WorldWideScience

Sample records for submicrosecond rise times

  1. Optimal Frequency Ranges for Sub-Microsecond Precision Pulsar Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael Timothy; McLaughlin, Maura; Cordes, James; Chatterjee, Shami; Lazio, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Precision pulsar timing requires optimization against measurement errors and astrophysical variance from the neutron stars themselves and the interstellar medium. We investigate optimization of arrival time precision as a function of radio frequency and bandwidth. We find that increases in bandwidth that reduce the contribution from receiver noise are countered by the strong chromatic dependence of interstellar effects and intrinsic pulse-profile evolution. The resulting optimal frequency range is therefore telescope and pulsar dependent. We demonstrate the results for five pulsars included in current pulsar timing arrays and determine that they are not optimally observed at current center frequencies. We also find that arrival-time precision can be improved by increases in total bandwidth. Wideband receivers centered at high frequencies can reduce required overall integration times and provide significant improvements in arrival time uncertainty by a factor of $\\sim$$\\sqrt{2}$ in most cases, assuming a fixed integration time. We also discuss how timing programs can be extended to pulsars with larger dispersion measures through the use of higher-frequency observations.

  2. Interconnect rise time in superconducting integrating circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preis, D.; Shlager, K.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of resistive losses on the voltage rise time of an integrated-circuit interconnection is reported. A distribution-circuit model is used to present the interconnect. Numerous parametric curves are presented based on numerical evaluation of the exact analytical expression for the model's transient response. For the superconducting case in which the series resistance of the interconnect approaches zero, the step-response rise time is longer but signal strength increases significantly

  3. Compton suppression through rise-time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Celiktas, C.

    2007-01-01

    We studied Compton suppression for 60 Co and 137 Cs radioisotopes using a signal selection criterion based on contrasting the fall time of the signals composing the photo peak with those composing the Compton continuum. The fall time criterion is employed by using the pulse shape analysis observing the change in the fall times of the gamma-ray pulses. This change is determined by measuring the changes in the rise times related to the fall time of the scintillator and the timing signals related to the fall time of the input signals. We showed that Compton continuum suppression is achieved best via the precise timing adjustment of an analog rise-time analyzer connected to a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer

  4. Rise time spectroscopy in cadmium telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, Claude; Siffert, Paul; Carnet, Bernard; Le Meur, Roger.

    1980-11-01

    By a simultaneous analysis of rise time and pulse amplitude distributions of the signals issued from various cadmium telluride detectors, it is possible to obtain informations about surface and bulk trapping, field distribution within the detectors, as well as charge collection and transport properties. These investigations have been performed on both pure and chlorine doped and materials for various surfaces preparation conditions [fr

  5. Rugged calorimeter with a fast rise time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtry, W.M.; Dolce, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    An intrinsic 1-mil-thick gold foil calorimeter has been developed which rises to 95% of the energy deposited in less than 2 microseconds. This calorimeter is very rugged, and can withstand rough handling without damage. The time constant is long, in the millisecond range, because of its unique construction. Use of this calorimeter has produced 100% data recovery, and agreement with true deposition to less than 10%

  6. Fast rise times and the physical mechanism of deep earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, H.; Williams, Q.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic global survey of the rise times and stress drops of deep and intermediate earthquakes is reported. When the rise times are scaled to the seismic moment release of the events, their average is nearly twice as fast for events deeper than about 450 km as for shallower events.

  7. THE RISE TIME OF NORMAL AND SUBLUMINOUS TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Perrett, K.; Carlberg, R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. george Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Bianco, F. B.; Howell, D. A.; Graham, M. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Sullivan, M.; Hook, I. M. [Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Fourmanoit, N.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Balam, D. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Basa, S. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, 38, rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille cedex 13 (France); Fouchez, D. [CPPM, CNRS-IN2P3 and University Aix Marseille II, Case 907, 13288 Marseille cedex 9 (France); Lidman, C. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Palanque-Delabrouille, N., E-mail: gonzalez@astro.utoronto.ca [DSM/IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2012-01-20

    We calculate the average stretch-corrected rise time of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Supernova Legacy Survey. We use the aggregate light curves of spectroscopic and photometrically identified SNe Ia to fit the rising part of the light curve with a simple quadratic model. We obtain a light curve shape corrected, i.e., stretch-corrected, fiducial rise time of 17.02{sup +0.18}{sub -0.28} (stat) days. The measured rise time differs from an earlier finding by the SNLS (Conley et al.) due to the use of different SN Ia templates. We compare it to nearby samples using the same methods and find no evolution in the early part of the light curve of SNe Ia up to z = 1. We search for variations among different populations, particularly subluminous objects, by dividing the sample in stretch. Bright and slow decliners (s > 1.0) have consistent stretch-corrected rise times compared to fainter and faster decliners (0.8 < s {<=} 1.0); they are shorter by 0.57{sup +0.47}{sub -0.50} (stat) days. Subluminous SNe Ia (here defined as objects with s {<=} 0.8), although less constrained, are also consistent, with a rise time of 18.03{sup +0.81}{sub -1.37} (stat) days. We study several systematic biases and find that the use of different fiducial templates may affect the average rise time but not the intrinsic differences between populations. Based on our results, we estimate that subluminous SNe Ia are powered by 0.05-0.35 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni synthesized in the explosion. Our conclusions are the same for the single-stretch and two-stretch parameterizations of the light curve.

