WorldWideScience

Sample records for submillimeter wave astronomy

  1. Arrays of Bolometers for Far-infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, D. T.; Allen, C. A.; Babu, S.; Benford, D. J.; Dotson, J. L.; Dowell, C. D.; Jhabvala, M.; Harper, D. A.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Silverberg, R. F.; Staguhn, J. G.; Voellmer, G.; Wollack, E. J.

    We describe 12 x 32 arrays of semiconducting cryogenic bolometers designed for use in far-infrared and submillimeter cameras. These 12 x 32 arrays are constructed from 1 x 32 monolithic pop-up detectors developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The pop-up technology allows the construction of large arrays with high filling factors that provide efficient use of space in the focal planes of far-infrared and submillimeter astronomical instruments. This directly leads to a significant decrease in integration time. The prototype array is currently operating in the second generation Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC II), a facility instrument in use at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). The elements of this array employ a bismuth absorber coating and quarter wave backshort to optimize the bolometer absorption for passbands centered at 350 and 450 microns. A second array is to be installed in the High-resolution Airborne Widebandwidth Camera (HAWC), a far-infrared imaging camera for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This array has been completed and is now awaiting integration into the HAWC test cryostat. HAWC is scheduled for commissioning in 2005. The HAWC array employs titanium-gold absorbers and is optimized for uniform absorption from 40 to 300 microns to accommodate all four of its far-infrared passbands. We describe the details of the HAWC array construction including the mechanical design and electrical characterization of the constituent linear arrays.

  2. Filters for Submillimeter Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    New manufacturing process produces filters strong, yet have small, precise dimensions and smooth surface finish essential for dichroic filtering at submillimeter wavelengths. Many filters, each one essentially wafer containing fine metal grid made at same time. Stacked square wires plated, fused, and etched to form arrays of holes. Grid of nickel and tin held in brass ring. Wall thickness, thickness of filter (hole depth) and lateral hole dimensions all depend upon operating frequency and filter characteristics.

  3. Two bolometer arrays for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Robert F.; Allen, Christine A.; Babu, Sachidananda R.; Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Dowell, Charles D.; Harper, Doyle A.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Loewenstein, Robert F.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2004-10-01

    We describe the development, construction, and testing of two 384 element arrays of ion-implanted semiconducting cryogenic bolometers designed for use in far-infrared and submillimeter cameras. These two dimensional arrays are assembled from a number of 32 element linear arrays of monolithic Pop-Up bolometer Detectors (PUD) developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. PUD technology allows the construction of large, high filling factor, arrays that make efficient use of available focal plane area in far-infrared and submillimeter astronomical instruments. Such arrays can be used to provide a significant increase in mapping speed over smaller arrays. A prototype array has been delivered and integrated into a ground-based camera, the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC II), a facility instrument at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). A second array has recently been delivered for integration into the High-resolution Airborne Widebandwidth Camera (HAWC), a far-infrared imaging camera for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). HAWC is scheduled for commissioning in 2005.

  4. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a broad overview of the emerging field of gravitational-wave astronomy. Although gravitational waves have not been directly de- tected yet, the worldwide scientific community is engaged in an exciting search for these elusive waves. Once detected, they will open up a new observational window to the Universe.

  5. Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.

  6. Gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In the past year, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration announced the first secure detection of gravitational waves. This discovery heralds the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy: the use of gravitational waves as a tool for studying the dense and dynamical universe. In this talk, I will describe the full spectrum of gravitational waves, from Hubble-scale modes, through waves with periods of years, hours and milliseconds. I will describe the different techniques one uses to measure the waves in these bands, current and planned facilities for implementing these techniques, and the broad range of sources which produce the radiation. I will discuss what we might expect to learn as more events and sources are measured, and as this field matures into a standard part of the astronomical milieu.

  7. Submillimeter Wave Antenna With Slow Wave Feed Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor; Kotiranta, Mikko

    2009-01-01

    Submillimeter wave radiation, which is also referred to as terahertz radiation, has not been extensively explored until recently due to a lack of reliable components and devices in this frequency range. Current advances in technology have made it possible to explore this portion of the electromag...

  8. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is our best classical description of gravity, and informs modern astronomy and astrophysics at all scales: stellar, galactic, and cosmological. Among its surprising predictions is the existence of gravitational waves -- ripples in space-time that carry energy and momentum away from strongly interacting gravitating sources. In my talk, I will give an overview of the properties of this radiation, recent breakthroughs in computational physics allowing us to calculate the waveforms from galactic mergers, and the prospect of direct observation with interferometric detectors such as LIGO and LISA.

  9. Academic Training: Gravitational Waves Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Gravitational Waves Astronomy M. LANDRY, LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, USA Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www...

  10. Linewidth of submillimeter wave flux-flow oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Shitov, S.V.; Shchukin, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    A reliable technique for wide band measurements of the spectral linewidth of superconducting oscillators integrated on-chip with superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) detectors has been, developed, The spectral linewidth of flux-flow oscillators (FFO) based on the unidirectional and visco...... reference source has been demonstrated. The proposed technique may improve the sensitivity, frequency resolution, and stability of the fully superconducting integrated submillimeter wave receiver. (C) 1996 American Institute of Physics....

  11. Academic Training: Gravitational Waves Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Gravitational Waves Astronomy M. LANDRY, LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, USA Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern...

  12. Superconducting submillimeter and millimeter wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahum, M.

    1992-10-20

    The series of projects described in this dissertation was stimulated by the discovery of high temperature superconductivity. Our goal was to develop useful applications which would be competitive with the current state of technology. The high-[Tc] microbolometer was developed into the most sensitive direct detector of millimeter waves, when operated at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The thermal boundary resistance of thin YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]0[sub 7-[delta

  13. Superconducting submillimeter and millimeter wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahum, Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-10-20

    The series of projects described in this dissertation was stimulated by the discovery of high temperature superconductivity. Our goal was to develop useful applications which would be competitive with the current state of technology. The high-Tc microbolometer was developed into the most sensitive direct detector of millimeter waves, when operated at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The thermal boundary resistance of thin YBa2Cu307-δ films was subsequently measured and provided direct evidence for the bolometric response of high-Tc films to fast (ns) laser pulses. The low-Tc microbolometer was developed and used to make the first direct measurements of the frequency dependent optical efficiency of planar lithographed antennas. The hot-electron microbolometer was invented less than a year prior to the writing of this dissertation. Our analysis, presented here, indicates that it should be possible to attain up to two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than that of the best available direct detectors when operated at the same temperature. The temperature readout scheme for this device could also be used to measure the intrinsic interaction between electrons and phonons in a metal with a sensitivity that is five orders of magnitude better than in previous measurements. Preliminary measurements of quasiparticle trapping effects at the interface between a metal and a superconductor are also presented.

  14. InP HEMT Integrated Circuits for Submillimeter Wave Radiometers in Earth Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, William R.; Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    The operating frequency of InP integrated circuits has pushed well into the Submillimeter Wave frequency band, with amplification reported as high as 670 GHz. This paper provides an overview of current performance and potential application of InP HEMT to Submillimeter Wave radiometers for earth remote sensing.

  15. The role of THz and submillimeter wave technology in DHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coty, Thomas; Fuller-Tedeschi, Anna

    2011-06-01

    THz and submillimeter wave technology is of great interest to DHS S&T due to the non-ionizing and clothing penetrating properties of the spectral region. Imaging in the region allows for standoff imaging of concealed threats such as Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) at operationally relevant distances. DHS S&T is investing in this area with the development of components such as detectors and sources for active imaging as well as full sensor systems in the future. The fundamental characterization of the region is also being explored with DHS funding by imaging well-characterized rough surface scattering targets. Analysis of these images will yield data to be used in evaluating assumptions currently made in current performance models. This along with the relevant field applications will be addressed.

  16. Compact Receiver Front Ends for Submillimeter-Wave Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Imran; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Schlecht, Erich T.; Lin, Robert H.; Sin, Seth; Peralta, Alejandro; Lee, Choonsup; Gill, John J.; Gulkis, Samuel; Thomas, Bertrand C.

    2012-01-01

    The current generation of submillimeter-wave instruments is relatively mass and power-hungry. The receiver front ends (RFEs) of a submillimeter instrument form the heart of the instrument, and any mass reduction achieved in this subsystem is propagated through the instrument. In the current implementation, the RFE consists of different blocks for the mixer and LO circuits. The motivation for this work is to reduce the mass of the RFE by integrating the mixer and LO circuits in one waveguide block. The mixer and its associated LO chips will all be packaged in a single waveguide package. This will reduce the mass of the RFE and also provide a number of other advantages. By bringing the mixer and LO circuits close together, losses in the waveguide will be reduced. Moreover, the compact nature of the block will allow for better thermal control of the block, which is important in order to reduce gain fluctuations. A single waveguide block with a 600- GHz RFE functionality (based on a subharmonically pumped Schottky diode pair) has been demonstrated. The block is about 3x3x3 cubic centimeters. The block combines the mixer and multiplier chip in a single package. 3D electromagnetic simulations were carried out to design the waveguide circuit around the mixer and multiplier chip. The circuit is optimized to provide maximum output power and maximum bandwidth. An integrated submillimeter front end featuring a 520-600-GHz sub-harmonic mixer and a 260-300-GHz frequency tripler in a single cavity was tested. Both devices used GaAs MMIC membrane planar Schottky diode technology. The sub-harmonic mixer/tripler circuit has been tested using conventional metal-machined blocks. Measurement results on the metal block give best DSB (double sideband) mixer noise temperature of 2,360 K and conversion losses of 7.7 dB at 520 GHz. The LO input power required to pump the integrated tripler/sub-harmonic mixer is between 30 and 50 mW.

  17. Gravitational Waves and Time Domain Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan; Nissanke, Samaya; Williams, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The gravitational wave window onto the universe will open in roughly five years, when Advanced LIGO and Virgo achieve the first detections of high frequency gravitational waves, most likely coming from compact binary mergers. Electromagnetic follow-up of these triggers, using radio, optical, and high energy telescopes, promises exciting opportunities in multi-messenger time domain astronomy. In the decade, space-based observations of low frequency gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers, and their electromagnetic counterparts, will open up further vistas for discovery. This two-part workshop featured brief presentations and stimulating discussions on the challenges and opportunities presented by gravitational wave astronomy. Highlights from the workshop, with the emphasis on strategies for electromagnetic follow-up, are presented in this report.

  18. Multi-Messenger Astronomy with Gravitational Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sound + images show Bailey was out in the India-Australia match on 12 Jan 2016. Image credit: Rediff / Fox news / Twitter. Page 10. Electromagnetic follow up: the Indian context. Page 11. Multi-Messenger Astronomy with Gravitational Waves | LIGO-G1601377-v2. Varun Bhalerao (IUCAA) | 1 July 2016. 11. 20 – 60 keV:.

  19. Diamond Heat-Spreader for Submillimeter-Wave Frequency Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Robert H.; Schlecht, Erich T.; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, Peter H.; Ward, John S.; Lee, Choonsup; Thomas, Bertrand C.; Maestrini, Alain

    2010-01-01

    The planar GaAs Shottky diode frequency multiplier is a critical technology for the local oscillator (LO) for submillimeter- wave heterodyne receivers due to low mass, tenability, long lifetime, and room-temperature operation. The use of a W-band (75-100 GHz) power amplifier followed by a frequency multiplier is the most common for submillimeter-wave sources. Its greatest challenge is to provide enough input power to the LO for instruments onboard future planetary missions. Recently, JPL produced 800 mW at 92.5 GHz by combining four MMICs in parallel in a balanced configuration. As more power at W-band is available to the multipliers, their power-handling capability be comes more important. High operating temperatures can lead to degradation of conversion efficiency or catastrophic failure. The goal of this innovation is to reduce the thermal resistance by attaching diamond film as a heat-spreader on the backside of multipliers to improve their power-handling capability. Polycrystalline diamond is deposited by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This diamond film acts as a heat-spreader to both the existing 250- and 300-GHz triplers, and has a high thermal conductivity (1,000-1,200 W/mK). It is approximately 2.5 times greater than copper (401 W/mK) and 20 times greater than GaAs (46 W/mK). It is an electrical insulator (resistivity approx. equals 10(exp 15) Ohms-cm), and has a low relative dielectric constant of 5.7. Diamond heat-spreaders reduce by at least 200 C at 250 mW of input power, compared to the tripler without diamond, according to thermal simulation. This superior thermal management provides a 100-percent increase in power-handling capability. For example, with this innovation, 40-mW output power has been achieved from a 250-GHz tripler at 350-mW input power, while the previous triplers, without diamond, suffered catastrophic failures. This breakthrough provides a stepping-stone for frequency multipliers-based LO up to 3 THz. The future work

  20. Gravitational Waves and Multi-Messenger Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational waves are produced by a wide variety of sources throughout the cosmos, including the mergers of black hole and neutron star binaries/compact objects spiraling into central black holes in galactic nuclei, close compact binaries/and phase transitions and quantum fluctuations in the early universe. Observing these signals can bring new, and often very precise, information about their sources across vast stretches of cosmic time. In this talk we will focus on thee opening of this gravitational-wave window on the universe, highlighting new opportunities for discovery and multi-messenger astronomy.

  1. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-12-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

  2. Mu-Spec: A High Performance Compact Spectrometer for Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas; Brown, Ari; Patel, Amil; U-yen, Kongpop; Ehsan, Negar; Cataldo, Giuseppe; Wollack, Ed

    2012-01-01

    We describe the Mu-Spec, an extremely compact high performance spectrometer for the submillimeter and millimeter spectral ranges. We have designed a fully integrated submillimeter spectrometer based on superconducting microstrip technology and fabricated its critical elements. Using low loss transmission lines, we can produce a fully integrated high resolution submillimeter spectrometer on a single four inch Si wafer. A resolution of 500 can readily be achieved with standard fabrication tolerance, higher with phase trimming. All functions of the spectrometer are integrated - light is coupled to the microstrip circuit with a planar antenna, the spectra discrimination is achieved using a synthetic grating, orders are separated using a built-in planar filter, and the light is detected using photon counting Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKID). We will discus the design principle of the instrument, describe its technical advantages, and report the progress on the development of the instrument.

  3. Micro-Spec: A High Performance Compact Spectrometer for Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas; Brown, Ari; Patel, Amil; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ehsan, Negar; Caltado, Giuseppe; Wollock, Edward

    2012-01-01

    We describe the micro-Spec, an extremely compact high performance spectrometer for the submillimeter and millimeter spectral ranges. We have designed a fully integrated submillimeter spectrometer based on superconducting microstrip technology and fabricated its critical elements. Using low loss transmission lines, we can produce a fully integrated high resolution submillimeter spectrometer on a single four inch Si wafer. A resolution of 500 can readily be achieved with standard fabrication tolerance, higher with phase trimming. All functions of the spectrometer are integrated - light is coupled to the micro strip circuit with a planar antenna, the spectra discrimination is achieved using a synthetic grating, orders are separated using a built-in planar filter, and the light is detected using photon counting Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKID). We will discus the design principle of the instrument, describe its technical advantages, and report the progress on the development of the instrument.

  4. Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Roman; Mavalvala, Nergis; McClelland, David E; Lam, Ping K

    2010-11-16

    Einstein's general theory of relativity predicts that accelerating mass distributions produce gravitational radiation, analogous to electromagnetic radiation from accelerating charges. These gravitational waves (GWs) have not been directly detected to date, but are expected to open a new window to the Universe once the detectors, kilometre-scale laser interferometers measuring the distance between quasi-free-falling mirrors, have achieved adequate sensitivity. Recent advances in quantum metrology may now contribute to provide the required sensitivity boost. The so-called squeezed light is able to quantum entangle the high-power laser fields in the interferometer arms, and could have a key role in the realization of GW astronomy.

  5. Fabrication of an absorber-coupled MKID detector and readout for sub-millimeter and far-infrared astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari-David; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-07-01

    We have fabricated absorber-coupled microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) arrays for sub-millimeter and farinfrared astronomy. Each detector array is comprised of λ/2 stepped impedance resonators, a 1.5μm thick silicon membrane, and 380μm thick silicon walls. The resonators consist of parallel plate aluminum transmission lines coupled to low impedance Nb microstrip traces of variable length, which set the resonant frequency of each resonator. This allows for multiplexed microwave readout and, consequently, good spatial discrimination between pixels in the array. The Al transmission lines simultaneously act to absorb optical power and are designed to have a surface impedance and filling fraction so as to match the impedance of free space. Our novel fabrication techniques demonstrate high fabrication yield of MKID arrays on large single crystal membranes and sub-micron front-to-back alignment of the microstrip circuit.

  6. Fabrication of an Absorber-Coupled MKID Detector and Readout for Sub-Millimeter and Far-Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari-David; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We have fabricated absorber-coupled microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) arrays for sub-millimeter and farinfrared astronomy. Each detector array is comprised of lambda/2 stepped impedance resonators, a 1.5µm thick silicon membrane, and 380µm thick silicon walls. The resonators consist of parallel plate aluminum transmission lines coupled to low impedance Nb microstrip traces of variable length, which set the resonant frequency of each resonator. This allows for multiplexed microwave readout and, consequently, good spatial discrimination between pixels in the array. The Al transmission lines simultaneously act to absorb optical power and are designed to have a surface impedance and filling fraction so as to match the impedance of free space. Our novel fabrication techniques demonstrate high fabrication yield of MKID arrays on large single crystal membranes and sub-micron front-to-back alignment of the microstrip circuit.

  7. Mu-Spec - A High Performance Ultra-Compact Photon Counting spectrometer for Space Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, H.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Stevenson, T.; Wollack, E.; Brown, A.; Benford, D.; Sadleir; U-Yen, I.; Ehsan, N.; Zmuidzinas, J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We have designed and are testing elements of a fully integrated submillimeter spectrometer based on superconducting microstrip technology. The instrument can offer resolving power R approximately 1500, and its high frequency cutoff is set by the gap of available high performance superconductors. All functions of the spectrometer are integrated - light is coupled to the microstrip circuit with a planar antenna, the spectra discrimination is achieved using a synthetic grating, orders are separated using planar filter, and detected using photon counting MKID detector. This spectrometer promises to revolutionize submillimeter spectroscopy from space. It replaces instruments with the scale of 1m with a spectrometer on a 10 cm Si wafer. The reduction in mass and volume promises a much higher performance system within available resource in a space mission. We will describe the system and the performance of the components that have been fabricated and tested.

  8. A submillimeter VLBI array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weintroub, Jonathan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States)], E-mail: jweintroub@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    A VLBI array operating at {lambda} 1.3 mm and 0.8 mm is being designed using existing submillimeter telescopes as ad-hoc stations. Initial three station {lambda} = 1.3 mm observations of SgrA* and other AGN have produced remarkable results, which are reported by Doeleman elsewhere in this proceedings. Future observations are planned with an enhanced array which has longer baselines, more stations, and greater sensitivity. At {lambda} = 0.8 mm and on the long baselines, the array will have about a 20 {mu}as angular resolution which equals the diameter of the event horizon of the massive black hole in SgrA*. Candidate single dish facilities include the Arizona Radio Observatory Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) in Arizona, the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) and the James Clerk Maxwell telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii, the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) in Mexico, ASTE and APEX in Chile, and the IRAM 30 m in Spain; interferometers include the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in Hawaii, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) in California, IRAM PdB Interferometer in France, and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile. I will discuss the techniques we have developed for phasing interferometric arrays to act as single VLBI station. A strategy for detection of short (10s) time-scale source variability using VLBI closure phase will be described.

  9. Novel transmission lines for the submillimeter-wave region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1992-01-01

    Accounts are given of the two approaches to the design of low-loss sub-mm-wave transmission lines for intelligent computer control guidance, command systems for space applications, and sensors operating in an optically opaque environment. These are: (1) the extension of the mm-wave monolithic technology to higher frequencies, although this approach is restricted to the lower end of the sub-mm spectrum, up to 500 GHz, due to ohmic losses; and (2) the extension of optical techniques to lower frequencies. This second approach is also limited, to the higher end of the sub-mm spectrum. Available characterizations of these technologies' electrical properties are presented.

  10. Astrophysical Model Selection in Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew R.; Cornish, Neil J.; Littenberg, Tyson B.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical studies in gravitational wave astronomy have mostly focused on the information that can be extracted from individual detections, such as the mass of a binary system and its location in space. Here we consider how the information from multiple detections can be used to constrain astrophysical population models. This seemingly simple problem is made challenging by the high dimensionality and high degree of correlation in the parameter spaces that describe the signals, and by the complexity of the astrophysical models, which can also depend on a large number of parameters, some of which might not be directly constrained by the observations. We present a method for constraining population models using a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach which simultaneously infers the source parameters and population model and provides the joint probability distributions for both. We illustrate this approach by considering the constraints that can be placed on population models for galactic white dwarf binaries using a future space-based gravitational wave detector. We find that a mission that is able to resolve approximately 5000 of the shortest period binaries will be able to constrain the population model parameters, including the chirp mass distribution and a characteristic galaxy disk radius to within a few percent. This compares favorably to existing bounds, where electromagnetic observations of stars in the galaxy constrain disk radii to within 20%.

  11. Promise and Progress of Millihertz Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2017-01-01

    Extending the new field of gravitational wave (GW) astronomy into the millihertz band with a space-based GW observatory is a high-priority objective of international astronomy community. This paper summarizes the astrophysical promise and the technological groundwork for such an observatory, concretely focusing on the prospects for the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission concept.

  12. Micro-Spec: An Ultracompact, High-sensitivity Spectrometer for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chung; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    High-performance, integrated spectrometers operating in the far-infrared and submillimeter ranges promise to be powerful tools for the exploration of the epochs of reionization and initial galaxy formation. These devices, using high-efficiency superconducting transmission lines, can achieve the performance of a meter-scale grating spectrometer in an instrument implemented on a 4 inch silicon wafer. Such a device, when combined with a cryogenic telescope in space, provides an enabling capability for studies of the early universe. Here, the optical design process for Micro-Spec (micron-Spec) is presented, with particular attention given to its two-dimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the stigmatization and minimization of the light path function in this bounded region, which results in an optimized geometrical configuration. A point design with an efficiency of (is) approximately 90% has been developed for initial demonstration and can serve as the basis for future instruments. Design variations on this implementation are also discussed, which can lead to lower efficiencies due to diffractive losses in the multimode region.

  13. Gravitational wave astronomy with radio galaxy surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccanelli, Alvise

    2017-07-01

    In the next decade, new astrophysical instruments will deliver the first large-scale maps of gravitational waves (GWs) and radio sources. Therefore, it is timely to investigate the possibility to combine them to provide new and complementary ways to study the Universe. Using simulated catalogues appropriate to the planned surveys, it is possible to predict measurements of the cross-correlation between radio sources and GW maps and the effects of a stochastic GW background on galaxy maps. Effects of GWs on the large-scale structure (LSS) of the Universe can be used to investigate the nature of the progenitors of merging black holes, the validity of Einstein's general relativity, models for dark energy and detect a stochastic background of GW. The results obtained show that the galaxy-GW cross-correlation can provide useful information in the near future, while the detection of tensor perturbation effects on the LSS will require instruments with capabilities beyond the currently planned next generation of radio arrays. Nevertheless, any information from the combination of galaxy surveys with the GW maps will help provide additional information for the newly born GW astronomy.

  14. The next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Miao, HaiXing; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Hammond, Giles; Paik, Ho Jung; Fafone, Viviana; Rocchi, Alessio; Blair, Carl; Ma, YiQiu; Qin, JiaYi; Page, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on the next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy which will be required after the current ground based detectors have completed their initial observations, and probably achieved the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The next detectors will need to have greater sensitivity, while also enabling the world array of detectors to have improved angular resolution to allow localisation of signal sources. Sect. 1 of this paper begins by reviewing proposals for the next ground based detectors, and presents an analysis of the sensitivity of an 8 km armlength detector, which is proposed as a safe and cost-effective means to attain a 4-fold improvement in sensitivity. The scientific benefits of creating a pair of such detectors in China and Australia is emphasised. Sect. 2 of this paper discusses the high performance suspension systems for test masses that will be an essential component for future detectors, while sect. 3 discusses solutions to the problem of Newtonian noise which arise from fluctuations in gravity gradient forces acting on test masses. Such gravitational perturbations cannot be shielded, and set limits to low frequency sensitivity unless measured and suppressed. Sects. 4 and 5 address critical operational technologies that will be ongoing issues in future detectors. Sect. 4 addresses the design of thermal compensation systems needed in all high optical power interferometers operating at room temperature. Parametric instability control is addressed in sect. 5. Only recently proven to occur in Advanced LIGO, parametric instability phenomenon brings both risks and opportunities for future detectors. The path to future enhancements of detectors will come from quantum measurement technologies. Sect. 6 focuses on the use of optomechanical devices for obtaining enhanced sensitivity, while sect. 7 reviews a range of quantum measurement options.

  15. Micro-Spec: an Integrated, Direct-Detection Spectrometer for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter portions of the electromagnetic spectrum provide a unique view of the astrophysical processes present in the early universe. Our ability to fully explore this rich spectral region has been limited, however, by the size and cost of the cryogenic spectrometers required to carry out such measurements. Micro-Spec (u-Spec) is a high-sensitivity, direct-detection spectrometer concept working in the 450-1000 micromillimeter wavelength range which will enable a wide range of flight missions that would otherwise be challenging due to the large size of current instruments with the required spectral resolution and sensitivity. The spectrometer design utilizes two internal antenna arrays, one for transmitting and one for receiving, superconducting microstrip transmission lines for power division and phase delay, and an array of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) to achieve these goals. The instrument will be integrated on a approximately 10 square cm silicon chip and can therefore become an important capability under the low background conditions accessible via space and high-altitude borne platforms. In this paper, an optical design methodology for Micro-Spec is presented, with particular attention given to its twodimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the maximization of the instrument resolving power and minimization of the RMS phase error on the instrument focal plane. This two-step optimization can generate geometrical configurations given specific requirements on spectrometer size, operating spectral range and performance. A point design with resolving power of 257, an RMS phase error less than 0.1 radians and four stigmatic points was developed for initial demonstration and will be the basis of future instruments with resolving power up to about 1200.

  16. Observational Approach to Molecular Cloud Evolutation with the Submillimeter-Wave CI Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, T.; Yamamoto, S.

    Neutral carbon atoms (CI) play important roles both in chemistry and cooling processes of interstellar molecular clouds. It is thus crucial to explore its large area distribution to obtain information on formation processes and thermal balance of molecular clouds. However, observations of the submillimeter-wave CI lines have been limited to small areas around some representative objects. We have constructed a 1.2 m submillimeter-wave telescope at the summit of Mt.Fuji. The telescope was designed for the exclusive use of surveying molecular clouds in two submillimeter-wave CI lines, 3 P1 -3 P0 (492GHz) and 3 P2 -3 P1 (809 GHz), of atomic carbon. A superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer receiver was equipped on the Nasmyth focus of the telescope. The receiver noise temperatures [Trx(DSB)] are 300 K and 1000 K for the 492 GHz and the 809 GHz mixers, respectively. The intermediate frequency is centered at 2 GHz, having a 700 MHz bandwidth. An acousto-optical spectrometer (AOS) with 1024 channel outputs is used as a receiver backend. The telescope was installed at Nishi-yasugawara (alt. 3725 m), which is 200 m north of the highest peak, Kengamine (3776 m), in July 1998. It has b en operatede successfully during 4 observing seasons in a remote way from the Hongo campus of the University of Tokyo. We have already observed more than 40 square degrees of the sky with the CI 492 GHz line. The distribution of CI emission is found to be different from those of the 13 CO or C1 8 O emission in some clouds. These differences are discussed in relation to formation processes of molecular clouds.

  17. Study of optical output couplers for submillimeter wavelength backward-wave oscillators (BWO's)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jerry D.; Stankiewicz, Norbert; Podany, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Several scaled experiments of optical output couplers for submillimeter backward-wave oscillators (BWOs). Various designs of planar antennas (Vivaldi horns) lens-feed systems (hyperhemispherical lens) were constructed and tested between 20 and 100 GHz using a spectrum analyzer. The lens system was also tested at 337 GHz using a CO2 pumped FIR laser. It is found that Vivaldi horns have unsatisfactory resonances, perhaps because the horns studied were relatively short. Several techniques to maximize and flatten the frequency response of these horns are presented. The results suggest that alternate coupling schemes are superior to Vivaldi horns.

  18. Gravitational wave detectors: New eyes for physics and astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several interferometric gravitational wave detectors around the world are now starting to achieve better sensitivity to gravitational waves than ever before. We describe the prospects these detectors offer for physics and astronomy and review the rapid progress and the present status of the detectors' sensitivities. We also ...

  19. Source modelling at the dawn of gravitational-wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Davide

    2016-09-01

    The age of gravitational-wave astronomy has begun. Gravitational waves are propagating spacetime perturbations ("ripples in the fabric of space-time") predicted by Einstein's theory of General Relativity. These signals propagate at the speed of light and are generated by powerful astrophysical events, such as the merger of two black holes and supernova explosions. The first detection of gravitational waves was performed in 2015 with the LIGO interferometers. This constitutes a tremendous breakthrough in fundamental physics and astronomy: it is not only the first direct detection of such elusive signals, but also the first irrefutable observation of a black-hole binary system. The future of gravitational-wave astronomy is bright and loud: the LIGO experiments will soon be joined by a network of ground-based interferometers; the space mission eLISA has now been fully approved by the European Space Agency with a proof-of-concept mission called LISA Pathfinder launched in 2015. Gravitational-wave observations will provide unprecedented tests of gravity as well as a qualitatively new window on the Universe. Careful theoretical modelling of the astrophysical sources of gravitational-waves is crucial to maximize the scientific outcome of the detectors. In this Thesis, we present several advances on gravitational-wave source modelling, studying in particular: (i) the precessional dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries; (ii) the astrophysical consequences of black-hole recoils; and (iii) the formation of compact objects in the framework of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. All these phenomena are deeply characterized by a continuous interplay between General Relativity and astrophysics: despite being a truly relativistic messenger, gravitational waves encode details of the astrophysical formation and evolution processes of their sources. We work out signatures and predictions to extract such information from current and future observations. At the dawn of a revolutionary

  20. Metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate for use at submillimeter wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Giampaolo; Savini, Giorgio; Ade, Peter A R; Haynes, Vic

    2008-11-20

    A metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate (HWP) has been designed, manufactured, and tested for potential use in millimeter and submillimeter astronomical instruments. The prototype device presented here is based on a 12-grid Shatrow [IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 109 (1995)] recipe to operate over the frequency range of 120-180 GHz. Transmission line modeling and finite-element analysis [Ansoft HFSS website: http://www.ansoft.com/hfss/] were used to optimize the design geometrical parameters in terms of the device transmission, reflection, absorption, phase-shift, and cross-polarization as a function of frequency. The resulting prototype device was constructed and characterized using incoherent radiation from a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer to explore its frequency and polarization behavior. These measurements are shown to be in excellent agreement with the models. Lists of the achieved HWP performance characteristics are reported.

  1. EPR and AFMR of Bi2CuO4 in Submillimeter Wave Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Matsuya, Takashi; Nanba, Takao; Motokawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Kazuyoshi; Endoh, Yasuo; Hosoya, Shoichi

    1992-08-01

    Paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic resonance have been observed in single crystals of Bi2CuO4 in submillimeter wave region using pulsed magnetic fields at temperatures from 4.2 K to 265 K. At the paramagnetic state, g-values have been determined to be g//{=}2.26± 0.01 and g\\bot{=}2.04± 0.01. The angular independent line-widths are 0.37± 0.03 T which is quantitatively explained by the dipole interaction and anisotropic exchange interaction. An antiferromagnetic resonance mode of planer type antiferromagnet has been observed below the Néel temperature and explained by the conventional antiferromagnetic theory.

  2. A low-cost fabrication method for sub-millimeter wave GaAs Schottky diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenabi, Sarvenaz; Deslandes, Dominic; Boone, Francois; Charlebois, Serge A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a submillimeter-wave Schottky diode is designed and simulated. Effect of Schottky layer thickness on cut-off frequency is studied. A novel microfabrication process is proposed and implemented. The presented microfabrication process avoids electron-beam (e-beam) lithography which reduces the cost. Also, this process provides more flexibility in selection of design parameters and allows significant reduction in the device parasitic capacitance. A key feature of the process is that the Schottky contact, the air-bridges, and the transmission lines, are fabricated in a single lift-off step. This process relies on a planarization method that is suitable for trenches of 1-10 μm deep and is tolerant to end-point variations. The fabricated diode is measured and results are compared with simulations. A very good agreement between simulation and measurement results are observed.

  3. Advanced Amplifier Based Receiver Front Ends for Submillimeter-Wave-Sounders Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier based heterodyne radiometers to provide high sensitivity at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths with...

  4. The dawn of gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    On Sep 14 2015, gravitational waves were for the first time detected directly. This observation by the LIGO interferometric detectors marks the dawn of a new era in our observational study of the cosmos as a qualitatively new window to its exploration has been opened. This talk reviews some of the fundamental concepts of gravitational waves and the methodology employed for their observation. The first event, dubbed GW150914, and the properties of its source, as inferred from the observation, will be discussed. The talk concludes with a selected set of the most important topics where we expect gravitational-wave observations to deepen and either challenge or confirm our present understanding of the laws and the history of our universe.

  5. Primordial black holes—perspectives in gravitational wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Misao; Suyama, Teruaki; Tanaka, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro

    2018-03-01

    This article reviews current understanding of primordial black holes (PBHs), with particular focus on those massive examples (≳ 1015~g ) which remain at the present epoch, not having evaporated through Hawking radiation. With the detection of gravitational waves by LIGO, we have gained a completely novel observational tool to search for PBHs, complementary to those using electromagnetic waves. Taking the perspective that gravitational-wave astronomy will make significant progress in the coming decades, the purpose of this article is to give a comprehensive review covering a wide range of topics on PBHs. After discussing PBH formation, as well as several inflation models leading to PBH production, we summarize various existing and future observational constraints. We then present topics on formation of PBH binaries, gravitational waves from PBH binaries, and various observational tests of PBHs using gravitational waves.

  6. T-shaped emitter metal heterojunction bipolar transistors for submillimeter wave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Andy; Samoska, Lorene; Velebir, Jim; Siege, Peter; Rodwell, Mark; Paidi, Vamsi; Griffth, Zach; Urteaga, Miguel; Malik, Roger

    2004-01-01

    We report on the development of submillimeter wave transistors at JPL. The goal of the effort is to produce advance-reliable high frequency and high power amplifiers, voltage controlled oscillators, active multipliers, and high-speed mixed-signal circuits for space borne applications. The technology in development to achieve this is based on the Indium Phosphide (InP) Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT). The HBT is well suited for high speed, high power and uniform (across wafer) performance, due to the ability to tailor the material structure that electrons traverse through by well-controlled epitaxial growth methods. InP with its compatible lattice matched alloys such as indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and indium aluminium arsenide (InAlAs) provides for high electron velocities and high voltage breakdown capabilities. The epitaxial methods for this material system are fairly mature, however the implementation of high performance and reliable transistors are still under development by many laboratories. Our most recently fabricated, second generation mesa HBTs at JPL have extrapolated current gain cutoff frequency (FJ of 142GHz and power gain cutoff frequency (Fm,) of approximately 160GHz. This represents a 13% and 33% improvement of Ft and F, respectively, compared to the first generation mesa HBTs [l]. Analysis based on the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) device model, RF device characteristics can be significantly improved by reducing base contact resistance and base metal contact width. We will describe our effort towards increasing transistor performance and yield.

  7. Demonstration of a phase-lockable microwave to submillimeter wave sweeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltman, Steve B.; Hollberg, Leo W.; McIntosh, Alexander K.; Brown, Elliott R.

    1996-12-01

    The development of low-temperature-grown GaAs photomixers enables the construction of a microwave to submillimeter- wave source capable of large frequency sweeps. By utilizing semiconductor diode lasers to drive the photomixer, this source is all solid-state and compact, and has small power consumption. Frequency stabilization of the semiconductor diode lasers allows this source to be phase-locked to an external microwave reference. Two 805 nm extended-cavity- diode lasers are mixed in a low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductive photomixer. The difference-frequency mixing product is radiated by a planar spiral antenna and collimated by a Si lens. This output is phase-locked to a microwave reference by downconverting it in a whisker- contacted Schottky-barrier diode harmonic mixer and using the output to offset-phase-lock one laser to the other. The photomixer output power is 300 nW at 200 GHz and 10 nW at 1.6 THz, as measured by a 4 K InSb bolometer calibrated with a methanol laser and a power meter at 526 and 812 GHz.

  8. Gravitational wave astronomy— astronomy of the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    An enigmatic prediction of Einstein's general theory of relativity is gravitational waves. With the observed decay in the orbit of the Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar agreeing within a fraction of a percent with the theoretically computed decay from Einstein's theory, the existence of gravitational waves was firmly established. Currently there is a worldwide effort to detect gravitational waves with inteferometric gravitational wave observatories or detectors and several such detectors have been built or are being built. The initial detectors have reached their design sensitivities and now the effort is on to construct advanced detectors which are expected to detect gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. The era of gravitational wave astronomy has arrived. This article describes the worldwide effort which includes the effort on the Indian front— the IndIGO project —, the principle underlying interferometric detectors both on ground and in space, the principal noise sources that plague such detectors, the astrophysical sources of gravitational waves that one expects to detect by these detectors and some glimpse of the data analysis methods involved in extracting the very weak gravitational wave signals from detector noise.

  9. Superconducting Resonator Spectrometer for Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wave Astrophysics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "We propose to develop a novel ultra-compact spectrograph-on-a-chip for the submillimeter and millimeter waveband. SuperSpec uses planar lithographed superconducting...

  10. The birth of the gravitational-wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, Eugenio

    2017-05-01

    Last years marked the beginning of a new era of observations of the Universe. Gravitational waves were detected from a binary black-hole merger by the Advanced LIGO detectors. Simultaneously, LISA Pathfinder demonstrated the technology for gravitational-wave observation in space beyond its planned requirements. Many gravitational observations and discoveries are expected in the next years with the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, with strong impact on various astrophysical fields, from the physics governing compact object formation and evolution to the physics of the emission process and to nuclear astrophysics. I summarize here some historical milestones that led to the first detection and report the perspectives of the field. I also discuss the importance of the so-called multimessenger astronomy in which gravitational-wave sources will be observed in all bands of the electromagnetic spectrum with ground and space observatories and with neutrino telescopes.

  11. Gravitational wave astrophysics, data analysis and multimessenger astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Mok; Le Bigot, Eric-Olivier; Du, ZhiHui; Lin, ZhangXi; Guo, XiangYu; Wen, LinQing; Phukon, Khun Sang; Pandey, Vihan; Bose, Sukanta; Fan, Xi-Long; Hendry, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews gravitational wave sources and their detection. One of the most exciting potential sources of gravitational waves are coalescing binary black hole systems. They can occur on all mass scales and be formed in numerous ways, many of which are not understood. They are generally invisible in electromagnetic waves, and they provide opportunities for deep investigation of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Sect. 1 of this paper considers ways that binary black holes can be created in the universe, and includes the prediction that binary black hole coalescence events are likely to be the first gravitational wave sources to be detected. The next parts of this paper address the detection of chirp waveforms from coalescence events in noisy data. Such analysis is computationally intensive. Sect. 2 reviews a new and powerful method of signal detection based on the GPUimplemented summed parallel infinite impulse response filters. Such filters are intrinsically real time alorithms, that can be used to rapidly detect and localise signals. Sect. 3 of the paper reviews the use of GPU processors for rapid searching for gravitational wave bursts that can arise from black hole births and coalescences. In sect. 4 the use of GPU processors to enable fast efficient statistical significance testing of gravitational wave event candidates is reviewed. Sect. 5 of this paper addresses the method of multimessenger astronomy where the discovery of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave events can be used to identify sources, understand their nature and obtain much greater science outcomes from each identified event.

  12. Ionospheric wave and irregularity measurements using passive radio astronomy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, W. C.; Mahoney, M. J.; Jacobson, A. R.; Knowles, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    The observation of midlatitude structures using passive radio astronomy techniques is discussed, with particular attention being given to the low-frequency radio telescope at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory. The present telescope operates in the 10-125-MHz frequency range. Observations of the ionosphere at separations of a few kilometers to a few hundreds of kilometers by the lines of sight to sources are possible, allowing the determination of the amplitude, wavelength, direction of propagation, and propagation speed of ionospheric waves. Data are considered on large-scale ionospheric gradients and the two-dimensional shapes and sizes of ionospheric irregularities.

  13. A retrieval algorithm of hydrometer profile for submillimeter-wave radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuli; Buehler, Stefan; Liu, Heguang

    2017-04-01

    Vertical profiles of particle microphysics perform vital functions for the estimation of climatic feedback. This paper proposes a new algorithm to retrieve the profile of the parameters of the hydrometeor(i.e., ice, snow, rain, liquid cloud, graupel) based on passive submillimeter-wave measurements. These parameters include water content and particle size. The first part of the algorithm builds the database and retrieves the integrated quantities. Database is built up by Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator(ARTS), which uses atmosphere data to simulate the corresponding brightness temperature. Neural network, trained by the precalculated database, is developed to retrieve the water path for each type of particles. The second part of the algorithm analyses the statistical relationship between water path and vertical parameters profiles. Based on the strong dependence existing between vertical layers in the profiles, Principal Component Analysis(PCA) technique is applied. The third part of the algorithm uses the forward model explicitly to retrieve the hydrometeor profiles. Cost function is calculated in each iteration, and Differential Evolution(DE) algorithm is used to adjust the parameter values during the evolutionary process. The performance of this algorithm is planning to be verified for both simulation database and measurement data, by retrieving profiles in comparison with the initial one. Results show that this algorithm has the ability to retrieve the hydrometeor profiles efficiently. The combination of ARTS and optimization algorithm can get much better results than the commonly used database approach. Meanwhile, the concept that ARTS can be used explicitly in the retrieval process shows great potential in providing solution to other retrieval problems.

  14. Hacking for astronomy: can 3D printers and open-hardware enable low-cost sub-/millimeter instrumentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    2014-07-01

    There have been several exciting developments in the technologies commonly used n in the hardware hacking community. Advances in low cost additive-manufacturing processes (i.e. 3D-printers) and the development of openhardware projects, which have produced inexpensive and easily programmable micro-controllers and micro-computers (i.e. Arduino and Raspberry Pi) have opened a new door for individuals seeking to make their own devices. Here we describe the potential for these technologies to reduce costs in construction and development of submillimeter/millimeter astronomical instrumentation. Specifically we have begun a program to measure the optical properties of the custom plastics used in 3D-printers as well as the printer accuracy and resolution to assess the feasibility of directly printing sub- /millimeter transmissive optics. We will also discuss low cost designs for cryogenic temperature measurement and control utilizing Arduino and Raspberry Pi.

  15. Gravitational Wave Astronomy Using Pulsars: Massive Black Hole Mergers and the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational Wave Astronomy Using Pulsars: Massive Black Hole Mergers & the Early Universe A White Paper for the Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gravitational Wave Astronomy Using Pulsars: Massive Black Hole Mergers & the Early...in the pulsar timing band will tell us whether MBHs formed through accretion and/or merger events. 3. What is the structure of individual MBH binary

  16. Micro-Spec: An Ultra-Compact, High-Sensitivity Spectrometer for Far-Infrared and Sub-Millimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chung; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    High-performance, integrated spectrometers operating in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter promise to be powerful tools for the exploration of the epochs of reionization and initial galaxy formation. These devices, using high-efficiency superconducting transmission lines, can achieve the performance of a meter-scale grating spectrometer in an instrument implemented on a four-inch silicon wafer. Such a device, when combined with a cryogenic telescope in space, provides an enabling capability for studies of the early universe. Here, the optical design process for Micro-Spec (mu-Spec) is presented, with particular attention given to its two-dimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the stigmatization and minimization of the light path function in this bounded region, which results in an optimized geometrical configuration. A point design with an efficiency of approx. 90% has been developed for initial demonstration, and can serve as the basis for future instruments. Design variations on this implementation are also discussed, which can lead to lower efficiencies due to diffractive losses in the multimode region.

  17. Solar Flash Sub-Millimeter Wave Range Spectrum Part Radiation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Shustikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, solar flares are under observation on the RT-7.5 radio telescope of BMSTU. This telescope operates in a little-studied range of the spectrum, at wavelengths of 3.2 and 2.2 mm (93 and 140 GHz, thereby providing unique information about parameters of the chromosphere plasma and zone of the temperature minimum. Observations on various instruments provided relatively small amount of data on the radio emission flare at frequencies close to 93 GHz, and at frequency of 140 GHz such observations were not carried out. For these reasons, data collected from the RT-7.5 radio telescope are of high value (Shustikov et al., 2012.This work describes modeling and gives interpretation of the reason for raising flux density spectrum of sub-millimeter radio frequency emission using as an example the GOES flare of class M 5.3 occurred on 04.07.2012 in the active region 11515. This flare was observed on the RT-7.5 radio telescope of BMSTU and was described by Shustikov et al. (2012 and by Smirnova et al. (2013, where it has been suggested that the reason for raising radio frequency emission is a bremsstrahlung of the thermal electrons in the hot plasma of the solar chromosphere. Rough estimates of the plasma temperature at the flare source were obtained.This paper proposes model calculations of the flux density spectrum of the sub-millimeter radio emission based on the gyrosynchrotron Fleischman-Kuznetsov code (Fleishman & Kuznetsov, 2010. Section 1 briefly describes observational data, tools and processing methods used in the work. Section 2 shows results of modeling the flare radio emission. Section 3 discusses results and conclusions.Numerical modeling the sub-millimeter part of the spectrum of the radio flux density for the GOES flare of class M5.3 has been carried out. This flare occurred in the active region 11515 on 04.07.2012. Modeling was based on the observations on the BMSTU’s RT-7.5 radio telescope.The paper draws conclusion based on the

  18. Superconducting Coplanar Waveguide Filters for Submillimeter Wave On-Chip Filterbank Spectrometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endo, A.; Yates, S. J. C.; Bueno, J.; Thoen, D. J.; Murugesan, V.; Baryshev, A. M.; Klapwijk, T. M.; van der Werf, P. P.; Baselmans, J. J. A.

    2016-01-01

    We show the first experimental results which prove that superconducting NbTiN coplanar-waveguide resonators can achieve a loaded Q factor in excess of 800 in the 350 GHz band. These resonators can be used as narrow band pass filters for on-chip filter bank spectrometers for astronomy. Moreover, the

  19. Superconducting Coplanar Waveguide Filters for Submillimeter Wave On-Chip Filterbank Spectrometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endo, A.; Yates, S.J.C.; Bueno, J.; Thoen, D.J.; Murugesan, V.; Baryshev, A.M.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Van der Werf, P.P.; Baselmans, J.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    We show the first experimental results which prove that superconducting NbTiN coplanar–waveguide resonators can achieve a loaded Q factor in excess of 800 in the 350 GHz band. These resonators can be used as narrow band pass filters for on-chip filter bank spectrometers for astronomy. Moreover, the

  20. A Compact 600 GHz Electronically Tunable Vector Measurement System for Submillimeter Wave Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, Robert; Maiwald, Frank; Siegel, Peter H.

    2006-01-01

    The design of a complete vector measurement system being tested over 560-635 GHz is presented. The topics include: 1) Current State-of-the-Art in Vector Measurements; 2) Submillimeter Active Imaging Requirements; 3) 600 GHz Vector Measurement System; 4) 450 MHz IF Signal; 5) 450 MHz IF signal @ 1 kHz Res. BW; 6) 450 MHz IF Signal Mixed with Shifted 450 MHz Reference Signal; 7) Reference Signal Offset Generator; 8) Cavity Bandpass Filter; 9) Miniature Multistage Helical Filter; 10) X36 450 MHz Multiplier; 11) 600 GHz Test Setup; 12) 600 GHz Transmit Module; 13) 600 GHz Receive Module; 14) Performance Tests: Amplitude Stability & Dynamic Range; 15) Performance Tests: Phase Stability; 16) Stability at Imaging Bandwidths; 17) Phase Measurement Verification; and 18) The Next Step: Imaging.

  1. ASTRONOMY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR A UNIT ON ASTRONOMY ESTABLISHES (1) UNDERSTANDINGS AND ATTITUDES, (2) SKILLS, AND (3) CONCEPTS TO BE GAINED IN THE STUDY. THE OVERVIEW EXPLAINS THE ORGANIZATION AND OBJECTIVES OF THE UNIT. TOPICAL DIVISIONS ARE (1) THE EARTH, (2) THE MOON, (3) THE SUN, (4) THE SOLAR SYSTEM, (5) THE STARS, (6) THE UNIVERSE, AND (7) SPACE…

  2. Introduction. Progress in astronomy: from gravitational waves to space weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J Michael T

    2008-12-13

    This brief paper introduces and reviews the 'visions of the future' articles prepared by leading young scientists throughout the world for the first of two Christmas 2008 Triennial issues of Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, devoted, respectively, to astronomy and Earth science. Contributions in astronomy include the very topical gamma-ray bursts, new ideas on stellar collapse and the unusual atmospheres of synchronized planets orbiting nearby stars.

