high speed, high power and uniform (across wafer) performance, due to the ability to tailor the material structure that electrons traverse through by well-controlled epitaxial growth methods. InP with its compatible lattice matched alloys such as indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and indium aluminium arsenide (InAlAs) provides for high electron velocities and high voltage breakdown capabilities. The epitaxial methods for this material system are fairly mature, however the implementation of high performance and reliable transistors are still under development by many laboratories. Our most recently fabricated, second generation mesa HBTs at JPL have extrapolated current gain cutoff frequency (FJ of 142GHz and power gain cutoff frequency (Fm,) of approximately 160GHz. This represents a 13% and 33% improvement of Ft and F, respectively, compared to the first generation mesa HBTs [l]. Analysis based on the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) device model, RF device characteristics can be significantly improved by reducing base contact resistance and base metal contact width. We will describe our effort towards increasing transistor performance and yield.

  13. Observational Approach to Molecular Cloud Evolutation with the Submillimeter-Wave CI Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, T.; Yamamoto, S.

    Neutral carbon atoms (CI) play important roles both in chemistry and cooling processes of interstellar molecular clouds. It is thus crucial to explore its large area distribution to obtain information on formation processes and thermal balance of molecular clouds. However, observations of the submillimeter-wave CI lines have been limited to small areas around some representative objects. We have constructed a 1.2 m submillimeter-wave telescope at the summit of Mt.Fuji. The telescope was designed for the exclusive use of surveying molecular clouds in two submillimeter-wave CI lines, 3 P1 -3 P0 (492GHz) and 3 P2 -3 P1 (809 GHz), of atomic carbon. A superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer receiver was equipped on the Nasmyth focus of the telescope. The receiver noise temperatures [Trx(DSB)] are 300 K and 1000 K for the 492 GHz and the 809 GHz mixers, respectively. The intermediate frequency is centered at 2 GHz, having a 700 MHz bandwidth. An acousto-optical spectrometer (AOS) with 1024 channel outputs is used as a receiver backend. The telescope was installed at Nishi-yasugawara (alt. 3725 m), which is 200 m north of the highest peak, Kengamine (3776 m), in July 1998. It has b en operatede successfully during 4 observing seasons in a remote way from the Hongo campus of the University of Tokyo. We have already observed more than 40 square degrees of the sky with the CI 492 GHz line. The distribution of CI emission is found to be different from those of the 13 CO or C1 8 O emission in some clouds. These differences are discussed in relation to formation processes of molecular clouds.

  14. Study of optical output couplers for submillimeter wavelength backward-wave oscillators (BWO's)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jerry D.; Stankiewicz, Norbert; Podany, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Several scaled experiments of optical output couplers for submillimeter backward-wave oscillators (BWOs). Various designs of planar antennas (Vivaldi horns) lens-feed systems (hyperhemispherical lens) were constructed and tested between 20 and 100 GHz using a spectrum analyzer. The lens system was also tested at 337 GHz using a CO2 pumped FIR laser. It is found that Vivaldi horns have unsatisfactory resonances, perhaps because the horns studied were relatively short. Several techniques to maximize and flatten the frequency response of these horns are presented. The results suggest that alternate coupling schemes are superior to Vivaldi horns.

  15. Metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate for use at submillimeter wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Giampaolo; Savini, Giorgio; Ade, Peter A R; Haynes, Vic

    2008-11-20

    A metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate (HWP) has been designed, manufactured, and tested for potential use in millimeter and submillimeter astronomical instruments. The prototype device presented here is based on a 12-grid Shatrow [IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 109 (1995)] recipe to operate over the frequency range of 120-180 GHz. Transmission line modeling and finite-element analysis [Ansoft HFSS website: http://www.ansoft.com/hfss/] were used to optimize the design geometrical parameters in terms of the device transmission, reflection, absorption, phase-shift, and cross-polarization as a function of frequency. The resulting prototype device was constructed and characterized using incoherent radiation from a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer to explore its frequency and polarization behavior. These measurements are shown to be in excellent agreement with the models. Lists of the achieved HWP performance characteristics are reported.

  16. EPR and AFMR of Bi2CuO4 in Submillimeter Wave Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Matsuya, Takashi; Nanba, Takao; Motokawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Kazuyoshi; Endoh, Yasuo; Hosoya, Shoichi

    1992-08-01

    Paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic resonance have been observed in single crystals of Bi2CuO4 in submillimeter wave region using pulsed magnetic fields at temperatures from 4.2 K to 265 K. At the paramagnetic state, g-values have been determined to be g//{=}2.26± 0.01 and g\\bot{=}2.04± 0.01. The angular independent line-widths are 0.37± 0.03 T which is quantitatively explained by the dipole interaction and anisotropic exchange interaction. An antiferromagnetic resonance mode of planer type antiferromagnet has been observed below the Néel temperature and explained by the conventional antiferromagnetic theory.

  17. A low-cost fabrication method for sub-millimeter wave GaAs Schottky diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenabi, Sarvenaz; Deslandes, Dominic; Boone, Francois; Charlebois, Serge A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a submillimeter-wave Schottky diode is designed and simulated. Effect of Schottky layer thickness on cut-off frequency is studied. A novel microfabrication process is proposed and implemented. The presented microfabrication process avoids electron-beam (e-beam) lithography which reduces the cost. Also, this process provides more flexibility in selection of design parameters and allows significant reduction in the device parasitic capacitance. A key feature of the process is that the Schottky contact, the air-bridges, and the transmission lines, are fabricated in a single lift-off step. This process relies on a planarization method that is suitable for trenches of 1-10 μm deep and is tolerant to end-point variations. The fabricated diode is measured and results are compared with simulations. A very good agreement between simulation and measurement results are observed.

  18. Advanced Amplifier Based Receiver Front Ends for Submillimeter-Wave-Sounders Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier based heterodyne radiometers to provide high sensitivity at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths with...

  19. Rapid Sintering of Silica Xerogel Ceramic Derived from Sago Waste Ash Using Sub-millimeter Wave Heating with a 300 GHz CW Gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aripin, Haji; Mitsudo, Seitaro; Sudiana, I. Nyoman; Tani, Shinji; Sako, Katsuhide; Fujii, Yutaka; Saito, Teruo; Idehara, Toshitaka; Sabchevski, Sliven

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we present and discuss experimental results from a microwave sintering of a silica-glass ceramic, produced from a silica xerogel extracted from a sago waste ash. As a radiation source for the microwave heating a sub-millimeter wave gyrotron (Gyrotron FU CW I) with an output frequency of 300 GHz has been used. The powders of silica xerogel have been dry pressed and then sintered at temperatures ranging from 300°C to 1500°C. The influence of the sintering temperature on the technological properties such as porosity and bulk density was studied in detail. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have been used in order to study the structure of the produced silica glass-ceramics. It has been found that the silica xerogel crystallizes at a temperature of 800°C, which is about 200°C lower than the one observed in the conventional process. The silica xerogel samples sintered by their irradiation with a sub-millimeter wave at 900°C for 18 minutes are fully crystallized into a silica glass-ceramic with a density of about 2.2 g/cm3 and cristobalite as a major crystalline phase. The results obtained in this study allow one to conclude that the microwave sintering with sub-millimeter waves is an appropriate technological process for production of silica glass-ceramics from a silica xerogel and is characterized with such advantages as shorter times of the thermal cycle, lower sintering temperatures and higher quality of the final product.

  20. Technology Needs for Far-Infrared, Submillimeter, and Millimeter Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, S. Harvey

    2004-01-01

    SAFIR will: Study the important and relatively unexplored region of the spectrum between 30 and 300 m; Enable the study of galaxy formation and the earliest stage of star formation by revealing regions too enshrouded by dust to be studied by NGST; Be more than 100 times as sensitive as SIRTF or the European [Herschel] mission.SAFIR is projected to cost around $600M total. The decadal review committee recommends that $100M be allocated in this decade to start the SAFIR project, and that additional technology developments be funded separately: Far-Infrared Array Development ($10M ) Refrigerators ($50M ) Large, Lightweight Optics ($80M ). Current developments are also described.

  1. Demonstration of a phase-lockable microwave to submillimeter wave sweeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltman, Steve B.; Hollberg, Leo W.; McIntosh, Alexander K.; Brown, Elliott R.

    1996-12-01

    The development of low-temperature-grown GaAs photomixers enables the construction of a microwave to submillimeter- wave source capable of large frequency sweeps. By utilizing semiconductor diode lasers to drive the photomixer, this source is all solid-state and compact, and has small power consumption. Frequency stabilization of the semiconductor diode lasers allows this source to be phase-locked to an external microwave reference. Two 805 nm extended-cavity- diode lasers are mixed in a low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductive photomixer. The difference-frequency mixing product is radiated by a planar spiral antenna and collimated by a Si lens. This output is phase-locked to a microwave reference by downconverting it in a whisker- contacted Schottky-barrier diode harmonic mixer and using the output to offset-phase-lock one laser to the other. The photomixer output power is 300 nW at 200 GHz and 10 nW at 1.6 THz, as measured by a 4 K InSb bolometer calibrated with a methanol laser and a power meter at 526 and 812 GHz.

  2. Wavefront Sensing and Control Technology for Submillimeter and Far-Infrared Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Dave

    2004-01-01

    The NGST wavefront sensing and control system will be developed to TRL6 over the next few years, including testing in a cryogenic vacuum environment with traceable hardware. Doing this in the far-infrared and submillimeter is probably easier, as some aspects of the problem scale with wavelength, and the telescope is likely to have a more stable environment; however, detectors may present small complications. Since this is a new system approach, it warrants a new look. For instance, a large space telescope based on the DART membrane mirror design requires a new actuation approach. Other mirror and actuation technologies may prove useful as well.

  3. Infrared and submillimeter space missions in the coming decade programmes, programmatics, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sauvage, Marc; Gallais, Pascal; Vigroux, Laurent

    1996-01-01

    A revolution similar to that brought by CCDs to visible astronomy is still ahead in IR and submillimeter astronomy. There is certainly no wavelength range which has, over the past several years, seen such impressive advances in technology: large-scale detector arrays, new designs for cooling in space, lightweight mirror technologies. Scientific cases for observing the cold universe are outstanding. Observations in the FIR/Submm range will provide answers to such fundamental questions as: What is the spectrum of the primordial fluctuations? How do primeval galaxies look? What are the first stages of star formation? Most of the international space missions that have been triggered by these questions are presented in detail here. Technological issues raised by these missions are reviewed, as are the most recent achievements in cooling and detector technologies.

  4. Superconducting Resonator Spectrometer for Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wave Astrophysics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "We propose to develop a novel ultra-compact spectrograph-on-a-chip for the submillimeter and millimeter waveband. SuperSpec uses planar lithographed superconducting...

  5. A retrieval algorithm of hydrometer profile for submillimeter-wave radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuli; Buehler, Stefan; Liu, Heguang

    2017-04-01

    Vertical profiles of particle microphysics perform vital functions for the estimation of climatic feedback. This paper proposes a new algorithm to retrieve the profile of the parameters of the hydrometeor(i.e., ice, snow, rain, liquid cloud, graupel) based on passive submillimeter-wave measurements. These parameters include water content and particle size. The first part of the algorithm builds the database and retrieves the integrated quantities. Database is built up by Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator(ARTS), which uses atmosphere data to simulate the corresponding brightness temperature. Neural network, trained by the precalculated database, is developed to retrieve the water path for each type of particles. The second part of the algorithm analyses the statistical relationship between water path and vertical parameters profiles. Based on the strong dependence existing between vertical layers in the profiles, Principal Component Analysis(PCA) technique is applied. The third part of the algorithm uses the forward model explicitly to retrieve the hydrometeor profiles. Cost function is calculated in each iteration, and Differential Evolution(DE) algorithm is used to adjust the parameter values during the evolutionary process. The performance of this algorithm is planning to be verified for both simulation database and measurement data, by retrieving profiles in comparison with the initial one. Results show that this algorithm has the ability to retrieve the hydrometeor profiles efficiently. The combination of ARTS and optimization algorithm can get much better results than the commonly used database approach. Meanwhile, the concept that ARTS can be used explicitly in the retrieval process shows great potential in providing solution to other retrieval problems.

  6. Solar Flash Sub-Millimeter Wave Range Spectrum Part Radiation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Shustikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, solar flares are under observation on the RT-7.5 radio telescope of BMSTU. This telescope operates in a little-studied range of the spectrum, at wavelengths of 3.2 and 2.2 mm (93 and 140 GHz, thereby providing unique information about parameters of the chromosphere plasma and zone of the temperature minimum. Observations on various instruments provided relatively small amount of data on the radio emission flare at frequencies close to 93 GHz, and at frequency of 140 GHz such observations were not carried out. For these reasons, data collected from the RT-7.5 radio telescope are of high value (Shustikov et al., 2012.This work describes modeling and gives interpretation of the reason for raising flux density spectrum of sub-millimeter radio frequency emission using as an example the GOES flare of class M 5.3 occurred on 04.07.2012 in the active region 11515. This flare was observed on the RT-7.5 radio telescope of BMSTU and was described by Shustikov et al. (2012 and by Smirnova et al. (2013, where it has been suggested that the reason for raising radio frequency emission is a bremsstrahlung of the thermal electrons in the hot plasma of the solar chromosphere. Rough estimates of the plasma temperature at the flare source were obtained.This paper proposes model calculations of the flux density spectrum of the sub-millimeter radio emission based on the gyrosynchrotron Fleischman-Kuznetsov code (Fleishman & Kuznetsov, 2010. Section 1 briefly describes observational data, tools and processing methods used in the work. Section 2 shows results of modeling the flare radio emission. Section 3 discusses results and conclusions.Numerical modeling the sub-millimeter part of the spectrum of the radio flux density for the GOES flare of class M5.3 has been carried out. This flare occurred in the active region 11515 on 04.07.2012. Modeling was based on the observations on the BMSTU’s RT-7.5 radio telescope.The paper draws conclusion based on the

  7. The cryomechanical design of MUSIC: a novel imaging instrument for millimeter-wave astrophysics at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Matthew I.; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran; Gao, Jiansong; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Maloney, Philip R.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Nguyen, Hien Trong; Noroozian, Omid; Sayers, Jack; Schlaerth, James; Siegel, Seth; Vaillancourt, John E.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2010-07-01

    MUSIC (Multicolor Submillimeter kinetic Inductance Camera) is a new facility instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (Mauna Kea, Hawaii) developed as a collaborative effect of Caltech, JPL, the University of Colorado at Boulder and UC Santa Barbara, and is due for initial commissioning in early 2011. MUSIC utilizes a new class of superconducting photon detectors known as microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs), an emergent technology that offers considerable advantages over current types of detectors for submillimeter and millimeter direct detection. MUSIC will operate a focal plane of 576 spatial pixels, where each pixel is a slot line antenna coupled to multiple detectors through on-chip, lumped-element filters, allowing simultaneously imaging in four bands at 0.86, 1.02, 1.33 and 2.00 mm. The MUSIC instrument is designed for closed-cycle operation, combining a pulse tube cooler with a two-stage Helium-3 adsorption refrigerator, providing a focal plane temperature of 0.25 K with intermediate temperature stages at approximately 50, 4 and 0.4 K for buffering heat loads and heat sinking of optical filters. Detector readout is achieved using semi-rigid coaxial cables from room temperature to the focal plane, with cryogenic HEMT amplifiers operating at 4 K. Several hundred detectors may be multiplexed in frequency space through one signal line and amplifier. This paper discusses the design of the instrument cryogenic hardware, including a number of features unique to the implementation of superconducting detectors. Predicted performance data for the instrument system will also be presented and discussed.

  8. A Compact 600 GHz Electronically Tunable Vector Measurement System for Submillimeter Wave Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, Robert; Maiwald, Frank; Siegel, Peter H.

    2006-01-01

    The design of a complete vector measurement system being tested over 560-635 GHz is presented. The topics include: 1) Current State-of-the-Art in Vector Measurements; 2) Submillimeter Active Imaging Requirements; 3) 600 GHz Vector Measurement System; 4) 450 MHz IF Signal; 5) 450 MHz IF signal @ 1 kHz Res. BW; 6) 450 MHz IF Signal Mixed with Shifted 450 MHz Reference Signal; 7) Reference Signal Offset Generator; 8) Cavity Bandpass Filter; 9) Miniature Multistage Helical Filter; 10) X36 450 MHz Multiplier; 11) 600 GHz Test Setup; 12) 600 GHz Transmit Module; 13) 600 GHz Receive Module; 14) Performance Tests: Amplitude Stability & Dynamic Range; 15) Performance Tests: Phase Stability; 16) Stability at Imaging Bandwidths; 17) Phase Measurement Verification; and 18) The Next Step: Imaging.

  9. Submillimeter wave GaAs Schottky diode application based study and optimization for 0.1-1.5 THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenabi, Sarvenaz; Malekabadi, Ali; Deslandes, Dominic; Boone, Francois; Charlebois, Serge A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a design and optimization method for submillimeter-wave Schottky diode is proposed. Parasitic capacitance is significantly reduced to under 20% of the total capacitance of the diode. The parasitic capacitance value is measured to be 0.6 fF for 1 μm anode radius which increased the cut-off frequency to 1.5 THz. A corresponding microfabrication process that provides higher degrees of freedom for the anode diameter, air-bridge dimensions and distance to the substrate is introduced and implemented. The DC and RF measurements are provided and compared with the simulations. In order to provide a better understanding of the diode behavior, the limiting factors of the cut-off frequency for different applications are studied and compared. For the mixer/multiplier mode, an improved and expanded formulation for calculation of the cut-off frequency is introduced. It is shown that the usable voltage bias range (with acceptable cut-off frequency) is limited by the exponential reduction of junction resistance, Rj , in mixer/multiplier mode.

  10. A submillimeter VLBI array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weintroub, Jonathan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States)], E-mail: jweintroub@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    A VLBI array operating at {lambda} 1.3 mm and 0.8 mm is being designed using existing submillimeter telescopes as ad-hoc stations. Initial three station {lambda} = 1.3 mm observations of SgrA* and other AGN have produced remarkable results, which are reported by Doeleman elsewhere in this proceedings. Future observations are planned with an enhanced array which has longer baselines, more stations, and greater sensitivity. At {lambda} = 0.8 mm and on the long baselines, the array will have about a 20 {mu}as angular resolution which equals the diameter of the event horizon of the massive black hole in SgrA*. Candidate single dish facilities include the Arizona Radio Observatory Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) in Arizona, the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) and the James Clerk Maxwell telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii, the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) in Mexico, ASTE and APEX in Chile, and the IRAM 30 m in Spain; interferometers include the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in Hawaii, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) in California, IRAM PdB Interferometer in France, and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile. I will discuss the techniques we have developed for phasing interferometric arrays to act as single VLBI station. A strategy for detection of short (10s) time-scale source variability using VLBI closure phase will be described.

  11. The Level 2 research product algorithms for the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baron

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the algorithms of the level-2 research (L2r processing chain developed for the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES. The chain has been developed in parallel to the operational chain for conducting researches on calibration and retrieval algorithms. L2r chain products are available to the scientific community. The objective of version 2 is the retrieval of the vertical distribution of trace gases in the altitude range of 18–90 km. A theoretical error analysis is conducted to estimate the retrieval feasibility of key parameters of the processing: line-of-sight elevation tangent altitudes (or angles, temperature and ozone profiles. While pointing information is often retrieved from molecular oxygen lines, there is no oxygen line in the SMILES spectra, so the strong ozone line at 625.371 GHz has been chosen. The pointing parameters and the ozone profiles are retrieved from the line wings which are measured with high signal to noise ratio, whereas the temperature profile is retrieved from the optically thick line center. The main systematic component of the retrieval error was found to be the neglect of the non-linearity of the radiometric gain in the calibration procedure. This causes a temperature retrieval error of 5–10 K. Because of these large temperature errors, it is not possible to construct a reliable hydrostatic pressure profile. However, as a consequence of the retrieval of pointing parameters, pressure induced errors are significantly reduced if the retrieved trace gas profiles are represented on pressure levels instead of geometric altitude levels. Further, various setups of trace gas retrievals have been tested. The error analysis for the retrieved HOCl profile demonstrates that best results for inverting weak lines can be obtained by using narrow spectral windows.

  12. Riding the Technology Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Pierre

    This paper presents an overview of information technology development. The first section sets the scene, comparing the first WAN (Wide Area Network) and Intel processor to current technology. The birth of the microcomputer is described in the second section, including historical background on semiconductors, microprocessors, and the microcomputer.…

  13. The SOFIA/SAFIRE Far-Infrared Spectrometer: Highlighting Submillimeter Astrophysics and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2009-01-01

    The Submillimeter and Far-InfraRed Experiment (SAFIRE) on the SOFIA airborne observatory is an imaging spectrometer for wavelengths between 28 microns and 440 microns. Our design is a dual-band long-slit grating spectrometer, which provides broadband (approx. 4000 km/s) observations in two lines simultaneously over a field of view roughly 10" wide by 320" long. The low backgrounds in spectroscopy require very sensitive detectors with noise equivalent powers of order 10(exp -18) W/square root of Hz. We are developing a kilopixel, filled detector array for SAFIRE in a 32 x 40 format. The detector consists of a transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer array, a per-pixel broadband absorbing backshort array, and a NIST SQUID multiplexer readout array. This general type of array has been used successfully in the GISMO instrument, so we extrapolate to the sensitivity needed for airborne spectroscopy. Much of the cryogenic, electronics, and software infrastructure for SAFIRE have been developed. I provide here an overview of the progress on SAFIRE.

  14. Topics in millimeter wave technology

    CERN Document Server

    Button, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Topics in Millimeter Wave Technology, Volume 1 presents topics related to millimeter wave technology, including fin-lines and passive components realized in fin-lines, suspended striplines, suspended substrate microstrips, and modal power exchange in multimode fibers. A miniaturized monopulse assembly constructed in planar waveguide with multimode scalar horn feeds is also described. This volume is comprised of five chapters; the first of which deals with the analysis and synthesis techniques for fin-lines as well as the various passive components realized in fin-line. Tapers, discontinuities,

  15. Fast computation of the Narcissus reflection coefficient for the Herschel far-infrared/submillimeter-wave Cassegrain telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Robert L.; Fischer, Jacqueline; Polegre, Arturo M.; Beintema, Douwe A.

    2005-10-01

    Placement of a scatter cone at the center of the secondary of a Cassegrain telescope greatly reduces Narcissus reflection. To calculate the remaining Narcissus reflection, a time-consuming physical optics code such as GRASP8 is often used to model the effects of reflection and diffraction. Fortunately, the Cassegrain geometry is sufficiently simple that a combination of theoretical analysis and Fourier propagation can yield rapid, accurate results at submillimeter wavelengths. We compare these results with those from GRASP8 for the heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory and confirm the effectiveness of the chosen scatter cone design.

  16. Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative, high transmission band-pass filter technology proposed here is an improvement in multilayer metal-mesh filter design and manufacture for the far IR...

  17. Millimeter and submillimeter wave ESR measurement of Ho{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} aligned powder sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, S. [Kobe Univ., Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Goto, T.; Tanaka, T.; Ohta, H. [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Mogi, I.; Watanabe, K.; Motokawa, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    1999-07-01

    To gain information of anisotropy of Ho{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} the aligned powder sample was prepared under the static high magnetic field of 5T. Millimeter and submillimeter wave ESR measurements of aligned Ho{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} samples have been performed for the first time in the frequency region from 50 to 430 GHz using the pulsed magnetic field up to 16T at 1.8K. Antiferromagnetic resonances were observed clearly at 1.8K. AFMR modes of easy axis change at two critical fields. The temperature dependence measurements were also performed and the Neel temperature of the system is discussed. (author)

  18. Detection of Submillimeter-wave [C i] Emission in Gaseous Debris Disks of 49 Ceti and β Pictoris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Aya E.; Sakai, Nami [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sato, Aki; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Iwasaki, Kazunari [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Doshisha University, Tatara Miyakodani 1-3, Kyotanabe City, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan); Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Watanabe, Sakae; Kaneda, Hidehiro [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Yamamoto, Satoshi, E-mail: aya.higuchi@riken.jp [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2017-04-10

    We have detected [C i] {sup 3} P {sub 1}–{sup 3} P {sub 0} emissions in the gaseous debris disks of 49 Ceti and β Pictoris with the 10 m telescope of the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment, which is the first detection of such emissions. The line profiles of [C i] are found to resemble those of CO( J = 3–2) observed with the same telescope and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. This result suggests that atomic carbon (C) coexists with CO in the debris disks and is likely formed by the photodissociation of CO. Assuming an optically thin [C i] emission with the excitation temperature ranging from 30 to 100 K, the column density of C is evaluated to be (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 17} and (2.5 ± 0.7) × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} for 49 Ceti and β Pictoris, respectively. The C/CO column density ratio is thus derived to be 54 ± 19 and 69 ± 42 for 49 Ceti and β Pictoris, respectively. These ratios are higher than those of molecular clouds and diffuse clouds by an order of magnitude. The unusually high ratios of C to CO are likely attributed to a lack of H{sub 2} molecules needed to reproduce CO molecules efficiently from C. This result implies a small number of H{sub 2} molecules in the gas disk, i.e., there is an appreciable contribution of secondary gas from dust grains.

  19. Arrays of Bolometers for Far-infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, D. T.; Allen, C. A.; Babu, S.; Benford, D. J.; Dotson, J. L.; Dowell, C. D.; Jhabvala, M.; Harper, D. A.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Silverberg, R. F.; Staguhn, J. G.; Voellmer, G.; Wollack, E. J.

    We describe 12 x 32 arrays of semiconducting cryogenic bolometers designed for use in far-infrared and submillimeter cameras. These 12 x 32 arrays are constructed from 1 x 32 monolithic pop-up detectors developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The pop-up technology allows the construction of large arrays with high filling factors that provide efficient use of space in the focal planes of far-infrared and submillimeter astronomical instruments. This directly leads to a significant decrease in integration time. The prototype array is currently operating in the second generation Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC II), a facility instrument in use at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). The elements of this array employ a bismuth absorber coating and quarter wave backshort to optimize the bolometer absorption for passbands centered at 350 and 450 microns. A second array is to be installed in the High-resolution Airborne Widebandwidth Camera (HAWC), a far-infrared imaging camera for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This array has been completed and is now awaiting integration into the HAWC test cryostat. HAWC is scheduled for commissioning in 2005. The HAWC array employs titanium-gold absorbers and is optimized for uniform absorption from 40 to 300 microns to accommodate all four of its far-infrared passbands. We describe the details of the HAWC array construction including the mechanical design and electrical characterization of the constituent linear arrays.

  20. Measurement of stratospheric and mesospheric winds with a submillimeter wave limb sounder: results from JEM/SMILES and simulation study for SMILES-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Philippe; Manago, Naohiro; Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Irimajiri, Yoshihisa; Murtagh, Donal; Uzawa, Yoshinori; Ochiai, Satoshi; Shiotani, Masato; Suzuki, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    Satellite missions for measuring winds in the troposphere and thermosphere will be launched in a near future. There is no plan to observe winds in the altitude range between 30-90 km, though middle atmospheric winds are recognized as an essential parameter in various atmospheric research areas. Sub-millimetre limb sounders have the capability to fill this altitude gap. In this paper, we summarize the wind retrievals obtained from the Japanese Superconducting Submillimeter Wave Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES) which operated from the International Space Station between September 2009 and April 2010. The results illustrate the potential of such instruments to measure winds. They also show the need of improving the wind representation in the models in the Tropics, and globally in the mesosphere. A wind measurement sensitivity study has been conducted for its successor, SMILES-2, which is being studied in Japan. If it is realized, sub-millimeter and terahertz molecular lines suitable to determine line-of-sight winds will be measured. It is shown that with the current instrument definition, line-of-sight winds can be observed from 20 km up to more than 160 km. Winds can be retrieved with a precision better than 5 ms-1 and a vertical resolution of 2-3 km between 35-90 km. Above 90 km, the precision is better than 10 ms-1 with a vertical resolution of 3-5 km. Measurements can be performed day and night with a similar sensitivity. Requirements on observation parameters such as the antenna size, the satellite altitude are discussed. An alternative setting for the spectral bands is examined. The new setting is compatible with the general scientific objectives of the mission and the instrument design. It allows to improve the wind measurement sensitivity between 35 to 90 km by a factor 2. It is also shown that retrievals can be performed with a vertical resolution of 1 km and a precision of 5-10 ms-1 between 50 and 90 km.

  1. Resonant transitions between split energy levels triple-barrier nanostructures and their application perspectives in submillimeter-wave devices

    CERN Document Server

    Golant, E I

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed for electronic coherent tunneling through the triple-barrier quantum-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures in the terahertz electric field. Using this model the frequency dependences of the negative dynamic conductivity for triple-barrier structures with coherent electron tunneling through the split energy levels are investigated. It has been shown that these structures can be employed in far-infrared coherent quantum lasers, the wave length being 600 mu m (5 THz)

  2. Shock wave science and technology reference library

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This book is the second of several volumes on solids in the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library. These volumes are primarily concerned with high-pressure shock waves in solid media, including detonation and high-velocity impact and penetration events. Of the four extensive chapters in this volume, the first two describe the reactive behavior of condensed phase explosives, - Condensed-Phase Explosives: Shock Initiation and Detonation Phenomena (SA Sheffield and R Engelke) - First Principles Molecular Simulations of Energetic Materials at High-Pressures (F Zhang, S Alavi, and TK Woo), and the remaining two discuss the inert, mechanical response of solid materials. - Combined Compression and Shear Plane Waves (ZP Tang and JB Aidun), and - Dynamic Fragmentation of Solids (D Grady). All chapters are each self-contained, and can be read independently of each other. They offer a timely reference, for beginners as well as professional scientists and engineers, on the foundations of detonation phenomen...

  3. Shock wave science and technology reference library

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This book, as a volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library, is primarily concerned with detonation waves or compression shock waves in reactive heterogeneous media, including mixtures of solid, liquid and gas phases. The topics involve a variety of energy release and control processes in such media - a contemporary research field that has found wide applications in propulsion and power, hazard prevention as well as military engineering. The six extensive chapters contained in this volume are: - Spray Detonation (SB Murray and PA Thibault) - Detonation of Gas-Particle Flow (F Zhang) - Slurry Detonation (DL Frost and F Zhang) - Detonation of Metalized Composite Explosives (MF Gogulya and MA Brazhnikov) - Shock-Induced Solid-Solid Reactions and Detonations (YA Gordopolov, SS Batsanov, and VS Trofimov) - Shock Ignition of Particles (SM Frolov and AV Fedorov) Each chapter is self-contained and can be read independently of the others, though, they are thematically interrelated. They offer a t...

  4. The millimeter and submillimeter spectrum of CF(+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, G. M.; Anderson, T.; Herbst, E.; De Lucia, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The application of a recently described technique for producing significantly enhanced concentrations of molecular ions for spectroscopic study to the detection and measurement of the millimeter and submillimeter wave spectrum of CF(+) is reported. The experimental procedure is discussed, and the measured absorption frequencies are shown and compared with those calculated from spectral constants. These constants are given together with those from the infrared spectrum by Kawaguchi and Hirota (1985).

  5. Dielectric Covered Planar Antennas at Submillimeter Wavelengths for Terahertz Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Skalare, Anders; Lee, Choonsup; Llombart, Nuria; Siegel, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    and terahertz bands: a) Antenna fabrication compatible with lithographic techniques. b) Much simpler fabrication of the lens. c) A simple quarter-wavelength matching layer of the lens will be more efficient if a smaller portion of the lens is used. d) The directivity is given by the lens diameter instead of the leaky pole (the bandwidth will not depend anymore on the directivity but just on the initial cavity). The feed is a standard waveguide, which is compatible with proven Schottky diode mixer/detector technologies. The development of such technology will benefit applications where submillimeter- wave heterodyne array designs are required. The main fields are national security, planetary exploration, and biomedicine. For national security, wideband submillimeter radars could be an effective tool for the standoff detection of hidden weapons or bombs concealed by clothing or packaging. In the field of planetary exploration, wideband submillimeter radars can be used as a spectrometer to detect trace concentrations of chemicals in atmospheres that are too cold to rely on thermal imaging techniques. In biomedicine, an imaging heterodyne system could be helpful in detecting skin diseases.

  6. Submillimeter Continuum Observations of Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this proposal was to study the submillimeter continuum emission from comets. The study was based mainly on the exploitation of the world's leading submillimeter telescope, the JCMT (James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) on Mauna Kea. Submillimeter wavelengths provide a unique view of cometary physics for one main reason. The cometary size distribution is such that the scattering cross-section is dominated by small dust grains, while the mass is dominated by the largest particles. Submillimeter continuum radiation samples cometary particles much larger than those sampled by more common observations at shorter (optical and infrared) wavelengths and therefore provides a nearly direct measure of the cometary dust mass.

  7. HERTZ, A Submillimeter Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleuning, D. A.; Dowell, C. D.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Platt, S. R.; Novak, G.

    1997-03-01

    We describe a 32 pixel polarimeter, Hertz, for use at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. We present polarization maps of the Orion molecular cloud (OMC-1) at 350 \\mum (46 detections) and 450 \\mum (19 detections) with 3\\sigma or better statistical significance. The 350 \\mum polarization ranges from 1.4 to 6.8% with a median value of 3.3%. The position angles are fairly uniform across the souce at an angle of \\sim30 degrees (east of north). We describe the design and performance characteristics of the polarimeter and discuss systematic effects due to telescope and instrumental polarization, atmospheric fluctuations, and reference beam flux. (SECTION: Astronomical Instrumentation)

  8. Shock Waves Science and Technology Library

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This book, as a volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library, is primarily concerned with the fundamental theory of detonation physics in gaseous and condensed phase reactive media. The detonation process involves complex chemical reaction and fluid dynamics, accompanied by intricate effects of heat, light, electricity and magnetism - a contemporary research field that has found wide applications in propulsion and power, hazard prevention as well as military engineering. The seven extensive chapters contained in this volume are: - Chemical Equilibrium Detonation (S. Bastea and LE Fried) - Steady One-Dimensional Detonations (A Higgins) - Detonation Instability (HD Ng and F Zhang) - Dynamic Parameters of Detonation (AA Vasiliev) - Multi-Scaled Cellular Detonation (D Desbordes and HN Presles) - Condensed Matter Detonation: Theory and Practice (C Tarver) - Theory of Detonation Shock Dynamics (JB Bdzil and DS Stewart) The chapters are thematically interrelated in a systematic descriptive appro...

  9. Demonstration of Submillimeter Astrophysics Technology at Caltech Submillimeter Observatory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following are the objectives of this project:(1) Demonstration of 1600-element Kinetic Inductance Detector (KID) imaging array operating at 350 micron with near...

  10. Silicon-based millimetre-wave technology

    CERN Document Server

    Deen, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. This series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains.Key features: * Contributions from leading authorities * Informs and update

  11. Wave energy resource assessment and review of the technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Nik, W.B.: Sulaiman, O.O. [Maritime Technology Department, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia); Rosliza, R. [TATI University College, Teluk Kalong, 24000 Kemaman, Terengganu, (Malaysia); Prawoto, Y. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Muzathik, A.M. [Institute of Technology, University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2011-07-01

    Increase in human population has increased the demand for more energy. Technical improvement in transport and electrical appliances gives a lot of facilities to our life nowadays. Still we need to generate or convert this energy. Energy generation based on conventional technologies is always accompanied by environmental pollution. It gives overheating and greenhouse effects that later result in biosphere degradation. Nowadays sea wave energy is being increasingly regarded in many countries as a major and promising resource. It is renewable and environmentally friendly. In this paper wave parameters related to wave energy is analyzed. Then the paper describes the development of many different types of wave-energy converters. Several topics are addressed; the characterization of the wave energy resource, range of devices and how such devices can be organized into classes.

  12. Farmers' Opinions about Third-Wave Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasley, Paul; Bultena, Gordon

    The opinions of 1,585 Iowa farmers about 8 emergent agricultural technologies (energy production from feed grains and oils; energy production from livestock waste; genetic engineering research on plants, livestock, and humans; robotics for on-farm use; confinement livestock facilities; and personal computers for farm families) were found to be…

  13. Moodle Wave: Reinventing the VLE using Widget technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Scott; Sharples, Paul; Popat, Kris; Griffiths, Dai

    2009-01-01

    Wilson, S., Sharples, P., Popat, K., & Griffiths, D. (2009). Moodle Wave: Reinventing the VLE using Widget technologies. In F. Wild, M. Kalz, M. Palmér & D. Müller (Eds.), Proceedings of 2nd Workshop Mash-Up Personal Learning Envrionments (MUPPLE'09). Workshop in conjunction with 4th European

  14. Motivating Non-science Majors: The Technology of Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Victor E.

    2018-01-01

    To address the need for physics courses that stimulate non-STEM majors' interest in, and appreciation of, science, the Department of Applied Physics has developed a popular course for Yale College undergraduates, The Technological World, that explains the physics behind technologies that students use every day. The course provides an in-depth development of electromagnetic waves, applying them to technologies as diverse as LCD displays, GPS, fiber optics, CAT scans, LEDs, and stealth aircraft. It utilizes a conventional lecture format, with many in-class demonstrations.

  15. Are Wave and Tidal Energy Plants New Green Technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douziech, Mélanie; Hellweg, Stefanie; Verones, Francesca

    2016-07-19

    Wave and tidal energy plants are upcoming, potentially green technologies. This study aims at quantifying their various potential environmental impacts. Three tidal stream devices, one tidal range plant and one wave energy harnessing device are analyzed over their entire life cycles, using the ReCiPe 2008 methodology at midpoint level. The impacts of the tidal range plant were on average 1.6 times higher than the ones of hydro-power plants (without considering natural land transformation). A similar ratio was found when comparing the results of the three tidal stream devices to offshore wind power plants (without considering water depletion). The wave energy harnessing device had on average 3.5 times higher impacts than offshore wind power. On the contrary, the considered plants have on average 8 (wave energy) to 20 (tidal stream), or even 115 times (tidal range) lower impact than electricity generated from coal power. Further, testing the sensitivity of the results highlighted the advantage of long lifetimes and small material requirements. Overall, this study supports the potential of wave and tidal energy plants as alternative green technologies. However, potential unknown effects, such as the impact of turbulence or noise on marine ecosystems, should be further explored in future research.

  16. Two bolometer arrays for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Robert F.; Allen, Christine A.; Babu, Sachidananda R.; Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Dowell, Charles D.; Harper, Doyle A.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Loewenstein, Robert F.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2004-10-01

    We describe the development, construction, and testing of two 384 element arrays of ion-implanted semiconducting cryogenic bolometers designed for use in far-infrared and submillimeter cameras. These two dimensional arrays are assembled from a number of 32 element linear arrays of monolithic Pop-Up bolometer Detectors (PUD) developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. PUD technology allows the construction of large, high filling factor, arrays that make efficient use of available focal plane area in far-infrared and submillimeter astronomical instruments. Such arrays can be used to provide a significant increase in mapping speed over smaller arrays. A prototype array has been delivered and integrated into a ground-based camera, the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC II), a facility instrument at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). A second array has recently been delivered for integration into the High-resolution Airborne Widebandwidth Camera (HAWC), a far-infrared imaging camera for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). HAWC is scheduled for commissioning in 2005.

  17. SUBMILLIMETER LIGHTCURVES OF ASTEROIDS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Submillimeter lightcurves of large asteroids Ceres, Davida, Io, Juno, Pallas, Vesta, and Victoria, observed at the Heinrich-Hertz Submillimeter Telescope from...

  18. Millimeter-Wave Wireless Power Transfer Technology for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Manohara, Harish; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Vo, Tuan A.; Mojarradi, Hadi; Bae, Sam Y.; Marzwell, Neville

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a new compact, scalable, and low cost technology for efficient receiving of power using RF waves at 94 GHz. This technology employs a highly innovative array of slot antennas that is integrated on substrate composed of gold (Au), silicon (Si), and silicon dioxide (SiO2) layers. The length of the slots and spacing between them are optimized for a highly efficient beam through a 3-D electromagnetic simulation process. Antenna simulation results shows a good beam profile with very low side lobe levels and better than 93% antenna efficiency.

  19. Submillimeter Array reveals molecular complexity of dying stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    The unique capabilities of the Submillimeter Array (SMA) have allowed unprecedented studies of cool evolved stars at submillimeter wavelengths. In particular, the SMA now offers the possibility to image multiple molecular transitions at once, owing to the 32-GHz wide instantaneous bandwidth of SWARM, the SMA’s new correlator. Molecular gas located far and very close to the photosphere of an asymptotic-giant branch (AGB) star, a red supergiant, or a pre-planetary nebula can now be examined in transitions observed simultaneously from a wide range of energy levels. This allows a very detailed quantitative investigation of physical and chemical conditions around these variable objects. Several imaging line surveys have been obtained with the SMA to reveal the beautiful complexity of these evolved systems. The surveys resulted in first submillimeter-wave identifications of molecules of prime astrophysical interest, e.g. of TiO, TiO2, and of rotational transitions at excited vibrational states of CO. An overview of recent SMA observations of cool evolved stars will be given with an emphasize on the interferometric line surveys. We will demonstrate their importance in unraveling the mass-loss phenomena, propagation of shocks in the circumstellar medium, and production of dust at elevated temperatures. The SMA studies of these molecular factories have a direct impact on our understanding of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and stellar evolution at low and high masses.

  20. ShockWave science and technology reference library

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This book is the first of several volumes on solids in the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library. These volumes are primarily concerned with high-pressure shock waves in solid media, including detonation, high-velocity impact, and penetration. Of the eight chapters in this volume three chapters survey recent, exciting experimental advances in - ultra-short shock dynamics at the atomic and molecular scale (D.S. More, S.D. Mcgrane, and D.J. Funk), - Z accelerator for ICE and Shock compression (M.D. Knudson), and - failure waves in glass and ceramics (S.J. Bless and N.S. Brar). The subsequent four chapters are foundational, and cover the subjects of - equation of state (R. Menikoff), - elastic-plastic shock waves (R. Menikoff), - continuum plasticity (R. M. Brannon), and - numerical methods (D. J. Benson). The last chapter, but not the least, describes a tour de force illustration of today’s computing power in - modeling heterogeneous reactive solids at the grain scale (M.R. Baer). All chapters a...

  1. Feasibility analysis of real-time physical modeling using WaveCore processor technology on FPGA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraelen, Martinus Johannes Wilhelmina; Pfeifle, Florian; Bader, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    WaveCore is a scalable many-core processor technology. This technology is specifically developed and optimized for real-time acoustical modeling applications. The programmable WaveCore soft-core processor is silicon-technology independent and hence can be targeted to ASIC or FPGA technologies. The

  2. Energy supply technologies. Hydro, ocean, wave and tidal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenhann, J.; Larsen, Hans [Risoe National Lab. - DTU (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    This chapter presents an overview of current hydro, ocean, wave and tidal initiatives. Large hydro remains one of the lowest-cost generating technologies, although environmental constraints, resettlement impacts and the limited availability of sites have restricted further growth in many countries. Large hydro supplied 16 % of global electricity in 2004, down from 19 % a decade ago. Large hydro capacity totalled about 720 GW worldwide in 2004 and has grown historically at slightly more than 2 % annually. China installed nearly 8 GW of large hydro in 2004, taking the country to number one in terms of installed capacity (74 GW). With the completion of the Three Gorges Dam, China will add some 18.2 GW of hydro capacity in 2009. The socio-economic benefits of hydro include improved flood control and water supply. The socio-economic benefits of hydro include improved flood control and water supply. The socio-economic cost of hydro includes displacements and submergence. Further hydro can improve peak-capacity management. Ocean currents, some of which runs close to European coasts, carry a lot of kinetic energy. Part of this energy can be captured by sub-marine windmills and converted into electricity. These are more compact than the wind turbines used on land, simply because water is much denser than air. The main European countries with useful current power potential are France and the UK. Ocean tides are driven by the gravitational pull of the moon. With one high tide every 12 hours, a tidal power plant can operate for only four or five hours per cycle, so power from a single plant is intermittent. A suitably-designed tidal plant can, however, operate as a pimped storage system, using electricity during periods of low demand to store energy that can be recovered later. The only large, modern example of a tidal power plant is the 240 MW La Rance plant, built in France in the 1960s, which represents 91 % of the world tidal power capacity. Wave energy can be seen as

  3. Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies: Wave Energy Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Given proper care in siting, design, deployment, operation and maintenance, wave energy conversion could become one of the more environmentally benign sources of electricity generation. In order to accelerate the adoption of these emerging hydrokinetic and marine energy technologies, navigational and environmental concerns must be identified and addressed. All developing hydrokinetic projects involve a wide variety of stakeholders. One of the key issues that site developers face as they engage with this range of stakeholders is that, due to a lack of technical certainty, many of the possible conflicts (e.g., shipping and fishing) and environmental issues are not well-understood,. In September 2008, re vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to apply a scenario-based assessment to the emerging hydrokinetic technology sector in order to evaluate the potential impact of these technologies on the marine environment and navigation constraints. The project’s scope of work includes the establishment of baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios capture variations in technical approaches and deployment scales to properly identify and characterize environmental effects and navigational effects. The goal of the project is to provide all stakeholders with an improved understanding of the potential range of technical attributes and potential effects of these emerging technologies and focus all stakeholders on the critical issues that need to be addressed. By identifying and addressing navigational and environmental concerns in the early stages of the industry’s development, serious mistakes that could potentially derail industry-wide development can be avoided. This groundwork will also help in streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles for the industry’s development in the U.S. today. Re vision is coordinating its efforts with two

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Sub-millimeter spectra of 2-hydroxyacetonitrile (Margules+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margules, L.; McGuire, B. A.; Senent, M. L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Remijan, A.; Guillemin, J. C.

    2017-02-01

    Measured frequencies and residuals from the global fit of the submillimeter-wave data for 2-hydroxyacetonitrile and files used for SPFIT. Detailled explanations on SPFIT could be found at https://www.astro.uni-koeln.de/cdms/pickett (4 data files).

  5. Active Millimeter and Submillimeter Sensing Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The workshop will have three main objectives. The first will be to inventory the signatures and measurements that are desirable to make using submillimeter active...

  6. Fabrication and Packaging of Discontinuous MIM (Metal-Insulator-Metal) Film Arrays for Efficient MM Wave and IR Detection and Mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Technology Metil -Oxide-Metal (MOM) diodes are the fastest detector known. They are used in the frequency range from microwave to submillimeter wave and...moderate rain, smoke and dust; endoscopic laser treatment and laser surgery delivery systems, to name a few. These major areas of appli- cation

  7. Faint Submillimeter Galaxies Behind Lensing Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Lauchlan Cowie, Lennox; Barger, Amy J.; Desai, Vandana; Murphy, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Faint submillimeter galaxies are the major contributors to the submillimeter extragalactic background light and hence the dominant star-forming population in the dusty universe. Determining how much these galaxies overlap the optically selected samples is critical to fully account for the cosmic star formation history. Observations of massive cluster fields are the best way to explore this faint submillimeter population, thanks to gravitational lensing effects. We have been undertaking a lensing cluster survey with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to map nine galaxy clusters, including the northern five clusters in the HST Frontier Fields program. We have also been using the Submillimeter Array and the Very Large Array to determine the accurate positions of our detected sources. Our observations have discovered high-redshift dusty galaxies with far-infrared luminosities similar to that of the Milky Way or luminous infrared galaxies. Some of these galaxies are still undetected in deep optical and near-infrared images. These results suggest that a substantial amount of star formation in even the faint submillimeter population may be hidden from rest-frame optical surveys.

  8. Roadmaps for the Development of Technologies Related to Danish Wave Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim; Krogh, Jan; Brodersen, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The Danish Partnership for Wave Power was established in 2011 under the project "New strategy for wave power through industrial partnership" [1] funded by the Danish Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program. The core of this partnership is nine active Danish wave energy developers...... seconded by offshore industry, and research institutions. The Danish Partnership for Wave Power has further been consolidated through the follow-on Roadmap project described in this paper. The roadmap project has in detail investigated how the four most common technology areas for wave power developers can...

  9. REMOTE DETECTION OF RADIOACTIVE PLUMES USING MILLIMETER WAVE TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnowski, R.; Chien; H.; Gopalsami, N.

    2009-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, a common method for manufacturing weapons-grade special nuclear materials, is accompanied by the release of fi ssion products trapped within the fuel. One of these fi ssion products is a radioactive isotope of Krypton (Kr-85); a pure β- emitter with a half-life of 10.72 years. Due to its chemical neutrality and relatively long half life, nearly all of the Kr-85 is released into the surrounding air during reprocessing, resulting in a concentration of Kr-85 near the source that is several orders of magnitude higher than the typical background (atmospheric) concentrations. This high concentration of Kr-85 is accompanied by a proportionately high increase in air ionization due to the release of beta radiation from Kr-85 decay. Millimeter wave (MMW) sensing technology can be used to detect the presence of Kr-85 induced plumes since a high concentration of ions in the air increases the radar cross section due to a combination of atmospheric phenomena. Possible applications for this technology include the remote sensing of reprocessing activities across national borders bolstering global anti-proliferation initiatives. The feasibility of using MMW radar technology to uniquely detect the presence of Kr-85 can be tested using commercial ion generators or sealed radioactive sources in the laboratory. In this paper we describe our work to derive an ion dispersion model that will describe the spatial distribution of ions from Kr-85 and other common lab sources. The types and energies of radiation emitted by isotopes Co-60 and Cs-137 were researched, and these parameters were incorporated into these dispersion models. Our results can be compared with the results of MMW detection experiments in order to quantify the relationship between radar cross section and air ionization as well as to further calibrate the MMW detection equipment.

  10. Mu-Spec: A High Performance Compact Spectrometer for Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas; Brown, Ari; Patel, Amil; U-yen, Kongpop; Ehsan, Negar; Cataldo, Giuseppe; Wollack, Ed

    2012-01-01

    We describe the Mu-Spec, an extremely compact high performance spectrometer for the submillimeter and millimeter spectral ranges. We have designed a fully integrated submillimeter spectrometer based on superconducting microstrip technology and fabricated its critical elements. Using low loss transmission lines, we can produce a fully integrated high resolution submillimeter spectrometer on a single four inch Si wafer. A resolution of 500 can readily be achieved with standard fabrication tolerance, higher with phase trimming. All functions of the spectrometer are integrated - light is coupled to the microstrip circuit with a planar antenna, the spectra discrimination is achieved using a synthetic grating, orders are separated using a built-in planar filter, and the light is detected using photon counting Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKID). We will discus the design principle of the instrument, describe its technical advantages, and report the progress on the development of the instrument.

  11. Micro-Spec: A High Performance Compact Spectrometer for Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas; Brown, Ari; Patel, Amil; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ehsan, Negar; Caltado, Giuseppe; Wollock, Edward

    2012-01-01

    We describe the micro-Spec, an extremely compact high performance spectrometer for the submillimeter and millimeter spectral ranges. We have designed a fully integrated submillimeter spectrometer based on superconducting microstrip technology and fabricated its critical elements. Using low loss transmission lines, we can produce a fully integrated high resolution submillimeter spectrometer on a single four inch Si wafer. A resolution of 500 can readily be achieved with standard fabrication tolerance, higher with phase trimming. All functions of the spectrometer are integrated - light is coupled to the micro strip circuit with a planar antenna, the spectra discrimination is achieved using a synthetic grating, orders are separated using a built-in planar filter, and the light is detected using photon counting Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKID). We will discus the design principle of the instrument, describe its technical advantages, and report the progress on the development of the instrument.

  12. Wave Climate Resource Analysis Based on a Revised Gamma Spectrum for Wave Energy Conversion Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Pastor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to correctly predict and evaluate the response of wave energy converters (WECs, an accurate representation of wave climate resource is crucial. This paper gives an overview of wave resource modeling techniques and applies a methodology to estimate the naturally available and technically recoverable resource in a given deployment site. The methodology was initially developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI, which uses a modified gamma spectrum to interpret sea state hindcast parameter data produced by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s WaveWatch III. This gamma spectrum is dependent on the calibration of two variables relating to the spectral width parameter and spectral peakedness parameter. In this study, this methodology was revised by the authors to increase its accuracy in formulating wavelength. The revised methodology shows how to assess a given geographic area’s wave resource based on its wave power density and total annual wave energy flux.

  13. The exploration technology and application of sea surface wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In order to investigate the seismic velocity structure of the shallow sediments in the Bohai Sea of China, we conduct a shear-wave velocity inversion of the surface wave dispersion data from a survey of 12 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and 377 shots of a 9000 inch3 air gun. With OBS station spacing of 5 km and air gun shot spacing of 190 m, high-quality Rayleigh wave data were recorded by the OBSs within 0.4 5 km offset. Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion for the fundamental mode and first overtone in the frequency band of 0.9 3.0 Hz were retrieved with the phase-shift method and inverted for the shear-wave velocity structure of the shallow sediments with a damped iterative least-square algorithm. Pseudo 2-D shear-wave velocity profiles with depth to 400 m show coherent features of relatively weak lateral velocity variation. The uncertainty in shear-wave velocity structure was also estimated based on the pseudo 2-D profiles from 6 trial inversions with different initial models, which suggest a velocity uncertainty < 30 m/s for most parts of the 2-D profiles. The layered structure with little lateral variation may be attributable to the continuous sedimentary environment in the Cenozoic sedimentary basin of the Bohai Bay basin. The shear-wave velocity of 200 300 m/s in the top 100 m of the Bohai Sea floor may provide important information for offshore site response studies in earthquake engineering. Furthermore, the very low shear-wave velocity structure (200 700 m/s) down to 400 m depth could produce a significant travel time delay of 1 s in the S wave arrivals, which needs to be considered to avoid serious bias in S wave traveltime tomographic models.