  8. Subnanosecond-rise-time, low-impedance pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, R.; Vogtlin, G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a fast rise, low-impedance pulse generator that has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The design specifications of this generator are: 50-kV operating voltage, 1-ohm output impedance, subnanosecond rise time, and a 2 to 10 nanosecond pulse length. High repetition rate is not required. The design chosen is a parallel-plate, folded Blumlein generator. A tack switch is utilized for its simple construction and high performance. The primary diagnostic is a capacitive voltage divider with a B probe used to measure the current waveform

  9. Subnanosecond-rise-time, low-impedance pulse generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.; Vogtlin, G.

    1983-06-03

    This paper describes a fast rise, low-impedance pulse generator that has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The design specifications of this generator are: 50-kV operating voltage, 1-ohm output impedance, subnanosecond rise time, and a 2 to 10 nanosecond pulse length. High repetition rate is not required. The design chosen is a parallel-plate, folded Blumlein generator. A tack switch is utilized for its simple construction and high performance. The primary diagnostic is a capacitive voltage divider with a B probe used to measure the current waveform.

  10. Subnanosecond-rise-time, low-impedance pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, R.; Vigtlin, G.

    1983-06-01

    A fast rise, low impedance pulse generator developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is described. The design specifications of this generator are: 50-kV operating voltage, 1-ohm output impedance, subnanosecond rise time, and a 2 to 10 nanosecond pulse length. High repetition rate is not required. The design chosen is a parallel plate, folded Blumlein generator. A tack switch is utilized for its simple construction and high performance. The primary diagnostic is a capacitive voltage divider with a B probe used to measure the current waveform.

  11. Mega-ampere submicrosecond generator GIT-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kharlov, A. V.; Kiselev, V. N.; Kumpyak, E. V.; Zorin, V. B.; Chupin, V. V.; Morozov, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    The GIT-32 current generator was developed for experiments with current carrying pulsed plasma. The main parts of the generator are capacitor bank, multichannel multigap spark switches, low inductive current driving lines, and central load part. The generator consists of four identical sections, connected in parallel to one load. The capacitor bank is assembled from 32 IEK-100-0.17 (0.17 μF, 40 nH, 100 kV) capacitors, connected in parallel. It stores ∼18 kJ at 80 kV charging voltage. Each two capacitors are commuted to a load by a multigap spark switch with eight parallel channels. Switches operate in ambient air at atmospheric pressure. The GIT-32 generator was tested with 10, 15, and 20 nH inductive loads. At 10 nH load and 80 kV of charging voltage it provides 1 MA of current amplitude and 490 ns rise time with 0.8 Ω damping resistors in discharge circuit of each capacitor and 1.34 MA/530 ns without resistors. The net generator inductance without a load was optimized to be as low as 12 nH, which results in extremely low self-impedance of the generator (∼0.05 Ω). It ensures effective energy coupling with low impedance loads like Z pinch. The generator operates reliably without any adjustments in 40-80 kV range of charging voltage. Maximum jitter (relative to a triggering pulse) at 40 kV charging voltage is about 7 ns and lower at higher charging voltages. Operation and handling are very simple, because no oil and no purified gases are required for the generator. The GIT-32 generator has dimensions of 3200x3200x400 mm 3 and total weight of about 2500 kg, thus manifesting itself as a simple, robust, and cost effective apparatus

  12. Should a carbon tax rise or fall over time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulph, Alistair; Ulph, David; Pezzey, John

    1991-01-01

    A carbon tax has been proposed as one possible way of reducing the emissions of ''greenhouse gases''. Much of the recent work on carbon taxation has concentrated on analysing the effects of introducing such a tax at a level which would meet certain emission targets at some fixed date. Less attention has been devoted to the time profile of this tax. Yet in securing international agreement on the introduction of a carbon tax it could matter greatly whether what is being proposed is a tax which is initially low but rising, or initially high but falling. We show that in a wide class of cases the optimal time path of the tax will be that it initially rises and then falls as the exhaustion constraint starts to bite. However there are few general conclusions, and much depends on more detailed modelling assumptions on which the scientific evidence gives no firm guidance. (author)

  13. Neural processing of amplitude and formant rise time in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Varghese; Kalashnikova, Marina; Burnham, Denis