  3. Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Seymour, Percy

    2014-01-01

    With a blend of exciting discoveries and important scientific theory,this innovative and readable introduction to astronomy is ideal for anyone who wants to understand what we know about the universe,and how we know it. Each chapter starts with details of a method of jow astronomers over time have observed the world,and then uses this as a springboard to discuss what they discovered,and why this was important for understanding the cosmos. The last chapter,on dark matter,also focuses on the many things we don''t yet know - reminding us that astronomy,like this book,is a fast-paced and fascinati

  4. Submillimeter wave GaAs Schottky diode application based study and optimization for 0.1-1.5 THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenabi, Sarvenaz; Malekabadi, Ali; Deslandes, Dominic; Boone, Francois; Charlebois, Serge A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a design and optimization method for submillimeter-wave Schottky diode is proposed. Parasitic capacitance is significantly reduced to under 20% of the total capacitance of the diode. The parasitic capacitance value is measured to be 0.6 fF for 1 μm anode radius which increased the cut-off frequency to 1.5 THz. A corresponding microfabrication process that provides higher degrees of freedom for the anode diameter, air-bridge dimensions and distance to the substrate is introduced and implemented. The DC and RF measurements are provided and compared with the simulations. In order to provide a better understanding of the diode behavior, the limiting factors of the cut-off frequency for different applications are studied and compared. For the mixer/multiplier mode, an improved and expanded formulation for calculation of the cut-off frequency is introduced. It is shown that the usable voltage bias range (with acceptable cut-off frequency) is limited by the exponential reduction of junction resistance, Rj , in mixer/multiplier mode.

  5. Astronomy's New Messengers: A traveling exhibit on gravitational-wave physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaglià, Marco; Hendry, Martin; Márka, Szabolcs; Reitze, David H.; Riles, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory exhibit Astronomy's New Messengers: Listening to the Universe with Gravitational Waves is traveling to colleges, universities, museums and other public institutions throughout the United States. Astronomy's New Messengers primarily communicates with an adolescent and young adult audience, potentially inspiring them into the field of science. Acknowledging that this audience is traditionally a difficult one to attract, the exhibit publicly announces itself in a charismatic fashion to reach its principal goals of broadening the community of people interested in science and encouraging interest in science among young people.

  6. Gravitational Wave Astronomy: Opening a New Window on the Universe for Students, Educators and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaglia, Marco; Hendry, M.; Ingram, D.; Milde, S.; Pandian, S. R.; Reitze, D.; Riles, K.; Schutz, B.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T.; Ugolini, D.; Thacker, J.; Vallisneri, M.; Zermeno, A.

    2008-05-01

    The nascent field of gravitational wave astronomy offers many opportunities for effective and inspirational astronomy outreach. Gravitational waves, the `ripples in spacetime' predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity, are produced by some of the most energetic and dramatic phenomena in the cosmos, including black holes, neutron stars and supernovae - and their discovery should help to address a number of fundamental questions in physics, from the evolution of stars and galaxies to the origin of dark energy and the nature of spacetime itself. Moreover, the cutting-edge technology developed to search for gravitational waves is pushing back the frontiers of many fields, from lasers and materials science to high performance computing, and thus provides a powerful showcase for the attractions and challenges of a career in science and engineering. For several years a worldwide network of ground-based laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors, built and run by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, has been fully operational. These detectors are already among the most sensitive scientific instruments on the planet but in the next few years their sensitivity will achieve further significant improvement. Those developments promise to open an exciting new window on the Universe, heralding the arrival of gravitational wave astronomy as a revolutionary, new observational field. In this poster we describe the extensive program of public outreach activities already undertaken by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, and a number of special events which we are planning for IYA2009. These activities include: * programs at Science Centers and Observatory Visitor Centers * programs on gravitational wave astronomy for the classroom, across the K-12 spectrum * interdisciplinary events linking gravitational wave astronomy to music and the visual arts * research experiences for schools and citizens through the highly successful `Einstein@Home' program.

  7. The Level 2 research product algorithms for the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baron

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the algorithms of the level-2 research (L2r processing chain developed for the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES. The chain has been developed in parallel to the operational chain for conducting researches on calibration and retrieval algorithms. L2r chain products are available to the scientific community. The objective of version 2 is the retrieval of the vertical distribution of trace gases in the altitude range of 18–90 km. A theoretical error analysis is conducted to estimate the retrieval feasibility of key parameters of the processing: line-of-sight elevation tangent altitudes (or angles, temperature and ozone profiles. While pointing information is often retrieved from molecular oxygen lines, there is no oxygen line in the SMILES spectra, so the strong ozone line at 625.371 GHz has been chosen. The pointing parameters and the ozone profiles are retrieved from the line wings which are measured with high signal to noise ratio, whereas the temperature profile is retrieved from the optically thick line center. The main systematic component of the retrieval error was found to be the neglect of the non-linearity of the radiometric gain in the calibration procedure. This causes a temperature retrieval error of 5–10 K. Because of these large temperature errors, it is not possible to construct a reliable hydrostatic pressure profile. However, as a consequence of the retrieval of pointing parameters, pressure induced errors are significantly reduced if the retrieved trace gas profiles are represented on pressure levels instead of geometric altitude levels. Further, various setups of trace gas retrievals have been tested. The error analysis for the retrieved HOCl profile demonstrates that best results for inverting weak lines can be obtained by using narrow spectral windows.

  8. Radio Astronomy and the Giant Metre-Wave Radio Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    but the energy of each type of wave varies inversely with its wavelength. Thus ... parent to radio-waves; much of the galaxy is also transparent to ..... stars in the galaxies. The im- age has been inverted (like a film negative) so darker re- gions in the image are ac- tually brighter. In the opti- cal image the two galaxies.

  9. Rapid Sintering of Silica Xerogel Ceramic Derived from Sago Waste Ash Using Sub-millimeter Wave Heating with a 300 GHz CW Gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aripin, Haji; Mitsudo, Seitaro; Sudiana, I. Nyoman; Tani, Shinji; Sako, Katsuhide; Fujii, Yutaka; Saito, Teruo; Idehara, Toshitaka; Sabchevski, Sliven

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we present and discuss experimental results from a microwave sintering of a silica-glass ceramic, produced from a silica xerogel extracted from a sago waste ash. As a radiation source for the microwave heating a sub-millimeter wave gyrotron (Gyrotron FU CW I) with an output frequency of 300 GHz has been used. The powders of silica xerogel have been dry pressed and then sintered at temperatures ranging from 300°C to 1500°C. The influence of the sintering temperature on the technological properties such as porosity and bulk density was studied in detail. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have been used in order to study the structure of the produced silica glass-ceramics. It has been found that the silica xerogel crystallizes at a temperature of 800°C, which is about 200°C lower than the one observed in the conventional process. The silica xerogel samples sintered by their irradiation with a sub-millimeter wave at 900°C for 18 minutes are fully crystallized into a silica glass-ceramic with a density of about 2.2 g/cm3 and cristobalite as a major crystalline phase. The results obtained in this study allow one to conclude that the microwave sintering with sub-millimeter waves is an appropriate technological process for production of silica glass-ceramics from a silica xerogel and is characterized with such advantages as shorter times of the thermal cycle, lower sintering temperatures and higher quality of the final product.

  10. Numerical Relativity for Space-Based Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2011-01-01

    In the next decade, gravitational wave instruments in space may provide high-precision measurements of gravitational-wave signals from strong sources, such as black holes. Currently variations on the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna mission concepts are under study in the hope of reducing costs. Even the observations of a reduced instrument may place strong demands on numerical relativity capabilities. Possible advances in the coming years may fuel a new generation of codes ready to confront these challenges.

  11. Detecting Vanishing Dimensions via Primordial Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureika, Jonas; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2011-03-01

    Lower dimensionality at higher energies has manifold theoretical advantages as recently pointed out by Anchordoqui et al. [arXiv:1003.5914]. Moreover, it appears that experimental evidence may already exist for it: A statistically significant planar alignment of events with energies higher than TeV has been observed in some earlier cosmic ray experiments. We propose a robust and independent test for this new paradigm. Since (2+1)-dimensional spacetimes have no gravitational degrees of freedom, gravity waves cannot be produced in that epoch. This places a universal maximum frequency at which primordial waves can propagate, marked by the transition between dimensions. We show that this cutoff frequency may be accessible to future gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna.

  12. Black Hole Mergers, Gravitational Waves, and Multi-Messenger Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. Although numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued for many years by a host of instabilities, recent breakthroughs have conquered these problems and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, astrophysics, and testing general relativity.

  13. Engaging the public in the nascent era of gravitational-wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Martin A.

    2015-08-01

    Within the next few years a global network of ground-based laser interferometers will become fully operational. These ultra-sensitive instruments are confidently expected to directly detect gravitational waves from astrophysical sources before the end of the decade. In anticipation of opening this entirely new window on the Universe, the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) Scientific Collaboration has recently developed a substantive program of education and public outreach activities that includes exhibitions, documentary films, social media and interactive games - as well as more traditional modes of science communication such as schools and public lectures.As the gravitational wave 'detection era' unfolds over the next decade, it will present exciting challenges for future public engagement by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and by other gravitational-wave astronomy collaborations around the world. Perhaps the most interesting opportunities will be in the area of citizen science, building upon the infrastructure already being developed through e.g. the LIGO Open Science Center (see arXiv:1410.4839) and the remarkable success of the Einstein@Home project (www.einsteinathome.org).In this presentation I will give an overview of the LSC education and public outreach program, highlighting its goals, major successes and future strategy - particularly in relation to the release of future LIGO and other gravitational wave datasets to the scientific community and to the public, and the opportunities this will present for directly engaging citizen scientists in this exciting new field of observational astronomy.

  14. Gravitational wave astronomy, relativity tests, and massive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Peter L.; Bender

    2010-01-01

    The gravitational wave detectors that are operating now are looking for several kinds of gravitational wave signals at frequencies of tens of Hertz to kilohertz. One of these is mergers of roughly 10 M⊙ BH binaries. Sometime between now and about 8 years from now, it is likely that signals of this kind will be observed. The result will be strong tests of the dynamical predictions of general relativity in the high field regime. However, observations at frequencies below 1 Hz will have to wait until the launch of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), hopefully only a few years later. LISA will have 3 main objectives, all involving massive BHs. The first is observations of mergers of pairs of intermediate mass (100 to 105 M⊙) and higher mass BHs at redshifts out to roughly z=10. This will provide new information on the initial formation and growth of BHs such as those found in most galaxies, and the relation between BH growth and the evolution of galactic structure. The second objective is observations of roughly 10 M⊙ BHs, neutron stars, and white dwarfs spiraling into much more massive BHs in galactic nuclei. Such events will provide detailed information on the populations of such compact objects in the regions around galactic centers. And the third objective is the use of the first two types of observations for testing general relativity even more strongly than ground based detectors will. As an example, an extreme mass ratio event such as a 10 M⊙ BH spiraling into a galactic center BH can give roughly 105 observable cycles during about the last year before merger, with a mean relative velocity of 1/3 to 1/2 the speed of light, and the frequencies of periapsis precession and Lense-Thirring precession will be high. The LISA Pathfinder mission to prepare for LISA is scheduled for launch in 2011.

  15. The cryomechanical design of MUSIC: a novel imaging instrument for millimeter-wave astrophysics at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Matthew I.; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran; Gao, Jiansong; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Maloney, Philip R.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Nguyen, Hien Trong; Noroozian, Omid; Sayers, Jack; Schlaerth, James; Siegel, Seth; Vaillancourt, John E.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2010-07-01

    MUSIC (Multicolor Submillimeter kinetic Inductance Camera) is a new facility instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (Mauna Kea, Hawaii) developed as a collaborative effect of Caltech, JPL, the University of Colorado at Boulder and UC Santa Barbara, and is due for initial commissioning in early 2011. MUSIC utilizes a new class of superconducting photon detectors known as microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs), an emergent technology that offers considerable advantages over current types of detectors for submillimeter and millimeter direct detection. MUSIC will operate a focal plane of 576 spatial pixels, where each pixel is a slot line antenna coupled to multiple detectors through on-chip, lumped-element filters, allowing simultaneously imaging in four bands at 0.86, 1.02, 1.33 and 2.00 mm. The MUSIC instrument is designed for closed-cycle operation, combining a pulse tube cooler with a two-stage Helium-3 adsorption refrigerator, providing a focal plane temperature of 0.25 K with intermediate temperature stages at approximately 50, 4 and 0.4 K for buffering heat loads and heat sinking of optical filters. Detector readout is achieved using semi-rigid coaxial cables from room temperature to the focal plane, with cryogenic HEMT amplifiers operating at 4 K. Several hundred detectors may be multiplexed in frequency space through one signal line and amplifier. This paper discusses the design of the instrument cryogenic hardware, including a number of features unique to the implementation of superconducting detectors. Predicted performance data for the instrument system will also be presented and discussed.

  16. Fast computation of the Narcissus reflection coefficient for the Herschel far-infrared/submillimeter-wave Cassegrain telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Robert L.; Fischer, Jacqueline; Polegre, Arturo M.; Beintema, Douwe A.

    2005-10-01

    Placement of a scatter cone at the center of the secondary of a Cassegrain telescope greatly reduces Narcissus reflection. To calculate the remaining Narcissus reflection, a time-consuming physical optics code such as GRASP8 is often used to model the effects of reflection and diffraction. Fortunately, the Cassegrain geometry is sufficiently simple that a combination of theoretical analysis and Fourier propagation can yield rapid, accurate results at submillimeter wavelengths. We compare these results with those from GRASP8 for the heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory and confirm the effectiveness of the chosen scatter cone design.

  17. Millimeter and submillimeter wave ESR measurement of Ho{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} aligned powder sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, S. [Kobe Univ., Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Goto, T.; Tanaka, T.; Ohta, H. [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Mogi, I.; Watanabe, K.; Motokawa, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    1999-07-01

    To gain information of anisotropy of Ho{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} the aligned powder sample was prepared under the static high magnetic field of 5T. Millimeter and submillimeter wave ESR measurements of aligned Ho{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} samples have been performed for the first time in the frequency region from 50 to 430 GHz using the pulsed magnetic field up to 16T at 1.8K. Antiferromagnetic resonances were observed clearly at 1.8K. AFMR modes of easy axis change at two critical fields. The temperature dependence measurements were also performed and the Neel temperature of the system is discussed. (author)

  18. Detection of Submillimeter-wave [C i] Emission in Gaseous Debris Disks of 49 Ceti and β Pictoris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Aya E.; Sakai, Nami [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sato, Aki; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Iwasaki, Kazunari [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Doshisha University, Tatara Miyakodani 1-3, Kyotanabe City, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan); Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Watanabe, Sakae; Kaneda, Hidehiro [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Yamamoto, Satoshi, E-mail: aya.higuchi@riken.jp [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2017-04-10

    We have detected [C i] {sup 3} P {sub 1}–{sup 3} P {sub 0} emissions in the gaseous debris disks of 49 Ceti and β Pictoris with the 10 m telescope of the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment, which is the first detection of such emissions. The line profiles of [C i] are found to resemble those of CO( J = 3–2) observed with the same telescope and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. This result suggests that atomic carbon (C) coexists with CO in the debris disks and is likely formed by the photodissociation of CO. Assuming an optically thin [C i] emission with the excitation temperature ranging from 30 to 100 K, the column density of C is evaluated to be (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 17} and (2.5 ± 0.7) × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} for 49 Ceti and β Pictoris, respectively. The C/CO column density ratio is thus derived to be 54 ± 19 and 69 ± 42 for 49 Ceti and β Pictoris, respectively. These ratios are higher than those of molecular clouds and diffuse clouds by an order of magnitude. The unusually high ratios of C to CO are likely attributed to a lack of H{sub 2} molecules needed to reproduce CO molecules efficiently from C. This result implies a small number of H{sub 2} molecules in the gas disk, i.e., there is an appreciable contribution of secondary gas from dust grains.

  19. Recollections of Tucson Operations The Millimeter-Wave Observatory of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, M A

    2005-01-01

    This book is a personal account of the evolution of millimeter-wave astronomy at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. It begins with the construction of the hugely successful, but flawed, 36 ft radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona, and continues through the funding of its ultimate successor, the Atacama Large Millimeter-wave Array (ALMA), being constructed on a 5.000 m (16.500 ft) site in northern Chile. The book describes the behind-the-scene activities of the NRAO Tucson staff. These include the identification and solution of technical problems, the scheduling and support of visiting astronomers, and the preparations and the politics of the proposal to replace the 36 ft telescope with a 25 m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The book also describes the installation of a new 12 m surface and the involvement of the Tucson staff in the ALMA project. Finally, it describes events leading to the closing of the 36 ft telescope and, eventually, of the NRAO offices in Tucson.

  20. EDITORIAL: `Bridging Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Observational Astrophysics', Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13) (San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009), sponsored by the Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, The University of Texas at Brownsville and The National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center `Bridging Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Observational Astrophysics', Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13) (San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009), sponsored by the Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, The University of Texas at Brownsville and The National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Mario; Jenet, Fredrick; Mohanty, Soumya

    2009-10-01

    The 13th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop took place in San Juan, Puerto Rico on the 19-22 January 2009. This annual event has become the established venue for presenting and discussing new results and techniques in this crucial subfield of gravitational wave astronomy. A major attraction of the event is that scientists working with all possible instruments gather to discuss their projects and report on the status of their observations. The Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy at the University of Texas at Brownsville, USA (a National Aeronautics and Space Administration University Research Center and a National Science Foundation Center for Research Excellence in Science and Technology) jointly with the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (which operates the Arecibo Observatory) were the proud sponsors of the gathering this time. As in previous years, GWDAW13 was well attended by more than 100 participants from over 10 countries worldwide As this issue is going to press GEO, LIGO and VIRGO are undergoing new scientific runs of their instruments with the LIGO detectors holding the promise of increasing their operational sensitivity twofold as compared with the observations finished a couple of years ago. This new cycle of observations is a major milestone compared to the previous observations which have been accomplished. Gravitational waves have not been observed yet, but the instrumental sensitivity achieved has started producing relevant astrophysical results. In particular, very recently (Nature, 20 August 2009) a letter from the LIGO Scientific Collaboration http://www.ligo.org and the VIRGO Collaboration http://www.virgo.infn.it has set the most stringent limits yet on the amount of gravitational waves that could have come from the Big Bang in the gravitational wave frequency band where current gravitational wave detectors can observe. These results have put new constraints on the physical characteristics of the early universe. The proximity

  1. Measurement of stratospheric and mesospheric winds with a submillimeter wave limb sounder: results from JEM/SMILES and simulation study for SMILES-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Philippe; Manago, Naohiro; Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Irimajiri, Yoshihisa; Murtagh, Donal; Uzawa, Yoshinori; Ochiai, Satoshi; Shiotani, Masato; Suzuki, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    Satellite missions for measuring winds in the troposphere and thermosphere will be launched in a near future. There is no plan to observe winds in the altitude range between 30-90 km, though middle atmospheric winds are recognized as an essential parameter in various atmospheric research areas. Sub-millimetre limb sounders have the capability to fill this altitude gap. In this paper, we summarize the wind retrievals obtained from the Japanese Superconducting Submillimeter Wave Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES) which operated from the International Space Station between September 2009 and April 2010. The results illustrate the potential of such instruments to measure winds. They also show the need of improving the wind representation in the models in the Tropics, and globally in the mesosphere. A wind measurement sensitivity study has been conducted for its successor, SMILES-2, which is being studied in Japan. If it is realized, sub-millimeter and terahertz molecular lines suitable to determine line-of-sight winds will be measured. It is shown that with the current instrument definition, line-of-sight winds can be observed from 20 km up to more than 160 km. Winds can be retrieved with a precision better than 5 ms-1 and a vertical resolution of 2-3 km between 35-90 km. Above 90 km, the precision is better than 10 ms-1 with a vertical resolution of 3-5 km. Measurements can be performed day and night with a similar sensitivity. Requirements on observation parameters such as the antenna size, the satellite altitude are discussed. An alternative setting for the spectral bands is examined. The new setting is compatible with the general scientific objectives of the mission and the instrument design. It allows to improve the wind measurement sensitivity between 35 to 90 km by a factor 2. It is also shown that retrievals can be performed with a vertical resolution of 1 km and a precision of 5-10 ms-1 between 50 and 90 km.

  2. The First Big Wave of Astronomy Education Research Dissertations and Some Directions for Future Research Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2008-01-01

    The past several years have presented the astronomy education research community with a host of foundational research dissertations in the teaching and learning of astronomy. These PhD candidates have been studying the impact of instructional innovations on student learning and systematically validating astronomy learning assessment instruments,…

  3. Resonant transitions between split energy levels triple-barrier nanostructures and their application perspectives in submillimeter-wave devices

    CERN Document Server

    Golant, E I

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed for electronic coherent tunneling through the triple-barrier quantum-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures in the terahertz electric field. Using this model the frequency dependences of the negative dynamic conductivity for triple-barrier structures with coherent electron tunneling through the split energy levels are investigated. It has been shown that these structures can be employed in far-infrared coherent quantum lasers, the wave length being 600 mu m (5 THz)

  4. Compact Radiative Control Structures for Millimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari D.; Chuss, David T.; Chervenak, James A.; Henry, Ross M.; Moseley, s. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested compact radiative control structures, including antireflection coatings and resonant absorbers, for millimeter through submillimeter wave astronomy. The antireflection coatings consist of micromachined single crystal silicon dielectric sub-wavelength honeycombs. The effective dielectric constant of the structures is set by the honeycomb cell geometry. The resonant absorbers consist of pieces of solid single crystal silicon substrate and thin phosphorus implanted regions whose sheet resistance is tailored to maximize absorption by the structure. We present an implantation model that can be used to predict the ion energy and dose required for obtaining a target implant layer sheet resistance. A neutral density filter, a hybrid of a silicon dielectric honeycomb with an implanted region, has also been fabricated with this basic approach. These radiative control structures are scalable and compatible for use large focal plane detector arrays.

  5. The millimeter and submillimeter spectrum of CF(+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, G. M.; Anderson, T.; Herbst, E.; De Lucia, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The application of a recently described technique for producing significantly enhanced concentrations of molecular ions for spectroscopic study to the detection and measurement of the millimeter and submillimeter wave spectrum of CF(+) is reported. The experimental procedure is discussed, and the measured absorption frequencies are shown and compared with those calculated from spectral constants. These constants are given together with those from the infrared spectrum by Kawaguchi and Hirota (1985).

  6. Submillimeter Continuum Observations of Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this proposal was to study the submillimeter continuum emission from comets. The study was based mainly on the exploitation of the world's leading submillimeter telescope, the JCMT (James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) on Mauna Kea. Submillimeter wavelengths provide a unique view of cometary physics for one main reason. The cometary size distribution is such that the scattering cross-section is dominated by small dust grains, while the mass is dominated by the largest particles. Submillimeter continuum radiation samples cometary particles much larger than those sampled by more common observations at shorter (optical and infrared) wavelengths and therefore provides a nearly direct measure of the cometary dust mass.

  7. Colloquium: Multimessenger astronomy with gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ando, S.; Baret, B.; Bartos, I.; Bouhou, B.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Corsi, A.; Di Palma, I.; Dietz, A.; Donzaud, C.; Eichler, D.; Finley, C.; Guetta, D.; Halzen, F.; Jones, G.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kotake, K.; Kouchner, A.; Mandic, V.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Moscoso, L.; Papa, M.A.; Piran, T.; Pradier, T.; Romero, G.E.; Sutton, P.; Thrane, E.; van Elewyck, V.; Waxman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the astrophysical sources and violent phenomena observed in our Universe are potential emitters of gravitational waves and high-energy cosmic radiation, including photons, hadrons, and presumably also neutrinos. Both gravitational waves (GW) and high-energy neutrinos (HEN) are cosmic

  8. HERTZ, A Submillimeter Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleuning, D. A.; Dowell, C. D.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Platt, S. R.; Novak, G.

    1997-03-01

    We describe a 32 pixel polarimeter, Hertz, for use at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. We present polarization maps of the Orion molecular cloud (OMC-1) at 350 \\mum (46 detections) and 450 \\mum (19 detections) with 3\\sigma or better statistical significance. The 350 \\mum polarization ranges from 1.4 to 6.8% with a median value of 3.3%. The position angles are fairly uniform across the souce at an angle of \\sim30 degrees (east of north). We describe the design and performance characteristics of the polarimeter and discuss systematic effects due to telescope and instrumental polarization, atmospheric fluctuations, and reference beam flux. (SECTION: Astronomical Instrumentation)

  9. Gravitational-wave physics and astronomy an introduction to theory, experiment and data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Creighton, Jolien D E

    2011-01-01

    This most up-to-date, one-stop reference combines coverage of both theory and observational techniques, with introductory sections to bring all readers up to the same level. Written by outstanding researchers directly involved with the scientific program of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), the book begins with a brief review of general relativity before going on to describe the physics of gravitational waves and the astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation. Further sections cover gravitational wave detectors, data analysis, and the outlook of gravitation

  10. The Challenges in Gravitational Wave Astronomy for Space-Based Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Edward K.

    The GW universe contains a wealth of sources which, with the proper treatment, will open up the universe as never before. By observing massive black hole binaries to high redshifts, we should begin to explore the formation process of seed black holes and track galactic evolution to the present day. Observations of extreme mass ratio inspirals will allow us to explore galactic centers in the local universe, as well as providing tests of General Relativity and constraining the value of Hubble's constant. The detection of compact binaries in our own galaxy may allow us to model stellar evolution in the Milky Way. Finally, the detection of cosmic (super)strings and a stochastic background would help us constrain cosmological models. However, all of this depends on our ability to not only resolve sources and carry out parameter estimation, but also on our ability to define an optimal data analysis strategy. In this presentation I will examine the challenges that lie ahead in GW astronomy for the ESA L3 Cosmic Vision mission, eLISA.

  11. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The recent years have seen breathtaking progress in technology, especially in the receiver and digital technologies relevant for radio astronomy, which has at the same time advanced to shorter wavelengths. This is the updated and completely revised 5th edition of the most used introductory text in radio astronomy. It presents a unified treatment of the entire field from centimeter to sub-millimeter wavelengths. Topics covered include instruments, sensitivity considerations, observational methods and interpretations of the data recorded with both single dishes and interferometers. This text is useful to both students and experienced practicing astronomers. Besides making major updates and additions throughout the book, the authors have re-organized a number of chapters to more clearly separate basic theory from rapidly evolving practical aspects. Further, problem sets have been added at the end of each chapter.

  12. Controlling kilometre-scale interferometric detectors for gravitational wave astronomy: Active phase noise cancellation using EOMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, N.; Balembois, L.; Bizouard, M.A.; Brisson, V. [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Univ. Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Casanueva, J., E-mail: casanuev@lal.in2p3.fr [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Univ. Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Cavalier, F.; Davier, M.; Frey, V.; Hello, P.; Huet, D.; Leroy, N. [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Univ. Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Loriette, V.; Maksimovic, I. [ESPCI, CNRS, F-75005 Paris (France); Robinet, F. [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Univ. Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France)

    2017-02-11

    The second generation of Gravitational waves detectors are kilometric Michelson interferometers with additional recycling Fabry–Perot cavities on the arms and ​the addition of two more recycling cavities to enhance their sensitivity, with the particularity that all the mirrors are suspended. In order to control them a new technique, based on the use of auxiliary lasers, has been developed to bring the interferometer to its working point, with all the cavities on their resonance, in an adiabatic way. The implementation of this technique in Advanced Virgo is under preparation and the propagation of a stable laser through a 3-km optical fibre is one of the most problematic issues. A new technique of active phase noise cancellation based on the use of Electro Optical Modulators has been developed, and a first prototype has been successfully tested.

  13. MULTI-MESSENGER ASTRONOMY OF GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE SOURCES WITH FLEXIBLE WIDE-AREA RADIO TRANSIENT SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yancey, Cregg C.; Shawhan, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bear, Brandon E.; Akukwe, Bernadine; Simonetti, John H.; Tsai, Jr-Wei [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Chen, Kevin [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ 08628 (United States); Dowell, Jayce; Obenberger, Kenneth; Taylor, Gregory B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM, 87131 (United States); Gough, Jonathan D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehman College, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Kanner, Jonah [LIGO-California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California CA 91125 (United States); Kavic, Michael [Department of Physics, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    We explore opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy using gravitational waves (GWs) and prompt, transient low-frequency radio emission to study highly energetic astrophysical events. We review the literature on possible sources of correlated emission of GWs and radio transients, highlighting proposed mechanisms that lead to a short-duration, high-flux radio pulse originating from the merger of two neutron stars or from a superconducting cosmic string cusp. We discuss the detection prospects for each of these mechanisms by low-frequency dipole array instruments such as LWA1, the Low Frequency Array and the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that a broad range of models may be tested by searching for radio pulses that, when de-dispersed, are temporally and spatially coincident with a LIGO/Virgo GW trigger within a ∼30 s time window and ∼200–500 deg{sup 2} sky region. We consider various possible observing strategies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Uniquely, for low-frequency radio arrays, dispersion can delay the radio pulse until after low-latency GW data analysis has identified and reported an event candidate, enabling a prompt radio signal to be captured by a deliberately targeted beam. If neutron star mergers do have detectable prompt radio emissions, a coincident search with the GW detector network and low-frequency radio arrays could increase the LIGO/Virgo effective search volume by up to a factor of ∼2. For some models, we also map the parameter space that may be constrained by non-detections.

  14. Galactic radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    This book is a concise primer on galactic radio astronomy for undergraduate and graduate students, and provides wide coverage of galactic astronomy and astrophysics such as the physics of interstellar matter and the dynamics and structure of the Milky Way Galaxy and galaxies. Radio astronomy and its technological development have led to significant progress in galactic astronomy and contributed to understanding interstellar matter and galactic structures. The book begins with the fundamental physics of radio-wave radiation, i.e., black body radiation, thermal emission, synchrotron radiation, and HI and molecular line emissions. The author then gives overviews of ingredients of galactic physics, including interstellar matter such as the neutral (HI), molecular hydrogen, and ionized gases, as well as magnetic fields in galaxies. In addition, more advanced topics relevant to the Galaxy and galaxies are also contained here: star formation, supernova remnants, the Galactic Center and black holes, galactic dynamics...

  15. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Ajith1 K G Arun2. LIGO Laboratory and Theoretical Astrophysics California Institute of Technology MS 18-34, Pasadena CA 91125, USA. Chennai Mathematical Institute Plot H1, SIPCOT IT Park Siruseri, Padur Post Chennai 603 103, TN, India.

  16. Transition-Edge Hot-Electron Microbolometers for Millimeter and Submillimeter Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Stevenson, Thomas; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward; Barrentine, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The millimeter and the submillimeter wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum hold a wealth of information about the evolution of the universe. In particular, cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation and its polarization carry the oldest information in the universe, and provide the best test of the inflationary paradigm available to astronomy today. Detecting gravity waves through their imprint on the CMB polarization would have extraordinary repercussions for cosmology and physics. A transition-edge hot-electron micro - bolometer (THM) consists of a superconducting bilayer transition-edge sensor (TES) with a thin-film absorber. Unlike traditional monolithic bolometers that make use of micromachined structures, the THM em ploys the decoupling between electrons and phonons at millikelvin temperatures to provide thermal isolation. The devices are fabricated photolithographically and are easily integrated with antennas via microstrip transmission lines, and with SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) readouts. The small volume of the absorber and TES produces a short thermal time constant that facilitates rapid sky scanning. The THM consists of a thin-film metal absorber overlapping a superconducting TES. The absorber forms the termination of a superconducting microstripline that carries RF power from an antenna. The purpose of forming a separate absorber and TES is to allow flexibility in the optimization of the two components. In particular, the absorbing film's impedance can be chosen to match the antenna, while the TES impedance can be chosen to match to the readout SQUID amplifier. This scheme combines the advantages of the TES with the advantages of planar millimeter-wave transmission line circuits. Antenna-coupling to the detectors via planar transmission lines allows the detector dimensions to be much smaller than a wavelength, so the technique can be extended across the entire microwave, millimeter, and submillimeter wavelength ranges. The

  17. Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Emission from Galactic and Extragalactic Photodissociation Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michael J.; Wolfire, Mark G.; Hollenbach, David J.; Luhman, Michael L.

    1999-12-01

    Photodissociation region (PDR) models are computed over a wide range of physical conditions, from those appropriate to giant molecular clouds illuminated by the interstellar radiation field to the conditions experienced by circumstellar disks very close to hot massive stars. These models use the most up-to-date values of atomic and molecular data, the most current chemical rate coefficients, and the newest grain photoelectric heating rates, which include treatments of small grains and large molecules. In addition, we examine the effects of metallicity and cloud extinction on the predicted line intensities. Results are presented for PDR models with densities over the range n=101-107 cm-3 and for incident far-ultraviolet radiation fields over the range G0=10-0.5-106.5 (where G0 is the far-ultravioliet [FUV] flux in units of the local interstellar value), for metallicities Z=1 and 0.1 times the local Galactic value, and for a range of PDR cloud sizes. We present line strength and/or line ratio plots for a variety of useful PDR diagnostics: [C II] 158 μm, [O I] 63 μm and 145 μm, [C I] 370 μm and 609 μm, CO J=1-0, J=2-1, J=3-2, J=6-5, and J=15-14, as well as the strength of the far-infrared continuum. These plots will be useful for the interpretation of Galactic and extragalactic far-infrared and submillimeter spectra observable with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite, the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope, and other orbital and suborbital platforms. As examples, we apply our results to ISO and ground-based observations of M82, NGC 278, and the Large Magellanic Cloud. Our comparison of the conditions in M82 and NGC 278 show that both the gas density and FUV flux are enhanced in the starburst nucleus of M82 compared with those in the normal spiral NGC 278. We model the high [C II]/CO ratio observed in the 30 Doradus region of the LMC and find that it can be

  18. SUBMILLIMETER LIGHTCURVES OF ASTEROIDS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Submillimeter lightcurves of large asteroids Ceres, Davida, Io, Juno, Pallas, Vesta, and Victoria, observed at the Heinrich-Hertz Submillimeter Telescope from...

  19. Greek astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Sir Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy as a science began with the Ionian philosophers, with whom Greek philosophy and mathematics also began. While the Egyptians and Babylonians had accomplished much of astronomical worth, it remained for the unrivalled speculative genius of the Greeks, in particular, their mathematical genius, to lay the foundations of the true science of astronomy. In this classic study, a noted scholar discusses in lucid detail the specific advances made by the Greeks, many of whose ideas anticipated the discoveries of modern astronomy.Pythagoras, born at Samos about 572 B.C., was probably the first

  20. Fundamental Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, Hannu; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl Johan

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added. Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.

  1. Submillimeter Array reveals molecular complexity of dying stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    The unique capabilities of the Submillimeter Array (SMA) have allowed unprecedented studies of cool evolved stars at submillimeter wavelengths. In particular, the SMA now offers the possibility to image multiple molecular transitions at once, owing to the 32-GHz wide instantaneous bandwidth of SWARM, the SMA’s new correlator. Molecular gas located far and very close to the photosphere of an asymptotic-giant branch (AGB) star, a red supergiant, or a pre-planetary nebula can now be examined in transitions observed simultaneously from a wide range of energy levels. This allows a very detailed quantitative investigation of physical and chemical conditions around these variable objects. Several imaging line surveys have been obtained with the SMA to reveal the beautiful complexity of these evolved systems. The surveys resulted in first submillimeter-wave identifications of molecules of prime astrophysical interest, e.g. of TiO, TiO2, and of rotational transitions at excited vibrational states of CO. An overview of recent SMA observations of cool evolved stars will be given with an emphasize on the interferometric line surveys. We will demonstrate their importance in unraveling the mass-loss phenomena, propagation of shocks in the circumstellar medium, and production of dust at elevated temperatures. The SMA studies of these molecular factories have a direct impact on our understanding of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and stellar evolution at low and high masses.

  2. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This 6th edition of “Tools of Radio Astronomy”, the most used introductory text in radio astronomy, has been revised to reflect the current state of this important branch of astronomy. This includes the use of satellites, low radio frequencies, the millimeter/sub-mm universe, the Cosmic Microwave Background and the increased importance of mm/sub-mm dust emission. Several derivations and presentations of technical aspects of radio astronomy and receivers, such as receiver noise, the Hertz dipole and  beam forming have been updated, expanded, re-worked or complemented by alternative derivations. These reflect advances in technology. The wider bandwidths of the Jansky-VLA and long wave arrays such as LOFAR and mm/sub-mm arrays such as ALMA required an expansion of the discussion of interferometers and aperture synthesis. Developments in data reduction algorithms have been included. As a result of the large amount of data collected in the past 20 years, the discussion of solar system radio astronomy, dust em...

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Sub-millimeter spectra of 2-hydroxyacetonitrile (Margules+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margules, L.; McGuire, B. A.; Senent, M. L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Remijan, A.; Guillemin, J. C.

    2017-02-01

    Measured frequencies and residuals from the global fit of the submillimeter-wave data for 2-hydroxyacetonitrile and files used for SPFIT. Detailled explanations on SPFIT could be found at https://www.astro.uni-koeln.de/cdms/pickett (4 data files).

  4. Active Millimeter and Submillimeter Sensing Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The workshop will have three main objectives. The first will be to inventory the signatures and measurements that are desirable to make using submillimeter active...

  5. Astronomy Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flewelling, Heather; Alatalo, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    Imagine you are a grad student, at your first conference, and a prominent senior scientist shows interest in your work, and he makes things get way too personal? What would you do? Would you report it? Or would you decide, after a few other instances of harassment, that maybe you shouldn't pursue astronomy? Harassment is under-reported, the policies can be difficult to understand or hard to find, and it can be very intimidating as a young scientist to report it to the proper individuals. The Astronomy Allies Program is designed to help you with these sorts of problems. We are a group of volunteers that will help by doing the following: provide safe walks home during the conference, someone to talk to confidentially, as an intervener, as a resource to report harassment. The Allies are a diverse group of scientists committed to acting as mentors, advocates, and liaisons. The Winter 2015 AAS meeting was the first meeting that had Astronomy Allies, and Astronomy Allies provided a website for information, as well as a twitter, email, and phone number for anyone who needs our help or would like more information. We posted about the Astronomy Allies on the Women In Astronomy blog, and this program resonates with many people: either they want to help, or they have experienced harassment in the past and don't want to see it in the future. Harassment may not happen to most conference participants, but it's wrong, it's against the AAS anti-harassment policy ( http://aas.org/policies/anti-harassment-policy ), it can be very damaging, and if it happens to even one person, that is unacceptable. We intend to improve the culture at conferences to make it so that harassers feel they can't get away with their unprofessional behavior.

  6. Astronomy essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Brass, Charles O

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Astronomy includes the historical perspective of astronomy, sky basics and the celestial coordinate systems, a model and the origin of the solar system, the sun, the planets, Kepler'

  7. Thinking Big for 25 Years: Astronomy Camp Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Benecchi, S. D.; Henry, T. J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Kulesa, C.; Oey, M. S.; Regester, J.; Schlingman, W. M.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

    2013-01-01

    Astronomy Camp is a deep immersion educational adventure for teenagers and adults in southern Arizona that is entering its 25th year of existence. The Camp Director (McCarthy) is the winner of the 2012 AAS Education Prize. A general overview of the program is given in an accompanying contribution (McCarthy et al.). In this presentation we describe some of the research projects conducted by Astronomy Camp participants over the years. Many of the Camps contain a strong project-oriented emphasis, which reaches its pinnacle in the Advanced Camps for teenagers. High school students from around the world participate in a microcosm of the full arc of astronomy research. They plan their own projects before the start of Camp, and the staff provide a series of "key projects." Early in the Camp the students submit observing proposals to utilize time on telescopes. (The block of observing time is secured in advance by the staff.) The participants collect, reduce and analyze astronomical data with the help of staff, and they present the results to their peers on the last night of Camp, all in a span of eight days. The Camps provide research grade telescopes and instruments, in addition to amateur telescopes. Some of the Camps occur on Kitt Peak, where we use an ensemble of telescopes: the 2.3-meter (University of Arizona) with a spectrograph; the WIYN 0.9-meter; the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope; and the 12-meter millimeter wave telescope. Additionally the Camp has one night on the 10-meter Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham. Campers use these resources to study stars, galaxies, AGN, transiting planets, molecular clouds, etc. Some of the camper-initiated projects have led to very high level performances in prestigious international competitions, such as the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair. The key projects often contribute to published astronomical research (e.g., Benecchi et al. 2010, Icarus, 207, 978). Many former Campers have received Ph.D. degrees in

  8. Astronomy Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstone, Sid

    This document consists of activities and references for teaching astronomy. The activities (which include objectives, list of materials needed, and procedures) focus on: observing the Big Dipper and locating the North Star; examining the Big Dipper's stars; making and using an astrolabe; examining retograde motion of Mars; measuring the Sun's…

  9. From astronomy to Nature Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Leaving academia was hard, but becoming an editor for Nature Astronomy has been an unexpected delight. That is not to say it is a bed of roses; rather it is the variety and complexity of the challenges of the job that make it so enjoyable.

  10. Laboratory permittivity measurements of icy planetary analogs in the millimeter and submillimeter domains, in relation with JUICE mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouet, Y.; Jacob, K.; Murk, A.; Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency's JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) spacecraft is planned for launch in 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in 2030. It will observe the planet Jupiter and three of its largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. One instrument on the JUICE spacecraft is the Sub-millimeter Wave Instrument (SWI), which will measure brightness temperatures from Jupiter's stratosphere and troposphere, and from subsurfaces of Jupiter's icy moons. In the baseline configuration SWI consists of two tunable sub-millimeter wave receivers operating from 530 to 625 GHz. As an alternative one of the receivers could cover the range of 1080 and 1275 GHz. Inversion models are strongly dependent on the knowledge of the complex relative permittivity (hereafter permittivity) of the target material to retrieve the physical properties of the subsurface (e.g. [1][2]). We set up a laboratory experiment allowing us to perform reproducible measurements of the complex scattering parameters S11 and S21 in the ranges of 70 to 110 GHz, of 100 to 160 GHz, of 140 to 220 GHz, of 140 to 220 GHz and of 510 to 715 GHz. These scattering parameters can be used to retrieve the permittivity of icy analogs of the surfaces and subsurfaces of Jupiter's icy moons in order to prepare the data interpretation of SWI [3]. The measurements are performed under laboratory conditions with a quasi-optical bench (Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern). The icy analogs that we prepare in the Laboratory for Outflow Studies of Sublimating Materials (LOSSy, Physics Institute, University of Bern), include two different porous water ice samples composed of fine-grained ice particles with a size range of 4 to 6 microns and ice particles with a size range of 50 to 100 microns [4][5]; and possibly CO2 ice. We will present the general experimental set-up and the first results in the context to prepare the data interpretation of SWI. [1] Ulaby, F. T., Long, D. G., 2014. Microwave radar and radiometric remote

  11. Faint Submillimeter Galaxies Behind Lensing Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Lauchlan Cowie, Lennox; Barger, Amy J.; Desai, Vandana; Murphy, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Faint submillimeter galaxies are the major contributors to the submillimeter extragalactic background light and hence the dominant star-forming population in the dusty universe. Determining how much these galaxies overlap the optically selected samples is critical to fully account for the cosmic star formation history. Observations of massive cluster fields are the best way to explore this faint submillimeter population, thanks to gravitational lensing effects. We have been undertaking a lensing cluster survey with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to map nine galaxy clusters, including the northern five clusters in the HST Frontier Fields program. We have also been using the Submillimeter Array and the Very Large Array to determine the accurate positions of our detected sources. Our observations have discovered high-redshift dusty galaxies with far-infrared luminosities similar to that of the Milky Way or luminous infrared galaxies. Some of these galaxies are still undetected in deep optical and near-infrared images. These results suggest that a substantial amount of star formation in even the faint submillimeter population may be hidden from rest-frame optical surveys.

  12. Dielectric Covered Planar Antennas at Submillimeter Wavelengths for Terahertz Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Skalare, Anders; Lee, Choonsup; Llombart, Nuria; Siegel, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    Most optical systems require antennas with directive patterns. This means that the physical area of the antenna will be large in terms of the wavelength. When non-cooled systems are used, the losses of microstrip or coplanar waveguide lines impede the use of standard patch or slot antennas for a large number of elements in a phased array format. Traditionally, this problem has been solved by using silicon lenses. However, if an array of such highly directive antennas is to be used for imaging applications, the fabrication of many closely spaced lenses becomes a problem. Moreover, planar antennas are usually fed by microstrip or coplanar waveguides while the mixer or the detector elements (usually Schottky diodes) are coupled in a waveguide environment. The coupling between the antenna and the detector/ mixer can be a fabrication challenge in an imaging array at submillimeter wavelengths. Antennas excited by a waveguide (TE10) mode makes use of dielectric superlayers to increase the directivity. These antennas create a kind of Fabry- Perot cavity between the ground plane and the first layer of dielectric. In reality, the antenna operates as a leaky wave mode where a leaky wave pole propagates along the cavity while it radiates. Thanks to this pole, the directivity of a small antenna is considerably enhanced. The antenna consists of a waveguide feed, which can be coupled to a mixer or detector such as a Schottky diode via a standard probe design. The waveguide is loaded with a double-slot iris to perform an impedance match and to suppress undesired modes that can propagate on the cavity. On top of the slot there is an air cavity and on top, a small portion of a hemispherical lens. The fractional bandwidth of such antennas is around 10 percent, which is good enough for heterodyne imaging applications.The new geometry makes use of a silicon lens instead of dielectric quarter wavelength substrates. This design presents several advantages when used in the submillimeter-wave

  13. Chinese Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomy has been a subject of interest to Chinese people since ancient times. As early as the sixteenth century BC, a supernova was recorded on an animal bone used in divination. In ancient China, the main mission for astronomers was to determine the farming seasons and to predict important events for the future according to the phenomena that appeared in the sky. In the minds of rulers in anci...

  14. Chaco astronomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín López, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    This presentation discusses the result of 18 years of ethnographic and ethnohistorical studies on Chaco astronomies. The main features of the systems of astronomical knowledge of the Chaco Aboriginal groups will be discussed. In particular we will discuss the relevance of the Milky Way, the role of the visibility of the Pleiades, the ways in which the celestial space is represented, the constitution of astronomical orientations in geographic space, etc. We also address a key feature of their vision of the cosmos: the universe is seen by these groups as a socio-cosmos, where humans and non-humans are related. These are therefore actually socio-cosmologies. We will link this to the theories of Chaco Aboriginal groups about power and political relations.We will discuss how the study of Aboriginal astronomies must be performed along with the studies about astronomies of Creole people and European migrants, as well as anthropological studies about the science teaching in the formal education system and by the mass media. In this form we will discuss the relevance of a very complex system of interethnic relations for the conformation of these astronomical representations and practices.We will also discuss the general methodological implications of this case for the ethnoastronomy studies. In particular we will talk about the advantages of a study of regional scope and about the key importance of put in contact the ethnoastronomy with contemporary issues in social sciences.We also analyze the importance of ethnoastronomy studies in relation to studies of sociology of science, especially astronomy. We also study the potential impact on improving formal and informal science curricula and in shaping effective policies to protect the tangible and intangible astronomical heritage in a context of respect for the rights of Aboriginal groups.

  15. Fundamental astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kröger, Pekka; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Now in its sixth edition this successful undergraduate textbook gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The chapters on galactic and extragalactic astronomy as well as cosmology were extensively modernized in the previous edition. In this new edition they have been further revised to include more recent results. The long chapter on the solar system has been split into two parts: the first one deals with the general properties, and the other one describes individual objects. A new chapter on exoplanets has been added to the end of the book next to the chapter on astrobiology. In response to the fact that astronomy has evolved enormously over the last few years, only a few chapters of this book have been left unmodified. Long considered a standard text for physical science maj...

  16. NRAO Response to NSF Senior Review of Astronomy Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Astronomy Senior Review Committee report (pdf file), released today, made major recommendations for restructuring the NSF's ground-based astronomy efforts, including significant changes for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The committee's report urged that leadership in radio astronomy, including millimeter- and submillimeter-wave observatories, "remain centered at NRAO as it is, by far, the largest radio astronomy organization in the world." The report praised the record of management of NRAO and the scientific capabilities of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). However, the report also recommended that some reductions and changes occur at the NRAO by 2011. Specifically, the report recommended that: (a) VLBA operations make a transition to a significant reliance on international funding or risk closure; (b) GBT operations costs be reduced; and (c) NRAO scientific staff costs be reduced. "The Senior Review Committee had the very difficult task of reconciling the needs of current facilities and funding new facilities for the future of astronomy. We appreciate their efforts and look forward to working with the NSF to ensure that the valuable and unique research capabilities of our NRAO telescopes continue to serve the astronomical community," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. The VLBA provides the greatest angular resolution, or ability to see fine detail, of any telescope in the world, greatly exceeding the capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope and the future Square Kilometre Array. The committee recognized that, "if the VLBA is closed, a unique capability would likely be lost for decades." "The VLBA is used by scientists from around the world because of its unique capabilities. It has produced landmark research milestones and the committee recognized in its

  17. Multimessenger Astronomy with Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckowiak, Anna

    2017-09-01

    The recent discovery of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos has opened a new window to the Universe. However, the sources of those neutrinos are still unknown. Among the plausible candidates are gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei and supernovae. Combining neutrino data with electromagnetic measurements in a multimessenger approach will increase our ability to identify the neutrino sources and help to solve long-standing problems in astrophysics such as the origin of cosmic rays. Neutrino observations may also contribute to future detections of gravitational wave signals, and enable the study of their source progenitors. I will review the recent progress in multimessenger astronomy using neutrino data.