  14. Optical solitons with DWDM technology and four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Mehmet; Zhou, Qin; Sonmezoglu, Abdullah; Moshokoa, Seithuti P.; Ullah, Malik Zaka; Biswas, Anjan; Belic, Milivoj

    2017-07-01

    This paper obtains bright and singular optical soliton solutions to DWDM system in presence of four-wave mixing. The extended trial function scheme is adopted. The two types of nonlinear media studied are Kerr law and parabolic law. There are other types of waves that appears as a byproduct to this scheme.

  15. Cost, Time, and Risk Assessment of Different Wave Energy Converter Technology Development Trajectories: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jochem W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laird, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Costello, Ronan [Wave Venture; Roberts, Jesse [Sandia National Laboratories; Bull, Diana [Sandia National Laboratories; Babarit, Aurelien [Ecole Centrale de Nantes; Nielsen, Kim [Ramboll; Ferreira, Claudio Bittencourt [DNV-GL; Kennedy, Ben [Wave Venture

    2017-09-14

    This paper presents a comparative assessment of three fundamentally different wave energy converter technology development trajectories. The three technology development trajectories are expressed and visualised as a function of technology readiness levels and technology performance levels. The assessment shows that development trajectories that initially prioritize technology readiness over technology performance are likely to require twice the development time, consume a threefold of the development cost, and are prone to a risk of technical or commercial failure of one order of magnitude higher than those development trajectories that initially prioritize technology performance over technology readiness.

  16. Millimetre-wave MMIC packaging compatible with surface-mount technology (SMT)

    OpenAIRE

    Galière, J; Valard, J.L.; Estèbe, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an interconnect and packaging solution for millimetre-wave MMIC, based on collective wiring and surface mount technologies. The designed structure consists of an SMT CSP (Chip Scale Package) mounted on printed circuit board (PCB). This packaging concept has been applied to a millimetre-wave LNA and has been measured up to 60 GHz, exhibiting results close to bare die measurements (insertion loss per millimetre-wave transition lower than 0.5dB) and dem...

  17. Technology Development Roadmap: A Technology Development Roadmap for a Future Gravitational Wave Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan; Conklin, John; Livas, Jeffrey; Klipstein, William; McKenzie, Kirk; Mueller, Guido; Mueller, Juergen; Thorpe, James Ira; Arsenovic, Peter; Baker, John; hide

    2013-01-01

    Humankind will detect the first gravitational wave (GW) signals from the Universe in the current decade using ground-based detectors. But the richest trove of astrophysical information lies at lower frequencies in the spectrum only accessible from space. Signals are expected from merging massive black holes throughout cosmic history, from compact stellar remnants orbiting central galactic engines from thousands of close contact binary systems in the Milky Way, and possibly from exotic sources, some not yet imagined. These signals carry essential information not available from electromagnetic observations, and which can be extracted with extraordinary accuracy. For 20 years, NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and an international research community have put considerable effort into developing concepts and technologies for a GW mission. Both the 2000 and 2010 decadal surveys endorsed the science and mission concept of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). A partnership of the two agencies defined and analyzed the concept for a decade. The agencies partnered on LISA Pathfinder (LPF), and ESA-led technology demonstration mission, now preparing for a 2015 launch. Extensive technology development has been carried out on the ground. Currently, the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA) concept, a LISA-like concept with only two measurement arms, is competing for ESA's L2 opportunity. NASA's Astrophysics Division seeks to be a junior partner if eLISA is selected. If eLISA is not selected, then a LISA-like mission will be a strong contender in the 2020 decadal survey. This Technology Development Roadmap (TDR) builds on the LISA concept development, the LPF technology development, and the U.S. and European ground-based technology development. The eLISA architecture and the architecture of the Mid-sized Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory (SGO Mid)-a competitive design with three measurement arms from the recent design study for a NASA

  18. Submillimeter solar images from the JCMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, G.; Lindsey, C.

    1992-01-01

    We present nearly full-disk, diffraction-limited solar images made at 350 and 850 [mu]m and at 1.3 mm from the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea. These wavelengths sample the thermal structure of the solar chromosphere at altitude from 500 to about 1500 km, providing a height-dependent diagnostic of the atmosphere. Filament channels and neutral lines are apparent in the submillimeter images, although filaments themselves are not clearly visible. The submillimeter images show plage approximately 20% brigher than the surrounding quiet Sun, while sunspot intensities are comparable to the quiet Sun. Circumfacules,' dark are similar to those seen in Ca 8542; comparison with Ca H and K may give estimates of the temperature and filing factor of the hot gas present in these probably bifurcated regions.

  19. A Novel RFID Sensing System Using Enhanced Surface Wave Technology for Battery Exchange Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Yeong-Lin Lai; Li-Chih Chang; Tai-Hwa Liu; Yi-Chun Sung; Cheng-Lun Yin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensing system using enhanced surface wave technology for battery exchange stations (BESs) of electric motorcycles. Ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) RFID technology is utilized to automatically track and manage battery and user information without manual operation. The system includes readers, enhanced surface wave leaky cable antennas (ESWLCAs), coupling cable lines (CCLs), and small radiation patches (SRPs). The RFID sensing system ...

  20. Assessment of Wave Energy in the South China Sea Based on GIS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available China is now the world’s largest user of coal and also has the highest greenhouse gas emissions associated with the mining and use of coal. Under today’s enormous pressures of the growing shortage of conventional energy sources and the need for emission reductions, the search for clean energy is the most effective strategy to address the energy crisis and global warming. This study utilized satellite remote sensing technology, geographic information system (GIS technology, and simulated wave data for the South China Sea. The characteristic features of the wave energy were obtained by analysis through the wave resource assessment formula and the results were stored in a GIS database. Software for the evaluation of wave energy in the South China Sea was written. The results should provide accurate, efficient references for wave energy researchers and decision-makers. Based on a 24-year WW3 model simulation wave data and GIS technology, this study presented the characteristic of the wave energy in the SCS; results demonstrated that the SCS has the feasibility and viability for wave energy farming.

  1. Observing ice clouds in the submillimeter spectral range: the CloudIce mission proposal for ESA's Earth Explorer 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Buehler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Passive submillimeter-wave sensors are a way to obtain urgently needed global data on ice clouds, particularly on the so far poorly characterized "essential climate variable" ice water path (IWP and on ice particle size. CloudIce was a mission proposal to the European Space Agency ESA in response to the call for Earth Explorer 8 (EE8, which ran in 2009/2010. It proposed a passive submillimeter-wave sensor with channels ranging from 183 GHz to 664 GHz. The article describes the CloudIce mission proposal, with particular emphasis on describing the algorithms for the data-analysis of submillimeter-wave cloud ice data (retrieval algorithms and demonstrating their maturity. It is shown that we have a robust understanding of the radiative properties of cloud ice in the millimeter/submillimeter spectral range, and that we have a proven toolbox of retrieval algorithms to work with these data. Although the mission was not selected for EE8, the concept will be useful as a reference for other future mission proposals.

  2. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future astrophysics missions will require lightweight, thermally stable, submillimeter reflectors in sizes of 4m and greater. To date, graphite fiber reinforced...

  3. Motivating Non-Science Majors: The Technology of Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Victor E.

    2018-01-01

    To address the need for physics courses that stimulate non- STEM majors' interest in, and appreciation of, science, the Department of Applied Physics has developed a popular course for Yale College undergraduates, The Technological World, that explains the physics behind technologies that students use every day. The course provides an in-depth…

  4. Adaptable radiative transfer innovations for submillimeter telescopes (ARTIST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovani, Marco; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; Bertoldi, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Submillimeter observations are a key for answering many of the big questions in modern-day astrophysics, such as how stars and planets form, how galaxies evolve, and how material cycles through stars and the interstellar medium. With the upcoming large submillimeter facilities ALMA and Herschel...

  5. Probing Galaxy Formation and Submillimeter Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Moseley, Harvey S.; Shafer, Richard A.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations of galaxies have revealed that a significant fraction of the their stellar or accretion luminosity is absorbed and reradiated by dust at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter (submm) wavelengths. Submillimeter (850 micron) surveys conducted by the SCUBA instrument on the JCMT have detected a population of high redshift (z approximately equal to 1-4) ultraluminous infrared galaxies, that dominate the luminosity densities at those redshifts. Their cumulative contribution to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) detected by the COBE satellite is comparable to the observations, suggesting that at 850 microns the CIB is resolved into its constituent sources. This suggests that the early universe was much more dust enshrouded than the present one. FIR and submm surveys can therefore address fundamental questions regarding the early processes of galaxy formation and their evolution in number and luminosity over cosmic history. The scientific information that can be obtained from such surveys depend on a number of parameters, the most important of which are the diameter of the telescope and the wavelengths of the survey. We summarize the effect of these parameters on the scientific return from such surveys.

  6. Structured Innovation of High-Performance Wave Energy Converter Technology: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jochem W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laird, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-25

    Wave energy converter (WEC) technology development has not yet delivered the desired commercial maturity nor, and more importantly, the techno-economic performance. The reasons for this have been recognized and fundamental requirements for successful WEC technology development have been identified. This paper describes a multi-year project pursued in collaboration by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories to innovate and develop new WEC technology. It specifies the project strategy, shows how this differs from the state-of-the-art approach and presents some early project results. Based on the specification of fundamental functional requirements of WEC technology, structured innovation and systemic problem solving methodologies are applied to invent and identify new WEC technology concepts. Using Technology Performance Levels (TPL) as an assessment metric of the techno-economic performance potential, high performance technology concepts are identified and selected for further development. System performance is numerically modelled and optimized and key performance aspects are empirically validated. The project deliverables are WEC technology specifications of high techno-economic performance technologies of TPL 7 or higher at TRL 3 with some key technology challenges investigated at higher TRL. These wave energy converter technology specifications will be made available to industry for further, full development and commercialisation (TRL 4 - TRL 9).

  7. Integrated microfluidics system using surface acoustic wave and electrowetting on dielectrics technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Fu, Y Q; Brodie, S D; Alghane, M; Walton, A J

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents integrated microfluidic lab-on-a-chip technology combining surface acoustic wave (SAW) and electro-wetting on dielectric (EWOD). This combination has been designed to provide enhanced microfluidic functionality and the integrated devices have been fabricated using a single mask lithographic process. The integrated technology uses EWOD to guide and precisely position microdroplets which can then be actuated by SAW devices for particle concentration, acoustic streaming, mixing and ejection, as well as for sensing using a shear-horizontal wave SAW device. A SAW induced force has also been employed to enhance the EWOD droplet splitting function.

  8. Bulk submillimeter-wave mixers: Strain and superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, M. M.; Pickett, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    Strained germanium crystals, doped with gallium, were used as heterodyne mixers at THz frequencies, with infrared bandwidths approaching a GHz. The mixer performance (conversion loss and mixer noise) was analyzed in terms of nonlinearities associated with acceptor levels and with relaxation rates of free holes. Comparison was made with similar mixers employing low lying donor levels in high purity GaAs and with hot electron InSb mixers.

  9. Measurement of plasma conductivity using faraday rotation of submillimeter waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmenko, P.J.; Self, S.A.

    1983-03-01

    This paper examines the application of Faraday rotation to the measurement of electron combustion MHD plasmas. Details on the design of a working system are given, including the selection of operating wavelength. A theoretical comparison between the Faraday rotation technique and two-path interferometry shows Faraday rotation in its simplest form to be somewhat less sensitive to changes in electron concentration. This deficit can be balanced against greater immunity to vibration and thermal drift. Improved techniques of measuring the rotation angle promise greater sensitivity. A preliminary experiment has verified the technique.

  10. Proceedings of the Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Technologies Technical and Environmental Issues Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-03-01

    Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of non-polluting alternatives to fossil and nuclear-fueled power plants to meet growing demand for electrical energy. Two emerging categories of renewable energy technologies, hydrokinetic and wave energy conversion devices, offer ways to tap the energy of moving water without impoundment (dams) or diversion required by many conventional hydroelectric facilities. These technologies include devices designed for deployment in natural streams, tidal estuaries, ocean currents, and constructed waterways, as well as devices designed to capture the energy of ocean waves. On October 26-28, 2005, 54 representatives from government, non-governmental organizations, and private business met to (1) identify the varieties of hydrokinetic energy and wave technology devices, their stages of development, and the projected cost to bring each to market; (2) identify where these technologies can best operate; (3) identify the potential environmental issues associated with these technologies and possible mitigation measures; (4) develop a list of research needs and/or practical solutions to address unresolved environmental issues. These workshop proceedings include detailed summaries of the 24 presentations made and the discussions that followed.

  11. Mu-Spec - A High Performance Ultra-Compact Photon Counting spectrometer for Space Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, H.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Stevenson, T.; Wollack, E.; Brown, A.; Benford, D.; Sadleir; U-Yen, I.; Ehsan, N.; Zmuidzinas, J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We have designed and are testing elements of a fully integrated submillimeter spectrometer based on superconducting microstrip technology. The instrument can offer resolving power R approximately 1500, and its high frequency cutoff is set by the gap of available high performance superconductors. All functions of the spectrometer are integrated - light is coupled to the microstrip circuit with a planar antenna, the spectra discrimination is achieved using a synthetic grating, orders are separated using planar filter, and detected using photon counting MKID detector. This spectrometer promises to revolutionize submillimeter spectroscopy from space. It replaces instruments with the scale of 1m with a spectrometer on a 10 cm Si wafer. The reduction in mass and volume promises a much higher performance system within available resource in a space mission. We will describe the system and the performance of the components that have been fabricated and tested.

  12. Millimeter and submillimeter spectrum of propylene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesko, A. J.; Zou, Luyao; Carroll, P. Brandon; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.

    2017-05-01

    The spectrum of propylene oxide was collected from 70 GHz to 1 THz using direct absorption millimeter and submillimeter spectroscopy. Analysis of the spectrum was performed using the SPFIT/SPCAT programs for the A state. A full internal rotor analysis was performed using the XIAM program. The barrier to internal rotation of the methyl group was determined to be 893 cm-1. The precision of the rotation constants, centrifugal distortion constants, and internal rotor parameters was increased over the results reported by previous low-frequency studies. The results of this laboratory study and the associated analysis, as well as a spectral prediction for the ground vibrational state of propylene oxide, are presented.

  13. Millimeter and Submillimeter Observations of Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Chuang, Yo-Ling; Tseng, Wei-Ling; Coulson, Iain M.; Chung, Ming-Chi

    2016-07-01

    1 Ceres is the largest celestial body in the Main Asteroid Belt and is also the sole dwarf planet in the inner solar system. Water vapor from small icy solar-system bodies, including Ceres and Europa, was detected by Herschel infrared space telescope recently. Data taken from Dawn spacecraft suggest that a subsurface layer of briny water ice, together with ammonia-rich clays, may exist on Ceres. We hence observed Ceres using the 15-m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) to search for other atmospheric molecules besides H _{2}O. Submillimeter continuum observations employing SCUBA-2 were also carried out. Here we report the tentative detection of hydrogen cyanide in the atmosphere of Ceres. If confirmed, our finding could imply that Ceres may have a comet-like chemical composition. However, further observational confirmation and more detailed analysis is needed.

  14. Silicon-based technology for integrated waveguides and mm-Wave systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanovic, Vladimir; Gentile, Gennaro; Dekker, R.; de Graaf, Pascal; de Vreede, Leo C.N.; Nanver, Lis Karen; Spirito, Marco

    2015-01-01

    IC processing is used to develop technology for silicon-filled millimeter-wave-integrated waveguides. The frontend process defines critical waveguide sections and enables integration of dedicated components, such as RF capacitors and resistors. Wafer gluing is used to strengthen the mechanical

  15. Photon caliper to achieve submillimeter positioning accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kyle J.; Wong, Jennifer; Zhang, Junan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a commercial two-dimensional (2D) detector array with an inherent detector spacing of 5 mm to achieve submillimeter accuracy in localizing the radiation isocenter. This was accomplished by delivering the Vernier ‘dose’ caliper to a 2D detector array where the nominal scale was the 2D detector array and the non-nominal Vernier scale was the radiation dose strips produced by the high-definition (HD) multileaf collimators (MLCs) of the linear accelerator. Because the HD MLC sequence was similar to the picket fence test, we called this procedure the Vernier picket fence (VPF) test. We confirmed the accuracy of the VPF test by offsetting the HD MLC bank by known increments and comparing the known offset with the VPF test result. The VPF test was able to determine the known offset within 0.02 mm. We also cross-validated the accuracy of the VPF test in an evaluation of couch hysteresis. This was done by using both the VPF test and the ExacTrac optical tracking system to evaluate the couch position. We showed that the VPF test was in agreement with the ExacTrac optical tracking system within a root-mean-square value of 0.07 mm for both the lateral and longitudinal directions. In conclusion, we demonstrated the VPF test can determine the offset between a 2D detector array and the radiation isocenter with submillimeter accuracy. Until now, no method to locate the radiation isocenter using a 2D detector array has been able to achieve such accuracy.

  16. Panel presentation at international symposium for electronic art 'Waves of technology'

    OpenAIRE

    Flaxton, T.

    2015-01-01

    This panel was formed to create a picture of, then interrogate the tsunami-like effect of the expanding capabilities of moving-image capture and display and place this within a reading of history that proposed that technology comes upon us insistently like waves upon the beach and that this situation is of our making. \\ud \\ud Panel Chair, Professor Terry Flaxton University of the West of England. Introduction 10 minutes: The concept of ‘Waves of technology’. Then part 2, 10 minutes: Examinati...

  17. Advanced technologies for future ground-based, laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Giles; Hild, Stefan; Pitkin, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of modern optical techniques being used and developed for the field of gravitational wave detection. We describe the current state-of-the-art of gravitational waves detector technologies with regard to optical layouts, suspensions and test masses. We discuss the dominant sources and noise in each of these subsystems and the developments that will help mitigate them for future generations of detectors. We very briefly summarise some of the novel astrophysics that will be possible with these upgraded detectors. PMID:25705087

  18. Determining the Concentrations and Temperatures of Products in a CF_4/CHF_3/N_2 Plasma via Submillimeter Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Yaser H.; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Ewing, Paul R.; Agarwal, Ankur; Craver, Barry; Stout, Phillip J.; Armacost, Michael D.

    2017-06-01

    Plasmas used for the manufacturing of semiconductor devices are similar in pressure and temperature to those used in the laboratory for the study of astrophysical species in the submillimeter (SMM) spectral region. The methods and technology developed in the SMM for these laboratory studies are directly applicable for diagnostic measurements in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Many of the molecular neutrals, radicals, and ions present in processing plasmas have been studied and their spectra have been cataloged or are in the literature. In this work, a continuous wave, intensity calibrated SMM absorption spectrometer was developed as a remote sensor of gas and plasma species. A major advantage of intensity calibrated rotational absorption spectroscopy is its ability to determine absolute concentrations and temperatures of plasma species from first principles without altering the plasma environment. An important part of this work was the design of the optical components which couple 500-750 GHz radiation through a commercial inductively coupled plasma chamber. The measurement of transmission spectra was simultaneously fit for background and absorption signal. The measured absorption was used to calculate absolute densities and temperatures of polar species. Measurements for CHF_3, CF_2, FCN, HCN, and CN made in a CF_4/CHF_3/N_2 plasma will be presented. Temperature equilibrium among species will be shown and the common temperature is leveraged to obtain accurate density measurements for simultaneously observed species. The densities and temperatures of plasma species are studied as a function of plasma parameters, including flow rate, pressure, and discharge power.

  19. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II effort will be an affordable demonstrated full-scale design for a thermally stable multi-meter submillimeter reflector. The Phase I...

  20. Superconducting Microwave Resonator Arrays for Submillimeter/Far-Infrared Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozian, Omid

    Superconducting microwave resonators have the potential to revolutionize submillimeter and far-infrared astronomy, and with it our understanding of the universe. The field of low-temperature detector technology has reached a point where extremely sensitive devices like transition-edge sensors are now capable of detecting radiation limited by the background noise of the universe. However, the size of these detector arrays are limited to only a few thousand pixels. This is because of the cost and complexity of fabricating large-scale arrays of these detectors that can reach up to 10 lithographic levels on chip, and the complicated SQUID-based multiplexing circuitry and wiring for readout of each detector. In order to make substantial progress, next-generation ground-based telescopes such as CCAT or future space telescopes require focal planes with large-scale detector arrays of 104--10 6 pixels. Arrays using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID) are a potential solution. These arrays can be easily made with a single layer of superconducting metal film deposited on a silicon substrate and pattered using conventional optical lithography. Furthermore, MKIDs are inherently multiplexable in the frequency domain, allowing ˜ 10 3 detectors to be read out using a single coaxial transmission line and cryogenic amplifier, drastically reducing cost and complexity. An MKID uses the change in the microwave surface impedance of a superconducting thin-film microresonator to detect photons. Absorption of photons in the superconductor breaks Cooper pairs into quasiparticles, changing the complex surface impedance, which results in a perturbation of resonator frequency and quality factor. For excitation and readout, the resonator is weakly coupled to a transmission line. The complex amplitude of a microwave probe signal tuned on-resonance and transmitted on the feedline past the resonator is perturbed as photons are absorbed in the superconductor. The perturbation can be

  1. A Submillimeter HCN Laser in IRC +10216.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilke; Mehringer; Menten

    2000-01-01

    We report the detection of a strong submillimeter-wavelength HCN laser line at a frequency near 805 GHz toward the carbon star IRC +10216. This line, the J=9-8 rotational transition within the (0400) vibrationally excited state, is one of a series of HCN laser lines that were first detected in the laboratory in the early days of laser spectroscopy. Since its lower energy level is 4200 K above the ground state, the laser emission must arise from the innermost part of IRC +10216's circumstellar envelope. To better characterize this environment, we observed other, thermally emitting, vibrationally excited HCN lines and found that they, like the laser line, arise in a region of temperature approximately 1000 K that is located within the dust formation radius; this conclusion is supported by the line width of the laser. The (0400), J=9-8 laser might be chemically pumped and may be the only known laser (or maser) that is excited both in the laboratory and in space by a similar mechanism.

  2. Black Holes and Sub-millimeter Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, Philip C; March-Russell, John David; Argyres, Philip C.; Dimopoulos, Savas; March-Russell, John

    1998-01-01

    Recently, a new framework for solving the hierarchy problem was proposed which does not rely on low energy supersymmetry or technicolor. The fundamental Planck mass is at a TeV and the observed weakness of gravity at long distances is due the existence of new sub-millimeter spatial dimensions. In this letter, we study how the properties of black holes are altered in these theories. Small black holes---with Schwarzschild radii smaller than the size of the new spatial dimensions---are quite different. They are bigger, colder, and longer-lived than a usual $(3+1)$-dimensional black hole of the same mass. Furthermore, they primarily decay into harmless bulk graviton modes rather than standard-model degrees of freedom. We discuss the interplay of our scenario with the holographic principle. Our results also have implications for the bounds on the spectrum of primordial black holes (PBHs) derived from the photo-dissociation of primordial nucleosynthesis products, distortion of the diffuse gamma-ray spectrum, overcl...

  3. Infrared/submillimeter optical properties data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Phillip W.

    1989-01-01

    The general goal was to build a data base containing optical properties, such as reflectance, transmittance, refractive index, in the far infrared to submillimeter wavelength region. This data base would be limited to selected crystalline materials and temperature between 300 and 2 K. The selected materials were: lithium, lead, and strontium; the bromides of potassium and thallium; the carbides of silicone and tungsten; and the materials of KRS5, KRS6, diamond, and sapphire. Last summer, barium fluoride was selected as prototype material for building the data base. This summer the literature search, preparation of the data for barium fluoride was completed. In addition the literature search for data related to the compounds mentioned was completed. The current status is that barium fluoride is in a form suitable for a NASA internal publication. The papers containing the data on the other materials were xeroxed and they are ready to be reduced. On the reverse side, the top figure is a sample combination of data for the index of refraction at 300 K. The lower figure shows the transmittance vs wavelength at 300 and 80 K. These figures are a sample of many which were developed. Since barium fluoride was studied more than most of the materials listed above, it is clear that additional measurements should be made to fill in the gaps present on both temperature and wavelength data.

  4. A Novel RFID Sensing System Using Enhanced Surface Wave Technology for Battery Exchange Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Lin Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID sensing system using enhanced surface wave technology for battery exchange stations (BESs of electric motorcycles. Ultrahigh-frequency (UHF RFID technology is utilized to automatically track and manage battery and user information without manual operation. The system includes readers, enhanced surface wave leaky cable antennas (ESWLCAs, coupling cable lines (CCLs, and small radiation patches (SRPs. The RFID sensing system overcomes the electromagnetic interference in the metallic environment of a BES cabinet. The developed RFID sensing system can effectively increase the efficiency of BES operation and promote the development of electric vehicles which solve the problem of air pollution as well as protect the environment of the Earth.

  5. Millimeter-Wave Receiver Concepts for 77 GHz Automotive Radar in Silicon-Germanium Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kissinger, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    The book presents the analysis and design of integrated automotive radar receivers in Silicon-Germanium technology, for use in complex multi-channel radar transceiver front-ends in the 77GHz frequency band. The main emphasis of the work is the realization of high-linearity and low-power modular receiver channels as well as the investigation of millimeter-wave integrated test concepts for the receiver front-end.

  6. Silicon-Based Technology for Integrated Waveguides and mm-Wave Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Vladimir; Gentile, Gennaro; Dekker, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    IC processing is used to develop technology for silicon-filled millimeter-wave-integrated waveguides. The front-end process defines critical waveguide sections and enables integration of dedicated components, such as RF capacitors and resistors. Wafer gluing is used to strengthen the mechanical...... insertion loss is only 0.12 dB/mm at 105 GHz. The optimized planar transition, the components of a beam-forming network, and a slotted waveguide antenna array are fabricated as further technology demonstrators. The broadside radiation of the antenna array has a beam steering of 63° using a frequency...

  7. Ionoacoustic characterization of the proton Bragg peak with submillimeter accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, W., E-mail: walter.assmann@lmu.de; Reinhardt, S.; Lehrack, S.; Edlich, A.; Thirolf, P. G.; Parodi, K. [Department for Medical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Am Coulombwall 1, Garching 85748 (Germany); Kellnberger, S.; Omar, M.; Ntziachristos, V. [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging, Technische Universität München and Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, Neuherberg 85764 (Germany); Moser, M.; Dollinger, G. [Institute for Applied Physics and Measurement Technology, Universität der Bundeswehr, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, Neubiberg 85577 (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Range verification in ion beam therapy relies to date on nuclear imaging techniques which require complex and costly detector systems. A different approach is the detection of thermoacoustic signals that are generated due to localized energy loss of ion beams in tissue (ionoacoustics). Aim of this work was to study experimentally the achievable position resolution of ionoacoustics under idealized conditions using high frequency ultrasonic transducers and a specifically selected probing beam. Methods: A water phantom was irradiated by a pulsed 20 MeV proton beam with varying pulse intensity and length. The acoustic signal of single proton pulses was measured by different PZT-based ultrasound detectors (3.5 and 10 MHz central frequencies). The proton dose distribution in water was calculated by Geant4 and used as input for simulation of the generated acoustic wave by the matlab toolbox k-WAVE. Results: In measurements from this study, a clear signal of the Bragg peak was observed for an energy deposition as low as 10{sup 12} eV. The signal amplitude showed a linear increase with particle number per pulse and thus, dose. Bragg peak position measurements were reproducible within ±30 μm and agreed with Geant4 simulations to better than 100 μm. The ionoacoustic signal pattern allowed for a detailed analysis of the Bragg peak and could be well reproduced by k-WAVE simulations. Conclusions: The authors have studied the ionoacoustic signal of the Bragg peak in experiments using a 20 MeV proton beam with its correspondingly localized energy deposition, demonstrating submillimeter position resolution and providing a deep insight in the correlation between the acoustic signal and Bragg peak shape. These results, together with earlier experiments and new simulations (including the results in this study) at higher energies, suggest ionoacoustics as a technique for range verification in particle therapy at locations, where the tumor can be localized by ultrasound

  8. Research on sensor technology of Lamb-wave signal acquisition using optical low-coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y. K.; Yang, C.; Li, X. W.; Chong, B.

    2012-10-01

    Non-destructive testing of composite materials is a key technology issue in equipment testing. Among the emerging new testing methods, Lamb-wave technology is getting more and more attention. This paper proposed a sensing method to acquire the Lamb-wave signal in thin plate based on optical low-coherence principles. Methods to acquire Lamb-wave in thin plate using optical low-coherence technology were analyzed, and the technical path of non-contact, high-precision method was chosen. Complete in-line experimental system and methods were designed and built up for testing. A sensor system based on Michelson low-coherence interferometer was set up. The distributed optical fiber sensors were arranged on the top of sample materials for signal detection. Mirrors to enhance reflection intensity were attached on the sample. The phase of sensing arm was modulated by PZT vibration. Then signals were detected and processed by Daubechies10 wavelet and Gabor wavelet. In-line testing of thin plate with features of high-precision and high signal-noise-ratio was realized, which is meaningful to dynamic testing of large-scale structure.

  9. Solar Observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, Sven

    2015-08-01

    The interferometric Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has already demonstrated its impressive capabilities by observing a large variety of targets ranging from protoplanetary disks to galactic nuclei. ALMA is also capable of observing the Sun and has been used for five solar test campaigns so far. The technically challenging solar observing modes are currently under development and regular observations are expected to begin in late 2016.ALMA consists of 66 antennas located in the Chilean Andes at an altitude of 5000 m and is a true leap forward in terms of spatial resolution at millimeter wavelengths. The resolution of reconstructed interferometric images of the Sun is anticipated to be close to what current optical solar telescopes can achieve. In combination with the high temporal and spectral resolution, these new capabilities open up new parameter spaces for solar millimeter observations.The solar radiation at wavelengths observed by ALMA originates from the chromosphere, where the height of the sampled layer increases with selected wavelength. The continuum intensity is linearly correlated to the local gas temperature in the probed layer, which makes ALMA essentially a linear thermometer. During flares, ALMA can detect additional non-thermal emission contributions. Measurements of the polarization state facilitate the valuable determination of the chromospheric magnetic field. In addition, spectrally resolved observations of radio recombination and molecular lines may yield great diagnostic potential, which has yet to be investigated and developed.Many different scientific applications for a large range of targets from quiet Sun to active regions and prominences are possible, ranging from ultra-high cadence wave studies to flare observations. ALMA, in particular in combination with other ground-based and space-borne instruments, will certainly lead to fascinating new findings, which will advance our understanding of the atmosphere of our Sun

  10. Blast shock wave mitigation using the hydraulic energy redirection and release technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2012-01-01

    A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel.

  11. Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies on Aquatic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čada, Glenn F.

    2007-04-01

    A new generation of hydropower technologies, the kinetic hydro and wave energy conversion devices, offers the possibility of generating electricity from the movements of water, without the need for dams and diversions. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 encouraged the development of these sources of renewable energy in the United States, and there is growing interest in deploying them globally. The technologies that would extract electricity from free-flowing streams, estuaries, and oceans have not been widely tested. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy convened a workshop to (1) identify the varieties of hydrokinetic energy and wave energy conversion devices and their stages of development, (2) identify where these technologies can best operate, (3) identify the potential environmental issues associated with these technologies and possible mitigation measures, and (4) develop a list of research needs and/or practical solutions to address unresolved environmental issues. The article reviews the results of that workshop, focusing on potential effects on freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems, and we describe recent national and international developments.

  12. Wave energy technology. Strategy for research, development and demonstration 2012; Boelgekraftteknologi. Strategi for forskning, udvikling og demonstration 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, K.; Krogh, J.; Kofoed, J.P. [Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark); Jensen, N.E.H. [Energinet.dk, Fredericia (Denmark); Friis-Madsen, E. [Boelgekraftforeningen, Hurup (Denmark); Mikkelsen, B.V. [Hanstholm Havneforum (Denmark); Jensen, A. [DanWEC, Thisted (Denmark)

    2012-06-15

    The vision for Danish development of wave energy technology is that Danish industrial and commercial firms gain skills for marketing of competitive wave energy technologies in both the Danish and the international market. Utilization of wave power is a prerequisite for that there in the future can be built offshore energy parks at greater sea depths. The development of wave energy technology should from 2030 at the latest provide the opportunity for cost-effective, sustainable electricity from offshore energy parks in Denmark. This strategy contains a detailed development plan and overview of the investment required to achieve the expected technological development. The objective to produce 1500 GWh / year at a reduced price of 0.10 DKK / kWh compared to pure offshore wind power will require a public investment of approx. 1.5 billion DKK over the next 20 years. This investment will, at the reduced electricity production cost alone, be paid back in 10 years. (LN)

  13. Experimental estimation of technology parameters of TWT slow-wave structure elements manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predmirskyi V. S.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available During the test of traveling wave tubes it was ascertained the direct dependence of the thermal conductivity of the slow wave structure from accuracy of manufacturing and from porosity of ceramic support rods. It is allowed to define the need to improve the accuracy of their production and the presorting by porosity. In this paper it is solved the problem of fastening of the ceramic rods in the process of processing by coolant instead of adhesive layer. The list of technological parameters and modes of machining support rods held by molecular cohesion forces are defined. The developed system of experiments allowed to determine the processing parameters required for the calculation of the bond strength (due to the liquid layer of the ceramic support rod with a mandrel in the process of machining. This makes possible to determine the technological process parameters of ceramic supporting bars polishing for TWT slow-wave structure. It is shown the possibility of power approach to the estimation of process parameters.

  14. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis...

  15. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  16. Development Of A Multicolor Sub/millimeter Camera Using Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaerth, James A.; Czakon, N. G.; Day, P. K.; Downes, T. P.; Duan, R.; Glenn, J.; Golwala, S. R.; Hollister, M. I.; LeDuc, H. G.; Maloney, P. R.; Mazin, B. A.; Noroozian, O.; Sayers, J.; Siegel, S.; Vayonakis, A.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) are superconducting resonators useful for detecting light from the millimeter-wave to the X-ray. These detectors are easily multiplexed, as the resonances can be tuned to slightly different frequencies, allowing hundreds of detectors to be read out simultaneously using a single feedline. The Multicolor Submillimeter Inductance Camera, MUSIC, will use 2304 antenna-coupled MKIDs in multicolor operation, with bands centered at wavelengths of 0.85, 1.1, 1.3 and 2.0 mm, beginning in 2011. Here we present the results of our demonstration instrument, DemoCam, containing a single 3-color array with 72 detectors and optics similar to MUSIC. We present sensitivities achieved at the telescope, and compare to those expected based upon laboratory tests. We explore the factors that limit the sensitivity, in particular electronics noise, antenna efficiency, and excess loading. We discuss mitigation of these factors, and how we plan to improve sensitivity to the level of background-limited performance for the scientific operation of MUSIC. Finally, we note the expected mapping speed and contributions of MUSIC to astrophysics, and in particular to the study of submillimeter galaxies. This research has been funded by grants from the National Science Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and the NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program.

  17. Analysis and Synthesis of Leaky-Wave Devices in Planar Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Ros, Alejandro Javier

    The work developed along this doctoral thesis has been focused on the analysis and synthesis of microwave devices in planar technology. In particular, several types of devices based on the radiation mechanism of leaky waves have been studied. Typically, the radiation properties in leaky-wave devices are determined by the complex propagation constant of the leaky mode, wherein the phase constant is responsible for the pointing angle and the leakage rate for the intensity of the radiated fields. In this manner, by controlling both amplitude and phase of the leaky mode, an effective control over the device's radiation diagram can be obtained. Moreover, with the purpose of efficiently obtaining the leaky mode's radiation properties as function of the main geometrical parameters of the structure, several modal tools based on the transverse resonance analysis of the structure have been performed. In order to demonstrate this simultaneous control over the complex propagation constant in planar technology, several types of leaky-wave devices, including antennas (LWAs), multiplexors and near-field focusing systems, have been designed and manufactured in the technology of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). This recently proposed technology, allows the design of devices based on classical waveguide technology with standard manufacturing techniques used for printed circuit board (PCB) designs. In this way, most of the parts that form a communication system can be integrated into a single substrate, thus reducing its cost and providing a more robust and compact device, which has less losses compared to other planar technologies such as the microstrip. El trabajo llevado a cabo durante la realizacion de esta tesis doctoral, se ha centrado en el analisis y sintesis de dispositivos de microondas en tecnologia planar. En concreto, se han estudiado diferentes tipos de dispositivos basados en radiacion por ondas de fuga "leaky waves", en los cuales las propiedades de radiacion

  18. An Overview of Multigigabit Wireless through Millimeter Wave Technology: Potentials and Technical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Chia-Chin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of 60 GHz technology and its potentials to provide next generation multigigabit wireless communications systems. We begin by reviewing the state-of-art of the 60 GHz radio. Then, the current status of worldwide regulatory efforts and standardization activities for 60 GHz band is summarized. As a result of the worldwide unlicensed 60 GHz band allocation, a number of key applications can be identified using millimeter-wave technology. Despite of its huge potentials to achieve multigigabit wireless communications, 60 GHz radio presents a series of technical challenges that needs to be resolved before its full deployment. Specifically, we will focus on the link budget analysis from the 60 GHz radio propagation standpoint and highlight the roles of antennas in establishing a reliable 60 GHz radio.

  19. An Overview of Multigigabit Wireless through Millimeter Wave Technology: Potentials and Technical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chin Chong

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of 60 GHz technology and its potentials to provide next generation multigigabit wireless communications systems. We begin by reviewing the state-of-art of the 60 GHz radio. Then, the current status of worldwide regulatory efforts and standardization activities for 60 GHz band is summarized. As a result of the worldwide unlicensed 60 GHz band allocation, a number of key applications can be identified using millimeter-wave technology. Despite of its huge potentials to achieve multigigabit wireless communications, 60 GHz radio presents a series of technical challenges that needs to be resolved before its full deployment. Specifically, we will focus on the link budget analysis from the 60 GHz radio propagation standpoint and highlight the roles of antennas in establishing a reliable 60 GHz radio.

  20. Estimation of physiological sub-millimeter displacement with CW Doppler radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia Xu; Xiaomeng Gao; Padasdao, Bryson E; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar physiological sensing has been studied for non-contact detection of vital signs including respiratory and heartbeat rates. This paper presents the first micrometer resolution Wi-Fi band Doppler radar for sub-millimeter physiological displacement measurement. A continuous-wave Doppler radar working at 2.4GHz is used for the measurement. It is intended for estimating small displacements on the body surface resulting from physiological activity. A mechanical mover was used as target, and programmed to conduct sinusoidal motions to simulate pulse motions. Measured displacements were compared with a reference system, which indicates a superior performance in accuracy for having absolute errors less than 10μm, and relative errors below 4%. It indicates the feasibility of highly accurate non-contact monitoring of physiological movements using Doppler radar.

  1. Submillimeter ionoacoustic range determination for protons in water at a clinical synchrocyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrack, Sebastian; Assmann, Walter; Bertrand, Damien; Henrotin, Sebastien; Herault, Joel; Heymans, Vincent; Vander Stappen, Francois; Thirolf, Peter G.; Vidal, Marie; Van de Walle, Jarno; Parodi, Katia

    2017-09-01

    Proton ranges in water between 145 MeV to 227 MeV initial energy have been measured at a clinical superconducting synchrocyclotron using the acoustic signal induced by the ion dose deposition (ionoacoustic effect). Detection of ultrasound waves was performed by a very sensitive hydrophone and signals were stored in a digital oscilloscope triggered by secondary prompt gammas. The ionoacoustic range measurements were compared to existing range data from a calibrated range detector setup on-site and agreement of better than 1 mm was found at a Bragg peak dose of about 10 Gy for 220 MeV initial proton energy, compatible with the experimental errors. Ionoacoustics has thus the potential to measure the Bragg peak position with submillimeter accuracy during proton therapy, possibly correlated with ultrasound tissue imaging.

  2. A system for measuring complex dielectric properties of thin films at submillimeter wavelengths using an open hemispherical cavity and a vector network analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rezwanur; Taylor, P. C.; Scales, John A.

    2013-08-01

    Quasi-optical (QO) methods of dielectric spectroscopy are well established in the millimeter and submillimeter frequency bands. These methods exploit standing wave structure in the sample produced by a transmitted Gaussian beam to achieve accurate, low-noise measurement of the complex permittivity of the sample [e.g., J. A. Scales and M. Batzle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 062906 (2006);, 10.1063/1.2172403 R. N. Clarke and C. B. Rosenberg, J. Phys. E 15, 9 (1982);, 10.1088/0022-3735/15/1/002 T. M. Hirovnen, P. Vainikainen, A. Lozowski, and A. V. Raisanen, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 780 (1996)], 10.1109/19.516996. In effect the sample itself becomes a low-Q cavity. On the other hand, for optically thin samples (films of thickness much less than a wavelength) or extremely low loss samples (loss tangents below 10-5) the QO approach tends to break down due to loss of signal. In such a case it is useful to put the sample in a high-Q cavity and measure the perturbation of the cavity modes. Provided that the average mode frequency divided by the shift in mode frequency is less than the Q (quality factor) of the mode, then the perturbation should be resolvable. Cavity perturbation techniques are not new, but there are technological difficulties in working in the millimeter/submillimeter wave region. In this paper we will show applications of cavity perturbation to the dielectric characterization of semi-conductor thin films of the type used in the manufacture of photovoltaics in the 100 and 350 GHz range. We measured the complex optical constants of hot-wire chemical deposition grown 1-μm thick amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film on borosilicate glass substrate. The real part of the refractive index and dielectric constant of the glass-substrate varies from frequency-independent to linearly frequency-dependent. We also see power-law behavior of the frequency-dependent optical conductivity from 316 GHz (9.48 cm-1) down to 104 GHz (3.12 cm-1).

  3. A label-free detector for liquid chromatography systems using mm-wave technology: First proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Declerck, S; Mangelings, D; He, G; Matvejev, V; Vander Heyden, Y; Stiens, J

    2017-09-22

    The development of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) technology has enabled the study of bio-molecular interactions by means of electromagnetic waves with frequencies between 30 and 300GHz. In this study, an attempt has been made to exploit the possibility of mm-wave technology as alternative detection technique for liquid chromatographic (LC) systems. The goal is to design and fabricate a label-free mm-wave detector that is compatible with LC systems. As proof-of-concept experiments, the UV absorbing compounds praziquantel and trans-stilbene-oxide as well as a non-UV absorbing compound sorbitol are injected in an open capillary as well as a capillary with stationary phase and measured by both mm-wave and UV detectors. The in-house developed mm-wave detector is capable of detecting all compounds without the need for labelling. Although the detection limit of such detector still needs to be verified and occasionally improved in the future, it already shows great potential as an additional detection technique for LC systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Novel Particulate Matter 2.5 Sensor Based on Surface Acoustic Wave Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuling Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Design, fabrication and experiments of a miniature particulate matter (PM 2.5 sensor based on the surface acoustic wave (SAW technology were proposed. The sensor contains a virtual impactor (VI for particle separation, a thermophoretic precipitator (TP for PM2.5 capture and a SAW sensor chip for PM2.5 mass detection. The separation performance of the VI was evaluated by using the finite element method (FEM model and the PM2.5 deposition characteristic in the TP was obtained by analyzing the thermophoretic theory. Employing the coupling-of-modes (COM model, a low loss and high-quality SAW resonator was designed. By virtue of the micro electro mechanical system (MEMS technology and semiconductor technology, the SAW based PM2.5 sensor detecting probe was fabricated. Then, combining a dual-port SAW oscillator and an air sampler, the experimental platform was set up. Exposing the PM2.5 sensor to the polystyrene latex (PSL particles in a chamber, the sensor performance was evaluated. The results show that by detecting the PSL particles with a certain diameter of 2 μm, the response of the SAW based PM2.5 sensor is linear, and in accordance with the response of the light scattering based PM2.5 monitor. The developed SAW based PM2.5 sensor has great potential for the application of airborne particle detection.

  5. Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

    2013-09-01

    This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

  6. Signal to Noise Ratio Maximization in Quiet Zone Acquisitions for Range Assessment at Sub-millimeter Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muñoz-Acevedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a quiet zone probing approach which deals with low dynamic range quiet zone acquisitions. Lack of dynamic range is a feature of millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength technologies. It is consequence of the gradually smaller power generated by the instrumentation, that follows a f^α law with frequency, being α≥1 variable depending on the signal source’s technology. The proposed approach is based on an optimal data reduction scenario which redounds in a maximum signal to noise ratio increase for the signal pattern, with minimum information losses. After theoretical formulation, practical applications of the technique are proposed.

  7. A Submillimeter Perspective on the Goods Fields. II. The High Radio Power Population in the Goods-N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.; Owen, F. N.; Hsu, L.-Y.; Wang, W.-H.

    2017-01-01

    We use ultradeep 20 cm data from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and 850 μm data from SCUBA-2 and the Submillimeter Array of an 124 arcmin2 region of the Chandra Deep Field-north to analyze the high radio power ({P}20{cm}> {10}31 erg s-1 Hz-1) population. We find that 20 (42 ± 9%) of the spectroscopically identified z> 0.8 sources have consistent star formation rates (SFRs) inferred from both submillimeter and radio observations, while the remaining sources have lower (mostly undetected) submillimeter fluxes, suggesting that active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity dominates the radio power in these sources. We develop a classification scheme based on the ratio of submillimeter flux to radio power versus radio power and find that it agrees with AGN and star-forming galaxy classifications from Very Long Baseline Interferometry. Our results provide support for an extremely rapid drop in the number of high SFR galaxies above about a thousand solar masses per year (Kroupa initial mass function) and for the locally determined relation between X-ray luminosity and radio power for star-forming galaxies applying at high redshifts and high radio powers. We measure far-infrared (FIR) luminosities and find that some AGNs lie on the FIR-radio correlation, while others scatter below. The AGNs that lie on the correlation appear to do so based on their emission from the AGN torus. We measure a median radio size of 1.″0 ± 0.3 for the star-forming galaxies. The radio sizes of the star-forming galaxies are generally larger than those of the AGNs. The W. M. Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  8. Passive magnetic shielding for the submillimeter and far infrared experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Koji; Warner, B.A.; Di Pirro, M.J.; Numazawa, Takenori

    2003-05-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center is developing the submillimeter and far infrared experiment (SAFIRE). SAFIRE will use SQUIDs as amplifiers for detectors, which must be shielded from the magnet cooling system, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The magnetic field at the detector package must remain at or below the 10{sup -7} tesla level while the detectors are operating. We discuss laboratory tests of the passive shielding and simulations.

  9. The Innovated Flexible Surface Acoustic Wave Devices on Fully InkJet Printing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha’o-Kuang Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An innovated fabricated process of the flexible surface acoustic wave (SAW device is proposed in this study. Fully inkjet printing and sol-gel technology are used in this fabricated process. The flexible SAW device is composed of a ZnO layer sandwiched in between a flexible polyimide plastic sheet and two sets of interdigital transducers layer. The material of the top interdigital transducer layer is nano silver. The ZnO solution is prepared by sol-gel technology. Both the ZnO and top interdigital transducer layers are deposited by inkjet printing. The fully inkjet printing process possesses the advantages of direct patterning and low-cost. It does not require photolithography and etching processes since the pattern is directly printed on the flexible sheet. The center frequency of this prototype is matched with the design frequency. The prototype demonstrates that the presented flexible SAW device is available for the possible application in future. It may be applied to the sensing on curve surface.

  10. Analysis of the Sub-Millimeter Rotational Spectrum of Urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jessica R.; Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2013-06-01

    Urea, ((NH_{2})_{2}CO), has broad presence in biological species. As a byproduct of human metabolism, this molecule is commonly tested for in blood to diagnose different pathologies. Furthermore, urea is seen in interstellar medium and its detection could yield valuable insight into the mechanisms governing star formation. Despite the prevalence of urea, an absence exists in recorded frequencies of this molecule. The new generation of the sub-millimeter telescopes, such as ALMA, HERSCHEL, and SOFIA, allows detection of interstellar molecular spectra at unprecedented spatial and spectral resolutions. The knowledge of the precise frequencies of spectra transitions present in interstellar molecular clouds would alleviate the problem of spectral congestion and aid in molecular identification. This paper reports the most recent investigation of the submillimeter/terahertz gas phase spectrum of urea. Up until now, only the microwave laboratory spectrum of urea's vibrational ground state has been available. This paper reports the high-resolution spectra of urea in the sub-millimeter range, and extends the spectroscopic assignment of the rotational transitions in the vibrational ground state. Additionally, the assignment of the first vibrational state and tentative assignments of two additional vibrational states have been made.

  11. A SUBMILLIMETER CONTINUUM SURVEY OF LOCAL DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Chul [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ho Seong [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gwang-Ho, E-mail: jclee@kasi.re.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    We conduct a 350 μ m dust continuum emission survey of 17 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at z = 0.05–0.08 with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We detect 14 DOGs with S{sub 350μm} = 114–650 mJy and signal-to-noise > 3. By including two additional DOGs with submillimeter data in the literature, we are able to study dust content for a sample of 16 local DOGs, which consist of 12 bump and four power-law types. We determine their physical parameters with a two-component modified blackbody function model. The derived dust temperatures are in the range 57–122 K and 22–35 K for the warm and cold dust components, respectively. The total dust mass and the mass fraction of the warm dust component are 3–34 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} and 0.03%–2.52%, respectively. We compare these results with those of other submillimeter-detected infrared luminous galaxies. The bump DOGs, the majority of the DOG sample, show similar distributions of dust temperatures and total dust mass to the comparison sample. The power-law DOGs show a hint of smaller dust masses than other samples, but need to be tested with a larger sample. These findings support that the reason DOGs show heavy dust obscuration is not an overall amount of dust content, but probably the spatial distribution of dust therein.

  12. Millimeter- and terahertz-wave over fiber technologies for high-speed communication and non-telecom applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Millimeter-wave and terahertz-wave technologies are promising solutions for high-speed wireless communication as well as nondestructive imaging due to its high frequency (short wavelength) nature. In the study, we propose and demonstrate high-speed wireless communication in millimeter- and terahertz-wave bands adopted by advanced optical fiber communication technologies: combination of a radio over fiber (RoF) manner for generation of the signals and a high-speed digital signal processing implemented in a receiver. The RoF technique is also capable for a local-oscillator signal transport over the fiber to the remote sites. Fiber-remoted distributed radar system is also discussed in the paper.

  13. Observational Approach to Molecular Cloud Evolution with the Submillimeter CI Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Mt. Fuji Submillimeter-Wave Telescope Group

    Neutral carbon atoms (CI) play important role both in chemistry and cooling processes of interstellar molecular clouds. It is thus crucial to explore its large area distribution to investigate formation processes and thermal balance of molecular clouds. We have constructed a 1.2 m submillimeter-wave telescope at the summit of Mt.Fuji. The telescope was designed for the exclusive use of surveying molecular clouds in two submillimeter CI lines, 3P1--3P0 (492 GHz) and 3P2--3P1 (809 GHz), of atomic carbon. It has been operated successfully during 4 observing seasons since July 1998 in a remote way from the Hongo campus of the University of Tokyo. We have already revealed large-scale CI 492 GHz distributions of many giant molecular clouds, including Orion MC, Taurus MC, DR15, DR21, NGC2264, M17, W3, W44, W51, Rosette MC, covering more than 40 square degrees of the sky. The distribution of CI 492 GHz emission is found to be different from those of the 13CO or C18O emission in some clouds. We found the spatial order of C+/CO/C from UV sources. This is the general property of the cloud illuminated by intense UV radiation, whereas it is apparently inconsistent with the standard photodissociation region (PDR) picture. We also found CI-rich areas (C/CO˜1) in several dark clouds without strong UV sources. These results are discussed in relation to formation processes of molecular clouds and dense cloud cores.

  14. Predictability of the Power Output of Three Wave Energy Technologies in the Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Jensen, N. E. Helstrup; Sørensen, H. C.

    2013-01-01

    show that the errors in day-ahead predictions (in terms of scatter index) of the significant wave height, zero crossing period and wave power are 22%, 11% and 74%, respectively; and of the normalised theoretical power outputs of Pelamis, Wave Dragon and Wavestar are 37%, 39% and 54%, respectively...

  15. Research Status and Action of Sub-millimeter Debris Impact Damage on Spacecraft Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Higashide, Masumi; Kurosaki, Hirohisa; Hasegawa, Sunao; 東出, 真澄; 黒崎, 裕久; 長谷川, 直

    2015-01-01

    To assess debris impact risk for the satellite, submillimeter debris impact damage has not been investigated enough to conduct satellite protective designing. JAXA is researching vulnerability of satellite structure materials against submillimeter debris impact, and proposing shielding methods. This report shows summary of submillimeter impact damages of honeycomb sandwich panels. The damage of the panel was investigated by hypervelocity impact experiments with the two-stage light gas gun in ...