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate how children with dyslexia weight amplitude rise time (ART) and formant rise time (FRT) cues in phonetic discrimination. Passive mismatch responses (MMR) were recorded for a/ba/-/wa/contrast in a multiple deviant odd-ball paradigm to identify the neural response to cue weighting in 17 children with dyslexia and 17 age-matched control children. The deviant stimuli had either partial or full ART or FRT cues. The results showed that ART did not generate an MMR in either group, whereas both partial and full FRT cues generated MMR in control children while only full FRT cues generated MMR in children with dyslexia. These findings suggest that children, both controls and those with dyslexia, discriminate speech based on FRT cues and not ART cues. However, control children have greater sensitivity to FRT cues in speech compared to children with dyslexia. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Measures to reduce construction time of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolchedantsev, Leonid; Adamtsevich, Aleksey; Stupakova, Olga; Drozdov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The organizational and technological solutions for high-rise buildings construction efficiency increase are considered, primarily - decrease of typical floor construction time and improvement of bearing structures concrete quality. The essence of offered technology is: a concrete mixing station and a polygon mainly for load-bearing wall panels with starter bars casting are located on the building site; for reinforced concrete components manufacturing and butt joints grouting the warmed-up concrete mixtures are used. The results of researches and elaborations carried out by the SPSUACE in area of a preliminary warming-up of concrete mixtures are presented. The possibility and feasibility of their usage in high-rise buildings and of excess height buildings construction including cast-in-place and precast execution are shown. The essence of heat-vibro treating of concrete mixture is revealed as a kind of prior electroresistive curing, and the achieved results are: accelerated concrete strength gain, power inputs decrease, concrete quality improvement. It is shown that the location of a concrete mixing station on the building site enables to broaden possibilities of the "thermos" method use and to avoid concrete mixtures warming up in medium-mass structures erection (columns, girders) during the high-rise buildings construction. It is experimentally proved that the splice between precast elements encased with warmed-up concrete mixture is equal with conjugated elements in strength.

  15. Neutron spectrum measurement using rise-time discrimination method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Zhiping; Suzuki, C.; Kosako, T.; Ma Jizeng

    2009-01-01

    PSD method can be used to measure the fast neutron spectrum in n/γ mixed field. A set of assemblies for measuring the pulse height distribution of neutrons is built up,based on a large volume NE213 liquid scintillator and standard NIM circuits,through the rise-time discrimination method. After that,the response matrix is calculated using Monte Carlo method. The energy calibration of the pulse height distribution is accomplished using 60 Co radioisotope. The neutron spectrum of the mono-energetic accelerator neutron source is achieved by unfolding process. Suggestions for further improvement of the system are presented at last. (authors)

  16. Fast rise time IR detectors for lepton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drago, A.; Bini, S.; Guidi, M. Cestelli; Marcelli, A.; Pace, E.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostics is a fundamental issue for accelerators whose demands are continuously increasing. In particular bunch-by-bunch diagnostics is a key challenge for the latest generation of lepton colliders and storage rings. The Frascati Φ-factory, DAΦNE, colliding at 1.02 GeV in the centre of mass, hosts in the main rings few synchrotron radiation beamlines and two of them collect the synchrotron radiation infrared emission: SINBAD from the electron ring and 3+L from the positron ring. At DAΦNE each bucket is 2.7 ns long and particles are gathered in bunches emitting pulsed IR radiation, whose intensity in the long wavelength regime is directly proportional to the accumulated particles. Compact uncooled photoconductive HgCdTe detectors have been tested in both beamlines using dedicated optical layouts. Actually, the fast rise time of HgCdTe semiconductors give us the chance to test bunch-by-bunch devices for both longitudinal and transverse diagnostics. For the longitudinal case, single pixel detectors have been used, while for the transverse diagnostics, multi-pixel array detectors, with special custom design, are under test. This contribution will briefly describe the status of the research on fast IR detectors at DAΦNE, the results obtained and possible foreseen developments.

  17. Submicrosecond Q-Switching Er-Doped All-Fiber Ring Laser Based on Black Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Black phosphorus (BP, a new two-dimensional (2D material, has been deeply developed for extensive applications in electronics and optoelectronics due to its similar physical structure to graphene and thickness dependent direct band gap. Here, we demonstrated a submicrosecond passive Q-switching Er-doped fiber laser with BP as saturable absorber (SA. The BP saturable absorber was fabricated by mechanical exfoliation method. By taking full advantage of the ultrafast relaxation time of BP-SA and careful design of compact ring cavity, we obtained stable Q-switching pulses output with a shortest duration as narrow as 742 ns. With increasing the pump power, the pulse repetition rate accreted gradually almost linearly from 9.78 to 61.25 kHz, and the pulse duration declined rapidly at lower pump power regime and retained approximate stationary at higher pump power regime from 3.05 to 0.742 μs. The experimental results indicate that BP-SA can be an effective SA for nanosecond Q-switching pulse generation.