  18. Infrared and submillimeter space missions in the coming decade programmes, programmatics, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sauvage, Marc; Gallais, Pascal; Vigroux, Laurent

    1996-01-01

    A revolution similar to that brought by CCDs to visible astronomy is still ahead in IR and submillimeter astronomy. There is certainly no wavelength range which has, over the past several years, seen such impressive advances in technology: large-scale detector arrays, new designs for cooling in space, lightweight mirror technologies. Scientific cases for observing the cold universe are outstanding. Observations in the FIR/Submm range will provide answers to such fundamental questions as: What is the spectrum of the primordial fluctuations? How do primeval galaxies look? What are the first stages of star formation? Most of the international space missions that have been triggered by these questions are presented in detail here. Technological issues raised by these missions are reviewed, as are the most recent achievements in cooling and detector technologies.

  19. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1962-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 1 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This book is divided into five chapters and begins with an observational summary of the shock-wave theory of novae. The subsequent chapter provides the properties and problems of T tauri stars and related objects. These topics are followed by discussions on the structure and origin of meteorites and cosmic dust, as well as the models for evaluation of mass distribution in oblate stellar systems. The final chapter describes the methods of polarization mea

  20. Radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Alder, Berni

    1975-01-01

    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 14: Radio Astronomy is devoted to the role of the digital computer both as a control device and as a calculator in addressing problems related to galactic radio noise. This volume contains four chapters and begins with a technical description of the hardware and the special data-handling problems of using radioheliography, with an emphasis on a selection of observational results obtained with the Culgoora radioheliograph and their significance to solar physics and to astrophysics in general. The subsequent chapter examines interstellar dispersion, i

  1. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  2. Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Torun Center for Astronomy is located at Piwnice, 15 km north of Torun, Poland. A part of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy of the Nicolaus Copernicus University, it was created by the union of Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO) and the Institute of Astronomy on 1 January 1997....

  3. Submillimeter solar images from the JCMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, G.; Lindsey, C.

    1992-01-01

    We present nearly full-disk, diffraction-limited solar images made at 350 and 850 [mu]m and at 1.3 mm from the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea. These wavelengths sample the thermal structure of the solar chromosphere at altitude from 500 to about 1500 km, providing a height-dependent diagnostic of the atmosphere. Filament channels and neutral lines are apparent in the submillimeter images, although filaments themselves are not clearly visible. The submillimeter images show plage approximately 20% brigher than the surrounding quiet Sun, while sunspot intensities are comparable to the quiet Sun. Circumfacules,' dark are similar to those seen in Ca 8542; comparison with Ca H and K may give estimates of the temperature and filing factor of the hot gas present in these probably bifurcated regions.

  4. Astronomy research in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxiu

    Decades of efforts made by Chinese astronomers have established some basic facilities for astronomy observations, such as the 2.16-m optical telescope, the solar magnetic-field telescope, the 13.7-m millimeter-wave radio telescope etc. One mega-science project, the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST), intended for astronomical and astrophysical studies requiring wide fields and large samples, has been initiated and funded. To concentrate the efforts on mega-science projects, to operate and open the national astronomical facilities in a more effective way, and to foster the best astronomers and research groups, the National Astronomical Observatories (NAOs) has been coordinated and organizated. Four research centers, jointly sponsored by observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and universities, have been established. Nine principal research fields have received enhanced support at NAOs. They are: large-scale structure of universe, formation and evolution of galaxies, high-energy and cataclysmic processes in astrophysics, star formation and evolution, solar magnetic activity and heliogeospace environment, astrogeodynamics, dynamics of celestial bodies in the solar system and artificial bodies, space-astronomy technology, and new astronomical techniques and methods.

  5. Teaching and Learning Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay; Percy, John

    2009-07-01

    Preface; Part I. Astronomy in the Curriculum Around the World: Preface; 1. Why astronomy is useful and should be included in the school curriculum John R. Percy; 2. Astronomy and mathematics education Rosa M. Ros; 3. Astronomy in the curriculum around the world; 4. Engaging gifted science students through astronomy Robert Hollow; 5. Poster highlights: astronomy in the curriculum around the world; Part II. Astronomy Education Research: Preface; 6. Astronomy education research down under John M. Broadfoot and Ian S. Ginns; 7. A contemporary review of K-16 astronomy education research Janelle M. Bailey and Timothy F. Slater; 8. Implementing astronomy education research Leonarda Fucili; 9. The Astronomy Education Review: report on a new journal Sidney C. Wolff and Andrew Fraknoi; 10. Poster highlights: astronomy education research; Part III. Educating Students: Preface; 11. Textbooks for K-12 astronomy Jay M. Pasachoff; 12. Distance/internet astronomy education David H. McKinnon; 13. Educating students with robotic telescopes - open discussion; 14. Poster highlights - educating students; Part IV. Educating teachers: Preface; 15. Pre-service astronomy education of teachers Mary Kay Hemenway; 16. In-service education of teachers Michèle Gerbaldi; 17. Poster highlights: educating teachers; Part V. Astronomy and Pseudoscience: Preface; 18. Astronomy, pseudoscience and rational thinking Jayant V. Narlikar; 19. Astronomical pseudosciences in North America John R. Percy and Jay M. Pasachoff; Part VI. Astronomy and Culture: Preface; 20. Teaching astronomy in other cultures: archeoastronomy Julieta Fierro; 21. Poster highlights: astronomy and culture; Part VII. Astronomy in Developing Countries: Preface; 22. Astronomy Curriculum for developing countries Case Rijsdijk; 23. Science education resources for the developing countries James C. White II; Part VIII. Public Outreach in Astronomy: Preface; 24. What makes informal education programs successful? Nahide Craig and Isabel

  6. Binocular astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Binoculars have, for many, long been regarded as an “entry level” observational tool, and relatively few have used them as a serious observing instrument. This is changing! Many people appreciate the relative comfort of two-eyed observing, but those who use binoculars come to realize that they offer more than comfort. The view of the stars is more aesthetically pleasing and therefore binocular observers tend to observe more frequently and for longer periods. Binocular Astronomy, 2nd Edition, extends its coverage of small and medium binoculars to large and giant (i.e., up to 300mm aperture) binoculars and also binoviewers, which brings the work into the realm of serious observing instruments. Additionally, it goes far deeper into the varying optical characteristics of binoculars, giving newcomers and advanced astronomers the information needed to make informed choices on purchasing a pair. It also covers relevant aspects of the physiology of binocular (as in “both eyes”) observation. The first edition ...

  7. Innovation in Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching: Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy; 7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture; 13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting; 24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy; 26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program; 29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects; 30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian study; 32. Visualizing

  8. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  9. Observing ice clouds in the submillimeter spectral range: the CloudIce mission proposal for ESA's Earth Explorer 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Buehler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Passive submillimeter-wave sensors are a way to obtain urgently needed global data on ice clouds, particularly on the so far poorly characterized "essential climate variable" ice water path (IWP and on ice particle size. CloudIce was a mission proposal to the European Space Agency ESA in response to the call for Earth Explorer 8 (EE8, which ran in 2009/2010. It proposed a passive submillimeter-wave sensor with channels ranging from 183 GHz to 664 GHz. The article describes the CloudIce mission proposal, with particular emphasis on describing the algorithms for the data-analysis of submillimeter-wave cloud ice data (retrieval algorithms and demonstrating their maturity. It is shown that we have a robust understanding of the radiative properties of cloud ice in the millimeter/submillimeter spectral range, and that we have a proven toolbox of retrieval algorithms to work with these data. Although the mission was not selected for EE8, the concept will be useful as a reference for other future mission proposals.

  10. Superconducting Microwave Resonator Arrays for Submillimeter/Far-Infrared Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozian, Omid

    Superconducting microwave resonators have the potential to revolutionize submillimeter and far-infrared astronomy, and with it our understanding of the universe. The field of low-temperature detector technology has reached a point where extremely sensitive devices like transition-edge sensors are now capable of detecting radiation limited by the background noise of the universe. However, the size of these detector arrays are limited to only a few thousand pixels. This is because of the cost and complexity of fabricating large-scale arrays of these detectors that can reach up to 10 lithographic levels on chip, and the complicated SQUID-based multiplexing circuitry and wiring for readout of each detector. In order to make substantial progress, next-generation ground-based telescopes such as CCAT or future space telescopes require focal planes with large-scale detector arrays of 104--10 6 pixels. Arrays using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID) are a potential solution. These arrays can be easily made with a single layer of superconducting metal film deposited on a silicon substrate and pattered using conventional optical lithography. Furthermore, MKIDs are inherently multiplexable in the frequency domain, allowing ˜ 10 3 detectors to be read out using a single coaxial transmission line and cryogenic amplifier, drastically reducing cost and complexity. An MKID uses the change in the microwave surface impedance of a superconducting thin-film microresonator to detect photons. Absorption of photons in the superconductor breaks Cooper pairs into quasiparticles, changing the complex surface impedance, which results in a perturbation of resonator frequency and quality factor. For excitation and readout, the resonator is weakly coupled to a transmission line. The complex amplitude of a microwave probe signal tuned on-resonance and transmitted on the feedline past the resonator is perturbed as photons are absorbed in the superconductor. The perturbation can be

  11. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future astrophysics missions will require lightweight, thermally stable, submillimeter reflectors in sizes of 4m and greater. To date, graphite fiber reinforced...

  12. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Nagendra Kumar. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 29 Issue 1-2 March-June 2008 pp 243-248. Damping of Slow Magnetoacoustic Waves in an Inhomogeneous Coronal Plasma · Nagendra Kumar Pradeep Kumar Shiv Singh Anil ...

  13. Astronomy and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  14. Adaptable radiative transfer innovations for submillimeter telescopes (ARTIST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovani, Marco; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; Bertoldi, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Submillimeter observations are a key for answering many of the big questions in modern-day astrophysics, such as how stars and planets form, how galaxies evolve, and how material cycles through stars and the interstellar medium. With the upcoming large submillimeter facilities ALMA and Herschel...

  15. Probing Galaxy Formation and Submillimeter Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Moseley, Harvey S.; Shafer, Richard A.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations of galaxies have revealed that a significant fraction of the their stellar or accretion luminosity is absorbed and reradiated by dust at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter (submm) wavelengths. Submillimeter (850 micron) surveys conducted by the SCUBA instrument on the JCMT have detected a population of high redshift (z approximately equal to 1-4) ultraluminous infrared galaxies, that dominate the luminosity densities at those redshifts. Their cumulative contribution to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) detected by the COBE satellite is comparable to the observations, suggesting that at 850 microns the CIB is resolved into its constituent sources. This suggests that the early universe was much more dust enshrouded than the present one. FIR and submm surveys can therefore address fundamental questions regarding the early processes of galaxy formation and their evolution in number and luminosity over cosmic history. The scientific information that can be obtained from such surveys depend on a number of parameters, the most important of which are the diameter of the telescope and the wavelengths of the survey. We summarize the effect of these parameters on the scientific return from such surveys.

  16. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  17. Taiwanese antennas for the Sub-Millimeter Array: a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffin, Phillippe A.; Liu, Ching-Tang; Cervera, Mathieu; Chang, Chi-Ling; Chen, Ming-Tang; Lee, Cheng-Ching; Lee, Typhoon; Lo, Kwok-Yung; Ma, Rwei-Ping; Martin, Robert N.; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Ong, Ching-Long; Park, Yong-Sun; Tsai, Rong-Den; Wu, Enboa; Yang, Shun-Cheng; Yang, Tien-Szu

    2000-07-01

    The Academia Sinica, Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA) is building two antennas to be added to the six antennas of the Sub-Millimeter Array (SMA) of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). The antennas have been designed at SAO and are currently under construction at Mauna Kea. ASIAA's two antennas are made in Taiwan from parts manufactured locally and imported from Europe and from the USA. This report will focus on the manufacturing and testing of 2 major components: the alidade and the reflector. We will emphasize the work done on the composite parts used in the 6- meter reflectors, namely the carbon fiber tubes for the backup structure, the carbon fiber legs of the quadrupod and the composite central hub. We will discuss the modal testing and pointing tests of the antennas. Finally this report will show how the Taiwanese industry was able to respond to the high manufacturing standards required to build sub-millimeter antennas. The design and manufacturing capabilities of the Aeronautical Research Laboratories and China Shipbuilding Corporation have made possible the construction of the telescopes in Taiwan.

  18. Enabling High Performance Instruments for Astronomy and Space Exploration and ALD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Frank; Lee, M. C.; Hoenk, M. E.; Jones, T. J.; Jacquot, B. C.; Dickie, M.; Monacos, S.; Nikzad, S.; Day, P.; Leduc, R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Benefits of ALD for NASA instruments and applications: a) Ultrathin, highly conformal, and uniform films over arbitrarily large surface area. b). High quality films (density, roughness, conductivity, etc.) . Angstrom level control of stoichiometry, interfaces, and surface properties: 1) Multilayer nanolaminates/nanocomposites. 2) Low temperature surface engineering. Flight applications enabled by ALD: a) Anti-reflective coatings/Mirrors/Filters/Optics for UV/Vis/NIR Detectors. b) Superconducting Films for Submillimeter Astronomy.

  19. Bulk submillimeter-wave mixers: Strain and superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, M. M.; Pickett, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    Strained germanium crystals, doped with gallium, were used as heterodyne mixers at THz frequencies, with infrared bandwidths approaching a GHz. The mixer performance (conversion loss and mixer noise) was analyzed in terms of nonlinearities associated with acceptor levels and with relaxation rates of free holes. Comparison was made with similar mixers employing low lying donor levels in high purity GaAs and with hot electron InSb mixers.

  20. Measurement of plasma conductivity using faraday rotation of submillimeter waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmenko, P.J.; Self, S.A.

    1983-03-01

    This paper examines the application of Faraday rotation to the measurement of electron combustion MHD plasmas. Details on the design of a working system are given, including the selection of operating wavelength. A theoretical comparison between the Faraday rotation technique and two-path interferometry shows Faraday rotation in its simplest form to be somewhat less sensitive to changes in electron concentration. This deficit can be balanced against greater immunity to vibration and thermal drift. Improved techniques of measuring the rotation angle promise greater sensitivity. A preliminary experiment has verified the technique.

  1. New technologies for the detection of millimeter and submillimeter waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, P.L.; Clarke, J.; Gildemeister, J.M.; Lanting, T.; Lee, A.T.; Myers, M.J.; Schwan, D.; Skidmore, J.T.; Spieler, H.G.; Yoon, Jongsoo

    2001-09-20

    Voltage-biased superconducting bolometers have many operational advantages over conventional bolometer technology including sensitivity, linearity, speed, and immunity from environmental disturbance. A review is given of the Berkeley program for developing this new technology. Developments include fully lithographed individual bolometers in the spiderweb configuration, arrays of 1024 close-packed absorber-coupled bolometers, antenna-coupled bolometers, and a frequency-domain SQUID readout multiplexer.

  2. Millimeter and submillimeter spectrum of propylene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesko, A. J.; Zou, Luyao; Carroll, P. Brandon; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.

    2017-05-01

    The spectrum of propylene oxide was collected from 70 GHz to 1 THz using direct absorption millimeter and submillimeter spectroscopy. Analysis of the spectrum was performed using the SPFIT/SPCAT programs for the A state. A full internal rotor analysis was performed using the XIAM program. The barrier to internal rotation of the methyl group was determined to be 893 cm-1. The precision of the rotation constants, centrifugal distortion constants, and internal rotor parameters was increased over the results reported by previous low-frequency studies. The results of this laboratory study and the associated analysis, as well as a spectral prediction for the ground vibrational state of propylene oxide, are presented.

  3. Millimeter and Submillimeter Observations of Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Chuang, Yo-Ling; Tseng, Wei-Ling; Coulson, Iain M.; Chung, Ming-Chi

    2016-07-01

    1 Ceres is the largest celestial body in the Main Asteroid Belt and is also the sole dwarf planet in the inner solar system. Water vapor from small icy solar-system bodies, including Ceres and Europa, was detected by Herschel infrared space telescope recently. Data taken from Dawn spacecraft suggest that a subsurface layer of briny water ice, together with ammonia-rich clays, may exist on Ceres. We hence observed Ceres using the 15-m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) to search for other atmospheric molecules besides H _{2}O. Submillimeter continuum observations employing SCUBA-2 were also carried out. Here we report the tentative detection of hydrogen cyanide in the atmosphere of Ceres. If confirmed, our finding could imply that Ceres may have a comet-like chemical composition. However, further observational confirmation and more detailed analysis is needed.

  4. Armenian Cultural Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.

  5. Photon caliper to achieve submillimeter positioning accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kyle J.; Wong, Jennifer; Zhang, Junan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a commercial two-dimensional (2D) detector array with an inherent detector spacing of 5 mm to achieve submillimeter accuracy in localizing the radiation isocenter. This was accomplished by delivering the Vernier ‘dose’ caliper to a 2D detector array where the nominal scale was the 2D detector array and the non-nominal Vernier scale was the radiation dose strips produced by the high-definition (HD) multileaf collimators (MLCs) of the linear accelerator. Because the HD MLC sequence was similar to the picket fence test, we called this procedure the Vernier picket fence (VPF) test. We confirmed the accuracy of the VPF test by offsetting the HD MLC bank by known increments and comparing the known offset with the VPF test result. The VPF test was able to determine the known offset within 0.02 mm. We also cross-validated the accuracy of the VPF test in an evaluation of couch hysteresis. This was done by using both the VPF test and the ExacTrac optical tracking system to evaluate the couch position. We showed that the VPF test was in agreement with the ExacTrac optical tracking system within a root-mean-square value of 0.07 mm for both the lateral and longitudinal directions. In conclusion, we demonstrated the VPF test can determine the offset between a 2D detector array and the radiation isocenter with submillimeter accuracy. Until now, no method to locate the radiation isocenter using a 2D detector array has been able to achieve such accuracy.

  6. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus

    OpenAIRE

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Gray, Norman; Erdmann, Chris; Biemesderfer, Chris; Frey, Katie; Soles, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) is an open, interoperable and community-supported thesaurus which unifies the existing divergent and isolated Astronomy & Astrophysics vocabularies into a single high-quality, freely-available open thesaurus formalizing astronomical concepts and their inter-relationships. The UAT builds upon the existing IAU Thesaurus with major contributions from the astronomy portions of the thesauri developed by the Institute of Physics Publishing, the American Institu...

  7. Space and astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkland, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Some daring explorers like to study distant frontiers by venturing out into them, but others prefer to study them by bringing them, or representative samples, a little closer to the lab. Both options are pursued in the fields of space and astronomy. Space exploration and astronomy are intricately linked and are examined in-depth in this guide. Dedicated to the scientists who explore the frontiers of space and astronomy-and the results of their unfamiliar findings-each chapter in Space and Astronomy explores one of the frontiers of this science. The development of technology, such as rocket pro

  8. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II effort will be an affordable demonstrated full-scale design for a thermally stable multi-meter submillimeter reflector. The Phase I...

  9. Astronomy at the Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roten, Robert; Constantin, A.; Christensen, E.; Dick, E.; Lapolla, J.; Nutter, A.; Corcoran, J.; DiDomenico, N.; Eskridge, B.; Saikin, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present here an energetic grass-roots outreach program run entirely by undergraduate physics and astronomy majors at James Madison University. Our "Team Awestronomy" takes Astronomy out to the Market, literally. Once a month, for eight months during the academic year, the group sets up a “scientific corner” at the Harrisonburg Farmers Market, offering people the chance to meet with astrophysicists (in the making) and discuss science. Our group members wear t-shirts with simple messages like “Ask me about the Sun,” “...about Black Holes and Mega-Masers” or “...about Big Bang” that initiate the dialog. We help our audience with observations of solar activity through our department’s Coronado telescope equipped with a safe H-alpha filter, sunspotters, and the incredibly simple yet durable and accurate handheld (Project Star) spectrometers, and invite them to the free Saturday Planetarium shows and the star parties hosted by our department on the JMU campus. The team is also prepared with a suite of fun activities aimed particularly at K-5 kids, e.g., building (and eating, after investigating out-gassing properties of) ”dirty comets,” making craters (in pans with flour or sand) and testing how different types of impactors (pebbles, ping-pong balls or even crumpled aluminum foil) affect crater formation, and demonstrations of shock wave created in supernova explosions. The main goals of this outreach program are: 1) to illustrate to people of all ages that science is a fun, creative, and exciting process; 2) to empower people to be curious and to ask questions; 3) to demonstrate that science is a viable career path chosen by many diverse individuals; and 4) to nurture a sense of wonder and awe for the Universe. While this outreach program is aimed at a very general audience, of an extremely wide range, we expect to produce a significant impact on K-12 students in general and in particular on the home-schooled kids. There is a relatively high

  10. Biographical Index of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggenthies, Wilhelm; Dick, Wolfgang R.

    This inventory lists for more than 16,000 astronomers and other persons with relation to astronomy their dates of life and biographical resources (books, papers, encyclopedic entries, obituaries, etc.). Besides professional and amateur astronomers, the index contains numerous mathematicians, physicists, geodesists, geologists, geophysicists, meteorologists, globe and instrument makers, pioneers of space flight, patrons of astronomy, and others.

  11. Rubric Sorting Astronomy Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Len, P. M.

    2014-07-01

    Student essays on introductory astronomy exams can be consistently and efficiently graded by a single instructor, or by multiple graders for a large class. This is done by constructing a robust outcome rubric while sorting exams into separate stacks, then checking each stack for consistency. Certain online resources readily provide primary source prompts for writing astronomy exam essay questions.

  12. Astronomy and astrophysics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff

    1988-01-01

    ... for the Decades 1995 to 2015 Astronomy and Astrophysics Task Group on Astronomy and Astrophysics Space Science Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, author...

  13. High energy particle astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, A.; Muller, R. A.; Smith, L. H.; Smoot, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of techniques currently used in high energy particle astronomy for measuring charged and neutral cosmic rays and their isotope and momentum distribution. Derived from methods developed for accelerator experiments in particle physics, these techniques help perform important particle astronomy experiments pertaining to nuclear cosmic ray and gamma ray research, electron and position probes, and antimatter searches.

  14. Handbook of Practical Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, Günter D

    2009-01-01

    With amateurs, students, and teachers of astronomy in high schools and colleges particularly in mind, the Handbook of Practical Astronomy is an essential source to demonstrate trends and variety of astronomical observations. The book presents the substance of celestial bodies for the amateur observer: the planets, the stars, and the galaxies. The sun is the local link to the other stars, the nexus of cosmic evolution. The solar system is made up by the sun and all the celestial bodies orbit it. This system is of special interest for the observing amateur. The Handbook of Practial Astronomy spans astronomy, education and computing. Like many other fields of science, astronomy has become digitized and data rich in recent years. Besides the references at the end of each chapter, there are the notes in the margins with astronomical news and observing highlights on the web.

  15. A Submillimeter HCN Laser in IRC +10216.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilke; Mehringer; Menten

    2000-01-01

    We report the detection of a strong submillimeter-wavelength HCN laser line at a frequency near 805 GHz toward the carbon star IRC +10216. This line, the J=9-8 rotational transition within the (0400) vibrationally excited state, is one of a series of HCN laser lines that were first detected in the laboratory in the early days of laser spectroscopy. Since its lower energy level is 4200 K above the ground state, the laser emission must arise from the innermost part of IRC +10216's circumstellar envelope. To better characterize this environment, we observed other, thermally emitting, vibrationally excited HCN lines and found that they, like the laser line, arise in a region of temperature approximately 1000 K that is located within the dust formation radius; this conclusion is supported by the line width of the laser. The (0400), J=9-8 laser might be chemically pumped and may be the only known laser (or maser) that is excited both in the laboratory and in space by a similar mechanism.

  16. Black Holes and Sub-millimeter Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, Philip C; March-Russell, John David; Argyres, Philip C.; Dimopoulos, Savas; March-Russell, John

    1998-01-01

    Recently, a new framework for solving the hierarchy problem was proposed which does not rely on low energy supersymmetry or technicolor. The fundamental Planck mass is at a TeV and the observed weakness of gravity at long distances is due the existence of new sub-millimeter spatial dimensions. In this letter, we study how the properties of black holes are altered in these theories. Small black holes---with Schwarzschild radii smaller than the size of the new spatial dimensions---are quite different. They are bigger, colder, and longer-lived than a usual $(3+1)$-dimensional black hole of the same mass. Furthermore, they primarily decay into harmless bulk graviton modes rather than standard-model degrees of freedom. We discuss the interplay of our scenario with the holographic principle. Our results also have implications for the bounds on the spectrum of primordial black holes (PBHs) derived from the photo-dissociation of primordial nucleosynthesis products, distortion of the diffuse gamma-ray spectrum, overcl...

  17. Infrared/submillimeter optical properties data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Phillip W.

    1989-01-01

    The general goal was to build a data base containing optical properties, such as reflectance, transmittance, refractive index, in the far infrared to submillimeter wavelength region. This data base would be limited to selected crystalline materials and temperature between 300 and 2 K. The selected materials were: lithium, lead, and strontium; the bromides of potassium and thallium; the carbides of silicone and tungsten; and the materials of KRS5, KRS6, diamond, and sapphire. Last summer, barium fluoride was selected as prototype material for building the data base. This summer the literature search, preparation of the data for barium fluoride was completed. In addition the literature search for data related to the compounds mentioned was completed. The current status is that barium fluoride is in a form suitable for a NASA internal publication. The papers containing the data on the other materials were xeroxed and they are ready to be reduced. On the reverse side, the top figure is a sample combination of data for the index of refraction at 300 K. The lower figure shows the transmittance vs wavelength at 300 and 80 K. These figures are a sample of many which were developed. Since barium fluoride was studied more than most of the materials listed above, it is clear that additional measurements should be made to fill in the gaps present on both temperature and wavelength data.

  18. Ionoacoustic characterization of the proton Bragg peak with submillimeter accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, W., E-mail: walter.assmann@lmu.de; Reinhardt, S.; Lehrack, S.; Edlich, A.; Thirolf, P. G.; Parodi, K. [Department for Medical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Am Coulombwall 1, Garching 85748 (Germany); Kellnberger, S.; Omar, M.; Ntziachristos, V. [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging, Technische Universität München and Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, Neuherberg 85764 (Germany); Moser, M.; Dollinger, G. [Institute for Applied Physics and Measurement Technology, Universität der Bundeswehr, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, Neubiberg 85577 (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Range verification in ion beam therapy relies to date on nuclear imaging techniques which require complex and costly detector systems. A different approach is the detection of thermoacoustic signals that are generated due to localized energy loss of ion beams in tissue (ionoacoustics). Aim of this work was to study experimentally the achievable position resolution of ionoacoustics under idealized conditions using high frequency ultrasonic transducers and a specifically selected probing beam. Methods: A water phantom was irradiated by a pulsed 20 MeV proton beam with varying pulse intensity and length. The acoustic signal of single proton pulses was measured by different PZT-based ultrasound detectors (3.5 and 10 MHz central frequencies). The proton dose distribution in water was calculated by Geant4 and used as input for simulation of the generated acoustic wave by the matlab toolbox k-WAVE. Results: In measurements from this study, a clear signal of the Bragg peak was observed for an energy deposition as low as 10{sup 12} eV. The signal amplitude showed a linear increase with particle number per pulse and thus, dose. Bragg peak position measurements were reproducible within ±30 μm and agreed with Geant4 simulations to better than 100 μm. The ionoacoustic signal pattern allowed for a detailed analysis of the Bragg peak and could be well reproduced by k-WAVE simulations. Conclusions: The authors have studied the ionoacoustic signal of the Bragg peak in experiments using a 20 MeV proton beam with its correspondingly localized energy deposition, demonstrating submillimeter position resolution and providing a deep insight in the correlation between the acoustic signal and Bragg peak shape. These results, together with earlier experiments and new simulations (including the results in this study) at higher energies, suggest ionoacoustics as a technique for range verification in particle therapy at locations, where the tumor can be localized by ultrasound

  19. Teaching Astronomy with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Carmen; Impey, Chris David; Wenger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Students today are expected to have access to computers and the Internet. Students young and old, in school and out of school, are interested in learning about astronomy, and have computers to use for this. Teach Astronomy is a website with a comprehensive digital astronomy textbook freely available to students and educators. In addition to the textbook, there are astronomy Wikipedia articles, image archives from Astronomy Picture of the Day and AstroPix, and video lectures covering all topics of astronomy. Teach Astronomy has a unique search tool called the wikimap that can be used to search through all of the resources on the site. Astronomy: State of the Art (ASOTA) is a massive, open, online course (MOOC). Over 18,000 students have enrolled over the past year and half. This MOOC has been presented in various forms. First, only to students on the web, with content released weekly on host site Udemy. Then to university students who met formally in the classroom for educational activities, but were also expected to watch lectures online on their own time. Presently, it is available online for students to go at their own pace. In the future it will be available in an extended format on a new host site, Coursera. ASOTA instructors use social media to interact with students. Students ask questions via the course host site, Udemy. Live question and answer sessions are conducted using Google Hangouts on Air, and interesting and relevant astronomy news, or supplementary educational content is shared via the ASOTA Facebook page. Teaching on the Internet may seem impersonal and impractical, but by learning to use all of these tools, instructors have the ability to interact with students, and keep them engaged.

  20. Explosive and radio-selected Transients: Transient Astronomy with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    40

    Recently a new class of GRBs, named ultra-long bursts (ULGRBs), are found to be lasting for several thousands of seconds. (Levan, 2015). It is speculated that ULGRBs are arising from a different class of progenitors. With the recent discovery of gravitational waves (GWs), a new era of Gravitational Wave Astronomy has be-.

  1. Solar Observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, Sven

    2015-08-01

    The interferometric Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has already demonstrated its impressive capabilities by observing a large variety of targets ranging from protoplanetary disks to galactic nuclei. ALMA is also capable of observing the Sun and has been used for five solar test campaigns so far. The technically challenging solar observing modes are currently under development and regular observations are expected to begin in late 2016.ALMA consists of 66 antennas located in the Chilean Andes at an altitude of 5000 m and is a true leap forward in terms of spatial resolution at millimeter wavelengths. The resolution of reconstructed interferometric images of the Sun is anticipated to be close to what current optical solar telescopes can achieve. In combination with the high temporal and spectral resolution, these new capabilities open up new parameter spaces for solar millimeter observations.The solar radiation at wavelengths observed by ALMA originates from the chromosphere, where the height of the sampled layer increases with selected wavelength. The continuum intensity is linearly correlated to the local gas temperature in the probed layer, which makes ALMA essentially a linear thermometer. During flares, ALMA can detect additional non-thermal emission contributions. Measurements of the polarization state facilitate the valuable determination of the chromospheric magnetic field. In addition, spectrally resolved observations of radio recombination and molecular lines may yield great diagnostic potential, which has yet to be investigated and developed.Many different scientific applications for a large range of targets from quiet Sun to active regions and prominences are possible, ranging from ultra-high cadence wave studies to flare observations. ALMA, in particular in combination with other ground-based and space-borne instruments, will certainly lead to fascinating new findings, which will advance our understanding of the atmosphere of our Sun

  2. Discovering Astronomy Through Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannone, John C.

    2011-05-01

    The literature is replete with astronomical references. And much of that literature is poetry. Using this fact, not only can the teacher infuse a new appreciation of astronomy, but also, the student has the opportunity to rediscover history through astronomy. Poetry can be an effective icebreaker in the introduction of new topics in physics and astronomy, as well as a point of conclusion to a lecture. This presentation will give examples of these things from the ancient literature (sacred Hebraic texts), classical literature (Homer's Iliad and Odyssey), traditional poetry (Longfellow, Tennyson and Poe) and modern literature (Frost, Kooser, and others, including the contemporary work of this author).

  3. Astronomy and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Hetherington, Edith

    2009-01-01

    While astronomy is a burgeoning science, with tremendous increases in knowledge every year, it also has a tremendous past, one that has altered humanity's understanding of our place in the universe. The impact of astronomy on culture - whether through myths and stories, or through challenges to the intellectual status quo - is incalculable. This volume in the Greenwood Guides to the Universe series examines how human cultures, in all regions and time periods, have tried to make sense of the wonders of the universe. Astronomy and Culture shows students how people throughout time have struggled

  4. Mathematical Astronomy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plofker, Kim

    Astronomy in South Asia's Sanskrit tradition, apparently originating in simple calendric computations regulating the timing of ancient ritual practices, expanded over the course of two or three millennia to include detailed spherical models, an endless variety of astrological systems, and academic mathematics in general. Assimilating various technical models, methods, and genres from the astronomy of neighboring cultures, Indian astronomers created new forms that were in turn borrowed by their foreign counterparts. Always recognizably related to the main themes of Eurasian geocentric mathematical astronomy, Indian astral science nonetheless maintained its culturally distinct character until Keplerian heliocentrism and Newtonian mechanics replaced it in colonial South Asia's academic mainstream.

  5. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  6. Stamping through astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Stamps and other postal documents are an attractive vehicle for presenting astronomy and its development. Written with expertise and great enthusiasm, this unique book offers a historical and philatelic survey of astronomy and some related topics on space exploration. It contains more than 1300 color reproductions of stamps relating to the history of astronomy, ranging from the earliest observations of the sky to modern research conducted with satellites and space probes. Featured are the astronomers and astrophysicists who contributed to this marvelous story – not only Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, Herschel, and Einstein but also hundreds of other minor protagonists who played an important role in the development of this, the most ancient yet the most modern of all the sciences. The book also examines in depth the diverse areas which have contributed to the history of astronomy, including the instrumentation, the theories, and the observations. Many stamps illustrate the beauty and the mystery of ce...

  7. Astronomy, Astrology, and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Dorian Gieseler

    Astronomy and astrology were combined with medicine for thousands of years. Beginning in Mesopotamia in the second millennium BCE and continuing into the eighteenth century, medical practitioners used astronomy/astrology as an important part of diagnosis and prescription. Throughout this time frame, scientists cited the similarities between medicine and astrology, in addition to combining the two in practice. Hippocrates and Galen based medical theories on the relationship between heavenly bodies and human bodies. In an enduring cultural phenomenon, parts of the body as well as diseases were linked to zodiac signs and planets. In Renaissance universities, astronomy and astrology were studied by students of medicine. History records a long tradition of astrologer-physicians. This chapter covers the topic of astronomy, astrology, and medicine from the Old Babylonian period to the Enlightenment.

  8. Astronomy in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Mexican astronomy has a long standing tradition of excellence in research. After a brief review of its history, I outline the current profile of the community, the available infrastructure and participating institutions, and give a glimpse into the future through current projects. The development of astronomy can serve as a powerful lever for science, technological development, education and outreach, as well as for improving the much needed link between basic research and industry development.

  9. Astronomy in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthier, A.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Second Life (SL is a multi-user virtual environment that is not limited to adult social entertainment. SL is also a 3D playground for innovative instructors and education/outreach professionals in the sciences. Astronomy and space science have a presence in SL, but it could be so much more. This paper describes some of the current astronomy themed spaces in SL and briefly discusses future innovations.

  10. Music and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, José A.; González Sánchez, S.; Caballero, I.

    What do Brian May (Queen's lead guitarist), William Herschel and the Jupiter Symphony have in common? And a white dwarf, a piano and Lagartija Nick? At first glance, there is no connection between them, nor between the Music and the Astronomy. However, there are many revealing examples of musical Astronomy and astronomical Music. This four-page proceeding describes the sonorous poster that we showed during the VIII Scientific Meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society.

  11. NASA thesaurus: Astronomy vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    A terminology of descriptors used by the NASA Scientific and Technical information effort to index documents in the area of astronomy is presented. The terms are listed in hierarchical format derived from the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus Volume 1 -- Hierarchical Listing. Over 1600 terms are included. In addition to astronomy, space sciences covered include astrophysics, cosmology, lunar flight and exploration, meteors and meteorites, celestial mechanics, planetary flight and exploration, and planetary science.

  12. Massive Datasets in Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Robert J.; Djorgovski, S. George; Prince, Thomas A.; Szalay, Alex S.

    2001-01-01

    Astronomy has a long history of acquiring, systematizing, and interpreting large quantities of data. Starting from the earliest sky atlases through the first major photographic sky surveys of the 20th century, this tradition is continuing today, and at an ever increasing rate. Like many other fields, astronomy has become a very data-rich science, driven by the advances in telescope, detector, and computer technology. Numerous large digital sky surveys and archives already exist, with informat...

  13. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  14. Development Of A Multicolor Sub/millimeter Camera Using Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaerth, James A.; Czakon, N. G.; Day, P. K.; Downes, T. P.; Duan, R.; Glenn, J.; Golwala, S. R.; Hollister, M. I.; LeDuc, H. G.; Maloney, P. R.; Mazin, B. A.; Noroozian, O.; Sayers, J.; Siegel, S.; Vayonakis, A.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) are superconducting resonators useful for detecting light from the millimeter-wave to the X-ray. These detectors are easily multiplexed, as the resonances can be tuned to slightly different frequencies, allowing hundreds of detectors to be read out simultaneously using a single feedline. The Multicolor Submillimeter Inductance Camera, MUSIC, will use 2304 antenna-coupled MKIDs in multicolor operation, with bands centered at wavelengths of 0.85, 1.1, 1.3 and 2.0 mm, beginning in 2011. Here we present the results of our demonstration instrument, DemoCam, containing a single 3-color array with 72 detectors and optics similar to MUSIC. We present sensitivities achieved at the telescope, and compare to those expected based upon laboratory tests. We explore the factors that limit the sensitivity, in particular electronics noise, antenna efficiency, and excess loading. We discuss mitigation of these factors, and how we plan to improve sensitivity to the level of background-limited performance for the scientific operation of MUSIC. Finally, we note the expected mapping speed and contributions of MUSIC to astrophysics, and in particular to the study of submillimeter galaxies. This research has been funded by grants from the National Science Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and the NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program.

  15. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  16. Astronomy in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan; Hadrava, Petr

    -, č. 128 (2007), s. 3-3 ISSN 0722-6691 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astronomy * astropohysics * Czech republic Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  17. Python in Astronomy 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Tim; Robitaille, Thomas; Tollerud, Erik; Mumford, Stuart; Cruz, Kelle

    2016-04-01

    The second Python in Astronomy conference will be held from 21-25 March 2016 at the University of Washington eScience Institute in Seattle, WA, USA. Similarly to the 2015 meeting (which was held at the Lorentz Center), we are aiming to bring together researchers, Python developers, users, and educators. The conference will include presentations, tutorials, unconference sessions, and coding sprints. In addition to sharing information about state-of-the art Python Astronomy packages, the workshop will focus on improving interoperability between astronomical Python packages, providing training for new open-source contributors, and developing educational materials for Python in Astronomy. The meeting is therefore not only aimed at current developers, but also users and educators who are interested in being involved in these efforts.

  18. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Christopher; Frey, Katie

    2015-08-01

    The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) is an open, interoperable and community-supported thesaurus which unifies the existing divergent and isolated Astronomy & Astrophysics vocabularies into a single high-quality, freely-available open thesaurus formalizing astronomical concepts and their inter-relationships. The UAT builds upon both the International Astronomical Union Thesaurus and the International Virtual Observatory Alliance Thesaurus with major contributions from the astronomy portions of the thesauri developed by the Institute of Physics Publishing, the American Institute of Physics, and SPIE, donated to the American Astronomical Society (AAS). In this talk, I will describe the effort behind the creation of the UAT, its continued development through the leadership of the AAS, and discuss some of its current and potential applications.

  19. Teaching Astronomy Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnofsky, Mary L.; Bobrowsky, Matthew

    This article is intended to provide an overview of the practical, pedagogical, and philosophical considerations in designing a Web-based astronomy course, and to demonstrate the educational benefits that such online courses can afford students. Because online students need to take more responsibility for their learning, faculty must make course expectations extremely clear. Online education allows for increased student participation and equal access to college by such groups as the military, the handicapped, full-time employees, and rural and senior citizens. Teaching the sciences online--especially astronomy--gives students more time to think critically about new information. This article also includes tools, checklists, and resources helpful for introducing faculty to online course development in astronomy.

  20. Astronomy and Poetry (overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samvelyan, David

    2016-12-01

    Through this work we have tried to show how astronomy penetrates into the poetry of different periods in time and in various poets' works all over the world. The following work has significant cognitive value, demonstrates and reveals the general nature of certain poets' astronomical ideas and provides a brief analysis in some cases. As a result, we have come to the conclusion that astronomy with all its components such as the sky, our solar system and phenomena such as these have always been a source of inspiration for those who create works of art, moreover some of them have even gained actual astronomical knowledge.

  1. Lessons from Mayan Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The Mayan culture collected exquisite astronomical data for over a millennium. However, it failed to come up with the breakthrough ideas of modern astronomy because the data was analyzed within a mythological culture of astrology that rested upon false but mathematically sophisticated theories about the Universe. Have we learned the necessary lessons to prevent our current scientific culture from resembling Mayan Astronomy? Clearly, data collection by itself is not a guarantee for good science as commonly assumed by funding agencies. A vibrant scientific culture should cultivate multiple approaches to analyzing existing data and to collecting new data.

  2. The Cambridge encyclopaedia of astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    Astronomy has been transformed in the last two decades by a series of dramatic discoveries that have left most reference books completely out of date. The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Astronomy presents a broadly based survey of the whole of astronomy which places emphasis on these critical new findings.

  3. Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

  4. Quickly Creating Interactive Astronomy Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    An innate advantage for astronomy teachers is having numerous breathtaking images of the cosmos available to capture students' curiosity, imagination, and wonder. Internet-based astronomy image libraries are numerous and easy to navigate. The Astronomy Picture of the Day, the Hubble Space Telescope image archive, and the NASA Planetary…

  5. School-Based Extracurricular Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy in 2009 focused considerable public attention on Astronomy and generated valuable resources for educators. These activities are an effective vehicle for promoting Science to students and to the wider school community. The most engaging practical astronomy activities are best delivered with sustained support from…

  6. Astronomy Education for Physics Students

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Astronomy is a very interesting subject for undergraduate students studying physics. In this paper, we report astronomy education for undergraduate students in the Physics Department of Guangzhou University, and how we are teaching astronomy to the students. Astrophysics has been rapidly developing ...

  7. Estimation of physiological sub-millimeter displacement with CW Doppler radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia Xu; Xiaomeng Gao; Padasdao, Bryson E; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar physiological sensing has been studied for non-contact detection of vital signs including respiratory and heartbeat rates. This paper presents the first micrometer resolution Wi-Fi band Doppler radar for sub-millimeter physiological displacement measurement. A continuous-wave Doppler radar working at 2.4GHz is used for the measurement. It is intended for estimating small displacements on the body surface resulting from physiological activity. A mechanical mover was used as target, and programmed to conduct sinusoidal motions to simulate pulse motions. Measured displacements were compared with a reference system, which indicates a superior performance in accuracy for having absolute errors less than 10μm, and relative errors below 4%. It indicates the feasibility of highly accurate non-contact monitoring of physiological movements using Doppler radar.

  8. Submillimeter ionoacoustic range determination for protons in water at a clinical synchrocyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrack, Sebastian; Assmann, Walter; Bertrand, Damien; Henrotin, Sebastien; Herault, Joel; Heymans, Vincent; Vander Stappen, Francois; Thirolf, Peter G.; Vidal, Marie; Van de Walle, Jarno; Parodi, Katia

    2017-09-01

    Proton ranges in water between 145 MeV to 227 MeV initial energy have been measured at a clinical superconducting synchrocyclotron using the acoustic signal induced by the ion dose deposition (ionoacoustic effect). Detection of ultrasound waves was performed by a very sensitive hydrophone and signals were stored in a digital oscilloscope triggered by secondary prompt gammas. The ionoacoustic range measurements were compared to existing range data from a calibrated range detector setup on-site and agreement of better than 1 mm was found at a Bragg peak dose of about 10 Gy for 220 MeV initial proton energy, compatible with the experimental errors. Ionoacoustics has thus the potential to measure the Bragg peak position with submillimeter accuracy during proton therapy, possibly correlated with ultrasound tissue imaging.

  9. Astronomy on the Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santascoy, J.

    2016-01-01

    Many of us are interested in increasing youth and minority involvement in the sciences. Using art that integrates images of space exploration with ethnic astronomical mythology may increase participation in astronomy in general, while also forming a bridge to underrepresented communities. This paper describes a freely available presentation of Carlos Callejo's Discover the Secrets of the Universe Through the Library for outreach.

  10. Astronomy Video Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, John

    2008-05-01

    During Galileo's lifetime his staunchest supporter was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. During this presentation the basic categories, rules, and prizes for the Astronomy Video Contest will be covered and finally the new song "Shoulders of Giants” by THE CHROMATICS will be unveiled

  11. Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses. Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In…

  12. Physics and astronomy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moraal, H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The chapter is about physics and astronomy. The chapter gives a background about the origins of physics in South Africa. After the CSIR was founded in 1945, physics emerged as a nationwide and unified discipline. The authors show how physics...

  13. Division x: Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Russ; Chapman, Jessica; Rendong, Nan; Carilli, Christopher; Giovannini, Gabriele; Hills, Richard; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Jonas, Justin; Lazio, Joseph; Morganti, Raffaella; Rubio, Monica; Shastri, Prajval

    This triennium has seen a phenomenal investment in development of observational radio astronomy facilities in all parts of the globe at a scale that significantly impacts the international community. This includes both major enhancements such as the transition from the VLA to the EVLA in North

  14. Strategies for Teaching Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.

    2000-12-01

    No matter whether you are teaching school children, undergraduates, or colleagues, a few key strategies are always useful. I will present and give examples for the following five key strategies for teaching astronomy. 1. Provide a Contextual Framework: It is much easier to learn new facts or concepts if they can be ``binned" into some kind of pre-existing mental framework. Unless your listeners are already familiar with the basic ideas of modern astronomy (such as the hierarchy of structure in the universe, the scale of the universe, and the origin of the universe), you must provide this before going into the details of how we've developed this modern picture through history. 2. Create Conditions for Conceptual Change: Many people hold misconceptions about astronomical ideas. Therefore we cannot teach them the correct ideas unless we first help them unlearn their prior misconceptions. 3. Make the Material Relevant: It's human nature to be more interested in subjects that seem relevant to our lives. Therefore we must always show students the many connections between astronomy and their personal concerns, such as emphasizing how we are ``star stuff" (in the words of Carl Sagan), how studying other planets helps us understand our own, and so on. 4. Limit Use of Jargon: The number of new terms in many introductory astronomy books is larger than the number of words taught in many first courses in foreign language. This means the books are essentially teaching astronomy in a foreign language, which is a clear recipe for failure. We must find ways to replace jargon with plain language. 5. Challenge Your Students: Don't dumb your teaching down; by and large, students will rise to meet your expectations, as long as you follow the other strategies and practice good teaching.

  15. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 28; Issue 1. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 28, Issue 1. March 2007, pages 1-66. pp 1-7. Oblique Propagation and Dissipation of Alfv´en Waves in Coronal Holes · A. K. Srivastava B. N. Dwivedi · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  16. Computational spherical astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taff, Laurence G.

    The subject of the considered volume is the applied mathematics of spherical astronomy. The book is intended to aid those scientists and engineers, not trained in astrometry, to rapidly master the computational aspects of positional astronomy. Celestial coordinate systems are considered, taking into account the celestial sphere, the horizon system, the equatorial systems, the ecliptic system, the rotational transformations of celestial coordinates, position angle and distance, and special star positions. Other subjects discussed are related to general precession and proper motion, the parallax, the computation of the topocentric place, time systems, photographic astrometry, celestial mechanics, and astronomical catalogs. Attention is given to the power series method for the combined effects of general precession and proper motion, atomic time, the gravitational force, perturbation theory, solar system objects, stars, nonstellar objects, and the linear plate model.

  17. Astronomy and astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarka, Philippe

    2011-06-01

    Astrology meets a large success in our societies, from the private to the political sphere as well as in the media, in spite of the demonstrated inaccuracy of its psychological as well as operational predictions. We analyse here the relations between astrology and astronomy, as well as the criticisms opposed by the latter to the former. We show that most of these criticisms are weak. Much stronger ones emerge from the analysis of the astrological practice compared to the scientific method, leading us to conclude to the non-scientificity of astrology. Then we return to the success of astrology, and from its analysis we propose a renewed (and prophylactic) rôle for astronomy in society.