  16. A 0.1-μm MHEMT millimeter-wave IC technology designed for manufacturability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohdin, Hans; Wakita, Arlene; Nagy, Avelina; Robbins, Virginia; Moll, Nick; Su, Chung-yi

    1999-08-01

    We describe and discuss our approach to improved manufacturability of millimeter-wave InP-type HEMT IC technology. The main ingredients are the use of (1) GaAs (rather than InP) as substrate, with a buffer that grades the lattice constant to that of the high-mobility Ga 0.47In 0.53As channel; (2) low-resistance non-alloyed ohmic contacts with good reliability and reproducibility; (3) an e-beam process that produces 0.1-μm T-gate fingers with one exposure and (4) two-step selective etching of the gate trough for good uniformity. The process is compatible with standard GaAs FET IC front and back end unit processes, including backside vias. The yield, uniformity and performance of devices and circuits made on this metamorphic (MHEMT) material are consistently as good as those we get using InP substrates. The reliability of our devices, whether made on GaAs or InP substrates, is limited by impact ionization in the channel, which has also been linked to Rd-degradation and burnout. At low-noise drain bias ( Vd=1 V), where the impact ionization is small, we have demonstrated reliability, i.e. extrapolated MTTF at 125°C channel temperature is >10 6 h. This is as good as FETs made on InP substrates.

  17. Millimeter-wave imaging of magnetic fusion plasmas: technology innovations advancing physics understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Tobias, B.; Chang, Y.-T.; Yu, J.-H.; Li, M.; Hu, F.; Chen, M.; Mamidanna, M.; Phan, T.; Pham, A.-V.; Gu, J.; Liu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Domier, C. W.; Shi, L.; Valeo, E.; Kramer, G. J.; Kuwahara, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Mase, A.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.

    2017-07-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging is a passive radiometric technique that measures electron temperature fluctuations; and microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) is an active radar imaging technique that measures electron density fluctuations. Microwave imaging diagnostic instruments employing these techniques have made important contributions to fusion science and have been adopted at major fusion facilities worldwide including DIII-D, EAST, ASDEX Upgrade, HL-2A, KSTAR, LHD, and J-TEXT. In this paper, we describe the development status of three major technological advancements: custom mm-wave integrated circuits (ICs), digital beamforming (DBF), and synthetic diagnostic modeling (SDM). These have the potential to greatly advance microwave fusion plasma imaging, enabling compact and low-noise transceiver systems with real-time, fast tracking ability to address critical fusion physics issues, including ELM suppression and disruptions in the ITER baseline scenario, naturally ELM-free states such as QH-mode, and energetic particle confinement (i.e. Alfvén eigenmode stability) in high-performance regimes that include steady-state and advanced tokamak scenarios. Furthermore, these systems are fully compatible with today’s most challenging non-inductive heating and current drive systems and capable of operating in harsh environments, making them the ideal approach for diagnosing long-pulse and steady-state tokamaks.

  18. Submillimeter Detection of the van der Waals Stretching Vibration of the Ar-CO Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendriesch, R.; Pak, I.; Lewen, F.; Surin, L.; Roth, D. A.; Winnewisser, G.

    1999-07-01

    With the Cologne submillimeter-wave supersonic jet spectrometer, we extended molecular jet spectroscopy with backward wave oscillators up to frequencies of about 600 GHz. For the first time, the van der Waals stretching vibration of the Ar-CO molecular complex was detected in direct absorption. We measured 13 ro-vibrational transitions (Kvstretch = 1 ← 0, Ka = 0 ← 0) in the frequency range from 528 to 600 GHz and additionally the two R(3) K doublet (Ka = 4 ← 3) pure rotational transitions at 447 GHz with an accuracy of about 200 kHz. The ro-vibrational transitions were assigned and fitted within experimental accuracy to a simple Hamiltonian taking into account the Coriolis interaction between the stretching and bending states, i.e., between vstretch = 1, Ka = 0, and vbend = 1, Ka = 1. The intensity of the transitions in the van der Waals stretching mode was estimated to be a factor of 5-10 less than that in the bending mode of Ar-CO.

  19. CLUMPY AND EXTENDED STARBURSTS IN THE BRIGHTEST UNLENSED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iono, Daisuke; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Kawabe, Ryohei; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yun, Min S.; Wilson, Grant [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Luis Enrique Erro 1, Sta. Ma. Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Ikarashi, Soh [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700AV Groningen (Netherlands); Izumi, Takuma; Kohno, Kotaro; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Lee, Minju; Saito, Toshiki [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Ueda, Junko [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Michiyama, Tomonari; Ando, Misaki, E-mail: d.iono@nao.ac.jp [SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-09-20

    The central structure in three of the brightest unlensed z = 3–4 submillimeter galaxies is investigated through 0.″015–0.″05 (120–360 pc) 860 μ m continuum images obtained using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The distribution in the central kiloparsec in AzTEC1 and AzTEC8 is extremely complex, and they are composed of multiple ∼200 pc clumps. AzTEC4 consists of two sources that are separated by ∼1.5 kpc, indicating a mid-stage merger. The peak star formation rate densities in the central clumps are ∼300–3000 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}, suggesting regions with extreme star formation near the Eddington limit. By comparing the flux obtained by ALMA and Submillimeter Array, we find that 68%–90% of the emission is extended (≳1 kpc) in AzTEC4 and 8. For AzTEC1, we identify at least 11 additional compact (∼200 pc) clumps in the extended 3–4 kpc region. Overall, the data presented here suggest that the luminosity surface densities observed at ≲150 pc scales are roughly similar to that observed in local ULIRGs, as in the eastern nucleus of Arp 220. Between 10% and 30% of the 860 μ m continuum is concentrated in clumpy structures in the central kiloparsec, while the remaining flux is distributed over ≳1 kpc regions, some of which could also be clumpy. These sources can be explained by a rapid inflow of gas such as a merger of gas-rich galaxies, surrounded by extended and clumpy starbursts. However, the cold mode accretion model is not ruled out.

  20. Detection of Circular Polarization from Sagittarius A* at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Diego; Marrone, D.; Moran, J.

    2009-05-01

    We report the detection of circularly polarized (CP) emission from the compact radio source Sagittarius A* at a level of 1.5% at a frequency of 235 GHz (1.4 mm). Sgr A* is associated with the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the Galactic Center. The observations, taken with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) on 03/31/2007, also show a linearly polarized (LP) component of 7%. The snr of our detection of CP is about 14. Before our measurements, CP had only been detected at frequencies between 1.4 and 15 GHz (21 and 2 cm) at levels Faraday rotation in the stationary screen (constant RM)acts on a time variable background source. A cold, optically thin plasma screen cannot be responsible for both a constant RM and Faraday conversion from LP to CP, therefore the observed amounts of CP are likely to be originated close to the central source. Sgr A* shows a flat-to-inverted radio spectrum and a submillimeter excess referred to as the "submillimeter bump". This excess it thought to come from the closest regions to the SMBH. In such a scenario, millimeter wavelength data is associated with regions in which the material is likely to be relativistic and the magnetic field ordered. We have carried out polarized radiative transfer calculations exploring different combinations of ordered and stochastic magnetic fields looking for a favored scenario that can explain the apparent constant increase of CP with frequency as well as the sudden jump in LP between 40 and 80 GHz.

  1. Superconductor Semiconductor Research for NASA's Submillimeter Wavelength Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    Wideband, coherent submillimeter wavelength detectors of the highest sensitivity are essential for the success of NASA's future radio astronomical and atmospheric space missions. The critical receiver components which need to be developed are ultra- wideband mixers and suitable local oscillator sources. This research is focused on two topics, (1) the development of reliable varactor diodes that will generate the required output power for NASA missions in the frequency range from 300 GHZ through 2.5 THz, and (2) the development of wideband superconductive mixer elements for the same frequency range.

  2. Probing the sky with radio waves from wireless technology to the development of atmospheric science

    CERN Document Server

    Yeang, Chen-Pang

    2013-01-01

    By the late nineteenth century, engineers and experimental scientists generally knew how radio waves behaved, and by 1901 scientists were able to manipulate them to transmit messages across long distances. What no one could understand, however, was why radio waves followed the curvature of the Earth. Theorists puzzled over this for nearly twenty years before physicists confirmed the zig-zag theory, a solution that led to the discovery of a layer in the Earth's upper atmosphere that bounces radio waves earthward-the ionosphere. In Probing the Sky with Radio Waves,

  3. Assessing student understanding of sound waves and trigonometric reasoning in a technology-rich, project-enhanced environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jennifer Anne

    This case study examined what student content understanding could occur in an inner city Industrial Electronics classroom located at Tree High School where project-based instruction, enhanced with technology, was implemented for the first time. Students participated in a project implementation unit involving sound waves and trigonometric reasoning. The unit was designed to foster common content learning (via benchmark lessons) by all students in the class, and to help students gain a deeper conceptual understanding of a sub-set of the larger content unit (via group project research). The objective goal of the implementation design unit was to have students gain conceptual understanding of sound waves, such as what actually waves in a wave, how waves interfere with one another, and what affects the speed of a wave. This design unit also intended for students to develop trigonometric reasoning associated with sinusoidal curves and superposition of sinusoidal waves. Project criteria within this design included implementation features, such as the need for the student to have a driving research question and focus, the need for benchmark lessons to help foster and scaffold content knowledge and understanding, and the need for project milestones to complete throughout the implementation unit to allow students the time for feedback and revision. The Industrial Electronics class at Tree High School consisted of nine students who met daily during double class periods giving 100 minutes of class time per day. The class teacher had been teaching for 18 years (mathematics, physics, and computer science). He had a background in engineering and experience teaching at the college level. Benchmark activities during implementation were used to scaffold fundamental ideas and terminology needed to investigate characteristics of sound and waves. Students participating in benchmark activities analyzed motion and musical waveforms using probeware, and explored wave phenomena using waves

  4. Electromagnetic Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Blok, H.; van den Berg, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc.

  5. Predictability of the Power Output of Three Wave Energy Technologies in the Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Jensen, N. E. Helstrup; Sørensen, H. C.

    2011-01-01

    , during a very energetic time period. Results show that for the 12 to 36 hours time horizon forecast, the accuracy in the predictions (in terms of scatter index) of the significant wave height, zero crossing period and wave power are 22%, 11% and 68%, respectively; and the accuracy in the predictions...

  6. Properties of Submillimeter Galaxies in the CANDELS GOODS-South Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiklind, Tommy; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dahlen, Tomas; Dickinson, Mark E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Guo, Yicheng; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mobasher, Bahram; Mortlock, Alice; Fontana, Adriano; Davé, Romeel; Yan, Haojing; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barro, Guillermo; Caputi, Karina I.; Castellano, Marco; Dekel, Avishai; Donley, Jennifer L.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Hathi, Nimish P.; Kurczynski, Peter; Lu, Yu; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; de Mello, Duilia F.; Peth, Michael; Safarzadeh, Mohammad; Stefanon, Mauro; Targett, Thomas

    We derive physical properties of 10 submillimeter galaxies located in the CANDELS coverage of the GOODS-S field. The galaxies were first identified as submillimeter sources with the LABOCA bolometer and subsequently targeted for 870 μm continuum observation with ALMA. The high angular resolution of

  7. A Black Hole Mass-Variability Timescale Correlation at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bower, G.C.; Dexter, J.; Markoff, S.; Gurwell, M.A.; Rao, R.; McHardy, I.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the light curves of 413 radio sources at submillimeter wavelengths using data from the Submillimeter Array calibrator database. The database includes more than 20,000 observations at 1.3 and 0.8 mm that span 13 years. We model the light curves as a damped random walk and determine a

  8. Transition-Edge Hot-Electron Microbolometers for Millimeter and Submillimeter Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Stevenson, Thomas; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward; Barrentine, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The millimeter and the submillimeter wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum hold a wealth of information about the evolution of the universe. In particular, cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation and its polarization carry the oldest information in the universe, and provide the best test of the inflationary paradigm available to astronomy today. Detecting gravity waves through their imprint on the CMB polarization would have extraordinary repercussions for cosmology and physics. A transition-edge hot-electron micro - bolometer (THM) consists of a superconducting bilayer transition-edge sensor (TES) with a thin-film absorber. Unlike traditional monolithic bolometers that make use of micromachined structures, the THM em ploys the decoupling between electrons and phonons at millikelvin temperatures to provide thermal isolation. The devices are fabricated photolithographically and are easily integrated with antennas via microstrip transmission lines, and with SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) readouts. The small volume of the absorber and TES produces a short thermal time constant that facilitates rapid sky scanning. The THM consists of a thin-film metal absorber overlapping a superconducting TES. The absorber forms the termination of a superconducting microstripline that carries RF power from an antenna. The purpose of forming a separate absorber and TES is to allow flexibility in the optimization of the two components. In particular, the absorbing film's impedance can be chosen to match the antenna, while the TES impedance can be chosen to match to the readout SQUID amplifier. This scheme combines the advantages of the TES with the advantages of planar millimeter-wave transmission line circuits. Antenna-coupling to the detectors via planar transmission lines allows the detector dimensions to be much smaller than a wavelength, so the technique can be extended across the entire microwave, millimeter, and submillimeter wavelength ranges. The

  9. Josephson frequency meter for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anischenko, S.E.; Larkin, S.Y.; Chaikovsky, V.I. [State Research Center, Kiev (Ukraine)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Frequency measurements of electromagnetic oscillations of millimeter and submillimeter wavebands with frequency growth due to a number of reasons become more and more difficult. First, these frequencies are considered to be cutoff for semiconductor converting devices and one has to use optical measurement methods instead of traditional ones with frequency transfer. Second, resonance measurement methods are characterized by using relatively narrow bands and optical ones are limited in frequency and time resolution due to the limited range and velocity of movement of their mechanical elements as well as the efficiency of these optical techniques decreases with the increase of wavelength due to diffraction losses. That requires the apriori information on the radiation frequency band of the source involved. Method of measuring frequency of harmonic microwave signals in millimeter and submillimeter wavebands based on the ac Josephson effect in superconducting contacts is devoid of all the above drawbacks. This approach offers a number of major advantages over the more traditional measurement methods, that is the one based on frequency conversion, resonance and interferrometric techniques. It can be characterized by high potential accuracy, wide range of frequencies measured, prompt measurement and the opportunity to obtain panoramic display of the results as well as full automation of the measuring process.

  10. A Sub-millimeter, Inductively Powered Neural Stimulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K. Freeman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless neural stimulators are being developed to address problems associated with traditional lead-based implants. However, designing wireless stimulators on the sub-millimeter scale (<1 mm3 is challenging. As device size shrinks, it becomes difficult to deliver sufficient wireless power to operate the device. Here, we present a sub-millimeter, inductively powered neural stimulator consisting only of a coil to receive power, a capacitor to tune the resonant frequency of the receiver, and a diode to rectify the radio-frequency signal to produce neural excitation. By replacing any complex receiver circuitry with a simple rectifier, we have reduced the required voltage levels that are needed to operate the device from 0.5 to 1 V (e.g., for CMOS to ~0.25–0.5 V. This reduced voltage allows the use of smaller receive antennas for power, resulting in a device volume of 0.3–0.5 mm3. The device was encapsulated in epoxy, and successfully passed accelerated lifetime tests in 80°C saline for 2 weeks. We demonstrate a basic proof-of-concept using stimulation with tens of microamps of current delivered to the sciatic nerve in rat to produce a motor response.

  11. Structured Antireflective Coating for Silicon at Submillimeter Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Estefania

    2018-01-01

    Observations at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths are useful for many astronomical studies, such as the polarization of the cosmic microwave background or the formation and evolution of galaxy clusters. In order to allow observations over a broad spectral bandwidth (approximatively from 70 to 420 GHz), innovative broadband anti-reflective (AR) optics must be utilized in submillimeter telescopes. Due to its low loss and high refractive index, silicon is a fine optical material at these frequencies, but an AR coating with multiple layers is required to maximize its transmission over a wide bandwidth. Structured multilayer AR coatings for silicon are currently being developed at Caltech and JPL. The development process includes the design of the structured layers with commercial electromagnetic simulation software, the fabrication by using deep reactive ion etching, and the test of the transmission and reflection of the patterned wafers. Geometrical 3D patterns have successfully been etched at the surface of the silicon wafers creating up to 2 layers with different effective refractive indices. The transmission and reflection of single AR layer wafers, measured between 75 and 330 GHz, are close to the simulation predictions. These results allow the development of new designs with 5 or 6 AR layers in order to improve the bandwidth and transmission of the silicon AR coatings.

  12. An ALMA Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South : Source Catalog and Multiplicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodge, J.; Karim, A.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A.; Walter, F.; Biggs, A.; Ivison, R.; Weiss, A.; Alexander, D.; Bertoldi, F.; Brandt, W.; Chapman, S.; Coppin, K.; Cox, P.; Danielson, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; De, Breuck C.; Decarli, R.; Edge, A.; Greve, T.; Knudsen, K.; Menten, K.; Rix, H.; Schinnerer, E.; Simpson, J.; Wardlow, J.; Werf, van der P.P.

    2013-01-01

    We present an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 0 survey of 126 submillimeter sources from the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey (LESS). Our 870 {$μ$}m survey with ALMA (ALESS) has produced maps ~{}3{ imes} deeper and with a beam area ~{}200{ imes} smaller than the original

  13. [Measurement of Soil Total N Based on Portable Short Wave NIR Spectroscopy Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-liang; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    portable short wave near-infrared spectral technology to predict soil total nitrogen and wavelengths selection could be very useful to reduce redundancy of spectra.

  14. Multipass millimeter/submillimeter spectrometer to probe dissociative reaction dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laas, Jacob C; Hays, Brian M; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L

    2013-10-03

    We present here the instrument design and first experimental results from a multipass millimeter/submillimeter spectrometer designed to probe dissociative reaction dynamics. This work focuses on benchmarking the instrument performance through detection of the CH3O and H2CO products from methanol dissociation induced by a high-voltage plasma discharge. Multiple rotational lines from CH3O and H2CO were observed when this plasma discharge was applied to a sample of methanol vapor seeded in an argon supersonic expansion. The rotational temperature of the dissociation products and their abundance with respect to methanol were determined using a Boltzmann analysis. The minimum detectable absorption coefficient for this instrument was determined to be αmin ≤ 5 × 10(-9) cm(-1). We discuss these results in the context of future applications of this instrument to the study of photodissociation branching ratios for small organic molecules that are important in complex interstellar chemistry.

  15. High-Sensitivity AGN Polarimetry at Sub-Millimeter Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Martí-Vidal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The innermost regions of radio loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN jets are heavily affected by synchrotron self-absorption, due to the strong magnetic fields and high particle densities in these extreme zones. The only way to overcome this absorption is to observe at sub-millimeter wavelengths, although polarimetric observations at such frequencies have so far been limited by sensitivity and calibration accuracy. However, new generation instruments such as the Atacama Large mm/sub-mm Array (ALMA overcome these limitations and are starting to deliver revolutionary results in the observational studies of AGN polarimetry. Here we present an overview of our state-of-the-art interferometric mm/sub-mm polarization observations of AGN jets with ALMA (in particular, the gravitationally-lensed sources PKS 1830−211 and B0218+359, which allow us to probe the magneto-ionic conditions at the regions closest to the central black holes.

  16. Status of MUSIC, the MUltiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golwala, Sunil R.; Bockstiegel, Clint; Brugger, Spencer; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran; Gao, Jiansong; Gill, Amandeep K.; Glenn, Jason; Hollister, Matthew I.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Maloney, Philip R.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; McHugh, Sean G.; Miller, David; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T.; Sayers, Jack; Schlaerth, James A.; Siegel, Seth; Vayonakis, Anastasios K.; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2012-09-01

    We present the status of MUSIC, the MUltiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera, a new instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. MUSIC is designed to have a 14', diffraction-limited field-of-view instrumented with 2304 detectors in 576 spatial pixels and four spectral bands at 0.87, 1.04, 1.33, and 1.98 mm. MUSIC will be used to study dusty star-forming galaxies, galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, and star formation in our own and nearby galaxies. MUSIC uses broadband superconducting phased-array slot-dipole antennas to form beams, lumpedelement on-chip bandpass filters to define spectral bands, and microwave kinetic inductance detectors to sense incoming light. The focal plane is fabricated in 8 tiles consisting of 72 spatial pixels each. It is coupled to the telescope via an ambient-temperature ellipsoidal mirror and a cold reimaging lens. A cold Lyot stop sits at the image of the primary mirror formed by the ellipsoidal mirror. Dielectric and metal-mesh filters are used to block thermal infrared and out-ofband radiation. The instrument uses a pulse tube cooler and 3He/ 3He/4He closed-cycle cooler to cool the focal plane to below 250 mK. A multilayer shield attenuates Earth's magnetic field. Each focal plane tile is read out by a single pair of coaxes and a HEMT amplifier. The readout system consists of 16 copies of custom-designed ADC/DAC and IF boards coupled to the CASPER ROACH platform. We focus on recent updates on the instrument design and results from the commissioning of the full camera in 2012.

  17. SUBMILLIMETER FOLLOW-UP OF WISE-SELECTED HYPERLUMINOUS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jingwen; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Tsai, Chao-Wei; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger; Jarrett, Thomas [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sayers, Jack; Bridge, Carrie [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Benford, Dominic [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blain, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, LE1 7RH Leicester (United Kingdom); Petty, Sara; Lake, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bussmann, Shane [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Comerford, Julia M.; Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78731 (United States); Lonsdale, Carol [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Rho, Jeonghee [SETI Institute, 189 BERNARDO Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Stanford, S. Adam, E-mail: jingwen.wu@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others

    2012-09-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare ({approx}1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at z = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 {mu}m. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (z > 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 {mu}m, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature. We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60-120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe. We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  18. EXPLORING THE RELATION BETWEEN (SUB-)MILLIMETER RADIATION AND {gamma}-RAY EMISSION IN BLAZARS WITH PLANCK AND FERMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Tavares, J.; Tornikoski, M.; Laehteenmaeki, A. [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, FIN-02540 Kylmaelae (Finland); Valtaoja, E. [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, 20100 Turku (Finland); Giommi, P.; Polenta, G.; Gasparrini, D.; Cutini, S., E-mail: leon@kurp.hut.fi [ASI Science Data Center, ASDC c/o ESRIN, via G. Galilei, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2012-07-20

    The coexistence of Planck and Fermi satellites in orbit has enabled the exploration of the connection between the (sub-)millimeter and {gamma}-ray emission in a large sample of blazars. We find that the {gamma}-ray emission and the (sub-)mm luminosities are correlated over five orders of magnitude, L{sub {gamma}}{proportional_to}L{sub (sub-)mm}. However, this correlation is not significant at some frequency bands when simultaneous observations are considered. The most significant statistical correlations, on the other hand, arise when observations are quasi-simultaneous within two months. Moreover, we find that sources with an approximate spectral turnover in the middle of the mm-wave regime are more likely to be strong {gamma}-ray emitters. These results suggest a physical relation between the newly injected plasma components in the jet and the high levels of {gamma}-ray emission.

  19. Research on Ground Motion Metal Target Based on Rocket Projectile by Using Millimeter Wave Radiometer Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongyang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How to detect the ground motion metal target effectively is an important guarantee for precision strike in the process of Rocket Projectile flight. Accordingly and in view of the millimeter- wave radiation characteristic of the ground motion metal target, a mathematical model was established based on Rocket Projectile about millimeter-wave detection to the ground motion metal target. Through changing various parameters in the process of Rocket Projectile flight, the detection model was studied by simulation. The parameters variation and effective range of millimeter wave radiometer were obtained in the process of rotation and horizontal flight. So a certain theoretical basis was formed for the precision strike to the ground motion metal target.

  20. Submillimeter observations of the sun from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C.A.; Yee, S.; Roellig, T.L.; Hills, R.; Brock, D. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA) NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA) Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory, Cambridge (England) Joint Astronomy Centre, Hilo, HI (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The first submillimeter solar observations from the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea are reported. The JCMT submillimeter heterodyne receiver is used to observe the sun in 850 micron radiation. These are the first submillimeter observations of features on the size scale of the chromospheric supergranular network and of sunspots. A comparison is made between 850 micron images and calcium K line images of the chromospheric supergranular network in the quiet sun and in plage. Images of sunspots are given, noting that their 850 micron brightness is comparable to, or somewhat greater than, that of the quiet sun. 7 refs.

  1. Submillimeter observations of the sun from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Charles A.; Yee, Selwyn; Roellig, Thomas L.; Hills, Richard; Brock, David

    1990-01-01

    The first submillimeter solar observations from the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea are reported. The JCMT submillimeter heterodyne receiver is used to observe the sun in 850 micron radiation. These are the first submillimeter observations of features on the size scale of the chromospheric supergranular network and of sunspots. A comparison is made between 850 micron images and calcium K line images of the chromospheric supergranular network in the quiet sun and in plage. Images of sunspots are given, noting that their 850 micron brightness is comparable to, or somewhat greater than, that of the quiet sun.

  2. Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Emission from Galactic and Extragalactic Photodissociation Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michael J.; Wolfire, Mark G.; Hollenbach, David J.; Luhman, Michael L.

    1999-12-01

    Photodissociation region (PDR) models are computed over a wide range of physical conditions, from those appropriate to giant molecular clouds illuminated by the interstellar radiation field to the conditions experienced by circumstellar disks very close to hot massive stars. These models use the most up-to-date values of atomic and molecular data, the most current chemical rate coefficients, and the newest grain photoelectric heating rates, which include treatments of small grains and large molecules. In addition, we examine the effects of metallicity and cloud extinction on the predicted line intensities. Results are presented for PDR models with densities over the range n=101-107 cm-3 and for incident far-ultraviolet radiation fields over the range G0=10-0.5-106.5 (where G0 is the far-ultravioliet [FUV] flux in units of the local interstellar value), for metallicities Z=1 and 0.1 times the local Galactic value, and for a range of PDR cloud sizes. We present line strength and/or line ratio plots for a variety of useful PDR diagnostics: [C II] 158 μm, [O I] 63 μm and 145 μm, [C I] 370 μm and 609 μm, CO J=1-0, J=2-1, J=3-2, J=6-5, and J=15-14, as well as the strength of the far-infrared continuum. These plots will be useful for the interpretation of Galactic and extragalactic far-infrared and submillimeter spectra observable with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite, the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope, and other orbital and suborbital platforms. As examples, we apply our results to ISO and ground-based observations of M82, NGC 278, and the Large Magellanic Cloud. Our comparison of the conditions in M82 and NGC 278 show that both the gas density and FUV flux are enhanced in the starburst nucleus of M82 compared with those in the normal spiral NGC 278. We model the high [C II]/CO ratio observed in the 30 Doradus region of the LMC and find that it can be

  3. The combination methodic of diffusion and implantation technologies for creating optic wave-guided layers in lithium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlikov, L. N.; Orlikov, N. L.; Arestov, S. I.; Mambetova, K. M.; Shandarov, S. M.

    2015-04-01

    The implantation of copper into Lithium Niobate in the prohibited crystal zone forms a definite energetic level for optic transits. This paper examines conditions of optic wave-guided layers formation on Niobate Lithium due to the method of implantation copper ions with the next diffusion. Reflect Spectrum in consequences implantation is extended. The transfer of the optical power from the primary beam into the another beam was discovered and in reverse. Photo galvanic characteristics of implantation specimen identity of crystal by traditional technology and doping CuO manufacture.

  4. Extraction of coastal ocean wave characteristics using remote sensing and computer vision technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zone occurs at the interface of three major natural systems. These systems include the atmosphere, the ocean and the land surface. Ocean waves are among the most important forces shaping the world¿s coastlines. They drive environmental...

  5. Hacking for astronomy: can 3D printers and open-hardware enable low-cost sub-/millimeter instrumentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    2014-07-01

    There have been several exciting developments in the technologies commonly used n in the hardware hacking community. Advances in low cost additive-manufacturing processes (i.e. 3D-printers) and the development of openhardware projects, which have produced inexpensive and easily programmable micro-controllers and micro-computers (i.e. Arduino and Raspberry Pi) have opened a new door for individuals seeking to make their own devices. Here we describe the potential for these technologies to reduce costs in construction and development of submillimeter/millimeter astronomical instrumentation. Specifically we have begun a program to measure the optical properties of the custom plastics used in 3D-printers as well as the printer accuracy and resolution to assess the feasibility of directly printing sub- /millimeter transmissive optics. We will also discuss low cost designs for cryogenic temperature measurement and control utilizing Arduino and Raspberry Pi.

  6. Study of Green Shipping Technologies - Harnessing Wind, Waves and Solar Power in New Generation Marine Propulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Rutkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and scope of this paper is to describe the complexity of the new generation marine propulsion technologies implemented in the shipping industry to promote green ships concept and change the view of sea transportation to a more ecological and environment-friendly. Harnessing wind, waves and solar power in shipping industry can help the ship’s owners reduce the operational costs. Reducing fuel consumption results in producing less emissions and provides a clean source of renewable energy. Green shipping technologies can also effectively increase the operating range of vessels and help drive sea transportation towards a greener future and contribute to the global reduction of harmful gas emissions from the world's shipping fleets.

  7. W-Band Technology and Techniques for Analog Millimeter-Wave Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-19

    this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data...applied field with a rich history [1] that finds utility in numerous areas. An inherent advantage of photonics over electronics is the available...millimeter-wave application is associated with wireless links [5-7], radio astronomy [8], or military systems, the main components that determine the

  8. Decay-Delay Technology for Management of Defibrillator T-wave Oversensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Aslani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate sensing is indispensable for appropriate functioning ofimplantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD. Oversensing is a major clinicaldilemma in patients with ICD leading to inappropriate ventricular arrhythmiadetection and therapy. T-wave oversensing is an important clinical problemleading to QRS double counting with inappropriate therapy, in particular. Wepresent a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and intermittent T waveoversensing by an ICD which could be resolved by device reprogramming.

  9. Characterization of multi-scale porous structure of fly ash/phosphate geopolymer hollow sphere structures: from submillimeter to nano-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruifeng; Wu, Gaohui; Jiang, Longtao; Sun, Dongli

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the porous structure of fly ash/phosphate geopolymer hollow sphere structures (FPGHSS), prepared by pre-bonding and curing technology, has been characterized by multi-resolution methods from sub-millimeter to nano-scale. Micro-CT and confocal microscopy could provide the macroscopic distribution of porous structure on sub-millimeter scale, and hollow fly ashes with sphere shape and several sub-millimeter open cells with irregular shape were identified. SEM is more suitable to illustrate the distribution of micro-sized open and closed cells, and it was found that the open cells of FPGHSS were mainly formed in the interstitial porosity between fly ashes. Mercury porosimeter measurement showed that the micro-sized open cell of FPGHSS demonstrated a normal/bimodal distribution, and the peaks of pore size distribution were mainly around 100 and 10 μm. TEM observation revealed that the phosphate geopolymer was mainly composed of the porous area with nano-pores and dense areas, which were amorphous Al-O-P phase and α-Al2O3 respectively. The pore size of nano-pores demonstrated a quasi-normal distribution from about 10 to 100 nm. Therefore, detailed information of the porous structure of FPGHSS could be revealed using multiple methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EVIDENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES IN THE SUBMILLIMETER DUST OPACITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Peter G.; Roy, Arabindo; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Bontemps, Sylvain [Observatoire de Bordeaux, BP 89, F-33270 Floirac (France); Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bock, James J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Carol Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Hughes, David H. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Netterfield, Calvin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Olmi, Luca [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 (Italy); Patanchon, Guillaume [Laboratoire APC, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet F-75205 Paris (France); and others

    2012-05-20

    The submillimeter opacity of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) in the Galactic plane has been quantified using a pixel-by-pixel correlation of images of continuum emission with a proxy for column density. We used multi-wavelength continuum data: three Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope bands at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m and one IRAS band at 100 {mu}m. The proxy is the near-infrared color excess, E(J - K{sub s}), obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Based on observations of stars, we show how well this color excess is correlated with the total hydrogen column density for regions of moderate extinction. The ratio of emission to column density, the emissivity, is then known from the correlations, as a function of frequency. The spectral distribution of this emissivity can be fit by a modified blackbody, whence the characteristic dust temperature T and the desired opacity {sigma}{sub e}(1200) at 1200 GHz or 250 {mu}m can be obtained. We have analyzed 14 regions near the Galactic plane toward the Vela molecular cloud, mostly selected to avoid regions of high column density (N{sub H} > 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}) and small enough to ensure a uniform dust temperature. We find {sigma}{sub e}(1200) is typically (2-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -25} cm{sup 2} H{sup -1} and thus about 2-4 times larger than the average value in the local high Galactic latitude diffuse atomic ISM. This is strong evidence for grain evolution. There is a range in total power per H nucleon absorbed (and re-radiated) by the dust, reflecting changes in the strength of the interstellar radiation field and/or the dust absorption opacity. These changes in emission opacity and power affect the equilibrium T, which is typically 15 K, colder than at high latitudes. Our analysis extends, to higher opacity and lower temperature, the trend of increasing {sigma}{sub e}(1200) with decreasing T that was found at high latitudes. The recognition of changes in the emission opacity

  11. Gravitation Waves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.

  12. Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Subsequent Technology-Based Interpersonal Behaviors: A Multi-Wave Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Miller, Adam B; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of adolescents' depressive symptoms on engagement in technology-based social comparison and feedback seeking (SCFS) behaviors. A total of 816 adolescents (54.7% girls; M age =14.1 at Time 1) participated at three times points, each one year apart. Adolescents reported technology-based SCFS, depressive symptoms, and frequencies of technology use (cell phones, Facebook, and Instagram). Multiple group (by gender) latent growth curve models examined concurrent and lagged effects of depressive symptoms on SCFS, controlling for adolescent's underlying trajectories of SCFS and overall frequencies of technology use. Results indicated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were concurrently associated with greater SCFS after accounting for adolescents' typical patterns of SCFS. For boys only, higher depressive symptoms were prospectively associated with later increases in SCFS. Results highlight the importance of social media as a unique context in which depressed adolescents may be at risk for maladaptive interpersonal behavior.

  13. [Extracorporal shock wave therapy for the treatment of pseudarthrosis : New experiences with an old technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everding, J; Freistühler, M; Stolberg-Stolberg, J; Raschke, M J; Garcia, P

    2017-11-01

    Between 5 and 10 % of all fractures show disturbed healing or nonunion formation. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been described as a non-surgical treatment option. Even though the outcome has shown promising results, the procedure is not commonly used in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to analyze the union rate of pseudarthrosis and the cost savings after ESWT. In this study 42 nonunions were treated with shock waves (LithSpaceOrtho, JenaMedtech). The follow up examinations were performed over a period of six months. Outcome measurement included radiological fracture union and pain (VAS). The study group contained 39 pseudarthrosis in the six-week follow-up (93 %), 41 after three months (98 %) and 41 after six months (98 %). After six weeks, 13 % of patients showed fracture union. After three months 61 % and after six months 73 % of the fractures were completely healed. The fracture healing was significantly lower in older nonunions. All patients presented significantly lower pain levels six weeks after ESWT. Shock wave treatment of all 42 pseudarthrosis made up less than one quarter of the overall operative costs. We established the ESWT as an important treatment option for fracture nonunion in our clinic. Considering the selection of patients in this study with a high mean time from injury to ESWT and multiple prior operations, the fracture healing rate of 73 % after ESWT is comparable with operative healing rates of nonunions. Further prospective, randomized and controlled studies are needed to show the effectiveness of ESWT in the treatment of nonunions on a higher level of evidence and to identify pseudarthrosis that particularly responds to the EWST.

  14. Deciphering Debris Disk Structure with the Submillimeter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Meredith Ann

    2018-01-01

    More than 20% of nearby main sequence stars are surrounded by dusty disks continually replenished via the collisional erosion of planetesimals, larger bodies similar to asteroids and comets in our own Solar System. The material in these ‘debris disks’ is directly linked to the larger bodies such as planets in the system. As a result, the locations, morphologies, and physical properties of dust in these disks provide important probes of the processes of planet formation and subsequent dynamical evolution. Observations at millimeter wavelengths are especially critical to our understanding of these systems, since they are dominated by larger grains that do not travel far from their origin and therefore reliably trace the underlying planetesimal distribution. The Submillimeter Array (SMA) plays a key role in advancing our understanding of debris disks by providing sensitivity at the short baselines required to determine the structure of wide-field disks, such as the HR 8799 debris disk. Many of these wide-field disks are among the closest systems to us, and will serve as cornerstone templates for the interpretation of more distant, less accessible systems.

  15. Submillimeter Imaging of Dust Around Main Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    1998-01-01

    This grant was to image circumstellar dust disks surrounding main-sequence stars. The delivery of the SCUBA detector we had planned to use for this work was delayed repeatedly, leading us to undertake a majority of the observations with the UKT14 submillimeter detector at the JCMT (James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) and optical imagers and a coronagraph at the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. Major findings under this grant include: (1) We discovered 5 asymmetries in the beta Pictoris regenerated dust disk. The discovery of these asymmetries was a surprise, since smearing due to Keplerian shear should eliminate most such features on timescales of a few thousand years. One exception is the "wing tilt" asymmetry, which we interpret as due to the scattering phase function of dust disk particles. From the wing tilt and a model of the phase function, we find a disk plane inclination to the line of sight of JCMT). It is possible, for instance, that the main 850 micro-m blob is merely a galaxy or other high-z source projected onto the beta Pic mid-plane.

  16. Extending the Millimeter-Submillimeter Spectrum of Protonated Formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roenitz, Kevin; Zou, Luyao; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.

    2017-06-01

    Protonated formaldehyde has been detected in the interstellar medium, where it participates in the formation and destruction of methanol. The rotational spectrum for protonated formaldehyde has been previously recorded by Amano and coworkers from 120-385 GHz using a hollow cathode discharge source for ion production. Additionally, protonated formaldehyde was produced in a supersonic expansion discharge source by Duncan and coworkers, but it was detected using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Higher frequency spectra would help to guide additional observational studies of protonated formaldehyde using instruments such as the ALMA and SOFIA observatories. As such, we have used a supersonic expansion discharge source to produce protonated formaldehyde, and recorded its spectrum using millimeter-submillimeter direct absorption spectroscopy. The rotational spectrum was recorded from 350-1000 GHz. Here we will present the experimental design, specifically focusing on the optimization of the source for production of organic ions. We will also present the spectroscopic results for protonated formaldehyde and a spectral analysis with associated prediction that can be extended to frequencies above 1 THz.

  17. Submillimeter Spectroscopy of the R Coronae Australis Molecular Cloud Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marina Madeline; Walker, Christopher K.; Pat, Terrance; Sirsi, Siddhartha; Swift, Brandon J.; Peters, William L.

    2018-01-01

    The Interstellar Medium is comprised of large amounts of gas and dust which coalesce to form stars. Observing in the Terahertz regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, approximately 0.3 -300 microns, allows astronomers to study the ISM in unprecedented detail. Using the high spectral resolution imaging system of the SuperCam receiver, a 64-pixel array previously installed on the Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham, AZ, we have begun a 500 square degree survey of the galactic plane. This instrument was designed to do a complete survey of the Milky Way from the ground, with the main focus being to observe two specific transitions of the carbon monoxide molecule, 12CO(3-2) and 13CO(3-2), at 345 GHz. In this work, we present results from these observations for the R Coronae Australis (R Cr A) complex, a region in the southern hemisphere of the sky, using spectroscopic data from a portion of the survey to gain better insight into the life cycle of the ISM. The majority of stars being formed here are similar to the stellar class of the Sun, making it an excellent area of observing interest. Using these results, we attempt to better ascertain the large-scale structure and kinematics inside of the molecular cloud.

  18. Technology Development Plan for Design Guidelines for Wave-Induced Hydrodynamic Loading on Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    heated water from coastal sited power plants has the potential to induce patterns of large-scale offshore currents that may alter the nearshore mean...cylinder may be taken equal to 2. For other shapes of Wodies A may be written as A = (C* - C )/(KC d) (65) m m d where C* is the ideal value of the...amounts of cooling water by power plants . This induced current can modify the direction and the magnitude of approaching waves and may change the

  19. The development of radiation hardened robot for nuclear facility; development of ultrasonic guided wave evaluation technology for the in-service/post-repair inspection of steam generator tubings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Youn Ho [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    The Potential of Ultrasonic Guided Waves which can propagate along the geometry of structures was explored for the inspection of such various components of nuclear power plants as tubings, pipings and plate-like structures etc. In this project, the fundamental research on the various aspects of guided wave modal characteristics was carried out to provide physically based guidelines which are essential to implement the guided waves as a promising inspection tool in the near future. The efforts for guided wave research include both theoretical and experimental works to make it possible to transfer the technology to power industry beyond the scope of pure academic subject. In the theoretical works, the softwares for the dispersion curves and wave structures of both layered structures and cylindrical ones were developed in the aims of mode identification and determination of probe design parameters. 40 refs., 92 figs., 14 tabs. (Author)

  20. Faint submillimeter galaxies revealed by multifield deep ALMA observations: number counts, spatial clustering, and a dark submillimeter line emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Momose, Rieko [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kurono, Yasutaka, E-mail: ono@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile)

    2014-11-01

    We present the statistics of faint submillimeter/millimeter galaxies (SMGs) and serendipitous detections of a submillimeter/millimeter line emitter (SLE) with no multi-wavelength continuum counterpart revealed by the deep ALMA observations. We identify faint SMGs with flux densities of 0.1-1.0 mJy in the deep Band-6 and Band-7 maps of 10 independent fields that reduce cosmic variance effects. The differential number counts at 1.2 mm are found to increase with decreasing flux density down to 0.1 mJy. Our number counts indicate that the faint (0.1-1.0 mJy, or SFR{sub IR} ∼ 30-300 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) SMGs contribute nearly a half of the extragalactic background light (EBL), while the remaining half of the EBL is mostly contributed by very faint sources with flux densities of <0.1 mJy (SFR{sub IR} ≲ 30 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We conduct counts-in-cells analysis with multifield ALMA data for the faint SMGs, and obtain a coarse estimate of galaxy bias, b {sub g} < 4. The galaxy bias suggests that the dark halo masses of the faint SMGs are ≲ 7 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}, which is smaller than those of bright (>1 mJy) SMGs, but consistent with abundant high-z star-forming populations, such as sBzKs, LBGs, and LAEs. Finally, we report the serendipitous detection of SLE-1, which has no continuum counterparts in our 1.2 mm-band or multi-wavelength images, including ultra deep HST/WFC3 and Spitzer data. The SLE has a significant line at 249.9 GHz with a signal-to-noise ratio of 7.1. If the SLE is not a spurious source made by the unknown systematic noise of ALMA, the strong upper limits of our multi-wavelength data suggest that the SLE would be a faint galaxy at z ≳ 6.

  1. Low voltage surface transverse wave oscillators for the next generation CMOS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramov, Ivan D

    2005-08-01

    The design and performance of voltage controlled surface transverse wave oscillators (VCSTWO) in the lower gigahertz frequency range, operating on supply and tuning voltages in the 1.2 to 3.3 V range, and suitable for direct interfacing with the next generation CMOS circuits are presented. By applying the "boost" principle, as used in direct current (DC)-DC converters, to the design of the sustaining amplifier, the VCSTWO outputs are switched between 0 V and a positive peak value, exceeding the supply voltage Us, to provide safe CMOS-circuit switching while keeping the radio frequency (RF)/DC efficiency to a maximum for low DC power consumption. The investigated 1.0 and 2.5 GHz VCSTWO are varactor tuned feedback-loop oscillators stabilized with two-port surface transverse wave (STW) resonators. Each VCSTWO has a DC-coupled, high-impedance switched output to drive the CMOS circuit directly, and an additional sinusoidal 50 ohmz high-power reference output available for other low-noise system applications. Phase noise levels in the -103 to -115 dBc/Hz range at 1 kHz carrier offset are achieved with 1.0 GHz VCSTWO at a RF/DC efficiency in the 21 to 29% range. The 2.5 GHz prototypes demonstrate phase noise levels in the -97 to -102 dBc/Hz range at 1 kHz carrier offset, and efficiencies range between 8 and 15%.

  2. The Submillimeter Array – current status and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Raymond

    2018-01-01

    The current SMA receiver systems were designed in the mid-1990s and have been operating for more than fifteen years. With regular upgrades to receivers, deployment of the SWARM correlator, expansion of the IF signal transport bandwidth via improvements to the analog IF signal processing hardware, and many other enhancements, the SMA currently greatly outperforms its original specifications in terms of sensitivity, instantaneous bandwidth, and availability of observing modes such as full-Stokes polarization and dual frequency operation.We have recently started to implement a three-year instrument upgrade plan, which we are calling the wSMA. The wSMA will offer even wider bandwidth operation than the current SMA and improved sensitivity. The major subsystems that will form the wSMA include significantly improved, dual polarization receiver cartridges housed in a new cryostat; local oscillator units incorporating modern mm-wave technology; an upgraded signal transmission system; and a further expansion of the SWARM correlator. The cryostat will be cooled by a low-maintenance pulse-tube cryocooler. Two dual-polarization receiver cartridges will cover approximately the same sky frequencies as the current receiver sets; the low-band receiver will be fed by an LO unit covering 210-270 GHz, and the high-band receiver will be fed by an LO covering 280-360 GHz. With a receiver IF band of 4-20 GHz, this will enable continuous sky frequency coverage from 190 GHz to 380 GHz.Details of the upgrade plans will be presented together with a discussion of scientific opportunities afforded by this upgrade, which, once implemented, will enable the SMA to continue to produce the highest quality science throughout the next decade.

  3. Experimental Research on Passive Millimeter Wave Radiometric Stealth Technology of Metal Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangfeng; Lou, Guowei; Li, Xingguo

    2012-12-01

    Working all day and all weather, a passive millimeter wave radiometer (PMMW) can be widely used in civil and military affairs. It can get some specific information about the material characteristics different from radar and infrared detectors. On basis of the radiometric operating range equation, the radiation cross section and stealth effect of metal objects are presented for the PMMW near-sensing application. The measurement experiments of metal solid models adopts 3 mm band Dicke radiometer with the outdoor calibration system. The sky temperature and other different surface metal objects are also measured as the contrastive experiments. The results show the radiometric temperature contrasts of solid models have remarkable difference in the bare and coated conditions, and the radiometric operating range can decrease to 60.8 %. In addition, the PMMW stealth methods through different surface treatment respectively reduce the radiometric antenna temperature contrast in some degree.

  4. Optical and millimeter-wave radio seamless MIMO transmission based on a radio over fiber technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Atsushi; Kuri, Toshiaki; Hosako, Iwao; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Yuki; Yasumura, Yoshihiro; Kitayama, Ken-ichi

    2012-12-31

    Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) transmission of two millimeter-wave radio signals seamlessly converted from polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keying optical signals is successfully demonstrated, where a radio access unit basically consisting of only optical-to-electrical converters and a radio receiver performs total signal equalization of both the optical and the radio paths and demodulation with digital signal processing (DSP). Orthogonally polarized optical components that are directly converted to two-channel radio components can be demultiplexed and demodulated with high-speed DSP as in optical digital coherent detection. 20-Gbaud optical and radio seamless MIMO transmission provides a total capacity of 74.4 Gb/s with a forward error correction overhead of 7%.

  5. Smart DNA Fabrication Using Sound Waves: Applying Acoustic Dispensing Technologies to Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanigowska, Paulina; Shen, Yue; Zheng, Yijing; Rosser, Susan; Cai, Yizhi

    2016-02-01

    Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) technology uses focused acoustic energy to transfer nanoliter-scale liquid droplets with high precision and accuracy. This noncontact, tipless, low-volume dispensing technology minimizes the possibility of cross-contamination and potentially reduces the costs of reagents and consumables. To date, acoustic dispensers have mainly been used in screening libraries of compounds. In this paper, we describe the first application of this powerful technology to the rapidly developing field of synthetic biology, for DNA synthesis and assembly at the nanoliter scale using a Labcyte Echo 550 acoustic dispenser. We were able to successfully downscale PCRs and the popular one-pot DNA assembly methods, Golden Gate and Gibson assemblies, from the microliter to the nanoliter scale with high assembly efficiency, which effectively cut the reagent cost by 20- to 100-fold. We envision that acoustic dispensing will become an instrumental technology in synthetic biology, in particular in the era of DNA foundries. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  6. An alma survey of submillimeter galaxies in the extended Chandra deep field-south: The agn fraction and X-ray properties of submillimeter galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S. X.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Smail, I.; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Karim, A.; Simpson, J. M.; Swinbank, A. M. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hodge, J. A.; Walter, F. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Lehmer, B. D. [The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wardlow, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Xue, Y. Q. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Center for Astrophysics, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Coppin, K. E. K. [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Dannerbauer, H. [Universität Wien, Institute für Astrophysik, Türkenschanzstraße 17, 1180 Wien (Austria); De Breuck, C. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Menten, K. M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Van der Werf, P., E-mail: xxw131@psu.edu, E-mail: niel@astro.psu.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-12-01

    The large gas and dust reservoirs of submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) could potentially provide ample fuel to trigger an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but previous studies of the AGN fraction in SMGs have been controversial largely due to the inhomogeneity and limited angular resolution of the available submillimeter surveys. Here we set improved constraints on the AGN fraction and X-ray properties of the SMGs with Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and Chandra observations in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S). This study is the first among similar works to have unambiguously identified the X-ray counterparts of SMGs; this is accomplished using the fully submillimeter-identified, statistically reliable SMG catalog with 99 SMGs from the ALMA LABOCA E-CDF-S Submillimeter Survey. We found 10 X-ray sources associated with SMGs (median redshift z = 2.3), of which eight were identified as AGNs using several techniques that enable cross-checking. The other two X-ray detected SMGs have levels of X-ray emission that can be plausibly explained by their star formation activity. Six of the eight SMG-AGNs are moderately/highly absorbed, with N {sub H} > 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}. An analysis of the AGN fraction, taking into account the spatial variation of X-ray sensitivity, yields an AGN fraction of 17{sub −6}{sup +16}% for AGNs with rest-frame 0.5-8 keV absorption-corrected luminosity ≥7.8 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1}; we provide estimated AGN fractions as a function of X-ray flux and luminosity. ALMA's high angular resolution also enables direct X-ray stacking at the precise positions of SMGs for the first time, and we found four potential SMG-AGNs in our stacking sample.

  7. Submillimeter Galaxies as Progenitors of Compact Quiescent Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, S.; Smolcic, V.; Magnelli, B.; Karim, A.; Zirm, A.; Michalowski, M.; Capak, P.; Sheth, K.; Schawinski, K.; Krogager, J.-K.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Three billion years after the big bang (at redshift z = 2), half of the most massive galaxies were already old, quiescent systems with little to no residual star formation and extremely compact with stellar mass densities at least an order of magnitude larger than in low-redshift ellipticals, their descendants. Little is known about how they formed, but their evolved, dense stellar populations suggest formation within intense, compact starbursts 1-2 Gyr earlier (at 3 < z < 6). Simulations show that gas-rich major mergers can give rise to such starbursts, which produce dense remnants. Submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) are prime examples of intense, gas-rich starbursts.With a new, representative spectroscopic sample of compact, quiescent galaxies at z = 2 and a statistically well-understood sample of SMGs, we show that z = 3-6 SMGs are consistent with being the progenitors of z = 2 quiescent galaxies, matching their formation redshifts and their distributions of sizes, stellar masses, and internal velocities. Assuming an evolutionary connection, their space densities also match if the mean duty cycle of SMG starbursts is 42(sup+40) -29 Myr (consistent with independent estimates), which indicates that the bulk of stars in these massive galaxies were formed in a major, early surge of star formation. These results suggest a coherent picture of the formation history of the most massive galaxies in the universe, from their initial burst of violent star formation through their appearance as high stellar-density galaxy cores and to their ultimate fate as giant ellipticals.

  8. Evidence for Dust Clearing Through Resolved Submillimeter Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. M.; Blake, G. A.; Qi, C.; Dullemond, C. P.; Wilner, D. J.; Williams, J. P.

    2009-10-01

    Mid-infrared spectrophotometric observations have revealed a small subclass of circumstellar disks with spectral energy distributions (SEDs) suggestive of large inner gaps with low dust content. However, such data provide only an indirect and model-dependent method of finding central holes. Imaging of protoplanetry disks provides an independent check of SED modeling. We present here the direct characterization of three 33-47 AU radii inner gaps, in the disks around LkHα 330, SR 21N, and HD 135344B, via 340 GHz (880 μm) dust continuum aperture synthesis observations obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The large gaps are fully resolved at ~0farcs3 by the SMA data and mostly empty of dust, with less than (1-7.5) × 10-6 M sun of fine grained solids inside the holes. Gas (as traced by atomic accretion markers and CO 4.7 μm rovibrational emission) is still present in the inner regions of all three disks. For each, the inner hole exhibits a relatively steep rise in dust emission to the outer disk, a feature more likely to originate from the gravitational influence of a companion body than from a process expected to show a more shallow gradient like grain growth. Importantly, the good agreement between the spatially resolved data and spectrophotometry-based models lends confidence to current interpretations of SEDs, wherein the significant dust emission deficits arise from disks with inner gaps or holes. Further SED-based searches can therefore be expected to yield numerous additional candidates that can be examined at high spatial resolution.