  18. Bottom-Up Tri-gate Transistors and Submicrosecond Photodetectors from Guided CdS Nanowalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinyou; Oksenberg, Eitan; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Rechav, Katya; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2017-11-08

    Tri-gate transistors offer better performance than planar transistors by exerting additional gate control over a channel from two lateral sides of semiconductor nanowalls (or "fins"). Here we report the bottom-up assembly of aligned CdS nanowalls by a simultaneous combination of horizontal catalytic vapor-liquid-solid growth and vertical facet-selective noncatalytic vapor-solid growth and their parallel integration into tri-gate transistors and photodetectors at wafer scale (cm 2 ) without postgrowth transfer or alignment steps. These tri-gate transistors act as enhancement-mode transistors with an on/off current ratio on the order of 10 8 , 4 orders of magnitude higher than the best results ever reported for planar enhancement-mode CdS transistors. The response time of the photodetector is reduced to the submicrosecond level, 1 order of magnitude shorter than the best results ever reported for photodetectors made of bottom-up semiconductor nanostructures. Guided semiconductor nanowalls open new opportunities for high-performance 3D nanodevices assembled from the bottom up.

  19. Time Impact of Scheduling Simulation for High Rise Building

    OpenAIRE

    Asmadi Ismail; Mohamad Ibrahim Mohamad; Muhamad Azani Yahya

    2011-01-01

    Although the long-introduced Industrialised Building System (IBS) has promised to solve and improve the current construction method and scenario in our country, but the IBS method has not gained enough popularity. One of the reasons is due to lack of research works done to quantifying the benefit of IBS especially in construction time saving. In lieu with such scenario, this study conducted to quantify evidence of time saving in IBS application. The methodology adopted for this study is by mo...

  20. Generation of fast-rise time, repetitive, (sub) nanosecond, high-voltage pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, T.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we present our fast-rise time nanosecond pulse generator, capable of generating up to 50 kV (positive and negative) rectangular pulses at a repetition rate of up to 1 kHz and with a rise time of less than 200 picoseconds. We focus on the general concepts involved in the design

  1. Comparing the effects of rise time and inspiratory cycling criteria on 6 different mechanical ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Joshua F; Russian, Christopher J; Gregg Marshall, S; Collins, Kevin P

    2013-03-01

    Inspiratory rise time and cycling criteria are important settings in pressure support ventilation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of minimum and maximum rise time and inspiratory cycling criteria settings on 6 new generation ventilators. Our hypothesis was there would be a difference in the exhaled tidal volume, inspiratory time, and peak flow among 6 different ventilators, based, on change in rise time and cycling criteria. The research utilized a breathing simulator and 4 different ventilator models. All mechanical ventilators were set to a spontaneous mode of ventilation with settings of pressure support 8 cm H2O and PEEP of 5 cm H2O. A minimum and maximum setting for rise time and cycling criteria were examined. Exhaled tidal volume, inspiratory time, and peak flow measurements were recorded for each simulation. Significant (P ventilator. Significant differences in exhaled tidal volume, inspiratory time, and peak flow were observed by adjusting rise time and cycling criteria. This research demonstrates that during pressure support ventilation strategy, adjustments in rise time and/or cycling criteria can produce changes in inspiratory parameters. Obviously, this finding has important implications for practitioners who utilize a similar pressure support strategy when conducting a ventilator wean. Additionally, this study outlines major differences among ventilator manufacturers when considering inspiratory rise time and cycling criteria.

  2. Amplitude and rise time compensated timing optimized for large semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyczkowski, J.J.; Bialkowski, J.

    1976-01-01

    The ARC timing described has excellent timing properties even when using a wide range e.g. from 10 keV to over 1 MeV. The detector signal from a preamplifier is accepted directly by the unit as a timing filter amplifier with a sensitivity of 1 mV is incorporated. The adjustable rise time rejection feature makes it possible to achieve a good prompt time spectrum with symmetrical exponential shape down to less than 1/100 of the peak value. A complete block diagram of the unit is given together with results of extensive tests of its performance. For example the time spectrum for (1330+-20) keV of 60 Co taken with a 43 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector has the following parameters: fwhm = 2.2ns, fwtm = 4.4 ns and fw (0.01) m = 7.6 ns and for (50 +- 10) keV of 22 Na the following was obtained: fwhm = 10.8 ns, fwtm = 21.6 ns and fw (0.01) m = 34.6 ns. In another experiment with two fast plastic scintillations (NE 102A) and using a 20% dynamic energy range the following was measured: fwhm = 280 ps, fwtm = 470 ps and fw (0.01) m = 70ps. (Auth.)