  18. Passive magnetic shielding for the submillimeter and far infrared experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Koji; Warner, B.A.; Di Pirro, M.J.; Numazawa, Takenori

    2003-05-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center is developing the submillimeter and far infrared experiment (SAFIRE). SAFIRE will use SQUIDs as amplifiers for detectors, which must be shielded from the magnet cooling system, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The magnetic field at the detector package must remain at or below the 10{sup -7} tesla level while the detectors are operating. We discuss laboratory tests of the passive shielding and simulations.

  19. Archaeology and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    MEETING REPORT The interaction between archaeology and astronomy has a long, tangled and not entirely creditable history, marred by misunderstandings on both sides. But statistics and cultural awareness are bringing a better picture of how and why lasting monuments such as Stonehenge were built. Sue Bowler reports on a joint meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society and the Prehistoric Society, held at Jodrell Bank on 17 July 2009.

  20. Software systems for astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Conrad, Albert R

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the use and development of software for astronomy. It describes the control systems used to point the telescope and operate its cameras and spectrographs, as well as the web-based tools used to plan those observations. In addition, the book also covers the analysis and archiving of astronomical data once it has been acquired. Readers will learn about existing software tools and packages, develop their own software tools, and analyze real data sets.

  1. Astronomy on a Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  2. Analysis of the Sub-Millimeter Rotational Spectrum of Urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jessica R.; Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2013-06-01

    Urea, ((NH_{2})_{2}CO), has broad presence in biological species. As a byproduct of human metabolism, this molecule is commonly tested for in blood to diagnose different pathologies. Furthermore, urea is seen in interstellar medium and its detection could yield valuable insight into the mechanisms governing star formation. Despite the prevalence of urea, an absence exists in recorded frequencies of this molecule. The new generation of the sub-millimeter telescopes, such as ALMA, HERSCHEL, and SOFIA, allows detection of interstellar molecular spectra at unprecedented spatial and spectral resolutions. The knowledge of the precise frequencies of spectra transitions present in interstellar molecular clouds would alleviate the problem of spectral congestion and aid in molecular identification. This paper reports the most recent investigation of the submillimeter/terahertz gas phase spectrum of urea. Up until now, only the microwave laboratory spectrum of urea's vibrational ground state has been available. This paper reports the high-resolution spectra of urea in the sub-millimeter range, and extends the spectroscopic assignment of the rotational transitions in the vibrational ground state. Additionally, the assignment of the first vibrational state and tentative assignments of two additional vibrational states have been made.

  3. A SUBMILLIMETER CONTINUUM SURVEY OF LOCAL DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Chul [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ho Seong [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gwang-Ho, E-mail: jclee@kasi.re.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    We conduct a 350 μ m dust continuum emission survey of 17 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at z = 0.05–0.08 with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We detect 14 DOGs with S{sub 350μm} = 114–650 mJy and signal-to-noise > 3. By including two additional DOGs with submillimeter data in the literature, we are able to study dust content for a sample of 16 local DOGs, which consist of 12 bump and four power-law types. We determine their physical parameters with a two-component modified blackbody function model. The derived dust temperatures are in the range 57–122 K and 22–35 K for the warm and cold dust components, respectively. The total dust mass and the mass fraction of the warm dust component are 3–34 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} and 0.03%–2.52%, respectively. We compare these results with those of other submillimeter-detected infrared luminous galaxies. The bump DOGs, the majority of the DOG sample, show similar distributions of dust temperatures and total dust mass to the comparison sample. The power-law DOGs show a hint of smaller dust masses than other samples, but need to be tested with a larger sample. These findings support that the reason DOGs show heavy dust obscuration is not an overall amount of dust content, but probably the spatial distribution of dust therein.

  4. Syllabus Computer in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important and actual subjects and training courses in the curricula for undergraduate level students at the National university of Uzbekistan is ‘Computer Methods in Astronomy’. It covers two semesters and includes both lecture and practice classes. Based on the long term experience we prepared the tutorial for students which contain the description of modern computer applications in astronomy.The main directions of computer application in field of astronomy briefly as follows:1) Automating the process of observation, data acquisition and processing2) Create and store databases (the results of observations, experiments and theoretical calculations) their generalization, classification and cataloging, working with large databases3) The decisions of the theoretical problems (physical modeling, mathematical modeling of astronomical objects and phenomena, derivation of model parameters to obtain a solution of the corresponding equations, numerical simulations), appropriate software creation4) The utilization in the educational process (e-text books, presentations, virtual labs, remote education, testing), amateur astronomy and popularization of the science5) The use as a means of communication and data transfer, research result presenting and dissemination (web-journals), the creation of a virtual information system (local and global computer networks).During the classes the special attention is drawn on the practical training and individual work of students including the independent one.

  5. Indigenous Astronomies and Progress in Modern Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggles, Clive

    2010-01-01

    From an anthropological point of view, the whole concept of a "path of progress" in astronomical discovery is anathema, since it implicitly downgrades other cultural perspectives, such as the many "indigenous cosmologies" that still exist in the modern world. By doing so, one risks provoking those who hold them and-as is most obvious in places such as Hawaii where the two "world-views" come into direct contact-reating avoidable resistance to that very progress. The problem is complicated by the existence of "fringe" and "new-age" views that are increasingly confused with, and even passed off as, indigenous perceptions. In a modern world where widespread public perceptions include many that are unscientific in the broadest sense of the term, I shall argue that there are actually a range of positive benefits for progress in scientific astronomy to be derived from the mutual awareness and comprehension of "genuine" cultural world-views whose goals-in common with those of modern science-are to make sense of the c...

  6. A Novel Design of Micromachined Horn Antenna for Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ansari

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel design of micromachined horn antenna is presented. Horn excited with a quasi-Yagi antenna. In this paper micromachining process of this antenna, and simulation results of a horn structure operate around 330GHz using Agilent High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS software is presented. The results indicate a gain around 10dB, directivity 10.5dB and resonant dipole impedance 48.3Ω for horn antenna. The micromachined horn antenna is a high-efficiency antenna suitable for applications in millimeter-wave imaging systems, remote-sensing, and radio astronomy.

  7. Astronomy Education for Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J. H.; Zhang, J. S.; Zhang, J. Y.; Liu, Y.; Wang, H. G.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is a very interesting subject for undergraduate students studying physics. In this paper, we report astronomy education for undergraduate students in the Physics Department of Guangzhou University, and how we are teaching astronomy to the students. Astrophysics has been rapidly developing since 1994, when the center for astrophysics was founded. Now, astrophysics has become a key subject in Guangdong Province, and the Astronomy Science and Technology Research Laboratory one of the key laboratories of the Department of Education of the Guangdong Province. Many undergraduate students, working under the tutorship of faculty members completed their thesis at the Center for Astrophysics in Guangzhou.

  8. Observational Approach to Molecular Cloud Evolution with the Submillimeter CI Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Mt. Fuji Submillimeter-Wave Telescope Group

    Neutral carbon atoms (CI) play important role both in chemistry and cooling processes of interstellar molecular clouds. It is thus crucial to explore its large area distribution to investigate formation processes and thermal balance of molecular clouds. We have constructed a 1.2 m submillimeter-wave telescope at the summit of Mt.Fuji. The telescope was designed for the exclusive use of surveying molecular clouds in two submillimeter CI lines, 3P1--3P0 (492 GHz) and 3P2--3P1 (809 GHz), of atomic carbon. It has been operated successfully during 4 observing seasons since July 1998 in a remote way from the Hongo campus of the University of Tokyo. We have already revealed large-scale CI 492 GHz distributions of many giant molecular clouds, including Orion MC, Taurus MC, DR15, DR21, NGC2264, M17, W3, W44, W51, Rosette MC, covering more than 40 square degrees of the sky. The distribution of CI 492 GHz emission is found to be different from those of the 13CO or C18O emission in some clouds. We found the spatial order of C+/CO/C from UV sources. This is the general property of the cloud illuminated by intense UV radiation, whereas it is apparently inconsistent with the standard photodissociation region (PDR) picture. We also found CI-rich areas (C/CO˜1) in several dark clouds without strong UV sources. These results are discussed in relation to formation processes of molecular clouds and dense cloud cores.

  9. Research Status and Action of Sub-millimeter Debris Impact Damage on Spacecraft Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Higashide, Masumi; Kurosaki, Hirohisa; Hasegawa, Sunao; 東出, 真澄; 黒崎, 裕久; 長谷川, 直

    2015-01-01

    To assess debris impact risk for the satellite, submillimeter debris impact damage has not been investigated enough to conduct satellite protective designing. JAXA is researching vulnerability of satellite structure materials against submillimeter debris impact, and proposing shielding methods. This report shows summary of submillimeter impact damages of honeycomb sandwich panels. The damage of the panel was investigated by hypervelocity impact experiments with the two-stage light gas gun in ...

  10. Transmission of Babylonian Astronomy to Other Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander

    Babylonian astronomy and astrology were extensively transmitted to other civilizations in the second and first millennia BC. Greek astronomy in particular was largely shaped by knowledge of Babylonian observations and mathematical astronomy.

  11. Astronomy across cultures the history of non-Western astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaochun, Sun

    2000-01-01

    Astronomy Across Cultures: A History of Non-Western Astronomy consists of essays dealing with the astronomical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Polynesian, Egyptian and Tibetan astronomy, among others, the book includes essays on Sky Tales and Why We Tell Them and Astronomy and Prehistory, and Astronomy and Astrology. The essays address the connections between science and culture and relate astronomical practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.

  12. Dyslexia and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneps, Matthew H.; Greenhill, L. J.; Rose, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    Dyslexia is a hereditary neurological disability that impairs reading. It is believed that anywhere from 5% to 20% of all people in the US may have dyslexia to a greater or lesser degree. Though dyslexia is common, it is a "silent disability" in the sense that it is not easy to tell which individuals suffer from dyslexia and which do not. There is a substantial body of evidence to suggest that people with dyslexia tend to do well in science. For example, Baruj Benacerraf, a Nobel laureate in medicine, is among those whose impairments have been documented and studied. Given that dyslexia was not diagnosed in schools prior to the late 1970's, many established science researchers may have dyslexia and be unaware of their impairment. Therefore, it would not be surprising to find that substantial numbers of scientists working in the fields of astronomy and astrophysics have dyslexia, and yet be unaware of the effects this disability has had on their research. A recently proposed theory by the authors suggests that there may be specific neurological reasons why those with dyslexia may be predisposed to science, and predicts that dyslexia may be associated with enhanced abilities for certain types of visual processing, with special implications for image processing. Our study, funded by the NSF, investigates this hypothesis in the context of astronomy and astrophysics. We expect this work will uncover and document challenges faced by scientists with dyslexia, but perhaps more importantly, lead to an understanding of the strengths these scientists bring to research. The program will serve as a clearing-house of information for scientists and students with dyslexia, and begin to provide mentoring for young people with dyslexia interested in astronomy. Scientists who have reason to believe they may have dyslexia are encouraged to contact the authors.

  13. Gamma-ray Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes recents results in gamma-ray astronomy, most of which were derived with data from ground-based gamma-ray detectors. Many of the contributions presented at this conference involve multiwavelength studies which combine ground-based gamma-ray measurements with optical data or space-based X-ray and gamma-ray measurements. Besides measurements of the diffuse emission from the Galaxy, observations of blazars, gamma-ray bursts, and supernova remnants this paper also covers theo...

  14. Superluminal motion in astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falla, D.F.; Floyd, M.J. [Department of Physics, University of Wales, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom)

    2002-01-01

    Several examples of 'intrinsic-type' superluminal motion in astronomy are taken. A simple signal-delay transformation is devised and shown to be sufficient to explain the superluminal effect as resulting from differential signal delay across an expanding source. The distinction between relativistic motion and relativistic kinematics is made. The key kinematical equation used to describe superluminal motion is an alternative statement of the Doppler effect. Relativistic transformations, which are relevant when intervals in different reference frames are compared, then lead to the relativistic Doppler factor ({delta}), which is applicable to measurements on a photographic image, for example that of a relativistic quasar jet with superluminal components. (author)

  15. Astronomy in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Y.

    2006-08-01

    Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan, Iran In spite of her renowned pivotal role in the advancement of astronomy on the world scale during 9th to 15th centuries, Iran's rekindled interest in modern astronomy is a recent happening. Serious attempts to introduce astronomy into university curricula and to develop it into a respectable and worthwhile field of research began in the mid 60's. The pioneer was Shiraz University. It should be credited for the first few dozens of astronomy- and astrophysics- related research papers in international journals, for training the first half a dozen of professional astronomers and for creating the Biruni Observatory. Here, I take this opportunity to acknowledge the valuable advice of Bob Koch and Ed Guinan, then of the University of Pennsylvania, in the course of the establishment of this observatory. At present the astronomical community of Iran consists of about 65 professionals, half university faculty members and half MS and PhD students. The yearly scientific contribution of its members has, in the past three years, averaged to about 15 papers in reputable international journals, and presently has a healthy growth rate. Among the existing observational facilities, Biruni Observatory with its 51 cm Cassegrain, CCD cameras, photometers and other smaller educational telescopes, is by far the most active place. Tusi Observatory of Tabriz University has 60 and 40 cm Cassegrains, and a small solar telescope. A number of smaller observing facilities exist in Meshed, Zanjan, Tehran, Babol and other places. The Astronomical Society of Iran (ASI), though some 30 years old, has expanded and institutionalized its activities since early 1990's. ASI sets up seasonal schools for novices, organizes annual colloquia and seminars for professionals and supports a huge body of amateur astronomers from among high school and university students. Over twenty of ASI members are also members of IAU and take active part in its

  16. Islamic Mathematical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelle, Clemency

    A short survey on Islamic mathematical astronomy practiced during the period running from the eight century until the fifteenth is presented. Various pertinent themes, such as the translation of foreign scientific works and their impact on the tradition; the introduction, assimilation, and critique of the Ptolemaic model; and the role of observations, will be covered. In addition, the zīj, the dominant format for astronomical works, will be briefly explained as well as the legacy of the Islamic tradition of astral sciences to other cultures.

  17. Astrology as Cultural Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    The practice of astrology can be traced in most if not all human societies, in most time periods. Astrology has prehistoric origins and flourishes in the modern world, where it may be understood as a form of ethnoastronomy - astronomy practiced by the people. The Western tradition, which originated in Mesopotamia and was developed in the Greek world, has been most studied by academics. However, India is also home to a tradition which has survived in a continuous lineage for 2,000 years. Complex systems of astrology also developed in China and Mesoamerica, while all other human societies appear to seek social and religious meaning in the stars.

  18. Pulsars and Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. J.; Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J.

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between pulsar-like compact stars and gravitational waves is briefly reviewed. Due to regular spins, pulsars could be useful tools for us to detect ~nano-Hz low-frequency gravitational waves by pulsar-timing array technique; besides, they would also be ~kilo-Hz high-frequency gravitational wave radiators because of their compactness. The wave strain of an isolated pulsar depends on the equation state of cold matter at supra-nuclear densities. Therefore, a real detection of gravitational wave should be very meaningful in gravity physics, micro-theory of elementary strong interaction, and astronomy.

  19. Science and Mathematics in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolack, Edward

    2009-01-01

    A brief historical introduction to the development of observational astronomy will be presented. The close historical relationship between the successful application of mathematical concepts and advances in astronomy will be presented. A variety of simple physical demonstrations, hands-on group activities, and puzzles will be used to understand how the properties of light can be used to understand the contents of our universe.

  20. Submillimeter Detection of the van der Waals Stretching Vibration of the Ar-CO Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendriesch, R.; Pak, I.; Lewen, F.; Surin, L.; Roth, D. A.; Winnewisser, G.

    1999-07-01

    With the Cologne submillimeter-wave supersonic jet spectrometer, we extended molecular jet spectroscopy with backward wave oscillators up to frequencies of about 600 GHz. For the first time, the van der Waals stretching vibration of the Ar-CO molecular complex was detected in direct absorption. We measured 13 ro-vibrational transitions (Kvstretch = 1 ← 0, Ka = 0 ← 0) in the frequency range from 528 to 600 GHz and additionally the two R(3) K doublet (Ka = 4 ← 3) pure rotational transitions at 447 GHz with an accuracy of about 200 kHz. The ro-vibrational transitions were assigned and fitted within experimental accuracy to a simple Hamiltonian taking into account the Coriolis interaction between the stretching and bending states, i.e., between vstretch = 1, Ka = 0, and vbend = 1, Ka = 1. The intensity of the transitions in the van der Waals stretching mode was estimated to be a factor of 5-10 less than that in the bending mode of Ar-CO.

  1. CLUMPY AND EXTENDED STARBURSTS IN THE BRIGHTEST UNLENSED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iono, Daisuke; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Kawabe, Ryohei; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yun, Min S.; Wilson, Grant [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Luis Enrique Erro 1, Sta. Ma. Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Ikarashi, Soh [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700AV Groningen (Netherlands); Izumi, Takuma; Kohno, Kotaro; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Lee, Minju; Saito, Toshiki [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Ueda, Junko [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Michiyama, Tomonari; Ando, Misaki, E-mail: d.iono@nao.ac.jp [SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-09-20

    The central structure in three of the brightest unlensed z = 3–4 submillimeter galaxies is investigated through 0.″015–0.″05 (120–360 pc) 860 μ m continuum images obtained using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The distribution in the central kiloparsec in AzTEC1 and AzTEC8 is extremely complex, and they are composed of multiple ∼200 pc clumps. AzTEC4 consists of two sources that are separated by ∼1.5 kpc, indicating a mid-stage merger. The peak star formation rate densities in the central clumps are ∼300–3000 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}, suggesting regions with extreme star formation near the Eddington limit. By comparing the flux obtained by ALMA and Submillimeter Array, we find that 68%–90% of the emission is extended (≳1 kpc) in AzTEC4 and 8. For AzTEC1, we identify at least 11 additional compact (∼200 pc) clumps in the extended 3–4 kpc region. Overall, the data presented here suggest that the luminosity surface densities observed at ≲150 pc scales are roughly similar to that observed in local ULIRGs, as in the eastern nucleus of Arp 220. Between 10% and 30% of the 860 μ m continuum is concentrated in clumpy structures in the central kiloparsec, while the remaining flux is distributed over ≳1 kpc regions, some of which could also be clumpy. These sources can be explained by a rapid inflow of gas such as a merger of gas-rich galaxies, surrounded by extended and clumpy starbursts. However, the cold mode accretion model is not ruled out.

  2. Detection of Circular Polarization from Sagittarius A* at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Diego; Marrone, D.; Moran, J.

    2009-05-01

    We report the detection of circularly polarized (CP) emission from the compact radio source Sagittarius A* at a level of 1.5% at a frequency of 235 GHz (1.4 mm). Sgr A* is associated with the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the Galactic Center. The observations, taken with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) on 03/31/2007, also show a linearly polarized (LP) component of 7%. The snr of our detection of CP is about 14. Before our measurements, CP had only been detected at frequencies between 1.4 and 15 GHz (21 and 2 cm) at levels Faraday rotation in the stationary screen (constant RM)acts on a time variable background source. A cold, optically thin plasma screen cannot be responsible for both a constant RM and Faraday conversion from LP to CP, therefore the observed amounts of CP are likely to be originated close to the central source. Sgr A* shows a flat-to-inverted radio spectrum and a submillimeter excess referred to as the "submillimeter bump". This excess it thought to come from the closest regions to the SMBH. In such a scenario, millimeter wavelength data is associated with regions in which the material is likely to be relativistic and the magnetic field ordered. We have carried out polarized radiative transfer calculations exploring different combinations of ordered and stochastic magnetic fields looking for a favored scenario that can explain the apparent constant increase of CP with frequency as well as the sudden jump in LP between 40 and 80 GHz.

  3. Challenges in Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greve, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Astronomy is an attractive subject for education. It deals with fascination of the unknown and the unreachable, yet is uses tools, concepts and insights from various fundamental sciences such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology. Because of this it can be well used for introducing sciences to young people and to raise their interest in further studies in that direction. It is also an interesting subject for teaching as its different aspects (observation techniques, theory, data sampling and analysis, modelling,?) offer various didactical approaches towards different levels of pupils, students and different backgrounds. And it gives great opportunities to teach and demonstrate the essence of scientific research, through tutorials and projects. In this paper we discuss some of the challenges education in general, and astronomy in particular, faces in the coming decades, given the major geophysical and technological changes that can be deducted from our present knowledge. This defines a general, but very important background in terms of educational needs at various levels, and in geographical distribution of future efforts of the astronomical community. Special emphasis will be given to creative approaches to teaching, to strategies that are successful (such as the use of tutorials with element from computer games), and to initiatives complementary to the regular educational system. The programs developed by the IAU will be briefly highlighted.

  4. Active Astronomy Roadshow Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Silas; Oram, Kathleen; Alabre, Dayana; Douyon, Ralph; UMass Lowell Haiti Development Studies Center

    2016-01-01

    College-age Haitian students working with advisors and volunteers from UMass Lowell in 2015 developed and tested an activity-based K-8 curriculum in astronomy, space, and earth science. Our partner school is located in Les Cayes, Haiti a city where only 65% of children attend school, and only half of those will complete 6th grade. Astronomy provides an accessible and non-intimidating entry into science, and activity-based learning contrasts with the predominant traditional teaching techniques in use in Haiti, to reach and inspire a different cohort of learners. Teachers are predominantly women in Haiti, so part of the effort involves connecting them with scientists, engineers and teacher peers in the US. As a developing nation, it is vital for Haitian (as for all) children to grow up viewing women as leaders in science. Meanwhile in the US, few are aware of the reality of getting an education in a 3rd world nation (i.e. most of the world), so we also joined with teachers in Massachusetts to give US school children a peek at what daily life is like for their peers living in our vibrant but impoverished neighbor. Our Haitian partners are committed to helping their sister-schools with curriculum and educator workshops, so that the overall quality of education can rise, and not be limited to the very few schools with access to resources. We will describe the activites, motivation, and and the lessons learned from our first year of the project.

  5. The Astronomy Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2012-05-01

    {\\bf The Astronomy Workshop} (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive online educational tools developed for use by students, educators, professional astronomers, and the general public. The more than 20 tools in the Astronomy workshop are rated for ease-of-use, and have been extensively tested in large university survey courses as well as more specialized classes for undergraduate majors and graduate students. Here we briefly describe a few of the available tools. {\\bf Solar Systems Visualizer}: The orbital motions of planets, moons, and asteroids in the Solar System as well as many of the planets in exoplanetary systems are animated at their correct relative speeds in accurate to-scale drawings. Zoom in from the chaotic outer satellite systems of the giant planets all the way to their innermost ring systems. {\\bf Solar System Calculators}: These tools calculate a user-defined mathematical expression simultaneously for all of the Solar System's planets (Planetary Calculator) or moons (Satellite Calculator). Key physical and orbital data are automatically accessed as needed. {\\bf Stellar Evolution}: The "Life of the Sun" tool animates the history of the Sun as a movie, showing students how the size and color of our star has evolved and will evolve over billions of years. In "Star Race," the user selects two stars of different masses and watches their evolution in a split-screeen format that emphasizes the great differences in stellar lifetimes and fates.

  6. Making Astronomy Accessible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Noreen A.

    2011-05-01

    A new semester begins, and your students enter the classroom for the first time. You notice a student sitting in a wheelchair or walking with assistance from a cane. Maybe you see a student with a guide dog or carrying a Braille computer. Another student gestures "hello” but then continues hand motions, and you realize the person is actually signing. You wonder why another student is using an electronic device to speak. Think this can't happen in your class? According to the U.S. Census, one out of every five Americans has a disability. And some disabilities, such as autism, dyslexia and arthritis, are considered "invisible” disabilities. This means you have a high probability that one of your students will have a disability. As an astronomy instructor, you have the opportunity to reach a wide variety of learners by using creative teaching strategies. I will share some suggestions on how to make astronomy and your part of the universe more accessible for everyone.

  7. Ancient Astronomy in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsamian, Elma S.

    2007-08-01

    The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

  8. Astronomy. Inspiration. Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, N.

    2008-10-01

    This paper speculates how poetry and other kind of arts are tightly related to astronomy. Hence the connection between art and natural sciences in general will be discussed in the frame of ongoing multidisciplinary project `Astronomy. Inspiration. Art' at Public Observatory in Belgrade (started in 2004). This project tends to inspire (better to say `infect') artist with a cosmic themes and fantastic sceneries of the Universe. At the very beginning of the project, Serbian poet and philosopher Laza Lazić (who published 49 books of poetry, stories and novels), as well as writer Gordana Maletić (with 25 published novels for children) were interested to work on The Inspiration by Astronomical Phenomena in Serbian Literature. Five young artists and scientists include their new ideas and new approach to multidisciplinary studies too (Srdjan Djukić, Nenad Jeremić, Olivera Obradović, Romana Vujasinović, Elena Dimoski). Two books that will be presented in details in the frame of this Project, "STARRY CITIES" (http://zavod.co.yu) and "ASTROLIES", don't offer only interesting illustrations, images from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories -- those books induces, provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, an adventure and challenge to explore and create.

  9. Astronomy Education in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxa, M.

    Basic education is fundamental to higher education and scientific and technological literacy. We can confront the widespread adult ignorance and apathy about science and technology. Astronomy, an interdisciplinary science, enhances students' interest and overcomes educational problems. Three years ago, we developed astronomy education in these ways: 1. Summer School for School Students. (50 students from Athens came to the first Summer School in Astrophysics at the National Observatory, September 2-5, 1996, for lectures by professional astronomers and to be familiarized with observatory instruments. 2. Introducing Students to Research. (This teaches students more about science so they are more confident about it. Our students have won top prizes in European research contests for their studies of objects on Schmidt plates and computations on PCs.) 3. Hands-on Activities. (Very important because they bring students close to their natural environment. Activities are: variable-star observations (AAVSO), Eratosthenes project, solar-eclipse, sunspot and comet studies. 4. Contact with Professional Astronomers and Institutes. (These help students reach their social environment and motivate them as "science carriers". We try to make contacts at astronomical events, and through visits to appropriate institutions.) 5. Internet Programs. (Students learn about and familiarize themselves with their technological environment.) 6. Laboratory exercises. (Students should do science, not just learn about it We introduced the following lab. exercises: supernova remnants, galaxy classification, both from Schmidt plates, celestial sphere.

  10. Superconductor Semiconductor Research for NASA's Submillimeter Wavelength Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    Wideband, coherent submillimeter wavelength detectors of the highest sensitivity are essential for the success of NASA's future radio astronomical and atmospheric space missions. The critical receiver components which need to be developed are ultra- wideband mixers and suitable local oscillator sources. This research is focused on two topics, (1) the development of reliable varactor diodes that will generate the required output power for NASA missions in the frequency range from 300 GHZ through 2.5 THz, and (2) the development of wideband superconductive mixer elements for the same frequency range.

  11. Properties of Submillimeter Galaxies in the CANDELS GOODS-South Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiklind, Tommy; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dahlen, Tomas; Dickinson, Mark E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Guo, Yicheng; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mobasher, Bahram; Mortlock, Alice; Fontana, Adriano; Davé, Romeel; Yan, Haojing; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barro, Guillermo; Caputi, Karina I.; Castellano, Marco; Dekel, Avishai; Donley, Jennifer L.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Hathi, Nimish P.; Kurczynski, Peter; Lu, Yu; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; de Mello, Duilia F.; Peth, Michael; Safarzadeh, Mohammad; Stefanon, Mauro; Targett, Thomas

    We derive physical properties of 10 submillimeter galaxies located in the CANDELS coverage of the GOODS-S field. The galaxies were first identified as submillimeter sources with the LABOCA bolometer and subsequently targeted for 870 μm continuum observation with ALMA. The high angular resolution of

  12. A Black Hole Mass-Variability Timescale Correlation at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bower, G.C.; Dexter, J.; Markoff, S.; Gurwell, M.A.; Rao, R.; McHardy, I.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the light curves of 413 radio sources at submillimeter wavelengths using data from the Submillimeter Array calibrator database. The database includes more than 20,000 observations at 1.3 and 0.8 mm that span 13 years. We model the light curves as a damped random walk and determine a

  13. Should Astronomy Abolish Magnitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, K.

    2001-12-01

    Astronomy is riddled with a number of anachronistic and counterintuitive practices. Among these are: plotting increasing stellar temperature from right to left in the H-R diagram; giving the distances to remote astronomical objects in parsecs; and reporting the brightness of astronomical objects in magnitudes. Historical accident and observational technique, respectively, are the bases for the first two practices, and they will undoubtedly persist in the future. However, the use of magnitudes is especially egregious when essentially linear optical detectors like CCDs are used for measuring brightness, which are then reported in a logarithmic (base 2.512 deg!) scale. The use of magnitudes has its origin in three historical artifacts: Ptolemy's method of reporting the brightness of stars in the "Almagest"; the 19th century need for a photographic photometry scale; and the 19th century studies by psychophysicists E. H. Weber and G. T. Fechner on the response of the human eye to light. The latter work sought to uncover the relationship between the subjective response of the human eye and brain to the objective brightness of external optical stimuli. The resulting Fechner-Weber law states that this response is logarithmic: that is, that the eye essentially takes the logarithm of the incoming optical signal. However, after more than a century of perceptual studies, most intensively by S. S. Stevens, it is now well established that this relation is not logarithmic. For naked eye detection of stars from the first to sixth magnitudes, it can be reasonably well fit by a power law with index of about 0.3. Therefore, the modern experimental studies undermine the physiological basis for the use of magnitudes in astronomy. Should the historical origins of magnitudes alone be reason enough for their continued use? Probably not, since astronomical magnitudes are based on outdated studies of human perception; make little sense in an era of linear optical detection; and provide a

  14. Josephson frequency meter for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anischenko, S.E.; Larkin, S.Y.; Chaikovsky, V.I. [State Research Center, Kiev (Ukraine)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Frequency measurements of electromagnetic oscillations of millimeter and submillimeter wavebands with frequency growth due to a number of reasons become more and more difficult. First, these frequencies are considered to be cutoff for semiconductor converting devices and one has to use optical measurement methods instead of traditional ones with frequency transfer. Second, resonance measurement methods are characterized by using relatively narrow bands and optical ones are limited in frequency and time resolution due to the limited range and velocity of movement of their mechanical elements as well as the efficiency of these optical techniques decreases with the increase of wavelength due to diffraction losses. That requires the apriori information on the radiation frequency band of the source involved. Method of measuring frequency of harmonic microwave signals in millimeter and submillimeter wavebands based on the ac Josephson effect in superconducting contacts is devoid of all the above drawbacks. This approach offers a number of major advantages over the more traditional measurement methods, that is the one based on frequency conversion, resonance and interferrometric techniques. It can be characterized by high potential accuracy, wide range of frequencies measured, prompt measurement and the opportunity to obtain panoramic display of the results as well as full automation of the measuring process.

  15. A Sub-millimeter, Inductively Powered Neural Stimulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K. Freeman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless neural stimulators are being developed to address problems associated with traditional lead-based implants. However, designing wireless stimulators on the sub-millimeter scale (<1 mm3 is challenging. As device size shrinks, it becomes difficult to deliver sufficient wireless power to operate the device. Here, we present a sub-millimeter, inductively powered neural stimulator consisting only of a coil to receive power, a capacitor to tune the resonant frequency of the receiver, and a diode to rectify the radio-frequency signal to produce neural excitation. By replacing any complex receiver circuitry with a simple rectifier, we have reduced the required voltage levels that are needed to operate the device from 0.5 to 1 V (e.g., for CMOS to ~0.25–0.5 V. This reduced voltage allows the use of smaller receive antennas for power, resulting in a device volume of 0.3–0.5 mm3. The device was encapsulated in epoxy, and successfully passed accelerated lifetime tests in 80°C saline for 2 weeks. We demonstrate a basic proof-of-concept using stimulation with tens of microamps of current delivered to the sciatic nerve in rat to produce a motor response.

  16. Structured Antireflective Coating for Silicon at Submillimeter Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Estefania

    2018-01-01

    Observations at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths are useful for many astronomical studies, such as the polarization of the cosmic microwave background or the formation and evolution of galaxy clusters. In order to allow observations over a broad spectral bandwidth (approximatively from 70 to 420 GHz), innovative broadband anti-reflective (AR) optics must be utilized in submillimeter telescopes. Due to its low loss and high refractive index, silicon is a fine optical material at these frequencies, but an AR coating with multiple layers is required to maximize its transmission over a wide bandwidth. Structured multilayer AR coatings for silicon are currently being developed at Caltech and JPL. The development process includes the design of the structured layers with commercial electromagnetic simulation software, the fabrication by using deep reactive ion etching, and the test of the transmission and reflection of the patterned wafers. Geometrical 3D patterns have successfully been etched at the surface of the silicon wafers creating up to 2 layers with different effective refractive indices. The transmission and reflection of single AR layer wafers, measured between 75 and 330 GHz, are close to the simulation predictions. These results allow the development of new designs with 5 or 6 AR layers in order to improve the bandwidth and transmission of the silicon AR coatings.

  17. Spreading Astronomy Education Through Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baki, P.

    2006-08-01

    Although Astronomy has been an important vehicle for effectively passing a wide range of scientific knowledge, teaching the basic skills of scientific reasoning, and for communicating the excitement of science to the public, its inclusion in the teaching curricula of most institutions of higher learning in Africa is rare. This is partly due to the fact that astronomy appears to be only good at fascinating people but not providing paid jobs. It is also due to the lack of trained instructors, teaching materials, and a clear vision of the role of astronomy and basic space science within the broader context of education in the physical and applied sciences. In this paper we survey some of the problems bedeviling the spread of astronomy in Africa and discuss some interdisciplinary traditional weather indicators. These indicators have been used over the years to monitor the appearance of constellations. For example, orions are closely intertwined with cultures of some ethnic African societies and could be incorporated in the standard astronomy curriculum as away of making the subject more `home grown' and to be able to reach out to the wider populace in popularizing astronomy and basic sciences. We also discuss some of the other measures that ought to be taken to effectively create an enabling environment for sustainable teaching and spread of astronomy through Africa.

  18. Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2012 Survey of Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Interest in astronomy degrees in the U.S. remains strong, with astronomy enrollments at or near all-time highs for the 2012-13 academic year. The total number of students taking an introductory astronomy course at a degree-granting physics or astronomy department is approaching 200,000. Enrollments in introductory astronomy courses have been…

  19. Astronomy and political theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.

  20. Superconducting detectors in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, F.

    2006-08-01

    Radiation detectors based on superconducting phenomena are becoming increasingly important for observational astronomy. Recent developments in this important field, together with relevant background, are described here. After a general introduction to superconductivity and the field of superconductor-based radiation sensors, the main detector types are examined with regard to their physical form, operating principles and principal advantages. All major forms of superconducting detectors used in contemporary research such as tunnelling detectors, mixers, hot-electron bolometers and transition edge sensitive devices are discussed with an emphasis on how more recent developments are overcoming the shortcomings of the previous device generations. Also, discussed are new ideas in superconducting detector technology that may find applications in the coming years.

  1. Handbook of pulsar astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Lorimer, Duncan

    2005-01-01

    Radio pulsars are rapidly rotating highly magnetized neutron stars. Studies of these fascinating objects have provided applications in solid-state physics, general relativity, galactic astronomy, astrometry, planetary physics and even cosmology. Most of these applications and much of what we know about neutron stars are derived from single-dish radio observations using state-of-the-art receivers and data acquisition systems. This comprehensive 2004 book is a unique resource that brings together the key observational techniques, background information and a review of results, including the discovery of a double pulsar system. Useful software tools are provided which can be used to analyse example data, made available on a related website. This work will be of great value not only to graduate students but also to researchers wishing to carry out and interpret a wide variety of radio pulsar observations.

  2. The Interactive Astronomy Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluke, Christopher J.; Barnes, David G.

    We introduce the use of in situ interactive three-dimensional (3-d) figures in digital astronomy textbooks as a means of enhancing student learning. The recent 3-d extensions to the Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF), combined with simple JavaScript, provide new ways to present intrinsically 3-d models, data sets, and instructional diagrams in digital publications. This is an enhancement to the usual method of presenting static, two-dimensional views, or "comic strip" sequences, to indicate changes in viewpoint. Interactive figures provide opportunities for students to undertake active learning while reading a textbook: they are able to explore and uncover the connections between viewpoint, orientation, and the 3-d nature of models and data sets for themselves.

  3. Astronomy for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Becan, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy For Beginners is a friendly and accessible guide to our universe, our galaxy, our solar system and the planet we call home. Each year as we cruise through space on this tiny blue-green wonder, a number of amazing and remarkable events occur. For example, like clockwork, we'll run head-on into asteroid and cometary debris that spreads shooting stars across our skies. On occasion, we'll get to watch the disk of the Moon passing the Sun, casting its shadow on the face of the Earth, and sometimes we'll get to watch our own shadow as it glides across the face of the Moon. The Sun's path w

  4. Astronomy a visual guide

    CERN Document Server

    Garlick, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    Space has fascinated man and challenged scientists for centuries and astronomy is the oldest and one of the most dynamic of the sciences. Here is a book that will stimulate your curiosity and feed your imagination. Detailed and fascinating text is clearly and richly illustrated with fabulous, vibrant photographs and diagrams. This is a comprehensive guide to understanding and observing the night sky, from distant stars and galaxies to our neighbouring planets; from comets to shooting stars; from eclipses to black holes. With details of the latest space probes, a series of monthly sky maps to provide guidance for the amateur observer and the latest photos from space, this book brings the beauty and wonder of our universe into your living room and will have you reaching for the telescope!

  5. Ulysses Observations of Nonlinear Wave-wave Interactions in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 21; Issue 3-4. Ulysses Observations of Nonlinear Wave-wave Interactions in the Source Regions of Type III Solar Radio Bursts. G. Thejappa R. J. MacDowall. Session XI – Solar Wind & Interplanetary Magnetic Fields Volume 21 Issue 3-4 ...

  6. Astronomy in laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, B.

    2006-08-01

    It is not easy to practice astronomical observation in a high school. It is difficult to teach authentic astronomy because real-world conditions cannot be reproduced in the classroom. However, the following ideas produce some interesting experiments. 1. The reappearance experiment of the meteor spectrum. We produced emission spectra by using a gas burner and welding. It can be understood that the luminosity of emission lines varies according to temperature. Furthermore, we mixed in liquid chlorides of Na, Ca, Fe, Sg, Si, etc., in different proportions tomimic different meteor spectra. We then observed the time changes of the luminosity using a video camcorder that we attached to a spectroscope. The spectrum in the experiment closely resembled that of a meteor. 2. The verification of the black-drop phenomenon.Long ago, the black-drop phenomenon became important in the case of Venus's passage between the Earth and the Sun, a transit of Venus. We tried to reproduce this phenomenon by using a small ball painted black, solar light, and an artificial illuminant. The profile of the reproduced image was then checked in detail. We found that this phenomenon depended on the influence of the limb darkening of the Sun, the scintillation of the Earth's atmosphere, and the optical performance of the telescope. Furthermore, we imitated Venus's atmosphere as an additional experiment by applying oil on the surface of the small ball. It resulted in an interesting profile but was not a sufficient experiment. Of course, these experiments are in conditions that are very different from the actual physical conditions. However, we think that they provide a very effective method for enhancing students' interest in astronomy. We are planning other experiments with similar themes.

  7. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  8. Applied Historical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    2014-01-01

    F. Richard Stephenson has spent most of his research career -- spanning more than 45 years -- studying various aspects of Applied Historical Astronomy. The aim of this interdisciplinary subject is the application of historical astronomical records to the investigation of problems in modern astronomy and geophysics. Stephenson has almost exclusively concentrated on pre-telescopic records, especially those preserved from ancient and medieval times -- the earliest reliable observations dating from around 700 BC. The records which have mainly interested him are of eclipses (both solar and lunar), supernovae, sunspots and aurorae, and Halley's Comet. The main sources of early astronomical data are fourfold: records from ancient and medieval East Asia (China, together with Korea and Japan); ancient Babylon; ancient and medieval Europe; and the medieval Arab world. A feature of Stephenson's research is the direct consultation of early astronomical texts in their original language -- either working unaided or with the help of colleagues. He has also developed a variety of techniques to help interpret the various observations. Most pre-telescopic observations are very crude by present-day standards. In addition, early motives for skywatching were more often astrological rather than scientific. Despite these drawbacks, ancient and medieval astronomical records have two remarkable advantages over modern data. Firstly, they can enable the investigation of long-term trends (e.g. in the terrestrial rate of rotation), which in the relatively short period covered by telescopic observations are obscured by short-term fluctuations. Secondly, over the lengthy time-scale which they cover, significant numbers of very rare events (such as Galactic supernovae) were reported, which have few -- if any-- counterparts in the telescopic record. In his various researches, Stephenson has mainly focused his attention on two specific topics. These are: (i) long-term changes in the Earth's rate of

  9. Astronomy Popularization via Sci-fi Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingkang

    2015-08-01

    It is astronomers’ duty to let more and more young people know a bit astronomy and be interested in astronomy and appreciate the beauty and great achievements in astronomy. One of the most effective methods to popularize astronomy to young people nowadays might be via enjoying some brilliant sci-fi movies related to astronomy with some guidance from astronomers. Firstly, we will introduce the basic information of our selective course “Appreciation of Sci-fi Movies in Astronomy” for the non-major astronomy students in our University, which is surely unique in China, then we will show its effect on astronomy popularization based on several rounds of teaching.

  10. The Profile of Astronomy Amateurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czart, K.

    Presentation of questionnaires carried out on Polish Astronomy Portal websites. There was over 80 questionnaires during 2 years period. As most part of users visiting this website are astronomy amateurs, we can assume questionnaires give a picture of astronomy amateurs community. Questionnaires can be divided into four main thematical groups: profile of users (age, sex, activities), what do they think about controversial astronomical problems (is Pluto a planet?), what are their likings (favorit star, most beatiful planet) and “business” questions (how did they find our website?, how many astronomical services do they visit regularly?).

  11. Astronomy at the frontiers of science

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is by nature an interdisciplinary activity: it involves mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology. Astronomers use (and often develop) the latest technology, the fastest computers and the most refined software.  In this book twenty-two leading scientists from nine countries talk about how astronomy interacts with these other sciences. They describe modern instruments used in astronomy and the relations between astronomy and technology, industry, politics and philosophy. They also discuss what it means to be an astronomer, the history of astronomy, and the place of astronomy in society today.   The book contains twenty chapters grouped in four parts: ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS discusses the place of astronomy among various branches of (mostly high-energy) physics. ASTRONOMY IN SOCIETY describes not only the historical context of astronomy, but issues facing astronomers today, including funding, planning, worldwide collaboration and links with industry. THE TOOLS OF OBSERVATION AND THE PROFESSION OF AS...

  12. A Grand Vision for European Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    , community-based Infrastructure Roadmap, crucial to keep Europe at the forefront of astronomical research," says de Zeeuw. ESO PR Photo 44a/07 European astronomy today is fully competitive on the global scene and is at the forefront in many domains with such breakthroughs as the first detection of a planet around a sun-like star, the successful landing on Titan, the proof that a massive black hole exists in the centre of our own Galaxy, the discovery of gravitational arcs around galaxy clusters, and the proof that most Gamma Ray Bursts are caused by huge exploding stars. The rise of European astronomy to this top position by the end of last century has been achieved through extensive cooperation and coordination of efforts, in particular through ESO for optical astronomy and ESA for space astronomy. To strengthen this position and to extend it to all branches of astronomy and all nations of the new Europe, a group of European funding agencies set up the ASTRONET programme with the goal to establish a comprehensive long-term development plan of European astronomy. ASTRONET therefore covers all astrophysical domains from cosmology to the Solar system, and every observing window, from space and from the ground, and from electromagnetic radiation to particles and gravitational waves. It addresses the whole astronomical 'food chain' from infrastructure and technology development to observation, data access, modelling and theory, and the human resources needed to make it all work. This effort is quite similar in scope to the 'decadal surveys' conducted in the USA over the last half-century, but unlike its American counterpart, ASTRONET was set up directly by the national funding agencies, with strong support from the European Commission. "A shared long-term Science Vision for European astronomy is the fundamental first step in the process, soon to be followed by a detailed infrastructure and technology development roadmap," says Johannes Andersen (NOTSA, Denmark), the ASTRONET

  13. An ALMA Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South : Source Catalog and Multiplicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodge, J.; Karim, A.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A.; Walter, F.; Biggs, A.; Ivison, R.; Weiss, A.; Alexander, D.; Bertoldi, F.; Brandt, W.; Chapman, S.; Coppin, K.; Cox, P.; Danielson, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; De, Breuck C.; Decarli, R.; Edge, A.; Greve, T.; Knudsen, K.; Menten, K.; Rix, H.; Schinnerer, E.; Simpson, J.; Wardlow, J.; Werf, van der P.P.

    2013-01-01

    We present an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 0 survey of 126 submillimeter sources from the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey (LESS). Our 870 {$μ$}m survey with ALMA (ALESS) has produced maps ~{}3{ imes} deeper and with a beam area ~{}200{ imes} smaller than the original

  14. Introducing Astronomy Related Research into Non-Astronomy Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Douglas

    The concern over the insufficient number of students choosing to enter the science and engineering fields has been discussed and documented for years. While historically addressed at the national level, many states are now recognizing that the lack of a highly-skilled technical workforce within their states' borders has a significant effect on their economic health. Astronomy, as a science field, is no exception. Articles appear periodically in the most popular astronomy magazines asking the question, "Where are the young astronomers?" Astronomy courses at the community college level are normally restricted to introductory astronomy I and II level classes that introduce the student to the basics of the night sky and astronomy. The vast majority of these courses is geared toward the non-science major and is considered by many students to be easy and watered down courses in comparison to typical physics and related science courses. A majority of students who enroll in these classes are not considering majors in science or astronomy since they believe that science is "boring and won't produce any type of career for them." Is there any way to attract students? This paper discusses an approach being undertaken at the Estrella Mountain Community College to introduce students in selected mathematics courses to aspects of astronomy related research to demonstrate that science is anything but boring. Basic statistical techniques and understanding of geometry are applied to a large virgin data set containing the magnitudes and phase characteristics of sets of variable stars. The students' work consisted of developing and presenting a project that explored analyzing selected aspects of the variable star data set. The description of the data set, the approach the students took for research projects, and results from a survey conducted at semester's end to determine if student's interest and appreciation of astronomy was affected are presented. Using the data set provided, the

  15. Essays on medieval computational astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Bergón, José Chabás

    2014-01-01

    In Essays on Medieval Computational Astronomy the authors provide examples of original and intelligent approaches and solutions given by medieval astronomers to the problems of their discipline, mostly presented in the form of astronomical tables.

  16. From astronomy to data science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Zaurín, Javier

    2018-01-01

    After almost ten years in academia I took one of the best decisions of my life: to leave it. This is my experience transitioning from astronomy to data science in search of a more open, fast-paced working environment.

  17. Pondering astronomy's perplexingly preposterous propositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Tim

    2017-12-01

    Astronomy is one of those ideas that naturally makes one wonder. Questions of how big? how far? how many? and how long? are just a few ideas that naturally present themselves when one contemplates the night sky and the universe. Despite astronomy's inherent ability to captivate students' interest, even master teachers need an evolving toolkit of innovative strategies to intellectually engage students, particularly in the domain of critical thinking.

  18. Bibliometric Evaluation of Finnish Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, E.

    2007-10-01

    Finnish astronomy publishing provides us with an interesting data sample. It is small but not too small: approximately one thousand articles have been published in a decade. There are only four astronomy institutes to be compared. An interesting paradox also emerges in the field: while Finnish science assessments usually value highly the impact of scientific publishing, no serious evaluations using real bibliometric data have been made. To remedy this, a comprehensive ten-year database of refereed papers was collected and analyzed.

  19. Multipass millimeter/submillimeter spectrometer to probe dissociative reaction dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laas, Jacob C; Hays, Brian M; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L

    2013-10-03

    We present here the instrument design and first experimental results from a multipass millimeter/submillimeter spectrometer designed to probe dissociative reaction dynamics. This work focuses on benchmarking the instrument performance through detection of the CH3O and H2CO products from methanol dissociation induced by a high-voltage plasma discharge. Multiple rotational lines from CH3O and H2CO were observed when this plasma discharge was applied to a sample of methanol vapor seeded in an argon supersonic expansion. The rotational temperature of the dissociation products and their abundance with respect to methanol were determined using a Boltzmann analysis. The minimum detectable absorption coefficient for this instrument was determined to be αmin ≤ 5 × 10(-9) cm(-1). We discuss these results in the context of future applications of this instrument to the study of photodissociation branching ratios for small organic molecules that are important in complex interstellar chemistry.