  9. Submillimeter galaxies as progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, S.; Zirm, A.; Krogager, J.-K.; Man, A. W. S. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Smolčić, V.; Krpan, J. [Physics Department, University of Zagreb, Bijenička cesta 32, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Magnelli, B.; Karim, A. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 71, Bonn, D-53121 (Germany); Michalowski, M. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, 314-6 Caltech, 1201 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sheth, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Schawinski, K. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Wuyts, S.; Lutz, D.; Staguhn, J.; Berta, S. [MPE, Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Sanders, D. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Mccracken, H. [Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Riechers, D., E-mail: sune@dark-cosmology.dk [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    Three billion years after the big bang (at redshift z = 2), half of the most massive galaxies were already old, quiescent systems with little to no residual star formation and extremely compact with stellar mass densities at least an order of magnitude larger than in low-redshift ellipticals, their descendants. Little is known about how they formed, but their evolved, dense stellar populations suggest formation within intense, compact starbursts 1-2 Gyr earlier (at 3 < z < 6). Simulations show that gas-rich major mergers can give rise to such starbursts, which produce dense remnants. Submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) are prime examples of intense, gas-rich starbursts. With a new, representative spectroscopic sample of compact, quiescent galaxies at z = 2 and a statistically well-understood sample of SMGs, we show that z = 3-6 SMGs are consistent with being the progenitors of z = 2 quiescent galaxies, matching their formation redshifts and their distributions of sizes, stellar masses, and internal velocities. Assuming an evolutionary connection, their space densities also match if the mean duty cycle of SMG starbursts is 42{sub −29}{sup +40} Myr (consistent with independent estimates), which indicates that the bulk of stars in these massive galaxies were formed in a major, early surge of star formation. These results suggest a coherent picture of the formation history of the most massive galaxies in the universe, from their initial burst of violent star formation through their appearance as high stellar-density galaxy cores and to their ultimate fate as giant ellipticals.

  10. Design and Testing of CO2 Compression Using Supersonic Shock Wave Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, Aaron [Seattle Technology Center, Bellevue, WA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Ramgen and subcontractors in pursuit of the design and construction of a 10 MW supersonic CO2 compressor and supporting facility. The compressor will demonstrate application of Ramgen’s supersonic compression technology at an industrial scale using CO2 in a closed-loop. The report includes details of early feasibility studies, CFD validation and comparison to experimental data, static test experimental results, compressor and facility design and analyses, and development of aerodynamic tools. A summary of Ramgen's ISC Engine program activity is also included. This program will demonstrate the adaptation of Ramgen's supersonic compression and advanced vortex combustion technology to result in a highly efficient and cost effective alternative to traditional gas turbine engines. The build out of a 1.5 MW test facility to support the engine and associated subcomponent test program is summarized.

  11. Latest improvements on long wave p on n HgCdTe technology at Sofradir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaldo, Laurent; Taalat, Rachid; Berthoz, Jocelyn; Maillard, Magalie; Péré-Laperne, Nicolas; Brunner, Alexandre; Guinedor, Pierre; Dargent, L.; Manissadjian, A.; Reibel, Y.; Kerlain, A.

    2017-02-01

    SOFRADIR is the worldwide leader on the cooled IR detector market for high-performance space, military and security applications thanks to a well mastered Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) technology, and recently thanks to the acquisition of III-V technology: InSb, InGaAs, and QWIP quantum detectors. As a result, strong and continuous development efforts are deployed to deliver cutting edge products with improved performances in terms of spatial and thermal resolution, dark current, quantum efficiency, low excess noise and high operability. The actual trend in quantum IR detector development is the design of very small pixel, with the higher achievable operating temperature whatever the spectral band. Moreover maintaining the detector operability and image quality at higher temperature moreover for long wavelength is a major issue. This paper presents the recent developments achieved at Sofradir to meet this challenge for LW band MCT extrinsic p on n technology with a cut-off wavelength of 9.3μm at 90K. State of the art performances will be presented in terms of dark current, operability and NETD temperature dependency, quantum efficiency, MTF, and RFPN (Residual Fixed Pattern Noise) stability up to 100K.

  12. Josephson junction spectrum analyzer for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkin, S.Y.; Anischenko, S.E.; Khabayev, P.V. [State Research Center, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    A prototype of the Josephson-effect spectrum analyzer developed for the millimeter-wave band is described. The measurement results for spectra obtained in the frequency band from 50 to 250 GHz are presented.

  13. 60-GHz Millimeter-Wave Radio: Principle, Technology, and New Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Kazuaki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide opening of a massive amount of unlicensed spectra around 60 GHz has triggered great interest in developing affordable 60-GHz radios. This interest has been catalyzed by recent advance of 60-GHz front-end technologies. This paper briefly reports recent work in the 60-GHz radio. Aspects addressed in this paper include global regulatory and standardization, justification of using the 60-GHz bands, 60-GHz consumer electronics applications, radio system concept, 60-GHz propagation and antennas, and key issues in system design. Some new simulation results are also given. Potentials and problems are explained in detail.

  14. 60-GHz Millimeter-Wave Radio: Principle, Technology, and New Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Guo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide opening of a massive amount of unlicensed spectra around 60 GHz has triggered great interest in developing affordable 60-GHz radios. This interest has been catalyzed by recent advance of 60-GHz front-end technologies. This paper briefly reports recent work in the 60-GHz radio. Aspects addressed in this paper include global regulatory and standardization, justification of using the 60-GHz bands, 60-GHz consumer electronics applications, radio system concept, 60-GHz propagation and antennas, and key issues in system design. Some new simulation results are also given. Potentials and problems are explained in detail.

  15. Upgrade possibilities for continuous wave rf electron guns based on room-temperature very high frequency technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannibale, F.; Filippetto, D.; Johnson, M.; Li, D.; Luo, T.; Mitchell, C.; Staples, J.; Virostek, S.; Wells, R.; Byrd, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    The past decade was characterized by an increasing scientific demand for extending towards higher repetition rates (MHz class and beyond) the performance of already operating lower repetition rate accelerator-based instruments such as x-ray free electron lasers (FELs) and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and microscopy (UEM) instruments. Such a need stimulated a worldwide spread of a vibrant R&D activity targeting the development of high-brightness electron sources capable of operating at these challenging rates. Among the different technologies pursued, rf guns based on room-temperature structures resonating in the very high frequency (VHF) range (30-300 MHz) and operating in continuous wave successfully demonstrated in the past few years the targeted brightness and reliability. Nevertheless, recently proposed upgrades for x-ray FELs and the always brightness-frontier applications such as UED and UEM are now requiring a further step forward in terms of beam brightness in electron sources. In this paper, we present a few possible upgrade paths that would allow one to extend, in a relatively simple and cost-effective way, the performance of the present VHF technology to the required new goals.

  16. Upgrade possibilities for continuous wave rf electron guns based on room-temperature very high frequency technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sannibale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The past decade was characterized by an increasing scientific demand for extending towards higher repetition rates (MHz class and beyond the performance of already operating lower repetition rate accelerator-based instruments such as x-ray free electron lasers (FELs and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED and microscopy (UEM instruments. Such a need stimulated a worldwide spread of a vibrant R&D activity targeting the development of high-brightness electron sources capable of operating at these challenging rates. Among the different technologies pursued, rf guns based on room-temperature structures resonating in the very high frequency (VHF range (30–300 MHz and operating in continuous wave successfully demonstrated in the past few years the targeted brightness and reliability. Nevertheless, recently proposed upgrades for x-ray FELs and the always brightness-frontier applications such as UED and UEM are now requiring a further step forward in terms of beam brightness in electron sources. In this paper, we present a few possible upgrade paths that would allow one to extend, in a relatively simple and cost-effective way, the performance of the present VHF technology to the required new goals.

  17. Deep Geothermal Drilling Using Millimeter Wave Technology. Final Technical Research Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, Kenneth [Impact Technologies LLC, Tulsa, OK (United States); Woskov, Paul [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Einstein, Herbert [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Livesay, Bill [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-12-30

    Conventional drilling methods are very mature, but still have difficulty drilling through very deep,very hard and hot rocks for geothermal, nuclear waste entombment and oil and gas applications.This project demonstrated the capabilities of utilizing only high energy beams to drill such rocks,commonly called ‘Direct Energy Drilling’, which has been the dream of industry since the invention of the laser in the 1960s. A new region of the electromagnetic spectrum, millimeter wave (MMW) wavelengths at 30-300 giga-hertz (GHz) frequency was used to accomplish this feat. To demonstrate MMW beam drilling capabilities a lab bench waveguide delivery, monitoring and instrument system was designed, built and tested around an existing (but non-optimal) 28 GHz frequency, 10 kilowatt (kW) gyrotron. Low waveguide efficiency, plasma generation and reflected power challenges were overcome. Real-time monitoring of the drilling process was also demonstrated. Then the technical capability of using only high power intense millimeter waves to melt (with some vaporization) four different rock types (granite, basalt, sandstone, limestone) was demonstrated through 36 bench tests. Full bore drilling up to 2” diameter (size limited by the available MMW power) was demonstrated through granite and basalt samples. The project also demonstrated that MMW beam transmission losses through high temperature (260°C, 500oF), high pressure (34.5 MPa, 5000 psi) nitrogen gas was below the error range of the meter long path length test equipment and instruments utilized. To refine those transmission losses closer, to allow extrapolation to very great distances, will require a new test cell design and higher sensitivity instruments. All rock samples subjected to high peak temperature by MMW beams developed fractures due to thermal stresses, although the peak temperature was thermodynamically limited by radiative losses. Therefore, this limited drill rate and rock strength data were not able to be

  18. Bringing (Century-Old) Technology into the Classroom, Part II: Teaching Vibrations and Waves, Electricity and Magnetism, and Optics with Antiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, John W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This is the second in a series of two articles on using antique devices to teach introductory physics. As mentioned in the first article, students can more clearly see the physics required for the operation of antique devices than for modern-day technological devices. This article further discusses antiques used to teach vibrations and waves,…

  19. SMA Submillimeter Observations of HL Tau: Revealing a Compact Molecular Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbreras, Alba M.; Zapata, Luis A.

    2014-04-01

    We present archival high angular resolution (~2'') 12CO(3-2) line and continuum submillimeter observations of the young stellar object HL Tau made with the Submillimeter Array. The 12CO(3-2) line observations reveal the presence of a compact and wide opening angle bipolar outflow with a northeast to southwest orientation (P.A. = 50°) that is associated with the optical and infrared jet emanating from HL Tau with a similar orientation. On the other hand, the 850 μm continuum emission observations exhibit a strong and compact source in the position of HL Tau that has a spatial size of ~200 × 70 AU with a P.A. = 145° and a dust mass of around 0.1 M ⊙. These physical parameters are in agreement with values obtained recently from millimeter observations. This submillimeter source is therefore related to the disk surrounding HL Tau.

  20. SMA submillimeter observations of HL Tau: revealing a compact molecular outflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumbreras, Alba M.; Zapata, Luis A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Morelia (Mexico)

    2014-04-01

    We present archival high angular resolution (∼2'') {sup 12}CO(3-2) line and continuum submillimeter observations of the young stellar object HL Tau made with the Submillimeter Array. The {sup 12}CO(3-2) line observations reveal the presence of a compact and wide opening angle bipolar outflow with a northeast to southwest orientation (P.A. = 50°) that is associated with the optical and infrared jet emanating from HL Tau with a similar orientation. On the other hand, the 850 μm continuum emission observations exhibit a strong and compact source in the position of HL Tau that has a spatial size of ∼200 × 70 AU with a P.A. = 145° and a dust mass of around 0.1 M {sub ☉}. These physical parameters are in agreement with values obtained recently from millimeter observations. This submillimeter source is therefore related to the disk surrounding HL Tau.

  1. High Efficiency Low Cost CO2 Compression Using Supersonic Shock Wave Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J; Aarnio, M; Grosvenor, A; Taylor, D; Bucher, J

    2010-12-31

    Development and testing results from a supersonic compressor are presented. The compressor achieved record pressure ratio for a fully-supersonic stage and successfully demonstrated the technology potential. Several tasks were performed in compliance with the DOE award objectives. A high-pressure ratio compressor was retrofitted to improve rotordynamics behavior and successfully tested. An outside review panel confirmed test results and design approach. A computational fluid dynamics code used to analyze the Ramgen supersonic flowpath was extensively and successfully modified to improve use on high-performance computing platforms. A comprehensive R&D implementation plan was developed and used to lay the groundwork for a future full-scale compressor demonstration. Conceptual design for a CO2 demonstration compressor was developed and reviewed.

  2. MLA instruments and SWIR focal-plane technology. [Multispectral Linear Arrays and Short Wave Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, F. G.; Botts, S. E.; Kosai, K.; Mika, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that next-generation sensors for earth observation will utilize Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) technology wherein linear detector arrays will scan the earth in pushbroom fashion. MLA instruments will permit a dramatic increase in detector dwell time, which can be utilized to improve spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution. In connection with the considered applications for MLA sensors, the employed detector arrays should cover the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral bands. The present paper is mainly concerned with the development of mercury-cadmium-telluride focal-plane arrays for the SWIR spectral regime (1-2.5 microns). Attention is given to the requirements, design details regarding the detector array, the employed multiplexer technique, the hybrid concept, packaging, and the program status.

  3. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: Multi-wavelength Properties of ALMA-identified Submillimeter Galaxies in UKIDSS UDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, J. M.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Ivison, R. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Geach, J. E.; Almaini, O.; Arumugam, V.; Bremer, M. N.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Conselice, C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Farrah, D.; Ibar, E.; Hartley, W. G.; Ma, C. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Scott, D.; Spaans, M.; Thomson, A. P.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2017-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of 52 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), identified using ALMA 870 μm continuum imaging in a pilot program to precisely locate bright SCUBA-2-selected submillimeter sources in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS) field. Using the available deep (especially

  4. Submillimeter-Wave Polarimetric Compact Ranges for Scale-Model Radar Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coulombe, Michael J; Waldman, Jerry; Giles, R. H; Gatesman, Andrew J; Goyette, Thomas M; Nixon, William

    2002-01-01

    .... A dielectric material fabrication and characterization capability has also been developed to fabricate custom anechoic materials for the ranges as well as scaled dielectric parts for the models and clutter scenes...

  5. Superconducting Coplanar Waveguide Filters for Submillimeter Wave On-Chip Filterbank Spectrometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endo, A.; Yates, S. J. C.; Bueno, J.; Thoen, D. J.; Murugesan, V.; Baryshev, A. M.; Klapwijk, T. M.; van der Werf, P. P.; Baselmans, J. J. A.

    2016-01-01

    We show the first experimental results which prove that superconducting NbTiN coplanar-waveguide resonators can achieve a loaded Q factor in excess of 800 in the 350 GHz band. These resonators can be used as narrow band pass filters for on-chip filter bank spectrometers for astronomy. Moreover, the

  6. Superconducting Coplanar Waveguide Filters for Submillimeter Wave On-Chip Filterbank Spectrometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endo, A.; Yates, S.J.C.; Bueno, J.; Thoen, D.J.; Murugesan, V.; Baryshev, A.M.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Van der Werf, P.P.; Baselmans, J.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    We show the first experimental results which prove that superconducting NbTiN coplanar–waveguide resonators can achieve a loaded Q factor in excess of 800 in the 350 GHz band. These resonators can be used as narrow band pass filters for on-chip filter bank spectrometers for astronomy. Moreover, the

  7. Atmospheric Attenuation of Millimeter and Submillimeter Waves: Models and Computer Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-15

    oli i (f o.tl olwn ,.,...ssŕ𔄀: TZ - a.Th ai prnite enurdbn MI0l0- a -- tSU VtsR bu h aaee o rprac i satrn rp-c i- bji’l Tlw M 11--P disi, ribiut iont...Contract NAS-5-21624. iaan, Mei-Yuan (19 ) Microstructure of c-ujulus clouds, Isv. Geophys. 8er. No. 2:362-376, tUogg, D.C. and Chu , T S. (1975) The role

  8. Comprehensive Submillimeter Wave Studies of the Isotopic Species of a Major Weed: Methyl Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R.; Huet, T. R.; Coudert, L. H.; Kleiner, I.; Carvajal, M.; Mollendal, H.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2010-06-01

    Complex organic molecules are relatively heavy, their maximum absorption is in the millimetric domain at about 300 GHz. But the most abondant, like methyl formate, could be detected in the ISM up to 900 GHz. We will present here the last results obtained about the two 18O and the doubly-deuterated species of methyl formate. This concludes the systematic investigation up to 660 GHz for the mono-substituted isotopic species with either 13C, 18O, or D, which began in 2006. The lines from these isotopic species will certainly be present in the spectra which will be recorded in the next years with the very sensitive telescope ALMA, HERSHEL and SOFIA. The detection of isotopic species is very important for the astrophysical community to improve the interstellar chemical modeling and to understand the formation mechanism of these complex organic molecules. Our interest was also on the theoretical aspects. Like other complex organic molecules, methyl formate displays a large amplitude motion. Here it is the rotation of the methyl group with respect to the rest of the molecule. Theoretical models were developed to reproduce accurately the observed frequencies for large quantum numbers values as J-values as high as 70 could be reached. Similarly the investigation of the doubly-deuterated HCOOCHD_2 was undertaken to test the model developed for mono-deuterated HCOOCH_2D. This work is supported by ANR-08-BLAN-0054 and ANR-08-BLAN-0225. C. Comito, P. Schilke, T. G. Phillips, et al., Astrophys. J. Supp. 156 (2005) 127. L. Margulès, L. H. Coudert, H. Mollendal, et al., J. Mol. Spec. 254 (2009) 55.

  9. Millimeter/submillimeter-wave spectrum of the VCl(+) radical in its X (4)Sigma(-) ground state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, D T; Ziurys, L M

    2009-11-26

    The pure rotational spectrum of the molecular ion VCl(+) (X (4)Sigma(-)) has been recorded from 274 to 419 GHz using a combination of millimeter direct absorption and velocity modulation spectroscopy. This study is the first spectroscopic measurement of this species in the laboratory, which has also enabled the determination of the ground state term, (4)Sigma(-). VCl(+) was produced in an AC discharge of VCl(4) and argon. Fifteen and eleven rotational transitions were recorded for the V(35)Cl(+) and V(37)Cl(+) isotopologues, respectively. The fine structure splittings of the (4)Sigma(-) state were found to deviate significantly from a case (b) pattern. Specifically, spin components from adjacent rotational transitions were found to overlap in frequency. Unusual vanadium hyperfine splittings were also observed in the VCl(+) spectra; the expected vanadium octet was clearly present for the F(2) and F(3) spin components but was partially collapsed and reversed in frequency ordering in the F(1) and F(4) cases. The data were analyzed in a global fit, and rotational, fine structure, and hyperfine constants were determined. For VCl(+), the values of both the spin-spin and spin-rotation parameters are extremely large, as were the third-order hyperfine and spin-rotation terms, b(s) and gamma(s). For example, the spin-spin constant is lambda = 417 900(22 700) MHz, while gamma = 6567(51) MHz. The values of these constants indicate a high density of excited electronic states close to the ground state, which contribute to second and third-order spin-orbit coupling. The hyperfine constants suggest a sigma(1)pi(2) electron configuration, as opposed to sigma(1)delta(2), as found in VS and VO. The bond length of VCl(+), r(0) = 2.119(2) A, is shorter than that of VCl by 0.1 A, which has r(0) = 2.219 A. The decrease in bond length is attributed to an increase in the electrostatic attraction between V(2+) and Cl(-), as opposed to V(+) and Cl(-) for VCl.

  10. Recent results on measurement of plasma conductivity using Faraday rotation of submillimeter waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmenko, P.J.; Self, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the application of Faraday rotation to the measurement of electron concentration in combustion MHD plasmas. Details on the design of a working system are given including the selection of operating wavelength. A theoretical comparison between the Faraday rotation technique and two path interferometry shows Faraday rotation in its simplest form to be somewhat less sensitive to changes in electron concentration. This deficit can be balanced against greater immunity to vibration and thermal drift. Improved techniques of measuring the rotation angle promise greater sensitivity. A preliminary experiment has verified the technique.

  11. Modelling and Simulation of Magnetron Infection Guns for Submillimeter Wave Gyrotrons

    OpenAIRE

    S.P.SABCHEVSKI; G.M.Mladenov; IDEHARA, T

    1999-01-01

    The software package GUN-MIG has been developed for computer simulation of beam formation in magnetron injection guns (MIG). It is based on a fully relativistic self-consistent physical model which takes into account the specific problems and requirements that are being encountered in the analysis and design of MIG for gyrotrons. Besides providing a general outline of the physical models and the program implementation of the code, several illustrative examples of the numerical experiments wit...

  12. Systems and Science Studies for Millimeter- and Submillimeter-wave Earth Venture Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The plan to develop a cost-compliant EV-i instrument concept entails developing a science and instrument-performance trade space that considers channel selection,...

  13. Laboratory permittivity measurements of icy planetary analogs in the millimeter and submillimeter domains, in relation with JUICE mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouet, Y.; Jacob, K.; Murk, A.; Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency's JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) spacecraft is planned for launch in 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in 2030. It will observe the planet Jupiter and three of its largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. One instrument on the JUICE spacecraft is the Sub-millimeter Wave Instrument (SWI), which will measure brightness temperatures from Jupiter's stratosphere and troposphere, and from subsurfaces of Jupiter's icy moons. In the baseline configuration SWI consists of two tunable sub-millimeter wave receivers operating from 530 to 625 GHz. As an alternative one of the receivers could cover the range of 1080 and 1275 GHz. Inversion models are strongly dependent on the knowledge of the complex relative permittivity (hereafter permittivity) of the target material to retrieve the physical properties of the subsurface (e.g. [1][2]). We set up a laboratory experiment allowing us to perform reproducible measurements of the complex scattering parameters S11 and S21 in the ranges of 70 to 110 GHz, of 100 to 160 GHz, of 140 to 220 GHz, of 140 to 220 GHz and of 510 to 715 GHz. These scattering parameters can be used to retrieve the permittivity of icy analogs of the surfaces and subsurfaces of Jupiter's icy moons in order to prepare the data interpretation of SWI [3]. The measurements are performed under laboratory conditions with a quasi-optical bench (Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern). The icy analogs that we prepare in the Laboratory for Outflow Studies of Sublimating Materials (LOSSy, Physics Institute, University of Bern), include two different porous water ice samples composed of fine-grained ice particles with a size range of 4 to 6 microns and ice particles with a size range of 50 to 100 microns [4][5]; and possibly CO2 ice. We will present the general experimental set-up and the first results in the context to prepare the data interpretation of SWI. [1] Ulaby, F. T., Long, D. G., 2014. Microwave radar and radiometric remote

  14. Internal rupture and rapid bouncing of impacting drops induced by submillimeter-scale textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xiwen; Hao, Pengfei; He, Feng

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate an internal breakup mechanism for high Weber number drop impact on superhydrophobic surfaces uniformly patterned with submillimeter-scale textures, in which the liquid film ruptures from both interior and rim. The employment of submillimeter-scale posts could help decrease the critical Weber number of internal rupture, due to the small solid fraction and the large dimension ratio between primary structures and droplets. The internal rupture is found to promote more rapid drop bouncing than conventional rebound and rim breakup on superhydrophobic surfaces with small roughness, with a 10%-50% reduction of contact time. The internal rupture results from the film instability inside and the jet instability outside.

  15. Internal rupture and rapid bouncing of impacting drops induced by submillimeter-scale textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xiwen; Hao, Pengfei; He, Feng

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate an internal breakup mechanism for high Weber number drop impact on superhydrophobic surfaces uniformly patterned with submillimeter-scale textures, in which the liquid film ruptures from both interior and rim. The employment of submillimeter-scale posts could help decrease the critical Weber number of internal rupture, due to the small solid fraction and the large dimension ratio between primary structures and droplets. The internal rupture is found to promote more rapid drop bouncing than conventional rebound and rim breakup on superhydrophobic surfaces with small roughness, with a 10%-50% reduction of contact time. The internal rupture results from the film instability inside and the jet instability outside.

  16. A sub-millimeter resolution detector module for small-animal PET applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, I.; Dohle, R.; Fischer, P.; Gola, A.; Piemonte, C.; Ritzert, M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a gamma detection module optimized for very high resolution PET applications, able to resolve arrays of scintillating crystals with sub-millimeter pitch. The detector is composed of a single ceramic substrate (LTCC): it hosts four flip-chip mounted PETA5 ASICs on the bottom side and an array of SiPM sensors on the top surface, fabricated in HD-RGB technology by FBK. Each chip has 36 channels, for a maximum of 144 readout channels on a sensitive area of about 32 mm × 32 mm. The module is MR-compatible. The thermal decoupling of the readout electronics from the photon sensors is obtained with an efficient internal liquid channel, integrated within the ceramic substrate. Two modules have been designed, based on different SiPM topologies: • Light spreader-based: an array of 12 × 12 SiPMs, with an overall pitch of 2.5 mm, is coupled with a scintillators array using a 1 mm thick glass plate. The light from one crystal is spread over a group of SiPMs, which are read out in parallel using PETA5 internal neighbor logic. • Interpolating SiPM-based: ISiPMs are intrinsic position-sensitive sensors. The photon diodes in the array are connected to one of the four available outputs so that the center of gravity of any bunch of detected photons can be reconstructed using a proper weight function of the read out amplitudes. An array of ISiPMs, each 7.5 mm× 5 mm sized, is directly coupled with the scintillating crystals. Both modules can clearly resolve LYSO arrays with a pitch of only 0.833 mm. The detector can be adjusted for clinical PET, where it has already shown ToF resolution of about 230 ps CRT at FWHM. The module designs, their features and results are described.

  17. Metrology Arrangement for Measuring the Positions of Mirrors of a Submillimeter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovici, Alex; Bartman, Randall K.

    2011-01-01

    The position of the secondary mirror of a submillimeter telescope with respect to the primary mirror needs to be known .0.03 mm in three dimensions. At the time of this reporting, no convenient, reasonably priced arrangement that offers this capability exists. The solution proposed here relies on measurement devices developed and deployed for the GeoSAR mission, and later adapted for the ISAT (Innovative Space Based Radar Antenna Technology) demonstration. The measurement arrangement consists of four metrology heads, located on an optical bench, attached to the secondary mirror. Each metrology head has a dedicated target located at the edge of the primary mirror. One laser beam, launched from the head and returned by the target, is used to measure distance. Another beam, launched from a beacon on the target, is monitored by the metrology head and generates a measurement of the target position in the plane perpendicular to the laser beam. A 100-MHz modulation is carried by a collimated laser beam. The relevant wavelength is the RF one, 3 m, divided by two, because the light carries it to the target and back. The phase change due to travel to the target and back is measured by timing the zero-crossing of the RF modulation, using a 100-MHz clock. In order to obtain good resolution, the 100-MHz modulation signal is down-converted to 1 kHz. Then, the phase change corresponding to the round-trip to the target is carried by a 1-kHz signal. Since the 100-MHz clock beats 100,000 times during one period of the 1-kHz signal, the least-significant-bit (LSB) resolution is LSB = 0.015 mm.

  18. An alma survey of sub-millimeter galaxies in the extended Chandra deep field south: Sub-millimeter properties of color-selected galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Hodge, J. A.; Rix, H.-W.; Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M.; Karim, A.; Simpson, J. M. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Coppin, K. E. K. [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Cox, P. [IRAM, 300 rue de la piscine, F-38406 Saint-Martin d' Hères (France); Dannerbauer, H. [Universität Wien, Institut für Astrophysik, Türenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Greve, T. R. [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Ivison, R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Knudsen, K. K.; Lindroos, L. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, Onsala SE-439 92 (Sweden); Van der Werf, P. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Weiß, A., E-mail: decarli@mpia.de [Max-Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    We study the sub-millimeter properties of color-selected galaxies via a stacking analysis applied for the first time to interferometric data at sub-millimeter wavelengths. We base our study on 344 GHz ALMA continuum observations of ∼20''-wide fields centered on 86 sub-millimeter sources detected in the LABOCA Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) Sub-millimeter Survey. We select various classes of galaxies (K-selected, star-forming sBzK galaxies, extremely red objects, and distant red galaxies) according to their optical/near-infrared fluxes. We find clear, >10σ detections in the stacked images of all these galaxy classes. We include in our stacking analysis Herschel/SPIRE data to constrain the dust spectral energy distribution of these galaxies. We find that their dust emission is well described by a modified blackbody with T {sub dust} ≈ 30 K and β = 1.6 and infrared luminosities of (5-11) × 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉} or implied star formation rates of 75-140 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We compare our results with those of previous studies based on single-dish observations at 870 μm and find that our flux densities are a factor 2-3 higher than previous estimates. The discrepancy is observed also after removing sources individually detected in ALESS maps. We report a similar discrepancy by repeating our analysis on 1.4 GHz observations of the whole ECDFS. Hence, we find tentative evidence that galaxies that are associated in projected and redshift space with sub-mm bright sources are brighter than the average population. Finally, we put our findings in the context of the cosmic star formation rate density as a function of redshift.

  19. Enabling technologies for millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber systems in next generation heterogeneous mobile access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Wang, Jing; Xu, Mu; Cheng, Lin; Lu, Feng; Shen, Shuyi; Yan, Yan; Cho, Hyunwoo; Guidotti, Daniel; Chang, Gee-kung

    2017-01-01

    Fifth-generation (5G) wireless access network promises to support higher access data rate with more than 1,000 times capacity with respect to current long-term evolution (LTE) systems. New radio-access-technologies (RATs) based on higher carrier frequencies to millimeter-wave (MMW) radio-over-fiber, and carrier-aggregation (CA) using multi-band resources are intensively studied to support the high data rate access and effectively use of frequency resources in heterogeneous mobile network (Het-Net). In this paper, we investigate several enabling technologies for MMW RoF systems in 5G Het-Net. Efficient mobile fronthaul (MFH) solutions for 5G centralized radio access network (C-RAN) and beyond are proposed, analyzed and experimentally demonstrated based on the analog scheme. Digital predistortion based on memory polynomial for analog MFH linearization are presented with improved EVM performances and receiver sensitivity. We also propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel inter-/intra- RAT CA scheme for 5G Het- Net. The real-time standard 4G-LTE signal is carrier-aggregated with three broadband 60GHz MMW signals based on proposed optical-domain band-mapping method. RATs based on new waveforms have also been studied here to achieve higher spectral-efficiency (SE) in asynchronous environments. Full-duplex asynchronous quasi-gapless carrier aggregation scheme for MMW ROF inter-/intra-RAT based on the FBMC is also presented with 4G-LTE signals. Compared with OFDM-based signals with large guard-bands, FBMC achieves higher spectral-efficiency with better EVM performance at less received power and smaller guard-bands.

  20. COMPACT STARBURSTS IN z similar to 3-6 SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES REVEALED BY ALMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikarashi, Soh; Ivison, R. J.; Caputi, Karina I.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David H.; Iono, Daisuke; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the source size distribution, as measured by ALMA millimetric continuum imaging, of a sample of 13 AzTEC-selected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z(phot) similar to 3-6. Their infrared luminosities and star formation rates (SFRs) are L-IR similar to, 2-6 x 10(12) L-circle dot and similar

  1. Millimeter-wave and Submillimeter-wave Spectra of Aminoacetonitrile in the Three Lowest Vibrational Excited States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposti, Claudio Degli; Dore, Luca; Melosso, Mattia [Dipartimento di Chimica “Giacomo Ciamician”, Università di Bologna, via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Kobayashi, Kaori [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Fujita, Chiho; Ozeki, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ozeki@env.sci.toho-u.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, 2-2-1 Miyama, Funabashi, 274-8510 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    It is important to study possible precursors of amino acids such as glycine to enable future searches in interstellar space. Aminoacetonitrile (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CN) is one of the most feasible molecules for this purpose. This molecule was already detected toward Sgr B2(N). Aminoacetonitrile has a few low-lying vibrational excited states, and transitions within these states may be found in space. In this study, the pure-rotational transitions in the three lowest vibrational states in the 80–450 GHz range have been assigned and analyzed. It was found to be very important to include Coriolis coupling between the two lowest vibrational fundamentals, while the third one was unperturbed. The partition function was evaluated considering these new results.

  2. A Review of Some Superconducting Technologies for AtLAST: Parametric Amplifiers, Kinetic Inductance Detectors, and On-Chip Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozian, Omid

    2018-01-01

    The current state of the art for some superconducting technologies will be reviewed in the context of a future single-dish submillimeter telescope called AtLAST. The technologies reviews include: 1) Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs), which have now been demonstrated in large-format kilo-pixel arrays with photon background-limited sensitivity suitable for large field of view cameras for wide-field imaging. 2) Parametric amplifiers - specifically the Traveling-Wave Kinetic Inductance (TKIP) amplifier - which has enormous potential to increase sensitivity, bandwidth, and mapping speed of heterodyne receivers, and 3) On-chip spectrometers, which combined with sensitive direct detectors such as KIDs or TESs could be used as Multi-Object Spectrometers on the AtLAST focal plane, and could provide low-medium resolution spectroscopy of 100 objects at a time in each field of view.

  3. Power Amplifier Module with 734-mW Continuous Wave Output Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, King Man; Samoska, Lorene A.; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Lamgrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Lin, Robert H.; Soria, Mary M.; Cooperrider, Joelle T.; Micovic, Moroslav; Kurdoghlian, Ara

    2010-01-01

    Research findings were reported from an investigation of new gallium nitride (GaN) monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers (PAs) targeting the highest output power and the highest efficiency for class-A operation in W-band (75-110 GHz). W-band PAs are a major component of many frequency multiplied submillimeter-wave LO signal sources. For spectrometer arrays, substantial W-band power is required due to the passive lossy frequency multipliers-to generate higher frequency signals in nonlinear Schottky diode-based LO sources. By advancing PA technology, the LO system performance can be increased with possible cost reductions compared to current GaAs PAs. High-power, high-efficiency GaN PAs are cross-cutting and can enable more efficient local oscillator distribution systems for new astrophysics and planetary receivers and heterodyne array instruments. It can also allow for a new, electronically scannable solid-state array technology for future Earth science radar instruments and communications platforms.

  4. Direct measurement of additional Ar-H2O vibration-rotation-tunneling bands in the millimeter-submillimeter range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Luyao; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.

    2016-06-01

    Three new weak bands of the Ar-H2O vibration-rotation-tunneling spectrum have been measured in the millimeter wavelength range. These bands were predicted from combination differences based on previously measured bands in the submillimeter region. Two previously reported submillimeter bands were also remeasured with higher frequency resolution. These new measurements allow us to obtain accurate information on the Coriolis interaction between the 101 and 110 states. Here we report these results and the associated improved molecular constants.

  5. Ground-Based Submillimeter Spectroscopic Cosmological Surveys and Synergies with Space FIR Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoglio, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    To study the dust obscured processes of both star formation and black hole accretion during galaxy evolution and establish their role, as well as their mutual feedback processes, rest frame IR to submillimeter spectroscopy is needed. At these frequencies dust extinction is at its minimum and a variety of atomic and molecular transitions, tracing most astrophysical domains, occur. A large ground based submillimeter telescope with a large field of view and high sensitivity in the TeraHertz domain will pave the way of future FIR space telescope missions, such as SPICA in the late 2020's and the Origins Telescope later. I will present predictions demonstrating the synergies of such instruments to fully understand galaxy evolution, during its obscured phase, which has built most of the stellar populations in galaxies.

  6. The Status of MUSIC: A Multicolor Sub/millimeter MKID Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaerth, J. A.; Czakon, N. G.; Day, P. K.; Downes, T. P.; Duan, R.; Glenn, J.; Golwala, S. R.; Hollister, M. I.; LeDuc, H. G.; Maloney, P. R.; Mazin, B. A.; Nguyen, H. T.; Noroozian, O.; Sayers, J.; Siegel, S.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2012-05-01

    We report on the recent progress of the Multicolor Submillimeter (kinetic) Inductance Camera, or MUSIC. MUSIC will use antenna-coupled Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors to observe in four colors (150 GHz, 230 GHz, 290 GHz and 350 GHz) with 2304 detectors, 576 per band, at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. It will deploy in 2012. Here we provide an overview of the instrument, focusing on the array design. We have also used a pathfinder demonstration instrument, DemoCam, to identify problems in advance of the deployment of MUSIC. In particular, we identified two major limiters of our sensitivity: out-of-band light directly coupling to the detectors (i.e. not through the antenna), effectively an excess load, and a large 1/f contribution from our amplifiers and electronics. We discuss the steps taken to mitigate these effects to reach background-limited performance (BLIP) in observation.

  7. The Hawaii SCUBA-2 Lensing Cluster Survey: Are Low-luminosity Submillimeter Galaxies Detected in the Rest-frame UV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Cowie, Lennox L.; Barger, Amy J.; Wang, Wei-Hao

    2017-12-01

    In this third paper of the Hawaii SCUBA-2 Lensing Cluster Survey series, we present Submillimeter Array (SMA) detections of six intrinsically faint 850 μm sources detected in SCUBA-2 images of the lensing cluster fields, A1689, A2390, A370, MACS J0717.5+3745, and MACS J1423.8+2404. Two of the SCUBA-2 sources split into doublets, yielding a total of eight SMA detections. The intrinsic 870 μm flux densities of these submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) are ∼1 mJy. Five of the eight SMGs are not detected in optical or near-infrared (NIR) images. The NIR-to-submillimeter flux ratios of these faint SMGs suggest that most of them are extremely dusty and/or are at very high redshifts. By combining these SMGs and several other samples from the literature, we find a bimodal distribution for the faint sources in the space of submillimeter flux versus NIR-to-submillimeter flux ratio. While most of the SMA-detected lensed sources are very obscured, the other SMGs with similar flux densities are mostly bright in the NIR. Future Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of a large sample of SCUBA-2 sources in cluster fields will allow us to decide whether or not the bimodality we observe here really exists.

  8. Human brain diffusion tensor imaging at submillimeter isotropic resolution on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Sundman, Mark; Petit, Laurent; Guhaniyogi, Shayan; Chu, Mei-Lan; Petty, Christopher; Song, Allen W; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2015-09-01

    The advantages of high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been demonstrated in a recent post-mortem human brain study (Miller et al., NeuroImage 2011;57(1):167-181), showing that white matter fiber tracts can be much more accurately detected in data at a submillimeter isotropic resolution. To our knowledge, in vivo human brain DTI at a submillimeter isotropic resolution has not been routinely achieved yet because of the difficulty in simultaneously achieving high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in DTI scans. Here we report a 3D multi-slab interleaved EPI acquisition integrated with multiplexed sensitivity encoded (MUSE) reconstruction, to achieve high-quality, high-SNR and submillimeter isotropic resolution (0.85×0.85×0.85mm(3)) in vivo human brain DTI on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner. In agreement with the previously reported post-mortem human brain DTI study, our in vivo data show that the structural connectivity networks of human brains can be mapped more accurately and completely with high-resolution DTI as compared with conventional DTI (e.g., 2×2×2mm(3)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sideband-Separating, Millimeter-Wave Heterodyne Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, John S.; Bumble, Bruce; Lee, Karen A.; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Stek, paul; Stek, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated a submillimeter-wave spectrometer that combines extremely broad bandwidth with extremely high sensitivity and spectral resolution to enable future spacecraft to measure the composition of the Earth s troposphere in three dimensions many times per day at spatial resolutions as high as a few kilometers. Microwave limb sounding is a proven remote-sensing technique that measures thermal emission spectra from molecular gases along limb views of the Earth s atmosphere against a cold space background.

  10. Monitoring dynamic reactions of red blood cells to UHF electromagnetic waves radiation using a novel micro-imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ping; Yong, Junguang; Shen, Hongtao; Zheng, Xianrong

    2012-12-01

    Multiple state-of-the-art techniques, such as multi-dimensional micro-imaging, fast multi-channel micro-spetrophotometry, and dynamic micro-imaging analysis, were used to dynamically investigate various effects of cell under the 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Cell changes in shape, size, and parameters of Hb absorption spectrum under different power density electromagnetic waves radiation were presented in this article. Experimental results indicated that the isolated human red blood cells (RBCs) do not have obviously real-time responses to the ultra-low density (15 μW/cm(2), 31 μW/cm(2)) electromagnetic wave radiation when the radiation time is not more than 30 min; however, the cells do have significant reactions in shape, size, and the like, to the electromagnetic waves radiation with power densities of 1 mW/cm(2) and 5 mW/cm(2). The data also reveal the possible influences and statistical relationships among living human cell functions, radiation amount, and exposure time with high-frequency electromagnetic waves. The results of this study may be significant on protection of human being and other living organisms against possible radiation affections of the high-frequency electromagnetic waves.

  11. Application of oil-water discrimination technology in fractured reservoirs using the differences between fast and slow shear-waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cong; Li, Xiangyang; Huang, Guangtan

    2017-08-01

    Oil-water discrimination is of great significance in the design and adjustment of development projects in oil fields. For fractured reservoirs, based on anisotropic S-wave splitting information, it becomes possible to effectively solve such problems which are difficult to deal with in traditional longitudinal wave exploration, due to the similar bulk modulus and density of these two fluids. In this paper, by analyzing the anisotropic character of the Chapman model (2009 Geophysics 74 97-103), the velocity and reflection coefficient differences between the fast and slow S-wave caused by fluid substitution have been verified. Then, through a wave field response analysis of the theoretical model, we found that water saturation causes a longer time delay, a larger time delay gradient and a lower amplitude difference between the fast and slow S-wave, while the oil case corresponds to a lower time delay, a lower gradient and a higher amplitude difference. Therefore, a new class attribute has been proposed regarding the amplitude energy of the fast and slow shear wave, used for oil-water distinction. This new attribute, as well as that of the time delay gradient, were both applied to the 3D3C seismic data of carbonate fractured reservoirs in the Luojia area of the Shengli oil field in China. The results show that the predictions of the energy attributes are more consistent with the well information than the time delay gradient attribute, hence demonstrating the great advantages and potential of this new attribute in oil-water recognition.

  12. Free-electron masers vs. gyrotrons prospects for high-power sources at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Thumm, M K

    2002-01-01

    The possible applications of high-power millimeter (mm) and sub-mm waves from free-electron masers (FEMs) and gyro-devices span a wide range of technologies. The plasma physics community has already taken advantage of recent advances in applying high-power mm waves generated by long pulse or continuous wave (CW) gyrotron oscillators and short pulse very high-power FEMs in the areas of RF-plasma production, heating, non-inductive current drive, plasma stabilization and active plasma diagnostics for magnetic confinement thermonuclear fusion research, such as electron cyclotron resonance heating (28-170 GHz), electron cyclotron current drive , collective Thomson scattering , microwave transmission and heat-wave propagation experiments. Continuously frequency tunable FEMs could widen these fields of applications. Another important application of CW gyrotrons is industrial materials processing, e.g. sintering of high-performance functional and structural nanostructured ceramics. Sub-mm wave sources are employed in...

  13. Gravitational lens models based on submillimeter array imaging of Herschel -selected strongly lensed sub-millimeter galaxies at z > 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Gurwell, M. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pérez-Fournon, I. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Amber, S. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Calanog, J.; De Bernardis, F.; Wardlow, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, 203 Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Harris, A. I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Krips, M. [Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimétrique, 300 Rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, 38406 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Lapi, A. [Department Fisica, Univ. Tor Vergata, Via Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome, Italy and SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Maiolino, R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J.J. Thomson Ave., Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom); Omont, A. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Riechers, D. [Department of Astronomy, Space Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Birkinshaw, M. [HH Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Bock, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2013-12-10

    Strong gravitational lenses are now being routinely discovered in wide-field surveys at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths. We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) high-spatial resolution imaging and Gemini-South and Multiple Mirror Telescope optical spectroscopy of strong lens candidates discovered in the two widest extragalactic surveys conducted by the Herschel Space Observatory: the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). From a sample of 30 Herschel sources with S {sub 500} > 100 mJy, 21 are strongly lensed (i.e., multiply imaged), 4 are moderately lensed (i.e., singly imaged), and the remainder require additional data to determine their lensing status. We apply a visibility-plane lens modeling technique to the SMA data to recover information about the masses of the lenses as well as the intrinsic (i.e., unlensed) sizes (r {sub half}) and far-infrared luminosities (L {sub FIR}) of the lensed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). The sample of lenses comprises primarily isolated massive galaxies, but includes some groups and clusters as well. Several of the lenses are located at z {sub lens} > 0.7, a redshift regime that is inaccessible to lens searches based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopy. The lensed SMGs are amplified by factors that are significantly below statistical model predictions given the 500 μm flux densities of our sample. We speculate that this may reflect a deficiency in our understanding of the intrinsic sizes and luminosities of the brightest SMGs. The lensed SMGs span nearly one decade in L {sub FIR} (median L {sub FIR} = 7.9 × 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}) and two decades in FIR luminosity surface density (median Σ{sub FIR} = 6.0 × 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉} kpc{sup –2}). The strong lenses in this sample and others identified via (sub-)mm surveys will provide a wealth of information regarding the astrophysics of galaxy formation and evolution over a wide range in redshift.

  14. Millimeter/Submillimeter Spectroscopy of TiO (X3Δr): The Rare Titanium Isotopologues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincowski, A. P.; Halfen, D. T.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    Pure rotational spectra of the rare isotopologues of titanium oxide, 46TiO, 47TiO, 49TiO, and 50TiO, have been recorded using a combination of Fourier transform millimeter-wave (FTmmW) and millimeter/submillimeter direct absorption techniques in the frequency range 62-538 GHz. This study is the first complete spectroscopic characterization of these species in their X 3Δ r ground electronic states. The isotopologues were created by the reaction of N2O or O2 and titanium vapor, produced either by laser ablation or in a Broida-type oven, and observed in the natural Ti isotopic abundances. Between 10 and 11 rotational transitions J + 1 ≤ftrightarrow J were measured for each species, typically in all 3 spin-orbit ladders Ω = 1, 2, and 3. For 47TiO and 49TiO, hyperfine structure was resolved, originating from the titanium-47 and titanium-49 nuclear spins of I = 5/2 and 7/2, respectively. For the Ω = 1 and 3 components, the hyperfine structure was found to follow a classic Landé pattern, while that for Ω = 2 appeared to be perturbed, likely a result of mixing with the nearby isoconfigurational a 1Δ state. The spectra were analyzed with a case (a) Hamiltonian, and rotational, spin-orbit, and spin-spin parameters were determined for each species, as well as magnetic hyperfine and electric quadrupole constants for the two molecules with nuclear spins. The most abundant species, 48TiO, has been detected in circumstellar envelopes. These measurements will enable other titanium isotopologues to be studied at millimeter wavelengths, providing Ti isotope ratios that can test models of nucleosynthesis.

  15. Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a method of fabrication of far IR and THZ range multilayer metal-mesh filters. This type of filter consists of alternative...

  16. Partnership for Wave Power - Roadmaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim; Krogh, Jan; Brodersen, Hans Jørgen

    This Wave Energy Technology Roadmap is developed by the Partnership for Wave Power including nine Danish wave energy developers. It builds on to the strategy [1] published by the Partnership in 2012, a document that describes the long term vision of the Danish Wave Energy sector: “By 2030...

  17. Completion and fracture modeling of low-permeability gas sand in south Texas enhanced by magnetic resonance and sound wave technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairhurst, D. L.; Marfice, J. P. [Schlumberger Oilfield Services Inc (United States); Seim, M. R.; Norville, M. A. [Kerns Oil and Gas Inc (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Recent advances in well logging, which involve the application of sound wave forms and magnetic resonance technology and result in more accurate shear modulus and permeability estimates, are discussed. In some cases, use of magnetic resonance has identified previously bypassed permeable streaks that increased production. In others, sonic waveforms technology has helped determine fracture direction, which led to better gas drainage and well placement. The model incorporating these techniques has been found to produce good results for completions in the Olmos and San Miguel sands of south Texas. This paper presents comparisons between field data with model predictions to illustrate how use of the model can improve both productivity estimates as well as fracture design parameters for tight sand formations. 14 refs., 12 figs., 1 appendix.

  18. The comparison of removing plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Bajracharya, Suman

    2015-11-01

    Near-well ultrasonic processing technology is characterized by high adaptability, simple operation, low cost and zero pollution. The main plugs of oil production include paraffin deposition plug, polymer plug, and drilling fluid plug etc. Although some good results have been obtained through laboratory experiments and field tests, systematic and intensive studies are absent for certain major aspects, such as: effects of ultrasonic treatment for different kinds of plugs and whether effect of ultrasound-chemicals combination deplugging is better than that of ultrasonic deplugging. In this paper, the experiments of removing drilling fluid plug, paraffin deposition plug and polymer plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging respectively are carried out. Results show that the effect of ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging is clearly better than that of using ultrasonic wave and chemical deplugging agent separately, which indicates that ultrasonic deplugging and chemical deplugging can produce synergetic effects. On the one hand, ultrasonic treatment can boost the activity of chemical deplugging agent and turn chemical deplugging into dynamic chemical process, promoting chemical agent reaction speed and enhancing deplugging effect; on the other hand, chemical agent can reduce the adhesion strength of plugs so that ultrasonic deplugging effect can be improved significantly. Experimental results provide important reference for near-well ultrasonic processing technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  20. Developments in the use and capability of millimetre wave technologies for stand-off detection of threat items over the last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollett, E.; Clark, A.

    2017-05-01

    The Home Office Centre for Applied Science and Technology (CAST) has a longstanding history in the evaluation of passive and active millimetre wave (mmW) systems for stand-off detection. The requirements for stand-off detection have evolved greatly over the last decade due to changes in threat, as has the capability of technologies. CAST has worked with these changes to evaluate systems alongside other government departments, developing expertise in the standard of technology from low to high technology readiness level (TRL) as well as understanding the limitations in detection. In this paper I discuss the work that has been undertaken by CAST since 2007, exploring the developments in methodology that have become necessary for trials to capture the requirements successfully. This involves utilising aspects of test protocols to ensure consistency across testing between CAST and other organisations, allowing for a fair comparison of data. The trials undertaken vary from evaluating the system capability in a static setting to the capability in a crowded environment such as a shopping centre. Understanding the performance capability of passive and active (mmW) systems in crowded places is particularly important given the current threat status of the UK.

  1. Sensitivity Study of Ice Crystal Optical Properties in the 874 GHz Submillimeter Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guanglin; Yang, Ping; Wu, Dong L.

    2015-01-01

    Testing of an 874 GHz submillimeter radiometer on meteorological satellites is being planned to improve ice water content retrievals. In this paper we study the optical properties of ice cloud particles in the 874 GHz band. The results show that the bulk scattering and absorption coefficients of an ensemble of ice cloud particles are sensitive to the particle shape and effective diameter, whereas the latter is also sensitive to temperature. The co-polar back scattering cross-section is not sensitive to particle shape, temperature, and the effective diameter in the range of 50200 m.

  2. cluster-in-a-box: Statistical model of sub-millimeter emission from embedded protostellar clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Lars E.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2016-10-01

    Cluster-in-a-box provides a statistical model of sub-millimeter emission from embedded protostellar clusters and consists of three modules grouped in two scripts. The first (cluster_distribution) generates the cluster based on the number of stars, input initial mass function, spatial distribution and age distribution. The second (cluster_emission) takes an input file of observations, determines the mass-intensity correlation and generates outflow emission for all low-mass Class 0 and I sources. The output is stored as a FITS image where the flux density is determined by the desired resolution, pixel scale and cluster distance.

  3. A deeply embedded young protoplanetary disk around L1489 IRS observed by the Submillimeter Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, C.; Crapsi, A.; Jørgensen, J. K.

    2007-01-01

    aim to identify whether an embedded Keplerian protoplanetary disk resides in the L1489 IRS system. Given the amount of envelope material still present, such a disk would respresent a very young example of a protoplanetary disk. Methods. Using the Submillimeter Array we have observed the HCO + J = 3......-2 line with a resolution of about 1". At this resolution a protoplanetary disk with a radius of a few hundred AUs should be detectable, if present. Radiative transfer tools are used to model the emission from both continuum and line data. Results. We find that these data are consistent with theoretical...

  4. Submillimeter-resolution radiography of shielded structures with laser-accelerated electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Ramanathan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of energetic electron beams for high-resolution radiography of flaws embedded in thick solid objects. A bright, monoenergetic electron beam (with energy >100  MeV was generated by the process of laser-wakefield acceleration through the interaction of 50-TW, 30-fs laser pulses with a supersonic helium jet. The high energy, low divergence, and small source size of these beams make them ideal for high-resolution radiographic studies of cracks or voids embedded in dense materials that are placed at a large distance from the source. We report radiographic imaging of steel with submillimeter resolution.

  5. Submillimeter-Resolution Radiography of Shielded Structures with Laser-Accelerated Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, Vidya [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Banerjee, Sudeep [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Powell, Nathan [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Cummingham, N. J. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Chandler-Smith, Nate [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Zhao, Kun [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Brown, Kevin [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Umstadter, Donald [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Clarke, Shaun [University of Michigan; Pozzi, Sara [University of Michigan; Beene, James R [ORNL; Vane, C Randy [ORNL; Schultz, David Robert [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the use of energetic electron beams for high-resolution radiography of flaws embedded in thick solid objects. A bright, monoenergetic electron beam (with energy >100 MeV) was generated by the process of laser-wakefield acceleration through the interaction of 50-TW, 30-fs laser pulses with a supersonic helium jet. The high energy, low divergence, and small source size of these beams make them ideal for high-resolution radiographic studies of cracks or voids embedded in dense materials that are placed at a large distance from the source. We report radiographic imaging of steel with submillimeter resolution.

  6. Development of a 200 W CW high efficiency traveling wave tube at 12 GHz. [for use in communication technology satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. A.; Tammaru, I.