  3. Effect of rising time of rectangular pulse on inactivation of staphylococcus aureus by pulsed electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruobing; Liang, Dapeng; Zheng, Nanchen; Xiao, Jianfu; Mo, Mengbin; Li, Jing

    2013-03-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) is a novel non-thermal food processing technology that involves the electric discharge of high voltage short pulses through the food product. In PEF study, rectangular pulses are most commonly used for inactivating microorganisms. However, little information is available on the inactivation effect of rising time of rectangular pulse. In this paper, inactivation effects, electric field strength, treatment time and conductivity on staphylococcus aureus inactivation were investigated when the pulse rising time is reduced from 2.5 μs to 200 ns. Experimental results showed that inactivation effect of PEF increased with electric field strength, solution conductivity and treatment time. Rising time of the rectangular pulse had a significant effect on the inactivation of staphylococcus aureus. Rectangular pulses with a rising time of 200 ns had a better inactivation effect than that with 2 μs. In addition, temperature increase of the solution treated by pulses with 200 ns rising time was lower than that with 2 μs. In order to obtain a given inactivation effect, treatment time required for the rectangular pulse with 200 ns rise time was shorter than that with 2 μs.

  4. Effect of rising time of rectangular pulse on inactivation of staphylococcus aureus by pulsed electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ruobing; Liang, Dapeng; Xiao, Jianfu; Mo, Mengbin; Li, Jing; Zheng, Nanchen

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) is a novel non-thermal food processing technology that involves the electric discharge of high voltage short pulses through the food product. In PEF study, rectangular pulses are most commonly used for inactivating microorganisms. However, little information is available on the inactivation effect of rising time of rectangular pulse. In this paper, inactivation effects, electric field strength, treatment time and conductivity on staphylococcus aureus inactivation were investigated when the pulse rising time is reduced from 2.5 μs to 200 ns. Experimental results showed that inactivation effect of PEF increased with electric field strength, solution conductivity and treatment time. Rising time of the rectangular pulse had a significant effect on the inactivation of staphylococcus aureus. Rectangular pulses with a rising time of 200 ns had a better inactivation effect than that with 2 μs. In addition, temperature increase of the solution treated by pulses with 200 ns rising time was lower than that with 2 μs. In order to obtain a given inactivation effect, treatment time required for the rectangular pulse with 200 ns rise time was shorter than that with 2 μs.

  5. Influence of voltage rise time on microwave generation in relativistic backward wave oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ping; Deng, Yuqun; Sun, Jun; Teng, Yan; Shi, Yanchao; Chen, Changhua

    2015-01-01

    In relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWOs), although the slow wave structure (SWS) and electron beam determine the main characteristics of beam-wave interaction, many other factors can also significantly affect the microwave generation process. This paper investigates the influence of voltage rise time on beam-wave interaction in RBWOs. Preliminary analysis and PIC simulations demonstrate if the voltage rise time is moderately long, the microwave frequency will gradually increase during the startup process until the voltage reaches its amplitude, which can be explained by the dispersion relation. However, if the voltage rise time is long enough, the longitudinal resonance of the finitely-long SWS will force the RBWO to work with unwanted longitudinal modes for a while and then gradually hop to the wanted longitudinal mode, and this will lead to an impure microwave frequency spectrum. Besides, a longer voltage rise time will delay the startup process and thus lead to a longer microwave saturation time. And if unwanted longitudinal modes are excited due to long voltage rise time, the microwave saturation time will be further lengthened. Therefore, the voltage rise time of accelerators adopted in high power microwave technology should not be too long in case unwanted longitudinal modes are excited

  6. Influence of the Gilbert damping constant on the flux rise time of write head fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl, Othmar; Schrefl, Thomas; Suess, Dieter; Schabes, Manfred E.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic recording at fast data rates requires write heads with rapid rise times of the magnetic flux during the write process. We present three-dimensional (3D) micromagnetic finite element calculations of an entire ring head including 3D coil geometry during the writing of magnetic bits in granular media. The simulations demonstrate how input current profiles translate into magnetization processes in the head and which in turn generate the write head field. The flux rise time significantly depends on the Gilbert damping constant of the head material. Low damping causes incoherent magnetization processes, leading to long rise times and low head fields. High damping leads to coherent reversal of the magnetization in the head. As a consequence, the gap region can be quickly saturated which causes high head fields with short rise times

  7. X-ray polarimetry with a conventional gas proportional counter through rise-time analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashida, K; Tsunemi, H; Torii, K; Murakami, H; Ohno, Y; Tamura, K

    1999-01-01

    We have performed an experiment on the signal rise time of a Xe gas proportional counter using a polarized X-ray beam of synchrotron orbital radiation with energies from 10 to 40 keV. When the counter anode is perpendicular to the electric vector of the incident X-ray photons, the average rise time becomes significantly longer than that for the parallel case. This indicates that the conventional gas proportional counters are useful for X-ray polarimetry. The moderate modulation contrast of this rise-time polarimeter (M=0.1 for 10 keV X-rays and M=0.35 for 40 keV X-rays), with capability of the simultaneous measuring X-ray energies and the timing, would be useful for applications in X-ray astronomy and in other fields.