  20. High-Sensitivity AGN Polarimetry at Sub-Millimeter Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Martí-Vidal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The innermost regions of radio loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN jets are heavily affected by synchrotron self-absorption, due to the strong magnetic fields and high particle densities in these extreme zones. The only way to overcome this absorption is to observe at sub-millimeter wavelengths, although polarimetric observations at such frequencies have so far been limited by sensitivity and calibration accuracy. However, new generation instruments such as the Atacama Large mm/sub-mm Array (ALMA overcome these limitations and are starting to deliver revolutionary results in the observational studies of AGN polarimetry. Here we present an overview of our state-of-the-art interferometric mm/sub-mm polarization observations of AGN jets with ALMA (in particular, the gravitationally-lensed sources PKS 1830−211 and B0218+359, which allow us to probe the magneto-ionic conditions at the regions closest to the central black holes.

  1. Status of MUSIC, the MUltiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golwala, Sunil R.; Bockstiegel, Clint; Brugger, Spencer; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran; Gao, Jiansong; Gill, Amandeep K.; Glenn, Jason; Hollister, Matthew I.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Maloney, Philip R.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; McHugh, Sean G.; Miller, David; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T.; Sayers, Jack; Schlaerth, James A.; Siegel, Seth; Vayonakis, Anastasios K.; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2012-09-01

    We present the status of MUSIC, the MUltiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera, a new instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. MUSIC is designed to have a 14', diffraction-limited field-of-view instrumented with 2304 detectors in 576 spatial pixels and four spectral bands at 0.87, 1.04, 1.33, and 1.98 mm. MUSIC will be used to study dusty star-forming galaxies, galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, and star formation in our own and nearby galaxies. MUSIC uses broadband superconducting phased-array slot-dipole antennas to form beams, lumpedelement on-chip bandpass filters to define spectral bands, and microwave kinetic inductance detectors to sense incoming light. The focal plane is fabricated in 8 tiles consisting of 72 spatial pixels each. It is coupled to the telescope via an ambient-temperature ellipsoidal mirror and a cold reimaging lens. A cold Lyot stop sits at the image of the primary mirror formed by the ellipsoidal mirror. Dielectric and metal-mesh filters are used to block thermal infrared and out-ofband radiation. The instrument uses a pulse tube cooler and 3He/ 3He/4He closed-cycle cooler to cool the focal plane to below 250 mK. A multilayer shield attenuates Earth's magnetic field. Each focal plane tile is read out by a single pair of coaxes and a HEMT amplifier. The readout system consists of 16 copies of custom-designed ADC/DAC and IF boards coupled to the CASPER ROACH platform. We focus on recent updates on the instrument design and results from the commissioning of the full camera in 2012.

  2. SUBMILLIMETER FOLLOW-UP OF WISE-SELECTED HYPERLUMINOUS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jingwen; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Tsai, Chao-Wei; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger; Jarrett, Thomas [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sayers, Jack; Bridge, Carrie [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Benford, Dominic [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blain, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, LE1 7RH Leicester (United Kingdom); Petty, Sara; Lake, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bussmann, Shane [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Comerford, Julia M.; Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78731 (United States); Lonsdale, Carol [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Rho, Jeonghee [SETI Institute, 189 BERNARDO Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Stanford, S. Adam, E-mail: jingwen.wu@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others

    2012-09-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare ({approx}1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at z = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 {mu}m. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (z > 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 {mu}m, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature. We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60-120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe. We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  3. Astronomy in India a historical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    India has a strong and ancient tradition of astronomy, which seamlessly merges with the current activities in Astronomy and Astrophysics in the country. While the younger generation of astronomers and students are reasonably familiar with the current facilities and the astronomical research, they might not have an equally good knowledge of the rich history of Indian astronomy. This particular volume, brought out as a part of the Platinum Jubilee Celebrations of Indian National Science Academy, concentrates on selected aspects of historical development of Indian astronomy in the form of six invited chapters. Two of the chapters – by Balachandra Rao and M.S. Sriram – cover ancient astronomy and the development of calculus in the ancient Kerela text Yuktibhasa. The other four chapters by B.V. Sreekantan, Siraj Hasan, Govind Swarup and Jayant Narlikar deal with the contemporary history of Indian astronomy covering space astronomy, optical astronomy, radio astronomy and developments in relativistic astrophysic...

  4. EXPLORING THE RELATION BETWEEN (SUB-)MILLIMETER RADIATION AND {gamma}-RAY EMISSION IN BLAZARS WITH PLANCK AND FERMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Tavares, J.; Tornikoski, M.; Laehteenmaeki, A. [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, FIN-02540 Kylmaelae (Finland); Valtaoja, E. [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, 20100 Turku (Finland); Giommi, P.; Polenta, G.; Gasparrini, D.; Cutini, S., E-mail: leon@kurp.hut.fi [ASI Science Data Center, ASDC c/o ESRIN, via G. Galilei, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2012-07-20

    The coexistence of Planck and Fermi satellites in orbit has enabled the exploration of the connection between the (sub-)millimeter and {gamma}-ray emission in a large sample of blazars. We find that the {gamma}-ray emission and the (sub-)mm luminosities are correlated over five orders of magnitude, L{sub {gamma}}{proportional_to}L{sub (sub-)mm}. However, this correlation is not significant at some frequency bands when simultaneous observations are considered. The most significant statistical correlations, on the other hand, arise when observations are quasi-simultaneous within two months. Moreover, we find that sources with an approximate spectral turnover in the middle of the mm-wave regime are more likely to be strong {gamma}-ray emitters. These results suggest a physical relation between the newly injected plasma components in the jet and the high levels of {gamma}-ray emission.

  5. Astronomy and Atmospheric Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Les; Gaina, Alex

    2011-12-01

    The authors discusse the insuccess of the observation of the Total Eclipse of the Moon from 10 december 2011 in Romania and relate them with meteoconditions. Only a very short part of the last penumbral phase was observed, while the inital part and the totality was not observed due to very dense clouds. The change in color and brightness during this phase was signaled. Meanwhile, there is an area of science where clouds are of great use and interest. This area is Atmospheric optics, while the science which study clouds is meteorology. Clouds in combination with Solar and Moon light could give rise to a variety of strange, rare and unobvious phenomena in the atmosphere (sky), sometimes confused with Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO). The importance of meteorology for astronomy and atmospheric optics is underlined and an invitation to astronomers to use unfavourable days for athmospheric observations was sent. The web address of the site by Les Cowley, designed for atmospheric optics phenomena is contained in the text of the entry.

  6. Gnuastro: GNU Astronomy Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Gnuastro (GNU Astronomy Utilities) manipulates and analyzes astronomical data. It is an official GNU package of a large collection of programs and C/C++ library functions. Command-line programs perform arithmetic operations on images, convert FITS images to common types like JPG or PDF, convolve an image with a given kernel or matching of kernels, perform cosmological calculations, crop parts of large images (possibly in multiple files), manipulate FITS extensions and keywords, and perform statistical operations. In addition, it contains programs to make catalogs from detection maps, add noise, make mock profiles with a variety of radial functions using monte-carlo integration for their centers, match catalogs, and detect objects in an image among many other operations. The command-line programs share the same basic command-line user interface for the comfort of both the users and developers. Gnuastro is written to comply fully with the GNU coding standards and integrates well with all Unix-like operating systems. This enables astronomers to expect a fully familiar experience in the source code, building, installing and command-line user interaction that they have seen in all the other GNU software that they use. Gnuastro's extensive library is included for users who want to build their own unique programs.

  7. Large Databases in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Alexander S.; Gray, Jim; Kunszt, Peter; Thakar, Anirudha; Slutz, Don

    The next-generation astronomy digital archives will cover most of the sky at fine resolution in many wavelengths, from X-rays through ultraviolet, optical, and infrared. The archives will be stored at diverse geographical locations. The intensive use of advanced data archives will enable astronomers to explore their data interactively. Data access will be aided by multidimensional spatial and attribute indices. The data will be partitioned in many ways. Small tag indices consisting of the most popular attributes will accelerate frequent searches. Splitting the data among multiple servers will allow parallel, scalable I/O and parallel data analysis. Hashing techniques will allow efficient clustering, and pair-wise comparison algorithms that should parallelize nicely. Randomly sampled subsets will allow debugging otherwise large queries at the desktop. Central servers will operate a data pump to support sweep searches touching most of the data. The anticipated queries will require special operators related to angular distances and complex similarity tests of object properties, like shapes, colors, velocity vectors, or temporal behaviors. These issues pose interesting data management challenges.

  8. Grab 'n' go astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil

    2014-01-01

      Like everyone else, most amateur astronomers live busy lives. After a long day, the last thing you want as an observer is to have to lug out a large telescope and spend an hour getting it ready before it can be used. Maybe you are going somewhere sure to have dark skies, but you don’t necessarily want astronomy to dominate the trip. Or you are not quite committed to owning a large telescope, but curious enough to see what a smaller, portable setup can accomplish. These are times when a small “grab ’n’ go” telescope, or even a pair of binoculars, is the ideal in­strument. And this book can guide you in choosing and best utilizing that equipment.   What makes a telescope fall into the “grab ’n’ go” category? That’s easy – speed of setting up, ease of use, and above all, portability. This ambitious text is dedicated to those who love to or – because of their limited time – must observe the sky at a moment’s notice. Whether observing from the comfort of a backyard or while on busi...

  9. Gamma Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The project has progressed successfully during this period of performance. The highlights of the Gamma Ray Astronomy teams efforts are: (1) Support daily BATSE data operations, including receipt, archival and dissemination of data, quick-look science analysis, rapid gamma-ray burst and transient monitoring and response efforts, instrument state-of-health monitoring, and instrument commanding and configuration; (2) On-going scientific analysis, including production and maintenance of gamma-ray burst, pulsed source and occultation source catalogs, gamma-ray burst spectroscopy, studies of the properties of pulsars and black holes, and long-term monitoring of hard x-ray sources; (3) Maintenance and continuous improvement of BATSE instrument response and calibration data bases; (4) Investigation of the use of solid state detectors for eventual application and instrument to perform all sky monitoring of X-Ray and Gamma sources with high sensitivity; and (5) Support of BATSE outreach activities, including seminars, colloquia and World Wide Web pages. The highlights of this efforts can be summarized in the publications and presentation list.

  10. Gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.

  11. Submillimeter observations of the sun from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C.A.; Yee, S.; Roellig, T.L.; Hills, R.; Brock, D. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA) NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA) Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory, Cambridge (England) Joint Astronomy Centre, Hilo, HI (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The first submillimeter solar observations from the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea are reported. The JCMT submillimeter heterodyne receiver is used to observe the sun in 850 micron radiation. These are the first submillimeter observations of features on the size scale of the chromospheric supergranular network and of sunspots. A comparison is made between 850 micron images and calcium K line images of the chromospheric supergranular network in the quiet sun and in plage. Images of sunspots are given, noting that their 850 micron brightness is comparable to, or somewhat greater than, that of the quiet sun. 7 refs.

  12. Submillimeter observations of the sun from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Charles A.; Yee, Selwyn; Roellig, Thomas L.; Hills, Richard; Brock, David

    1990-01-01

    The first submillimeter solar observations from the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea are reported. The JCMT submillimeter heterodyne receiver is used to observe the sun in 850 micron radiation. These are the first submillimeter observations of features on the size scale of the chromospheric supergranular network and of sunspots. A comparison is made between 850 micron images and calcium K line images of the chromospheric supergranular network in the quiet sun and in plage. Images of sunspots are given, noting that their 850 micron brightness is comparable to, or somewhat greater than, that of the quiet sun.

  13. Micro-Spec: an Integrated, Direct-Detection Spectrometer for Far-Infrared and Sub-Millimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Moseley, S. H.; Hsieh, W.; Huang, W.; Stevenson, T.; Wollack, E.

    2014-01-01

    Many space-based observatories, such as Spitzer and Herschel, have opened the far-infrared (IR) window to the universe, revealing rich line and continuum spectra from objects ranging from interplanetary dust particles to galactic mergers and young galaxies in the early universe. Micro-Spec (µ-Spec) is proposed as a novel technology concept to enable new discoveries in the far-IR spectral range. µ-Spec will be a high-sensitivity, direct-detection spectrometer operating in the 450-1000 µm regime. It will have two antenna arrays, one for transmitting and one for receiving, and superconducting microstrip transmission lines for power division and phase delay. Using superconducting materials reduces losses at a minimum, thereby providing background-limited sensitivity (noise equivalent power, NEP, less than 3x10^-21 W/√Hz) at a resolution 1200, potentially making µ-Spec four orders of magnitude more sensitive than its most capable predecessors. Materials being investigated for the development of the instrument transmission line and detectors include niobium and niobium-titanium nitride for the former, and molybdenum nitride for the latter. In addition, the instrument will be integrated on a four-inch-diameter silicon chip. Such a dramatic size reduction is made possible by the fact that silicon has a refraction index three times that of vacuum, thereby allowing the transmission lines to be shorter than in vacuum by a factor of three. For all these reasons, µ-Spec can become an important capability under the low background conditions provided by space telescopes such as the space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics SPICA, possible Explorers and cryogenically-cooled balloons. The discussion will illustrate a point design developed for initial demonstration with a 30% efficiency due to losses to other diffraction orders. Design variations on this implementation will be shown that lead to near-unity efficiency and will be the basis of future instruments. Models to analyze the properties of the superconductors will also be described along with transmission data used to test and validate the models.

  14. Second-generation Micro-Spec: a medium-resolution spectrometer-on-a-chip for submillimeter astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Barrentine, Emily M.; Bulcha, Berhanu T.; Ehsan, Negar; Hess, Larry A.; Noroozian, Omid; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward; Moseley, Samuel Harvey

    2018-01-01

    This work reports on the design of a second-generation Micro-Spec (µ-Spec), a direct-detection spectrometer which integrates all the components of a diffraction-grating spectrometer onto a ~10-cm2 chip by means of superconducting microstrip transmission lines on a monocrystalline silicon substrate. The second-generation µ-Spec is designed to operate with a resolving power of 512 over the 500-1000 µm (300-600 GHz) wavelength range, a band of interest for several spectroscopic applications in astrophysics and the study of the early (z > 8) Universe. High-altitude balloon missions would provide the first testbed to demonstrate the µ-Spec technology in a space-like environment and would represent an economically viable venue for multiple observation campaigns.A brief overview of each instrument subsystem will be provided. Emphasis will be given to the design of the spectrometer’s two-dimensional diffractive region, through which the light of different wavelengths is focused on the kinetic inductance detectors along the focal plane. An optical design optimized for balloon missions through an optimization process that satisfies specific requirements on spectrometer’s size, operating spectral range and optical performance is presented in terms of geometric layout, spectral purity and efficiency.

  15. Astronomy Education Under Dark Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecylia Molenda-Zakowicz, Joanna

    2015-08-01

    We have been providing professional support for the high school students and the astronomy teachers since 2007. Our efforts include organizing astronomy events that take from several hours, like, e.g., watching the transit of Venus, to several days, like the workshops organized in the framework of the projects 'School Workshops on Astronomy' (SWA) and 'Wygasz'.The SWA and Wygasz workshops include presentations by experts in astronomy and space science research, presentations prepared by students being supervised by those experts, hands-on interactive experience in the amateur astrophotography, various pencil-and-paper exercises, and other practical activities. We pay particular attention to familiarize the teachers and students with the idea and the necessity of protecting the dark sky. The format of these events allows also for some time for teachers to share ideas and best practices in teaching astronomy.All those activities are organized either in the Izera Dark-Sky Park in Poland or in other carefuly selected locations in which the beauty of the dark night sky can be appreciated.

  16. Astronomy cool women in space

    CERN Document Server

    Yasuda, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Head outside and look up. What do you see? At night you might see stars, the moon, the Milky Way, and planets! During the day all these things will still be there, but they'll be hidden by the bright light of the sun. Astronomy is the study of celestial objects and what's beyond the nebulous boundaries of space. In Astronomy: Cool Women in Space, young readers will be inspired by stories of women who have made great strides in a field that takes courage, persistence, and creativity to pursue. Most people have heard of Carl Sagan and Stephen Hawking, but have you heard of Maria Mitchell or Caroline Herschel? For many decades, female astronomers have been defining the field by making discoveries that changed the human relationship with space. Astronomy: Cool Women in Space will introduce young readers to three women who are bringing the science of astronomy forward and inspiring the next generation of astronomers. The primary sources, essentials questions, and knowledge connections within Astronomy: Cool Women ...

  17. “Big Data” Teen Astronomy Cafes at NOAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen; Walker, Constance E.

    2018-01-01

    The National Optical Astronomy Observatory has designed and implemented a prototype educational program designed to test and understand best practices with high school students to promote an understanding of modern astronomy research with its emphasis on large data sets, data tools, and visualization tools. This program, designed to cultivate the interest of talented youth in astronomy, is based on a teen science café model developed at Los Alamos as the Café Scientifique New Mexico. In our program, we provide a free, fun way for teens to explore current research topics in astronomy on Saturday mornings at the NOAO headquarters. The program encourages stimulating conversations with astronomers in an informal and relaxed setting, with free food of course. The café is organized through a leadership team of local high school students and recruits students from all parts of the greater Tucson area. The high school students who attend have the opportunity to interact with expert astronomers working with large astronomical data sets on topics such as killer asteroids, the birth and death of stars, colliding galaxies, the structure of the universe, gravitational waves, gravitational lensing, dark energy, and dark matter. The students also have the opportunity to explore astronomical data sets and data tools using computers provided by the program. The program may serve as a model for educational outreach for the 40+ institutions involved in the LSST.

  18. Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    A new era in astronomy will begin when the gravitational wave window onto the universe opens in approx. 5 years, as ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves, these signals carry direct information about their sources - such as masses, spins, luminosity distances, and orbital parameters - through dense, obscured regions across cosmic time. This talk will explore gravitational waves as cosmic messengers, highlighting key sources and opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy across the gravitational wave spectrum.

  19. EARLY SCIENCE WITH SOFIA, THE STRATOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY FOR INFRARED ASTRONOMY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, E. T.; Becklin, E. E.; De Buizer, J. M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Casey, S. C.; Helton, L. A. [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Marcum, P. M.; Roellig, T. L.; Temi, P. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Herter, T. L. [Astronomy Department, 202 Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Guesten, R. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, Bonn (Germany); Dunham, E. W. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Rd., Flagstaff AZ 86001 (United States); Backman, D.; Burgdorf, M. [SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 211-1, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Caroff, L. J.; Erickson, E. F. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Davidson, J. A. [School of Physics, The University of Western Australia (M013), 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Gehrz, R. D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Harper, D. A. [Yerkes Observatory, University of Chicago, 373 W. Geneva St., Williams Bay, WI (United States); Harvey, P. M. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); and others

    2012-04-20

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne observatory consisting of a specially modified Boeing 747SP with a 2.7 m telescope, flying at altitudes as high as 13.7 km (45,000 ft). Designed to observe at wavelengths from 0.3 {mu}m to 1.6 mm, SOFIA operates above 99.8% of the water vapor that obscures much of the infrared and submillimeter. SOFIA has seven science instruments under development, including an occultation photometer, near-, mid-, and far-infrared cameras, infrared spectrometers, and heterodyne receivers. SOFIA, a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft und-Raumfahrt, began initial science flights in 2010 December, and has conducted 30 science flights in the subsequent year. During this early science period three instruments have flown: the mid-infrared camera FORCAST, the heterodyne spectrometer GREAT, and the occultation photometer HIPO. This Letter provides an overview of the observatory and its early performance.

  20. Early Science with SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E. T.; Becklin, E. E.; Marcum, P. M.; Roellig, T. L.; De Buizer, J. M.; Herter, T. L.; Güsten, R.; Dunham, E. W.; Temi, P.; Andersson, B.-G.; Backman, D.; Burgdorf, M.; Caroff, L. J.; Casey, S. C.; Davidson, J. A.; Erickson, E. F.; Gehrz, R. D.; Harper, D. A.; Harvey, P. M.; Helton, L. A.; Horner, S. D.; Howard, C. D.; Klein, R.; Krabbe, A.; McLean, I. S.; Meyer, A. W.; Miles, J. W.; Morris, M. R.; Reach, W. T.; Rho, J.; Richter, M. J.; Roeser, H.-P.; Sandell, G.; Sankrit, R.; Savage, M. L.; Smith, E. C.; Shuping, R. Y.; Vacca, W. D.; Vaillancourt, J. E.; Wolf, J.; Zinnecker, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne observatory consisting of a specially modified Boeing 747SP with a 2.7 m telescope, flying at altitudes as high as 13.7 km (45,000 ft). Designed to observe at wavelengths from 0.3 μm to 1.6 mm, SOFIA operates above 99.8% of the water vapor that obscures much of the infrared and submillimeter. SOFIA has seven science instruments under development, including an occultation photometer, near-, mid-, and far-infrared cameras, infrared spectrometers, and heterodyne receivers. SOFIA, a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und-Raumfahrt, began initial science flights in 2010 December, and has conducted 30 science flights in the subsequent year. During this early science period three instruments have flown: the mid-infrared camera FORCAST, the heterodyne spectrometer GREAT, and the occultation photometer HIPO. This Letter provides an overview of the observatory and its early performance.

  1. International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthornthum, B.; Kunjaya, C.

    2011-01-01

    The International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics, an annual astronomy and astrophysics competition for high school students, is described. Examples of problems and solutions from the competition are also given. (Contains 3 figures.)

  2. Student Attitudes Towards Public Funding Of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Research in astronomy is strongly dependent on public (taxpayer) dollars. In this study we examine the attitudes of college students toward funding of astronomy projects. A survey was given to 269 college students prior to taking an introductory astronomy course. Students were given a short test designed to examine misconceptions about astronomy. They were then asked about their willingness to support public funding for astronomy projects. Students with fundamental misconceptions about mundane topics such as the cause of the seasons and phases of the moon were less than half as likely to support public funding of astronomy projects. Results are also reported showing the relationship between a willingness to fund projects and whether the students had experiences including reading books or magazines on astronomy, exposure to astronomy in high school, and using a telescope.

  3. Scientific literacy: astronomy at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangui, A.; Iglesias, M.; Quinteros, C.

    Models constructed by scientists to explain the world often incorporate their actual individual conceptions about different physical phenomena. Likewise, prospective teachers reach general science courses with preconstructed and consistent models of the universe surrounding them. In this project we present a series of basic questionings that make us reflect on the present situation of the teaching-learning relationship in astronomy within the framework of formal education for elementary school teachers. Our project main aims are: 1) to contribute to finding out the real learning situation of preservice elementary teachers, and 2) from these studies, to try and develop didactic tools that can contribute to improve their formal education in topics of astronomy. In spite of being of chief importance within the science teaching topics, mainly due to its interdisciplinarity and cultural relevance, researches in didactics of astronomy are not well represented in our research institutes. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  4. Astronomy Teaching Problems in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulzadyan, M. V.

    2015-07-01

    Astronomy, like any science, constantly develops unlimitedly approaching absolute objective truth; every moment of its accomplishments are due to the level of public welfare demands and culture. Armenia for centuries had a major contributor to the ancient as well as to the modern astronomy development. But it has been already a couple of years that the "Astronomy" course is not present at the schools of Armenia. Despite that fact, several schools put an effort to stress the importance of that subject by extracurricular groups trying to fill that gap. How this work is carried out and what results do we have? What can be done to increase the level of astronomical education as well as for its expansion?

  5. EVIDENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES IN THE SUBMILLIMETER DUST OPACITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Peter G.; Roy, Arabindo; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Bontemps, Sylvain [Observatoire de Bordeaux, BP 89, F-33270 Floirac (France); Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bock, James J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Carol Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Hughes, David H. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Netterfield, Calvin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Olmi, Luca [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 (Italy); Patanchon, Guillaume [Laboratoire APC, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet F-75205 Paris (France); and others

    2012-05-20

    The submillimeter opacity of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) in the Galactic plane has been quantified using a pixel-by-pixel correlation of images of continuum emission with a proxy for column density. We used multi-wavelength continuum data: three Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope bands at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m and one IRAS band at 100 {mu}m. The proxy is the near-infrared color excess, E(J - K{sub s}), obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Based on observations of stars, we show how well this color excess is correlated with the total hydrogen column density for regions of moderate extinction. The ratio of emission to column density, the emissivity, is then known from the correlations, as a function of frequency. The spectral distribution of this emissivity can be fit by a modified blackbody, whence the characteristic dust temperature T and the desired opacity {sigma}{sub e}(1200) at 1200 GHz or 250 {mu}m can be obtained. We have analyzed 14 regions near the Galactic plane toward the Vela molecular cloud, mostly selected to avoid regions of high column density (N{sub H} > 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}) and small enough to ensure a uniform dust temperature. We find {sigma}{sub e}(1200) is typically (2-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -25} cm{sup 2} H{sup -1} and thus about 2-4 times larger than the average value in the local high Galactic latitude diffuse atomic ISM. This is strong evidence for grain evolution. There is a range in total power per H nucleon absorbed (and re-radiated) by the dust, reflecting changes in the strength of the interstellar radiation field and/or the dust absorption opacity. These changes in emission opacity and power affect the equilibrium T, which is typically 15 K, colder than at high latitudes. Our analysis extends, to higher opacity and lower temperature, the trend of increasing {sigma}{sub e}(1200) with decreasing T that was found at high latitudes. The recognition of changes in the emission opacity

  6. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1966-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 4 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This volume is composed of five chapters, and starts with a description of objective prism and its application in space observations. The next chapter deals with the possibilities of deriving reliable models of the figure, density distribution, and gravity field of the Moon based on data obtained through Earth-bound telescopes. These topics are followed by a discussion on the ideal partially relativistic, partially degenerate gas in an exact manner. A ch

  7. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  8. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1968-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 6 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This volume is composed of five chapters, and starts with the description of improved methods for analyzing and classifying families of periodic orbits in a conservative dynamical system with two degrees of freedom. The next chapter describes the variation of fractional luminosity of distorted components of close binary systems in the course of their revolution, or the accompanying changes in radial velocity. This topic is followed by discussions on vari

  9. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1963-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 2 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This volume is composed of six chapters and begins with a summary of observational record on twilight extensions of the Venus cusps. The next chapter deals with the common and related properties of binary stars, with emphasis on the evaluation of their cataclysmic variables. Cataclysmic variables refer to an object in one of three classes: dwarf nova, nova, or supernova. These topics are followed by discussions on the eclipse phenomena and the eclipses i

  10. Practical astronomy with your calculator

    CERN Document Server

    Duffett-Smith, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Practical Astronomy with your Calculator, first published in 1979, has enjoyed immense success. The author's clear and easy to follow routines enable you to solve a variety of practical and recreational problems in astronomy using a scientific calculator. Mathematical complexity is kept firmly in the background, leaving just the elements necessary for swiftly making calculations. The major topics are: time, coordinate systems, the Sun, the planetary system, binary stars, the Moon, and eclipses. In the third edition there are entirely new sections on generalised coordinate transformations, nutr

  11. Ancient Chinese Astronomy - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunli

    Documentary and archaeological evidence testifies the early origin and continuous development of ancient Chinese astronomy to meet both the ideological and practical needs of a society largely based on agriculture. There was a long period when the beginning of the year, month, and season was determined by direct observation of celestial phenomena, including their alignments with respect to the local skyline. As the need for more exact study arose, new instruments for more exact observation were invented and the system of calendrical astronomy became entirely mathematized.

  12. Astronomy, space science and geopolitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courvoisier, Thierry J.-L.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy has played a major part in the development of civilisations, not only through conceptual developments, but most importantly through the very practical gains obtained through the observation of Sun, Moon planets and stars. Space sciences, including astronomy, have also played a major rôle in the development of modern societies, as an engine for most subsequent space technology developments. Present trends tend to decrease the rôle of science in space development. This trend should be reversed to give modern ``societies'' their independence in space-related matters that permeate the lives of all inhabitants of the Earth.

  13. Astronomy and Shakespeare's Hamlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1996-05-01

    Payne-Gaposchkin and others have suggested that Hamlet shows evidence of the Bard's awareness of the astronomical revolutions of the sixteenth century. I summarize major arguments and note that the play's themes recur in modern astronomy teaching and research: (1) The play amounts to a redefinition of universal order and humankind's position in it. (2) There is interplay between appearance and reality. Such a contrast is commonplace wherever superficial celestial appearances obscure underlying physical realities, the nature of which emerge as the tale unfolds. (3) The outermost sphere of the Ptolemaic and Copernican models seems to encase humanity, who are liberated by the reality of Digges' model and the implications advanced by Bruno. Similarly the oppressiveness of the castle interior is relieved by the observing platform which enables the heavens to be viewed in their true light. (4) Hamlet could be bounded in a nut-shell and count himself a king of infinite space, were it not that he has bad dreams. These concern the subversiveness of the new doctrine, for Hamlet refers to the infinite universe only hypothetically and in the presence of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who are named for relatives of the Danish astronomer Brahe. (5) Hamlet, and Brahe and Bruno, have connections to the university at Wittenberg, as does the Copernican champion Rheticus. (6) Ways are needed to reveal both the truths of nature, and the true nature of Danish royalty. Those unaccustomed to science think that there is madness in Hamlet's method. In particular, `doubt' is advanced as a methodological principle of inquiry. (7) The impression of normalcy and propriety in the upper reaches of society is like the false impression of an encapsulating universe. In Hamlet this duality is dramatized tragically, whereas in King John (cf. BAAS 27, 1325, 1995) it is not; for by 1601 when the writing of Hamlet was probably completed, Shakespeare would have known of the martyrdom of Bruno the previous

  14. Indian Astronomy: The Missing Link in Eurocentric History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shirin; Sharma, Deva

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive history of Astronomy should show in reasonable chronological order, the contributions from wherever they arise in the world, once they are reliably documented. However, the authors note that consistently, the extremely rich contributions from Ancient Indian scholars like Aryabatha and Bhramagupta are omitted in Eurocentric…

  15. Astronomy Patch Day: An Interactive Astronomy Experience for Girl Scouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierman, K. A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Schutz, K.

    2005-12-01

    To help encourage a new generation of women in science, we have created Astronomy Patch Day for the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council in Tucson, Arizona. This all-day event is an interactive experience for Girl Scouts ages 5-18 to learn about astronomical concepts and women in astronomy. Our first Astronomy Patch Day, held on March 19, 2005, in conjunction with the Sahuaro Council's annual Science, Math, and Related Technologies (SMART) program, was very successful, reaching about 150-200 girls and their leaders. Individual troops rotated every half hour among our six activity booths: Earth-Moon, Solar System, Stars, Galaxies, Universe, and Ask an Astronomer, which were staffed by trained Girl Scout Leaders as well as faculty, post-doctoral researchers, and graduate students from Steward Observatory. To earn a patch, younger girls (ages 5-12) had to complete activities at three booths and older girls had to complete all six activities. Positive feedback for this event was received from both the girls and leaders. We plan to hold Astronomy Patch Day annually, possibly with different and/or additional activities in future years. K. Knierman is supported by an Arizona/NASA Space Grant Fellowship. This outreach program is supported by NIRCam/JWST E/PO.

  16. Blazing the Trail for Astronomy Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Janelle M.; Lombardi, Doug

    2015-01-01

    Education research has long considered student learning of topics in astronomy and the space sciences, but astronomy education research as a sub-field of discipline-based education research is relatively new. Driven by a growing interest among higher education astronomy educators in improving the general education, introductory science survey…

  17. Astronomy Education Project for Guangdong High Schools

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Guangdong province is an active area in China for astronomy education and popularization. The current status and problems of astronomy education in high schools are reviewed. To tackle these problems, an astronomy education project for high school teachers and students was initiated by Guangzhou ...

  18. Space Vision: Making Astronomy Accessible to Visually Impaired Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, J. G.; Baguio, M. R.; Jurgens, T. D.; Pruett, K. M.

    2004-05-01

    Astronomy, with good reason, is thought of as a visual science. Spectacular images of deep space objects or other worlds of our solar system inspire public interest in Astronomy. People encounter news about the universe during their daily life. Developing concepts about celestial objects presents an extra challenge of abstraction for people with visual impairments. The Texas Space Grant Consortium with educators at the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired have developed a 2 day workshop to be held in April 2004 to help students with visual impairments understand these concepts. Hands-on activities and experiments will emphasize non-visual senses. For example, students will learn about: - Constellations as historical ways of finding one's way across the sky. - The size and structure of the Solar System by building a scale model on a running track. They will also: - Plan a planetary exploration mission. - Explore wave phenomenon using heat and sound waves. In preparation for the workshop we worked with teens involved in the countywide 4-H Teens Leading with Character (TLC) program to create the tactile materials necessary for the activities. The teens attended solar system education training so they would have the skills necessary to make the tactile displays to be used during the workshop. The results and evaluation of the workshop will be presented at the meeting. Touch the Universe: A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy inspired this workshop, and it is supported by HST Grant HST-ED-90255.01-A.

  19. Deciphering Debris Disk Structure with the Submillimeter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Meredith Ann

    2018-01-01

    More than 20% of nearby main sequence stars are surrounded by dusty disks continually replenished via the collisional erosion of planetesimals, larger bodies similar to asteroids and comets in our own Solar System. The material in these ‘debris disks’ is directly linked to the larger bodies such as planets in the system. As a result, the locations, morphologies, and physical properties of dust in these disks provide important probes of the processes of planet formation and subsequent dynamical evolution. Observations at millimeter wavelengths are especially critical to our understanding of these systems, since they are dominated by larger grains that do not travel far from their origin and therefore reliably trace the underlying planetesimal distribution. The Submillimeter Array (SMA) plays a key role in advancing our understanding of debris disks by providing sensitivity at the short baselines required to determine the structure of wide-field disks, such as the HR 8799 debris disk. Many of these wide-field disks are among the closest systems to us, and will serve as cornerstone templates for the interpretation of more distant, less accessible systems.

  20. Submillimeter Imaging of Dust Around Main Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    1998-01-01

    This grant was to image circumstellar dust disks surrounding main-sequence stars. The delivery of the SCUBA detector we had planned to use for this work was delayed repeatedly, leading us to undertake a majority of the observations with the UKT14 submillimeter detector at the JCMT (James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) and optical imagers and a coronagraph at the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. Major findings under this grant include: (1) We discovered 5 asymmetries in the beta Pictoris regenerated dust disk. The discovery of these asymmetries was a surprise, since smearing due to Keplerian shear should eliminate most such features on timescales of a few thousand years. One exception is the "wing tilt" asymmetry, which we interpret as due to the scattering phase function of dust disk particles. From the wing tilt and a model of the phase function, we find a disk plane inclination to the line of sight of JCMT). It is possible, for instance, that the main 850 micro-m blob is merely a galaxy or other high-z source projected onto the beta Pic mid-plane.

  1. Extending the Millimeter-Submillimeter Spectrum of Protonated Formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roenitz, Kevin; Zou, Luyao; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.

    2017-06-01

    Protonated formaldehyde has been detected in the interstellar medium, where it participates in the formation and destruction of methanol. The rotational spectrum for protonated formaldehyde has been previously recorded by Amano and coworkers from 120-385 GHz using a hollow cathode discharge source for ion production. Additionally, protonated formaldehyde was produced in a supersonic expansion discharge source by Duncan and coworkers, but it was detected using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Higher frequency spectra would help to guide additional observational studies of protonated formaldehyde using instruments such as the ALMA and SOFIA observatories. As such, we have used a supersonic expansion discharge source to produce protonated formaldehyde, and recorded its spectrum using millimeter-submillimeter direct absorption spectroscopy. The rotational spectrum was recorded from 350-1000 GHz. Here we will present the experimental design, specifically focusing on the optimization of the source for production of organic ions. We will also present the spectroscopic results for protonated formaldehyde and a spectral analysis with associated prediction that can be extended to frequencies above 1 THz.

  2. Submillimeter Spectroscopy of the R Coronae Australis Molecular Cloud Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marina Madeline; Walker, Christopher K.; Pat, Terrance; Sirsi, Siddhartha; Swift, Brandon J.; Peters, William L.

    2018-01-01

    The Interstellar Medium is comprised of large amounts of gas and dust which coalesce to form stars. Observing in the Terahertz regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, approximately 0.3 -300 microns, allows astronomers to study the ISM in unprecedented detail. Using the high spectral resolution imaging system of the SuperCam receiver, a 64-pixel array previously installed on the Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham, AZ, we have begun a 500 square degree survey of the galactic plane. This instrument was designed to do a complete survey of the Milky Way from the ground, with the main focus being to observe two specific transitions of the carbon monoxide molecule, 12CO(3-2) and 13CO(3-2), at 345 GHz. In this work, we present results from these observations for the R Coronae Australis (R Cr A) complex, a region in the southern hemisphere of the sky, using spectroscopic data from a portion of the survey to gain better insight into the life cycle of the ISM. The majority of stars being formed here are similar to the stellar class of the Sun, making it an excellent area of observing interest. Using these results, we attempt to better ascertain the large-scale structure and kinematics inside of the molecular cloud.

  3. Faint submillimeter galaxies revealed by multifield deep ALMA observations: number counts, spatial clustering, and a dark submillimeter line emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Momose, Rieko [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kurono, Yasutaka, E-mail: ono@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile)

    2014-11-01

    We present the statistics of faint submillimeter/millimeter galaxies (SMGs) and serendipitous detections of a submillimeter/millimeter line emitter (SLE) with no multi-wavelength continuum counterpart revealed by the deep ALMA observations. We identify faint SMGs with flux densities of 0.1-1.0 mJy in the deep Band-6 and Band-7 maps of 10 independent fields that reduce cosmic variance effects. The differential number counts at 1.2 mm are found to increase with decreasing flux density down to 0.1 mJy. Our number counts indicate that the faint (0.1-1.0 mJy, or SFR{sub IR} ∼ 30-300 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) SMGs contribute nearly a half of the extragalactic background light (EBL), while the remaining half of the EBL is mostly contributed by very faint sources with flux densities of <0.1 mJy (SFR{sub IR} ≲ 30 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We conduct counts-in-cells analysis with multifield ALMA data for the faint SMGs, and obtain a coarse estimate of galaxy bias, b {sub g} < 4. The galaxy bias suggests that the dark halo masses of the faint SMGs are ≲ 7 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}, which is smaller than those of bright (>1 mJy) SMGs, but consistent with abundant high-z star-forming populations, such as sBzKs, LBGs, and LAEs. Finally, we report the serendipitous detection of SLE-1, which has no continuum counterparts in our 1.2 mm-band or multi-wavelength images, including ultra deep HST/WFC3 and Spitzer data. The SLE has a significant line at 249.9 GHz with a signal-to-noise ratio of 7.1. If the SLE is not a spurious source made by the unknown systematic noise of ALMA, the strong upper limits of our multi-wavelength data suggest that the SLE would be a faint galaxy at z ≳ 6.

  4. Introduction to methods of approximation in physics and astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    van Putten, Maurice H P M

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides students with a solid introduction to the techniques of approximation commonly used in data analysis across physics and astronomy. The choice of methods included is based on their usefulness and educational value, their applicability to a broad range of problems and their utility in highlighting key mathematical concepts. Modern astronomy reveals an evolving universe rife with transient sources, mostly discovered - few predicted - in multi-wavelength observations. Our window of observations now includes electromagnetic radiation, gravitational waves and neutrinos. For the practicing astronomer, these are highly interdisciplinary developments that pose a novel challenge to be well-versed in astroparticle physics and data-analysis. The book is organized to be largely self-contained, starting from basic concepts and techniques in the formulation of problems and methods of approximation commonly used in computation and numerical analysis. This includes root finding, integration, signal dete...

  5. Visual lunar and planetary astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of CCDs and webcams, the focus of amateur astronomy has to some extent shifted from science to art. The object of many amateur astronomers is now to produce “stunning images” that, although beautiful, are not intended to have scientific merit. Paul Abel has been addressing this issue by promoting visual astronomy wherever possible – at talks to astronomical societies, in articles for popular science magazines, and on BBC TV’s The Sky at Night.   Visual Lunar and Planetary Astronomy is a comprehensive modern treatment of visual lunar and planetary astronomy, showing that even in the age of space telescopes and interplanetary probes it is still possible to contribute scientifically with no more than a moderately priced commercially made astronomical telescope.   It is believed that imaging and photography is somehow more objective and more accurate than the eye, and this has led to a peculiar “crisis of faith” in the human visual system and its amazing processing power. But by anal...

  6. Python in Astronomy 2016 Unproceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Thomas; Cruz, Kelle; Greenfield, Perry; Jeschke, Eric; Juric, Mario; Mumford, Stuart; Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda; Sosey, Megan; Tollerud, Erik; VanderPlas, Jake; Ford, Jes; Foreman-Mackey, Dan; Jenness, Tim; Aldcroft, Tom; Alexandersen, Mike; Bannister, Michele; Barbary, Kyle; Barentsen, Geert; Bennett, Samuel; Boquien, Médéric; Campos Rozo, Jose Ivan; Christe, Steven; Corrales, Lia; Craig, Matthew; Deil, Christoph; Dencheva, Nadia; Donath, Axel; Douglas, Stephanie; Ferreira, Leonardo; Ginsburg, Adam; Goldbaum, Nathan; Gordon, Karl; Hearin, Andrew; Hummels, Cameron; Huppenkothen, Daniela; Jennings, Elise; King, Johannes; Lawler, Samantha; Leonard, Andrew; Lim, Pey Lian; McBride, Lisa; Morris, Brett; Nunez, Carolina; Owen, Russell; Parejko, John; Patel, Ekta; Price-Whelan, Adrian; Ruggiero, Rafael; Sipocz, Brigitta; Stevens, Abigail; Turner, James; Tuttle, Sarah; Yanchulova Merica-Jones, Petia; Yoachim, Peter

    2016-03-01

    This document provides proceedings for unconference sessions as well as hacks/sprints which took place at the Python in Astronomy 2016 workshop, which was held at the University of Washington eScience Institute in Seattle from March 21st to 25th 2016.

  7. Service Learning in Introductory Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orleski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Service learning is a method of instruction where the students in a course use the course's content in a service project. The service is included as a portion of the students' course grades. During the fall semester 2010, service learning was incorporated into the Introduction to Astronomy course at Misericordia University. The class had eight…

  8. Network for Astronomy School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deustua, Susana E.; Ros, R. M.; Garcia, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Network for Astronomy School Education Project (NASE) was developed in response to the IAU's most recent 10 Years Strategic Plan to increase the efforts of the IAU in schools. NASE's mission is to stimulate teaching astronomy in schools, through professional development of primary and secondary school science teachers in developing and emerging countries. NASE's organizational principle is to build capacity by providing courses for three years in cooperation with a Local Organizing Committee (Local NASE Group). The Local NASE Group consists of 6-8 local university professors and education professional who will promote astronomy activities and organize future courses in subsequent years in their region of their country. NASE philosophy is to introduce low-tech astronomy, and has thus developed an a suite of activities that can be carried out with inexpensive, quotidian materials. Supporting these activities is a text for teachers, plus a complete set of instructional materials for each topic. These materials are available in English and Spanish, with future editions available in Chinese and Portuguese. We describe and discuss NASE activities in Central and South America from 2009 to the present.

  9. Music to teach astronomy by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, Eberhard

    1999-03-01

    Author shares his technique of aligning music selections with his introductory astronomy syllabus. He begins class with a music selection as an introduction to the concepts covered in class. List of 40 music titles and composers used can be downloaded from http://www-ssg.sr.unh.edu/406/music.html.

  10. Utrecht and Galactic Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerden, H.

    Important roles in early Dutch Galactic radio astronomy were played by several Utrecht astronomers: Van de Hulst, Minnaert and Houtgast. The poster announcing the conference contained a number of pictures referring to scientific achievements of the Astronomical Institute Utrecht. One of these

  11. Exchange of astronomy teaching experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    The Working Group of the European Association for Astronomy Education responsible for Teacher Training organises an annual Summer School for teachers under expert guidance. For a week the teachers participating can exchange experiences, increase their knowledge and discuss different ideas and perspectives. In general, the instructors are professional astronomers, professors and teachers from different countries. The papers presented offer very practical activities, paying special attention to didactic aspects, and take the form of general lectures to all 40 participants and workshops to reduced groups of 20 participants. There are also day and night observations, without expensive equipment or complicated procedures, that are easy to set up and based on topics that it is possible to use in the classroom. The Summer Schools promote a scientific astronomical education at all levels of astronomy teaching, reinforce the link between professional astronomers and teachers with experience of teaching astronomy, allow debates among the participants on their pedagogical activities already carried out in their own classroom and help them to organise activities outside it. Astronomy teachers need special training, access to specific research, to new educational materials and methods and the opportunity to exchange experiences. All these things are provided by the Summer School.

  12. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  13. Astronomy and astronomers in Jules Verne's novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovisier, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    Almost all the Voyages Extraordinaires written by Jules Verne refer to astronomy. In some of them, astronomy is even the leading theme. However, Jules Verne was basically not learned in science. His knowledge of astronomy came from contemporaneous popular publications and discussions with specialists among his friends or his family. In this article, I examine, from the text and illustrations of his novels, how astronomy was perceived and conveyed by Jules Verne, with errors and limitations on the one hand, with great respect and enthusiasm on the other hand. This informs us on how astronomy was understood by an ``honnête homme'' in the late 19th century.

  14. Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Part I. Invited Discourses: 1. The Herschel view of star formation; 2. Past, present and future of Chinese astronomy; 3. The zoo of galaxies; 4. Supernovae, the accelerating cosmos, and dark energy; Part II. Joint Discussion: 5. Very massive stars in the local universe; 6. 3-D views of the cycling Sun in stellar context; 7. Ultraviolet emission in early-type galaxies; 8. From meteors and meteorites to their parent bodies: current status and future developments; 9. The connection between radio properties and high-energy emission in AGNs; 10. Space-time reference systems for future research; Part III. Special Sessions: 11. Origin and complexity of massive star clusters; 12. Cosmic evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; 13. Galaxy evolution through secular processes; 14. New era for studying interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields; 15. The IR view of massive stars: the main sequence and beyond; 16. Science with large solar telescopes; 17. The impact hazard: current activities and future plans; 18. Calibration of star-formation rate measurements across the electromagnetic spectrum; 19. Future large scale facilities; 20. Dynamics of the star-planet relations strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 21. Strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 22. Modern views of the interstellar medium; 23. High-precision tests of stellar physics from high-precision photometry; 24. Communicating astronomy with the public for scientists; 25. Data intensive astronomy; 26. Unexplained spectral phenomena in the interstellar medium; 27. Light pollution: protecting astronomical sites and increasing global awareness through education.

  15. Research on teaching astronomy in the planetarium

    CERN Document Server

    Slater, Timothy F

    2017-01-01

    From a noted specialist in astronomy education and outreach, this Brief provides an overview of the most influential discipline-based science education research literature now guiding contemporary astronomy teaching. In recent years, systematic studies of effective and efficient teaching strategies have provided a solid foundation for enhancing college-level students’ learning in astronomy. Teaching astronomy and planetary science at the college-level was once best characterized as professor-centered, information-download lectures. Today, astronomy faculty are striving to drastically improve the learning environment by using innovative teaching approaches.  Uniquely, the authors have organized this book around strands of commonly employed astronomy teaching strategies to help readers, professors, and scholars quickly access the most relevant work while, simultaneously, avoiding the highly specialized, technical vocabulary of constructivist educational pedagogies unfamiliar to most astronomy professors. F...

  16. Prospects for Observing and Localizing Gravitational-Wave Transients with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amariutei, D. V.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, R. M.; Bloernen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderon Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Coila, A.; Collette, C. G.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; DeRosa, R. T.; Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etze, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Garnrnaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keite, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kirmo, J.; Kina, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; MaIlga, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'De, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Pereira, R.R.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Sillgh, A.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toeyrae, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bake, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizigl, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a possible observing scenario for the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors over the next decade, with the intention of providing information to the astronomy community to facilitate planning for multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves. We determine the

  17. An alma survey of submillimeter galaxies in the extended Chandra deep field-south: The agn fraction and X-ray properties of submillimeter galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S. X.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Smail, I.; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Karim, A.; Simpson, J. M.; Swinbank, A. M. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hodge, J. A.; Walter, F. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Lehmer, B. D. [The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wardlow, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Xue, Y. Q. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Center for Astrophysics, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Coppin, K. E. K. [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Dannerbauer, H. [Universität Wien, Institute für Astrophysik, Türkenschanzstraße 17, 1180 Wien (Austria); De Breuck, C. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Menten, K. M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Van der Werf, P., E-mail: xxw131@psu.edu, E-mail: niel@astro.psu.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-12-01

    The large gas and dust reservoirs of submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) could potentially provide ample fuel to trigger an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but previous studies of the AGN fraction in SMGs have been controversial largely due to the inhomogeneity and limited angular resolution of the available submillimeter surveys. Here we set improved constraints on the AGN fraction and X-ray properties of the SMGs with Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and Chandra observations in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S). This study is the first among similar works to have unambiguously identified the X-ray counterparts of SMGs; this is accomplished using the fully submillimeter-identified, statistically reliable SMG catalog with 99 SMGs from the ALMA LABOCA E-CDF-S Submillimeter Survey. We found 10 X-ray sources associated with SMGs (median redshift z = 2.3), of which eight were identified as AGNs using several techniques that enable cross-checking. The other two X-ray detected SMGs have levels of X-ray emission that can be plausibly explained by their star formation activity. Six of the eight SMG-AGNs are moderately/highly absorbed, with N {sub H} > 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}. An analysis of the AGN fraction, taking into account the spatial variation of X-ray sensitivity, yields an AGN fraction of 17{sub −6}{sup +16}% for AGNs with rest-frame 0.5-8 keV absorption-corrected luminosity ≥7.8 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1}; we provide estimated AGN fractions as a function of X-ray flux and luminosity. ALMA's high angular resolution also enables direct X-ray stacking at the precise positions of SMGs for the first time, and we found four potential SMG-AGNs in our stacking sample.