    1974-01-01

    The design, development, and test results are reported for an experimental PPM focused, traveling-wave tube that produces 235 watts of CW RF power over 85 MHz centered at 12.080 GHz. The tube uses a coupled cavity RF circuit with a velocity taper for greater than 30 percent basic efficiency. Overall efficiency of 51 percent is achieved by means of a nine stage depressed collector designed at NASA Lewis Research Center. This collector is cooled by direct radiation to deep space.

  7. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP2-03: High Sensitivity and High Resolution Fiber Based Micro-Detector for Sub-Millimeter Preclinical Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaguirre, E; Pokhrel, S; Knewtson, T [University of Tennessee Medical Science Center, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Hedrick, S [Provision Center for Proton Therapy, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Current precision of small animal and cell micro-irradiators has continuously increased during the past years. Currently, preclinical irradiators can deliver sub-millimeter fields with micrometric precision but there are no water equivalent dosimeters to determine small field profiles and dose in the orthovoltage range of energies with micrometric resolution and precision. We have developed a fiber based micro-dosimeter with the resolution and dosimetric accuracy required for radiobiological research. Methods: We constructed two prototypes of micro-dosimeters based on different compositions of fiber scintillators to study the spatial resolution and dosimetric precision of small animal and cell micro-irradiators. The first has green output and the second has blue output. The blue output dosimeter has the highest sensitivity because it matches the spectral sensitivity of silicon photomultipliers. A blue detector with 500um cross section was built and tested respect to a CC01 ion chamber, film, and the 1500um green output detector. Orthovoltage fields from 1×1mm2 to 5×5mm2 were used for detector characteristics comparison. Results: The blue fiber dosimeter shows great agreement with films and matches dose measurements with the gold-standard ion chamber for 5×5mm2 fields. The detector has the appropriate sensitivity to measure fields from 1×1mm2 to larger sizes with a 1% dosimetric accuracy. The spatial resolution is in the sub-millimeter range and the spectral matching with the photomultiplier allows reducing the sensor cross section even further than the presented prototype. These results suggest that scintillating fibers combined with silicon photomultipliers is the appropriate technology to pursue micro-dosimetry for small animals and disperse cell samples. Conclusion: The constructed detectors establish a new landmark for the resolution and sensitivity of fiber based microdetectors. The validation of the detector in our small animal and cell

  8. In Vitro Comparison of Five Different Elastography Systems for Clinical Applications, Using Strain and Shear Wave Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulabecirovic, Anesa; Vesterhus, Mette; Gilja, Odd Helge; Havre, Roald Flesland

    2016-11-01

    Several different platforms providing ultrasound elastography have emerged in recent years. In this in vitro study on a single tissue-mimicking phantom (CIRS Model 49), we aimed to compare the performance of quantitative elastography measurements from platforms running strain elastography and others running shear wave elastography. We evaluated five different elastography platforms using both linear and curvilinear probes. All measurements were performed in parallel by two independent investigators who recorded the elasticity quantitatively. We investigated intra- and inter-observer agreement by intra-class correlation analysis and coefficient of variation, by correlation and limits of agreement. The reproducibility of elasticity measurements was good to excellent for shear wave and strain elastography. All five elastography platforms had high intra-observer (intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.932-1.0) and inter-observer correlation (intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.845-0.996). All inclusions could be differentiated by quantitative elastography by all systems (p < 0.001). The use of a linear probe yielded more reproducible measurements compared with use of a convex probe in 3/4 platforms. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Studying Star and Planet Formation with the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS) is a far- infrared/submillimeter (40-640 micrometers) spaceborne interferometry concept, studied through the NASA Vision Missions program. SPECS is envisioned as a 1-km baseline Michelson interferometer with two 4- meter collecting mirrors. To maximize science return, SPECS will have three operational modes: a photometric imaging mode, an intermediate spectral resolution mode (R approximately equal to 1000-3000), and a high spectral resolution mode (R approximately equal to 3 x 10(exp 5)). The first two of these modes will provide information on all sources within a 1 arcminute field-of-view (FOV), while the the third will include sources in a small (approximately equal to 5 arcsec) FOV. With this design, SPECS will have angular resolution comparable to the Hubble Space Telescope (50 mas) and sensitivity more than two orders of magnitude better than Spitzer (5sigma in 10ks of approximately equal to 3 x 10(exp 7) Jy Hz). We present here some of the results of the recently-completed Vision Mission Study for SPECS, and discuss the application of this mission to future studies of star and planet formation.

  10. Taiwanese antennas for the Sub-Millimeter Array: a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffin, Phillippe A.; Liu, Ching-Tang; Cervera, Mathieu; Chang, Chi-Ling; Chen, Ming-Tang; Lee, Cheng-Ching; Lee, Typhoon; Lo, Kwok-Yung; Ma, Rwei-Ping; Martin, Robert N.; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Ong, Ching-Long; Park, Yong-Sun; Tsai, Rong-Den; Wu, Enboa; Yang, Shun-Cheng; Yang, Tien-Szu

    2000-07-01

    The Academia Sinica, Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA) is building two antennas to be added to the six antennas of the Sub-Millimeter Array (SMA) of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). The antennas have been designed at SAO and are currently under construction at Mauna Kea. ASIAA's two antennas are made in Taiwan from parts manufactured locally and imported from Europe and from the USA. This report will focus on the manufacturing and testing of 2 major components: the alidade and the reflector. We will emphasize the work done on the composite parts used in the 6- meter reflectors, namely the carbon fiber tubes for the backup structure, the carbon fiber legs of the quadrupod and the composite central hub. We will discuss the modal testing and pointing tests of the antennas. Finally this report will show how the Taiwanese industry was able to respond to the high manufacturing standards required to build sub-millimeter antennas. The design and manufacturing capabilities of the Aeronautical Research Laboratories and China Shipbuilding Corporation have made possible the construction of the telescopes in Taiwan.

  11. A Submillimeter Resolution PET Prototype Evaluated With an 18F Inkjet Printed Phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Florian R.; Hohberg, Melanie; Mann, Alexander B.; Paul, Stephan; Ziegler, Sibylle I.

    2015-10-01

    This work presents a submillimeter resolution PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scanner prototype based on SiPM/MPPC arrays (Silicon Photomultiplier/Multi Pixel Photon Counter). Onto each active area a 1 ×1 ×20 mm3 LYSO (Lutetium-Yttrium-Oxyorthosilicate) scintillator crystal is coupled one-to-one. Two detector modules facing each other in a distance of 10.0 cm have been set up with in total 64 channels that are digitized by SADCs (Sampling Analog to Digital Converters) with 80 MHz, 10 bit resolution and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based extraction of energy and time information. Since standard phantoms are not sufficient for testing submillimeter resolution at which positron range is an issue, a 18F inkjet printed phantom has been used to explore the limit in spatial resolution. The phantom could be successfully reconstructed with an iterative MLEM (Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization) and an analytically calculated system matrix based on the DRF (Detector Response Function) model. The system yields a coincidence time resolution of 4.8 ns FWHM, an energy resolution of 20%-30% FWHM and a spatial resolution of 0.8 mm.

  12. Extending the LHC reach for new physics with sub-millimeter displaced vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hayato; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Moroi, Takeo; Nagata, Natsumi; Otono, Hidetoshi

    2017-08-01

    Particles with a sub-millimeter decay length appear in many models of physics beyond the Standard Model. However, their longevity has been often ignored in their LHC searches and they have been regarded as promptly-decaying particles. In this letter, we show that, by requiring displaced vertices on top of the event selection criteria used in the ordinary search strategies for promptly-decaying particles, we can considerably extend the LHC reach for particles with a decay length of ≳ 100 μm. We discuss a way of reconstructing sub-millimeter displaced vertices by exploiting the same technique used for the primary vertex reconstruction on the assumption that the metastable particles are always pair-produced and their decay products contain high-pT jets. We show that, by applying a cut based on displaced vertices on top of standard kinematical cuts for the search of new particles, the LHC reach can be significantly extended if the decay length is ≳ 100 μm. In addition, we may measure the lifetime of the target particle through the reconstruction of displaced vertices, which plays an important role in understanding the new physics behind the metastable particles.

  13. The status of MUSIC: the multiwavelength sub-millimeter inductance camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Jack; Bockstiegel, Clint; Brugger, Spencer; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran P.; Gao, Jiansong; Gill, Amandeep K.; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R.; Hollister, Matthew I.; Lam, Albert; LeDuc, Henry G.; Maloney, Philip R.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; McHugh, Sean G.; Miller, David A.; Mroczkowski, Anthony K.; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien Trong; Schlaerth, James A.; Siegel, Seth R.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2014-08-01

    The Multiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC) is a four-band photometric imaging camera operating from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). MUSIC is designed to utilize 2304 microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs), with 576 MKIDs for each observing band centered on 150, 230, 290, and 350 GHz. MUSIC's field of view (FOV) is 14' square, and the point-spread functions (PSFs) in the four observing bands have 45'', 31'', 25'', and 22'' full-widths at half maximum (FWHM). The camera was installed in April 2012 with 25% of its nominal detector count in each band, and has subsequently completed three short sets of engineering observations and one longer duration set of early science observations. Recent results from on-sky characterization of the instrument during these observing runs are presented, including achieved map- based sensitivities from deep integrations, along with results from lab-based measurements made during the same period. In addition, recent upgrades to MUSIC, which are expected to significantly improve the sensitivity of the camera, are described.

  14. Stratospheric isotopic water profiles from a single submillimeter limb scan by TELIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Lange

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Around 490 GHz relatively strong HDO and H218O emission lines can be found in the submillimeter thermal-emission spectrum of the Earth's atmosphere, along with lines of the principal isotopologue of water vapour. These can be used for remote sensing of the rare/principal isotope ratio in the stratosphere. A sensitivity study has been performed for retrieval simulations of water isotopologues from balloon-borne measurements by the limb sounder TELIS (TErahertz and submillimeter LImb Sounder. The study demonstrates the capability of TELIS to determine, from a single limb scan, the profiles for H218O and HDO between 20 km and 37 km with a retrieval error of ≈3 and a spatial resolution of 1.5 km, as determined by the width of the averaging kernel. In addition HDO can be retrieved in the range of 10–20 km, albeit with a strongly deteriorated retrieval error. Expected uncertainties in instrumental parameters have only limited impact on the retrieval results.

  15. Gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.

  16. A DETAILED GRAVITATIONAL LENS MODEL BASED ON SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY AND KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF A HERSCHEL-ATLAS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY AT z = 4.243 {sup ,} {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Gurwell, M. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fu Hai; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Smith, D. J. B.; Bonfield, D.; Dunne, L. [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Dye, S.; Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Auld, R. [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M.; Fritz, J. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Cava, A. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Clements, D. L.; Dariush, A. [Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Coppin, K. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Ernest Rutherford Building, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Dannerbauer, H. [Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Astronomie, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Wien, Oesterreich (Austria); De Zotti, G. [Universita di Padova, Dipto di Astronomia, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 2, IT 35122, Padova (Italy); Hopwood, R., E-mail: rbussmann@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-09-10

    We present high-spatial resolution imaging obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 880 {mu}m and the Keck adaptive optics (AO) system at the K{sub S}-band of a gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 4.243 discovered in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. The SMA data (angular resolution Almost-Equal-To 0.''6) resolve the dust emission into multiple lensed images, while the Keck AO K{sub S}-band data (angular resolution Almost-Equal-To 0.''1) resolve the lens into a pair of galaxies separated by 0.''3. We present an optical spectrum of the foreground lens obtained with the Gemini-South telescope that provides a lens redshift of z{sub lens} = 0.595 {+-} 0.005. We develop and apply a new lens modeling technique in the visibility plane that shows that the SMG is magnified by a factor of {mu} = 4.1 {+-} 0.2 and has an intrinsic infrared (IR) luminosity of L{sub IR} = (2.1 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. We measure a half-light radius of the background source of r{sub s} = 4.4 {+-} 0.5 kpc which implies an IR luminosity surface density of {Sigma}{sub IR} (3.4 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun} kpc{sup -2}, a value that is typical of z > 2 SMGs but significantly lower than IR luminous galaxies at z {approx} 0. The two lens galaxies are compact (r{sub lens} Almost-Equal-To 0.9 kpc) early-types with Einstein radii of {theta}{sub E1} 0.57 {+-} 0.01 and {theta}{sub E2} = 0.40 {+-} 0.01 that imply masses of M{sub lens1} = (7.4 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and M{sub lens2} = (3.7 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. The two lensing galaxies are likely about to undergo a dissipationless merger, and the mass and size of the resultant system should be similar to other early-type galaxies at z {approx} 0.6. This work highlights the importance of high spatial resolution imaging in developing models of strongly lensed galaxies

  17. Gravitation Waves seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort.

  18. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will

  19. Implementation of 7e learning cycle model using technology based constructivist teaching (TBCT) approach to improve students' understanding achievment in mechanical wave material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warliani, Resti; Muslim, Setiawan, Wawan

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to determine the increase in the understanding achievement in senior high school students through the Learning Cycle 7E with technology based constructivist teaching approach (TBCT). This study uses a pretest-posttest control group design. The participants were 67 high school students of eleventh grade in Garut city with two class in control and experiment class. Experiment class applying the Learning Cycle 7E through TBCT approach and control class applying the 7E Learning Cycle through Constructivist Teaching approach (CT). Data collection tools from mechanical wave concept test with totally 22 questions with reability coefficient was found 0,86. The findings show the increase of the understanding achievement of the experiment class is in the amount of 0.51 was higher than the control class that is in the amount of 0.33.

  20. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: ALMA Resolves the Bright-end of the Sub-millimeter Number Counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, J. M.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Chapman, S. C.; Geach, J. E.; Ivison, R. J.; Thomson, A. P.; Aretxaga, I.; Blain, A. W.; Cowley, W. I.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Coppin, K. E. K.; Dunlop, J. S.; Edge, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Ibar, E.; Karim, A.; Knudsen, K. K.; Meijerink, R.; Michałowski, M. J.; Scott, D.; Spaans, M.; van der Werf, P. P.

    We present high-resolution 870 μm Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) continuum maps of 30 bright sub-millimeter sources in the UKIDSS UDS field. These sources are selected from deep, 1 degree2 850 μm maps from the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey, and are representative of the

  1. The JCMT Transient Survey: Detection of Submillimeter Variability in a Class I Protostar EC 53 in Serpens Main

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyunju; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Mairs, Steve; Johnstone, Doug; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Kang, Sung-ju; Kang, Miju; Cho, Jungyeon; The JCMT Transient Team

    2017-11-01

    During the protostellar phase of stellar evolution, accretion onto the star is expected to be variable, but this suspected variability has been difficult to detect because protostars are deeply embedded. In this paper, we describe a submillimeter luminosity burst of the Class I protostar EC 53 in Serpens Main, the first variable found during our dedicated JCMT/SCUBA-2 monitoring program of eight nearby star-forming regions. EC 53 remained quiescent for the first six months of our survey, from 2016 February to August. The submillimeter emission began to brighten in 2016 September, reached a peak brightness of 1.5 times the faint state, and has been decaying slowly since 2017 February. The change in submillimeter brightness is interpreted as dust heating in the envelope, generated by a luminosity increase of the protostar of a factor of ≥4. The 850 μm light curve resembles the historical K-band light curve, which varies by a factor of ˜6 with a 543 period and is interpreted as accretion variability excited by interactions between the accretion disk and a close binary system. The predictable detections of accretion variability observed at both near-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths make the system a unique test-bed, enabling us to capture the moment of the accretion burst and to study the consequences of the outburst on the protostellar disk and envelope.

  2. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array - from Early Science to Full Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remijan, Anthony

    2017-06-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is now entering its 6th cycle of scientific observations. Starting with Cycle 3, science observations were no longer considered "Early Science" or "best efforts". Cycle 5 is now the third cycle of "steady state" observations and Cycle 7 is advertised to begin ALMA "full science" operations. ALMA Full Science Operations will include all the capabilities that were agreed upon by the international consortium after the ALMA re-baselining effort. In this talk, I will detail the upcoming ALMA Cycle 5 observing capabilities, describe the process of selecting new observing modes for upcoming cycles and provide an update on the status of the ALMA Full Science capabilities.

  3. A Multiwavelength Study of the Intracluster Medium and the Characterization of the Multiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Seth Robert

    The first part of this thesis combines Bolocam observations of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect at 140 GHz with X-ray observations from Chandra, strong lensing data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and weak lensing data from HST and Subaru to constrain parametric models for the distribution of dark and baryonic matter in a sample of six massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. For five of the six clusters, the full multiwavelength dataset is well described by a relatively simple model that assumes spherical symmetry, hydrostatic equilibrium, and entirely thermal pressure support. The multiwavelength analysis yields considerably better constraints on the total mass and concentration compared to analysis of any one dataset individually. The subsample of five galaxy clusters is used to place an upper limit on the fraction of pressure support in the intracluster medium (ICM) due to nonthermal processes, such as turbulent and bulk flow of the gas. We constrain the nonthermal pressure fraction at r500c to be less than 0.11 at 95% confidence, where r500c refers to radius at which the average enclosed density is 500 times the critical density of the Universe. This is in tension with state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations, which predict a nonthermal pressure fraction of approximately 0.25 at r500c for the clusters in this sample. The second part of this thesis focuses on the characterization of the Multiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC), a photometric imaging camera that was commissioned at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) in 2012. MUSIC is designed to have a 14 arcminute, diffraction-limited field of view populated with 576 spatial pixels that are simultaneously sensitive to four bands at 150, 220, 290, and 350 GHz. It is well-suited for studies of dusty star forming galaxies, galaxy clusters via the SZ Effect, and galactic star formation. MUSIC employs a number of novel detector technologies: broadband phased

  4. CORRELATIONS IN THE (SUB)MILLIMETER BACKGROUND FROM ACT Multiplication-Sign BLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajian, Amir; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Viero, Marco P.; Bock, James J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Addison, Graeme [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Aguirre, Paula [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Appel, John William; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hincks, Adam D. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Das, Sudeep; Dunkley, Joanna [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hasselfield, Matthew [Laboratoire APC, Universite Paris Diderot, 75205 Paris (France); Hilton, Matt [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); and others

    2012-01-01

    We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency correlation power spectra of the cosmic (sub)millimeter background at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations made with the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST); and at 1380 and 2030 {mu}m (218 and 148 GHz) from observations made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The overlapping observations cover 8.6 deg{sup 2} in an area relatively free of Galactic dust near the south ecliptic pole. The ACT bands are sensitive to radiation from the cosmic microwave background, to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from galaxy clusters, and to emission by radio and dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), while the dominant contribution to the BLAST bands is from DSFGs. We confirm and extend the BLAST analysis of clustering with an independent pipeline and also detect correlations between the ACT and BLAST maps at over 25{sigma} significance, which we interpret as a detection of the DSFGs in the ACT maps. In addition to a Poisson component in the cross-frequency power spectra, we detect a clustered signal at 4{sigma}, and using a model for the DSFG evolution and number counts, we successfully fit all of our spectra with a linear clustering model and a bias that depends only on redshift and not on scale. Finally, the data are compared to, and generally agree with, phenomenological models for the DSFG population. This study demonstrates the constraining power of the cross-frequency correlation technique to constrain models for the DSFGs. Similar analyses with more data will impose tight constraints on future models.

  5. Imaging the environment of a z = 6.3 submillimeter galaxy with SCUBA-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robson, E. I.; Holland, W. S. [United Kingdom Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Ivison, R. J. [European Space Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Smail, Ian [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Geach, J. E. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Gibb, A. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Riechers, D. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ade, P. A. R. [Astronomy and Instrumentation Group, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales CF10 3XQ (United Kingdom); Bintley, D. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North Ahoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Bock, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Chapin, E. L. [XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Apartado 79, E-28691 Villaneueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Coburg Road, Halifax B3H 1A6 (Canada); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dunlop, J. S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Farrah, D., E-mail: rob.ivison@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); and others

    2014-09-20

    We describe a search for submillimeter emission in the vicinity of one of the most distant, luminous galaxies known, HerMES FLS3, at z = 6.34, exploiting it as a signpost to a potentially biased region of the early universe, as might be expected in hierarchical structure formation models. Imaging to the confusion limit with the innovative, wide-field submillimeter bolometer camera, SCUBA-2, we are sensitive to colder and/or less luminous galaxies in the surroundings of HFLS3. We use the Millennium Simulation to illustrate that HFLS3 may be expected to have companions if it is as massive as claimed, but find no significant evidence from the surface density of SCUBA-2 galaxies in its vicinity, or their colors, that HFLS3 marks an overdensity of dusty, star-forming galaxies. We cannot rule out the presence of dusty neighbors with confidence, but deeper 450 μm imaging has the potential to more tightly constrain the redshifts of nearby galaxies, at least one of which likely lies at z ≳ 5. If associations with HFLS3 can be ruled out, this could be taken as evidence that HFLS3 is less biased than a simple extrapolation of the Millennium Simulation may imply. This could suggest either that it represents a rare short-lived, but highly luminous, phase in the evolution of an otherwise typical galaxy, or that this system has suffered amplification due to a foreground gravitational lens and so is not as intrinsically luminous as claimed.

  6. Diffusion in and around alginate and chitosan films with embedded sub-millimeter voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Subhajit; Bal, Dharmendra Kumar; Ganguly, Somenath, E-mail: snganguly@che.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogel scaffolds from biopolymers have potential use in the controlled release of drugs, and as 3-D structure for the formation of tissue matrix. This article describes the solute release behavior of alginate and chitosan films with embedded voids of sub-millimeter dimensions. Nitrogen gas was bubbled in a fluidic arrangement to generate bubbles, prior to the crosslinking. The crosslinked gel was dried in a vacuum oven, and subsequently, soaked in Vitamin B-12 solution. The dimensions of the voids immediately after the cross-linking of gel, and also after complete drying were obtained using a digital microscope and scanning electron microscope respectively. The porosity of the gel was measured gravimetrically. The release of Vitamin B-12 in PBS buffer on a shaker was studied. The release experiments were repeated at an elevated temperature of 37 °C in the presence of lysozyme. The diffusion coefficient within the gel layer and the mass transfer coefficient at the interface with the bulk-liquid were estimated using a mathematical model. For comparison, the experiment was repeated with a film that does not have any embedded void. The enhancement in diffusion coefficient due to the presence of voids is discussed in this article. - Highlights: • Formation of sub-millimeter voids in biopolymer films using fluidic arrangement • The retention of self-assembled bubbles in films after crosslinking, and drying • The enhancement observed in release of model drug with introduction of voids • The diffusion coefficients in and around biopolymer films from model regression • Use of classical model in explaining release profiles from dual porosity media.

  7. An ALMA survey of submillimeter galaxies in the extended Chandra deep field south: The redshift distribution and evolution of submillimeter galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Thomson, A. P. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bertoldi, F.; Karim, A. [Argelander-Institute for Astronomy, Bonn University, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); De Breuck, C. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Straße, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Coppin, K. E. K. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Da Cunha, E.; Hodge, J. A.; Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dannerbauer, H. [Universität Wien, Institut für Astrophysik, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Knudsen, K. K. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Poggianti, B. M., E-mail: j.m.simpson@dur.ac.uk [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2014-06-20

    We present the first photometric redshift distribution for a large sample of 870 μm submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with robust identifications based on observations with ALMA. In our analysis we consider 96 SMGs in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, 77 of which have 4-19 band photometry. We model the SEDs for these 77 SMGs, deriving a median photometric redshift of z {sub phot} = 2.3 ± 0.1. The remaining 19 SMGs have insufficient photometry to derive photometric redshifts, but a stacking analysis of Herschel observations confirms they are not spurious. Assuming that these SMGs have an absolute H-band magnitude distribution comparable to that of a complete sample of z ∼ 1-2 SMGs, we demonstrate that they lie at slightly higher redshifts, raising the median redshift for SMGs to z {sub phot} = 2.5 ± 0.2. Critically we show that the proportion of galaxies undergoing an SMG-like phase at z ≥ 3 is at most 35% ± 5% of the total population. We derive a median stellar mass of M {sub *} = (8 ± 1) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, although there are systematic uncertainties of up to 5 × for individual sources. Assuming that the star formation activity in SMGs has a timescale of ∼100 Myr, we show that their descendants at z ∼ 0 would have a space density and M{sub H} distribution that are in good agreement with those of local ellipticals. In addition, the inferred mass-weighted ages of the local ellipticals broadly agree with the look-back times of the SMG events. Taken together, these results are consistent with a simple model that identifies SMGs as events that form most of the stars seen in the majority of luminous elliptical galaxies at the present day.

  8. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  9. Monolithic watt-level millimeter-wave diode-grid frequency tripler array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, R. J.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Rutledge, D. B.; Hancock, B.; Lieneweg, U.

    1988-01-01

    In order to provide watt-level CW output power throughout the millimeter and submillimeter wave region, thousands of solid-state diodes have been monolithically integrated using a metal grid to produce a highly efficient frequency multiplier. Devices considered include GaAs Schottky diodes, thin MOS diodes, and GaAs Barrier-Intrinsic-N(+)diodes. The performance of the present compact low-cost device has been theoretically and experimentally validated.

  10. Brain-wave measures of workload in advanced cockpits: The transition of technology from laboratory to cockpit simulator, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Richard L.; Mahaffey, David L.; Munson, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    The present Phase 2 small business innovation research study was designed to address issues related to scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP) indices of mental workload and to transition this technology from the laboratory to cockpit simulator environments for use as a systems engineering tool. The project involved five main tasks: (1) Two laboratory studies confirmed the generality of the ERP indices of workload obtained in the Phase 1 study and revealed two additional ERP components related to workload. (2) A task analysis' of flight scenarios and pilot tasks in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS) defined cockpit events (i.e., displays, messages, alarms) that would be expected to elicit ERPs related to workload. (3) Software was developed to support ERP data analysis. An existing ARD-proprietary package of ERP data analysis routines was upgraded, new graphics routines were developed to enhance interactive data analysis, and routines were developed to compare alternative single-trial analysis techniques using simulated ERP data. (4) Working in conjunction with NASA Langley research scientists and simulator engineers, preparations were made for an ACFS validation study of ERP measures of workload. (5) A design specification was developed for a general purpose, computerized, workload assessment system that can function in simulators such as the ACFS.

  11. Third International Kharkov Symposium "Physics and Engineering of Millimeter and Submillimeter Waves" MSMW󈨦 Symposium Proceedings, Volume 1,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    conditioned by the asymmetric distribution of the small-scale roughness slopes. Its distribution function described by Gram- Charlie series in case sea...Kravchenko and A.F. Chaplin , "On the Excitation of Superconducting Impedance Plane", DAN SSSR, Vol. 326, No.2, pp.272-275, 1992. 16. V.F...Kravchenko and A.F. Chaplin , "Excitation of Superconducting Circular and Elliptic Cylinder", DAN SSSR, Vol. 326, No.4, pp.633-636, 1992. 17. V.F. Kravchenko

  12. Dual Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Kallosh, Renata

    1994-01-01

    We study the gravitational waves in the 10-dimensional target space of the superstring theory. Some of these waves have unbroken supersymmetries. They consist of Brinkmann metric and of a 2-form field. Sigma-model duality is applied to such waves. The corresponding solutions we call dual partners of gravitational waves, or dual waves. Some of these dual waves upon Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction to 4 dimensions become equivalent to the conformo-stationary solutions of axion-dilaton gravity...

  13. Submillimeter residual losses in high-Tc superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Bolometry was used obtain accurate submillimeter residual loss data for epitaxial films of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO), Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3O10, Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 (TCBCO), and Ba0.6K0.4BiO3 (BKBO). We were able to fit the absorptivity measured for Nb films to an Eliashberg strong coupling calculation; excellent agreement resulted between parameters from best fits and measured Residual Resistivity Ratio. Microwave surface resistance measurements made on the same YBCO and TCBCO films are in excellent agreement with submillimeter measurements. Absorptivities for all YBCO films studied are qualitatively similar, increasing smoothly with frequency, with no gap-like features below the well known absorption edge at 450 cm-1. Losses in YBCO films were fit to a weakly coupled grain model for the a-b plane conductivity. Strong phonon structure was observed in TCBCO films between 60 and 700 cm-1 (2 THz and 23 THz); these losses could not be fitted to the simple weakly coupled grain model, in contrast to the case for other high-Tc superconductors where phonon structure observed in ceramics are is absent in epitaxial oriented films and crystals because of electronic screening due to high conductivity of a-b planes. Absorptivity data for the BKBO films all show a strong absorption onset near the BCS tunneling gap of 3.5 kBTc. Comparison with strong coupling Eliashberg predictions and of a Kramers-Kronig analysis indicate that the absorption onset is consistent with a superconducting energy gap. Effects of magnetic field on residual losses in YBCO films show a resonant absorption feature in vicinity of predicted

  14. The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, S. S.; Vitiello, M. S.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G.; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Booske, John; Paoloni, Claudio; Gensch, M.; Weightman, P.; Williams, G. P.; Castro-Camus, E.; Cumming, D. R. S.; Simoens, F.; Escorcia-Carranza, I.; Grant, J.; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto; Konishi, Kuniaki; Koch, Martin; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A.; Cocker, Tyler L.; Huber, Rupert; Markelz, A. G.; Taylor, Z. D.; Wallace, Vincent P.; Axel Zeitler, J.; Sibik, Juraj; Korter, Timothy M.; Ellison, B.; Rea, S.; Goldsmith, P.; Cooper, Ken B.; Appleby, Roger; Pardo, D.; Huggard, P. G.; Krozer, V.; Shams, Haymen; Fice, Martyn; Renaud, Cyril; Seeds, Alwyn; Stöhr, Andreas; Naftaly, Mira; Ridler, Nick; Clarke, Roland; Cunningham, John E.; Johnston, Michael B.

    2017-02-01

    Science and technologies based on terahertz frequency electromagnetic radiation (100 GHz-30 THz) have developed rapidly over the last 30 years. For most of the 20th Century, terahertz radiation, then referred to as sub-millimeter wave or far-infrared radiation, was mainly utilized by astronomers and some spectroscopists. Following the development of laser based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the 1980s and 1990s the field of THz science and technology expanded rapidly, to the extent that it now touches many areas from fundamental science to ‘real world’ applications. For example THz radiation is being used to optimize materials for new solar cells, and may also be a key technology for the next generation of airport security scanners. While the field was emerging it was possible to keep track of all new developments, however now the field has grown so much that it is increasingly difficult to follow the diverse range of new discoveries and applications that are appearing. At this point in time, when the field of THz science and technology is moving from an emerging to a more established and interdisciplinary field, it is apt to present a roadmap to help identify the breadth and future directions of the field. The aim of this roadmap is to present a snapshot of the present state of THz science and technology in 2017, and provide an opinion on the challenges and opportunities that the future holds. To be able to achieve this aim, we have invited a group of international experts to write 18 sections that cover most of the key areas of THz science and technology. We hope that The 2017 Roadmap on THz science and technology will prove to be a useful resource by providing a wide ranging introduction to the capabilities of THz radiation for those outside or just entering the field as well as providing perspective and breadth for those who are well established. We also feel that this review should serve as a useful guide for government and funding agencies.

  15. Comparing Submillimeter Polarized Emission with Near-infrared Polarization of Background Stars for the Vela C Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fabio P.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Ashton, Peter; Benton, Steven J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Martin, Peter G.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Novak, Giles; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A.; Diego Soler, Juan; Thomas, Nicholas E.; Tucker, Carole E.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2017-03-01

    We present a large-scale combination of near-infrared (near-IR) interstellar polarization data from background starlight with polarized emission data at submillimeter wavelengths for the Vela C molecular cloud. The near-IR data consist of more than 6700 detections probing a range of visual extinctions between 2 and 20 {mag} in and around the cloud. The submillimeter data were collected in Antarctica by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry. This is the first direct combination of near-IR and submillimeter polarization data for a molecular cloud aimed at measuring the “polarization efficiency ratio” ({R}{eff}), a quantity that is expected to depend only on grain-intrinsic physical properties. It is defined as {p}500/({p}I/{τ }V), where p 500 and p I are polarization fractions at 500 μ {{m}} and the I band, respectively, and {τ }V is the optical depth. To ensure that the same column density of material is producing both polarization from emission and from extinction, we conducted a careful selection of near-background stars using 2MASS, Herschel, and Planck data. This selection excludes objects contaminated by the Galactic diffuse background material as well as objects located in the foreground. Accounting for statistical and systematic uncertainties, we estimate an average {R}{eff} value of 2.4 ± 0.8, which can be used to test the predictions of dust grain models designed for molecular clouds when such predictions become available. The ratio {R}{eff} appears to be relatively flat as a function of the cloud depth for the range of visual extinctions probed.

  16. Observing the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA): High-Resolution Interferometric Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojo, M.; Bastian, T. S.; Hales, A. S.; White, S. M.; Iwai, K.; Hills, R. E.; Hirota, A.; Phillips, N. M.; Sawada, T.; Yagoubov, P.; Siringo, G.; Asayama, S.; Sugimoto, M.; Brajša, R.; Skokić, I.; Bárta, M.; Kim, S.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Corder, S. A.; Hudson, H. S.; Wedemeyer, S.; Gary, D. E.; De Pontieu, B.; Loukitcheva, M.; Fleishman, G. D.; Chen, B.; Kobelski, A.; Yan, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Observations of the Sun at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths offer a unique probe into the structure, dynamics, and heating of the chromosphere; the structure of sunspots; the formation and eruption of prominences and filaments; and energetic phenomena such as jets and flares. High-resolution observations of the Sun at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths are challenging due to the intense, extended, low-contrast, and dynamic nature of emission from the quiet Sun, and the extremely intense and variable nature of emissions associated with energetic phenomena. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) was designed with solar observations in mind. The requirements for solar observations are significantly different from observations of sidereal sources and special measures are necessary to successfully carry out this type of observations. We describe the commissioning efforts that enable the use of two frequency bands, the 3-mm band (Band 3) and the 1.25-mm band (Band 6), for continuum interferometric-imaging observations of the Sun with ALMA. Examples of high-resolution synthesized images obtained using the newly commissioned modes during the solar-commissioning campaign held in December 2015 are presented. Although only 30 of the eventual 66 ALMA antennas were used for the campaign, the solar images synthesized from the ALMA commissioning data reveal new features of the solar atmosphere that demonstrate the potential power of ALMA solar observations. The ongoing expansion of ALMA and solar-commissioning efforts will continue to enable new and unique solar observing capabilities.

  17. The Hawaii SCUBA-2 Lensing Cluster Survey: Radio-detected Submillimeter Galaxies in the HST Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Desai, Vandana; Murphy, Eric J.; Cowie, Lennox L.; Heywood, Ian; Momjian, Emmanuel; Barger, Amy J.; Smail, Ian

    2017-05-01

    In this second paper of the Hawaii SCUBA-2 Lensing Cluster Survey series, we cross-match SCUBA-2 maps with 3 and 6 GHz images from the Janksy-VLA Frontier Fields Legacy Survey for three cluster fields, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745, and MACS J1149.5+2223. Within the HST coverage, 14 out of 44 850 μm sources have 3 GHz counterparts, five of which are also detected at 6 GHz. The 850 μm flux densities of these detected sources span from 0.7 to 4.4 mJy after correcting for lensing amplification. The median redshift of the sample is z={1.28}-0.09+0.07, much lower than the typical redshifts (z = 2-3) of brighter submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the literature. In addition, we find that our sources have lower dust temperatures than those of the brighter SMGs. This is also confirmed by an analysis of the ratio between infrared star-formation rate and 850 μm flux density. However, these 14 sources may not represent the general submillimeter population at the same flux range, given that the SCUBA-2 sources without radio counterparts are likely at higher redshifts. Detection of these sources would require deeper radio images or submillimeter interferometry.

  18. Instrumentation optical fibres for wave transformation, signal processing, sensors, and photonic functional components, manufactured at Białystok University of Technology in Dorosz Fibre Optics Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R.S. Romaniuk

    2014-01-01

    Tailored, specialty optical fibres, made of complex glasses, called collectively as a non-telecommunications or instrumentation family, serve for various optical wave transformations for particular...

  19. Micro-Spec: An Ultracompact, High-sensitivity Spectrometer for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chung; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    High-performance, integrated spectrometers operating in the far-infrared and submillimeter ranges promise to be powerful tools for the exploration of the epochs of reionization and initial galaxy formation. These devices, using high-efficiency superconducting transmission lines, can achieve the performance of a meter-scale grating spectrometer in an instrument implemented on a 4 inch silicon wafer. Such a device, when combined with a cryogenic telescope in space, provides an enabling capability for studies of the early universe. Here, the optical design process for Micro-Spec (micron-Spec) is presented, with particular attention given to its two-dimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the stigmatization and minimization of the light path function in this bounded region, which results in an optimized geometrical configuration. A point design with an efficiency of (is) approximately 90% has been developed for initial demonstration and can serve as the basis for future instruments. Design variations on this implementation are also discussed, which can lead to lower efficiencies due to diffractive losses in the multimode region.

  20. Velocity-resolved Hot Water Emission Detected toward HL Tau with the Submillimeter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Lars E.; Brown, Joanna M.; Wilner, David; Salyk, Colette

    2016-05-01

    Using the Submillimeter Array (SMA) on Mauna Kea, the {{{H}}}216{{O}} {10}{2,9}-9{}{3,6} transition ({E}{{up}} = 1863 K) at 321.2 GHz has been detected toward the embedded low-mass protostar HL Tau. The line centroid is blueshifted by 20 km s-1 with respect to the source velocity, and it has a FWHM of 25 km s-1. The emission is tentatively resolved and extends ˜3″-4″ over the sky (˜2 beams), or ˜500 au at the distance of Taurus. The velocity offset, and to a lesser degree the spatial extent of the emission, show that the line originates in the protostellar jet or wind. This result suggests that at least some water emission observed with Herschel and Spitzer toward embedded sources, and perhaps also disk sources, contains a wind or jet component, which is crucial for interpreting these data. These pathfinder observations done with the SMA open a new window into studying the origin of water emission with e.g., ALMA, thus providing new insights into where water is in protostellar systems.

  1. Controlled production of sub-millimeter liquid core hydrogel capsules for parallelized 3D cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doméjean, Hugo; de la Motte Saint Pierre, Mathieu; Funfak, Anette; Atrux-Tallau, Nicolas; Alessandri, Kevin; Nassoy, Pierre; Bibette, Jérôme; Bremond, Nicolas

    2016-12-20

    Liquid core capsules having a hydrogel membrane are becoming a versatile tool for three-dimensional culture of micro-organisms and mammalian cells. Making sub-millimeter capsules at a high rate, via the breakup of a compound jet in air, opens the way to high-throughput screening applications. However, control of the capsule size monodispersity, especially required for quantitative bioassays, was still lacking. Here, we report how the understanding of the underlying hydrodynamic instabilities that occur during the process can lead to calibrated core-shell bioreactors. The requirements are: i) damping the shear layer instability that develops inside the injector arising from the co-annular flow configuration of liquid phases having contrasting viscoelastic properties; ii) controlling the capillary instability of the compound jet by superposing a harmonic perturbation onto the shell flow; iii) avoiding coalescence of drops during jet fragmentation as well as during drop flight towards the gelling bath; iv) ensuring proper engulfment of the compound drops into the gelling bath for building a closed hydrogel shell. We end up with the creation of numerous identical compartments in which cells are able to form multicellular aggregates, namely spheroids. In addition, we implement an intermediate composite hydrogel layer, composed of alginate and collagen, allowing cell adhesion and thus the formation of epithelia or monolayers of cells.

  2. Simultaneous retrievals of temperature and volume mixing ratio constituents from nonoxygen odin submillimeter radiometer bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, P; Merino, F; Murtagh, D

    2001-11-20

    We present the retrieval of temperature and O(3) volume mixing ratio profiles in the middle atmosphere from a single strong O(3) line. We performed the study using simulated limb-sounding measurements in the frame of the submillimeter radiometer (SMR) instrument that will be carried by the Odin satellite that is due to be launched in early 2001. This study is interesting for the Odin SMR data analysis because we first provide additional temperature measurements, and second reduce significantly the O(3) retrieval error that is due to the temperature and pressure uncertainties. Nonlinear retrievals are performed to retrieve the O(3), CO, H(2)O, and temperature profiles simultaneously from the spectral band 576.27-576.67 GHz. The pressure profile is deduced from the hydrostatic equilibrium equation after each iteration. Temperature and O(3) can be retrieved throughout the stratosphere from 15-50 and 20-50 km, respectively, with a vertical resolution of 3 km. The altitude domain corresponds to the parts of the atmosphere where the signal intensity saturates in some spectrometer channels. A total error of 4-6 K has been found in the temperature profile, mainly because of the instrumental thermal noise and to a lesser extent the calibration. The total error in the O(3) profile is 5-10% and is dominated by the O(3) line-broadening parameter. The total error on the retrieved pressure profile is 2-10% because of the errors in calibration and reference pressure.

  3. Laboratory and observational studies of transient molecules at microwave and millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Lindsay Nicole

    In this dissertation, techniques of high-resolution rotational spectroscopy have been used to measure the spectra of molecules in both laboratory and astronomical settings. In the laboratory, small metal-bearing molecules containing zinc, iron, nickel, titanium, yttrium, and scandium have been studied at microwave and millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths in order to determine their rotational, fine, and hyperfine constants. These molecules were synthesized in situ in direct-absorption and Fourier-transform microwave spectrometers using Broida-type ovens and laser ablation methods. From the spectroscopic parameters, information about fundamental physical properties and electronic character could be obtained. Radio telescopes were used to measure the spectra of molecules in different interstellar environments. A new molecule, FeCN, was detected toward the circumstellar envelope of the carbon-rich asymtotic giant branch star, IRC+10216, marking the first iron-bearing molecule detected in the interstellar medium. The telescopes were also used to conduct a study of the evolved planetary nebula, NGC 7293, or the Helix Nebula. In the Helix, CO, HCO+, and H2CO were observed at several positions offset from the central star to obtain densities and kinetic temperatures throughout the Helix. A map of the HCO+ J = 1→ 0 transition was also constructed, showing that HCO+ is widespread throughout the Helix, instead of being photodissociated and destroyed, as theoretical models of planetary nebulae predict.

  4. Submillimeter Measurements of Photolysis Products in Interstellar Ice Analogs: A New Experimental Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Weaver, Susanna Widicus

    2012-01-01

    Over 150 molecular species have been confirmed in space, primarily by their rotational spectra at millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths, which yield an unambiguous identification. Many of the known interstellar organic molecules cannot be explained by gas-phase chemistry. It is now presumed that they are produced by surface reactions of the simple ices and/or grains observed and released into the gas phase by sublimation, sputtering, etc. Additionally, the chemical complexity found in meteorites and samples returned from comets far surpasses that of the remote detections for the interstellar medium (ISM), comets, and planetary atmospheres. Laboratory simulations of interstellar/cometary ices have found, from the analysis of the remnant residue of the warmed laboratory sample, that such molecules are readily formed; however, it has yet to be determined if they are formed during the warm phase or within the ice during processing. Most analysis of the ice during processing reveals molecular changes, though the exact quantities and species formed are highly uncertain with current techniques due to overwhelming features of simple ices. Remote sensing with high resolution spectroscopy is currently the only method to detect trace species in the ISM and the primary method for comets and icy bodies in the Solar System due to limitations of sample return. We have recently designed an experiment to simulate interstellar/cometary/planetary ices and detect trace species employing the same techniques used for remote observations. Preliminary results will be presented.

  5. Probing Galaxy Formation and Evolution with Space Born Sub-Millimeter Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Moseley, Harvey; Benford, Dominic; Shafer, Richard; Mather, John; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A major unresolved question in cosmology is how the complex system of galaxies we see in the present universe evolved from an almost perfectly smooth beginning. Multiwavelength observations of galaxies have revealed that a significant fraction of their UV-visible starlight is absorbed and reradiated by dust at infrared JR) and submillimeter wavelengths. The cumulative IR-submm. emission from galaxies since the epoch of recombination, the cosmic IR background, has recently been recorded by the COBE satellite. The COBE observations in combination with recent submm surveys conducted with the SCUBA on the 15 m JCMT have shown that most of the radiation from star formation that has taken place in the early stages of galaxy evolution is reradiated by dust at submm wavelengths. Therefore, submm telescopes offer a unique probe of the early stages of galaxy formation and evolution. This talk will: (1) consider the impact of telescope diameter on the depth of the survey (what redshift can be probed) at different wavelengths; (2) discuss the relative scientific merits of high-resolution narrow-field surveys versus lower resolution deep surveys; and (3) show how both strategies offer complementary information crucial to our understanding of the structure and evolution of galaxies in the universe.

  6. Optical fiber sensors-based temperature distribution measurement in ex vivo radiofrequency ablation with submillimeter resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Edoardo Gino; Tosi, Daniele; Braschi, Giovanni; Gallati, Mario; Cigada, Alfredo; Busca, Giorgio; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-11-01

    Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) induces a high-temperature field in a biological tissue having steep spatial (up to 6°C/mm) and temporal (up to 1°C/s) gradients. Applied in cancer care, RFTA produces a localized heating, cytotoxic for tumor cells, and is able to treat tumors with sizes up to 3 to 5 cm in diameter. The online measurement of temperature distribution at the RFTA point of care has been previously carried out with miniature thermocouples and optical fiber sensors, which exhibit problems of size, alteration of RFTA pattern, hysteresis, and sensor density worse than 1 sensor/cm. In this work, we apply a distributed temperature sensor (DTS) with a submillimeter spatial resolution for the monitoring of RFTA in porcine liver tissue. The DTS demodulates the chaotic Rayleigh backscattering pattern with an interferometric setup to obtain the real-time temperature distribution. A measurement chamber has been set up with the fiber crossing the tissue along different diameters. Several experiments have been carried out measuring the space-time evolution of temperature during RFTA. The present work showcases the temperature monitoring in RFTA with an unprecedented spatial resolution and is exportable to in vivo measurement; the acquired data can be particularly useful for the validation of RFTA computational models.

  7. A New Era of Submillimeter GRB Afterglow Follow-Ups with the Greenland Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Urata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Planned rapid submillimeter (submm gamma-ray-bursts (GRBs follow-up observations conducted using the Greenland Telescope (GLT are presented. The GLT is a 12-m submm telescope to be located at the top of the Greenland ice sheet, where the high altitude and dry weather porvide excellent conditions for observations at submm wavelengths. With its combination of wavelength window and rapid responding system, the GLT will explore new insights on GRBs. Summarizing the current achievements of submm GRB follow-ups, we identify the following three scientific goals regarding GRBs: (1 systematic detection of bright submm emissions originating from reverse shock (RS in the early afterglow phase, (2 characterization of forward shock and RS emissions by capturing their peak flux and frequencies and performing continuous monitoring, and (3 detections of GRBs at a high redshift as a result of the explosion of first generation stars through systematic rapid follow-ups. The light curves and spectra calculated by available theoretical models clearly show that the GLT could play a crucial role in these studies.

  8. Submillimeter Array 12CO (2-1) Imaging of the NGC 6946 Giant Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Sakamoto, Kazushi; Pan, Hsi-An

    2017-04-01

    We present a 12CO (2-1) mosaic map of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946 by combining data from the Submillimeter Array and the IRAM 30 m telescope. We identify 390 giant molecular clouds (GMCs) from the nucleus to 4.5 kpc in the disk. GMCs in the inner 1 kpc are generally more luminous and turbulent, some of which have luminosities >106 K km s-1 pc2 and velocity dispersions >10 km s-1. Large-scale bar-driven dynamics likely regulate GMC properties in the nuclear region. Similar to the Milky Way and other disk galaxies, GMC mass function of NGC 6946 has a shallower slope (index > -2) in the inner region, and a steeper slope (index outer region. This difference in mass spectra may be indicative of different cloud formation pathways: gravitational instabilities might play a major role in the nuclear region, while cloud coalescence might be dominant in the outer disk. Finally, the NGC 6946 clouds are similar to those in M33 in terms of statistical properties, but they are generally less luminous and turbulent than the M51 clouds.

  9. Rapid Asymmetric Inflation and Early Cosmology in Theories with Sub-Millimeter Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, N; Kaloper, Nemanja; March-Russell, John David; Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Kaloper, Nemanja; March-Russell, John

    2000-01-01

    It was recently pointed out that the fundamental Planck mass could be close to the TeV scale with the observed weakness of gravity at long distances being due the existence of new sub-millimeter spatial dimensions. In this picture the standard model fields are localized to a $(3+1)$-dimensional wall or ``3-brane''. We show that in such theories there exist attractive models of inflation that occur while the size of the new dimensions are still small. We show that it is easy to produce the required number of efoldings, and further that the density perturbations $\\delta\\rho/\\rho$ as measured by COBE can be easily reproduced, both in overall magnitude and in their approximately scale-invariant spectrum. In the minimal approach, the inflaton field is just the moduli describing the size of the internal dimensions, the role of the inflationary potential being played by the stabilizing potential of the internal space. We show that under quite general conditions, the inflationary era is followed by an epoch of contra...

  10. DETECTION OF AN ULTRA-BRIGHT SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY BEHIND THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takekoshi, Tatsuya; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Sorai, Kazuo; Habe, Asao [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Oogi, Taira [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Ezawa, Hajime; Komugi, Shinya; Mizuno, Norikazu; Muller, Erik; Kawamura, Akiko [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Oshima, Tai [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Scott, Kimberly S. [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Austermann, Jason E. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, 599-8531 Osaka (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsuo, Hiroshi [Advanced Technology Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Aretxaga, Itziar [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), 72000 Puebla (Mexico); and others

    2013-09-10

    We report the discovery of a new ultra-bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG) behind the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). This SMG is detected as a 43.3 {+-} 8.4 mJy point source (MM J01071-7302, hereafter MMJ0107) in the 1.1 mm continuum survey of the SMC by AzTEC on the ASTE telescope. MMJ0107 is also detected in the radio (843 MHz), Herschel/SPIRE, Spitzer MIPS 24 {mu}m, all IRAC bands, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and near-infrared (J, H, K{sub S} ). We find an optical (U, B, V) source, which might be the lensing object, at a distance of 1.''4 from near-infrared and IRAC sources. Photometric redshift estimates for the SMG using representative spectral energy distribution templates show the redshifts of 1.4-3.9. We estimate total far-infrared luminosity of (0.3-2.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} {mu}{sup -1} L{sub Sun} and a star formation rate of 5600-39, 000 {mu}{sup -1} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, where {mu} is the gravitational magnification factor. This apparent extreme star formation activity is likely explained by a highly magnified gravitational lens system.

  11. Numerical Modelling and Statistical Analysis of Ocean Wave Energy Converters and Wave Climates

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Ocean wave energy is considered to be one of the important potential renewable energy resources for sustainable development. Various wave energy converter technologies have been proposed to harvest the energy from ocean waves. This thesis is based on the linear generator wave energy converter developed at Uppsala University. The research in this thesis focuses on the foundation optimization and the power absorption optimization of the wave energy converters and on the wave climate modelling a...

  12. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  13. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  14. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and ... having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - Slow down. Avoid strenuous ...

  15. APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN LASER PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY: Emission of surface electromagnetic waves in the case of resonance tunneling of electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenov, É. M.; Luskinovich, P. N.; Romanenko, V. I.; Sobolev, A. G.; Uskov, A. V.

    1987-10-01

    A calculation is made of the spectral density of the intensity of surface electromagnetic waves excited by the passage of a current across metal-barrier-metal tunnel structures when there are quantum potential wells inside the barrier. It is shown that quasilevels in these quantum wells give rise to narrow peaks in the spectrum of the excited surface electromagnetic waves and that the quantum efficiency of the excitation of such waves by tunneling electrons can reach unity. The peak positions can be controlled by altering the voltage across a tunnel structure.

  16. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies......, concerning a hydraulic evaluation and optimisation of the geometry of the Wave Dragon, is presented. Furthermore, the plans for the future development projects are sketched....

  17. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  18. Micro-Spec: an Integrated, Direct-Detection Spectrometer for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter portions of the electromagnetic spectrum provide a unique view of the astrophysical processes present in the early universe. Our ability to fully explore this rich spectral region has been limited, however, by the size and cost of the cryogenic spectrometers required to carry out such measurements. Micro-Spec (u-Spec) is a high-sensitivity, direct-detection spectrometer concept working in the 450-1000 micromillimeter wavelength range which will enable a wide range of flight missions that would otherwise be challenging due to the large size of current instruments with the required spectral resolution and sensitivity. The spectrometer design utilizes two internal antenna arrays, one for transmitting and one for receiving, superconducting microstrip transmission lines for power division and phase delay, and an array of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) to achieve these goals. The instrument will be integrated on a approximately 10 square cm silicon chip and can therefore become an important capability under the low background conditions accessible via space and high-altitude borne platforms. In this paper, an optical design methodology for Micro-Spec is presented, with particular attention given to its twodimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the maximization of the instrument resolving power and minimization of the RMS phase error on the instrument focal plane. This two-step optimization can generate geometrical configurations given specific requirements on spectrometer size, operating spectral range and performance. A point design with resolving power of 257, an RMS phase error less than 0.1 radians and four stigmatic points was developed for initial demonstration and will be the basis of future instruments with resolving power up to about 1200.