  8. Comparison of occlusion break responses and vacuum rise times of phacoemulsification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif-Kashani, Pooria; Fanney, Douglas; Injev, Val

    2014-07-30

    Occlusion break surge during phacoemulsification cataract surgery can lead to potential surgical complications. The purpose of this study was to quantify occlusion break surge and vacuum rise time of current phacoemulsification systems used in cataract surgery. Occlusion break surge at vacuum pressures between 200 and 600 mmHg was assessed with the Infiniti® Vision System, the WhiteStar Signature® Phacoemulsification System, and the Centurion® Vision System using gravity-fed fluidics. Centurion Active FluidicsTM were also tested at multiple intraoperative pressure target settings. Vacuum rise time was evaluated for Infiniti, WhiteStar Signature, Centurion, and Stellaris® Vision Enhancement systems. Rise time to vacuum limits of 400 and 600 mmHg was assessed at flow rates of 30 and 60 cc/minute. Occlusion break surge was analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance. The Centurion system exhibited substantially less occlusion break surge than the other systems tested. Surge area with Centurion Active Fluidics was similar to gravity fluidics at an equivalent bottle height. At all Centurion Active Fluidics intraoperative pressure target settings tested, surge was smaller than with Infiniti and WhiteStar Signature. Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise time and Stellaris had the slowest. No system tested reached the 600-mmHg vacuum limit. In this laboratory study, Centurion had the least occlusion break surge and similar vacuum rise times compared with the other systems tested. Reducing occlusion break surge may increase safety of phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

  9. Shaping the electron beams with submicrosecond pulse duration in sources and electron accelerators with plasma emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Gushenets, V I

    2001-01-01

    One studies the techniques in use to shape submicrosecond electron beams and the physical processes associated with extraction of electrons from plasma in plasma emitters. Plasma emitter base sources and accelerators enable to generate pulse beams with currents varying from tens of amperes up to 10 sup 3 A, with current densities up to several amperes per a square centimeter, with pulse duration constituting hundreds of nanoseconds and with high frequencies of repetition

  10. A microchannel plate X-ray multiplier with rising-time less than 170 ps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shicheng; Ouyang Bin

    1987-01-01

    The time reponse of a microchannel plate X-ray multiplier has been improved considerably by using a coupling construction of coaxial tapers. The experimental calibration results with laser plasma X-ray source show that the rising-time of the multiplier is less than 170 ps

  11. Measurement of the Rise-Time in a Single Sided Ladder Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    In this note we report on the measurement of the preamplifier output rise time for a SVXII chip mounted on a D0 single sided ladder. The measurements were performed on the ladder 001-883-L, using the laser test stand of Lab D. The rise time was measured for different values of the response (or bandwidth) of the preamplifier. As a bigger bandwidth results in longer rise times and therefore in less noise, the largest possible bandwidth consistent with the time between bunch crossings should be chosen to operate the detectors. The rise time is defined as the time elapsed between 10% and 90% of the charge is collected. It is also interesting to measure the time for full charge collection and the percentage of charge collected in 132 ns and 396 ns. The results are shown in table 1, for bandwidths between 2 and 63 (binary numbers). The uncertainty on the time measurement is considered to be ∼ 10 ns. Figure 1 schematically defines the four quantities measured: rise time, time of full charge collection, and percentage of charge collected in 132 ns and 396 ns. Figures 2 to 8 are the actual measurements for bandwidths of 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 32 and 63. Figure 9 is a second measurement for BW=24, used as a consistency check of the system and the time measurement performed on the plots. The data indicate that the single sided ladders can be operated at BW=63 for 396 ns and BW=12 for 132 ns, achieving full charge collection. This will result in smaller noise than originally anticipated.

  12. Discriminating cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time using a GEM detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Yin; Zhao, Sheng-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Qi, Hui-Rong; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Ke-Yan; Hu, Bi-Tao; Zhang, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors have been used in cosmic muon scattering tomography and neutron imaging over the last decade. In this work, a triple GEM device with an effective readout area of 10 cm × 10 cm is developed, and a method of discriminating between cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time is tested. The energy resolution of the GEM detector is tested by 55Fe ray source to prove the GEM detector has a good performance. Analysis of the complete signal-cycles allows us to get the rise time and pulse heights. The experiment result indicates that cosmic muons and X-rays can be discriminated with an appropriate rise time threshold. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11135002, 11275235, 11405077, 11575073)

  13. Development of a fast rise-time, high-voltage pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanxia; Zhu Jie; Li Xianyou