  18. Astronomy Village: Innovative Uses of Planetary Astronomy Images and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, S. K.; Pompea, S. M.

    2008-06-01

    Teaching and learning science is best done by hands-on experience with real scientific data and real scientific problems. Getting such experiences into public and home-schooling classrooms is a challenge. Here we describe two award-winning multimedia products that embody one successful solution to the problem: Astronomy Village: Investigating the Universe, and Astronomy Village: Investigating the Solar System. Each Village provides a virtual environment for inquiry-based scientific exploration of ten planetary and astronomical problems such as ``Mission to Pluto'' and ``Search for a Supernova.'' Both Villages are standards-based and classroom tested. Investigating the Solar System is designed for middle and early high school students, while Investigating the Universe is at the high school and introductory college level. The objective of both Villages is to engage students in scientific inquiry by having them acquire, explore, and analyze real scientific data and images drawn from real scientific problems.

  19. Submillimeter Galaxies as Progenitors of Compact Quiescent Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, S.; Smolcic, V.; Magnelli, B.; Karim, A.; Zirm, A.; Michalowski, M.; Capak, P.; Sheth, K.; Schawinski, K.; Krogager, J.-K.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Three billion years after the big bang (at redshift z = 2), half of the most massive galaxies were already old, quiescent systems with little to no residual star formation and extremely compact with stellar mass densities at least an order of magnitude larger than in low-redshift ellipticals, their descendants. Little is known about how they formed, but their evolved, dense stellar populations suggest formation within intense, compact starbursts 1-2 Gyr earlier (at 3 < z < 6). Simulations show that gas-rich major mergers can give rise to such starbursts, which produce dense remnants. Submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) are prime examples of intense, gas-rich starbursts.With a new, representative spectroscopic sample of compact, quiescent galaxies at z = 2 and a statistically well-understood sample of SMGs, we show that z = 3-6 SMGs are consistent with being the progenitors of z = 2 quiescent galaxies, matching their formation redshifts and their distributions of sizes, stellar masses, and internal velocities. Assuming an evolutionary connection, their space densities also match if the mean duty cycle of SMG starbursts is 42(sup+40) -29 Myr (consistent with independent estimates), which indicates that the bulk of stars in these massive galaxies were formed in a major, early surge of star formation. These results suggest a coherent picture of the formation history of the most massive galaxies in the universe, from their initial burst of violent star formation through their appearance as high stellar-density galaxy cores and to their ultimate fate as giant ellipticals.

  20. Evidence for Dust Clearing Through Resolved Submillimeter Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. M.; Blake, G. A.; Qi, C.; Dullemond, C. P.; Wilner, D. J.; Williams, J. P.

    2009-10-01

    Mid-infrared spectrophotometric observations have revealed a small subclass of circumstellar disks with spectral energy distributions (SEDs) suggestive of large inner gaps with low dust content. However, such data provide only an indirect and model-dependent method of finding central holes. Imaging of protoplanetry disks provides an independent check of SED modeling. We present here the direct characterization of three 33-47 AU radii inner gaps, in the disks around LkHα 330, SR 21N, and HD 135344B, via 340 GHz (880 μm) dust continuum aperture synthesis observations obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The large gaps are fully resolved at ~0farcs3 by the SMA data and mostly empty of dust, with less than (1-7.5) × 10-6 M sun of fine grained solids inside the holes. Gas (as traced by atomic accretion markers and CO 4.7 μm rovibrational emission) is still present in the inner regions of all three disks. For each, the inner hole exhibits a relatively steep rise in dust emission to the outer disk, a feature more likely to originate from the gravitational influence of a companion body than from a process expected to show a more shallow gradient like grain growth. Importantly, the good agreement between the spatially resolved data and spectrophotometry-based models lends confidence to current interpretations of SEDs, wherein the significant dust emission deficits arise from disks with inner gaps or holes. Further SED-based searches can therefore be expected to yield numerous additional candidates that can be examined at high spatial resolution.

  1. Submillimeter galaxies as progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, S.; Zirm, A.; Krogager, J.-K.; Man, A. W. S. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Smolčić, V.; Krpan, J. [Physics Department, University of Zagreb, Bijenička cesta 32, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Magnelli, B.; Karim, A. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 71, Bonn, D-53121 (Germany); Michalowski, M. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, 314-6 Caltech, 1201 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sheth, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Schawinski, K. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Wuyts, S.; Lutz, D.; Staguhn, J.; Berta, S. [MPE, Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Sanders, D. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Mccracken, H. [Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Riechers, D., E-mail: sune@dark-cosmology.dk [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    Three billion years after the big bang (at redshift z = 2), half of the most massive galaxies were already old, quiescent systems with little to no residual star formation and extremely compact with stellar mass densities at least an order of magnitude larger than in low-redshift ellipticals, their descendants. Little is known about how they formed, but their evolved, dense stellar populations suggest formation within intense, compact starbursts 1-2 Gyr earlier (at 3 < z < 6). Simulations show that gas-rich major mergers can give rise to such starbursts, which produce dense remnants. Submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) are prime examples of intense, gas-rich starbursts. With a new, representative spectroscopic sample of compact, quiescent galaxies at z = 2 and a statistically well-understood sample of SMGs, we show that z = 3-6 SMGs are consistent with being the progenitors of z = 2 quiescent galaxies, matching their formation redshifts and their distributions of sizes, stellar masses, and internal velocities. Assuming an evolutionary connection, their space densities also match if the mean duty cycle of SMG starbursts is 42{sub −29}{sup +40} Myr (consistent with independent estimates), which indicates that the bulk of stars in these massive galaxies were formed in a major, early surge of star formation. These results suggest a coherent picture of the formation history of the most massive galaxies in the universe, from their initial burst of violent star formation through their appearance as high stellar-density galaxy cores and to their ultimate fate as giant ellipticals.

  2. Rotational spectroscopy and observational astronomy of prebiotic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widicus Weaver, Susanna Leigh

    It is now widely believed that prebiotic molecules were delivered to the early Earth by planetesimals and their associated interplanetary dust particles. Yet the formation pathways for these molecules are not clear. Amino acids and sugars have been found in carbonaceous chondrites, but only much simpler species have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM). Prebiotic organics could have formed in the ISM and been directly incorporated into planetesimals, or simpler species could have: formed in the ISM and then been incorporated into planetesimals, undergone further processing, and been delivered to Earth. Limits on interstellar chemistry must therefore be established through observational astronomy before potential prebiotic formation pathways can be assessed. These observations require laboratory spectroscopic investigation of the species of interest. This thesis is an interdisciplinary study involving laboratory rotational spectroscopy and astronomical observations of several key prebiotic molecules. The laboratory work has focused on obtaining the rotational spectra of the simplest three-carbon ketose sugar, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and its structural isomers methyl glycolate and dimethyl carbonate, as well as aminoethanol, the predicted interstellar precursor to alanine. The pure rotational spectral analysis of the low-lying torsional states of the simplest a-hydroxy aldehyde, glycolaldehyde, has also been completed. The original Balle-Flygare Fourier transform microwave spectrometer was used to obtain the microwave spectra, while both the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Caltech direct absorption flow cell spectrometers were used for additional direct absorption millimeter and submillimeter studies. The results of these laboratory experiments were used to guide observational searches with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, the Owens Valley Millimeter Array; and the Green Bank Telascope toward the hot core sources Sgr B2(N-LMH), Orion Hot Core

  3. DIRECT DETECTION OF PRECURSORS OF GAS GIANTS FORMED BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY WITH THE ATACAMA LARGE MILLIMETER/SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Lucio [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Peters, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pineda, Jaime E. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wadsley James; Rogers, Patrick, E-mail: p.rogers@marianopolis.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    Phases of gravitational instability are expected in the early phases of disk evolution, when the disk mass is still a substantial fraction of the mass of the star. Disk fragmentation into sub-stellar objects could occur in the cold exterior part of the disk. Direct detection of massive gaseous clumps on their way to collapse into gas giant planets would offer an unprecedented test of the disk instability model. Here we use state-of-the-art 3D radiation-hydro simulations of disks undergoing fragmentation into massive gas giants, post-processed with RADMC-3D to produce dust continuum emission maps. These are then fed into the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) ALMA simulator. The synthetic maps show that both overdense spiral arms and actual clumps at different stages of collapse can be detected with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the full configuration at the distance of the Ophiuchus star forming region (125 pc). The detection of clumps is particularly effective at shorter wavelengths (690 GHz) combining two resolutions with multi-scale clean. Furthermore, we show that a flux-based estimate of the mass of a protoplanetary clump can be comparable to a factor of three higher than the gravitationally bound clump mass. The estimated mass depends on the assumed opacity, and on the gas temperature, which should be set using the input of radiation-hydro simulations. We conclude that ALMA has the capability to detect “smoking gun” systems that are a signpost of the disk instability model for gas giant planet formation.

  4. Ulysses Observations of Nonlinear Wave-wave Interactions in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. 2. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771. *e-mail: .... power law type energetic electrons present in the solar wind plasmas, provided it is less than the Langmuir wave growth rate γb due to beam plasma instability by an order of ...

  5. Josephson junction spectrum analyzer for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkin, S.Y.; Anischenko, S.E.; Khabayev, P.V. [State Research Center, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    A prototype of the Josephson-effect spectrum analyzer developed for the millimeter-wave band is described. The measurement results for spectra obtained in the frequency band from 50 to 250 GHz are presented.

  6. Multimedia Astronomy Communication: Effectively Communicate Astronomy to the Desired Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star Cartier, Kimberly Michelle; Wright, Jason

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of our jobs as scientists is communicating our work to others. In this, the field of astronomy holds the double-edged sword of ubiquitous fascination: the topic has been of interest to nearly the entire global population at some point in their lives, yet the learning curve is steep within any subfield and rife with difficult-to-synthesize details. Compounding this issue is the ever-expanding array of methods to reach people in today's Communications Era. Each communication medium has its own strengths and weaknesses, is appropriate in different situations, and requires its own specific skillset in order to maximize its functionality. Despite this, little attention is given to training astronomers in effective communication techniques, often relying on newcomers to simply pick up the ability by mimicking others and assuming that a firm grasp on the subject matter will make up for deficiencies in communication theory. This can restrict astronomers to a narrow set of communication methods, harming both the communicators and the audience who may struggle to access the information through those media.Whether writing a research paper to academic peers or giving an astronomy talk to a pubic audience, successfully communicating a scientific message requires more than just an expert grasp on the topic. A communicator must understand the makeup and prior knowledge of the desired audience, be able to break down the salient points of the topic into pieces that audience can digest, select and maximize upon a medium to deliver the message, and frame the message in a way that hooks the audience and compels further interest. In this work we synthesize the requirements of effective astronomy communication into a few key questions that every communicator needs to answer. We then discuss some of the most common media currently used to communicate astronomy, give both effective and poor examples of utilizing these media to communicate astronomy, and provide key

  7. Tangible Things of American Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechner, Sara Jane

    2018-01-01

    As a science that studies celestial objects situated at vast distances from us, astronomy deals with few things that can be touched directly. And yet, astronomy has many tangible things—scientific instruments, observatories, and log books, for example—which link the past to the present. There is little question about maintaining things still valuable for scientific research purposes, but why should we care about documenting and preserving the old and obsolete? One answer is that material things, when closely examined, enhance our knowledge of astronomy’s history in ways that written texts alone cannot do. A second answer is that learning about the past helps us live critically in the present. In brief case studies, this talk will find meaning in objects that are extraordinary or commonplace. These will include a sundial, an almanac, telescopes, clocks, a rotating desk, photographic plates, and fly spankers.

  8. LGBT Workplace Climate in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudi, B. S.; Danner, R.; Dixon, W. V.; Henderson, C. B.; Kay, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    The AAS Working Group on LGBTIQ Equality (WGLE) held a town hall meeting at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage to explore the workplace climate for LGBTIQ individuals working in Astronomy and related fields. Topics of discussion included anti-discrimination practices, general workplace climate, and pay and benefit policies. Four employment sectors were represented: industry, the federal government, private colleges, and public universities. We will summarize and expand on the town hall discussions and findings of the panel members.

  9. Astronomy in the National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Tyler E.

    2009-01-01

    American national parks are fertile grounds for astronomy and planetary science outreach. They are some of the last remaining dark-sky sites the typical visitor (both U.S. and international) can still experience easily. An internal National Park Service (NPS) study shows a dark starry sky is an integral part of what visitors consider their park experience. As a result, the NPS Night Sky Team (a coordinated group of park rangers and astronomers) is measuring and monitoring the sky brightness over the parks in an attempt to promote within the park service protection of the night sky as a natural resource. A number of parks (e.g. Grand Canyon National Park) are currently expanding their night sky related visitor programs in order to take advantage of this resource and visitor interest. The national parks and their visitors are therefore an ideal audience fully "primed” to learn about aspects of astronomy or planetary science that can be, in any way, associated with the night sky. As one of the astronomers on the NPS Night Sky Team, I have been working with park service personnel on ways to target park visitors for astronomical outreach. The purpose of this outreach is twofold: 1) Strengthen popular investment in preserving dark skies, 2) Strengthen popular investment in current astronomical research. A number of avenues already being used to introduce astronomy outreach into the parks (beyond the simple "star party") will be presented.

  10. SMA Submillimeter Observations of HL Tau: Revealing a Compact Molecular Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbreras, Alba M.; Zapata, Luis A.

    2014-04-01

    We present archival high angular resolution (~2'') 12CO(3-2) line and continuum submillimeter observations of the young stellar object HL Tau made with the Submillimeter Array. The 12CO(3-2) line observations reveal the presence of a compact and wide opening angle bipolar outflow with a northeast to southwest orientation (P.A. = 50°) that is associated with the optical and infrared jet emanating from HL Tau with a similar orientation. On the other hand, the 850 μm continuum emission observations exhibit a strong and compact source in the position of HL Tau that has a spatial size of ~200 × 70 AU with a P.A. = 145° and a dust mass of around 0.1 M ⊙. These physical parameters are in agreement with values obtained recently from millimeter observations. This submillimeter source is therefore related to the disk surrounding HL Tau.

  11. SMA submillimeter observations of HL Tau: revealing a compact molecular outflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumbreras, Alba M.; Zapata, Luis A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Morelia (Mexico)

    2014-04-01

    We present archival high angular resolution (∼2'') {sup 12}CO(3-2) line and continuum submillimeter observations of the young stellar object HL Tau made with the Submillimeter Array. The {sup 12}CO(3-2) line observations reveal the presence of a compact and wide opening angle bipolar outflow with a northeast to southwest orientation (P.A. = 50°) that is associated with the optical and infrared jet emanating from HL Tau with a similar orientation. On the other hand, the 850 μm continuum emission observations exhibit a strong and compact source in the position of HL Tau that has a spatial size of ∼200 × 70 AU with a P.A. = 145° and a dust mass of around 0.1 M {sub ☉}. These physical parameters are in agreement with values obtained recently from millimeter observations. This submillimeter source is therefore related to the disk surrounding HL Tau.

  12. Innovative Technology for Teaching Introductory Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, Mike

    The application of state-of-the-art technology (primarily Java and Flash MX Actionscript on the client side and Java PHP PERL XML and SQL databasing on the server side) to the teaching of introductory astronomy will be discussed. A completely online syllabus in introductory astronomy built around more than 350 interactive animations called ""Online Journey through Astronomy"" and a new set of 20 online virtual laboratories in astronomy that we are currently developing will be used as illustration. In addition to demonstration of the technology our experience using these technologies to teach introductory astronomy to thousands of students in settings ranging from traditional classrooms to full distance learning will be summarized. Recent experiments using Java and vector graphics programming of handheld devices (Personal Digital Assistants and cell phones) with wireless wide-area connectivity for applications in astronomy education will also be described.

  13. Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Suvaryan, Yu. M.; Mickaelian, A. M. (Eds.)

    2016-12-01

    The book contains 29 articles of the Proceedings of the Young Scientists Conference "Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland" held at the Armenian National Academy of Sciences on 20-23 June 2016. It consists of 4 main sections: "Introductory", "Cultural Astronomy", "Archaeoastronomy", "Scientific Tourism and Journalism, Astronomical Education and Amateur Astronomy". The book may be interesting to astronomers, culturologists, philologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists, art historians, ethnographers and to other specialists, as well as to students.

  14. The IAU Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    On 16 April 2011 the IAU's Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) was launched jointly by the President of the IAU and the South African Minister of Science and Technology, at the South African Astronomical Observatory in Cape Town. This OAD was set up to realise the IAU's strategic plan which aims to use astronomy as a tool for development. Communicating astronomy with the public is one of the OAD's focus areas.

  15. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: Multi-wavelength Properties of ALMA-identified Submillimeter Galaxies in UKIDSS UDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, J. M.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Ivison, R. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Geach, J. E.; Almaini, O.; Arumugam, V.; Bremer, M. N.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Conselice, C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Farrah, D.; Ibar, E.; Hartley, W. G.; Ma, C. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Scott, D.; Spaans, M.; Thomson, A. P.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2017-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of 52 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), identified using ALMA 870 μm continuum imaging in a pilot program to precisely locate bright SCUBA-2-selected submillimeter sources in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS) field. Using the available deep (especially

  16. Submillimeter-Wave Polarimetric Compact Ranges for Scale-Model Radar Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coulombe, Michael J; Waldman, Jerry; Giles, R. H; Gatesman, Andrew J; Goyette, Thomas M; Nixon, William

    2002-01-01

    .... A dielectric material fabrication and characterization capability has also been developed to fabricate custom anechoic materials for the ranges as well as scaled dielectric parts for the models and clutter scenes...

  17. Atmospheric Attenuation of Millimeter and Submillimeter Waves: Models and Computer Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-15

    oli i (f o.tl olwn ,.,...ssŕ𔄀: TZ - a.Th ai prnite enurdbn MI0l0- a -- tSU VtsR bu h aaee o rprac i satrn rp-c i- bji’l Tlw M 11--P disi, ribiut iont...Contract NAS-5-21624. iaan, Mei-Yuan (19 ) Microstructure of c-ujulus clouds, Isv. Geophys. 8er. No. 2:362-376, tUogg, D.C. and Chu , T S. (1975) The role

  18. Comprehensive Submillimeter Wave Studies of the Isotopic Species of a Major Weed: Methyl Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R.; Huet, T. R.; Coudert, L. H.; Kleiner, I.; Carvajal, M.; Mollendal, H.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2010-06-01

    Complex organic molecules are relatively heavy, their maximum absorption is in the millimetric domain at about 300 GHz. But the most abondant, like methyl formate, could be detected in the ISM up to 900 GHz. We will present here the last results obtained about the two 18O and the doubly-deuterated species of methyl formate. This concludes the systematic investigation up to 660 GHz for the mono-substituted isotopic species with either 13C, 18O, or D, which began in 2006. The lines from these isotopic species will certainly be present in the spectra which will be recorded in the next years with the very sensitive telescope ALMA, HERSHEL and SOFIA. The detection of isotopic species is very important for the astrophysical community to improve the interstellar chemical modeling and to understand the formation mechanism of these complex organic molecules. Our interest was also on the theoretical aspects. Like other complex organic molecules, methyl formate displays a large amplitude motion. Here it is the rotation of the methyl group with respect to the rest of the molecule. Theoretical models were developed to reproduce accurately the observed frequencies for large quantum numbers values as J-values as high as 70 could be reached. Similarly the investigation of the doubly-deuterated HCOOCHD_2 was undertaken to test the model developed for mono-deuterated HCOOCH_2D. This work is supported by ANR-08-BLAN-0054 and ANR-08-BLAN-0225. C. Comito, P. Schilke, T. G. Phillips, et al., Astrophys. J. Supp. 156 (2005) 127. L. Margulès, L. H. Coudert, H. Mollendal, et al., J. Mol. Spec. 254 (2009) 55.

  19. Millimeter/submillimeter-wave spectrum of the VCl(+) radical in its X (4)Sigma(-) ground state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, D T; Ziurys, L M

    2009-11-26

    The pure rotational spectrum of the molecular ion VCl(+) (X (4)Sigma(-)) has been recorded from 274 to 419 GHz using a combination of millimeter direct absorption and velocity modulation spectroscopy. This study is the first spectroscopic measurement of this species in the laboratory, which has also enabled the determination of the ground state term, (4)Sigma(-). VCl(+) was produced in an AC discharge of VCl(4) and argon. Fifteen and eleven rotational transitions were recorded for the V(35)Cl(+) and V(37)Cl(+) isotopologues, respectively. The fine structure splittings of the (4)Sigma(-) state were found to deviate significantly from a case (b) pattern. Specifically, spin components from adjacent rotational transitions were found to overlap in frequency. Unusual vanadium hyperfine splittings were also observed in the VCl(+) spectra; the expected vanadium octet was clearly present for the F(2) and F(3) spin components but was partially collapsed and reversed in frequency ordering in the F(1) and F(4) cases. The data were analyzed in a global fit, and rotational, fine structure, and hyperfine constants were determined. For VCl(+), the values of both the spin-spin and spin-rotation parameters are extremely large, as were the third-order hyperfine and spin-rotation terms, b(s) and gamma(s). For example, the spin-spin constant is lambda = 417 900(22 700) MHz, while gamma = 6567(51) MHz. The values of these constants indicate a high density of excited electronic states close to the ground state, which contribute to second and third-order spin-orbit coupling. The hyperfine constants suggest a sigma(1)pi(2) electron configuration, as opposed to sigma(1)delta(2), as found in VS and VO. The bond length of VCl(+), r(0) = 2.119(2) A, is shorter than that of VCl by 0.1 A, which has r(0) = 2.219 A. The decrease in bond length is attributed to an increase in the electrostatic attraction between V(2+) and Cl(-), as opposed to V(+) and Cl(-) for VCl.

  20. Recent results on measurement of plasma conductivity using Faraday rotation of submillimeter waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmenko, P.J.; Self, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the application of Faraday rotation to the measurement of electron concentration in combustion MHD plasmas. Details on the design of a working system are given including the selection of operating wavelength. A theoretical comparison between the Faraday rotation technique and two path interferometry shows Faraday rotation in its simplest form to be somewhat less sensitive to changes in electron concentration. This deficit can be balanced against greater immunity to vibration and thermal drift. Improved techniques of measuring the rotation angle promise greater sensitivity. A preliminary experiment has verified the technique.

  1. Modelling and Simulation of Magnetron Infection Guns for Submillimeter Wave Gyrotrons

    OpenAIRE

    S.P.SABCHEVSKI; G.M.Mladenov; IDEHARA, T

    1999-01-01

    The software package GUN-MIG has been developed for computer simulation of beam formation in magnetron injection guns (MIG). It is based on a fully relativistic self-consistent physical model which takes into account the specific problems and requirements that are being encountered in the analysis and design of MIG for gyrotrons. Besides providing a general outline of the physical models and the program implementation of the code, several illustrative examples of the numerical experiments wit...

  2. Systems and Science Studies for Millimeter- and Submillimeter-wave Earth Venture Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The plan to develop a cost-compliant EV-i instrument concept entails developing a science and instrument-performance trade space that considers channel selection,...

  3. Internal rupture and rapid bouncing of impacting drops induced by submillimeter-scale textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xiwen; Hao, Pengfei; He, Feng

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate an internal breakup mechanism for high Weber number drop impact on superhydrophobic surfaces uniformly patterned with submillimeter-scale textures, in which the liquid film ruptures from both interior and rim. The employment of submillimeter-scale posts could help decrease the critical Weber number of internal rupture, due to the small solid fraction and the large dimension ratio between primary structures and droplets. The internal rupture is found to promote more rapid drop bouncing than conventional rebound and rim breakup on superhydrophobic surfaces with small roughness, with a 10%-50% reduction of contact time. The internal rupture results from the film instability inside and the jet instability outside.

  4. Internal rupture and rapid bouncing of impacting drops induced by submillimeter-scale textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xiwen; Hao, Pengfei; He, Feng

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate an internal breakup mechanism for high Weber number drop impact on superhydrophobic surfaces uniformly patterned with submillimeter-scale textures, in which the liquid film ruptures from both interior and rim. The employment of submillimeter-scale posts could help decrease the critical Weber number of internal rupture, due to the small solid fraction and the large dimension ratio between primary structures and droplets. The internal rupture is found to promote more rapid drop bouncing than conventional rebound and rim breakup on superhydrophobic surfaces with small roughness, with a 10%-50% reduction of contact time. The internal rupture results from the film instability inside and the jet instability outside.

  5. Ancient Indian Astronomy in Introductory Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari Achar, B. N.

    1997-10-01

    It is customary in introductory survey courses in astronomy to devote some time to the history of astronomy. In the available text books only the Greek contribution receives any attention. Apart from Stonehenge and Chichenitza pictures, contributions from Babylon and China are some times mentioned. Hardly any account is given of ancient Indian astronomy. Even when something is mentioned it is incomplete or incorrect or both. Examples are given from several text books currently available. An attempt is made to correct this situation by sketching the contributions from the earliest astronomy of India, namely Vedaanga Jyotisha.

  6. Improving Astronomy Achievement and Attitude through Astronomy Summer Project: A Design, Implementation and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Cumhur; Kalkan, Hüseyin; Iskeleli', Nazan Ocak; Kiroglu, Kasim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of an astronomy summer project implemented in different learning activities on elementary school students, pre-service elementary teachers and in-service teachers' astronomy achievement and their attitudes to astronomy field. This study is the result of a five-day, three-stage, science school,…

  7. The Relationship between Preservice Science Teachers' Attitude toward Astronomy and Their Understanding of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    2016-01-01

    Turkish preservice science teachers have been taking a two-credit astronomy class during the last semester of their undergraduate program since 2010. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between preservice science teachers' astronomy misconceptions and their attitudes toward astronomy. Preservice science teachers were given an…

  8. First detections of gravitational waves from binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejger, Michał

    2017-07-01

    Recent direct detections of gravitational waves from coalescing binary black holes systems herald a new era in the observational astronomy, as well as in experimental verifications of the theories of gravity. I will present the principles of detection of gravitational waves, current state-of-art laser interferometric detectors (Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo), and the most promising astrophysical sources of gravitational waves.

  9. Gravitational-wave observations from ground-based detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tjonnie G. F.

    2017-10-01

    Recent detections of gravitational waves by the LIGO detectors herald a new era of observational astronomy. Previously invisible objects and phenomena may now be uncovered through their gravitational interaction. Observation of gravitational waves allows one to explore the extremes of the Universe and study astronomy and fundamental physics like never before. This article gives a brief overview of the detection process, from the production of the data to their physical implications.

  10. A New Online Astronomy Resource for Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, C. D.; Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Patikkal, A.; Srinathan, A.; Austin, C. L.; Ganesan, N. K.; Guvenen, B. C.

    2013-01-01

    A new web site called "Teach Astronomy" (http://www.teachastronomy.com) has been created to serve astronomy instructors and their students, amateur astronomers, and members of the public interested in astronomy. The

  11. An alma survey of sub-millimeter galaxies in the extended Chandra deep field south: Sub-millimeter properties of color-selected galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Hodge, J. A.; Rix, H.-W.; Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M.; Karim, A.; Simpson, J. M. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Coppin, K. E. K. [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Cox, P. [IRAM, 300 rue de la piscine, F-38406 Saint-Martin d' Hères (France); Dannerbauer, H. [Universität Wien, Institut für Astrophysik, Türenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Greve, T. R. [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Ivison, R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Knudsen, K. K.; Lindroos, L. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, Onsala SE-439 92 (Sweden); Van der Werf, P. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Weiß, A., E-mail: decarli@mpia.de [Max-Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    We study the sub-millimeter properties of color-selected galaxies via a stacking analysis applied for the first time to interferometric data at sub-millimeter wavelengths. We base our study on 344 GHz ALMA continuum observations of ∼20''-wide fields centered on 86 sub-millimeter sources detected in the LABOCA Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) Sub-millimeter Survey. We select various classes of galaxies (K-selected, star-forming sBzK galaxies, extremely red objects, and distant red galaxies) according to their optical/near-infrared fluxes. We find clear, >10σ detections in the stacked images of all these galaxy classes. We include in our stacking analysis Herschel/SPIRE data to constrain the dust spectral energy distribution of these galaxies. We find that their dust emission is well described by a modified blackbody with T {sub dust} ≈ 30 K and β = 1.6 and infrared luminosities of (5-11) × 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉} or implied star formation rates of 75-140 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We compare our results with those of previous studies based on single-dish observations at 870 μm and find that our flux densities are a factor 2-3 higher than previous estimates. The discrepancy is observed also after removing sources individually detected in ALESS maps. We report a similar discrepancy by repeating our analysis on 1.4 GHz observations of the whole ECDFS. Hence, we find tentative evidence that galaxies that are associated in projected and redshift space with sub-mm bright sources are brighter than the average population. Finally, we put our findings in the context of the cosmic star formation rate density as a function of redshift.

  12. How Swift is redefining time domain astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2015-09-01

    NASA's Swift satellite has completed ten years of amazing discoveries in time domain astronomy. Its primary mission is to chase gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but due to its scheduling flexibility it has subsequently become a prime discovery machine for new types of behavior. The list of major discoveries in GRBs and other transients includes the long-lived X-ray afterglows and flares from GRBs, the first accurate localization of short GRBs, the discovery of GRBs at high redshift (z > 8), supernova shock break-out from SN Ib, a jetted tidal disruption event, an ultra-long class of GRBs, high energy emission from flare stars, novae and supernovae with unusual characteristics, magnetars with glitches in their spin periods, and a short GRB with evidence of an accompanying kilonova. Swift has developed a dynamic synergism with ground based observatories. In a few years gravitational wave observatories will come on-line and provide exciting new transient sources for Swift to study.

  13. Waves in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGourty, L.; Rideout, K.

    2005-12-01

    "Waves in Motion" This teaching unit was created by Leslie McGourty and Ken Rideout under the Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program at MIT Haystack Observatory during the summer of 2005. The RET program is funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. The goals of this teaching unit are to deepen students' understanding about waves, wave motion, and the electromagnetic spectrum as a whole. Specifically students will comprehend the role radio waves play in our daily lives and in the investigation of the universe. The lessons can be used in a high school physics, earth science or astronomy curriculum. The unit consists of a series of interlocking lectures, activities, and investigations that can be used as stand alone units to supplement a teacher's existing curriculum, as an independent investigation for a student, or as a long exploration into radio astronomy with a theme of waves in space: how and where they carry their information. Special emphasis is given to the Relativity theories in honor of the "World Year of Physics" to celebrate Einstein's 1905 contributions. The lessons are currently being implemented at the high school level, the preliminary results of which will be presented. At the end of the academic year, the units will be evaluated and updated, reflecting student input and peer review after which they will be posted on the internet for teachers to use in their classrooms.

  14. Space mission Millimetron for terahertz astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smirnov, A. V.; Baryshev, A. M.; Pilipenko, S. V.; Myshonkova, N. V.; Bulanov, V. B.; Arkhipov, M. Y.; Vinogradov, I. S.; Likhachev, S. F.; Kardashev, N. S.

    We present an overview of the current status of the space mission Millimetron. Millimetron is a large 10-m cooled space telescope optimized for operation in the submillimeter and far infrared wavelengths. This mission will be able to contribute to the solution of several key problems in

  15. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.

    2010-08-01

    Bring telescopes to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is a three-year NASA-funded astronomy outreach program at community parks during and after music concerts and outdoor family events—such as a Halloween Stars-Spooky Garden Walk. While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at city sidewalks and parks, this program targets a completely different audience: music lovers who are attending summer concerts held in community parks. These music lovers who may never have visited a science museum, planetarium, or star party are exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars increased awareness, engagement, and interest in astronomy at classical, pop, rock, and ethnic music concerts. This program includes solar observing before the concerts, telescope observations including a live image projection system, an astronomical video presentation, and astronomy banners/posters. Approximately 500-16,000 people attended each event and 25% to 50% of the people at each event participated in the astronomy program. This program also reached underrepresented and underserved groups (women, minorities, older adults). The target audience (Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York) is 2,900,000 people, which is larger than combined population of Atlanta, Boston, Denver, Minneapolis, and San Francisco. Although eleven events were planned in 2009, two were canceled due to rain and our largest event, the NY Philharmonic in the Park (attended by 67,000 people in 2008), was cancelled for financial reasons. Our largest event in 2009 was the Tanglewood Music Festival, Lenox MA, attended by 16,000 people where over 5000 people participated in astronomy activities. The Amateur Observers' Society of New York assisted with the NY concerts and the Springfield STARS astronomy club assisted at Tanglewood. In 2009 over 15,000 people participated in astronomy

  16. Copernican Astronomy and Oceanic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKittrick, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between the century long development of the “New Astronomy” (Copernicus’ axially rotating and solar orbiting earth, governed by Kepler’s laws of planetary motion) of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries and the emerging astronomical navigation technologies of the fifteenth and sixteenth century Iberian oceanic explorers and their sixteenth and seventeenth century Protestant competitors. Since the first breakthroughs in Portuguese astronomical navigation in ascertaining latitude at sea were based upon the theories and observations of classically trained Ptolemaic astronomers and cosmographers, it can be argued that the new heliocentric astronomy was not necessary for future developments in early modern navigation. By examining the history of the concurrent revolutions in early modern navigation and astronomy and focusing upon commonalities, we can identify the period during which the old astronomy provided navigators with insufficient results - perhaps hastening the acceptance of the new epistemology championed by Galileo and rejected by Bellarmine. Even though this happened during the period of northern protestant ascendancy in exploration, its roots can be seen during pre-Copernican acceptance in both Lutheran and Catholic Europe. Copernican mathematics was used to calculate Reinhold’s Prutenic Tables despite the author’s ontological rejection of the heliocentric hypothesis. These tables became essential for ascertaining latitude at sea. Kepler’s Rudophine Tables gained even more widespread currency across Europe. His theories were influenced by Gilbert’s work on magnetism - a work partially driven by the requirements of English polar exploration. Sailors themselves never needed to accept a heliocentric cosmography, but the data they brought back to the metropolis undermined Ptolemy, as better data kept them alive at sea. This exchange between theoretician and user in the early modern period drove both

  17. Discovery and Classification in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Three decades after Martin Harwit's pioneering Cosmic Discovery (1981), and following on the recent IAU Symposium "Accelerating the Rate of Astronomical Discovery,” we have revisited the problem of discovery in astronomy, emphasizing new classes of objects. 82 such classes have been identified and analyzed, including 22 in the realm of the planets, 36 in the realm of the stars, and 24 in the realm of the galaxies. We find an extended structure of discovery, consisting of detection, interpretation and understanding, each with its own nuances and a microstructure including conceptual, technological and social roles. This is true with a remarkable degree of consistency over the last 400 years of telescopic astronomy, ranging from Galileo's discovery of satellites, planetary rings and star clusters, to the discovery of quasars and pulsars. Telescopes have served as "engines of discovery” in several ways, ranging from telescope size and sensitivity (planetary nebulae and spiral galaxies), to specialized detectors (TNOs) and the opening of the electromagnetic spectrum for astronomy (pulsars, pulsar planets, and most active galaxies). A few classes (radiation belts, the solar wind and cosmic rays), were initially discovered without the telescope. Classification also plays an important role in discovery. While it might seem that classification marks the end of discovery, or a post-discovery phase, in fact it often marks the beginning, even a pre-discovery phase. Nowhere is this more clearly seen than in the classification of stellar spectra, long before dwarfs, giants and supergiants were known, or their evolutionary sequence recognized. Classification may also be part of a post-discovery phase, as in the MK system of stellar classification, constructed after the discovery of stellar luminosity classes. Some classes are declared rather than discovered, as in the case of gas and ice giant planets, and, infamously, Pluto as a dwarf planet.

  18. The General History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taton, René; Wilson, Curtis; Hoskin, editor Michael, , General

    2009-09-01

    Part V. Early Phases in the Reception of Newton's Theory: 14. The vortex theory in competition with Newtonian celestial dynamics Eric J. Aiton; 15. The shape of the Earth Seymour L. Chapin; 16. Clairaut and the motion of the lunar apse: The inverse-square law undergoes a test Craig B. Waff; 17. The precession of the equinoxes from Newton to d'Alembert and Euler Curtis Wilson; 18. The solar tables of Lacaille and the lunar tables of Mayer Eric G. Forbes and Curtis Wilson; 19. Predicting the mid-eighteenth-century return of Halley's Comet Craig B. Waff; Part VI. Celestial Mechanics During the Eighteenth Century: 20. The problem of perturbation analytically treated: Euler, Clairaut, d'Alembert Curtis Wilson; 21. The work of Lagrange in celestial mechanics Curtis Wilson; 22. Laplace Bruno Morando; Part VII. Observational Astronomy and the Application of Theory in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Century: 23. Measuring solar parallax: The Venus transits of 1761 and 1769 and their nineteenth-century sequels Albert Van Helden; 24. The discovery of Uranus, the Titius-Bode and the asteroids Michael Hoskin; 25. Eighteenth-and nineteenth century developments in the theory and practice of orbit determination Brian G. Marsden; 26. The introduction of statistical reasoning into astronomy: from Newton to Poincaré Oscar Sheynin; 27. Astronomy and the theory of errors: from the method of averages to the method of least squares F. Schmeidler; Part VIII. The Development of Theory During the Nineteenth Century: 28. The golden age of celestial mechanics Bruno Morando; Part IX. The Application of Celestial Mechanics to the Solar System to the End of the Nineteenth Century: 29. Three centuries of lunar and planetary ephemerides and tables Bruno Morando; 30. Satellite ephemerides to 1900 Yoshihide Kozai; Illustrations; Combined index for Parts 2A and 2B.

  19. Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Ian

    2010-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Gruber Cosmology Prize Lecture; Part II. Invited Discourses; Part III. Joint Discussions: 1. Dark matter in early-type galaxies Léon V. E. Koopmans and Tommaso Treu; 2. Diffuse light in galaxy clusters Magda Arnaboldi and Ortwin Gerhard; 3. Neutron stars - timing in extreme environments Tomaso Belloni, Mariano Méndez and Chengmin Zhang; 4. Progress in understanding the physics of Ap and related stars Margarida Cunha; 5. Modelling the Milky Way in the age of Gaia Annie C. Robin; 6. Time and astronomy Pascale Defraigne; 7. Astrophysical outflows and associated accretion phenomena Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino and Alex C. Raga; 8. Hot interstellar matter in elliptical galaxies Dong-Woo Kim and Silvia Pellegrini; 9. Are the fundamental constants varying with time? Paolo Molaro and Elisabeth Vangioni; 10. 3D views on cool stellar atmospheres - theory meets observation K. N. Nagendra, P. Bonifacio and H. G. Ludwig; 11. New advances in helio- and astero-seismology; 12. The first galaxies - theoretical predictions and observational clues; 13. Eta Carinae in the context of the most massive stars Theodore R. Gull and Augusto Damineli; 14. The ISM of galaxies in the far-infrared and sub-millimetre; 15. Magnetic fields in diffuse media Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino and Alex Lazarian; 16. IHY global campaign - whole heliosphere interval; Part IV. Special Sessions: SpS 1. IR and sub-mm spectroscopy - a new tool for studying stellar evolution Glenn Wahlgren, Hans Käufl and Florian Kerber; SpS 2. The international year of astronomy Pedro Russo, Catherine Cesarsky and Lars Lindberg Christensen; SpS 3. Astronomy in Antarctica in 2009 Michael G. Burton; SpS 4. Astronomy education between past and future J. P. De Greve; SpS 5. Accelerating the rate of astronomical discovery Ray P. Norris; SpS 6. Planetary systems as potential sites for life Régis Courtin, Alan Boss and Michel Mayor; SpS 7. Young stars, brown dwarfs, and protoplanetary disks Jane Gregorio

  20. The handy astronomy answer book

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, PhD, Charles

    2013-01-01

    From planetary movements and the exploration of our solar system to black holes and dark matter, this comprehensive reference simplifies all aspects of astronomy with an approachable question-and-answer format. With chapters broken into various astronomical studies—including the universe, galaxies, planets, and space exploration—this fully updated resource is an ideal companion for students, teachers, and amateur astronomers, answering more than 1,000 questions, such as Is the universe infinite? What would happen to you if you fell onto a black hole? What are the basic concepts of Einstein's special theory of relativity? and Who was the first person in space?.

  1. Dealing with Creationism in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgman, W. T.

    2005-12-01

    In recent years, the battle to force some form of pseudo-science into American science classrooms has intensified. In court cases and Boards of Education, the sides have formed between religious groups claiming to desire a `balanced' treatment and scientific groups insisting on a total ban on the topics. But there is a third option which has not been explored. Many claims of `Creation Science' and other pseudosciences can be explored and refuted at the level of introductory physics and astronomy classes. I will present a few claims of Young-Earth Creationists (YECs) pertaining to cosmology and illustrate some methods for refuting them.

  2. Astronomy of the vedic altars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kak, Subhash C.

    In this paper, two ancient Indian texts, the Śatapatha Brāhmana and the Rigveda, are examined for their astronomical content. It is argued that the 95 year ritual of agnicayana had an astronomical basis, which implies a knowledge of the length of the tropical year being equal to 365.24675 days. An astronomical code has been discovered in the structure of the Rigveda, which has been partially deciphered. This code expressed the knowledge that the sun and the moon are about 108 times their respective diameters away from the earth. This analysis leads to a major revision of our understanding of the history of ancient astronomy.

  3. Astronomy Map of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, D.

    2017-09-01

    I have created an online clickable and zoom-enabled world map - now viewed over 5,400 times - that contains weblinks to institutions where astronomy is either researched professionally and / or and taught in classrooms at the university level. Not included are stand-alone museums, planetariums, amateur astronomical societies, virtual institutes, nor observatories which do not fulfill this criteria. One can click on a marker to access the relevant institute. The map currently contains 697 institutes, and has multiple potential uses for undergraduate students, graduate students, postdocs, faculty and journal editors.

  4. Astronomy Education in Morocco - New Project for Implementing Astronomy in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darhmaoui, H.; Loudiyi, K.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy education in Morocco, like in many developing countries, is not well developed and lacks the very basics in terms of resources, facilities and research. In 2004, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) signed an agreement of collaboration with Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane to support the continued, long-term development of astronomy and astrophysics in Morocco. This is within the IAU program "Teaching for Astronomy Development" (TAD). The initial focus of the program concentrated exclusively on the University's Bachelor of Science degree program. Within this program, and during two years, we were successful in providing adequate astronomy training to our physics faculty and few of our engineering students. We also offered our students and community general astronomy background through courses, invited talks and extra curricular activities. The project is now evolving towards a wider scope and seeks promoting astronomy education at the high school level. It is based on modules from the Hands on Universe (HOU) interactive astronomy program. Moroccan students will engage in doing observational astronomy from their PCs. They will have access to a world wide network of telescopes and will interact with their peers abroad. Through implementing astronomy education at this lower age, we foresee an increasing interest among our youth not only in astronomy but also in physics, mathematics, and technology. The limited astronomy resources, the lack of teachers experience in the field and the language barrier are amongst the difficulties that we'll be facing in achieving the objectives of this new program.

  5. COMPACT STARBURSTS IN z similar to 3-6 SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES REVEALED BY ALMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikarashi, Soh; Ivison, R. J.; Caputi, Karina I.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David H.; Iono, Daisuke; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the source size distribution, as measured by ALMA millimetric continuum imaging, of a sample of 13 AzTEC-selected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z(phot) similar to 3-6. Their infrared luminosities and star formation rates (SFRs) are L-IR similar to, 2-6 x 10(12) L-circle dot and similar

  6. Student Comprehension of Mathematics through Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how knowledge of astronomy can enhance college-level learning situations involving mathematics. The fundamental symbiosis between mathematics and astronomy was established early in the 17th century when Johannes Kepler deduced the 3 basic laws of planetary motion. This mutually harmonious relationship…

  7. Preservice Science Teachers' Beliefs about Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gulbin; Akcay, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice science teachers' conceptual understanding of astronomy concepts. Qualitative research methods were used. The sample consists of 118 preservice science teachers (40 freshmen, 31 sophomores, and 47 juniors). The data were collected with Astronomy Conceptual Questionnaire (ACQ) that includes 13…

  8. Resources for Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Newsam, Andy; Roberts, Sarah; Mason, Tom; Baruch, John

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at a selection of resources currently available for use in the teaching of astronomy in UK schools. It is by no means an exhaustive list but it highlights a variety of free resources that can be used in the classroom to help engage students of all ages with astronomy and space science. It also lists several facilities with a…

  9. Encouraging Student Participation in Large Astronomy Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Shannon D.

    2012-01-01

    Introductory astronomy is one of the most widely taught classes in the country and the majority of the students who take these classes are non-science majors. Because this demographic of students makes up the majority of astronomy enrollments, it is especially important as instructors that we do our best to make sure these students don't finish…

  10. Some Daytime Activities in Solar Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This century's transits of Venus (2004, 2012) captured significant public attention, reminding us that the wonders of astronomy need not be confined to the night. And while nighttime telescope viewing gatherings (a.k.a. "star parties") are perennially popular, astronomy classes are typically held in the daytime. The logistics of…

  11. Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy, volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.

    2003-10-01

    This book is the fourth volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). These OSA Books are intended to cover a large range of fields and themes. In practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. This book offers a unique collection of chapters dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, society activities, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, environmental constraints, educational policies, public outreach, journal and magazine profiles, publication studies, electronic-media problematics, research communication, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national policies and specificities, expertise sharing, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detailed information and sometimes enlightening 'lessons learned' sections. The book concludes with an updated bibliography of publications related to socio-astronomy and to the interactions of the astronomy community with the society at large. This book will be most usefully read by researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as by students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1526-7

  12. Astronomy all the time for everybody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Valentin

    2015-08-01

    General contextCommunicating astronomy with the public must be done all year and with all community members using all the available methods to promote the all aspects of astronomy: education, science, research, new technologies, dark-sky protection, astrophotography, mythology, astropoetry, astro arts and music.An annual calendarTwo aspect must be taken in consideration when create a calendar of activity:- astronomical events (eclipses, meteor showers, comets, etc.)- international and local astronomical events: Global Astronomy Months, Astronomy Day, Globe at Night, ISAN, public activitiesCommunicating astronomy with the whole communityA description of the experience of the author organizing over 500 events in 30 years of activity including all the community members: general public, students, teachers, artists, authorities, people with disabilities, minor and adult prisoners, etc.An experience of seven years as TV producer of the astronomy TV show “Ùs and the Sky” is presented.Promotion of the activityThe relation with the mass-media is an important aspect communicating astronomy with the public.Mass-media between rating and correct information of the public.The role of the cooperation with the community in astronomy projectsA successful model: EURONEAR project

  13. The cost of publishing in Danish astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil F.

    I investigate the cost of publishing in Danish astronomy on a fine scale, including all direct publication costs: The figures show how the annual number of publications with authors from Denmark in astronomy journals increased by a factor approximately four during 15 years (Elsevier’s Scopus...

  14. Indian Mathematics and Astronomy: Some Land- marks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Mathematics and. Astronomy: Some Land- marks. Michio Yano*. Indian Mathematics and Astronomy: Some Landmarks··. By S Balachandra Roo. Jnana Deep Publications, Bangalore,. 1994, Pages, VIII + 234, Price Rs. 751-. On Indio). This book is 'mainly addressed to the student community and general read-.

  15. Training in Astronomy for Physics Students

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper, we describe what we have done with regard to astronomy training for physics students. More and more students are interested in astronomy, they spend their summer holidays and spare time in observations and studying the observation data. Some students are familiar with using the ...

  16. The Early Development of Chinese Radio Astronomy: The Role of W.N. Christiansen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouguan, Wang

    Between 1963 and 1998, Professor W.N. Christiansen visited China more than a dozen times, bringing valuable scientific information, expert guidance and all possible help to the young Chinese radio astronomy team. Here, the writer presents his memories of two typical, deeply shared experiences, `The Shahe Experiment' and `The Making of the Miyun Meter Wave Aperture Synthesis Telescope', as expressions of the kind thoughts of a whole generation of Chinese researchers in astronomy. This chapter is a slightly revised version of a research paper that was published some years ago by Wang (in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 12, 33-38, 2009), but the title here has been changed slightly in order to conform to the editorial style used for all of the history of radio astronomy chapters in this book.