  19. SHARC II: A Caltech Submillimeter Observatory Facility Camera with 384 Pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, C. Darren; Allen, Christine A.; Babu, Sachidananda; Freund, Minoru; Gardner, Matthew B.; Groseth, Jeffrey; Jhabvala, Murzy; Kovacs, Attila; Lis, Dariusz C.; Moseley, S. Harvey, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    SHARC II is a background-limited 350 micron and 450 micron facility camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory undergoing commissioning in 2002. The key component of SHARC II is a 12 x 32 array of doped silicon 'pop-up' bolometers developed at NASA/Goddard. Each 1 mm x 1 mm pixel is coated with a 400 Omega/square bismuth film and located lambda/4 above a reflective backshort to achieve greater than 75% absorption efficiency. The pixels cover the focal plane with greater than 90% filling factor. At 350 microns, the SHARC II pixels are separated by 0.65 lambda/D. In contrast to the silicon bolometers in the predecessor of SHARC II, each doped thermistor occupies nearly the full area of the pixel, which lowers the 1/f knee of tile detector noise to less than 0.03 Hz, under load, at tile bath temperature of 0.36 K. The bolometers are AC-biased and read in 'total power' mode to take advantage of the improved stability. Each bolometer is biased through a custom approx. 130 MOmega CrSi load resistor at 7 K and read with a commercial JFET at 120 K. The JFETs and load resistors are integrated with the detectors into a single assembly to minimize microphonic noise. Electrical connection across the 0.36 K to 4 K and 4 K to 120 K temperature interfaces is accomplished with lithographed metal wires on dielectric substrates. In the best 25% of winter nights on Mauna Kea, SHARC II is expected to have an NEFD at 350 micron of 1 Jy Hz(sup -1/2) or better. The new camera should be at least 4 times faster at detecting known point sources and 30 times faster at mapping large areas compared to the prior instrument.

  20. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOK GLOBULE CB 17: A CANDIDATE FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuepeng; Arce, Hector G.; Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Zhang Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Launhardt, Ralf; Schmalzl, Markus; Henning, Thomas, E-mail: xuepeng.chen@yale.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-06-01

    We present high angular resolution Submillimeter Array (SMA) and Spitzer observations toward the Bok globule CB 17. SMA 1.3 mm dust continuum images reveal within CB 17 two sources with an angular separation of {approx}21'' ({approx}5250 AU at a distance of {approx}250 pc). The northwestern continuum source, referred to as CB 17 IRS, dominates the infrared emission in the Spitzer images, drives a bipolar outflow extending in the northwest-southeast direction, and is classified as a low-luminosity Class 0/I transition object (L{sub bol} {approx} 0.5 L{sub Sun }). The southeastern continuum source, referred to as CB 17 MMS, has faint dust continuum emission in the SMA 1.3 mm observations ({approx}6{sigma} detection; {approx}3.8 mJy), but is not detected in the deep Spitzer infrared images at wavelengths from 3.6 to 70 {mu}m. Its bolometric luminosity and temperature, estimated from its spectral energy distribution, are {<=}0.04 L{sub Sun} and {<=}16 K, respectively. The SMA CO (2-1) observations suggest that CB 17 MMS may drive a low-velocity molecular outflow ({approx}2.5 km s{sup -1}), extending in the east-west direction. Comparisons with prestellar cores and Class 0 protostars suggest that CB 17 MMS is more evolved than prestellar cores but less evolved than Class 0 protostars. The observed characteristics of CB 17 MMS are consistent with the theoretical predictions from radiative/magnetohydrodynamical simulations of a first hydrostatic core, but there is also the possibility that CB 17 MMS is an extremely low luminosity protostar deeply embedded in an edge-on circumstellar disk. Further observations are needed to study the properties of CB 17 MMS and to address more precisely its evolutionary stage.

  1. An ALMA Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: Spectroscopic Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, A. L. R.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Simpson, J. M.; Casey, C. M.; Chapman, S. C.; da Cunha, E.; Hodge, J. A.; Walter, F.; Wardlow, J. L.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. N.; de Breuck, C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dickinson, M.; Edge, A. C.; Gawiser, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Karim, A.; Kovacs, A.; Lutz, D.; Menten, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Weiß, A.; van der Werf, P.

    2017-05-01

    We present spectroscopic redshifts of {\\text{}}{S}870μ {{m}} ≳ 2 mJy submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), which have been identified from the ALMA follow-up observations of 870 μm detected sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (the ALMA-LESS survey). We derive spectroscopic redshifts for 52 SMGs, with a median of z = 2.4 ± 0.1. However, the distribution features a high-redshift tail, with ˜23% of the SMGs at z≥slant 3. Spectral diagnostics suggest that the SMGs are young starbursts, and the velocity offsets between the nebular emission and UV ISM absorption lines suggest that many are driving winds, with velocity offsets of up to 2000 km s-1. Using the spectroscopic redshifts and the extensive UV-to-radio photometry in this field, we produce optimized spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using Magphys, and use the SEDs to infer a median stellar mass of {M}\\star = (6 ± 1)× 1010 M {}⊙ for our SMGs with spectroscopic redshift. By combining these stellar masses with the star formation rates (measured from the far-infrared SEDs), we show that SMGs (on average) lie a factor of ˜5 above the so-called “main sequence” at z˜ 2. We provide this library of 52 template fits with robust and uniquely well-sampled SEDs as a resource for future studies of SMGs, and also release the spectroscopic catalog of ˜2000 (mostly infrared-selected) galaxies targeted as part of the spectroscopic campaign.

  2. A submillimeter galaxy illuminating its circumgalactic medium: Lyα scattering in a cold, clumpy outflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geach, J. E.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Smith, D. J. B. [Center for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Bower, R. G.; Alexander, D. M.; Swinbank, A. M. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Blain, A. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bremer, M. N. [School of Physics, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Chapin, E. L. [XMM SOC, ESAC, Apartado 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dunlop, J. S.; Koprowski, M. P.; Michałowski, M. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Department of Physics, MC 0435, 910 Drillfield Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A' ohoku Place University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Robson, E. I. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Scott, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Spaans, M. [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Van der Werf, P., E-mail: j.geach@herts.ac.uk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-09-20

    We report the detection at 850 μm of the central source in SSA22-LAB1, the archetypal 'Lyman-α Blob' (LAB), a 100 kpc scale radio-quiet emission-line nebula at z = 3.1. The flux density of the source, S {sub 850} = 4.6 ± 1.1 mJy, implies the presence of a galaxy or group of galaxies with a total luminosity of L {sub IR} ≈ 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}. The position of an active source at the center of a ∼50 kpc radius ring of linearly polarized Lyα emission detected by Hayes et al. suggests that the central source is leaking Lyα photons preferentially in the plane of the sky, which undergo scattering in H I clouds at a large galactocentric radius. The Lyα morphology around the submillimeter detection is reminiscent of a biconical outflow, and the average Lyα line profiles of the two 'lobes' are dominated by a red peak, which is expected for a resonant line emerging from a medium with a bulk velocity gradient that is outflowing relative to the line center. Taken together, these observations provide compelling evidence that the central active galaxy (or galaxies) is responsible for a large fraction of the extended Lyα emission and morphology. Less clear is the history of the cold gas in the circumgalactic medium being traced by Lyα: is it mainly pristine material accreting into the halo that has not yet been processed through an interstellar medium (ISM), now being blown back as it encounters an outflow, or does it mainly comprise gas that has been swept-up within the ISM and expelled from the galaxy?.

  3. Improved wedge method for the measurement of sub-millimeter slice thicknesses in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Tsutomu; Ohkubo, Masaki; Kondo, Tatsuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Inagawa, Shoichi

    2017-12-01

    The standard method for measuring the slice thickness of magnetic resonance images uses the inclined surface of a wedge (wedge method); it is sensitive to small increases in noise because of the differentiation of the edge response function (ERF) required. The purpose of this study was to improve the wedge method by fitting a curve to the ERF. The curve-fit function was obtained by convolving an ideal ERF (a ramp function) with a Gaussian function to represent ERF blurring. Measurements of 5- and 3-mm slice thicknesses were performed on a 3T scanner using the conventional wedge method, the improved wedge method, and another standard method using an inclined slab (slab method). Subsequently, 0.5- and 0.25-mm slice thicknesses from multiple slices acquired using a three-dimensional sequence were measured using the improved wedge method. When measuring 5-mm slices, the differences in measurements obtained using the improved wedge method and the conventional slab and wedge methods were very small: <0.6% of the 5-mm slice thickness. The difference was ≤1.7% for 3-mm slices. For 0.5- and 0.25-mm slices, the mean values obtained using the improved wedge method were 0.543 ± 0.007 mm and 0.247 ± 0.015 mm, with a 1.2 and 5.9% coefficient of variation across slices, respectively. The improved wedge method is valid and potentially applicable to the measurement of sub-millimeter slice thicknesses.

  4. The rest-frame submillimeter spectrum of high-redshift, dusty, star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aguirre, J. E. [University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Aravena, M. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001 Vitacura Santiago (Chile); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Béthermin, M. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bradford, C. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bothwell, M. S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thompson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Carlstrom, J. E.; Crawford, T. M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); De Breuck, C.; Gullberg, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fassnacht, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hezaveh, Y. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Holzapfel, W. L., E-mail: jspilker@as.arizona.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-04-20

    We present the average rest-frame spectrum of high-redshift dusty, star-forming galaxies from 250 to 770 GHz. This spectrum was constructed by stacking Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 3 mm spectra of 22 such sources discovered by the South Pole Telescope and spanning z = 2.0-5.7. In addition to multiple bright spectral features of {sup 12}CO, [C I], and H{sub 2}O, we also detect several faint transitions of {sup 13}CO, HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN, and use the observed line strengths to characterize the typical properties of the interstellar medium of these high-redshift starburst galaxies. We find that the {sup 13}CO brightness in these objects is comparable to that of the only other z > 2 star-forming galaxy in which {sup 13}CO has been observed. We show that the emission from the high-critical density molecules HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN is consistent with a warm, dense medium with T {sub kin} ∼ 55 K and n{sub H{sub 2}}≳10{sup 5.5} cm{sup –3}. High molecular hydrogen densities are required to reproduce the observed line ratios, and we demonstrate that alternatives to purely collisional excitation are unlikely to be significant for the bulk of these systems. We quantify the average emission from several species with no individually detected transitions, and find emission from the hydride CH and the linear molecule CCH for the first time at high redshift, indicating that these molecules may be powerful probes of interstellar chemistry in high-redshift systems. These observations represent the first constraints on many molecular species with rest-frame transitions from 0.4 to 1.2 mm in star-forming systems at high redshift, and will be invaluable in making effective use of ALMA in full science operations.

  5. High-resolution submillimeter and near-infrared studies of the transition disk around Sz 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Hashimoto, Jun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Kudo, Tomoyuki; Saito, Masao; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Akiyama, Eiji [National Astronomical Observatory Japan (NAOJ), Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Andrews, Sean; Wilner, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kitamura, Yoshimi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Yoshinodai 3-1-1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Abe, Lyu [Lboratoire Lagrange (UMR 7293), Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, 28 avenue Valrose, F-06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Brandner, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brandt, Timothy D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Carson, Joseph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 58 Coming Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street M5S 3H4, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Egner, Sebastian E.; Guyon, Olivier [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Goto, Miwa [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Grady, Carol, E-mail: ttsuka@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2014-03-10

    To reveal the structures of a transition disk around a young stellar object in Lupus, Sz 91 , we have performed aperture synthesis 345 GHz continuum and CO(3-2) observations with the Submillimeter Array (∼1''-3'' resolution) and high-resolution imaging of polarized intensity at the K{sub s} -band using the HiCIAO instrument on the Subaru Telescope (0.''25 resolution). Our observations successfully resolved the inner and outer radii of the dust disk to be 65 and 170 AU, respectively, which indicates that Sz 91 is a transition disk source with one of the largest known inner holes. The model fitting analysis of the spectral energy distribution reveals an H{sub 2} mass of 2.4 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} in the cold (T < 30 K) outer part at 65 AU 3 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉}) of hot (T ∼ 180 K) dust possibly remains inside the inner hole of the disk. The structure of the hot component could be interpreted as either an unresolved self-luminous companion body (not directly detected in our observations) or a narrow ring inside the inner hole. Significant CO(3-2) emission with a velocity gradient along the major axis of the dust disk is concentrated on the Sz 91 position, suggesting a rotating gas disk with a radius of 420 AU. The Sz 91 disk is possibly a rare disk in an evolutionary stage immediately after the formation of protoplanets because of the large inner hole and the lower disk mass than other transition disks studied thus far.

  6. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Knapp, W.

    2006-01-01

    Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during...

  7. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  8. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  9. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ping-Huei [Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan and Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Long, E-mail: minglong.wu@csie.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Medical Informatics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Tzu-Chao [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Yu [Siemens Limited Healthcare Sector, Taipei 11503, Taiwan (China); Huang, Teng-Yi [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  10. Kilovoltage beam Monte Carlo dose calculations in submillimeter voxels for small animal radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazalova, Magdalena; Zhou, Hu; Keall, Paul J; Graves, Edward E

    2009-11-01

    Small animal conformal radiotherapy (RT) is essential for preclinical cancer research studies and therefore various microRT systems have been recently designed. The aim of this paper is to efficiently calculate the dose delivered using our microRT system based on a microCT scanner with the Monte Carlo (MC) method and to compare the MC calculations to film measurements. Doses from 2-30 mm diameter 120 kVp photon beams deposited in a solid water phantom with 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.2 mm3 voxels are calculated using the latest versions of the EGSnrc codes BEAMNRC and DOSXYZNRC. Two dose calculation approaches are studied: a two-step approach using phase-space files and direct dose calculation with BEAMNRC simulation sources. Due to the small beam size and submillimeter voxel size resulting in long calculation times, variance reduction techniques are studied. The optimum bremsstrahlung splitting number (NBRSPL in BEAMNRC) and the optimum DOSXYZNRC photon splitting (Nsplit) number are examined for both calculation approaches and various beam sizes. The dose calculation efficiencies and the required number of histories to achieve 1% statistical uncertainty--with no particle recycling--are evaluated for 2-30 mm beams. As a final step, film dose measurements are compared to MC calculated dose distributions. The optimum NBRSPL is approximately 1 x 10(6) for both dose calculation approaches. For the dose calculations with phase-space files, Nsplit varies only slightly for 2-30 mm beams and is established to be 300. Nsplit for the DOSXYZNRC calculation with the BEAMNRC source ranges from 300 for the 30 mm beam to 4000 for the 2 mm beam. The calculation time significantly increases for small beam sizes when the BEAMNRC simulation source is used compared to the simulations with phase-space files. For the 2 and 30 mm beams, the dose calculations with phase-space files are more efficient than the dose calculations with BEAMNRC sources by factors of 54 and 1.6, respectively. The dose

  11. A sub-millimeter resolution PET detector module using a multi-pixel photon counter array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tae Yong; Wu, Heyu; Komarov, Sergey; Siegel, Stefan B.; Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2010-05-01

    A PET block detector module using an array of sub-millimeter lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) crystals read out by an array of surface-mount, semiconductor photosensors has been developed. The detector consists of a LSO array, a custom acrylic light guide, a 3 × 3 multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) array (S10362-11-050P, Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan) and a readout board with a charge division resistor network. The LSO array consists of 100 crystals, each measuring 0.8 × 0.8 × 3 mm3 and arranged in 0.86 mm pitches. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to aid the design and fabrication of a custom light guide to control distribution of scintillation light over the surface of the MPPC array. The output signals of the nine MPPC are multiplexed by a charge division resistor network to generate four position-encoded analog outputs. Flood image, energy resolution and timing resolution measurements were performed using standard NIM electronics. The linearity of the detector response was investigated using gamma-ray sources of different energies. The 10 × 10 array of 0.8 mm LSO crystals was clearly resolved in the flood image. The average energy resolution and standard deviation were 20.0% full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and ±5.0%, respectively, at 511 keV. The timing resolution of a single MPPC coupled to a LSO crystal was found to be 857 ps FWHM, and the value for the central region of detector module was 1182 ps FWHM when ±10% energy window was applied. The nonlinear response of a single MPPC when used to read out a single LSO was observed among the corner crystals of the proposed detector module. However, the central region of the detector module exhibits significantly less nonlinearity (6.5% for 511 keV). These results demonstrate that (1) a charge-sharing resistor network can effectively multiplex MPPC signals and reduce the number of output signals without significantly degrading the performance of a PET detector and (2) a custom light guide to permit light sharing

  12. The Interstellar Medium in High-redshift Submillimeter Galaxies as Probed by Infrared Spectroscopy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlow, Julie L.; Cooray, Asantha; Osage, Willow; Bourne, Nathan; Clements, David; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Eales, Steve; Farrah, Duncan; Furlanetto, Cristina; Ibar, Edo; Ivison, Rob; Maddox, Steve; Michałowski, Michał M.; Riechers, Dominik; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Scott, Douglas; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Wang, Lingyu; van der Werf, Paul; Valiante, Elisabetta; Valtchanov, Ivan; Verma, Aprajita

    2017-03-01

    Submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z≳ 1 are luminous in the far-infrared, and have star formation rates, SFR, of hundreds to thousands of solar masses per year. However, it is unclear whether they are true analogs of local ULIRGs or whether the mode of their star formation is more similar to that in local disk galaxies. We target these questions by using Herschel-PACS to examine the conditions in the interstellar medium (ISM) in far-infrared luminous SMGs at z˜ 1-4. We present 70-160 μm photometry and spectroscopy of the [O IV]26 μm, [Fe II]26 μm, [S III]33 μm, [Si II]34 μm, [O III]52 μm, [N III]57 μm, and [O I]63 μm fine-structure lines and the S(0) and S(1) hydrogen rotational lines in 13 lensed SMGs identified by their brightness in early Herschel data. Most of the 13 targets are not individually spectroscopically detected; we instead focus on stacking these spectra with observations of an additional 32 SMGs from the Herschel archive—representing a complete compilation of PACS spectroscopy of SMGs. We detect [O I]63 μm, [Si II]34 μm, and [N III]57 μm at ≥slant 3σ in the stacked spectra, determining that the average strengths of these lines relative to the far-IR continuum are (0.36+/- 0.12)× {10}-3, (0.84+/- 0.17)× {10}-3, and (0.27+/- 0.10)× {10}-3, respectively. Using the [O III]52 μm/[N III]57 μm emission line ratio, we show that SMGs have average gas-phase metallicities ≳ {Z}⊙ . By using PDR modeling and combining the new spectral measurements with integrated far-infrared fluxes and existing [C II]158 μm data, we show that SMGs have average gas densities, n, of ˜ {10}1-3 {{cm}}-3 and FUV field strengths, {G}0˜ {10}2.2-4.5 (in Habing units: 1.6× {10}-3 {erg} {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1), consistent with both local ULIRGs and lower luminosity star-forming galaxies. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia, and important participation from NASA.

  13. Mapping the thermal structure and minor species of Venus mesosphere with ALMA submillimeter observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccialli, A.; Moreno, R.; Encrenaz, T.; Fouchet, T.; Lellouch, E.; Widemann, T.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Water vapor and sulfur compounds are key species in the photochemistry of Venus mesosphere. These species, together with mesospheric temperatures, exhibit drastic temporal variations, both on short timescales (diurnal and day-to-day) as well on long timescales, far from being understood. Aims: We targeted CO, SO, HDO and SO2 transitions in the submillimeter range using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to study their spatial and temporal variations. Methods: Four sets of observations were acquired on different dates in November 2011 during the first ALMA Early Science observation Cycle 0. Venus angular diameter was about 11'' with an illumination factor of 92%, so that mostly the day side of the planet was mapped. Assuming a nominal CO abundance profile, we retrieved vertical temperature profiles over the entire disk as a function of latitude and local time. Temperature profiles were later used to retrieve SO, SO2, and H2O. We used HDO as a tracer for water assuming a D/H enrichment of 200 times the terrestrial value. Results: We derived 3D maps of mesospheric temperatures in the altitude range 70-105 km. SO, SO2, and H2O are characterized by a negligible abundance below 85 km followed by an increase with altitude in the upper mesosphere. Disk-averaged SO abundances present a maximum mixing ratio of 15.0 ± 3.1 ppb on November 26 followed the next day by a minimum value of 9.9 ± 1.2 ppb. Due to a very low S/N, SO2 could only be derived from the disk-averaged spectrum on the first day of observation revealing an abundance of 16.5 ± 4.6 ppb. We found a SO2/SO ratio of 1.5 ± 0.4. Global maps of SO reveal strong variations both with latitude and local time and from day to day with abundance ranging from < 1 to 15 ppb. H2O disk-averages retrievals reveal a steady decrease from November 14 to 27, with the abundance varying from 3.6 ± 0.6 ppm on the first day to 2.9 ± 0.7 ppm on the last day. H2O maps reveal a slightly higher abundance on the evening

  14. Worlds Largest Wave Energy Project 2007 in Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars; Friis-Madsen, Erik; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    a large number of fundamentally different technologies are utilised to harvest wave energy. The Wave Dragon belongs to the wave overtopping class of converters and the paper describes the fundamentals and the technical solutions used in this wave energy converter. An offshore floating WEC like the Wave......This paper introduces world largest wave energy project being developed in Wales and based on one of the leading wave energy technologies. The background for the development of wave energy, the total resource ands its distribution around the world is described. In contrast to wind energy turbines...

  15. Janus Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Papazoglou, Dimitris G.; Fedorov, Vladimir Yu.; Tzortzakis, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    We show the existence of a family of waves that share a common interesting property affecting the way they propagate and focus. These waves are a superposition of twin waves, which are conjugate to each other under inversion of the propagation direction. In analogy to holography, these twin "real" and "virtual" waves are related respectively to the converging and the diverging part of the beam and can be clearly visualized in real space at two distinct foci under the action of a focusing lens...

  16. The ALMA Phasing System: A Beamforming Capability for Ultra-high-resolution Science at (Sub)Millimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, L. D.; Crew, G. B.; Doeleman, S. S.; Lacasse, R.; Saez, A. F.; Alef, W.; Akiyama, K.; Amestica, R.; Anderson, J. M.; Barkats, D. A.; Baudry, A.; Broguière, D.; Escoffier, R.; Fish, V. L.; Greenberg, J.; Hecht, M. H.; Hiriart, R.; Hirota, A.; Honma, M.; Ho, P. T. P.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Inoue, M.; Kohno, Y.; Lopez, B.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Messias, H.; Meyer-Zhao, Z.; Mora-Klein, M.; Nagar, N. M.; Nishioka, H.; Oyama, T.; Pankratius, V.; Perez, J.; Phillips, N.; Pradel, N.; Rottmann, H.; Roy, A. L.; Ruszczyk, C. A.; Shillue, B.; Suzuki, S.; Treacy, R.

    2018-01-01

    The Atacama Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Phasing Project (APP) has developed and deployed the hardware and software necessary to coherently sum the signals of individual ALMA antennas and record the aggregate sum in Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Data Exchange Format. These beamforming capabilities allow the ALMA array to collectively function as the equivalent of a single large aperture and participate in global VLBI arrays. The inclusion of phased ALMA in current VLBI networks operating at (sub)millimeter wavelengths provides an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity, as well as enhancements in u–v coverage and north–south angular resolution. The availability of a phased ALMA enables a wide range of new ultra-high angular resolution science applications, including the resolution of supermassive black holes on event horizon scales and studies of the launch and collimation of astrophysical jets. It also provides a high-sensitivity aperture that may be used for investigations such as pulsar searches at high frequencies. This paper provides an overview of the ALMA Phasing System design, implementation, and performance characteristics.

  17. MEASURING MASS ACCRETION RATE ONTO THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN M87 USING FARADAY ROTATION MEASURE WITH THE SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, C. Y.; Asada, K.; Rao, R.; Nakamura, M.; Algaba, J. C.; Liu, H. B.; Inoue, M.; Koch, P. M.; Ho, P. T. P.; Matsushita, S.; Pu, H.-Y.; Nishioka, H.; Pradel, N. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Akiyama, K. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-03-10

    We present the first constraint on the Faraday rotation measure (RM) at submillimeter wavelengths for the nucleus of M87. By fitting the polarization position angles (χ) observed with the Submillimeter Array at four independent frequencies around ∼230 GHz and interpreting the change in χ as a result of external Faraday rotation associated with accretion flow, we determine the RM of the M87 core to be between –7.5 × 10{sup 5} and 3.4 × 10{sup 5} rad m{sup –2}. Assuming a density profile of the accretion flow that follows a power-law distribution and a magnetic field that is ordered, radial, and has equipartition strength, the limit on the RM constrains the mass accretion rate M-dot to be below 9.2 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at a distance of 21 Schwarzschild radii from the central black hole. This value is at least two orders of magnitude smaller than the Bondi accretion rate, suggesting significant suppression of the accretion rate in the inner region of the accretion flow. Consequently, our result disfavors the classical advection-dominated accretion flow and prefers the adiabatic inflow-outflow solution or convection-dominated accretion flow for the hot accretion flow in M87.

  18. LUPUS I observations from the 2010 flight of the Balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Novak, Giles [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Benton, Steven J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Netterfield, Calvin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Chapin, Edward L. [XMM SOC, ESAC, Apartado 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Korotkov, Andrei L. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Olmi, Luca [University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Physics Department, Box 23343, UPR station, San Juan (Puerto Rico); and others

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  19. Solar Science with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array—A New View of Our Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, S.; Bastian, T.; Brajša, R.; Hudson, H.; Fleishman, G.; Loukitcheva, M.; Fleck, B.; Kontar, E. P.; De Pontieu, B.; Yagoubov, P.; Tiwari, S. K.; Soler, R.; Black, J. H.; Antolin, P.; Scullion, E.; Gunár, S.; Labrosse, N.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Benz, A. O.; White, S. M.; Hauschildt, P.; Doyle, J. G.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Ayres, T.; Heinzel, P.; Karlicky, M.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Gary, D.; Alissandrakis, C. E.; Nindos, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; Shimojo, M.; Kato, Y.; Zaqarashvili, T.; Perez, E.; Selhorst, C. L.; Barta, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a new powerful tool for observing the Sun at high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. These capabilities can address a broad range of fundamental scientific questions in solar physics. The radiation observed by ALMA originates mostly from the chromosphere—a complex and dynamic region between the photosphere and corona, which plays a crucial role in the transport of energy and matter and, ultimately, the heating of the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Based on first solar test observations, strategies for regular solar campaigns are currently being developed. State-of-the-art numerical simulations of the solar atmosphere and modeling of instrumental effects can help constrain and optimize future observing modes for ALMA. Here we present a short technical description of ALMA and an overview of past efforts and future possibilities for solar observations at submillimeter and millimeter wavelengths. In addition, selected numerical simulations and observations at other wavelengths demonstrate ALMA's scientific potential for studying the Sun for a large range of science cases.

  20. Development of Leaky Wave Antennas for Layered Ridge Dielectric Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1993-01-01

    The millimeter wave, especially above 100 GHz, and the submillimeter wave frequency spectrum offers the possibility for narrow-beam, high-resolution antennas which are critical for high definition radars required for space debris tracking, airport ground avoidance radars, and missile tracking. In addition, the frequency which most atmospheric constituents may be detected lie in this part of the frequency spectrum. Therefore, the development of electronic components for millimeter/submillimeter wave passive sensors is required for environmental monitoring of the Earth's atmosphere. Typical microwave transmission lines such as microstrip and coplanar waveguide rely on two or more electrical conductors to concentrate and guide the electromagnetic energy. Unfortunately, the surface resistance of the conductors increases as the square root of frequency. In addition, the circuit dimensions must be decreased with increasing frequency to maintain a single mode transmission line which further increases the conductor loss. An alternative family of transmission lines are formed from two or more insulating materials and rely on the differences in the permittivities between the two materials to guide the wave. No metal conductors are required although some dielectric waveguides do utilize a metallic ground plane to facilitate the interconnections of active electrical elements or to reduce the transmission line size. Examples of such transmission lines are image guides, insulated image guides, trapped image guides, ridge guide, and layered ridge dielectric waveguide (LRDW). Although most dielectric waveguides have dimensions on the order of lambda to provide sufficient field confinement, the LRDW has been shown to provide good field confinement for electrically small lines. This offers an advantage in circuit integration. It has been shown that a periodic array of metallic strips placed either along or on top of a dielectric waveguide forms an effective radiator. This antenna is

  1. The SSG Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Margheritini, Lucia; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Sea-wave Slot-cone Generator concept (SSG) is a Wave Energy Converter based on the wave overtopping principle utilizing several reservoirs placed on top of each other, in which the energy of the incoming wave will be stored as potential energy. The water captured in the reservoirs will then run...... through turbines for electricity production. The system utilizes a wide spectrum of different wave conditions by means of multiple reservoirs, located at different levels above the still water level. Thereby, it obtains a high overall efficiency and it can be suitable for shoreline and breakwater...... at the Svaaheia site (Norway), Port of Hanstholm (Denmark) and Port of Garibaldi (Oregon, USA). In the last-mentioned two projects, the Sea-wave Slot-cone Generator technology is integrated into outer harbor breakwater and jetty reconstruction projects. Comprehensive studies have been performed in the last years...

  2. Rossby Waves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    tut quiz Tutorial Quiz Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial reviews the mechanisms of Rossby waves. Rossby waves in both the northern and southern hemispheres are considered. The interactions involve answering simple fill-in-the-blank questions. Diagrams are used to illustrate some of the concepts reviewed. MR4322 Dynamic Meteorology

  3. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2003 a prototype of Wave Dragon has been tested in an inland sea in Denmark. This has been a great success with all subsystems tested and improved through working in an offshore environment. The project has proved the Wave Dragon device and has enabled the next stage, a production sized...

  4. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  5. Wave Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C

    2012-01-01

    In classical continuum physics, a wave is a mechanical disturbance. Whether the disturbance is stationary or traveling and whether it is caused by the motion of atoms and molecules or the vibration of a lattice structure, a wave can be understood as a specific type of solution of an appropriate mathematical equation modeling the underlying physics. Typical models consist of partial differential equations that exhibit certain general properties, e.g., hyperbolicity. This, in turn, leads to the possibility of wave solutions. Various analytical techniques (integral transforms, complex variables, reduction to ordinary differential equations, etc.) are available to find wave solutions of linear partial differential equations. Furthermore, linear hyperbolic equations with higher-order derivatives provide the mathematical underpinning of the phenomenon of dispersion, i.e., the dependence of a wave's phase speed on its wavenumber. For systems of nonlinear first-order hyperbolic equations, there also exists a general ...

  6. Emerging clean energy technology investment trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpus, A.; Comello, S.

    2017-06-01

    Early-stage capital providers and clean energy technology incubators are supporting a new wave of innovations focused on end-use efficiency and demand control. This wave complements expanding investments in supply technologies required for electricity sector decarbonization.

  7. SUB-MILLIMETER TELESCOPE CO (2-1) OBSERVATIONS OF NEARBY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xue-Jian; Gu, Qiusheng [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Zhong [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MS 66, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wang, Junzhi [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Yu, E-mail: xjjiang@nju.edu.cn [The UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-20

    We present CO J = 2-1 observations toward 32 nearby gas-rich star-forming galaxies selected from the ALFALFA and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalogs, using the Sub-millimeter Telescope (SMT). Our sample is selected to be dominated by intermediate-M {sub *} galaxies. The scaling relations between molecular gas, atomic gas, and galactic properties (stellar mass, NUV – r, and WISE color W3 – W2) are examined and discussed. Our results show the following. (1) In the galaxies with stellar mass M {sub *} ≤10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, the H I fraction (f {sub H} {sub I} ≡ M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}) is significantly higher than that of more massive galaxies, while the H{sub 2} gas fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}} ≡ M{sub H{sub 2}}/M {sub *}) remains nearly unchanged. (2) Compared to f{sub H{sub 2}}, f {sub H} {sub I} correlates better with both M {sub *} and NUV – r. (3) A new parameter, WISE color W3 – W2 (12-4.6 μm), is introduced, which is similar to NUV – r in tracing star formation activity, and we find that W3 – W2 has a tighter anti-correlation with log f{sub H{sub 2}} than the anti-correlation of (NUV – r)-f {sub H} {sub I}, (NUV – r)-f{sub H{sub 2}}, and (W3 – W2)-f {sub H} {sub I}. This indicates that W3 – W2 can trace the H{sub 2} fraction in galaxies. For the gas ratio M{sub H{sub 2}}/M {sub H} {sub I} , only in the intermediate-M {sub *} galaxies it appears to depend on M {sub *} and NUV – r. We find a tight correlation between the molecular gas mass M{sub H{sub 2}} and 12 μm (W3) luminosities (L {sub 12} {sub μm}), and the slope is close to unity (1.03 ± 0.06) for the SMT sample. This correlation may reflect that the cold gas and dust are well mixed on a global galactic scale. Using the all-sky 12 μm (W3) data available in WISE, this correlation can be used to estimate CO flux for molecular gas observations and can even predict H{sub 2} mass for star-forming galaxies.

  8. Simulation study for the Stratospheric Inferred Wind (SIW) sub-millimeter limb sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Philippe; Murtagh, Donal; Eriksson, Patrick; Ochiai, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    -and-aac-microtec-to-develop-the-innosat-platform-and-implement-its-first-mission-named-mats.html [2] Wu D., et al.: Mesospheric Doppler wind measurements from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Advanced in Space Research, 42, 1246-1252, 2008 [3] Baron P., et al.: Observation of horizontal winds in the middle-atmosphere between 30S and 55N during the northern winter 2009-2010, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13(13), 6049-6064, 2013, doi:10.5194/acp-13-6049-2013 [4] Baron P., et al.: Definition of an uncooled submillimeter/terahertz limb sounder for measuring middle atmospheric winds, Proceedings of ESA Living Planet Symposium, Edinburgh, UK, 9-13 September 2013, (ESA SP-722, December 2013)

  9. Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Cheeke, J David N

    2012-01-01

    Designed specifically for newcomers to the field, this fully updated second edition begins with fundamentals and quickly advances beyond general wave concepts into an in-depth treatment of ultrasonic waves in isotropic media. Focusing on the physics of acoustic waves, their propagation, technology, and applications, this accessible overview of ultrasonics includes accounts of viscoelasticity and multiple scattering. It examines new technologies, including atomic force acoustic microscopy, lasers, micro-acoustics, and nanotechnology. In addition, it highlights both direct and indirect applicati

  10. Applying of the array transducers' technology for surface acoustic waves materials characterization in the transient regime; Application de la technologie multi-elements a la caracterisation des materiaux par ondes acoustiques de surface en regime impulsionnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenet, D

    2000-07-01

    In this document we present a theoretical and experimental study which has been led to design a surface acoustic wave device for local characterisation (relatively to the wavelength) of isotropic or anisotropic materials. The device is based on a phased-array transducer of conical shape we have specifically designed for this purpose. It operates in the impulsive mode, in the frequency range of 1-5 MHz. In order to deduce mechanical properties of the material, it is possible to measure the surface wave characteristics (velocity, attenuation,...). Different methods for measuring the wave velocity have been developed taking advantage of from the phased-array technology. The originality of theses methods relies on the fact that the measures are performed without moving the transducer. Consequently, the device requires no additional mechanical system and it is quite compact. In addition, this shortens the characterisation process duration comparatively to the usually available methods (e. g. the V(z) technique). In the theoretical section of this study, a versatile model allowing to simulate in the time harmonic regime as well as in the transient regime, the transmitted field, the field reflected on isotropic or anisotropic planar samples and the output voltage for transducers of arbitrary shapes has been developed. The model has been applied to the phased-array conical transducer as well as to more classical transducers such as planar (rectangular) or focusing (spherically or cylindrically shaped) transducers. It predicts not only the geometrical contributions of the reflected field and signal but also the leaky contributions related to the surface acoustic waves. (author)

  11. Submillimeter H2O and H2O+emission in lensed ultra- and hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z 2-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, C.; Omont, A.; Beelen, A.; González-Alfonso, E.; Neri, R.; Gao, Y.; van der Werf, P.; Weiß, A.; Gavazzi, R.; Falstad, N.; Baker, A. J.; Bussmann, R. S.; Cooray, A.; Cox, P.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dye, S.; Guélin, M.; Ivison, R.; Krips, M.; Lehnert, M.; Michałowski, M. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Spaans, M.; Valiante, E.

    2016-01-01

    We report rest-frame submillimeter H2O emission line observations of 11 ultra- or hyper-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs or HyLIRGs) at z 2-4 selected among the brightest lensed galaxies discovered in the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). Using the IRAM NOrthern

  12. THE SCUBA-2 COSMOLOGY LEGACY SURVEY: MULTIWAVELENGTH COUNTERPARTS TO 10{sup 3} SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES IN THE UKIDSS-UDS FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Smail, Ian; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Simpson, James M.; Swinbank, A. Mark [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Ivison, Rob J.; Arumugam, Vinodiran; Mortlock, Alice; Dunlop, James S.; Michałowski, Michał J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Almaini, Omar; Conselice, Christopher J.; Hartley, Will G. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Geach, James E. [Center for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Simpson, Chris [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Aretxaga, Itziar [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Luis Enrique Erro 1, Sta. Ma. Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Blain, Andrew [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Chapman, Scott C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 6310 Coburg Road, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2 (Canada); Farrah, Duncan [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); and others

    2016-04-01

    We present multiwavelength identifications for the counterparts of 1088 submillimeter sources detected at 850 μm in the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey study of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey-Ultra-Deep Survey (UDS) field. By utilizing an Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) pilot study on a subset of our bright SCUBA-2 sample as a training set, along with the deep optical–near-infrared (OIR) data available in this field, we develop a novel technique, Optical–IR Triple Color (OIRTC), using z − K, K − [3.6], [3.6] − [4.5] colors to select the candidate submillimeter galaxy (SMG) counterparts. By combining radio identification and the OIRTC technique, we find counterpart candidates for 80% of the Class = 1 ≥ 4σ SCUBA-2 sample, defined as those that are covered by both radio and OIR imaging and the base sample for our scientific analyses. Based on the ALMA training set, we expect the accuracy of these identifications to be 82% ± 20%, with a completeness of 69% ± 16%, essentially as accurate as the traditional p-value technique but with higher completeness. We find that the fraction of SCUBA-2 sources having candidate counterparts is lower for fainter 850 μm sources, and we argue that for follow-up observations sensitive to SMGs with S{sub 850} ≳ 1 mJy across the whole ALMA beam, the fraction with multiple counterparts is likely to be >40% for SCUBA-2 sources at S{sub 850} ≳ 4 mJy. We find that the photometric redshift distribution for the SMGs is well fit by a lognormal distribution, with a median redshift of z = 2.3 ± 0.1. After accounting for the sources without any radio and/or OIRTC counterpart, we estimate the median redshift to be z = 2.6 ± 0.1 for SMGs with S{sub 850} > 1 mJy. We also use this new large sample to study the clustering of SMGs and the far-infrared properties of the unidentified submillimeter sources by stacking their Herschel SPIRE far-infrared emission.

  13. THz wave emission microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao

    Sensing and imaging using Terahertz (THz) radiation has attracted more and more interest in the last two decades thanks to the abundant material 'finger prints' in the THz frequency range. The low photon energy also makes THz radiation an attractive tool for nondestructive evaluation of materials and devices, biomedical applications, security checks and explosive screening. Due to the long wavelength, the far-field THz wave optical systems have relatively low spatial resolution. This physical limitation confines THz wave sensing and imaging to mostly macro-size samples. To investigate local material properties or micro-size structures and devices, near-field technology has to be employed. In this dissertation, the Electro-Optical THz wave emission microscope is investigated. The basic principle is to focus the femtosecond laser to a tight spot on a thin THz emitter layer to produce a THz wave source with a similar size as the focus spot. The apparatus provides a method for placing a THz source with sub-wavelength dimension in the near-field range of the investigated sample. Spatial resolution to the order of one tenth of the THz wavelength is demonstrated by this method. The properties of some widely used THz wave emission materials under tight focused pump light are studied. As an important branch of THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), THz wave emission spectroscopy has been widely used as a tool to investigate the material physics, such as energy band structure, carrier dynamics, material nonlinear properties and dynamics. As the main work of this dissertation, we propose to combine the THz wave emission spectroscopy with scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to build a tip-assisted THz wave emission microscope (TATEM), which is a valuable extension to current SPM science and technology. Illuminated by a femtosecond laser, the biased SPM tip forms a THz wave source inside the sample beneath the tip. The source size is proportional to the apex size of the tip so

  14. A quasioptical steering system for the CCAT/XSPEC submillimeter multi-object spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, S.C.; Tikhomirov, A.; Bradford, C.M.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.

    2014-01-01

    A two arm, opto-mechanical positioner mechanism is presented in this proceedings as a candidate steering system for the millimeter-wave XSPEC spectrograph. The design is well matched to the expected target density on the sky, and meeting all requirements of the Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope (CCAT), site environmental conditions (e.g., operating temperature and power dissipation), and the positioning requirements themselves for acquiring and tracking astronomical objects whose light is fe...

  15. DUST AND GAS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM THE HERITAGE HERSCHEL KEY PROJECT. I. DUST PROPERTIES AND INSIGHTS INTO THE ORIGIN OF THE SUBMILLIMETER EXCESS EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Karl D.; Roman-Duval, Julia; Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter Street, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [CESR, Université de Toulouse, UPS, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse, Cedex 4 (France); Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine [Department of Astronomy, Lab for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Boyer, Martha L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 233-A Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Engelbracht, Charles [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Galametz, Maud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching-bei-Mnchen (Germany); Galliano, Frederic; Hony, Sacha; Lebouteiller, Vianney [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hughes, Annie [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, and National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Israel, Frank P. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); and others

    2014-12-20

    The dust properties in the Large and Small Magellanic clouds (LMC/SMC) are studied using the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project photometric data in five bands from 100 to 500 μm. Three simple models of dust emission were fit to the observations: a single temperature blackbody modified by a power-law emissivity (SMBB), a single temperature blackbody modified by a broken power-law emissivity (BEMBB), and two blackbodies with different temperatures, both modified by the same power-law emissivity (TTMBB). Using these models, we investigate the origin of the submillimeter excess, defined as the submillimeter emission above that expected from SMBB models fit to observations <200 μm. We find that the BEMBB model produces the lowest fit residuals with pixel-averaged 500 μm submillimeter excesses of 27% and 43% for the LMC and SMC, respectively. Adopting gas masses from previous works, the gas-to-dust ratios calculated from our fitting results show that the TTMBB fits require significantly more dust than are available even if all the metals present in the interstellar medium (ISM) were condensed into dust. This indicates that the submillimeter excess is more likely to be due to emissivity variations than a second population of colder dust. We derive integrated dust masses of (7.3 ± 1.7) × 10{sup 5} and (8.3 ± 2.1) × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} for the LMC and SMC, respectively. We find significant correlations between the submillimeter excess and other dust properties; further work is needed to determine the relative contributions of fitting noise and ISM physics to the correlations.

  16. Dust and Gas in the Magellanic Clouds from the Heritage Herschel Key Project. I. Dust Properties and Insights into the Origin of the Submm (Submillimeter) Excess Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Karl D.; Roman-Duval, Julia; Bot, Caroline; Meixner, Margaret; Babler, Brian; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Bolatto, Alberto; Boyer, Martha L.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Engelbracht, Charles; hide

    2014-01-01

    The dust properties in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are studied using the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project photometric data in five bands from 100 to 500 micromillimeters. Three simple models of dust emission were fit to the observations: a single temperature blackbody modified by a powerlaw emissivity (SMBB), a single temperature blackbody modified by a broken power-law emissivity (BEMBB), and two blackbodies with different temperatures, both modified by the same power-law emissivity (TTMBB). Using these models we investigate the origin of the submillimeter excess; defined as the submillimeter (submm) emission above that expected from SMBB models fit to observations < 200 micromillimeters. We find that the BEMBB model produces the lowest fit residuals with pixel-averaged 500 micromillimeters submillimeter excesses of 27% and 43% for the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, respectively. Adopting gas masses from previous works, the gas-to-dust ratios calculated from our fitting results show that the TTMBB fits require significantly more dust than are available even if all the metals present in the interstellar medium (ISM) were condensed into dust. This indicates that the submillimeter excess is more likely to be due to emissivity variations than a second population of colder dust. We derive integrated dust masses of (7.3 plus or minus 1.7) x 10 (sup 5) and (8.3 plus or minus 2.1) x 10 (sup 4) solar masses for the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, respectively. We find significant correlations between the submillimeter excess and other dust properties; further work is needed to determine the relative contributions of fitting noise and ISM physics to the correlations.

  17. Statistical Analysis of Wave Climate Data Using Mixed Distributions and Extreme Wave Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of various aspects of the wave climate at a wave energy test site is essential for the development of reliable and efficient wave energy conversion technology. This paper presents studies of the wave climate based on nine years of wave observations from the 2005–2013 period measured with a wave measurement buoy at the Lysekil wave energy test site located off the west coast of Sweden. A detailed analysis of the wave statistics is investigated to reveal the characteristics of the wave climate at this specific test site. The long-term extreme waves are estimated from applying the Peak over Threshold (POT method on the measured wave data. The significant wave height and the maximum wave height at the test site for different return periods are also compared. In this study, a new approach using a mixed-distribution model is proposed to describe the long-term behavior of the significant wave height and it shows an impressive goodness of fit to wave data from the test site. The mixed-distribution model is also applied to measured wave data from four other sites and it provides an illustration of the general applicability of the proposed model. The methodologies used in this paper can be applied to general wave climate analysis of wave energy test sites to estimate extreme waves for the survivability assessment of wave energy converters and characterize the long wave climate to forecast the wave energy resource of the test sites and the energy production of the wave energy converters.

  18. Fabrication of an absorber-coupled MKID detector and readout for sub-millimeter and far-infrared astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari-David; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-07-01

    We have fabricated absorber-coupled microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) arrays for sub-millimeter and farinfrared astronomy. Each detector array is comprised of λ/2 stepped impedance resonators, a 1.5μm thick silicon membrane, and 380μm thick silicon walls. The resonators consist of parallel plate aluminum transmission lines coupled to low impedance Nb microstrip traces of variable length, which set the resonant frequency of each resonator. This allows for multiplexed microwave readout and, consequently, good spatial discrimination between pixels in the array. The Al transmission lines simultaneously act to absorb optical power and are designed to have a surface impedance and filling fraction so as to match the impedance of free space. Our novel fabrication techniques demonstrate high fabrication yield of MKID arrays on large single crystal membranes and sub-micron front-to-back alignment of the microstrip circuit.

  19. Fabrication of an Absorber-Coupled MKID Detector and Readout for Sub-Millimeter and Far-Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari-David; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We have fabricated absorber-coupled microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) arrays for sub-millimeter and farinfrared astronomy. Each detector array is comprised of lambda/2 stepped impedance resonators, a 1.5µm thick silicon membrane, and 380µm thick silicon walls. The resonators consist of parallel plate aluminum transmission lines coupled to low impedance Nb microstrip traces of variable length, which set the resonant frequency of each resonator. This allows for multiplexed microwave readout and, consequently, good spatial discrimination between pixels in the array. The Al transmission lines simultaneously act to absorb optical power and are designed to have a surface impedance and filling fraction so as to match the impedance of free space. Our novel fabrication techniques demonstrate high fabrication yield of MKID arrays on large single crystal membranes and sub-micron front-to-back alignment of the microstrip circuit.

  20. Consolidation Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Ward; Smit, Han

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper explains why consolidation acquisitions occur in waves and it predicts the differing role each firm is likely to play in the consolidation game. We propose that whether a firm assumes the role of rival consolidator, target, or passive observer depends on the position of the firm relative to the entity that merges first. Our model predicts that an initial acquisition triggers a wave of follow-on acquisitions, where the process of asset accumulation by the consolidator is...

  1. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  2. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  3. Millimeter and Submillimeter Observations of Comet 67P's Nucleus, Gas, and Dust with the Rosetta/MIRO Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstadter, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO) has been making measurements of comet 67P/C-G since June 2014, when the comet was 3.92 AU from the Sun and Rosetta was approximately 400,000 km from the nucleus. Those first observations were spatially unresolved measurements of the 556 GHz water line, used to infer the abundance and velocity of water vapor in the coma (Gulkis et al. 2015, Science 347). In the almost two years since that time, as the spacecraft has moved closer to the nucleus and the comet has become more active (perihelion at 1.2 AU from the Sun occurred in August 2015), MIRO's submillimeter spectrometer (working at frequencies near 550 GHz, or wavelengths near 0.5 mm) has been used to determine the velocity, abundance, and spatial distribution of H216O, H217O, H218O, CH3OH, NH3, and CO in the coma as a function of time (e.g. water is discussed by Biver et al. 2015 and Lee et al. 2015, Astron. and Astrophys. 583). In addition to its submillimeter spectrometer, MIRO has two broad band continuum channels operating at wavelengths near 0.5 and 1.6 millimeter. These channels are designed to probe the nucleus ˜1 millimeter to 10 cm below the surface. Data have been used to infer properties such as thermal inertia, porosity, and ice content as functions of location, depth, and time (e.g. Schloerb et al. 2015 and Choukroun et al. 2015, Astron. and Astrophys. 583). These channels have also been used to map the distribution of relatively large dust grains (radius > ˜1 mm) in the inner coma of the comet, with the potential to constrain models of dust acceleration, cooling, and fragmentation. This talk will review the latest results from MIRO's measurements of the nucleus, coma, and dust, and discuss some of the processes that couple these components of the comet.

  4. The JCMT Transient Survey: Identifying Submillimeter Continuum Variability over Several Year Timescales Using Archival JCMT Gould Belt Survey Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairs, Steve; Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Helen; Lane, James; Bell, Graham S.; Graves, Sarah; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Scicluna, Peter; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Chen, Huei-Ru Vivien; Hatchell, Jennifer; Aikawa, Yuri; Chen, Wen-Ping; Kang, Miju; Kang, Sung-Ju; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Morata, Oscar; Pon, Andy; Scholz, Aleks; Takahashi, Satoko; Yoo, Hyunju; The JCMT Transient Team

    2017-11-01

    Investigating variability at the earliest stages of low-mass star formation is fundamental in understanding how a protostar assembles mass. While many simulations of protostellar disks predict non-steady accretion onto protostars, deeper investigation requires robust observational constraints on the frequency and amplitude of variability events characterized across the observable SED. In this study, we develop methods to robustly analyze repeated observations of an area of the sky for submillimeter variability in order to determine constraints on the magnitude and frequency of deeply embedded protostars. We compare 850 μm JCMT Transient Survey data with archival JCMT Gould Belt Survey data to investigate variability over 2-4 year timescales. Out of 175 bright, independent emission sources identified in the overlapping fields, we find seven variable candidates, five of which we classify as Strong, and the remaining two we classify as Extended to indicate that the latter are associated with larger-scale structure. For the Strong variable candidates, we find an average fractional peak brightness change per year of | 4.0| % {{yr}}-1, with a standard deviation of 2.7 % {{yr}}-1. In total, 7% of the protostars associated with 850 μm emission in our sample show signs of variability. Four of the five Strong sources are associated with a known protostar. The remaining source is a good follow-up target for an object that is anticipated to contain an enshrouded, deeply embedded protostar. In addition, we estimate the 850 μm periodicity of the submillimeter variable source, EC 53, to be 567 ± 32 days, based on the archival Gould Belt Survey data.

  5. Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Needham, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this text is to document many of the lessons that have been learned during the author’s more than forty years in the field of blast and shock. The writing therefore takes on an historical perspective, in some sense, because it follows the author’s experience. The book deals with blast waves propagating in fluids or materials that can be treated as fluids. It begins by distinguishing between blast waves and the more general category of shock waves. It then examines several ways of generating blast waves, considering the propagation of blast waves in one, two and three dimensions as well as through the real atmosphere. One section treats the propagation of shocks in layered gases in a more detailed manner. The book also details the interaction of shock waves with structures in particular reflections, progressing from simple to complex geometries, including planar structures, two-dimensional structures such as ramps or wedges, reflections from heights of burst, and three-dimensional st...

  6. Wave-to-wire Modelling of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferri, Francesco

    and non-technical issues. These can be efficiently summarised in the cost of the energy produced by the various wave energy converters: If compared with other renewable energy technologies the cost of energy from the ocean waves is still significantly higher. Holding the comparison it also important...... to noticed that there is not a clear front runner in the wave energy sector, which fades effort and funding over a too broad frame. In order to assist efficient development and analysis of wave energy converters and therefore to accelerate the sector progression towards commercialisation, a generally......, but talking about renewable energy partially ravels the problem out. Wave energy is a large, mostly untapped, renewable energy resource. It has the potential to contribute significantly to the future energy mix, but the sector has not yet rolled off into the market in consequence of a number of technical...

  7. Design and development of physics simulations in the field of oscillations and waves suitable for k-12 and undergraduate instruction using video game technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomesh, Trevor; Price, Colin

    2011-03-01

    Using the scripting language for the Unreal Tournament 2004 Engine, Unreal Script, demonstrations in the field of oscillations and waves were designed and developed. Variations on Euler's method and the Runge-Kutta method were used to numerically solve the equations of motion for seven different physical systems which were visually represented in the immersive environment of Unreal Tournament 2004. Data from each system was written to an output file, plotted and analyzed. The over-arching goal of this research is to successfully design and develop useful teaching tools for the k-12 and undergraduate classroom which, presented in the form of a video game, is immersive, engaging and educational.

  8. Actively Cooled Silicon Lightweight Mirrors for Far Infrared and Submillimeter Optical Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Schafer proposes to demonstrate 2 different methods for actively cooling our 5-7.5 kg/m2 areal density Silicon Lightweight Mirrors (SLMS?) technology for future NASA...