    2006-01-01

    In order to test the attenuation of the system, a fast rise-time, high-voltage pulse generator is required for the fast pulse signal measurement. The paper presents the development of the generator. More emphasis is paid on the discussion of the difficulties occurring in the circuit debugging and their resolutions. The output rise-time of the generator is 700 ps, the amplitude is adjustable in the range of 0 to 500 V, the pulse-width is adjustable in the range of 4ns to 1μs. (authors)

  14. Modular High Voltage Pulse Converter for Short Rise and Decay Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, S.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis explores a modular HV pulse converter technology with short rise and decay times. A systematic methodology to derive and classify HV architectures based on a modularization level of power building blocks of the HV pulse converter is developed to summarize existing architectures and

  15. SPS Injection and Beam Quality for LHC Heavy Ions With 150 ns Kicker Rise Time

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, Brennan; Ducimetière, Laurent; Kotzian, Gerd; Uythoven, Jan; Velotti, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHC heavy ions, the SPS injection kicker system rise time needs reduction below its present 225 ns. One technically challenging option under consideration is the addition of fast Pulse Forming Lines in parallel to the existing Pulse Forming Networks for the 12 kicker magnets MKP-S, targeting a system field rise time of 100 ns. An alternative option is to optimise the system to approach the existing individual magnet field rise time (2-98%) of 150 ns. This would still significantly increase the number of colliding bunches in LHC while minimising the cost and effort of the system upgrade. The observed characteristics of the present system are described, compared to the expected system rise time, together with results of simulations and measurements with 175 and 150 ns injection batch spacing. The expected beam quality at injection into LHC is quantified, with the emittance growth and simulated tail population taking into account expected jitter and synchronisatio...

  16. Probing the neutrino mass hierarchy with the rise time of a supernova burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpico, Pasquale D.; Chakraborty, Sovan; Fischer, Tobias; Hüdepohl, Lorenz; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Mirizzi, Alessandro

    2012-04-01

    The rise time of a Galactic supernova (SN) ν¯e light curve, observable at a high-statistics experiment such as the Icecube Cherenkov detector, can provide a diagnostic tool for the neutrino mass hierarchy at “large” 1-3 leptonic mixing angle ϑ13. Thanks to the combination of matter suppression of collective effects at early post-bounce times on one hand and the presence of the ordinary Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in the outer layers of the SN on the other hand, a sufficiently fast rise time on O(100)ms scale is indicative of an inverted mass hierarchy. We investigate results from an extensive set of stellar core-collapse simulations, providing a first exploration of the astrophysical robustness of these features. We find that for all the models analyzed (sharing the same weak interaction microphysics) the rise times for the same hierarchy are similar not only qualitatively, but also quantitatively, with the signals for the two classes of hierarchies significantly separated. We show via Monte Carlo simulations that the two cases should be distinguishable at IceCube for SNe at a typical Galactic distance 99% of the time. Finally, a preliminary survey seems to show that the faster rise time for inverted hierarchy as compared to normal hierarchy is a qualitatively robust feature predicted by several simulation groups. Since the viability of this signature ultimately depends on the quantitative assessment of theoretical/numerical uncertainties, our results motivate an extensive campaign of comparison of different code predictions at early accretion times with implementation of microphysics of comparable sophistication, including effects such as nucleon recoils in weak interactions.

  17. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TROYER, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse rise time versus photo peak position and resolution. These data were collected to investigate the effect of pulse rise time compensation on resolution and efficiency

  18. Rise time of voltage pulses in NbN superconducting single photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, K. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 34 Tallinskaya St., 109028 Moscow (Russian Federation); Divochiy, A. V.; Karpova, U. V.; Morozov, P. V. [CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Vakhtomin, Yu. B.; Seleznev, V. A. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sidorova, M. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zotova, A. N.; Vodolazov, D. Yu. [Institute for Physics of Microstructure, Russian Academy of Sciences, GSP-105, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Avenue, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    We have found experimentally that the rise time of voltage pulse in NbN superconducting single photon detectors increases nonlinearly with increasing the length of the detector L. The effect is connected with dependence of resistance of the detector R{sub n}, which appears after photon absorption, on its kinetic inductance L{sub k} and, hence, on the length of the detector. This conclusion is confirmed by our calculations in the framework of two temperature model.