  17. Astronomy with a home computer

    CERN Document Server

    Monks, Neale

    2005-01-01

    Here is a one-volume guide to just about everything computer-related for amateur astronomers! Today's amateur astronomy is inextricably linked to personal computers. Computer-controlled "go-to" telescopes are inexpensive. CCD and webcam imaging make intensive use of the technology for capturing and processing images. Planetarium software provides information and an easy interface for telescopes. The Internet offers links to other astronomers, information, and software. The list goes on and on. Find out here how to choose the best planetarium program: are commercial versions really better than freeware? Learn how to optimise a go-to telescope, or connect it to a lap-top. Discover how to choose the best webcam and use it with your telescope. Create a mosaic of the Moon, or high-resolution images of the planets... Astronomy with a Home Computer is designed for every amateur astronomer who owns a home computer, whether it is running Microsoft Windows, Mac O/S or Linux. It doesn't matter what kind of telescope you...

  18. Multiversos: Rock'n'Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.; Arias, A.; García, N.

    2011-11-01

    Imagine that you can use your fingers only for typing target coordinates at thetelescope, reduce images and spectra with IRAF, or write papers for Astronomy &Astrophysics, but you would never be able to play an electric guitar.Imagine that you love music, work in front of the computer always withheadphones, and dream of playing with your favourite rock band in a tumultuousconcert.Imagine that you are an astronomer who, after a "cosmic fluke", share stagewith the band which themes you have always hummed since you were a teenager.Imagine that you were born for rock, played a main role in the best Spanishalbum of the 90s (Omega, with Enrique Morente), and your songs arerutinary played by Radio 3, but you would never be able to detect an exoplanetor a galaxy at a high redshift.Imagine that you love Astronomy, try to see the Moon craters and Andromeda withyour small telescope through the light pollution of your city, and explain yourdaughter that Pluto is not a planet any longer. Imagine that you are a musician who, after a "cosmic fluke", give a talk justafter a Nobel laureate that discovered the cosmic microwave backgroundradiation.Such "cosmic flukes" sometimes happen. If you were not at the dinner of the SEA meeting and do not believe us, visithttp://www.myspace.com/antonioariasmultiverso or open the proceedings DVD andlisten "El ordenador simula el nacimiento de las estrella...".

  19. Observing Projects in Introductory Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Introductory astronomy classes without laboratory components face a unique challenge of how to expose students to the process of science in the framework of a lecture course. As a solution to this problem small group observing projects are incorporated into a 40 student introductory astronomy class composed primarily of non-science majors. Students may choose from 8 observing projects such as graphing the motion of the moon or a planet, measuring daily and seasonal motions of stars, and determining the rotation rate of the Sun from sunspots. Each group completes two projects, requiring the students to spend several hours outside of class making astronomical observations. Clear instructions and a check-list style observing log help students with minimal observing experience to take accurate data without direct instructor assistance. Students report their findings in a lab report-style paper, as well as in a formal oral or poster presentation. The projects serve a double purpose of allowing students to directly experience concepts covered in class as well as providing students with experience collecting, analyzing, and presenting astronomical data.

  20. Determining the Concentrations and Temperatures of Products in a CF_4/CHF_3/N_2 Plasma via Submillimeter Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Yaser H.; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Ewing, Paul R.; Agarwal, Ankur; Craver, Barry; Stout, Phillip J.; Armacost, Michael D.

    2017-06-01

    Plasmas used for the manufacturing of semiconductor devices are similar in pressure and temperature to those used in the laboratory for the study of astrophysical species in the submillimeter (SMM) spectral region. The methods and technology developed in the SMM for these laboratory studies are directly applicable for diagnostic measurements in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Many of the molecular neutrals, radicals, and ions present in processing plasmas have been studied and their spectra have been cataloged or are in the literature. In this work, a continuous wave, intensity calibrated SMM absorption spectrometer was developed as a remote sensor of gas and plasma species. A major advantage of intensity calibrated rotational absorption spectroscopy is its ability to determine absolute concentrations and temperatures of plasma species from first principles without altering the plasma environment. An important part of this work was the design of the optical components which couple 500-750 GHz radiation through a commercial inductively coupled plasma chamber. The measurement of transmission spectra was simultaneously fit for background and absorption signal. The measured absorption was used to calculate absolute densities and temperatures of polar species. Measurements for CHF_3, CF_2, FCN, HCN, and CN made in a CF_4/CHF_3/N_2 plasma will be presented. Temperature equilibrium among species will be shown and the common temperature is leveraged to obtain accurate density measurements for simultaneously observed species. The densities and temperatures of plasma species are studied as a function of plasma parameters, including flow rate, pressure, and discharge power.

  1. Armenian Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.; Farmanyan, Sona V.

    2016-12-01

    A review is given on archaeoastronomy in Armenia and astronomical knowledge reflected in the Armenian culture. Astronomy in Armenia was popular since ancient times and Armenia is rich in its astronomical heritage, such as the names of the constellations, ancient observatories, Armenian rock art (numerous petroglyphs of astronomical content), ancient and medieval Armenian calendars, astronomical terms and names used in Armenian language since II-I millennia B.C., records of astronomical events by ancient Armenians (e.g. Halley's comet in 87 B.C., supernovae explosion in 1054), the astronomical heritage of the Armenian medieval great thinker Anania Shirakatsi's (612-685), medieval sky maps and astronomical devices by Ghukas (Luca) Vanandetsi (XVII-XVIII centuries) and Mkhitar Sebastatsi (1676-1749), etc. For systemization and further regular studies, we have created a webpage devoted to Armenian archaeoastronomical matters at Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) website. Issues on astronomy in culture include astronomy in ancient Armenian cultures, ethnoastronomy, astronomy in Armenian religion and mythology, astronomy and astrology, astronomy in folklore and poetry, astronomy in arts, astrolinguistics and astroheraldry. A similar webpage for Astronomy in Armenian Culture is being created at ArAS website and a permanent section "Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture" has been created in ArAS Electronic Newsletter. Several meetings on this topic have been organized in Armenia during 2007-2014, including the archaeoastronomical meetings in 2012 and 2014, and a number of books have been published. Several institutions are related to these studies coordinated by Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) and researchers from the fields of astronomy, history, archaeology, literature, linguistics, etc. are involved.

  2. Under the Radar: The First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Goss, W.

    2012-05-01

    Under the Radar, the First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott W. Miller Goss, NRAO Socorro NM Ruby Payne-Scott (1912-1981) was an eminent Australian scientist who made major contributions to the WWII radar effort (CSIR) from 1941 to 1945. In late 1945, she pioneered radio astronomy efforts at Dover Heights in Sydney, Australia at a beautiful cliff top overlooking the Tasman Sea. Again at Dover Heights, Payne-Scott carried out the first interferometry in radio astronomy using an Australian Army radar antenna as a radio telescope at sun-rise, 26 January 1946. She continued these ground breaking activities until 1951. Ruby Payne-Scott played a major role in discovering and elucidating the properties of Type III bursts from the sun, the most common of the five classes of transient phenomena from the solar corona. These bursts are one of the most intensively studied forms of radio emission in all of astronomy. She is also one of the inventors of aperture synthesis in radio astronomy. I examine her career at the University of Sydney and her conflicts with the CSIR hierarchy concerning the rights of women in the work place, specifically equal wages and the lack of permanent status for married women. I also explore her membership in the Communist Party of Australia as well as her partially released Australian Scientific Intelligence Organization file. Payne-Scott’s role as a major participant in the flourishing radio astronomy research of the post war era remains a remarkable story. She had a number of strong collaborations with the pioneers of early radio astronomy in Australia: Pawsey, Mills, Christiansen, Bolton and Little. I am currently working on a popular version of the Payne-Scott story; “Making Waves, The Story of Ruby Payne-Scott: Australian Pioneer Radio Astronomer” will be published in 2013 by Springer in the Astronomers’ Universe Series.

  3. Millimeter-wave and Submillimeter-wave Spectra of Aminoacetonitrile in the Three Lowest Vibrational Excited States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposti, Claudio Degli; Dore, Luca; Melosso, Mattia [Dipartimento di Chimica “Giacomo Ciamician”, Università di Bologna, via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Kobayashi, Kaori [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Fujita, Chiho; Ozeki, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ozeki@env.sci.toho-u.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, 2-2-1 Miyama, Funabashi, 274-8510 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    It is important to study possible precursors of amino acids such as glycine to enable future searches in interstellar space. Aminoacetonitrile (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CN) is one of the most feasible molecules for this purpose. This molecule was already detected toward Sgr B2(N). Aminoacetonitrile has a few low-lying vibrational excited states, and transitions within these states may be found in space. In this study, the pure-rotational transitions in the three lowest vibrational states in the 80–450 GHz range have been assigned and analyzed. It was found to be very important to include Coriolis coupling between the two lowest vibrational fundamentals, while the third one was unperturbed. The partition function was evaluated considering these new results.

  4. Outcomes of promotional efforts for astronomy among high school students through the astronomy olympiad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoojea

    2015-08-01

    The Korean Astronomical Society initiated the Korea Astronomy Olympiad (KAO) in 2001 and also began to participate in the international astronomy olympiad in 2002, as a means to promote astronomy among Korean high school students. To find out how successful such endeavor has been, first how partipating students regard astronomy as their career choice has been investigated. Of the students who have taken part in the international astronomy olympiads and then have entered a college afterwards in the period 2002-2014, more than 50% have chosen astronomy, physics, or earth science as their college major. In addition, when the future career choices of the KAO applicants were examined through their school records, astronomy and space science were chosen to be 44% in 2014, a significant increase from 25% in 2010. Secondly, the astronomical content of the regular Korean high school curriculum has been compared with the syllabus of international astronomy olympiads, to see how students can enhance their astronomical understanding through participating in astronomy olympiads, which would in turn contribute to their possible future career in astronomy.

  5. Philippine Astronomy Convention 2009 Abstract: Program Offerings in Astronomy in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J. R. F.

    2009-03-01

    The formal academic programs in Astronomy of the Rizal Technological University are the first such programs in the Philippines. The Master of Science in Astronomy program is envisioned to provide the student with a wide range of knowledge in many areas of Astronomy, leaning towards the descriptive aspects of knowledge. The student will choose the field or research most suitable to his or her interests. Three of these researches done while enrolled in the program, and even researches completed before the student actually enrolled in the program, may be considered as his or her thesis. The program suits professionals in all persuasions who wish to study Astronomy either for professional advancement or plainly for the love of the science or for intellectual satisfaction. Non-science majors can enroll. In 2008, the RTU Graduate School decided to ladderize the MS program and the Graduate Diploma in Astronomy was designed. This program is suited for science educators, astronomy lecturers and entrepreneurs, members of astronomical societies, and plain astronomy enthusiasts who like to gain in-depth knowledge in the most important aspects of astronomy. A bachelor's degree in any field is required. The program can be finished in two semesters and one summer. If the student opts to continue in the MS in Astronomy program, all the courses he or she has earned in the Diploma will be credited. The Bachelor of Science in Astronomy Technology is an intensive baccalaureate degree program designed to prepare students to become future research scientists and technologists in the field of Astronomy. The BS in Astronomy Technology is a cross-fertilized program, integrating interrelated sciences, such as engineering, geology, remote sensing, physics, atmospheric and environmental science, biology and biochemistry, and even philosophy and entrepreneurship into the study. Thus, the B.S. in Astronomy Technology program gives the student excellent job opportunities in many fields.

  6. NASA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, D. E.; Harman, P. K.; Clark, C.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) is a three-part professional development (PD) program for high school physics and astronomy teachers. The AAA experience consists of: (1) blended-learning professional development composed of webinars, asynchronous content learning, and a series of hands-on workshops (2) a STEM immersion experience at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center's B703 science research aircraft facility in Palmdale, California, and (3) ongoing participation in the AAA community of practice (CoP) connecting participants with astrophysics and planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). The SETI Institute (SI) is partnering with school districts in Santa Clara and Los Angeles Counties during the AAA program's "incubation" period, calendar years 2016 through 2018. AAAs will be selected by the school districts based on criteria developed during spring 2016 focus group meetings led by the program's external evaluator, WestEd.. Teachers with 3+ years teaching experience who are assigned to teach at least 2 sections in any combination of the high school courses Physics (non-AP), Physics of the Universe (California integrated model), Astronomy, or Earth & Space Sciences are eligible. Partner districts will select at least 48 eligible applicants with SI oversight. WestEd will randomly assign selected AAAs to group A or group B. Group A will complete PD in January - June of 2017 and then participate in SOFIA science flights during fall 2017 (SOFIA Cycle 5). Group B will act as a control during the 2017-18 school year. Group B will then complete PD in January - June of 2018 and participate in SOFIA science flights in fall 2018 (Cycle 6). Under the current plan, opportunities for additional districts to seek AAA partnerships with SI will be offered in 2018 or 2019. A nominal two-week AAA curriculum component will be developed by SI for classroom delivery that will be aligned with selected California Draft Science Framework Disciplinary Core Ideas

  7. Interactive Materials In The Teaching Of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, J. A.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-10-01

    This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potentialities of the use of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. An advanced training course with involved learning activities about basic concepts of astronomy was offered to thirty-two Licenciate students in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Science. The following steps were to be taken: i) analysis of the pedagogical projects (PPC) of the licenciates at the IFNMG, research locus of its Campus Januária; ii) analysis of students' preconceptions about astronomy and digital technologies, identified by the application of an initial questionnaire; iii) preparation of the course taking into account the students' previous knowledge; iv) application of the education proposal developed under part-time presence modality, using various interactive tools; v) application and analysis of the final questionnaire. The test was conducted with the qualitative and quantitative methodology, combined with a content analysis. The results indicated that in the IFNMG only the licenciate-course in physics includes astronomy content diluted in various subjects of the curriculum; the rates of students prior knowledge in relation to astronomy was low; an evidence of meaningful learning of the concepts related to astronomy, and of viability of resource use involving digital technologies in the Teaching of astronomy, which may contribute to the broadening of methodological options of future teachers and meet their training needs.

  8. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.

    2008-11-01

    Bring telescope to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is a public astronomy outreach program at community parks during and after free summer music concerts and outdoor movie nights. This project also includes daytime activities because there are some afternoon concerts and daylight children's concerts, and observations using remotely operated telescopes in cloudy weather. While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at city sidewalks and parks, this program targets a completely different audience---music lovers who are attending free summer concerts held in community parks. The music lovers who may never have visited a science museum, planetarium, or star party will be exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. This program will permit the entire community to participate in telescope observations and view astronomical video information to enhance the public appreciation of astronomy. This program will also reach underrepresented and underserved groups (women, minorities, older adults). The population base for the initial target audience (Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York) is 2,500,000. My partners are the Amateur Observers' Society of New York (AOS) and the Towns of Oyster Bay, Hempstead, North Hempstead, and Huntington. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is program that should continue beyond the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) and can be expanded into a national program.

  9. Women's and Men's Career Choices in Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel; White, Susan; Chu, Raymond Y.

    2016-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS) arose from the 2003 Women in Astronomy Conference, where it was noted that a majority of young members of the American Astronomical Society were women. The astronomy community wishes to make every effort to retain young women in astronomy, so they commissioned a longitudinal study to be…

  10. A Brief History of Publishing Papers on Astronomy Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    While some research had been done on K-12 and planetarium astronomy teaching from the 1930's to the 1980's, the growth of research on college physics education offered astronomy education researchers a model for examining techniques for teaching introductory college astronomy survey "Astronomy 101" courses as well. This early research…

  11. Astronomy for teachers: A South African Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witt, Aletha; West, Marion; Leeuw, Lerothodi; Gouws, Eldrie

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has nominated Astronomy as a “flagship science” and aims to be an international Astronomy hub through projects such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and the South African Large Telescope (SALT). These projects open up career opportunities in maths, science and engineering and therefore offers a very real door for learners to enter into careers in science and technology through Astronomy. However, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS), the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) and Annual National Assessment (ANA) have highlighted that South Africa’s Science and Mathematics education is in a critical condition and that South African learners score amongst the worst in the world in both these subjects. In South Africa Astronomy is generally regarded as the worst taught and most avoided Natural Science knowledge strand, and most teachers that specialised in Natural Sciences, never covered Astronomy in their training.In order to address these issues a collaborative project between the University of South Africa (UNISA) and the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) was initiated, which aims to assist teachers to gain more knowledge and skills so that they can teach Astronomy with confidence. By collaborating we aim to ensure that the level of astronomy development will be raised in both South Africa and the rest of Africa.With the focus on Teaching and Learning, the research was conducted within a quantitative paradigm and 600 structured questionnaires were administered to Natural Science teachers in Public primary schools in Gauteng, South Africa. This paper reports the findings of this research and makes recommendations on how to assist teachers to teach Astronomy with confidence.

  12. Successful Innovative Methods in Introducing Astronomy Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattejee, T. K. C.

    2006-08-01

    Innovating new informative methods to induce interest in students has permitted us to introduce astronomy in several universities and institutes in Mexico. As a prelude, we gave a popular course in the history of astronomy. This was very easy as astronomy seems to be the most ancient of sciences and relating the achievements of the ancient philosophers/scientists was very enlightening. Then we put up an amateur show of the sky every week (subject to climatic conditions for observability). We showed how to take photographs and make telescopic observations. We enlightened the students of the special missions of NASA and took them to museums for space exploration. We gave a popular seminar on "Astrodynamics," highlighting its importance. We gave a series of introductory talks in radio and T.V. Finally we exposed them to electronic circulars, like "Universe Today" and "World Science." The last mentioned strategy had the most electrifying effect. We may not have been successful without it, as the students began to take the matter seriously only after reading numerous electronic circulars. In this respect, these circulars are not only informative about the latest news in astronomy, but highlight the role of astronomy in the modern world. Without it, students seem to relate astronomy to astrology; it is due to this misconception that they are not attracted to astronomy. Students were hardly convinced of the need for an astronomy course, as they did not know about the scope and development of the subject. This awakened the interests of students and they themselves proposed the initiation of an elementary course in astronomy to have a feel of the subject. Later on they proposed a course on "Rocket Dynamics." We will discuss our methods and their impact in detail.

  13. Using television for astronomy teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Julieta

    The full potential of television for education has not been used in developing nations. It is relatively inexpensive to produce astronomy programs that can be broadcast taking advantage of satellite transmissions. We suggest that these programs should have the following elements in order to be efficient: 1. Be in the local language. 2. Be short enough so that the teacher has a chance to comment on them during a one-hour lecture. 3. Show experiments specially if they are meant for schools that do not have laboratory facitilies. 4. Be produced for several educational levels, including programs aimed for teacher training. Inexpensive books should be edited in the local language in order to serve as an educational complement to the television series.

  14. Random time series in astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Simon

    2013-02-13

    Progress in astronomy comes from interpreting the signals encoded in the light received from distant objects: the distribution of light over the sky (images), over photon wavelength (spectrum), over polarization angle and over time (usually called light curves by astronomers). In the time domain, we see transient events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts and other powerful explosions; we see periodic phenomena such as the orbits of planets around nearby stars, radio pulsars and pulsations of stars in nearby galaxies; and we see persistent aperiodic variations ('noise') from powerful systems such as accreting black holes. I review just a few of the recent and future challenges in the burgeoning area of time domain astrophysics, with particular attention to persistently variable sources, the recovery of reliable noise power spectra from sparsely sampled time series, higher order properties of accreting black holes, and time delays and correlations in multi-variate time series.

  15. Academic Training: Astronomy from Space

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16, 18 March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Astronomy from Space by T. Courvoisier / Observatoire de Genève In the very wide field of High Energy astrophysics we will select a number of topics that range from the source of radiative energy in the deep potential well around Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes and the basics of accretion disks around compact objects to the description and (where possible) the understanding of binary systems including a compact object (neutron star or black hole), of Active Galactic Nuclei and of gamma ray bursts. The approach that is chosen aims at giving an understanding of the most important phenomenologies encountered in high energy astrophysics rather than a detailed knowledge of one specific topic. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  16. Tides in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathis, Stéphane; Tokieda, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Based on the lecture notes of a school titled ‘Tides in Astronomy and Astrophysics’ that brought together students and researchers, this book focuses on the fundamental theories of tides at different scales of the universe—from tiny satellites to whole galaxies—and on the most recent developments. It also attempts to place the study of tides in a historical perspective. Starting with a general tutorial on tides, the theme of tides is approached in 9 chapters from many directions. They allow non-experts to pick up a physical intuition and a sense of orders of magnitude in the theory of tides. These carefully prepared lecture notes by leaders in the field include many illustrative figures and drawings. Some even offer a variety of simple back-of the-envelope problems.

  17. Astronomy and international science diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Claus

    2015-08-01

    Since WW2, science has played an important, if sometimes overlooked, role in international relations and international diplomacy. The founding of CERN in 1954 and the more recent establishment of SESAME as a major research infrastructure in the Middle East are examples of this. The IAU has played its own role in the field of science diplomacy ranging from quietly fostering interaction between the antagonists of the Cold War period to the world-uniting initiative of the International Year of Astronomy. Beyond the IAU, yet still with clear links to it, we have seen ESO as an example as well as the more recent one of SKA as a vehicle for development and for strengthening international relations.

  18. Galactic Astronomy in the Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastorguev, A. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Zabolotskikh, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    We propose a number of prospective observational programs for the ultraviolet space observatory WSO-UV, which seem to be of great importance to modern galactic astronomy. The programs include the search for binary Cepheids; the search and detailed photometric study and the analysis of radial distribution of UV-bright stars in globular clusters ("blue stragglers", blue horizontal-branch stars, RR Lyrae variables, white dwarfs, and stars with UV excesses); the investigation of stellar content and kinematics of young open clusters and associations; the study of spectral energy distribution in hot stars, including calculation of the extinction curves in the UV, optical and NIR; and accurate definition of the relations between the UV-colors and effective temperature. The high angular resolution of the observatory allows accurate astrometric measurements of stellar proper motions and their kinematic analysis.

  19. Mac OS X for Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierfederici, F.; Pirzkal, N.; Hook, R. N.

    Mac OS X is the new Unix based version of the Macintosh operating system. It combines a high performance DisplayPDF user interface with a standard BSD UNIX subsystem and provides users with simultaneous access to a broad range of applications which were not previously available on a single system such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop, as well as legacy X11-based scientific tools and packages like IRAF, SuperMongo, MIDAS, etc. The combination of a modern GUI layered on top of a familiar UNIX environment paves the way for new, more flexible and powerful astronomical tools to be developed while assuring compatibility with already existing, older programs. In this paper, we outline the strengths of the Mac OS X platform in a scientific environment, astronomy in particular, and point to the numerous astronomical software packages available for this platform; most notably the Scisoft collection which we have compiled.

  20. Commission 41: History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurshtein, Alexander A.; Nha, Il-Seong; Ruggles, Clive L. N.; DeVorkin, David H.; Dick, Wolfgang R.; Kochhar, Rajesh; Nakamura, Tsuko; Pigatto, Luisa; Stephenson, F. Richard; Warner, Brian

    2007-12-01

    On Tuesday 22 August 2006 approximately 40 people attended the Commission 41 History of Astronomy Business Meeting at the IAU XXVI General Assembly in Prague. Commission president Alex Gurshtein opened the meeting, welcoming the commission members and calling for a moment of silence for those members who passed away in the last triennium. David DeVorkin was appointed recording secretary for the meeting, with Steven Dick as the scruitineer of the ballot. A moment of silence was then observed in the memory of members departed over the last triennium, including: Jerzy Dobrzycki (Poland), Robert Duncan (Australia), Mohammad Edalati (Iran), Philip Morrison (USA), John Perdix (Australia), Neil Porter (Ireland), Gibson Reaves (USA), Brian Robinson (Australia), and Raymond E. White (USA).

  1. L'astronomie des Anciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2009-04-01

    Quelle que soit la civilisation à laquelle il appartient, l'être humain cherche dans le ciel des réponses aux questions qu'il se pose sur son origine, son avenir et sa finalité. Le premier mérite de ce livre est de nous rappeler que l'astronomie a commencé ainsi à travers les mythes célestes imaginés par les Anciens pour expliquer l'ordre du monde et la place qu'ils y occupaient. Mais les savoirs astronomiques passés étaient loin d'être négligeables et certainement pas limités aux seuls travaux des Grecs : c'est ce que l'auteur montre à travers une passionnante enquête, de Stonehenge à Gizeh en passant par Pékin et Mexico, fondée sur l'étude des monuments anciens et des sources écrites encore accessibles. Les tablettes mésopotamiennes, les annales chinoises, les chroniques médiévales, etc. sont en outre d'une singulière utilité pour les astronomes modernes : comment sinon remonter aux variations de la durée du jour au cours des siècles, ou percer la nature de l'explosion qui a frappé tant d'observateurs en 1054 ? Ce livre offre un voyage magnifiquement illustré à travers les âges, entre astronomie et archéologie.

  2. The history of the International Astronomy Olympiad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Michael G.; Salnikov, Igor V.; Vaesterberg, Anders R.

    2011-06-01

    The International Astronomy Olympiad (IAO) was founded in the 1990s as an annual scientific educating event for students of the junior high school classes. Starting from 4 teams at the 1st event in 1996 the Olympiad includes more than 20 countries nowadays. The style of the problems of IAO is aimed at developing the imagination, creativity and independent thinking. They stimulate the students to recognize the problem independently, to choose a model, to make necessary suppositions, estimations, to conduct multiway calculations or logic operations. The Asian-Pacific Astronomy Olympiad was founded as a ``daughter'' (``affiliated'') olympiad in system of the International Astronomy Olympiad in 2005.

  3. Reflections on the astronomy of Glasgow

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, David

    2013-01-01

    How Astronomy contributed to the educational enlightenment of Glasgow, to its society and to its commerce. The words 'Astronomy' and 'Glasgow' seem an incongruous juxtaposition, and yet the two are closely linked over 500 years of history. This is a tale of enlightenment and scientific progress at both institutional and public levels. Combined with the ambitions of civic commerce, it is a story populated with noteworthy personalities and intense rivalries.It is remarkable to realise that the first Astronomy teaching in the Glasgow 'Colledge' presented an Earth-centred Universe, prior to the Co

  4. Communicating Astronomy With Public in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Suresh

    2015-08-01

    This paper highlights the mode of communications that Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) implemented during 2007-2014 for promoting science and technology in Nepal with astronomy as a key tool.Camparatve study between the role of old media and new media for astronomy communication will be discussed. The role of new media and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to foster astronomy communication with the public with some case studies will be discussed in detail. Proposed model of integrating both old and old media with smooth transition between these communication channels will be presented and discuss in brief.

  5. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics 9

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1972-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 9 covers reviews on the advances in astronomy and astrophysics. The book presents reviews on the Roche model and its applications to close binary systems. The text then describes the part played by lunar eclipses in the evolution of astronomy; the classical theory of lunar eclipses; deviations from geometrical theory; and the methods of photometric observations of eclipses. The problems of other phenomena related in one way or another to lunar eclipses are also considered. The book further tackles the infrared observation on the eclipsed moon, as

  6. A Website for Astronomy Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, C.; Danehy, A.

    2017-09-01

    Teach Astronomy is a free, open access website designed for formal and informal learners of astronomy. The site features: an online textbook complete with quiz questions and a glossary; over ten thousand images; a curated collection of the astronomy articles in Wikipedia; a complete video lecture course; a video Frequently Asked Questions tool; and other materials provided by content partners. Clustering algorithms and an interactive visual interface allow users to browse related content. This article reviews the features of the website and how it can be used.

  7. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J.

    2004-05-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA, will carry a 3-meter-class telescope onboard a Boeing 747SP aircraft to altitudes of 41,000 to 45,000 ft, above most of the atmosphere's IR-absorbing water vapor. The telescope was developed and built in Germany and has been delivered to the U.S. in September 2002. The integration into the B747SP has been com- pleted and functional tests are under way in Waco, Texas. In early 2005 flight-testing of the observatory will initially be dedi-cated to the re-certification of the modified aircraft, then performance tests of the telescope and the electronics and data systems will commence. Later in 2005 after transferring to its home base, NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, SOFIA will start astrophysical observations. A suite of specialized infrared cameras and spectrometers covering wave-lengths between 1 and 600 ?m is being developed by U.S. and German science institutions. In addition to the infrared instruments, a high-speed visible range CCD camera will use the airborne observatory to chase the shadows of celestial bodies during occultations. Once SOFIA will be in routine operations with a planned observing schedule of up to 960 hours at altitude per year, it might also be available as a platform to serendipitous observations not using the main telescope, such as recordings of meteor streams or the search for extra-solar planets transiting their central stars. These are areas of research in which amateur astronomers with relatively small telescopes and state-of-the-art imaging equipment can contribute.

  8. Astronomy, Indigenous Knowledge and Interpretation: Advancing studies of Cultural Astronomy in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (ISAAC) Oxford X conference came to Africa for the first time in 2014. Oxford X exposed South African students and researchers to cultural astronomy data collection and analysis methods, as well as to potential mentors to further the goal of advancing the field. Cultural Astronomy studies in South Africa, however, remain in a nascent stage, which in some ways can be said for the entire field, but especially when it comes ...

  9. Microwave to Submillimeter Observations of Molecules in the Laboratory and in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, DeWayne

    2013-06-01

    The primary method of identifying molecular species in interstellar space is radio astronomy. Observations performed at radio telescopes are based on high-resolution laboratory measurements of the pure rotational spectrum of a molecule. With this technique, over 150 different chemical compounds have been securely detected in interstellar gas. High-resolution rotational spectra have accuracies of one part in 107 - 108, and provide the characteristic frequencies that are used to search for these species. Rotational spectra are typically recorded using direct absorption methods, Fourier transform microwave/millimeter-wave spectroscopy, and velocity modulation techniques. Also exotic synthesis methods, such as DC and AC glow discharges, pulsed supersonic jet expansions, laser ablation, and Broida-type ovens, are often required to produce these molecules. Recent laboratory and astronomical studies have expanded set of molecules that are now known in interstellar/circumstellar gas. The first negative molecular ions have been detected in cold, dark clouds and circumstellar envelopes. The iron-bearing species FeCN was also recently measured in the laboratory and discovered in the gas surrounding a carbon-rich AGB star, the first iron-containing species found in space. New observations of oxygen-rich stars have shown that metal-bearing oxides and hydroxides are also abundant circumstellar species in these environments. These new discoveries, as well as recent laboratory results for other potential interstellar species, will also be presented, in particular those for ScO, ScC2, and AlC2. In addition, the need for more measurements of metal-containing molecules will be discussed.

  10. Direct measurement of additional Ar-H2O vibration-rotation-tunneling bands in the millimeter-submillimeter range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Luyao; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.

    2016-06-01

    Three new weak bands of the Ar-H2O vibration-rotation-tunneling spectrum have been measured in the millimeter wavelength range. These bands were predicted from combination differences based on previously measured bands in the submillimeter region. Two previously reported submillimeter bands were also remeasured with higher frequency resolution. These new measurements allow us to obtain accurate information on the Coriolis interaction between the 101 and 110 states. Here we report these results and the associated improved molecular constants.

  11. Extragalactic astronomy and cosmology an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Accounting for the astonishing developments in the field of Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology, this second edition has been updated and substantially expanded. Starting with the description of our home galaxy, the Milky Way, this cogently written textbook introduces the reader to the astronomy of galaxies, their structure, active galactic nuclei, evolution and large scale distribution in the Universe. After an extensive and thorough introduction to modern observational and theoretical cosmology, the focus turns to the formation of structures and astronomical objects in the early Universe. The basics of classical astronomy and stellar astrophysics needed for extragalactic astronomy are provided in the appendix. The new edition incorporates some of the most spectacular results from new observatories like the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, Herschel, ALMA, WMAP and Planck, as well as new instruments and multi-wavelength campaigns which have expanded our understanding of the Universe and the objects populating it....

  12. Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Starting with the description of our home galaxy the Milky Way, this cogently written textbook introduces the reader to the astronomy of galaxies, their structure, active galactic nuclei, evolution and large scale distribution. Then, from the extensive and thorough introduction to modern observational and theoretical cosmology, the text turns to the formation of structures and astronomical objects in the early universe. In particular, Peter Schneider’s Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology has the goal of imparting the fundamental knowledge of this fascinating subfield of astronomy, while leading readers to the forefront of astronomical research. But it seeks to accomplish this not only with extensive textual information and insights. In addition, the author’s evident admiration for the workings of the universe that shines through the lines and the many supporting color illustrations will deeply inspire the reader. While this book has grown out of introductory university courses on astronomy and astrophys...

  13. The Past and Future of American Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl

    1974-01-01

    Traces the history of astronomy by analyzing the scientific literature of various time periods, reviewing prize-winning research, and noting the input from physics. Speculates on some accomplishments that may occur in the next 75 years. (GS)

  14. Astronomy Outreach In Parana state/Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilio, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Paraná is a state at South of Brazil with a population of 11 million people. There are two planetarium and two fixed observatories devoted to Astronomy outreach. The great majority of population have no access to information and knowledge of astronomy discoveries. Another problem is the teaching formation of astronomy studies. In this work we relate an initiative that started at the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 that involved Universities and amateur groups that is still in place. After several grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and Araucária Foundation we were able to reach more than 100.000 people with a mobile planetarium and night astronomic observations. We also providde one-week classes to more than 1.000 teachers in several cities of the state.

  15. Astronomy and Astrology in India and Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Pingree

    2014-01-01

    ... scholar to the erroneous conclusion that Sasanian Iran played a crucial role in the introduction of Greek and Babylonian astronomy and astrology to India and in the development of Indian planetary theory...

  16. Aspects of prehistoric astronomy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N. Kameswara

    2005-12-01

    Some archeoastronomical aspects regarding the development of observational astronomy in India during prehistoric times are described. A plea is made for the preservation of megalithic monuments of possible astronomical significance.

  17. The future of Canada's radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensler, Bryan M.

    2017-11-01

    Through involvement in CHIME, ALMA, the Jansky VLA and the Murchison Widefield Array, Canada is well placed in current radio astronomy facilities and the future looks even brighter, with strategic interest in the SKA and the Next Generation VLA.

  18. ORGANIZATIONS AND STRATEGIES IN ASTRONOMY VOLUME 7

    CERN Document Server

    HECK, ANDRÉ

    2006-01-01

    This book is the seventh volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series covers a large range of fields and themes: in practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, series of conferences, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detailed information and somet...

  19. Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy Volume 6

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, André

    2006-01-01

    This book is the sixth volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series is intended to cover a large range of fields and themes. In practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, legal issues, operational techniques, observing practicalities, educational policies, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detai...

  20. Learning Exercises in Astronomy for Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Suzanne H.

    1995-12-01

    Astronomers from the Tucson based National Optical Astronomy Observatories and students in grades K-3 at the Satori School are learning from each other about astronomy and science education. This project is partially funded by a NASA IDEA Grant (Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy). NOAO astronomers are working with the students and teachers over a series of 12 weeks to present basic concepts in planetary and solar astronomy. Each presentation includes a discussion with the astronomers and a hands-on active learning exercise. Topics presented include: The Living Solar System, Impacts and Hazards, Comets, Space Resources, The Natural Sun, The Sun as a Clock, Sunspots and Solar Rotation, and Solar Music - Helioseismology. Lessons learned, by students and astronomers, will be presented and printed lesson modules available for distribution.

  1. Astronomy Olympiads a Challenge for Future Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninkovic, S.

    2013-05-01

    Contests in astronomy for secondary school pupils, very often called "Astronomy Olympiads", have acquired a general recognition in many countries. They are regarded in various manners: as the best way to attract to science young talented people in general, the possibility to discriminate the most successful participants, who are then in position to be offered to become students of famous universities which is viewed as the beginning of a nice career, the possibility of affirmation of astronomy in secondary schools, the way to put together young amateur astronomers from various parts of the world, etc. On the other hand, there are some organisational problems which follow such events; they concern the relationship with the International Astronomical Union, outreach of the contests in different countries and many others. Serbia has been a member in the Astronomy-Olympiad Movement from 2002.

  2. The promise of multi-band gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sesana, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We show that the black hole binary (BHB) coalescence rates inferred from the advanced LIGO (aLIGO) detection of GW150914 imply an unexpectedly loud GW sky at milli-Hz frequencies accessible to the evolving Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), with several outstanding consequences. First, up to thousands of BHB will be individually resolvable by eLISA; second, millions of non resolvable BHBs will build a confusion noise detectable with signal-to-noise ratio of few to hundreds; third -- and perhaps most importantly -- up to hundreds of BHBs individually resolvable by eLISA will coalesce in the aLIGO band within ten years. eLISA observations will tell aLIGO and all electromagnetic probes weeks in advance when and where these BHB coalescences are going to occur, with uncertainties of <10s and <1deg^2. This will allow the pre-pointing of telescopes to realize coincident GW and multi-wavelength electromagnetic observations of BHB mergers. Time coincidence is critical because prompt emission associated ...

  3. In The Era of Gravita2onal wave Astronomy:

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sukanta Bose

    2016-07-01

    Jul 1, 2016 ... GRBs share a common origin? – What is the equa2on of state of a neutron star? – What are the host galaxies of binary NS systems like? – Can GWs help track how BNS forma2on rate evolved with redshift? 1/07/16. Sukanta Bose @ IAS, Bengaluru. 23. [Credits: Wikipedia.] [Deaton et al. 2013; Foucart et al.

  4. Gravitational wave detectors: New eyes for physics and astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bances in the fabric of space-time would travel away from the source at the speed of light, and produce changes in the distance between freely falling masses, propor- ..... filter applied to the uncalibrated, but prefiltered, data in the time domain, mea- suring in effect the 'slope' in the data. The parameters of this method were ...

  5. Ground-Based Submillimeter Spectroscopic Cosmological Surveys and Synergies with Space FIR Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoglio, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    To study the dust obscured processes of both star formation and black hole accretion during galaxy evolution and establish their role, as well as their mutual feedback processes, rest frame IR to submillimeter spectroscopy is needed. At these frequencies dust extinction is at its minimum and a variety of atomic and molecular transitions, tracing most astrophysical domains, occur. A large ground based submillimeter telescope with a large field of view and high sensitivity in the TeraHertz domain will pave the way of future FIR space telescope missions, such as SPICA in the late 2020's and the Origins Telescope later. I will present predictions demonstrating the synergies of such instruments to fully understand galaxy evolution, during its obscured phase, which has built most of the stellar populations in galaxies.

  6. The Status of MUSIC: A Multicolor Sub/millimeter MKID Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaerth, J. A.; Czakon, N. G.; Day, P. K.; Downes, T. P.; Duan, R.; Glenn, J.; Golwala, S. R.; Hollister, M. I.; LeDuc, H. G.; Maloney, P. R.; Mazin, B. A.; Nguyen, H. T.; Noroozian, O.; Sayers, J.; Siegel, S.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2012-05-01

    We report on the recent progress of the Multicolor Submillimeter (kinetic) Inductance Camera, or MUSIC. MUSIC will use antenna-coupled Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors to observe in four colors (150 GHz, 230 GHz, 290 GHz and 350 GHz) with 2304 detectors, 576 per band, at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. It will deploy in 2012. Here we provide an overview of the instrument, focusing on the array design. We have also used a pathfinder demonstration instrument, DemoCam, to identify problems in advance of the deployment of MUSIC. In particular, we identified two major limiters of our sensitivity: out-of-band light directly coupling to the detectors (i.e. not through the antenna), effectively an excess load, and a large 1/f contribution from our amplifiers and electronics. We discuss the steps taken to mitigate these effects to reach background-limited performance (BLIP) in observation.

  7. TIMASSS: the IRAS 16293-2422 millimeter and submillimeter spectral survey. I. Observations, calibration, and analysis of the line kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caux, E.; Kahane, C.; Castets, A.; Coutens, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Bacmann, A.; Bisschop, S.; Bottinelli, S.; Comito, C.; Helmich, F. P.; Lefloch, B.; Parise, B.; Schilke, P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Dishoeck, E.; Vastel, C.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.

    2011-08-01

    Context. Unbiased spectral surveys are powerful tools to study the chemistry and the physics of star forming regions, because they can provide a complete census of the molecular content and the observed lines probe the physical structure of the source. Aims: While unbiased surveys at the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths observable from ground-based telescopes have previously been performed towards several high mass protostars, very little exists on low mass protostars, which are believed to resemble our own Sun's progenitor. To help fill up this gap in our understanding, we carried out a complete spectral survey of the bands at 3, 2, 1, and 0.9 mm towards the solar type protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Methods: The observations covered a range of about 200 GHz and were obtained with the IRAM-30 m and JCMT-15 m telescopes during about 300 h of observations. Particular attention was devoted to the inter-calibration of the acquired spectra with previous observations. All the lines detected with more than 3σ confidence-interval certainty and free from obvious blending effects were fitted with Gaussians to estimate their basic kinematic properties. Results: More than 4000 lines were detected (with σ ≥ 3) and identified, yielding a line density of approximatively 20 lines per GHz, comparable to previous surveys in massive hot cores. The vast majority (about two-thirds) of the lines are weak and produced by complex organic molecules. The analysis of the profiles of more than 1000 lines belonging to 70 species firmly establishes the presence of two distinct velocity components associated with the two objects, A and B, forming the IRAS 16293-2422 binary system. In the source A, the line widths of several species increase with the upper level energy of the transition, a behavior compatible with gas infalling towards a ~1 M⊙ object. The source B, which does not show this effect, might have a much lower central mass of ~0.1 M⊙. The difference in the rest velocities

  8. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    for Earth Sciences and Astronomy (INSU) of the CNRS. To build consensus on priorities in a very diverse community, the Science Vision and Roadmap were developed in an open process involving intensive interaction with the community through large open meetings and feedback via e-mail and the web. The result is a plan now backed by astronomers in 28 Member and Associated States of the EU, with over 500 million inhabitants. Over 60 selected experts from across Europe contributed to the construction of the ASTRONET Roadmap, ensuring that European astronomy has the tools to compete successfully in answering the challenges of the Science Vision. They identified and prioritised a set of new facilities to observe the Universe from radio waves to gamma rays, to open up new ways of probing the cosmos, such as gravitational waves, and to advance in the exploration of our Solar System. In the process, they considered all the elements needed by a successful scientific enterprise, from global-scale cooperation on the largest mega-project to the need for training and recruiting skilled young scientists and engineers. One of two top-priority large ground-based projects is ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope. Its 42-metre diameter mirror will make the E-ELT the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world -- "the biggest eye on the sky". The science to be done with the E-ELT is extremely exciting and includes studies of exoplanets and discs, galaxy formation and dark energy. ESO Director General Tim de Zeeuw says: "The top ranking of the E-ELT in the Roadmap is a strong endorsement from the European astronomical community. This flagship project will indisputably raise the European scientific, technological and industrial profile". Among other recommendations, the Roadmap considers how to maximise the future scientific impact of existing facilities in a cost-effective manner. It also identifies a need for better access to state-of-the art computing and laboratory facilities

  9. NAM: The 2004 RAS National Astronomy Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Barrie; Norton, Andrew

    2004-06-01

    This year's RAS National Astronomy Meeting was held at the Open University's Milton Keynes campus from 29 March to 2 April. The event was organized by members of the OU Physics & Astronomy Department and Planetary & Space Science Research Institute. Around 450 people attended the meeting, at which more than 220 talks were presented, along with around 90 posters. Co-chairs of RAS NAM04, Barrie Jones and Andrew Norton, summarize.

  10. Astronomy for the Blind and Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, S.

    2016-12-01

    This article presents a number of ways of communicating astronomy topics, ranging from classical astronomy to modern astrophysics, to the blind and visually impaired. A major aim of these projects is to provide access which goes beyond the use of the tactile sense to improve knowledge transfer for blind and visually impaired students. The models presented here are especially suitable for young people of secondary school age.

  11. 2009 International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    400 years ago, Galileo first turned a telescope to the sky, and to honor that historic moment, 2009 has been designated the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). This session will feature two scientists who have used the telescope to understand our solar system and well beyond to yield fantastic new discoveries. Jennifer Wiseman will share the work she does with NASA, presenting beautiful and tantalizing images from the Hubble Space Telescope and discussing how space astronomy can inspire all ages.

  12. Dictionary of geophysics, astrophysics, and astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Matzner, Richard A

    2001-01-01

    The Dictionary of Geophysics, Astrophysics, and Astronomy provides a lexicon of terminology covering fields such as astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, relativity, geophysics, meteorology, Newtonian physics, and oceanography. Authors and editors often assume - incorrectly - that readers are familiar with all the terms in professional literature. With over 4,000 definitions and 50 contributing authors, this unique comprehensive dictionary helps scientists to use terminology correctly and to understand papers, articles, and books in which physics-related terms appear.

  13. Neutrinos in particle physics, astronomy, and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Zhi-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    ""Neutrinos in Particle Physics, Astronomy and Cosmology"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to neutrino physics, neutrino astronomy and neutrino cosmology. The intrinsic properties and fundamental interactions of neutrinos are described, as is the phenomenology of lepton flavor mixing, seesaw mechanisms and neutrino oscillations. The cosmic neutrino background, stellar neutrinos, supernova neutrinos and ultrahigh-energy cosmic neutrinos, together with the cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry and other roles of massive neutrinos in cosmology, are discussed in detail. Thi

  14. The Hawaii SCUBA-2 Lensing Cluster Survey: Are Low-luminosity Submillimeter Galaxies Detected in the Rest-frame UV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Cowie, Lennox L.; Barger, Amy J.; Wang, Wei-Hao

    2017-12-01

    In this third paper of the Hawaii SCUBA-2 Lensing Cluster Survey series, we present Submillimeter Array (SMA) detections of six intrinsically faint 850 μm sources detected in SCUBA-2 images of the lensing cluster fields, A1689, A2390, A370, MACS J0717.5+3745, and MACS J1423.8+2404. Two of the SCUBA-2 sources split into doublets, yielding a total of eight SMA detections. The intrinsic 870 μm flux densities of these submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) are ∼1 mJy. Five of the eight SMGs are not detected in optical or near-infrared (NIR) images. The NIR-to-submillimeter flux ratios of these faint SMGs suggest that most of them are extremely dusty and/or are at very high redshifts. By combining these SMGs and several other samples from the literature, we find a bimodal distribution for the faint sources in the space of submillimeter flux versus NIR-to-submillimeter flux ratio. While most of the SMA-detected lensed sources are very obscured, the other SMGs with similar flux densities are mostly bright in the NIR. Future Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of a large sample of SCUBA-2 sources in cluster fields will allow us to decide whether or not the bimodality we observe here really exists.

  15. Improving Teach Astronomy: A Survey of Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Matthew; Riabokin, Malanka; Impey, Chris David

    2018-01-01

    Teach Astronomy is a website that provides educational resources for introductory astronomy. The motivation behind constructing this site was to provide quality online educational tools for use as a primary or supplementary instructional resource for teachers and students. The website provides an online textbook, glossary, podcasts and video summaries of concepts. As the popularity of online courses steadily increases, so does the demand for robust online educational resources. In order to cater to our users, our team conducted a survey of the instructors that use Teach Astronomy site for feedback for use in updating and streamlining the website content. The survey collected feedback regarding functionality of each of the website tools, in which courses the site was being used, and the motivation of the instructors use of our site. The overwhelming majority of responses indicate that instructors use the website as a class textbook in introductory astronomy courses for non-science majors, and instructors also generally tended to agree that the site content was comprehensive and lucid. One interesting result of the survey is to cluster topics in a way that is consistent with different levels of instruction (i.e. grouping middle-school level content and university level content distinctly). Our team will use this feedback to improve the Teach Astronomy website and maintain it as a high-quality, free online resource. We will also continue to gather feedback from instructors to ensure that the Teach Astronomy website stays current and remains a valuable online resource for instructors around the country.

  16. Young Astronomers and Astronomy teaching in Moldavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex

    1998-09-01

    Curricular Astronomy is taught in Moldavia , except Transnistria and Gagauzia, in the final (11th class) of the secondary schools and gymnasiums, and in the 12th class of the lyceums. The program takes 35 academic hours. The basic book is by Vorontsov-Veliaminov, used in the former USSR, but the Romanian one is also used, in spite of many criticisms addressed to both by our astronomy teachers. In Transinstria (on the left of the Dniester river)astronomy is taught 17 hours. Extracurricular activities develop at the Real Lyceum, where students and amateur astronomers carry out regular observations. Particularly, photographs of the comet Hale-Bopp have been realized using a Cassegrain 450 mm telescope by young astronomers under supervision of S. Luca and D. Gorodetzky (Gorodetchi). Except the telescope from the Real Lyceum other few telescopes are in construction. Unfortunately, no planetarium exists now in Chisinau, since the old one was returned to church. Astronomy courses are taught at the physical and mathematical departments of the Pedagogical University, Transnistrian Moldavian University in Tiraspol and the State University of |Moldavia. Many efforts were made by the State University lecturers and scientists to popularize Astronomy and Astrophysics in the books and in the press, at the radio and TV. No astronomy is taught at the Gagauzian National University in Comrat. No astronomiucal departments exist in Universities of |Moldavia.