  9. Key Aspects of Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck

    2012-01-01

    Diversification of renewable energy sources is fundamental to ensure sustainability. In this contest, wave energy can provide a substantial contribution as soon as the sector breaks into the market. In order to accelerate shift from a technology to a market focus and reduce technical and non...... be used as a breakwater therefore providing a solid structure for harbor protection; the Wave Star can be used as a base for offshore wind and photovoltaic installation in the middle of the sea, realizing an hybrid renewable energy platform. It is the authors´ believe that taking wave energy devices......-technical risks, it is critical to provide comprehensive and reliable information on the technologies without neglecting attractive advantages. It is possible to underline a different key of lecture of wave energy performance by considering efficiency and power production as well as device versatility...

  10. Wave Generation Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Høgedal, Michael; Christensen, Morten

    The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered....

  11. Quantum-limited detection of millimeter waves using superconducting tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mears, C.A.

    1991-09-01

    The quasiparticle tunneling current in a superconductor-insulator- superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction is highly nonlinear. Such a nonlinearity can be used to mix two millimeter wave signals to produce a signal at a much lower intermediate frequency. We have constructed several millimeter and sub-millimeter wave SIS mixers in order to study high frequency response of the quasiparticle tunneling current and the physics of high frequency mixing. We have made the first measurement of the out-of-phase tunneling currents in an SIS tunnel junction. We have developed a method that allows us to determine the parameters of the high frequency embedding circuit by studying the details of the pumped I-V curve. We have constructed a 80--110 GHz waveguide-based mixer test apparatus that allows us to accurately measure the gain and added noise of the SIS mixer under test. Using extremely high quality tunnel junctions, we have measured an added mixer noise of 0.61 {plus minus} 0.36 quanta, which is within 25 percent of the quantum limit imposed by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This measured performance is in excellent agreement with that predicted by Tucker's theory of quantum mixing. We have also studied quasioptically coupled millimeter- and submillimeter-wave mixers using several types of integrated tuning elements. 83 refs.

  12. Quantum-limited detection of millimeter waves using superconducting tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mears, Carl Atherton [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-09-01

    The quasiparticle tunneling current in a superconductor-insulator- superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction is highly nonlinear. Such a nonlinearity can be used to mix two millimeter wave signals to produce a signal at a much lower intermediate frequency. We have constructed several millimeter and sub-millimeter wave SIS mixers in order to study high frequency response of the quasiparticle tunneling current and the physics of high frequency mixing. We have made the first measurement of the out-of-phase tunneling currents in an SIS tunnel junction. We have developed a method that allows us to determine the parameters of the high frequency embedding circuit by studying the details of the pumped I-V curve. We have constructed a 80--110 GHz waveguide-based mixer test apparatus that allows us to accurately measure the gain and added noise of the SIS mixer under test. Using extremely high quality tunnel junctions, we have measured an added mixer noise of 0.61 ± 0.36 quanta, which is within 25 percent of the quantum limit imposed by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This measured performance is in excellent agreement with that predicted by Tucker`s theory of quantum mixing. We have also studied quasioptically coupled millimeter- and submillimeter-wave mixers using several types of integrated tuning elements. 83 refs.

  13. A quasioptical steering system for the CCAT/XSPEC submillimeter multi-object spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S. C.; Tikhomirov, A.; Bradford, C. M.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.

    2014-07-01

    A two arm, opto-mechanical positioner mechanism is presented in this proceedings as a candidate steering system for the millimeter-wave XSPEC spectrograph. The design is well matched to the expected target density on the sky, and meeting all requirements of the Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope (CCAT), site environmental conditions (e.g., operating temperature and power dissipation), and the positioning requirements themselves for acquiring and tracking astronomical objects whose light is fed into the XSPEC spectrograph units. The prototype design has been fabricated and tested for basic operations.

  14. A Novel Design of Micromachined Horn Antenna for Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ansari

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel design of micromachined horn antenna is presented. Horn excited with a quasi-Yagi antenna. In this paper micromachining process of this antenna, and simulation results of a horn structure operate around 330GHz using Agilent High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS software is presented. The results indicate a gain around 10dB, directivity 10.5dB and resonant dipole impedance 48.3Ω for horn antenna. The micromachined horn antenna is a high-efficiency antenna suitable for applications in millimeter-wave imaging systems, remote-sensing, and radio astronomy.

  15. Developments of wide field submillimeter optics and lens antenna-coupled MKID cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Y.; Nitta, T.; Karatsu, K.; Sekine, M.; Sekiguchi, S.; Okada, T.; Shu, S.; Noguchi, T.; Naruse, M.; Mitsui, K.; Okada, N.; Tsuzuki, T.; Dominjon, A.; Matsuo, H.

    2014-07-01

    Wide field cryogenic optics and millimeter-wave Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) cameras with Si lens array have been developed. MKID is a Cooper-pair breaking photon detector and consists of supercon- ducting resonators which enable microwave (~GHz) frequency multiplexing. Antenna-coupled Aluminum CPW resonators are put in a line on a Si substrate to be read by a pair of coaxial cables. A 220 GHz - 600 pixels MKID camera with anti-reflection (AR) coated Si lens has been demonstrated in an 0.1 K cryostat. A compact cryogenic system with high refractive index materials has been developed for the MKID camera.

  16. Calculation and analysis for the quasi-optical biconical cavity in submillimeter band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaochao; Wang, Shijie

    1986-06-01

    The performance characteristics of a quasi-optical biconical cavity (like that described by Gustinci, 1977) as a submm-wave receiver antenna are investigated theoretically. The distribution of EM fields in the loaded cavity is calculated; the relationship between cavity size and the input impedance and receiving coefficient is determined; and the conditions for impedance and beam-pattern matching are obtained. For a given divergence angle of the Gaussian beam, the maximum receiving coefficient is obtained with an opening 1.5 times the beam-waist diameter. Diagrams and graphs are provided.

  17. Bubble Dynamics and Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library is concerned with the interplay between bubble dynamics and shock waves. It is divided into four parts containing twelve chapters written by eminent scientists. Topics discussed include shock wave emission by laser generated bubbles (W Lauterborn, A Vogel), pulsating bubbles near boundaries (DM Leppinen, QX Wang, JR Blake), interaction of shock waves with bubble clouds (CD Ohl, SW Ohl), shock propagation in polydispersed bubbly liquids by model equations (K Ando, T Colonius, CE Brennen. T Yano, T Kanagawa,  M Watanabe, S Fujikawa) and by DNS (G Tryggvason, S Dabiri), shocks in cavitating flows (NA Adams, SJ Schmidt, CF Delale, GH Schnerr, S Pasinlioglu) together with applications involving encapsulated bubble dynamics in imaging (AA Doinikov, A Novell, JM Escoffre, A Bouakaz),  shock wave lithotripsy (P Zhong), sterilization of ships’ ballast water (A Abe, H Mimura) and bubbly flow model of volcano eruptions ((VK Kedrinskii, K Takayama...

  18. R&D Towards Commercialization of Sea Wave Slot Cone Generator (SSG) Overtopping Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia

    between ventures and private investors, and to promote an accelerated shift from a technology to a market focus. This Thesis is presented as a collection of works published by the author on her research on the Sea wave Slot cone Generator wave energy converter. These include 1 accepted and 2 submitted...... from technology to market focus. This has been done by using the R&D steps for a specific wave energy converter as an example of best practice for wave energy development towards commercialization. The Sea wave Slot cone Generator (SSG) is a multilevel wave energy converter. Incoming waves overtop...... the consumption of fossil fuels and related greenhouse-gas emissions and to the development of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Diversification of RES is fundamental in such a path to ensure sustainability. In this contest wave energy can provide great contribution, having its worldwide resource been estimated...

  19. Energy density of standing sound waves at the radiation-dominated phase of the universe expansion (hydrodynamic derivation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inogamov, N. A.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    In the early Universe up to hydrogen recombination in the Universe, the radiation pressure was much greater than the pressure of baryons and electrons. Moreover, the energy density of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons was greater than or close to the energy density contained in the rest mass of baryonic matter, i.e., the primordial plasma was a radiated-dominated one and the adiabatic index was close to 4/3. The small density perturbations from which the observed galaxies have grown grew as long as the characteristic perturbation scales exceeded the horizon of the Universe сt at that time. On smaller scales, the density perturbations were standing sound waves. Radiative viscosity and heat conduction must have led to the damping of sound waves on very small scales. After the discovery of the cosmic microwave background, J. Silk calculated the scales of this damping, which is now called Silk damping, knowing the CMBtemperature and assuming the density of baryons and electrons. Observations with the South Pole Telescope, the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, and the Planck satellite have revealed the predicted damping of acoustic peaks in the CMB power spectrum and confirmed one important prediction of the theory. In 1970, R.A. Sunyaev and Ya.B. Zeldovich showed that such energy release in the early Universe should lead to characteristic deviations of the CMB spectrum from the Planck one. The development of the technology of cryogenic detectors of submillimeter and millimeter wavelength radiation has made it possible to measure the CMB spectral distortions at 10-8 of its total intensity (PIXIE). This has sharply increased the interest of theoretical cosmologists in the problem of energy release when smallscale sound waves are damped. We have derived a relativistic formula for the energy of a standing sound wave in a photon-baryon-electron plasma from simple hydrodynamic and thermodynamic relations. This formula is applicable for an arbitrary relation between the

  20. Efficient Wave Energy Amplification with Wave Reflectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC's) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased to approximately 130-140%. In the paper a procedure for calculating the efficiency and optimizing the geometry of wave reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D boundary element method. The calculations are verified ...

  1. Telecom technology based continuous wave terahertz photomixing system with 105 decibel signal-to-noise ratio and 3.5 terahertz bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Thorsten; Stanze, Dennis; Globisch, Björn; Dietz, Roman J B; Roehle, Helmut; Schell, Martin

    2013-10-15

    A modified photoconductive receiver significantly improves the performance of photomixing-based continuous wave (cw) THz systems driven at the optical telecommunication wavelength of 1.5 μm. The achieved signal-to-noise ratio of 105 dB at 100 GHz and 70 dB at 1 THz, both for an integration time of 200 ms, are to our knowledge the highest numbers reported in literature for any optoelectronic cw THz system, including classical setups operating at 800 nm. The developed receiver allows for combining low cost and high performance in one system for the first time to our knowledge.

  2. Students' Conceptions of Sound Waves Resulting from the Enactment of a New Technology-Enhanced Inquiry-Based Curriculum on Urban Bird Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Meredith E.; Barnett, G. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The emerging field of urban ecology has the potential to engage urban youth in the practices of scientists by studying a locally relevant environmental problem. To this end, we are developing curriculum modules designed to engage students in learning science through the use of emerging information technology. In this paper, we describe the impact…

  3. Digital democracy in Belgium and the Netherlands : A socio-legal analysis of technologies, embedding and expectations of two fourth wave innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aeken, Koen; Prins, Corien; Cuijpers, Colette; Lindseth, Peter L; Rosina, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The research question is how technologies characterized by ubiquitous Web 2.0 interactivity may contribute to democracy. Following a case study design, two applications were evaluated: the Belgian CitizenLab, a mobile, social and local private application to support public decision making in cities,

  4. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    (2). Hence, small amplitude waves are also called linear waves. Most of the aspects of the ocean waves can be explained by the small amplitude wave theory. Let us now see the water particle motion due to waves. While wave energy is carried by the wave as it progresses forward, the water particles oscillate up and down.

  5. Guided-Wave Optical Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Vittorio M. N.; Dell'Olio, Francesco; Casamassima, Biagio; De Leonardis, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Guided-wave optical biosensors are reviewed in this paper. Advantages related to optical technologies are presented and integrated architectures are investigated in detail. Main classes of bio receptors and the most attractive optical transduction mechanisms are discussed. The possibility to use Mach-Zehnder and Young interferometers, microdisk and microring resonators, surface plasmon resonance, hollow and antiresonant waveguides, and Bragg gratings to realize very sensitive and selective, ultra-compact and fast biosensors is discussed. Finally, CMOS-compatible technologies are proved to be the most attractive for fabrication of guided-wave photonic biosensors.

  6. Guided-Wave Optical Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco De Leonardis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Guided-wave optical biosensors are reviewed in this paper. Advantages related to optical technologies are presented and integrated architectures are investigated in detail. Main classes of bio receptors and the most attractive optical transduction mechanisms are discussed. The possibility to use Mach-Zehnder and Young interferometers, microdisk and microring resonators, surface plasmon resonance, hollow and antiresonant waveguides, and Bragg gratings to realize very sensitive and selective, ultra-compact and fast biosensors is discussed. Finally, CMOS-compatible technologies are proved to be the most attractive for fabrication of guided-wave photonic biosensors.

  7. Shallow Water Waves and Solitary Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Hereman, Willy

    2013-01-01

    Encyclopedic article covering shallow water wave models used in oceanography and atmospheric science. Sections: Definition of the Subject; Introduction and Historical Perspective; Completely Integrable Shallow Water Wave Equations; Shallow Water Wave Equations of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Computation of Solitary Wave Solutions; Numerical Methods; Water Wave Experiments and Observations; Future Directions, and Bibliography.

  8. Wave groups in unidirectional surface wave models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1998-01-01

    Uni-directional wave models are used to study wave groups that appear in wave tanks of hydrodynamic laboratories; characteristic for waves in such tanks is that the wave length is rather small, comparable to the depth of the layer. In second-order theory, the resulting Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS)

  9. Low frequency piezoresonance defined dynamic control of terahertz wave propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Moumita; Betal, Soutik; Peralta, Xomalin G; Bhalla, Amar S; Guo, Ruyan

    2016-11-30

    Phase modulators are one of the key components of many applications in electromagnetic and opto-electric wave propagations. Phase-shifters play an integral role in communications, imaging and in coherent material excitations. In order to realize the terahertz (THz) electromagnetic spectrum as a fully-functional bandwidth, the development of a family of efficient THz phase modulators is needed. Although there have been quite a few attempts to implement THz phase modulators based on quantum-well structures, liquid crystals, or meta-materials, significantly improved sensitivity and dynamic control for phase modulation, as we believe can be enabled by piezoelectric-resonance devices, is yet to be investigated. In this article we provide an experimental demonstration of phase modulation of THz beam by operating a ferroelectric single crystal LiNbO3 film device at the piezo-resonance. The piezo-resonance, excited by an external a.c. electric field, develops a coupling between electromagnetic and lattice-wave and this coupling governs the wave propagation of the incident THz beam by modulating its phase transfer function. We report the understanding developed in this work can facilitate the design and fabrication of a family of resonance-defined highly sensitive and extremely low energy sub-millimeter wave sensors and modulators.

  10. In Situ Guided Wave Structural Health Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, George; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft engine rotating equipment operates at high temperatures and stresses. Noninvasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for nondestructive evaluation. A low-cost, low-profile, high-temperature ultrasonic guided wave sensor was developed that detects cracks in situ. The transducer design provides nondestructive evaluation of structures and materials. A key feature of the sensor is that it withstands high temperatures and excites strong surface wave energy to inspect surface and subsurface cracks. The sol-gel bismuth titanate-based surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor can generate efficient SAWs for crack inspection. The sensor is very thin (submillimeter) and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. The sensor can be implemented on structures of various shapes. With a spray-coating process, the sensor can be applied to the surface of large curvatures. It has minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance, and provides good sensitivity.

  11. International Conference on Millimeter Wave and Far-Infrared Technology (1st) Held in Beijing, China, August 17-21, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Vacuum Technology, John Wiley & Sons, (1980)9 7. F. 3. Liao.Acta Electronica Sinica (In Chineoe)19(3)(1991)89 8. Guang-Yi Liu. 34th International Field...Zarubezhnaya radioelectronica. 1980, v. No 1, pp 3-32. 2. Andreyev G.A., Chernaya L.F. i/ Radiotekhnica electronica . 1981, v. 26, No 6, pp. 1198-1206. 3

  12. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    På foranledning af Löwenmark F.R.I, er der udført numeriske beregninger af Wave Dragons (herefter WD) armes effektivitet for forskellige geometriske udformninger. 5 geometriske modeller, hvor WD's arme er forkortet/forlænget er undersøgt for 3 forskellige drejninger af armene. I alt er 15...

  13. SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 8: Aerothermodynamics Automation and Robotics (A/R) systems sensors, high-temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of briefings presented at the SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) on aerothermodynamics, automation and robotics systems, sensors, and high-temperature superconductivity are included. Topics covered include: aerothermodynamics; aerobraking; aeroassist flight experiment; entry technology for probes and penetrators; automation and robotics; artificial intelligence; NASA telerobotics program; planetary rover program; science sensor technology; direct detector; submillimeter sensors; laser sensors; passive microwave sensing; active microwave sensing; sensor electronics; sensor optics; coolers and cryogenics; and high temperature superconductivity.

  14. AN ALMA SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: NEAR-INFRARED MORPHOLOGIES AND STELLAR SIZES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Edge, A. C. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Biggs, A. D.; Ivison, R. J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Coppin, K. E. K. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Dannerbauer, H. [Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Wien, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Karim, A. [Argelander-Institute for Astronomy, Bonn University, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Schinnerer, E.; Walter, F. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Wardlow, J. L. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); and others

    2015-02-01

    We analyze Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/H {sub 160}-band observations of a sample of 48 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array detected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South field, to study their stellar morphologies and sizes. We detect 79% ± 17% of the SMGs in the H {sub 160}-band imaging with a median sensitivity of 27.8 mag, and most (80%) of the nondetections are SMGs with 870 μm fluxes of S {sub 870} < 3 mJy. With a surface brightness limit of μ {sub H} ∼ 26 mag arcsec{sup –2}, we find that 82% ± 9% of the H {sub 160}-band-detected SMGs at z = 1-3 appear to have disturbed morphologies, meaning they are visually classified as either irregulars or interacting systems, or both. By determining a Sérsic fit to the H {sub 160} surface brightness profiles, we derive a median Sérsic index of n = 1.2 ± 0.3 and a median half-light radius of r{sub e} = 4.4{sub −0.5}{sup +1.1} kpc for our SMGs at z = 1-3. We also find significant displacements between the positions of the H {sub 160} component and 870 μm emission in these systems, suggesting that the dusty starburst regions and less-obscured stellar distribution are not colocated. We find significant differences in the sizes and the Sérsic index between our z = 2-3 SMGs and z ∼ 2 quiescent galaxies, suggesting that a major transformation of the stellar light profile is needed in the quenching processes if SMGs are progenitors of the red-and-dead z ∼ 2 galaxies. Given the short-lived nature of SMGs, we postulate that the majority of the z = 2-3 SMGs with S {sub 870} ≳ 2 mJy are early/mid-stage major mergers.

  15. Numerical analysis for infant's unintentional exposure to 3.5 GHz plane wave radiofrequency electromagnetic fields by field test of fifth generation wireless technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Congsheng; Kang, Yangyang; Zhou, Zhou; Xie, Yi; Wu, Tongning

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the plane wave exposure of an infant to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields of 3.5 GHz was numerically analyzed to investigate the unintentional electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure of fifth generation (5G) signals during field test. The dosimetric influence of age-dependent dielectric properties and the influence of an adult body were evaluated using an infant model of 12 month old and an adult female model. The results demonstrated that the whole body-averaged specific absorption rate (WBASAR) was not significantly affected by age-dependent dielectric properties and the influence of the adult body did not enhance WBASAR. Taking the magnitude of the in situ E field strength into consideration, realistic WBASAR was far below the basic restriction. Age-dependent dielectric properties could significantly change the tissue specified specific absorption rate (TSSAR) of internal organs. However, the variation was not significant because the absolute values were marginal. Among the factors that influenced TSSAR variation, change in dielectric properties demonstrated a close correlation. In general, at 3.5 GHz, the infant did not absorb more power than the case of EMF exposure to third generation (3G) and fourth generation (4G) signals. The work was helpful for network operators and device manufactures to estimate the potential exposure risk during the field test, especially for the infant.

  16. High Efficiency Traveling-Wave Tube Power Amplifier for Ka-Band Software Defined Radio on International Space Station-A Platform for Communications Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Force, Dale A.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The design, fabrication and RF performance of the output traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA) for a space based Ka-band software defined radio (SDR) is presented. The TWTA, the SDR and the supporting avionics are integrated to forms a testbed, which is currently located on an exterior truss of the International Space Station (ISS). The SDR in the testbed communicates at Ka-band frequencies through a high-gain antenna directed to NASA s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which communicates to the ground station located at White Sands Complex. The application of the testbed is for demonstrating new waveforms and software designed to enhance data delivery from scientific spacecraft and, the waveforms and software can be upgraded and reconfigured from the ground. The construction and the salient features of the Ka-band SDR are discussed. The testbed is currently undergoing on-orbit checkout and commissioning and is expected to operate for 3 to 5 years in space.

  17. RoboWeedSupport-Semi-Automated Unmanned Aerial System for Cost Efficient High Resolution in Sub-Millimeter Scale Acquisition of Weed Images

    OpenAIRE

    Simon L. Madsen; Mads Dyrmann; Morten S. Laursen; Rasmus N. Jørgensen

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in the Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) safety and perception systems enable safe low altitude autonomous terrain following flights recently demonstrated by the consumer DJI Mavic PRO and Phamtom 4 Pro drones. This paper presents the first prototype system utilizing this functionality in form of semi-automated UAS based collection of crop/weed images where the embedded perception system ensures a significantly safer and faster gathering of weed images with sub-millimeter resolutio...

  18. Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berins, J.; Berins, J.; Kalnacs, A.

    2017-08-01

    The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.

  19. Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berins J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.

  20. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  1. Quantitative autoradiographic imaging using gas-counter technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, J E

    1990-05-01

    Gas counters based on the multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) and multistep avalanche (MSA) technologies can combine the functions of imaging and quantitation (or assay) of radioactively labelled electrophoretograms and blots. Submillimeter spatial resolutions combined with good quantitation have been achieved for the most common beta-emitting radio labels. The current state of development of this technology is reviewed and assessments of the performance of these devices relative to the more traditional systems (X-ray film and the scintillation counter) presented. Particular attention is paid to the potential of these devices to enhance the productivity of the scanning of blots and the performance of assays.

  2. Wave Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrarese, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Lectures: A. Jeffrey: Lectures on nonlinear wave propagation.- Y. Choquet-Bruhat: Ondes asymptotiques.- G. Boillat: Urti.- Seminars: D. Graffi: Sulla teoria dell'ottica non-lineare.- G. Grioli: Sulla propagazione del calore nei mezzi continui.- T. Manacorda: Onde nei solidi con vincoli interni.- T. Ruggeri: "Entropy principle" and main field for a non linear covariant system.- B. Straughan: Singular surfaces in dipolar materials and possible consequences for continuum mechanics

  3. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  4. Micro-Spec: An Ultra-Compact, High-Sensitivity Spectrometer for Far-Infrared and Sub-Millimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chung; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    High-performance, integrated spectrometers operating in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter promise to be powerful tools for the exploration of the epochs of reionization and initial galaxy formation. These devices, using high-efficiency superconducting transmission lines, can achieve the performance of a meter-scale grating spectrometer in an instrument implemented on a four-inch silicon wafer. Such a device, when combined with a cryogenic telescope in space, provides an enabling capability for studies of the early universe. Here, the optical design process for Micro-Spec (mu-Spec) is presented, with particular attention given to its two-dimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the stigmatization and minimization of the light path function in this bounded region, which results in an optimized geometrical configuration. A point design with an efficiency of approx. 90% has been developed for initial demonstration, and can serve as the basis for future instruments. Design variations on this implementation are also discussed, which can lead to lower efficiencies due to diffractive losses in the multimode region.

  5. Fibrosis and Atrial Fibrillation: Computerized and Optical Mapping; A View into the Human Atria at Submillimeter Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Brian J; Zhao, Jichao; Fedorov, Vadim V

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies strongly suggest that the majority of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with diagnosed or subclinical cardiac diseases have established or even pre-existing fibrotic structural remodeling, which may lead to conduction abnormalities and reentrant activity that sustain AF. As conventional treatments fail to treat AF in far too many cases, an urgent need exists to identify specific structural arrhythmogenic fibrosis patterns, which may maintain AF, in order to identify effective ablation targets for AF treatment. However, the existing challenge is to define what exact structural remodeling within the complex 3D human atrial wall is arrhythmogenic, as well as linking arrhythmogenic fibrosis to an underlying mechanism of AF maintenance in the clinical setting. This review is focused on the role of 3D fibrosis architecture in the mechanisms of AF maintenance revealed by submillimeter, high-resolution ex-vivo imaging modalities directly of human atria, as well as from in-silico 3D computational techniques that can be able to overcome in-vivo clinical limitations. The systematic integration of functional and structural imaging ex-vivo may inform the necessary integration of electrode and structural mapping in-vivo. A holistic view of AF driver mechanisms may begin to identify the defining characteristics or "fingerprints" of reentrant AF drivers, such as 3D fibrotic architecture, in order to design optimal patient-specific ablation strategies.

  6. Millimeter-wave power amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    du Preez, Jaco

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a detailed review of millimeter-wave power amplifiers, discussing design issues and performance limitations commonly encountered in light of the latest research. Power amplifiers, which are able to provide high levels of output power and linearity while being easily integrated with surrounding circuitry, are a crucial component in wireless microwave systems. The book is divided into three parts, the first of which introduces readers to mm-wave wireless systems and power amplifiers. In turn, the second focuses on design principles and EDA concepts, while the third discusses future trends in power amplifier research. The book provides essential information on mm-wave power amplifier theory, as well as the implementation options and technologies involved in their effective design, equipping researchers, circuit designers and practicing engineers to design, model, analyze, test and implement high-performance, spectrally clean and energy-efficient mm-wave systems.

  7. Nonlinear ship waves and computational fluid dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MIYATA, Hideaki; ORIHARA, Hideo; SATO, Yohei

    2014-01-01

    .... Finding of the occurrence of nonlinear waves (named Free-Surface Shock Waves) in the vicinity of a ship advancing at constant speed provided the start-line for the progress of innovative technologies in the ship hull-form design...

  8. Predictability of Wave Energy and Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    The articlw addresses an important challenge ahead the integration of the electricity generated by wave energy conversion technologies into the electric grid. Particularly, it looks into the role of wave energy within the day-ahead electricity market. For that the predictability of the theoretical...

  9. Galerkin finite element methods for wave problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Galerkin finite element methods for wave problems ... hp-Finite element method; continuous Galerkin methods; wave solutions; Gibbs' phenomenon. ... Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India; Institute of High Performance Computing, 1, Science Park Road, Singapore ...

  10. Microwave to Submillimeter Observations of Molecules in the Laboratory and in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, DeWayne

    2013-06-01

    The primary method of identifying molecular species in interstellar space is radio astronomy. Observations performed at radio telescopes are based on high-resolution laboratory measurements of the pure rotational spectrum of a molecule. With this technique, over 150 different chemical compounds have been securely detected in interstellar gas. High-resolution rotational spectra have accuracies of one part in 107 - 108, and provide the characteristic frequencies that are used to search for these species. Rotational spectra are typically recorded using direct absorption methods, Fourier transform microwave/millimeter-wave spectroscopy, and velocity modulation techniques. Also exotic synthesis methods, such as DC and AC glow discharges, pulsed supersonic jet expansions, laser ablation, and Broida-type ovens, are often required to produce these molecules. Recent laboratory and astronomical studies have expanded set of molecules that are now known in interstellar/circumstellar gas. The first negative molecular ions have been detected in cold, dark clouds and circumstellar envelopes. The iron-bearing species FeCN was also recently measured in the laboratory and discovered in the gas surrounding a carbon-rich AGB star, the first iron-containing species found in space. New observations of oxygen-rich stars have shown that metal-bearing oxides and hydroxides are also abundant circumstellar species in these environments. These new discoveries, as well as recent laboratory results for other potential interstellar species, will also be presented, in particular those for ScO, ScC2, and AlC2. In addition, the need for more measurements of metal-containing molecules will be discussed.

  11. Design guidelines of triboelectric nanogenerator for water wave energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam; Hassan, Islam; Jiang, Tao; Youssef, Khalid; Liu, Lian; Hedaya, Mohammad; Abu Yazid, Taher; Zu, Jean; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-05-01

    Ocean waves are one of the cleanest and most abundant energy sources on earth, and wave energy has the potential for future power generation. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology has recently been proposed as a promising technology to harvest wave energy. In this paper, a theoretical study is performed on a duck-shaped TENG wave harvester recently introduced in our work. To enhance the design of the duck-shaped TENG wave harvester, the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the harvester’s overall structure, as well as its inner configuration, are analyzed, respectively, under different wave conditions, to optimize parameters such as duck radius and mass. Furthermore, a comprehensive hybrid 3D model is introduced to quantify the performance of the TENG wave harvester. Finally, the influence of different TENG parameters is validated by comparing the performance of several existing TENG wave harvesters. This study can be applied as a guideline for enhancing the performance of TENG wave energy harvesters.

  12. Design guidelines of triboelectric nanogenerator for water wave energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam

    2017-04-11

    Ocean waves are one of the cleanest and most abundant energy sources on earth, and wave energy has the potential for future power generation. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology has recently been proposed as a promising technology to harvest wave energy. In this paper, a theoretical study is performed on a duck-shaped TENG wave harvester recently introduced in our work. To enhance the design of the duck-shaped TENG wave harvester, the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the harvester\\'s overall structure, as well as its inner configuration, are analyzed, respectively, under different wave conditions, to optimize parameters such as duck radius and mass. Furthermore, a comprehensive hybrid 3D model is introduced to quantify the performance of the TENG wave harvester. Finally, the influence of different TENG parameters is validated by comparing the performance of several existing TENG wave harvesters. This study can be applied as a guideline for enhancing the performance of TENG wave energy harvesters.

  13. REFLECTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES FROM SOUND WAVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reflection of electromagnetic waves normally incident on the wavefronts of a semi-infinite standing sound wave is discussed. By analogy with the...with the sound frequency. An experiment is described in which the Bragg reflection of 3 cm electromagnetic waves from a standing sound wave beneath a water surface is observed.

  14. Impact of Wave Dragon on Wave Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Tedd, James; Kramer, Morten

    This report is an advisory paper for use in determining the wave dragon effects on hydrography, by considering the effect on the wave climate in the region of a wave dragon. This is to be used in the impact assessment for the Wave Dragon pre-commercial demonstrator....

  15. Assimilation of Wave Imaging Radar Observations for Real-time Wave-by-Wave Forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Alexandra [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Haller, Merrick [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). School of Civil & Construction Engineering; Walker, David [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lynett, Pat [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-08-29

    This project addressed Topic 3: “Wave Measurement Instrumentation for Feed Forward Controls” under the FOA number DE-FOA-0000971. The overall goal of the program was to develop a phase-resolving wave forecasting technique for application to the active control of Wave Energy Conversion (WEC) devices. We have developed an approach that couples a wave imaging marine radar with a phase-resolving linear wave model for real-time wave field reconstruction and forward propagation of the wave field in space and time. The scope of the project was to develop and assess the performance of this novel forecasting system. Specific project goals were as follows: Develop and verify a fast, GPU-based (Graphical Processing Unit) wave propagation model suitable for phase-resolved computation of nearshore wave transformation over variable bathymetry; Compare the accuracy and speed of performance of the wave model against a deep water model in their ability to predict wave field transformation in the intermediate water depths (50 to 70 m) typical of planned WEC sites; Develop and implement a variational assimilation algorithm that can ingest wave imaging radar observations and estimate the time-varying wave conditions offshore of the domain of interest such that the observed wave field is best reconstructed throughout the domain and then use this to produce model forecasts for a given WEC location; Collect wave-resolving marine radar data, along with relevant in situ wave data, at a suitable wave energy test site, apply the algorithm to the field data, assess performance, and identify any necessary improvements; and Develop a production cost estimate that addresses the affordability of the wave forecasting technology and include in the Final Report. The developed forecasting algorithm (“Wavecast”) was evaluated for both speed and accuracy against a substantial synthetic dataset. Early in the project, performance tests definitively demonstrated that the system was capable of

  16. Millimeter wave imaging: a historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Roger; Robertson, Duncan A.; Wikner, David

    2017-05-01

    The SPIE Passive and Active Millimeter Wave Imaging conference has provided an annual focus and forum for practitioners in the field of millimeter wave imaging for the past two decades. To celebrate the conference's twentieth anniversary we present a historical review of the evolution of millimeter wave imaging over the past twenty years. Advances in device technology play a fundamental role in imaging capability whilst system architectures have also evolved. Imaging phenomenology continues to be a crucial topic underpinning the deployment of millimeter wave imaging in diverse applications such as security, remote sensing, non-destructive testing and synthetic vision.

  17. Design of a ×4 subharmonic sub-millimeter wave diode mixer, based on an analytic expression for small-signal conversion admittance parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Instead of using frequency multipliers before a fundamental mixer, subharmonic mixers can be used. In order to develop novel subharmonic mixer architectures it is necessary to know the exact signal phase at the nonlinear element. The purpose of this paper is to generalize the description of the s......Instead of using frequency multipliers before a fundamental mixer, subharmonic mixers can be used. In order to develop novel subharmonic mixer architectures it is necessary to know the exact signal phase at the nonlinear element. The purpose of this paper is to generalize the description...

  18. MEASUREMENTS OF CO REDSHIFTS WITH Z-SPEC FOR LENSED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES DISCOVERED IN THE H-ATLAS SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupu, R. E.; Scott, K. S.; Aguirre, J. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Aretxaga, I. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Auld, R.; Dariush, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Barton, E.; Cooke, J.; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Beelen, A. [Institut d' Astrophysique spatiale bat 121-Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, Bonn University, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bonfield, D. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Centre, University of Hertfordshire, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Buttiglione, S.; De Zotti, G. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Cava, A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Physics Department, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, DAPNIA/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dunne, L., E-mail: Roxana.E.Lupu@nasa.gov [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-10-01

    We present new observations from Z-Spec, a broadband 185-305 GHz spectrometer, of five submillimeter bright lensed sources selected from the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey science demonstration phase catalog. We construct a redshift-finding algorithm using combinations of the signal to noise of all the lines falling in the Z-Spec bandpass to determine redshifts with high confidence, even in cases where the signal to noise in individual lines is low. We measure the dust continuum in all sources and secure CO redshifts for four out of five (z {approx} 1.5-3). In one source, SDP.17, we tentatively identify two independent redshifts and a water line, confirmed at z = 2.308. Our sources have properties characteristic of dusty starburst galaxies, with magnification-corrected star formation rates of 10{sup 2-3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Lower limits for the dust masses ({approx} a few 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }) and spatial extents ({approx}1 kpc equivalent radius) are derived from the continuum spectral energy distributions, corresponding to dust temperatures between 54 and 69 K. In the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) approximation, we derive relatively low CO excitation temperatures ({approx}< 100 K) and optical depths ({tau} {approx}< 1). Performing a non-LTE excitation analysis using RADEX, we find that the CO lines measured by Z-Spec (from J = 4 {yields} 3 to 10 {yields} 9, depending on the galaxy) localize the best solutions to either a high-temperature/low-density region or a low/temperature/high-density region near the LTE solution, with the optical depth varying accordingly. Observations of additional CO lines, CO(1-0) in particular, are needed to constrain the non-LTE models.

  19. Performance evaluation of a sub-millimeter spatial resolution PET detector module using a digital silicon photomultiplier coupled LGSO array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Hyun Tae; Choi, Yong; Kim, Kyu Bom; Lee, Sangwon; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Yeom, Jung-Yeol

    2017-02-01

    In positron emission tomography (PET) for breast, brain and small animal imaging, the spatial resolution of a PET detector is crucial to obtain high quality PET images. In this study, a PET detector for sub-millimeter spatial resolution imaging purpose was assembled using 4×4 pixels of a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM, DPC-3200-22-44, Philips) coupled with a 15×15 LGSO array with BaSO4 reflector, and a 1 mm thick acrylic light guide for light distribution between the dSiPM pixels. The active area of each dSiPM pixel was 3.2×3.9 mm2 and the size of each LGSO scintillator element was 0.7×0.7×6 mm3. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated the performance of the PET detector by measuring the energy resolution, 2D flood map, peak to valley (P/V) ratio, and coincidence resolving time (CRT). All measurements were performed at a temperature of 10±1 ℃. The average energy resolution was 15.6% (without correcting for saturation effects) at 511 keV and the best CRT was 242±5 ps. The 2D flood map obtained with an energy window of 400-600 keV demonstrated clear identification of all pixels, and the average P/V ratio of the X- and Y-directions were 7.31 and 7.81, respectively. This study demonstrated that the PET detector could be suitable for application in high resolution PET while achieving good timing resolution.

  20. Active bacteriophage biocontrol and therapy on sub-millimeter scales towards removal of unwanted bacteria from foods and microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T. Abedon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages can be used as antibacterial agents as a form of biological control, e.g., such as phage therapy. With active treatment, phages must “actively” produce new virions, in situ, to attain “inundative” densities, i.e., sufficient titers to eradicate bacteria over reasonable timeframes. Passive treatment, by contrast, can be accomplished using phages that are bactericidal but incapable of generating new phage virions in situ during their interaction with target bacteria. These ideas of active versus passive treatment come from theoretical considerations of phage therapy pharmacology, particularly as developed in terms of phage application to well-mixed cultures consisting of physically unassociated bacteria. Here I extend these concepts to bacteria which instead are physically associated. These are bacteria as found making up cellular arrangements or bacterial microcolonies—collectively, clonal bacterial “clumps”. I consider circumstances where active phage replication would be required to effect desired levels of bacterial clearance, but populations of bacteria nevertheless are insufficiently prevalent to support phage replication to bacteria-inundative densities across environments. Clumped bacteria, however, may still support active treatment at more local, i.e., sub-millimeter, within-clump spatial scales, and potential consequences of this are explored mathematically. Application is to the post-harvest biocontrol of foodborne pathogens, and potentially also to precise microbiome editing. Adequate infection performance by phages in terms of timely burst sizes, that is, other than just adsorption rates and bactericidal activity, thus could be important for treatment effectiveness even if bacterial densities overall are insufficient to support active treatment across environments. Poor phage replication during treatment of even low bacterial numbers, such as given food refrigeration during treatment, consequently could

  1. ALMACAL I: First Dual-band Number Counts from a Deep and Wide ALMA Submillimeter Survey, Free from Cosmic Variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteo, I.; Zwaan, M. A.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Biggs, A. D.

    2016-05-01

    We have exploited ALMA calibration observations to carry out a novel, wide, and deep submillimeter (submm) survey, almacal. These calibration data comprise a large number of observations of calibrator fields in a variety of frequency bands and array configurations. By gathering together data acquired during multiple visits to many ALMA calibrators, it is possible to reach noise levels which allow the detection of faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a significant area. In this paper, we outline our survey strategy and report the first results. We have analyzed data for 69 calibrators, reaching depths of ˜25 μJy beam-1 at sub-arcsec resolution. Adopting a conservative approach based on ≥5σ detections, we have found 8 and 11 DSFGs in ALMA bands 6 and 7, respectively, with flux densities S 1.2 mm ≥ 0.2 mJy. The faintest galaxies would have been missed by even the deepest Herschel surveys. Our cumulative number counts have been determined independently at 870 μm and 1.2 mm from a sparse sampling of the astronomical sky, and are thus relatively free of cosmic variance. The counts are lower than reported previously by a factor of at least 2×. Future analyses will yield large, secure samples of DSFGs with redshifts determined via the detection of submm spectral lines. Uniquely, our strategy then allows for morphological studies of very faint DSFGs—representative of more normal star-forming galaxies than conventional submm galaxies—in fields where self-calibration is feasible, yielding milliarcsecond spatial resolution.

  2. Performance evaluation of a sub-millimeter spatial resolution PET detector module using a digital silicon photomultiplier coupled LGSO array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leem, Hyun Tae [Molecular Imaging Research & Education (MiRe) Laboratory, Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong, E-mail: ychoi@sogang.ac.kr [Molecular Imaging Research & Education (MiRe) Laboratory, Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyu Bom; Lee, Sangwon [Molecular Imaging Research & Education (MiRe) Laboratory, Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yamamoto, Seiichi [Department of Medical Technology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Yeom, Jung-Yeol, E-mail: jungyeol@korea.ac.kr [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-21

    In positron emission tomography (PET) for breast, brain and small animal imaging, the spatial resolution of a PET detector is crucial to obtain high quality PET images. In this study, a PET detector for sub-millimeter spatial resolution imaging purpose was assembled using 4×4 pixels of a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM, DPC-3200-22-44, Philips) coupled with a 15×15 LGSO array with BaSO{sub 4} reflector, and a 1 mm thick acrylic light guide for light distribution between the dSiPM pixels. The active area of each dSiPM pixel was 3.2×3.9 mm{sup 2} and the size of each LGSO scintillator element was 0.7×0.7×6 mm{sup 3}. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated the performance of the PET detector by measuring the energy resolution, 2D flood map, peak to valley (P/V) ratio, and coincidence resolving time (CRT). All measurements were performed at a temperature of 10±1 ℃. The average energy resolution was 15.6% (without correcting for saturation effects) at 511 keV and the best CRT was 242±5 ps. The 2D flood map obtained with an energy window of 400–600 keV demonstrated clear identification of all pixels, and the average P/V ratio of the X- and Y-directions were 7.31 and 7.81, respectively. This study demonstrated that the PET detector could be suitable for application in high resolution PET while achieving good timing resolution.

  3. Comparing submillimeter polarized emission with near-infrared polarization of background stars for the Vela C molecular cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fabio P.; Ade, Peter; Angilè, Francesco E.; Ashton, Peter; Benton, Steven J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas; Gandilo, Natalie; Klein, Jeffrey; Li, Zhi-Yun; Korotkov, Andrei; Martin, Peter G.; Matthews, Tristan; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; nakamura, fumitaka; Barth Netterfield, Calvin; Novak, Giles; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil; Soler, Juan D.; Thomas, Nicholas; tucker, carole; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek; BLASTPOL

    2016-06-01

    We present a large-scale combination of near-infrared (near-IR) interstellar polarization data from background starlight, with polarized emission data at sub-millimetric (sub-mm) bands for the Vela C molecular cloud. The sub-mm data were obtained by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) during the 2012 flight in Antartica. The near-IR data consist of more than 6700 detections in the I-band, covering a wide area around the cloud, mostly in the range of visual extinctions between 2 and 16 mag. The main goal was to determine the polarization efficiency ratio Reff , defined as p500/(pI/τV), where p500 is the polarization fraction at 500 μm and optical depths τV are estimated from cataloged near-IR photometry. To ensure that the same column density of material is producing both polarization from emission and extinction, we introduce a new method to select stars that are located in the near-background, the Gaussian-logistic (GL) technique. The polarization efficiency ratio is critically affected by stellar objects with background contamination from the diffuse Galactic material, emphasizing the need for a careful selection. Accounting for the statistical and systematic uncertainties from the GL method, we estimate an average Reff value of 2.4 ± 0.8, which can be used to test dust grain models designed specifically for molecular clouds. Reff appears to be relatively flat as a function of the cloud depth, suggesting that significant grain modification might occur only at higher densities.

  4. Observing the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA): Fast-Scan Single-Dish Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.; Iwai, K.; Phillips, N. M.; Hills, R. E.; Hirota, A.; Yagoubov, P.; Siringo, G.; Shimojo, M.; Bastian, T. S.; Hales, A. S.; Sawada, T.; Asayama, S.; Sugimoto, M.; Marson, R. G.; Kawasaki, W.; Muller, E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Brajša, R.; Skokić, I.; Bárta, M.; Kim, S.; Remijan, A. J.; de Gregorio, I.; Corder, S. A.; Hudson, H. S.; Loukitcheva, M.; Chen, B.; De Pontieu, B.; Fleishmann, G. D.; Gary, D. E.; Kobelski, A.; Wedemeyer, S.; Yan, Y.

    2017-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) radio telescope has commenced science observations of the Sun starting in late 2016. Since the Sun is much larger than the field of view of individual ALMA dishes, the ALMA interferometer is unable to measure the background level of solar emission when observing the solar disk. The absolute temperature scale is a critical measurement for much of ALMA solar science, including the understanding of energy transfer through the solar atmosphere, the properties of prominences, and the study of shock heating in the chromosphere. In order to provide an absolute temperature scale, ALMA solar observing will take advantage of the remarkable fast-scanning capabilities of the ALMA 12 m dishes to make single-dish maps of the full Sun. This article reports on the results of an extensive commissioning effort to optimize the mapping procedure, and it describes the nature of the resulting data. Amplitude calibration is discussed in detail: a path that uses the two loads in the ALMA calibration system as well as sky measurements is described and applied to commissioning data. Inspection of a large number of single-dish datasets shows significant variation in the resulting temperatures, and based on the temperature distributions, we derive quiet-Sun values at disk center of 7300 K at λ = 3 mm and 5900 K at λ = 1.3 mm. These values have statistical uncertainties of about 100 K, but systematic uncertainties in the temperature scale that may be significantly larger. Example images are presented from two periods with very different levels of solar activity. At a resolution of about 25'', the 1.3 mm wavelength images show temperatures on the disk that vary over about a 2000 K range. Active regions and plages are among the hotter features, while a large sunspot umbra shows up as a depression, and filament channels are relatively cool. Prominences above the solar limb are a common feature of the single-dish images.

  5. DIRECT DETECTION OF PRECURSORS OF GAS GIANTS FORMED BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY WITH THE ATACAMA LARGE MILLIMETER/SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Lucio [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Peters, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pineda, Jaime E. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wadsley James; Rogers, Patrick, E-mail: p.rogers@marianopolis.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    Phases of gravitational instability are expected in the early phases of disk evolution, when the disk mass is still a substantial fraction of the mass of the star. Disk fragmentation into sub-stellar objects could occur in the cold exterior part of the disk. Direct detection of massive gaseous clumps on their way to collapse into gas giant planets would offer an unprecedented test of the disk instability model. Here we use state-of-the-art 3D radiation-hydro simulations of disks undergoing fragmentation into massive gas giants, post-processed with RADMC-3D to produce dust continuum emission maps. These are then fed into the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) ALMA simulator. The synthetic maps show that both overdense spiral arms and actual clumps at different stages of collapse can be detected with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the full configuration at the distance of the Ophiuchus star forming region (125 pc). The detection of clumps is particularly effective at shorter wavelengths (690 GHz) combining two resolutions with multi-scale clean. Furthermore, we show that a flux-based estimate of the mass of a protoplanetary clump can be comparable to a factor of three higher than the gravitationally bound clump mass. The estimated mass depends on the assumed opacity, and on the gas temperature, which should be set using the input of radiation-hydro simulations. We conclude that ALMA has the capability to detect “smoking gun” systems that are a signpost of the disk instability model for gas giant planet formation.

  6. Characterization of Material Properties at Terahertz Frequencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giles, Robert H

    1995-01-01

    ... a decade. Research in modeling radar requires design of a wide range of measurements systems using current submillimeter-wave source/detector technology, establishment of precise calibration standards...

  7. Efficient Wave Energy Amplification with Wave Reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC's) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased to approximately 130......-140%. In the paper a procedure for calculating the efficiency and optimizing the geometry of wave reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benifit...... for different geometries of the wave reflectors and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC's can evaluate whether a specific WEC possible could benefit from wave reflectors....

  8. EVOLUTION of the Pressure Wave Supercharger Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costiuc, Iuliana; Chiru, Anghel

    2017-10-01

    Born more than a century ago, the concept of exploiting the pressure wave phenomenon has evolved with rather small steps, experiencing an accelerated progress over the past decades. This paper aims an overview on the researchers’ results over time regarding the pressure wave technology and its applications, pointing out on the internal combustion engine’s supercharging application. This review complements the past reports on the subject, presenting the evolution of the concept and technology, as well as the researcher’s efforts on solving the specific shortcomings of this pressure wave technology. Undoubtedly, the pressure wave rotors have been a research goal over the years. At first, most of the researches were experimental and the theoretical calculations required to improve the technology were too arduous. Recently, new computer software dedicated to accurate simulation of the processes governing the wave rotor operation, altogether with modern experimental measurement instruments and well-developed diagnostic techniques have opened wide possibilities to innovate the pressure wave supercharging technology. This paper also highlights the challenges that specialists still have to overcome and aspects to become future preoccupations and research directions.

  9. Radio wave propagation and parabolic equation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Apaydin, Gokhan

    2018-01-01

    A thorough understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation is fundamental to the development of sophisticated communication and detection technologies. The powerful numerical methods described in this book represent a major step forward in our ability to accurately model electromagnetic wave propagation in order to establish and maintain reliable communication links, to detect targets in radar systems, and to maintain robust mobile phone and broadcasting networks. The first new book on guided wave propagation modeling and simulation to appear in nearly two decades, Radio Wave Propagation and Parabolic Equation Modeling addresses the fundamentals of electromagnetic wave propagation generally, with a specific focus on radio wave propagation through various media. The authors explore an array of new applications, and detail various v rtual electromagnetic tools for solving several frequent electromagnetic propagation problems. All of the methods described are presented within the context of real-world scenari...

  10. Experimental methods of shock wave research

    CERN Document Server

    Seiler, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive and carefully edited volume presents a variety of experimental methods used in Shock Waves research. In 14 self contained chapters this 9th volume of the “Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library” presents the experimental methods used in Shock Tubes, Shock Tunnels and Expansion Tubes facilities. Also described is their set-up and operation. The uses of an arc heated wind tunnel and a gun tunnel are also contained in this volume. Whenever possible, in addition to the technical description some typical scientific results obtained using such facilities are described. Additionally, this authoritative book includes techniques for measuring physical properties of blast waves and laser generated shock waves. Information about active shock wave laboratories at different locations around the world that are not described in the chapters herein is given in the Appendix, making this book useful for every researcher involved in shock/blast wave phenomena.

  11. Making Waves

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Development Challenge: Reaching the unreached. India's information technology sector emerged during the 1980s as software development companies became established in the cities of Bangalore, Chennai, and Hyderabad. The country is now the world's second largest exporter of software. Yet, the bulk of India's.

  12. Detection of Short-Waved Spin Waves in Individual Microscopic Spin-Wave Waveguides Using the Inverse Spin Hall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brächer, T; Fabre, M; Meyer, T; Fischer, T; Auffret, S; Boulle, O; Ebels, U; Pirro, P; Gaudin, G

    2017-12-13

    The miniaturization of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices becomes increasingly difficult due to fundamental limitations and the increase of leakage currents. Large research efforts are devoted to find alternative concepts that allow for a larger data-density and lower power consumption than conventional semiconductor approaches. Spin waves have been identified as a potential technology that can complement and outperform CMOS in complex logic applications, profiting from the fact that these waves enable wave computing on the nanoscale. The practical application of spin waves, however, requires the demonstration of scalable, CMOS compatible spin-wave detection schemes in material systems compatible with standard spintronics as well as semiconductor circuitry. Here, we report on the wave-vector independent detection of short-waved spin waves with wavelengths down to 150 nm by the inverse spin Hall effect in spin-wave waveguides made from ultrathin Ta/Co 8 Fe 72 B 20 /MgO. These findings open up the path for miniaturized scalable interconnects between spin waves and CMOS and the use of ultrathin films made from standard spintronic materials in magnonics.

  13. Stakeholder requirements for commercially successful wave energy converter farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babarit, Aurélien; Bull, Diana; Dykes, Katherine; Malins, Robert; Nielsen, Kim; Costello, Ronan; Roberts, Jesse; Bittencourt Ferreira, Claudio; Kennedy, Ben; Weber, Jochem

    2017-12-01

    In this study, systems engineering techniques are applied to wave energy to identify and specify stakeholders' requirements for a commercially successful wave energy farm. The focus is on the continental scale utility market. Lifecycle stages and stakeholders are identified. Stakeholders' needs across the whole lifecycle of the wave energy farm are analyzed. A list of 33 stakeholder requirements are identified and specified. This list of requirements should serve as components of a technology performance level metric that could be used by investors and funding agencies to make informed decisions when allocating resources. It is hoped that the technology performance level metric will accelerate wave energy conversion technology convergence.

  14. Development of hybrid composite radar wave absorbing structure for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vehicles led to the invention of stealth technology. Rao and. Mahulikar [1] argue that 'Stealth technology ... vehicle increases the weight and also needs to be periodically repaired'. Chin and Lee [7] argue that the 'RAS .... EM wave electric field intensity) to Ei (incident EM wave electric field intensity) expressed by as follows':.

  15. The physics of waves

    CERN Document Server

    Georgi, Howard

    1993-01-01

    The first complete introduction to waves and wave phenomena by a renowned theorist. Covers damping, forced oscillations and resonance; normal modes; symmetries; traveling waves; signals and Fourier analysis; polarization; diffraction.