  17. Astronomy Outreach for Large and Unique Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.; Kendall, J. S.; Dugan, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this session, we discuss different approaches to reaching large audiences. In addition to star parties and astronomy events, the audiences for some of the events include music concerts or festivals, sick children and their families, minority communities, American Indian reservations, and tourist sites such as the National Mall. The goal is to bring science directly to the public—to people who attend astronomy events and to people who do not come to star parties, science museums, or science festivals. These programs allow the entire community to participate in astronomy activities to enhance the public appreciation of science. These programs attract large enthusiastic crowds often with young children participating in these family learning experiences. The public will become more informed, educated, and inspired about astronomy and will also be provided with information that will allow them to continue to learn after this outreach activity. Large and unique audiences often have common problems, and their solutions and the lessons learned will be presented. Interaction with the participants in this session will provide important community feedback used to improve astronomy outreach for large and unique audiences. New ways to expand astronomy outreach to new large audiences will be discussed.

  18. Dispelling superstitions in Nepalese society with astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rishi

    2011-06-01

    Throughout human history, astronomy has played crucial rôle in the development of our civilization, culture and daily chores of lives that have been influenced by observations of Sun, moon, planets, stars and other cosmic entities. Our ancestors who were hunting and gathering and foraging food while living in caves learned to think logically by gazing at the twinkling stars in the heavens. Seasons for crops plantation were determined, time concept was introduced, entire sky was charted and the motions of celestial objects were meaningfully understood. With the advent of telescopes, the geocentric model of universe was replaced by the revolutionary heliocentric concept of our Solar System. Astronomy dispelled superstitious beliefs strongly prevailing in societies. Closely associated with numerous disciplines of science astronomy is still flourishing worldwide and is attempting to fly us away to those habitable cosmic bodies of our universe. By establishing well-equipped observational infrastructure local and international astronomy research and development could be enhanced. Introduction of astronomy in education system right from school would attract and encourage students to pursue higher studies for enabling them for participating in future international scientific and exploration programmes. Astronomy has helped our society to progress peacefully and efficiently.

  19. Future Professional Communication in Astronomy II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto

    The present volume gathers together the talks presented at the second colloquium on the Future Professional Communication in Astronomy (FPCAII), held at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (Cambridge, MA) on 13-14 April 2010. This meeting provided a forum for editors, publishers, scientists, librarians and officers of learned societies to discuss the future of the field. The program included talks from leading researchers and practitioners and drew a crowd of approximately 50 attendees from 10 countries. These proceedings contain contributions from invited and contributed talks from leaders in the field, touching on a number of topics. Among them: The role of disciplinary repositories such as ADS and arXiv in astronomy and the physical sciences; Current status and future of Open Access Publishing models and their impact on astronomy and astrophysics publishing; Emerging trends in scientific article publishing: semantic annotations, multimedia content, links to data products hosted by astrophysics archives; Novel approaches to the evaluation of facilities and projects based on bibliometric indicators; Impact of Government mandates, Privacy laws, and Intellectual Property Rights on the evolving digital publishing environment in astronomy; Communicating astronomy to the public: the experience of the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  20. Methodological pluralism in the teaching of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Josué Antunes; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of using a teaching strategy called methodological pluralism, consisting of the use of various methodological resources in order to provide a meaningful learning. It is part of a doctoral thesis, which aims to investigate contributions to the use of traditional resources combined with digital technologies, in order to create autonomy for future teachers of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in relation to themes in Astronomy. It was offered an extension course at the "Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology" in the North of Minas Gerais (FINMG), Campus Januaria, for thirty-two students of licentiate courses in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences, involving themes of Astronomy, in order to search and contribute to improving the training of future teachers. The following aspects are used: the mixed methodology, with pre-experimental design, combined with content analysis. The results indicate the rates of students' prior knowledge in relation to Astronomy was low; meaningful learning indications of concepts related to Astronomy, and the feasibility of using digital resources Involving technologies, articulated with traditional materials in the teaching of Astronomy. This research sought to contribute to the initial teacher training, especially in relation to Astronomy Teaching, proposing new alternatives to promote the teaching of this area of knowledge, extending the methodological options of future teachers.

  1. Human brain diffusion tensor imaging at submillimeter isotropic resolution on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Sundman, Mark; Petit, Laurent; Guhaniyogi, Shayan; Chu, Mei-Lan; Petty, Christopher; Song, Allen W; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2015-09-01

    The advantages of high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been demonstrated in a recent post-mortem human brain study (Miller et al., NeuroImage 2011;57(1):167-181), showing that white matter fiber tracts can be much more accurately detected in data at a submillimeter isotropic resolution. To our knowledge, in vivo human brain DTI at a submillimeter isotropic resolution has not been routinely achieved yet because of the difficulty in simultaneously achieving high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in DTI scans. Here we report a 3D multi-slab interleaved EPI acquisition integrated with multiplexed sensitivity encoded (MUSE) reconstruction, to achieve high-quality, high-SNR and submillimeter isotropic resolution (0.85×0.85×0.85mm(3)) in vivo human brain DTI on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner. In agreement with the previously reported post-mortem human brain DTI study, our in vivo data show that the structural connectivity networks of human brains can be mapped more accurately and completely with high-resolution DTI as compared with conventional DTI (e.g., 2×2×2mm(3)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sideband-Separating, Millimeter-Wave Heterodyne Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, John S.; Bumble, Bruce; Lee, Karen A.; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Stek, paul; Stek, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated a submillimeter-wave spectrometer that combines extremely broad bandwidth with extremely high sensitivity and spectral resolution to enable future spacecraft to measure the composition of the Earth s troposphere in three dimensions many times per day at spatial resolutions as high as a few kilometers. Microwave limb sounding is a proven remote-sensing technique that measures thermal emission spectra from molecular gases along limb views of the Earth s atmosphere against a cold space background.

  3. Thermal Balance in Dense Molecular Clouds: Radiative Cooling Rates and Emission-Line Luminosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, David A.; Lepp, Stephen; Melnick, Gary J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the radiative cooling of fully shielded molecular astrophysical gas over a wide range of temperatures ( 10 K line strengths that contribute to the total radiative cooling rate, and we have obtained example spectra for the submillimeter emission expected from molecular cloud cores. Many of the important cooling lines will be detectable using the Infrared Space Observatory and the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite.

  4. The Submillimeter Array – current status and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Raymond

    2018-01-01

    The current SMA receiver systems were designed in the mid-1990s and have been operating for more than fifteen years. With regular upgrades to receivers, deployment of the SWARM correlator, expansion of the IF signal transport bandwidth via improvements to the analog IF signal processing hardware, and many other enhancements, the SMA currently greatly outperforms its original specifications in terms of sensitivity, instantaneous bandwidth, and availability of observing modes such as full-Stokes polarization and dual frequency operation.We have recently started to implement a three-year instrument upgrade plan, which we are calling the wSMA. The wSMA will offer even wider bandwidth operation than the current SMA and improved sensitivity. The major subsystems that will form the wSMA include significantly improved, dual polarization receiver cartridges housed in a new cryostat; local oscillator units incorporating modern mm-wave technology; an upgraded signal transmission system; and a further expansion of the SWARM correlator. The cryostat will be cooled by a low-maintenance pulse-tube cryocooler. Two dual-polarization receiver cartridges will cover approximately the same sky frequencies as the current receiver sets; the low-band receiver will be fed by an LO unit covering 210-270 GHz, and the high-band receiver will be fed by an LO covering 280-360 GHz. With a receiver IF band of 4-20 GHz, this will enable continuous sky frequency coverage from 190 GHz to 380 GHz.Details of the upgrade plans will be presented together with a discussion of scientific opportunities afforded by this upgrade, which, once implemented, will enable the SMA to continue to produce the highest quality science throughout the next decade.

  5. Astronomy Learning Activities for Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Four web-based tools allow students to manipulate astronomical data to learn concepts in astronomy. The tools are HTML5, CSS3, Javascript-based applications that provide access to the content on iPad and Android tablets. The first tool “Three Color” allows students to combine monochrome astronomical images taken through different color filters or in different wavelength regions into a single color image. The second tool “Star Clusters” allows students to compare images of stars in clusters with a pre-defined template of colors and sizes in order to produce color-magnitude diagrams to determine cluster ages. The third tool adapts Travis Rector’s “NovaSearch” to allow students to examine images of the central regions of the Andromeda Galaxy to find novae. After students find a nova, they are able to measure the time over which the nova fades away. A fourth tool, Proper Pair, allows students to interact with Hipparcos data to evaluate close double stars are physical binaries or chance superpositions. Further information and access to these web-based tools are available at www.astro.indiana.edu/ala/.

  6. Industrial interference and radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessner, A.

    2013-07-01

    The interferer - victim scenario is described for the case of industrial interference affecting radio astronomical observatories. The sensitivity of radio astronomical receivers and their interference limits are outlined. EMC above 30 MHz is a serious problem for Radio Astronomy. Interferer (CISPR) and victim (ITU-R RA 769) standards are not harmonised. The emissions from the interferer and their spectral characteristics are not defined sufficiently well by CISPR standards. The required minimum coupling losses (MCL) between an industrial device and radio astronomical antenna depends on device properties but is shown to exceed 140 dB in most cases. Spatial separation of a few km is insufficient on its own, the terrain must shield > 30-40 dB, additional mitigations such as extra shielding or suppression of high frequency emissions may be necessary. A case by case compatibility analysis and tailored EMC measures are required for individual installations. Aggregation of many weak rfi emitters can become serious problem. If deployment densities are high enough, the emission constraints can even exceed those for a single interferer at a short distance from the radio observatory. Compatibility studies must account not only for the single interferer but also for many widely distributed interference sources.

  7. Space Debris and Observational Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957, astronomers have faced an increasing number of artificial objects contaminating their images of the night sky. Currently almost 17000 objects larger than 10 cm are tracked and have current orbits in the public catalog. Active missions are only a small fraction of these objects. Most are inactive satellites, rocket bodies, and fragments of larger objects: all space debris. Several mega-constellations are planned which will increase this number by 20% or more in low Earth orbit (LEO). In terms of observational astronomy, this population of Earth orbiting objects has three implications: 1) the number of streaks and glints from spacecraft will only increase. There are some practical steps that can be taken to minimize the number of such streaks and glints in astronomical imaging data. 2) The risk to damage to orbiting astronomical telescopes will only increase, particularly those in LEO. 3) If you are working on a plan for an orbiting telescope project, then there are specific steps that must be taken to minimize space debris generation during the mission lifetime, and actions to safely dispose of the spacecraft at end of mission to prevent it from becoming space debris and a risk to other missions. These steps may involve sacrifices to mission performance and lifetime, but are essential in today's orbital environment.

  8. Astronomy in the Bulgarian Neolithic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoev, Alexey; Maglova, Penka

    Bulgaria is famous for the richness of its Neolithic culture, with its large variety of artistic representations having deep semantic meaning. Here, we consider several types of monument which yield evidence for the astronomical practices and beliefs of Neolithic and Eneolithic (Chalcolithic) peoples. We begin by considering the emergence and development of Neolithic and Eneolithic societies in Bulgaria and the chronological development of material and spiritual culture. By discussing specific monuments it is shown how astronomy was woven into everyday and spiritual life, revealing insights into people's concepts of space and time. The monuments concerned are Karanovo, the largest and one of the oldest tells in Europe; Topchika cave, with the earliest rock pictures; Magura cave, one of the largest and most beautiful caves in Bulgaria, famous for its unique paintings; Bailovo cave complex, with its lunar images and calendar frieze composed of monochrome paintings; and the Tangarduk Kaya cave sanctuary, from which observations could have been made of the culmination of the sun on the meridian at the solstices.

  9. Astronomy Fun with Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Those mobile devices your students bring to class can do more that tweet and text. Engage your students with these web-based astronomy learning tools that allow students to manipulate astronomical data to learn important concepts. The tools are HTML5, CSS3, Javascript-based applications that provide access to the content on iPad and Android tablets. With "Three Color" students can combine monochrome astronomical images taken through different color filters or in different wavelength regions into a single color image. "Star Clusters" allows students to compare images of clusters with a pre-defined template of colors and sizes to compare clusters of different ages. An adaptation of Travis Rector's "NovaSearch" allows students to examine images of the central regions of the Andromeda Galaxy to find novae and to measure the time over which the nova fades away. New additions to our suite of applications allow students to estimate the surface temperatures of exoplanets and the probability of life elsewhere in the Universe. Further information and access to these web-based tools are available at www.astro.indiana.edu/ala/.

  10. New Technology Lunar Astronomy Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. C.; Oliversen, R. J.; Barry, R. K.; Romeo, R.; Pitts, R.; Ma, K. B.

    1995-12-01

    A scientifically productive Moon-based observatory can be established in the near term (3-5 years) by robotic spacecraft. Such a project is affordable even taking into account NASA's currently very tight budget. In fact the estimated cost of a lunar telescope is sufficiently low that it can be financed by private industry, foundations, or wealthy individuals. The key factor is imaginative use of new technologies and new materials. Since the Apollo era, many new areas of space technology have been developed in the US by NASA, the military, academic and industry sectors, ESA, Japan, and others. These include ultralite optics, radiation tolerant detectors, precision telescope drives incorporating high temperature superconductors, smart materials, active optics, dust and thermal control structures, subminiature spectrometers, tiny radio transmitters and receivers, small rockets, innovative fuel saving trajectories, and small precision landers. The combination of these elements makes possible a lunar observatory capable of front line astrophysical research in UV-Vis-IR imaging, spectrometry, and optical interferometry, at a per unit cost comparable to that of Small Explorer (SMEX) class missions. We describe work in progress at NASA GSFC and elsewhere, applications to other space projects, and spinoff benefits to ground-based astronomy, industry, and education.

  11. Astronomy TV outreach, CUBA experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    As professional astronomer and science communicator, I want to share my personal experience communicating Astronomy and general science principles in maybe, the most popular science outreach devoted TV program in Cuba. It is broadcasted nationwide in a prime time schedule every Sunday. The Science Popularization on TV, is in a Third World Country hard to do if you want to produce attractive materials for a broad audience. Budgets constraints in most of the cases and lack of the technical equipment required to produce first class visual materials conspire, against motivation and creativity of local scientists and media professionals. A way to show the advance of the national scientific community in Science fields and connecting them in a friendly relation with a broad majority of the people, is to combine the wisdom and knowledge of the local scientists together with the most spectacular TV production of the first world countries. Commenting, analyzing and conveying the hard science into the public debate of the common citizens. Here is shown a way to convey cutting edge science to the general public, using limited resources to produce imaginative television productions, highlighting the development, knowledge and wisdom of the local scientists.

  12. The Effect of Media on Preservice Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Astronomy and Achievement in Astronomy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that it is hard to change students' attitudes toward science. This study specifically explored if media affect preservice science teachers' attitudes toward astronomy and their astronomy achievement. The sample for the pilot study consisted of 196 preservice science and mathematics teachers for attitude assessment and 230 preservice…

  13. Superconducting Kinetic Inductance Detectors for astronomy and particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, M., E-mail: martino.calvo@neel.cnrs.fr [Institute Néel, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Goupy, J.; D' Addabbo, A.; Benoit, A. [Institute Néel, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Bourrion, O. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Catalano, A. [Institute Néel, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Monfardini, A. [Institute Néel, CNRS, Grenoble (France)

    2016-07-11

    Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) represent a novel detector technology based on superconducting resonators. Since their first demonstration in 2003, they have been rapidly developed and are today a strong candidate for present and future experiments in the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. This has been possible thanks to the unique features of such devices: in particular, they couple a very high sensitivity to their intrinsic suitability for frequency domain multiplexed readout, making the fabrication of large arrays of ultrasensitive detectors possible. There are many fields of application that can profit of such detectors. Here, we will briefly review the principle of operation of a KID, and give two sample applications, to mm-wave astronomy and to particle physics.

  14. Relativity and the question of discretization in astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Edelen, Dominic G B

    1970-01-01

    Theoretical researches in general relativity and observational data from galactic astronomy combine in this volume in contributions to one of the oldest questions of natural philosophy: Is the structure of the physical world more adequately described by a continuous or a discrete mode of representation? Since the days of the Pythagoreans, this question has surfaced from time to time in various guises in science as well as in philosophy. One of the most bitterly contested and illuminating controversies between the continuous and the discrete viewpoints is to be found in the wave versus corpuscular description of optical phenom­ enae. This controversy was not resolved to the satisfaction of most of its protaganists until the development of the quantum theory. However, several obscurities that still becloud the question suggest that some deeper formulation may be necessary before more satisfactory answers can be given 1. The firm establishment of the validity of quantized structure and discrete energy distribut...

  15. Time-Domain Astronomy with the Fermi GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is an all-sky monitoring instrument sensitive to energies from 8 keV to 40 MeV. Over the past 8 years of operation, the GBM has detected over 240 gamma-ray bursts per year and provided timely GCN notices with localization to few-degree accuracy for follow-up observations. In addition to GRBs, Galactic transients, solar flares, and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes have also been observed. In recent years we have also been searching the continuous GBM data for electromagnetic counterpart to astrophysical neutrinos and gravitational wave events, as these are believed to be associated with gamma-ray bursts. With continuous data downlink every few hours and a temporal resolution of 2 microseconds, GBM is well suited for observing transients and supporting EM follow-up in the era of multi-messenger astronomy.

  16. New Trends in Astronomy Education: a ``Mapping" Strategy in Teaching and Learning Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, S.

    2003-05-01

    The application of a concept of educational ``science maps" to astronomy education is discussed. By analogy with geographical maps, scales of educational science maps -- scales of integration -- are introduced. In astronomy education, scale A represents the level of branches and fields of astronomy and astrophysics, where interconnections between various astronomical disciplines are shown. Scale B represents the level of hypotheses and theories, encompassing a significant segment of a field of astronomy. Scale C represents the level of structures and internal hierarchies, encompassing the ``geography" and ``anatomy" of the material systems and objects essential for a given astronomical discipline, as well as the principal notions and concepts it uses. Science maps of different scales are illustrated with initial examples exploring the application of this methodology in astronomy and astrophysics.

  17. Documenting the Vocabulary of Astronomy Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott; Parrish, M.; Gay, P. L.

    2008-05-01

    Learning astronomy can be a life-long process, with the seeds of knowledge planted in K-12 classes blossoming in elective college courses to create adults who actively acquire astronomy content. One of the goals of many astronomy 101 courses is to prepare students to be intelligent consumers of mainstream astronomy content, including magazine articles, popular books, and online news. To meet this goal, astronomy educators need to understand what content is being presented in the media and what level vocabulary is being used. The most simplistic way to address this problem is to examine the topics covered and vocabulary used in mainstream astronomy blogs and news feeds. In this study we looked at a selection of prominent blogs and news feeds and we present a statistical study of the frequency different scientific terms are used and topics are addressed. To make this study possible, software to read in RSS feeds was created. This software had to meet the following design specifications: runs in a reasonable amount of time, removes all XML and HTML code from text, sees words with different capitalizations as the same word, ignores end of sentence or phrase punctuation without ignoring hyphens, and has an editable list of "common English words.” This code will be available after the conference at http://www.starstryder.com. Results of this study find that many of the primary topics of Astronomy 101 classes, such as the HR Diagram, are rarely mentioned in blogs and online news, while often de-emphasized topics, such as extra solar planets, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics, show up regularly.

  18. A Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Mridha, Shahjahan; Afroz, Maqsuda

    2015-08-01

    In its strategic planning for the "Astronomy for Development Project," the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has ecognized, among other important missions, the role of astronomy in understanding the far-reaching possibilities for promoting global tolerance and citizenship. Furthermore, astronomy is deemed inspirational for careers in science and technology. The "Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh"--the first of its kind in the country--aspires to fulfill these missions. As Bangladesh lacks resources to promote astronomy education in universities and schools, the role of disseminating astronomy education to the greater community falls on citizen science organizations. One such group, Anushandhitshu Chokro (AChokro) Science Organization, has been carrying out a successful public outreach program since 1975. Among its documented public events, AChokro organized a total solar eclipse campaign in Bangladesh in 2009, at which 15,000 people were assembled in a single open venue for the eclipse observation. The organization has actively pursued astronomy outreach to dispel public misconceptions about astronomical phenomena and to promote science. AChokro is currently working to build an observatory and Science Outreach Center around a recently-acquired 14-inch Scmidt-Cassegrain telescope and a soon-to-be-acquired new 16-inch reflector, all funded by private donations. The telescopes will be fitted with photometers, spectrometers, and digital and CCD cameras to pursue observations that would include sun spot and solar magnetic fields, planetary surfaces, asteroid search, variable stars and supernovae. The Center will be integrated with schools, colleges, and community groups for regular observation and small-scale research. Special educational and observing sessions for adults will also be organized. Updates on the development of the Center, which is expected to be functioning by the end of 2015, will be shared and feedback invited on the fostering of

  19. Gravitational lens models based on submillimeter array imaging of Herschel -selected strongly lensed sub-millimeter galaxies at z > 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Gurwell, M. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pérez-Fournon, I. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Amber, S. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Calanog, J.; De Bernardis, F.; Wardlow, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, 203 Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Harris, A. I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Krips, M. [Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimétrique, 300 Rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, 38406 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Lapi, A. [Department Fisica, Univ. Tor Vergata, Via Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome, Italy and SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Maiolino, R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J.J. Thomson Ave., Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom); Omont, A. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Riechers, D. [Department of Astronomy, Space Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Birkinshaw, M. [HH Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Bock, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2013-12-10

    Strong gravitational lenses are now being routinely discovered in wide-field surveys at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths. We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) high-spatial resolution imaging and Gemini-South and Multiple Mirror Telescope optical spectroscopy of strong lens candidates discovered in the two widest extragalactic surveys conducted by the Herschel Space Observatory: the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). From a sample of 30 Herschel sources with S {sub 500} > 100 mJy, 21 are strongly lensed (i.e., multiply imaged), 4 are moderately lensed (i.e., singly imaged), and the remainder require additional data to determine their lensing status. We apply a visibility-plane lens modeling technique to the SMA data to recover information about the masses of the lenses as well as the intrinsic (i.e., unlensed) sizes (r {sub half}) and far-infrared luminosities (L {sub FIR}) of the lensed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). The sample of lenses comprises primarily isolated massive galaxies, but includes some groups and clusters as well. Several of the lenses are located at z {sub lens} > 0.7, a redshift regime that is inaccessible to lens searches based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopy. The lensed SMGs are amplified by factors that are significantly below statistical model predictions given the 500 μm flux densities of our sample. We speculate that this may reflect a deficiency in our understanding of the intrinsic sizes and luminosities of the brightest SMGs. The lensed SMGs span nearly one decade in L {sub FIR} (median L {sub FIR} = 7.9 × 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}) and two decades in FIR luminosity surface density (median Σ{sub FIR} = 6.0 × 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉} kpc{sup –2}). The strong lenses in this sample and others identified via (sub-)mm surveys will provide a wealth of information regarding the astrophysics of galaxy formation and evolution over a wide range in redshift.

  20. Benefits to the nation from astronomy and astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia; Bahcall, John N.; Chaisson, Eric; Code, Arthur; Conklin, Edward K.; Cowan, John; Dalgarno, Alexander; Drake, Frank; Elson, Rebecca; Field, George

    1991-01-01

    It is argued that astronomy makes unexpectantly large contributions to formal and informal science education, given the small number of research astronomers. Technology transfer and spin-offs from astronomy have important applications in medicine, industry, defence, environmental monitoring, and consumer products. Astronomy provides unusually promising opportunities for international cooperation. Other sciences benefit from synergistic interactions with astronomy. A review is given of astronomy education and teacher training. The role of astronomy in medicine, industry, defence, energy technology, the environment, and everyday life is reviewed.

  1. Millimeter/Submillimeter Spectroscopy of TiO (X3Δr): The Rare Titanium Isotopologues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincowski, A. P.; Halfen, D. T.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    Pure rotational spectra of the rare isotopologues of titanium oxide, 46TiO, 47TiO, 49TiO, and 50TiO, have been recorded using a combination of Fourier transform millimeter-wave (FTmmW) and millimeter/submillimeter direct absorption techniques in the frequency range 62-538 GHz. This study is the first complete spectroscopic characterization of these species in their X 3Δ r ground electronic states. The isotopologues were created by the reaction of N2O or O2 and titanium vapor, produced either by laser ablation or in a Broida-type oven, and observed in the natural Ti isotopic abundances. Between 10 and 11 rotational transitions J + 1 ≤ftrightarrow J were measured for each species, typically in all 3 spin-orbit ladders Ω = 1, 2, and 3. For 47TiO and 49TiO, hyperfine structure was resolved, originating from the titanium-47 and titanium-49 nuclear spins of I = 5/2 and 7/2, respectively. For the Ω = 1 and 3 components, the hyperfine structure was found to follow a classic Landé pattern, while that for Ω = 2 appeared to be perturbed, likely a result of mixing with the nearby isoconfigurational a 1Δ state. The spectra were analyzed with a case (a) Hamiltonian, and rotational, spin-orbit, and spin-spin parameters were determined for each species, as well as magnetic hyperfine and electric quadrupole constants for the two molecules with nuclear spins. The most abundant species, 48TiO, has been detected in circumstellar envelopes. These measurements will enable other titanium isotopologues to be studied at millimeter wavelengths, providing Ti isotope ratios that can test models of nucleosynthesis.

  2. [Mathematics - astronomy - astrology special library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluch, Sibylle

    2011-01-01

    About 1560 Elector August of Saxony created an unusual library--one distinguished within its period by both its specialization and location. Situated within the Kunstkammer this library was mostly dedicated to the mathematical sciences and related disciplines. It contained works by the most important authors on mathematics, astronomy, and astrology from the classical, medieval, and early modern periods. This essay traces the formation and composition of August's library, and examines its function: What kind of relationship existed between the library and the Kunstkammer? In what way did the library mirror the interests of the Elector, and to what extend does it permit inferences regarding the Elector's knowledge of mathematics? From the analysis August emerges not as a specialist with a deep understanding of mathematics, but as a particular aficionado of mathematical applications. As a practitioner and general follower of the mathematical arts he took part in a far-reaching intellectual network the center of which lay in the University of Wittenberg. Here, Melanchthon had effectively strengthened the importance of the mathematical disciplines within the university curriculum. He regarded mathematics as the foremost science, arguing that before all other disciplines its method enabled man to recognize the harmonic order of the world, and to discern divine providence. Thus, mathematics offered consoling stability and support in an often seemingly chaotic world torn by religious controversies. This kind of esteem for the mathematical sciences did not presuppose expert knowledge. Hence, the fact that August does not appear to have read the mathematical books he collected does not come as a contradiction. On the contrary, for August it sufficed to recognize the potential of the mathematical sciences, which he brought into life through the creation of a specialized library that developed a rhetoric of its own. The collection of his Kunstkammer library spoke of a

  3. Teaching Astronomy with Podcasts of the APOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    The APOD website provides many excellent astronomy photos that are used to enhance introductory astronomy classes. For nearly six years, podcasts have been used to enhance learning in introductory astronomy classes at Harrisburg Area Community College. Daily 3-5 minute podcasts have been created and made available through iTunes to students in these classes at no charge. Students are asked to subscribe to the podcast collections and are quizzed on the images discussed throughout the semester. Because the images often focus on current findings in astronomy, the students are given instruction on findings that will not appear in their textbooks for several years. The students also receive a taste of some topics that may not be covered or that are just touched upon because of time limits in the classes. The podcasts have been used successfully with both traditional and fully online classes. The use of the podcasts enhances mobile learning as students can download and listen to the podcasts on their smartphones or tablets at their convenience. The student response to the podcasts has been excellent with some students noting that they continue to follow the website and podcasts even after they have completed the class. With mobile learning expanding, this is an excellent way to reach students and encourage them to further research the various topics in astronomy that are covered in the APOD images.

  4. Music and Astronomy: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The link between music and astronomy has deep historical roots. William Herschel, who is considered to be the father of modern astronomy, began his career as a musician. He was a composer, organist at a church in Bath, UK, and a major contributor to the musical life of that community. Like Herschel, I too am an organist and composer, and much of my creative work focuses on connections between music and astronomy. This presentation will explore briefly aspects of William Herschel's musical career, and will then focus on contemporary music inspired by astronomical phenomena. Emphasis will be placed on the use of music as a creative teaching tool in informal education environments. The University of Arizona's Astronomy Camp, hosted at both Mt. Lemmon and Kitt Peak National Observatory, will be used as an example and case study. Examples from my creative activity as an organ performer and composer will be important features of this presentation. This presentation builds on the session exploring the life and work of the Herschels at the January 2011 AAS Historical Astronomy Division meeting in Seattle, WA.

  5. Outreach Testing of Ancient Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Blanco, M. B. M.

    2015-10-01

    This work is an outreach approach to an ubiquitous recent problem in secondary-school education: how to face back the decreasing interest in natural sciences shown by students under 'pressure' of convenient resources in digital devices/applications. The approach rests on two features. First, empowering of teen-age students to understand regular natural events around, as very few educated people they meet could do. Secondly, an understanding that rests on personal capability to test and verify experimental results from the oldest science, astronomy, with simple instruments as used from antiquity down to the Renaissance (a capability restricted to just solar and lunar motions). Because lengths in astronomy and daily life are so disparate, astronomy basically involved observing and registering values of angles (along with times), measurements being of two types, of angles on the ground and of angles in space, from the ground. First, the gnomon, a simple vertical stick introduced in Babylonia and Egypt, and then in Greece, is used to understand solar motion. The gnomon shadow turns around during any given day, varying in length and thus angle between solar ray and vertical as it turns, going through a minimum (noon time, at a meridian direction) while sweeping some angular range from sunrise to sunset. Further, the shadow minimum length varies through the year, with times when shortest and sun closest to vertical, at summer solstice, and times when longest, at winter solstice six months later. The extreme directions at sunset and sunrise correspond to the solstices, swept angular range greatest at summer, over 180 degrees, and the opposite at winter, with less daytime hours; in between, spring and fall equinoxes occur, marked by collinear shadow directions at sunrise and sunset. The gnomon allows students to determine, in addition to latitude (about 40.4° North at Madrid, say), the inclination of earth equator to plane of its orbit around the sun (ecliptic), this

  6. Highschool astronomy research workshop in Thailand and how it transforms Thai astronomy education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangmatitham, Matipon

    2017-01-01

    The National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand (NARIT) have launched the program "Advance Teacher Training Workshop" that aims to introduce both the students and astronomy teacher alike to the nature of critical thinking in science via hands on experience in astronomy projects. Students and accompanying teachers are participated in 5 days workshop in which each of them must select an individual astronomy research project. The project is then carried out on their own for the next 6 months, after which their works are presented in a conference. Progress is monitored and extra aid is delivered as needed via the use of social media. Over a hundred projects have been completed under this program. Follow up study have suggests that this workshop has shown to be quite successful at improving critical thinking skills in participants. As the program became more popular, other schools began to follow. To support the growing interest, we have also launched the "Thai Astronomical Society: student session", a highschool astronomy conference for anyone who participated or interested in astronomy related projects. Via these stages we are able to secure a permanent foothold in Thai astronomy education and inspire new generations to participate in astronomy projects.

  7. Astronomy Exercises for the Artist: van Gogh the Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a set of exercises designed to be used in a survey astronomy course, an introductory astronomy laboratory course, or in secondary education. The exercises use the great works of Vincent van Gogh but could

  8. Innovative technology for optical and infrared astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Colin R.; Evans, Christopher J.; Molster, Frank; Kendrew, Sarah; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Snik, Frans

    2012-09-01

    Advances in astronomy are often enabled by adoption of new technology. In some instances this is where the technology has been invented specifically for astronomy, but more usually it is adopted from another scientific or industrial area of application. The adoption of new technology typically occurs via one of two processes. The more usual is incremental progress by a series of small improvements, but occasionally this process is disruptive, where a new technology completely replaces an older one. One of the activities of the OPTICON Key Technology Network over the past few years has been a technology forecasting exercise. Here we report on a recent event which focused on the more radical, potentially disruptive technologies for ground-based, optical and infrared astronomy.

  9. Ideas for Citizen Science in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Philip J.; Lintott, Chris J.; Fletcher, Leigh N.

    2015-08-01

    We review the expanding, internet-enabled, and rapidly evolving field of citizen astronomy, focusing on research projects in stellar, extragalactic, and planetary science that have benefited from the participation of members of the public. These volunteers contribute in various ways: making and analyzing new observations, visually classifying features in images and light curves, exploring models constrained by astronomical data sets, and initiating new scientific enquiries. The most productive citizen astronomy projects involve close collaboration between the professionals and amateurs involved and occupy scientific niches not easily filled by great observatories or machine learning methods: Citizen astronomers are motivated by being of service to science, as well as by their interest in the subject. We expect participation and productivity in citizen astronomy to increase, as data sets get larger and citizen science platforms become more efficient. Opportunities include engaging citizens in ever-more advanced analyses and facilitating citizen-led enquiry through professional tools designed with citizens in mind.

  10. L'astronomie et son histoire

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Jean-René

    1982-01-01

    Le livre de Jean-René Roy nous présente une vaste synthèse des connaissances présentes en astronomie. Le grand mérite du livre est de dérouler son sujet en parallèle avec une histoire de l'astronomie. Le côté historique est ici beaucoup plus qu'un luxe. Il redonne leurs dimensions vraies aux réponses qu'apporte l'astronomie. Pour bien sentir la nature d'une étape franchie, il faut aussi avoir vécu la situation telle qu'elle se présentait avant. Et les fiches personnelles incluses dans le livre ont l'intérêt de nous rapprocher encore plus du "" feu de l'action "". Écrit dans un style direct et

  11. Promoting mental model building in astronomy education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ian; Barker, Miles; Jones, Alister

    2003-10-01

    While astronomy has recently re-emerged in many science curricula, there remain unresolved teaching and learning difficulties peculiar to astronomy education. This paper argues that mental model building, the core process in astronomy itself, should be reflected in astronomy education. Also, this crucial skill may promote a better understanding of the nature of science by pupils and it resonates with current understandings about pupils' learning in science. However, three practical questions to be considered are: the expressed reservations about the connection between mental model building and meaningful learning; the earliest age of pupils for whom mental model building is appropriate; and the lack of research into pupils' prior ideas about the role of models in science. The paper describes how a four-phase general pedagogical strategy was adopted to create an astronomy teaching and learning package to promote mental model building. The package consists of notes explaining the mental model building followed by an overview of the teaching-learning approach and suggested outlines of the 12 lessons. Research investigated whether that package can help Year 7-8 pupils interrogate and refine their mental models of the Sun-Earth-Moon system within the constraints of an ordinary class of 33 pupils. The results showed that all four phases of the general strategy were necessary and effective in that most pupils were able successively and successfully to critique their mental models of the Sun-Earth-Moon system while also achieving traditional astronomy knowledge goals. Implications are that pupils as young as Year 7-8 may be able to construct other appropriate mental models, such as those for biological populations, atomic structure and plate tectonics.

  12. Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunian, H. A.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.

    2015-07-01

    The book contains the Proceedings of XIII Annual Meeting of the Armenian Astronomical Society "Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society". It consists of 9 main sections: "Introductory", "Astronomy and Philosophy", "Astrobiology", "Space-Earth Connections", "Astrostatistics and Astroinformatics", "Astronomy and Culture, Astrolinguistics", "Archaeoastronomy", "Scientific Tourism and Scientific Journalism", and "Armenian Astronomy". The book may be interesting to astronomers, philosophers, biologists, culturologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists and to other specialists, as well as to students.

  13. Astronomy from the chair - the application of the Internet in promoting of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, Zoran

    2014-05-01

    Internet and modern communication technologies are an indispensable part of modern life. The use of the Internet makes it possible to enhance the education and expand opportunities for acquiring new knowledge. One example is Astronomy, where today thanks to the Internet, we can control telescopes that are distant from us and listen to lectures from Universities in other countries. "Astronomy from the chair" is the name for a concept where amateur astronomers can deal with astronomy from their homes using the Internet. The concept can be divided into four sections depending on the content being offered: Robotic Observatory, Virtual Observatory, Online astronomy broadcasting and Online courses. Robotic observatory is defined as an astronomical instrument and detection system that enables efficient observation without the need of a person's physical intervention. Virtual Observatory is defined as a collection of databases and software tools that use the Internet as a platform for scientific research. Online astronomy broadcasting is part of concept "Astronomy from the chair" which gives users the opportunity to get directly involved in astronomical observation organized by an amateur astronomer from somewhere in the world. Online courses are groups of sites and organizations that provide the opportunity to amateur astronomers to attend lectures, save and watch video materials from lectures, do homework, communicate with other seminar participants and in that way become familiar with the various areas of Astronomy. This paper discusses a new concept that describes how the Internet can be applied in modern education. In this paper will be described projects that allows a large number of astronomy lovers to do their own research without the need to own a large and expensive set of astronomical equipment (Virtual Telescope from Italy, Observatory "Night Hawk" from Serbia and project "Astronomy from an armchair" at Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics in Nis), to help

  14. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, James

    1998-01-01

    The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade

  15. Astronomy Village: Investigating the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey; Croft, Steven; McGee, Steven

    1998-04-01

    The Astronomy Village: Investigating the Solar System is a new product aimed at astronomy instructional materials for middle school audiences. This multimedia development, funded by the NSF, will be suitable for curriculum supplement, presentations, and public outreach in Earth and planetary science. The presentation will highlight one of the research paths from the Village: Is there life on Mars? Students using this curriculum will solve problems in a rich environment that includes images, hands on labs, simulations, presentations, articles, and web pages. The research questions will be presented using multiple working hypothesis format.

  16. Extragalactic astronomy: The universe beyond our galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, K. C.

    1976-01-01

    This single-topic brochure is for high school physical science teachers to use in introducing students to extragalactic astronomy. The material is presented in three parts: the fundamental content of extragalactic astronomy; modern discoveries delineated in greater detail; and a summary of the earlier discussions within the structure of the Big-Bang Theory of evolution. Each of the three sections is followed by student exercises (activities, laboratory projects, and questions-and-answers). The unit close with a glossary which explains unfamilar terms used in the text and a collection of teacher aids (literature references and audiovisual materials for utilization in further study).

  17. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics 7

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 7 covers reviews about the advances in astronomy and astrophysics. The book presents reviews on the scattering of electrons by diatomic molecules and on Babcock's theory of the 22-year solar cycle and the latitude drift of the sunspot zone. The text then describes reviews on the structures of the terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury) and on type III solar radio bursts. The compact and dispersed cosmic matter is also considered with regard to the search for new cosmic objects and phenomena and on the nature of the ref shift from compact

  18. Some innovative programmes in Astronomy education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G. S. D.; Sujatha, S.

    In order to inculcate a systematic scientific awareness of the subject of Astronomy among the students and to motivate them to pursue careers in Astronomy and Astrophysics, various innovative educational programmes have been designed at MPBIFR. Among them, the main programme is termed as the ``100-hour Certificate Course in Astronomy and Astrophysics'' which has been designed basically for the students of the undergraduate level of B.Sc. and B.E. streams. The time duration of the 100 hours in this course is partitioned as 36 hours of classroom lectures, 34 hours of practicals and field trips and the remaining 30 hours being dedicated to dissertation writing and seminar presentations by the students. In addition, after the 100-hour course, the students have the option to take up specialized advance courses in the topics of Astrobiology, Astrochemistry, Radio Astronomy, Solar Astronomy and Cosmology as week-end classes. These courses are at the post graduate level and are covered in a span of 18 to 20 hours spread over a period of 9 to 10 weeks. As a preparatory programme, short-term introductory courses in the same subject are conducted for the high school students during the summer vacation period. Along with this, a three-week programme in basic Astronomy is also designed as an educational package for the general public. The students of these courses have the opportunity of being taken on field trips to various astronomical centers as well as the Radio, Solar and the Optical Observatories as part of their curriculum. The guided trips to the ISRO’s Satellite Centre at Bangalore and the Satellite Launching Station at SHAR provide high degree of motivation apart from giving thrilling experiences to the students. Further, the motivated students are encouraged to involve themselves in regular research programmes in Astronomy at MPBIFR for publishing research papers in national and international journals. The teaching and mentoring faculty for all these programmes

  19. An Introduction to Distance Measurement in Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    de Grijs, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Distance determination is an essential technique in astronomy, and is briefly covered in most textbooks on astrophysics and cosmology. It is rarely covered as a coherent topic in its own right. When it is discussed the approach is frequently very dry, splitting the teaching into, for example, stars, galaxies and cosmologies, and as a consequence, books lack depth and are rarely comprehensive. Adopting a unique and engaging approach to the subject An Introduction to distance Measurement in Astronomy will take the reader on a journey from the solar neighbourhood to the edge of the Universe, dis

  20. Sensitivity Study of Ice Crystal Optical Properties in the 874 GHz Submillimeter Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guanglin; Yang, Ping; Wu, Dong L.

    2015-01-01

    Testing of an 874 GHz submillimeter radiometer on meteorological satellites is being planned to improve ice water content retrievals. In this paper we study the optical properties of ice cloud particles in the 874 GHz band. The results show that the bulk scattering and absorption coefficients of an ensemble of ice cloud particles are sensitive to the particle shape and effective diameter, whereas the latter is also sensitive to temperature. The co-polar back scattering cross-section is not sensitive to particle shape, temperature, and the effective diameter in the range of 50200 m.

  1. cluster-in-a-box: Statistical model of sub-millimeter emission from embedded protostellar clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Lars E.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2016-10-01

    Cluster-in-a-box provides a statistical model of sub-millimeter emission from embedded protostellar clusters and consists of three modules grouped in two scripts. The first (cluster_distribution) generates the cluster based on the number of stars, input initial mass function, spatial distribution and age distribution. The second (cluster_emission) takes an input file of observations, determines the mass-intensity correlation and generates outflow emission for all low-mass Class 0 and I sources. The output is stored as a FITS image where the flux density is determined by the desired resolution, pixel scale and cluster distance.

  2. Wavefront Sensing and Control Technology for Submillimeter and Far-Infrared Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Dave

    2004-01-01

    The NGST wavefront sensing and control system will be developed to TRL6 over the next few years, including testing in a cryogenic vacuum environment with traceable hardware. Doing this in the far-infrared and submillimeter is probably easier, as some aspects of the problem scale with wavelength, and the telescope is likely to have a more stable environment; however, detectors may present small complications. Since this is a new system approach, it warrants a new look. For instance, a large space telescope based on the DART membrane mirror design requires a new actuation approach. Other mirror and actuation technologies may prove useful as well.

  3. A deeply embedded young protoplanetary disk around L1489 IRS observed by the Submillimeter Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, C.; Crapsi, A.; Jørgensen, J. K.

    2007-01-01

    aim to identify whether an embedded Keplerian protoplanetary disk resides in the L1489 IRS system. Given the amount of envelope material still present, such a disk would respresent a very young example of a protoplanetary disk. Methods. Using the Submillimeter Array we have observed the HCO + J = 3......-2 line with a resolution of about 1". At this resolution a protoplanetary disk with a radius of a few hundred AUs should be detectable, if present. Radiative transfer tools are used to model the emission from both continuum and line data. Results. We find that these data are consistent with theoretical...

  4. Submillimeter-resolution radiography of shielded structures with laser-accelerated electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Ramanathan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of energetic electron beams for high-resolution radiography of flaws embedded in thick solid objects. A bright, monoenergetic electron beam (with energy >100  MeV was generated by the process of laser-wakefield acceleration through the interaction of 50-TW, 30-fs laser pulses with a supersonic helium jet. The high energy, low divergence, and small source size of these beams make them ideal for high-resolution radiographic studies of cracks or voids embedded in dense materials that are placed at a large distance from the source. We report radiographic imaging of steel with submillimeter resolution.

  5. Submillimeter-Resolution Radiography of Shielded Structures with Laser-Accelerated Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, Vidya [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Banerjee, Sudeep [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Powell, Nathan [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Cummingham, N. J. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Chandler-Smith, Nate [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Zhao, Kun [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Brown, Kevin [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Umstadter, Donald [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Clarke, Shaun [University of Michigan; Pozzi, Sara [University of Michigan; Beene, James R [ORNL; Vane, C Randy [ORNL; Schultz, David Robert [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the use of energetic electron beams for high-resolution radiography of flaws embedded in thick solid objects. A bright, monoenergetic electron beam (with energy >100 MeV) was generated by the process of laser-wakefield acceleration through the interaction of 50-TW, 30-fs laser pulses with a supersonic helium jet. The high energy, low divergence, and small source size of these beams make them ideal for high-resolution radiographic studies of cracks or voids embedded in dense materials that are placed at a large distance from the source. We report radiographic imaging of steel with submillimeter resolution.

  6. NASE Training Courses in Astronomy for Teachers throughout the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Network for Astronomy School Education, NASE, is a project that is organizing courses for teachers throughout the entire world. The main objective of the project is to prepare secondary and primary school teachers in astronomy. Students love to know more about astronomy and teachers have the opportunity to observe the sky that every school has…

  7. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations...

  8. Covering the Standards: Astronomy Teachers' Preparation and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Julia D.; Zahm, Valerie M.

    2010-01-01

    An online survey of science teachers and interviews with curriculum directors were used to investigate the coverage of astronomy in middle and high schools in the greater Philadelphia region. Our analysis looked beyond astronomy elective courses to uncover all sources of astronomy education in secondary schools. We focused on coverage of state…

  9. No Child Left Behind and High School Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumenaker, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Astronomy was a required subject in the first American secondary level schools, the academies of the 18th century. When these were supplanted a century later by public high schools, astronomy still was often required, subsumed into courses of Natural Philosophy. Reasons given at that time to support astronomy as a part of general education include…

  10. Analysis of Individual "Test Of Astronomy STandards" (TOAST) Item Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Schleigh, Sharon Price; Stork, Debra J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of valid and reliable strategies to efficiently determine the knowledge landscape of introductory astronomy college students is an effort of great interest to the astronomy education community. This study examines individual item response rates from a widely used conceptual understanding survey, the Test Of Astronomy Standards…

  11. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. K. G. Arun. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 37 Issue 4 December 2016 pp 30 Review. Explosive and Radio-Selected Transients: Transient Astronomy with Square Kilometre Array and its Precursors · Poonam Chandra G. C. ...

  12. How, precisely, can astronomy be of benefit to anyone?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.; VallsGabaud, D; Boksenberg, A

    Astronomy as an observational science is technology driven both from the point of view of data, acquisition and of data processing and visualisation. Astronomy exploits a very wide base of technologies which are developed, enhanced and extended by users. Consequently, astronomy can return new and

  13. Division X, XII / Commission 40, 41 / Working Group Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kellermann, Kenneth; Orchiston, Wayne; Davies, Rod; Gurvits, Leonid; Ishiguro, Masato; Lequeux, James; Swarup, Govind; Wall, Jasper; Wielebinski, Richard; van Woerden, Hugo

    The IAU Working Group on Historical Radio Astronomy (WGHRA) was formed at the 2003 General Assembly of the IAU as a Joint Working Group of Commissions 40 (Radio Astronomy) and 41 (History of Astronomy), in order to: a) assemble a master list of surviving historically-significant radio telescopes and

  14. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Subhashis Roy. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 37 Issue 4 December 2016 pp 30 Review. Explosive and Radio-Selected Transients: Transient Astronomy with Square Kilometre Array and its Precursors · Poonam Chandra G. C. ...

  15. Astronomy Education Project for Guangdong High Schools F. P. Pi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Therefore, it is difficult for them to teach new thoughts, discoveries, and techniques in astronomy. (2) The textbooks and other teaching material mainly focus on knowledge, barely focussing on the origin of ideas and methodologies in astronomy. (3) Open sources that can be used in high school astronomy education are far ...

  16. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  17. The Correlation between Pre-Service Science Teachers' Astronomy Achievement, Attitudes towards Astronomy and Spatial Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Cumhur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in pre-service Science teachers' astronomy achievement, attitudes towards astronomy and skills for spatial thinking in terms of their years of study. Another purpose of the study was to find out whether there was correlation between pre-service teachers' astronomy achievement, attitudes towards…

  18. Indian Mathematics and Astronomy: Some Landmarks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 7. Indian Mathematics and Astronomy: Some Landmarks. Michio Yono. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 7 July 2000 pp 88-91. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/07/0088-0091 ...

  19. African Astronomy and the Square Kilometre Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Gordon

    2010-02-01

    We highlight the growth of astronomy across Africa and the effect of hosting the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will have on this growth. From the construction of a new 25m radio telescope in Nigeria, to new university astronomy programmes in Kenya, the HESS in Namibia and the Mauritian Radio Telescope, to the world class projects being developed in South Africa (Southern African Large Telescope and Karoo Array Telescope) astronomy is re-emerging across the continent. The SKA will represent the pinnacle of technological advancement in astronomy when constructed; requiring ultra high speed data transmission lines over 3000 km baselines and the World's fastest computer for correlation purposes. The investment alone to build the SKA on African soil will be of great economic benefit to its people, but the required network connectivity will significantly drive commercial expansion far beyond the initial value of the SKA investment. The most important consequence of hosting the SKA in Africa would be the impact on Human Capital Development (HCD) on the continent. Major HCD projects already underway producing excellent results will be presented. )

  20. How West met East in Chinese astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The development of early modern astronomy in China is filled with fascinating characters and strange tales. Richard de Grijs reveals details of research into the people behind this tumultuous period that has, until now, been known to only a handful of dedicated scholars.