  16. Capillary waves with surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.

  17. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF z {approx} 2 DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES AND SUBMILLIMETER-SELECTED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 160 Concord Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, B. T. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Armus, L.; Desai, V.; Soifer, B. T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Brown, M. J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Melbourne, J., E-mail: rbussmann@cfa.harvard.edu [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    The Spitzer Space Telescope has identified a population of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z {approx} 2 that may play an important role in the evolution of massive galaxies. We measure the stellar masses (M{sub *}) of two populations of Spitzer-selected ULIRGs that have extremely red R - [24] colors (dust-obscured galaxies, or DOGs) and compare our results with submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs). One set of 39 DOGs has a local maximum in their mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectral energy distribution (SED) at rest frame 1.6 {mu}m associated with stellar emission ({sup b}ump DOGs{sup )}, while the other set of 51 DOGs have power-law mid-IR SEDs that are typical of obscured active galactic nuclei ({sup p}ower-law DOGs{sup )}. We measure M{sub *} by applying Charlot and Bruzual stellar population synthesis models to broadband photometry in the rest-frame ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared of each of these populations. Assuming a simple stellar population and a Chabrier initial mass function, we find that power-law DOGs and bump DOGs are on average a factor of 2 and 1.5 more massive than SMGs, respectively (median and inter-quartile M{sub *} values for SMGs, bump DOGs, and power-law DOGs are log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 10.42{sup +0.42}{sub -0.36}, 10.62{sup +0.36}{sub -0.32}, and 10.71{sup +0.40}{sub -0.34}, respectively). More realistic star formation histories drawn from two competing theories for the nature of ULIRGs at z {approx} 2 (major merger versus smooth accretion) can increase these mass estimates by up to 0.5 dex. A comparison of our stellar masses with the instantaneous star formation rate (SFR) in these z {approx} 2 ULIRGs provides a preliminary indication supporting high SFRs for a given M{sub *}, a situation that arises more naturally in major mergers than in smooth accretion-powered systems.

  18. Experimental investigation with respect to the performance of deep submillimeter-scaled textured tools in dry turning titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Chen, Yongjie; Kong, Dongdong; Tan, Shenglin

    2017-05-01

    Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V falls under the category of the most difficult to machine materials due to its inherent high strength maintained at elevated temperature and low thermal conductivity. Based on size effect, the poor machinability may be improved by surface texturing on the tools. Thus, the effect of deep submillimeter-scaled textures on the cutting performance in Ti-6Al-4V turning was investigated. To this end, three kinds of surface textures with different sizes were fabricated using femtosecond laser on rake faces of the uncoated cemented carbide (WC/Co) inserts. Then, dry cutting experiments were conducted with these textured inserts and conventional inserts under the condition of cutting speed Vc = 50m/min, depth of cut ap = 2 mm, and feed rate f = 0.3 mm/rev. The cutting performance is evaluated in terms of cutting forces, coefficient of friction at the tool-chip interface. Results obtained in this work show the feasibility of fabricating deep submillimeter-scaled textures on tool rake face to improve the machinability of Ti-6Al-4V. The parallel type of textured tool P01 demonstrates the best performance in both reducing cutting force and improving the friction properties on the rake face. This result can be explained by the reduced tool-chip contact area and the ploughing effect.

  19. Gravitational Waves, Sources and Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Schutz, B; Ricci, F

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational waves and their detection are becoming more and more important both for the theoretical physicist and the astrophysicist. In fact, technological developments have enabled the construction such sensitive detectors (bars and interferometers) that the detection of gravitational radiation could become a reality during the next few years. In these lectures we give a brief overview of this interesting and challenging field of modern physics. The topics to be covered are divided into ...

  20. Gravitational wave experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, W O

    1993-01-01

    There were three oral sessions and one poster session for Workshop C1 on Gravitational Wave Experiments. There was also an informal experimental roundtable held one after- noon. The first two oral sessions were devoted mainly to progress reports from various interferometric and bar detector groups. A total of 15 papers were presented in these two sessions. The third session of Workshop C1 was devoted primarily to theoretical and experimental investigations associated with the proposed interferometric detectors. Ten papers were presented in this session. In addition, there were a total of 13 papers presented in the poster session. There was some overlap between the presentations in the third oral session and the posters since only two of the serious posters were devoted to technology not pertinent to interferometers. In general, the papers showed the increasing maturity of the experimental aspects of the field since most presented the results of completed investigations rather than making promises of wonderf...

  1. Gravitational waves and antennas

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Gravitational waves and their detection represent today a hot topic, which promises to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology and theoretical physics. Technological developments have enabled the construction of such sensitive detectors that the detection of gravitational radiation and the start of a new astronomy could become a reality during the next few years. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of hiterto unseen phenomena such as coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big bang relics and the new and unexpected. In these lectures I give a brief overview of this challenging field of modern physics. Topics : Basic properties of gravitational radiation. Astrophysical sources. Principle of operation of detectors. Interferometers (both ground based and space-based), bars and spheres. Present status of the experiments, their recent results and their f...

  2. Technological Innovations in Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienroth, Matthias; Morling, Niels; Williams, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology...

  3. ELECTRON CYCLOTRON WAVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2010-01-01

    This lecture gives an overview of heating and current drive with electron cyclotron waves. We present the main theoretical aspects of wave propagation, wave absorption, and non-inductive current drive, as well as important technical aspects for the application of high power electron cyclotron waves,

  4. Electron cyclotron waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture gives an overview of heating and current drive with electron cyclotron waves. We present the main theoretical aspects of wave propagation, wave absorption, and non-inductive current drive, as well as important technical aspects for the application of high power electron cyclotron waves,

  5. Electron cyclotron waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    This lecture gives an overview of heating and current drive with electron cyclotron waves. We present the main theoretical aspects of wave propagation, wave absorption, and non-inductive current drive, as well as important technical aspects for the application of high power electron cyclotron waves,

  6. Waves in inhomogeneous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we study wave propagation in inhomogeneous media. Examples of the classical (massless) waves we consider are acoustic waves (sound) and electromagnetic waves (light, for example). Interaction with inhomogeneities embedded in a reference medium alter the propagation direction, velocity

  7. Shear wave elastography with a new reliability indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph F. Dietrich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive methods for liver stiffness assessment have been introduced over recent years. Of these, two main methods for estimating liver fibrosis using ultrasound elastography have become established in clinical practice: shear wave elastography and quasi-static or strain elastography. Shear waves are waves with a motion perpendicular (lateral to the direction of the generating force. Shear waves travel relatively slowly (between 1 and 10 m/s. The stiffness of the liver tissue can be assessed based on shear wave velocity (the stiffness increases with the speed. The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology has published Guidelines and Recommendations that describe these technologies and provide recommendations for their clinical use. Most of the data available to date has been published using the Fibroscan (Echosens, France, point shear wave speed measurement using an acoustic radiation force impulse (Siemens, Germany and 2D shear wave elastography using the Aixplorer (SuperSonic Imagine, France. More recently, also other manufacturers have introduced shear wave elastography technology into the market. A comparison of data obtained using different techniques for shear wave propagation and velocity measurement is of key interest for future studies, recommendations and guidelines. Here, we present a recently introduced shear wave elastography technology from Hitachi and discuss its reproducibility and comparability to the already established technologies.

  8. Wave Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alikhani, Amir; Frigaard, Peter; Burcharth, Hans F.

    1998-01-01

    The data collected over the course of the experiment must be analysed and converted into a form suitable for its intended use. Type of analyses range from simple to sophisticated. Depending on the particular experiment and the needs of the researcher. In this study three main part of irregular wave...... data analyses are presented e.g. Time Domain (Statistical) Analyses, Frequency Domain (Spectral) Analyses and Wave Reflection Analyses. Random wave profile and definitions of representative waves, distributions of individual wave height and wave periods and spectra of sea waves are presented....

  9. DECIGO: The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Shuichi [Faculty of Engineering, Hosei University, kajinocho, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan); Kawamura, Seiji; Seto, Naoki; Arai, Koji [National Astronomical Observatory Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ando, Masaki; Tsubono, Kimio; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Araya, Akito [Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Funaki, Ikkoh; Sakai, Shin-ichiro; Takashima, Takeshi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Ioka, Kunihito [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kanda, Nobuyuki [Department of Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Moriwaki, Shigenori [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Musha, Mitsuru [Institute for Laser Science, The University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Numata, Kenji [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 663, 8800 Greenbelt Rd., Greenbelt, MD20771 (United States); Tanaka, Takahiro [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Aoyanagi, Koh-suke [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo, 169-8555 (Japan)

    2009-03-01

    DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the planned Japanese space gravitational wave antenna, aiming to detect gravitational waves from astrophysically and cosmologically significant sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window for gravitational wave astronomy and for the universe. DECIGO will consist of three drag-free spacecraft, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a differential Fabry-Perot interferometer. We plan to launch DECIGO in middle of 2020s, after sequence of two precursor satellite missions, DECIGO pathfinder and Pre-DECIGO, for technology demonstration required to realize DECIGO and hopefully for detection of gravitational waves from our galaxy or nearby galaxies.

  10. Status of Japanese gravitational wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, K; Takahashi, R; Tatsumi, D; Ishizaki, H; Fukushima, M; Yamazaki, T; Fujimoto, M-K [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Izumi, K [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Y [Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1, Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610 (Japan); Takamori, A [Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Tsubono, K [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); DeSalvo, R; Sannibale, V [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bertolini, A [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Marka, S [Columbia University in the City of New York, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Uchiyama, T; Miyakawa, O; Miyoki, S; Agatsuma, K; Saito, T, E-mail: koji.arai@nao.ac.j [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2009-10-21

    The Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope (LCGT) is planned as a future Japanese project for gravitational wave detection. A 3 km interferometer will be built in an underground mine at Kamioka. Cryogenic sapphire mirrors are going to be employed for the test masses. For the demonstration of LCGT technologies, two prototype interferometers, TAMA300 and CLIO, are being developed. This paper describes the current status of the LCGT project and the two prototype interferometers.

  11. Wave disc engine apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Norbert; Piechna, Janusz; Sun, Guangwei; Parraga, Pablo-Francisco

    2018-01-02

    A wave disc engine apparatus is provided. A further aspect employs a constricted nozzle in a wave rotor channel. A further aspect provides a sharp bend between an inlet and an outlet in a fluid pathway of a wave rotor, with the bend being spaced away from a peripheral edge of the wave rotor. A radial wave rotor for generating electricity in an automotive vehicle is disclosed in yet another aspect.

  12. Protective, Modular Wave Power Generation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vvedensky, Jane M.; Park, Robert Y.

    2012-11-27

    The concept of small wave energy conversion modules that can be built into large, scalable arrays, in the same vein as solar panels, has been developed. This innovation lends itself to an organic business and development model, and enables the use of large-run manufacturing technology to reduce system costs. The first prototype module has been built to full-scale, and tested in a laboratory wave channel. The device has been shown to generate electricity and dissipate wave energy. Improvements need to be made to the electrical generator and a demonstration of an array of modules should be made in natural conditions.

  13. TIMASSS: the IRAS 16293-2422 millimeter and submillimeter spectral survey. I. Observations, calibration, and analysis of the line kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caux, E.; Kahane, C.; Castets, A.; Coutens, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Bacmann, A.; Bisschop, S.; Bottinelli, S.; Comito, C.; Helmich, F. P.; Lefloch, B.; Parise, B.; Schilke, P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Dishoeck, E.; Vastel, C.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.

    2011-08-01

    Context. Unbiased spectral surveys are powerful tools to study the chemistry and the physics of star forming regions, because they can provide a complete census of the molecular content and the observed lines probe the physical structure of the source. Aims: While unbiased surveys at the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths observable from ground-based telescopes have previously been performed towards several high mass protostars, very little exists on low mass protostars, which are believed to resemble our own Sun's progenitor. To help fill up this gap in our understanding, we carried out a complete spectral survey of the bands at 3, 2, 1, and 0.9 mm towards the solar type protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Methods: The observations covered a range of about 200 GHz and were obtained with the IRAM-30 m and JCMT-15 m telescopes during about 300 h of observations. Particular attention was devoted to the inter-calibration of the acquired spectra with previous observations. All the lines detected with more than 3σ confidence-interval certainty and free from obvious blending effects were fitted with Gaussians to estimate their basic kinematic properties. Results: More than 4000 lines were detected (with σ ≥ 3) and identified, yielding a line density of approximatively 20 lines per GHz, comparable to previous surveys in massive hot cores. The vast majority (about two-thirds) of the lines are weak and produced by complex organic molecules. The analysis of the profiles of more than 1000 lines belonging to 70 species firmly establishes the presence of two distinct velocity components associated with the two objects, A and B, forming the IRAS 16293-2422 binary system. In the source A, the line widths of several species increase with the upper level energy of the transition, a behavior compatible with gas infalling towards a ~1 M⊙ object. The source B, which does not show this effect, might have a much lower central mass of ~0.1 M⊙. The difference in the rest velocities

  14. THE SCUBA-2 COSMOLOGY LEGACY SURVEY: ALMA RESOLVES THE REST-FRAME FAR-INFRARED EMISSION OF SUB-MILLIMETER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J. M.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Danielson, A. L. R.; Edge, A. C.; Ma, C.-J. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Almaini, O.; Conselice, C.; Hartley, W. G.; Lani, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Blain, A. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bremer, M. N.; Coppin, K. E. K. [School of Physics, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Dunlop, J. S.; Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford HIll, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Geach, J. E. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Karim, A., E-mail: j.m.simpson@dur.ac.uk [Argelander-Institute for Astronomy, Bonn University, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2015-01-20

    We present high-resolution (0.''3) Atacama Large Millimeter Array 870 μm imaging of 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Ultra Deep Survey field to investigate the size and morphology of the sub-millimeter (sub-mm) emission on 2-10 kpc scales. We derive a median intrinsic angular size of FWHM = 0.''30 ± 0.''04 for the 23 SMGs in the sample detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >10. Using the photometric redshifts of the SMGs we show that this corresponds to a median physical half-light diameter of 2.4 ± 0.2 kpc. A stacking analysis of the SMGs detected at S/N <10 shows they have sizes consistent with the 870 μm bright SMGs in the sample. We compare our results to the sizes of SMGs derived from other multi-wavelength studies, and show that the rest-frame ∼250 μm sizes of SMGs are consistent with studies of resolved {sup 12}CO (J = 3-2 to 7-6) emission lines, but that sizes derived from 1.4 GHz imaging appear to be approximately two times larger on average, which we attribute to cosmic ray diffusion. The rest-frame optical sizes of SMGs are around four times larger than the sub-millimeter sizes, indicating that the star formation in these galaxies is compact relative to the pre-existing stellar distribution. The size of the starburst region in SMGs is consistent with the majority of the star formation occurring in a central region, a few kiloparsecs in extent, with a median star formation rate surface density of 90 ± 30 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}, which may suggest that we are witnessing an intense period of bulge growth in these galaxies.

  15. Robust Wave Resource Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of the wave energy resource at the location of the Danish Wave Energy test Centre (DanWEC) is presented in this paper. The Wave Energy Converter (WEC) test centre is located at Hanstholm in the of North West Denmark. Information about the long term wave statistics of the resource...... is necessary for WEC developers, both to optimise the WEC for the site, and to estimate its average yearly power production using a power matrix. The wave height and wave period sea states parameters are commonly characterized with a bivariate histogram. This paper presents bivariate histograms and kernel...... density estimates of the PDF as a function both of Hm0 and Tp, and Hm0 and T0;2, together with the mean wave power per unit crest length, Pw, as a function of Hm0 and T0;2. The wave elevation parameters, from which the wave parameters are calculated, are filtered to correct or remove spurious data...

  16. Wave Power Demonstration Project at Reedsport, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekhiche, Mike [Principal Investigator; Downie, Bruce [Project Manager

    2013-10-21

    Ocean wave power can be a significant source of large‐scale, renewable energy for the US electrical grid. The Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) conservatively estimated that 20% of all US electricity could be generated by wave energy. Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. (OPT), with funding from private sources and the US Navy, developed the PowerBuoy to generate renewable energy from the readily available power in ocean waves. OPT's PowerBuoy converts the energy in ocean waves to electricity using the rise and fall of waves to move the buoy up and down (mechanical stroking) which drives an electric generator. This electricity is then conditioned and transmitted ashore as high‐voltage power via underwater cable. OPT's wave power generation system includes sophisticated techniques to automatically tune the system for efficient conversion of random wave energy into low cost green electricity, for disconnecting the system in large waves for hardware safety and protection, and for automatically restoring operation when wave conditions normalize. As the first utility scale wave power project in the US, the Wave Power Demonstration Project at Reedsport, OR, will consist of 10 PowerBuoys located 2.5 miles off the coast. This U.S. Department of Energy Grant funding along with funding from PNGC Power, an Oregon‐based electric power cooperative, was utilized for the design completion, fabrication, assembly and factory testing of the first PowerBuoy for the Reedsport project. At this time, the design and fabrication of this first PowerBuoy and factory testing of the power take‐off subsystem are complete; additionally the power take‐off subsystem has been successfully integrated into the spar.

  17. Validation of Hydrodynamic Numerical Model of a Pitching Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Maria del Pilar Heras; Thomas, Sarah; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede

    2017-01-01

    Validation of numerical model is essential in the development of new technologies. Commercial software and codes available simulating wave energy converters (WECs) have not been proved to work for all the available and upcoming technologies yet. The present paper presents the first stages...... of the validation process of a hydrodynamic numerical model for a pitching wave energy converter. The development of dry tests, wave flume and wave basin experiments are going to be explained, lessons learned shared and results presented....

  18. Numerical Simulation of Solitary Waves Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnadip De Chowdhury

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding shallow water wave propagation is of major concern in any coastal mitigation effort. Many times, a solitary wave replicates a shallow water wave in its extreme sense which includes a tsunami wave. It is mainly due to known physical characteristics of such waves. Therefore, the study of propagation of solitary waves in the near shore waters is of equal importance in the context of non linear water waves. Owing to the significant growth in computational technologies in the last few decades, a significant number of numerical methods have emerged and applied to simulate nonlinear solitary wave propagation. In this study, one such method, the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH method has been described to simulate the solitary waves. The split-up of a single solitary wave while it crosses a continental kind of shelf has been simulated by the present model. Then SPH model is coupled with the Boussinesq model to predict the time interval between two successive solitary waves on landfall. It has also been shown to be equally efficient in simulating the wave breaking while a solitary wave propagates over a mild slope.

  19. Millimeter-Wave Thermal Analysis Development and Application to GEN IV Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wosko, Paul; Sundram, S. K.

    2012-10-16

    New millimeter-wave thermal analysis instrumentation has been developed and studied for characterization of materials required for diverse fuel and structural needs in high temperature reactor environments such as the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). A two-receiver 137 GHz system with orthogonal polarizations for anisotropic resolution of material properties has been implemented at MIT. The system was tested with graphite and silicon carbide specimens at temperatures up to 1300 ºC inside an electric furnace. The analytic and hardware basis for active millimeter-wave radiometry of reactor materials at high temperature has been established. Real-time, non contact measurement sensitivity to anisotropic surface emissivity and submillimeter surface displacement was demonstrated. The 137 GHz emissivity of reactor grade graphite (NBG17) from SGL Group was found to be low, ~ 5 %, in the 500 – 1200 °C range and increases by a factor of 2 to 4 with small linear grooves simulating fracturing. The low graphite emissivity would make millimeter-wave active radiometry a sensitive diagnostic of graphite changes due to environmentally induced stress fracturing, swelling, or corrosion. The silicon carbide tested from Ortek, Inc. was found to have a much higher emissivity at 137 GHz of ~90% Thin coatings of silicon carbide on reactor grade graphite supplied by SGL Group were found to be mostly transparent to millimeter-waves, increasing the 137 GHz emissivity of the coated reactor grade graphite to about ~14% at 1250 ºC.

  20. Precision Laser Development for Gravitational Wave Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Optical fiber and semiconductor laser technologies have evolved dramatically over the last decade due to the increased demands from optical communications. We are developing a laser (master oscillator) and optical amplifier based on those technologies for interferometric space missions, such as the gravitational-wave mission LISA, and GRACE follow-on, by fully utilizing the mature wave-guided optics technologies. In space, where a simple and reliable system is preferred, the wave-guided components are advantageous over bulk, crystal-based, free-space laser, such as NPRO (Non-planar Ring Oscillator) and bulk-crystal amplifier, which are widely used for sensitive laser applications on the ground.

  1. Millimeter-wave gyrotron traveling-wave tube amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Chao-Hai

    2014-01-01

    A gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWT) with the high-power and broad-band capabilities is considered as a turn-on key for next generation high-resolution radar. The book presents comprehensive theory, methods, and physics related to gyro-TWT. The most challenging problem of instability competition has been for the first time addressed in a focused and systematic way, and reported via concise states and vivid pictures. The book is likely to meet the interest of researchers and engineers in radar and microwave technology, who would like to study the gyro-TWTs and to promote its application in millimeter-wave radars.   Chao-Hai Du is a research professor, and Pu-Kun Liu is a full professor, at Peking University, Beijing, P. R. China.

  2. Scanning SQUID microscopy as a new tool for sub-millimeter scale magnetostratigraphy: An application to unveil the growth process of marine ferromanganese crusts and its future potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, H.; Noguchi, A.; Yamamoto, Y.; Usui, A.; Sato, M.; Kawai, J.

    2016-12-01

    Scanning SQUID microscope, a new developing tool for paleomagnetists, enables us to map magnetic field on surfaces of geological samples or thin sections at sub-millimeter scale and provides opportunity to conduct magnetostratigraphy with an unprecedented resolution. In the presentation, we show an example of sub-millimeter scale magnetostratigraphy with a newly developed scanning SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) microscope (SSM) at Geological Survey, AIST (Kawai et al., 2016; Oda et al., submitted). Marine ferromanganese crusts grow very slowly throughout the global ocean by direct precipitation typically on seamounts for more than several tens of millions of years, which can be considered as archives of paleoclimate and paleoceanography.In order to uncover the history of paleoenvironment recorded in the ferromanganese cursts, it is very important to provide their reliable age models and growth rates. Previous studies have shown universal applicability of magnetostratigraphy in estimating growth ages of ferromanganese crust (Oda et al., 2011; Noguchi et al., in press). A thin section of a ferromanganese crust sample from Takuyo-Daigo seamount in northwest Pacific was used for the mapping of magnetic field with the SSM, where minimum amount of dust and sediment are expected to come from continents. The result shows that average growth rate of the ferromanganese crust from this seamount is 3.56 ± mm/m.y., which is within 17.6% of that deduced from the 10Be/9Be dating method (2.93 ±0.15 mm/m.y.). Although the mechanism of remanent magnetization acquisition for ferromanganese crusts need to be investigated further, the magnetic stripes parallel to the growth pattern observed on optical and backscattered electron images promises the future possibilities to provide a quick tool to estimate ages and growth rates for ferromanganese crusts. Finally, it can be concluded that SSM could be a fundamental tool for paleomagnetists in providing avenue to

  3. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  4. Viscothermal wave propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the accuracy, efficiency and range of applicability of various (approximate) models for viscothermal wave propagation are investigated. Models for viscothermal wave propagation describe thewave behavior of fluids including viscous and thermal effects. Cases where viscothermal effects

  5. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  6. Coronal Waves and Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakariakov Valery M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.

  7. Detonation Wave Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-12-14

    The Zel’dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) profile of a detonation wave is derived. Two basic assumptions are required: i. An equation of state (EOS) for a partly burned explosive; P(V, e, λ). ii. A burn rate for the reaction progress variable; d/dt λ = R(V, e, λ). For a steady planar detonation wave the reactive flow PDEs can be reduced to ODEs. The detonation wave profile can be determined from an ODE plus algebraic equations for points on the partly burned detonation loci with a specified wave speed. Furthermore, for the CJ detonation speed the end of the reaction zone is sonic. A solution to the reactive flow equations can be constructed with a rarefaction wave following the detonation wave profile. This corresponds to an underdriven detonation wave, and the rarefaction is know as a Taylor wave.

  8. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  9. Gravitational wave science from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gair, Jonathan R.

    2016-05-01

    The rich millihertz gravitational wave band can only be accessed with a space- based detector. The technology for such a detector will be demonstrated by the LISA Pathfinder satellite that is due to launch this year and ESA has selected gravitational wave detection from space as the science theme to be addressed by the L3 large mission to be launched around 2034. In this article we will discuss the sources that such an instrument will observe, and how the numbers of events and precision of parameter determination are affected by modifications to the, as yet not finalised, mission design. We will also describe some of the exciting scientific applications of these observations, to astrophysics, fundamental physics and cosmology.

  10. Modelling sand wave variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterlini-Van der Meer, Fenneke

    2009-01-01

    The sea floor of shallow seas is rarely flat and often dynamic. A widely occurring bedform type is the sand wave. Sand waves form more or less regular wavelike patterns on the seabed with crests up to one third of the water depth, wave lengths of hundreds of metres and a migration rate of metres up

  11. Wave Dragon MW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type. The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based on the experience gained a full scale, multi MW prototype...

  12. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...... wave overtopping was studied as well....

  13. Modeling Regional Seismic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-25

    Shear waves are almost always observed from underground explosions. One can visualize many ways to convert explosion P waves into SV waves. An ob- vious...of the observed moment to the input source moment, Moba /Mo, as a function of the compressional velocities a, of the embedded sphere for different whole

  14. Fundamentals of wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, Akira

    2010-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified treatment of waves that either occur naturally or can be excited and propagated in various media. This includes both longitudinal and transverse waves. The book covers both mechanical and electrical waves, which are normally covered separately due to their differences in physical phenomena.

  15. B-waves revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Spiegelberg

    2016-12-01

    With the still unmet need for a clinically acceptable method for acquiring intracranial compliance, and the revival of ICP waveform analysis, B-waves are moving back into the research focus. Herein we provide a concise review of the literature on B-waves, including a critical assessment of non-invasive methods for obtaining B-wave surrogates.

  16. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a broad overview of the emerging field of gravitational-wave astronomy. Although gravitational waves have not been directly de- tected yet, the worldwide scientific community is engaged in an exciting search for these elusive waves. Once detected, they will open up a new observational window to the Universe.

  17. Optimal Discrete PTO Force Point Absorber Wave Energy Converters in Regular Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    For ocean wave energy converters (WECs) to become a cost-effective alternative in the energy production system a large increase in the conversion efficiency is needed. Fluid power technology is the leading technology for the Power Take- Off (PTO) system of wave energy converters. However...... of discrete force systems for PTO, by focusing on how to choose the optimal PTO force levels and force profile when seeking to increase energy harvesting. The work concerns point absorber WECs and utilises a simple float model based on linear wave theory. Utilising the principle of superposition...... and the Laplace transform a solution of the float movement is found when subjected an incoming wave and a discrete PTO force. Finally an optimisation leads to the force profile implying the highest harvested energy....

  18. Spin wave generation by surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Labanowski, Dominic; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2017-07-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAW) on piezoelectric substrates can excite spin wave resonance (SWR) in magnetostrictive films through magnetoelastic coupling. This acoustically driven SWR enables the excitation of a single spin wave mode with an in-plane wave vector k matched to the magnetoelastic wave vector. A 2D frequency domain finite element model is presented that fully couples elastodynamics, micromagnetics, and piezoelectricity with interface spin pumping effects taken into account. It is used to simulate SAW driven SWR on a ferromagnetic and piezoelectric heterostructure device with an interdigital transducer configuration. These results, for the first time, present the spatial distribution of magnetization components that, together with elastic wave, exponentially decays along the propagation direction due to magnetic damping. The results also show that the system transmission rate S21(dB) can be tuned by both an external bias field and the SAW wavevector. Acoustic spin pumping at magnetic film/normal metal interface leads to damping enhancement in magnetic films that decreases the energy absorption rate from elastic energy. This weakened interaction between the magnetic energy and elastic energy leads to a lower evanescence rate of the SAW that results in a longer distance propagation. With strong magnetoelastic coupling, the SAW driven spin wave is able to propagate up to 1200 μm. The results give a quantitative indication of the acoustic spin pumping contribution to linewidth broadening.

  19. Modelling and Testing of Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Towards Full Scale Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano

    This doctoral thesis is framed into the development process of the Wave Dragon wave energy converter (WEC). Wave energy is a vast and untapped resource with the potential of becoming an important contributor to the World energy mix, although presently its commercial exploitation has been hindered....... This is mainly due to the development of an updated overtopping model specifically suited to Wave Dragon, which allows greater quality to predictions of the primary energy absorption of the device compared to previous versions. At the same time an equitable approach has been described and used in the performance...... by the difficulties of developers to demonstrate the technology feasibility at full-scale, first of all caused by lack of finance of full-scale demonstration units. Although having a large potential for the cost-effective generation of clean and renewable electricity, Wave Dragon is currently in a pre...

  20. Wave turbulence in annular wave tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Miguel; Stramignoni, Ettore

    2014-05-01

    We perform experiments in an annular wind wave tank at the Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Torino. The external diameter of the tank is 5 meters while the internal one is 1 meter. The tank is equipped by two air fans which can lead to a wind of maximum 5 m/s. The present set up is capable of studying the generation of waves and the development of wind wave spectra for large duration. We have performed different tests including different wind speeds. For large wind speed we observe the formation of spectra consistent with Kolmogorv-Zakharov predictions.

  1. Wave Climate and Wave Mixing in the Marginal Ice Zones of Arctic Seas, Observations and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wave Climate and Wave Mixing in the Marginal Ice Zones of... Australia phone: +61-3-9214-8033 fax: +61-3-9214-8264 email: ababanin@swin.edu.au Ian R. Young The Australian National University Canberra, ACT 2000... Australia phone: +61-2-6125-2510 fax: +61-2-6257-3292 email: ir.young@anu.edu.au S. Zieger Swinburne University of Technology PO Box 218 (H38

  2. Exothermic waves in continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyi, G. G.

    Theoretical and experimental research related to the generation and propagation of exothermic waves in combustible gas mixtures as well as solid and liquid combustible media is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to detonation phenomena, the stationary structure of chemical detonation waves for various gas and condensed explosive models, discontinuous solutions for motions with exothermic discontinuities, and heat release in thermonuclear reactions. The discussion also covers frontal polymerization and crystallization waves, stationary combustion waves in systems with high-temperature self-propagating synthesis, and initiation of exothermic waves in continua with allowance for transfer processes.

  3. The Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H. C.; Hansen, R.; Friis-Madsen, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type, utilizing a patented wave reflector design to focus the waves towards a ramp, and the overtopping is used for electricity production through a set of Kaplan/propeller hydro turbines. During the last 2 years, excessive...... design an testing has been performed on a scale 1:50 model of the Wave Dragon, and on a scale 1:3:5 model turbine. Thus survivability, overtopping, hydraulic response, turbine performance and feasibility have been verified....

  4. The Wave Energy Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James William

    2006-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is a 4 to 11 MW offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It basically consists of two wave reflectors focusing the waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power......'s first offshore wave energy converter. During this period an extensive measuring program has established the background for optimal design of the structure and regulation of the power take off system. Planning for full scale deployment of a 7 MW unit within the next 2 years is in progress. The prototype...

  5. Pulsars and Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. J.; Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J.

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between pulsar-like compact stars and gravitational waves is briefly reviewed. Due to regular spins, pulsars could be useful tools for us to detect ~nano-Hz low-frequency gravitational waves by pulsar-timing array technique; besides, they would also be ~kilo-Hz high-frequency gravitational wave radiators because of their compactness. The wave strain of an isolated pulsar depends on the equation state of cold matter at supra-nuclear densities. Therefore, a real detection of gravitational wave should be very meaningful in gravity physics, micro-theory of elementary strong interaction, and astronomy.

  6. Physics of waves

    CERN Document Server

    Elmore, William C

    1985-01-01

    Because of the increasing demands and complexity of undergraduate physics courses (atomic, quantum, solid state, nuclear, etc.), it is often impossible to devote separate courses to the classic wave phenomena of optics, acoustics, and electromagnetic radiation. This brief comprehensive text helps alleviate the problem with a unique overview of classical wave theory in one volume.By examining a sequence of concrete and specific examples (emphasizing the physics of wave motion), the authors unify the study of waves, developing abstract and general features common to all wave motion. The fundam

  7. Wave energy harvesting by piezoelectric flexible plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoele, Kourosh

    2013-11-01

    The ocean tidal currents and waves are very attractive sources of energy for extraction due to their vast availability and very low environmental impacts. Among different technologies, the harvesting of flow energy through the flapping of flexible plates has recently gained attentions. The sustained oscillation of a flexible plate is the result of a fluid-structure interaction occurrence, mainly from two different situations. In the first case, the oscillation is from the fluttering instability of the plate. In the second case, the unsteady flow is presented in the incoming flow either from the oscillatory sources such as surface waves. The mechanical energy is then converted to electricity using piezoelectric patches connected to the plate. In this paper, we discuss the novel approach to extract the wave energy using piezoelectric plates and discuss how parameters of the piezoelectric plate can be adjusted to increase the amount of energy that can be extracted from the current and free-surface waves.

  8. Advanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Saulson, Peter R

    2019-01-01

    Gravitational waves are one of the most exciting and promising emerging areas of physics and astrophysics today. The detection of gravitational waves will rank among the most significant physics discoveries of the 21st century.Advanced Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Detectors brings together many of the world's top experts to deliver an authoritative and in-depth treatment on current and future detectors. Volume I is devoted to the essentials of gravitational-wave detectors, presenting the physical principles behind large-scale precision interferometry, the physics of the underlying noise sources that limit interferometer sensitivity, and an explanation of the key enabling technologies that are used in the detectors. Volume II provides an in-depth look at the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo interferometers that have just finished construction, as well as examining future interferometric detector concepts. This two-volume set will provide students and researchers the comprehensive background needed to und...

  9. Gravitational Wave Detection with Atom Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, Savas; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Graham, Peter W.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Rajendran, Surjeet; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-01-23

    We propose two distinct atom interferometer gravitational wave detectors, one terrestrial and another satellite-based, utilizing the core technology of the Stanford 10m atom interferometer presently under construction. The terrestrial experiment can operate with strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -19}/{radical}Hz in the 1 Hz-10 Hz band, inaccessible to LIGO, and can detect gravitational waves from solar mass binaries out to megaparsec distances. The satellite experiment probes the same frequency spectrum as LISA with better strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -20}/{radical}Hz. Each configuration compares two widely separated atom interferometers run using common lasers. The effect of the gravitational waves on the propagating laser field produces the main effect in this configuration and enables a large enhancement in the gravitational wave signal while significantly suppressing many backgrounds. The use of ballistic atoms (instead of mirrors) as inertial test masses improves systematics coming from vibrations and acceleration noise, and reduces spacecraft control requirements.

  10. Will oscillating wave surge converters survive tsunamis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O’Brien

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing emphasis on renewable energy resources, wave power technology is becoming one of the realistic solutions. However, the 2011 tsunami in Japan was a harsh reminder of the ferocity of the ocean. It is known that tsunamis are nearly undetectable in the open ocean but as the wave approaches the shore its energy is compressed, creating large destructive waves. The question posed here is whether an oscillating wave surge converter (OWSC could withstand the force of an incoming tsunami. Several tools are used to provide an answer: an analytical 3D model developed within the framework of linear theory, a numerical model based on the non-linear shallow water equations and empirical formulas. Numerical results show that run-up and draw-down can be amplified under some circumstances, leading to an OWSC lying on dry ground!

  11. Perturbative High Harmonic Wave Front Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengyan; Brown, Graham; Ko, Dong Hyuk; Kong, Fanqi; Arissian, Ladan; Corkum, P B

    2017-01-20

    We pattern the wave front of a high harmonic beam by intersecting the intense driving laser pulse that generates the high harmonic with a weak control pulse. To illustrate the potential of wave-front control, we imprint a Fresnel zone plate pattern on a harmonic beam, causing the harmonics to focus and defocus. The quality of the focus that we achieve is measured using the spectral wave-front optical reconstruction by diffraction method. We will show that it is possible to enhance the peak intensity by orders of magnitude without a physical optical element in the path of the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) beam. Through perturbative wave-front control, XUV beams can be created with a flexibility approaching what technology allows for visible and infrared light.

  12. Development of evanescent wave absorbance-based fibre-optic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Evanescent wave biosensor; U-bent fibre-optic probe; fibre-optic biosensor; evanescent wave absorbance; gold nanoparticles localized SPR biosensor; ... Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076, India; Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute ...

  13. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  14. 4-wave dynamics in kinetic wave turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Chibbaro, Sergio; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-01-01

    A general Hamiltonian wave system with quartic resonances is considered, in the standard kinetic limit of a continuum of weakly interacting dispersive waves with random phases. The evolution equation for the multimode characteristic function $Z$ is obtained within an "interaction representation" and a perturbation expansion in the small nonlinearity parameter. A frequency renormalization is performed to remove linear terms that do not appear in the 3-wave case. Feynman-Wyld diagrams are used to average over phases, leading to a first order differential evolution equation for $Z$. A hierarchy of equations, analogous to the Boltzmann hierarchy for low density gases is derived, which preserves in time the property of random phases and amplitudes. This amounts to a general formalism for both the $N$-mode and the 1-mode PDF equations for 4-wave turbulent systems, suitable for numerical simulations and for investigating intermittency.

  15. Wave propagation in axially moving periodic strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav S.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with analytically studying transverse waves propagation in an axially moving string with periodically modulated cross section. The structure effectively models various relevant technological systems, e.g. belts, thread lines, band saws, etc., and, in particular, roller chain drive...

  16. Wave Overtopping Characteristics of the Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Simulation work has been used extensively with the Wave dragon and other overtopping devices to analyse the power production performance of them and to optimise the structural design and the control strategy. A time domain approach to this is well documented in Jakobsen & Frigaard 1999. Using...... measurements taken from the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning prototype, some of the previous assumptions have been slightly modified and improved upon, so that the simulation method better represents the reality of what is occurring....

  17. Information Technology and Educational Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winner, Langdon

    2009-01-01

    Waves of enthusiasm for technological innovations that promise to revitalize teaching and learning are at least a century old. Unfortunately, the record of accomplishment for the many varieties of hardware and software introduced into schools over the decades is remarkably thin. Today's promoters of technology in education tend to forget similar…

  18. Coherent matter wave optics on an atom chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Hofferberth, S.; Schumm, Thorsten

    2006-01-01

    Coherent manipulation of matter waves in microscopic trapping potentials facilitates both fundamental and technological applications. Here we focus on experiments with a microscopic integrated interferometer that demonstrate coherent operation on an atom chip.......Coherent manipulation of matter waves in microscopic trapping potentials facilitates both fundamental and technological applications. Here we focus on experiments with a microscopic integrated interferometer that demonstrate coherent operation on an atom chip....

  19. Structure-Optical Property Correlations of Arsenic Sulfide Glasses in Visible, Infrared, and Sub-millimeter Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloy, John S.; Riley, Brian J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Crum, Jarrod V.; Johnson, Bradley R.

    2010-06-01

    Optical properties and structural aspects of AsxS100-x glasses from visible to terahertz wavelengths were explored. A series of annealed, bulk AsxS100-x glasses (x = 30 to 42) were made and their refractive indices determined at terahertz, infrared, and visible frequencies using a combination of a quasi-optical backwards wave oscillator spectrometer for terahertz measurements and a prism coupler for visible and infrared measurements. It was found that refractive index at all frequencies increases with arsenic composition up to 40 atomic % arsenic then decreases with additional arsenic. Structure in x-ray diffraction patterns support the notion of a minimum volume at 40 atomic %, while the average covalent coordination number indicates the rigidity percolation threshold is reached there. At As concentrations > 40 atomic %, the network becomes over-constrained, the molar volume increases.

  20. Highly Manufacturable Deep (Sub-Millimeter) Etching Enabled High Aspect Ratio Complex Geometry Lego-Like Silicon Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-02-01

    A highly manufacturable deep reactive ion etching based process involving a hybrid soft/hard mask process technology shows high aspect ratio complex geometry Lego-like silicon electronics formation enabling free-form (physically flexible, stretchable, and reconfigurable) electronic systems.

  1. Geometrically-complex magnetic field distributions enabled by bulk, laser-micromachined permanent magnets at the submillimeter scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Brock Alan

    High-energy-product permanent magnets (PM) are utilized in many industrial, research, consumer, and commercial applications. Indeed, there are many potential applications that can utilize sub-mm PM to create miniaturized versions of motors, generators, energy harvesters, undulators, sensors, actuators, and other microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. Magnets in MEMS are both important and useful because they can provide a strong force at a distance within a compact package; however, there exists a gap in magnet technologies today where magnets have little to no presence between bottom-up microfabricated PM and top-down machined bulk PM. Thus, there is a need for a form of PM that can be 100-500 microm thick with lateral dimensions of the same order to fill this gap and provide the advantageous magnetic properties of bulk PM at this scale. This dissertation presents the development of laser micromachining as a fabrication technology that enables the microfabrication of PM to generate geometrically complex magnetic fields at the sub-mm scale. Generating geometrically complex magnetic fields at the sub-mm scale opens up new possibilities in medical technology, energy generation, and many other applications. Models simulating magnetic properties and the effects of laser machining are presented and compared to measurements. The fabrication technology discussed here allows sub-mm, geometrically complex magnetic fields to be achieved while maintaining the characteristics of bulk PM. The utility of this advance in fabrication technology is demonstrated through multiple research vehicles, including undulators for radiation generation and multipole energy harvesters operable at low frequency. Such vehicles represent a small sample of the potential applications for this work.

  2. Wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmida Mohd Nasir, Nor; Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Up until today, Malaysia has used renewable energy technology such as biomass, solar and hydro energy for power generation and co-generation in palm oil industries and also for the generation of electricity, yet, we are still far behind other countries which have started to optimize waves for similar production. Wave power is a renewable energy (RE) transported by ocean waves. It is very eco-friendly and is easily reachable. This paper presents an assessment of wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters including waters of Sabah and Sarawak. In this research, data from Malaysia Meteorology Department (MetMalaysia) is used and is supported by a satellite imaginary obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Malaysia Remote Sensing Agency (ARSM) within the time range of the year 1992 until 2007. There were two types of analyses conducted which were mask analysis and comparative analysis. Mask analysis of a research area is the analysis conducted to filter restricted and sensitive areas. Meanwhile, comparative analysis is an analysis conducted to determine the most potential area for wave power generation. Four comparative analyses which have been carried out were wave power analysis, comparative analysis of wave energy power with the sea topography, hot-spot area analysis and comparative analysis of wave energy with the wind speed. These four analyses underwent clipping processes using Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain the final result. At the end of this research, the most suitable area to develop a wave energy converter was found, which is in the waters of Terengganu and Sarawak. Besides that, it was concluded that the average potential energy that can be generated in Malaysian territorial waters is between 2.8kW/m to 8.6kW/m.

  3. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-12-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

  4. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lamb, Bradford [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Prudell, Joseph [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hammagren, Erik [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-08-22

    This Project aims to satisfy objectives of the DOE’s Water Power Program by completing a system detailed design (SDD) and other important activities in the first phase of a utility-scale grid-connected ocean wave energy demonstration. In early 2012, Columbia Power (CPwr) had determined that further cost and performance optimization was necessary in order to commercialize its StingRAY wave energy converter (WEC). CPwr’s progress toward commercialization, and the requisite technology development path, were focused on transitioning toward a commercial-scale demonstration. This path required significant investment to be successful, and the justification for this investment required improved annual energy production (AEP) and lower capital costs. Engineering solutions were developed to address these technical and cost challenges, incorporated into a proposal to the US Department of Energy (DOE), and then adapted to form the technical content and statement of project objectives of the resulting Project (DE-EE0005930). Through Project cost-sharing and technical collaboration between DOE and CPwr, and technical collaboration with Oregon State University (OSU), National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) and other Project partners, we have demonstrated experimentally that these conceptual improvements have merit and made significant progress towards a certified WEC system design at a selected and contracted deployment site at the Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) at the Marine Corps Base in Oahu, HI (MCBH).

  5. Gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In the past year, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration announced the first secure detection of gravitational waves. This discovery heralds the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy: the use of gravitational waves as a tool for studying the dense and dynamical universe. In this talk, I will describe the full spectrum of gravitational waves, from Hubble-scale modes, through waves with periods of years, hours and milliseconds. I will describe the different techniques one uses to measure the waves in these bands, current and planned facilities for implementing these techniques, and the broad range of sources which produce the radiation. I will discuss what we might expect to learn as more events and sources are measured, and as this field matures into a standard part of the astronomical milieu.

  6. Analysis of Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    The present book describes the most important aspects of wave analysis techniques applied to physical model tests. Moreover, the book serves as technical documentation for the wave analysis software WaveLab 3, cf. Aalborg University (2012). In that respect it should be mentioned that supplementary...... to the present technical documentation exists also the online help document describing the WaveLab software in detail including all the inputs and output fields. In addition to the two main authors also Tue Hald, Jacob Helm-Petersen and Morten Møller Jakobsen have contributed to the note. Their input is highly...... acknowledged. The outline of the book is as follows: • Chapter 2 and 3 describes analysis of waves in time and frequency domain. • Chapter 4 and 5 describes the separation of incident and reflected waves for the two-dimensional case. • Chapter 6 describes the estimation of the directional spectra which also...

  7. Waves and compressible flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ockendon, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Now in its second edition, this book continues to give readers a broad mathematical basis for modelling and understanding the wide range of wave phenomena encountered in modern applications.  New and expanded material includes topics such as elastoplastic waves and waves in plasmas, as well as new exercises.  Comprehensive collections of models are used to illustrate the underpinning mathematical methodologies, which include the basic ideas of the relevant partial differential equations, characteristics, ray theory, asymptotic analysis, dispersion, shock waves, and weak solutions. Although the main focus is on compressible fluid flow, the authors show how intimately gasdynamic waves are related to wave phenomena in many other areas of physical science.   Special emphasis is placed on the development of physical intuition to supplement and reinforce analytical thinking. Each chapter includes a complete set of carefully prepared exercises, making this a suitable textbook for students in applied mathematics, ...

  8. Application of Planar Broadband Slow-Wave Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvardas Metlevskis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Different types of planar broadband slow-wave systems are used for designing microwave devices. The papers published by Lithuanian scientists analyze and investigate the models of helical and meander slow-wave systems. The article carefully examines the applications of meander slow-wave systems and presents the areas where similar systems, e.g. mobile devices, RFID, wireless technologies are used and reviewed nowadays. The paper also focuses on the examples of the papers discussing antennas, filters and couplers that contain designed and fabricated meander slow-wave systems.Article in Lithuanian

  9. Waves in the seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    of component waves of various periods and heights. This is the most commonly used theory for practical applications like design of ships, oil rigs and coastal structures such as jetties, ports, and sea walls. This theory also provides sufficient intellectual... of wind waves in the sea is a wide and interesting field with ap- plications in marine exploration ac- tivities, underwater pipe laying, pol- lution control, ports and shipping in- volving billions of dollars worth of transactions. Not all sea waves look...

  10. Spheroidal wave functions

    CERN Document Server

    Flammer, Carson

    2005-01-01

    Intended to facilitate the use and calculation of spheroidal wave functions, this applications-oriented text features a detailed and unified account of the properties of these functions. Addressed to applied mathematicians, mathematical physicists, and mathematical engineers, it presents tables that provide a convenient means for handling wave problems in spheroidal coordinates.Topics include separation of the scalar wave equation in spheroidal coordinates, angle and radial functions, integral representations and relations, and expansions in spherical Bessel function products. Additional subje

  11. Dyakonov surface waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Crasovan, Lucian Cornel; Johansen, Steffen Kjær

    2008-01-01

    The interface of two semi-infinite media, where at least one of them is a birefringent crystal, supports a special type of surface wave that was predicted theoretically by D'yakonov in 1988. Since then, the properties of such waves, which exist in transparent media only under very special......, the existence of these surface waves in specific material examples is analyzed, discussing the challenge posed by their experimental observation....

  12. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  13. Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.

  14. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-02: Vernier Picket Fence Test: A Non-Imaging Method to Localize the Radiation Isocenter with Submillimeter Accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, J; Gallagher, K [Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Zhang, J [Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose a new non-imaging method to localize the radiation isocenter with submillimeter accuracy. Methods: The Vernier picket fence (VPF) is a multileaf collimator (MLC) picket fence sequence in which the fence spacing is 1/N smaller than the detector spacing of the QA phantom, where N is the magnification factor, typically set to 10 or 20. Similar to reading a Vernier caliper, the user can easily achieve the resolution of 1/N of the detector spacing by visually inspecting the maximum signal. To achieve higher accuracy, a Gaussian model was used to interpolate the peak position, which can fall between adjacent detectors. In two separate tests, precise MLC offsets and imprecise couch offsets were applied to a 2D detector array (MapCheck, Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, Florida) to introduce setup errors. Two vertical VPF fields were delivered with collimator angles at 0° and 90° to detect the lateral and longitudinal setup errors, respectively. For a rotational QA phantom, an additional lateral VPF field is needed to detect the vertical setup error for three-dimensional capabilities. Results: With N set to 20 and a detector spacing of 5 mm for MapCheck, the resolution of the VPF’s visual analysis is 0.25 mm. With the Gaussian interpretation, the VPF can achieve an accuracy of 0.02 mm, as shown by the MLC offset test. The couch offset test measured the couch hysteresis and demonstrated that the setup error detected by the VPF differed from the ExacTrac™ (Brainlab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) optical tracking by 0.055 mm in the lateral direction and 0.041 mm in the longitudinal direction on average. The VPF was also shown to be feasible in the vertical direction as well. Conclusion: This study verified the VPF as a non-imaging method to localize the radiation isocenter with submillimeter accuracy. Funding is in part by the Portland Chapter of the Achievement Rewards for College Scientists. The content is solely the

  15. Study of the potential of wave energy in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wan Ching; Chan, Keng Wai; Ooi, Heivin

    2017-07-01

    Renewable energy is generally defined as energy harnessed from resources which are naturally replenished. It is an alternative to the current conventional energy sources such as natural gas, oil and coal, which are nonrenewable. Besides being nonrenewable, the harnessing of these resources generally produce by-products which could be potentially harmful to the environment. On the contrary, the generation from renewable energy does not pose environmental degradation. Some examples of renewable energy sources are sunlight, wind, tides, waves and geothermal heat. Wave energy is considered as one of the most promising marine renewable resources and is becoming commercially viable quicker than other renewable technologies at an astonishing growth rate. This paper illustrates the working principle of wave energy converter (WEC) and the availability of wave energy in Malaysia oceans. A good understanding of the behaviour of ocean waves is important for designing an efficient WEC as the characteristics of the waves in shallow and deep water are different. Consequently, wave energy converters are categorized into three categories on shore, near shore and offshore. Therefore, the objectives of this study is ought to be carried out by focusing on the formation of waves and wave characteristics in shallow as well as in deep water. The potential sites for implementation of wave energy harvesting technology in Malaysia and the wave energy available in the respective area were analysed. The potential of wave energy in Malaysia were tabulated and presented with theoretical data. The interaction between motion of waves and heave buoys for optimum phase condition by using the mass and diameter as the variables were investigated.

  16. Final Report “Electrical and mechanical characterization of rocks at the sub-millimeter scale” DE-SC0000757

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scales, John [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The broad purpose of CSM's 6-year (3 years plus renewal) DOE project was to develop and apply new experimental physics technology to the material characterization of rocks at the grain scale or smaller. This is motivated by a knowledge that the bulk chemistry and physics of rocks are strongly influenced by processes occurring at the grain scale: the flow of fluids, cation exchange, the state of cementation of grains, and many more. It may also be possible in some cases to ``upscale'' or homogenize the mesoscopic properties of rocks in order to directly infer the large-scale properties of formations, but that is not our central goal. Understanding the physics and chemistry at the small scale is. During the first 3 years, most effort was devoted to developing and validating the near-field scanning technology. During the 3 year renewal phase, most effort was focused on applying the technology in the labs Professors Batzle (now deceased) in Geophysics and Prasad in Petroleum engineering.

  17. WAVES VHDL interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, James P.

    1994-06-01

    The Waveform and Vector Exchange Specification (WAVES) is the Industry standard representation for digital stimulus and response for both the design and test communities. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is the Industry standard language for the design, modeling, and simulation of digital electronics. Together VHDL and WAVES provide powerful support for top-down design and test methodologies and concurrent engineering practices. Although the syntax of WAVES is a subset of VHDL, no special support for using WAVES in a VHDL environment is defined within the language. This report will introduce and describe a VHDL package that was developed at Rome Laboratory to provide a software interface to support the use of WAVES in a VHDL environment. This VHDL package is referred to as the WAVES VHDL interface and has been proposed as a standard practice for a top-down design and test methodology using WAVES and VHDL. This report is not intended to provide a tutorial on VHDL or WAVES. It is assumed that the reader has an adequate understanding of the VHDL language and some modeling techniques. Further, it is assumed that the reader has an understanding of the WAVES language and can follow a simple Level 1 dataset description.

  18. Non-diffractive waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Figueroa, Hugo E; Recami, Erasmo

    2013-01-01

    This continuation and extension of the successful book ""Localized Waves"" by the same editors brings together leading researchers in non-diffractive waves to cover the most important results in their field and as such is the first to present the current state.The well-balanced presentation of theory and experiments guides readers through the background of different types of non-diffractive waves, their generation, propagation, and possible applications. The authors include a historical account of the development of the field, and cover different types of non-diffractive waves, including Airy

  19. Wave Loads on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area.......Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area....

  20. Propagation of waves

    CERN Document Server

    David, P

    2013-01-01

    Propagation of Waves focuses on the wave propagation around the earth, which is influenced by its curvature, surface irregularities, and by passage through atmospheric layers that may be refracting, absorbing, or ionized. This book begins by outlining the behavior of waves in the various media and at their interfaces, which simplifies the basic phenomena, such as absorption, refraction, reflection, and interference. Applications to the case of the terrestrial sphere are also discussed as a natural generalization. Following the deliberation on the diffraction of the "ground? wave around the ear