  19. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations for transient thermal fields: Computational methodology and application to the submicrosecond laser processes in implanted silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisicaro, G; Pelaz, L; Lopez, P; La Magna, A

    2012-09-01

    Pulsed laser irradiation of damaged solids promotes ultrafast nonequilibrium kinetics, on the submicrosecond scale, leading to microscopic modifications of the material state. Reliable theoretical predictions of this evolution can be achieved only by simulating particle interactions in the presence of large and transient gradients of the thermal field. We propose a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method for the simulation of damaged systems in the extremely far-from-equilibrium conditions caused by the laser irradiation. The reference systems are nonideal crystals containing point defect excesses, an order of magnitude larger than the equilibrium density, due to a preirradiation ion implantation process. The thermal and, eventual, melting problem is solved within the phase-field methodology, and the numerical solutions for the space- and time-dependent thermal field were then dynamically coupled to the KMC code. The formalism, implementation, and related tests of our computational code are discussed in detail. As an application example we analyze the evolution of the defect system caused by P ion implantation in Si under nanosecond pulsed irradiation. The simulation results suggest a significant annihilation of the implantation damage which can be well controlled by the laser fluence.

  20. Effect of rise-time patterns on dynamics of sheath expansion during plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yongxian; Tian Xiubo; Yang Shiqin; Fu Ricky; Paul, C.K.

    2007-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has been developed as a low-cost and efficient surface modification technique of irregularly-shaped objects. The effect of six pulse waves with different rise-time patterns on the spatio-temporal evolution of plasma sheath,energy and dose of ion implantation has been simulated by particle-in-cell modeling. Statistical results may be obtained through assuming the Boltzmann distribution of electrons, and solving Poisson and Newton equations for tracing each ion in the plasma sheath. The results show that rise-time pattern has a critical influence on the evolution of plasma sheath. There exists maximum thickness difference of plasma sheath for different waveforms. The acceleration of ions is non-uniform due to the non-uniformity of electrical field strength. The maximum gradient of electrical field appears near the edge of plasma sheath. The results also show that optimization of dose and energy of incident ions may be achieved through modification of rise-time pattern. The numerical simulation of sheath expansion can be effectively used to provide a scientific basis for optimizing the PIII process. (authors)

  1. Sea-level rise and shoreline retreat: time to abandon the Bruun Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. Andrew G.; Pilkey, Orrin H.

    2004-11-01

    In the face of a global rise in sea level, understanding the response of the shoreline to changes in sea level is a critical scientific goal to inform policy makers and managers. A body of scientific information exists that illustrates both the complexity of the linkages between sea-level rise and shoreline response, and the comparative lack of understanding of these linkages. In spite of the lack of understanding, many appraisals have been undertaken that employ a concept known as the "Bruun Rule". This is a simple two-dimensional model of shoreline response to rising sea level. The model has seen near global application since its original formulation in 1954. The concept provided an advance in understanding of the coastal system at the time of its first publication. It has, however, been superseded by numerous subsequent findings and is now invalid. Several assumptions behind the Bruun Rule are known to be false and nowhere has the Bruun Rule been adequately proven; on the contrary several studies disprove it in the field. No universally applicable model of shoreline retreat under sea-level rise has yet been developed. Despite this, the Bruun Rule is in widespread contemporary use at a global scale both as a management tool and as a scientific concept. The persistence of this concept beyond its original assumption base is attributed to the following factors: Appeal of a simple, easy to use analytical model that is in widespread use. Difficulty of determining the relative validity of 'proofs' and 'disproofs'. Ease of application. Positive advocacy by some scientists. Application by other scientists without critical appraisal. The simple numerical expression of the model. Lack of easy alternatives. The Bruun Rule has no power for predicting shoreline behaviour under rising sea level and should be abandoned. It is a concept whose time has passed. The belief by policy makers that it offers a prediction of future shoreline position may well have stifled much

  2. SN 2008iy: An Unusual Type IIn Supernova with an Enduring 400 Day Rise Time

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, A. A.; Silverman, J. M.; Butler, N. R.; Bloom, J. S.; Chornock, R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Klein, C. R.; Li, W.; Nugent, P. E.; Smith, N.; Steele, T. N.

    2009-01-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric observations of the Type IIn supernova (SN) 2008iy. SN 2008iy showed an unprecedentedly long rise time of ~400 days, making it the first SN to take significantly longer than 100 days to reach peak optical luminosity. The peak absolute magnitude of SN 2008iy was M_r ~ -19.1 mag, and the total radiated energy over the first ~700 days was ~2 x 10^50 erg. Spectroscopically, SN 2008iy is very similar to the Type IIn SN 1988Z at late times, and, like SN 1988...

  3. Thermophysical data for various transition metals at high temperatures obtained by a submicrosecond-pulse-heating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seydel, U.; Bauhof, H.; Fucke, W.; Wadle, H.

    1979-01-01

    Thermophysical data for several transition metals are reported including enthalpies, electric resistivities, and specific volumes at the melting transition, and volume expansion coefficients and heat capacities in the liquid phase. Values for the critical temperatures, pressures, and volumes are given for molybdenum and tungsten. All data have been obtained by a submicrosecond-pulse-heating method. (author)

  4. Measuring Sea Level Rise-Induced Shoreline Changes and Inundation in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, F.; Waetjen, D.; Grijalva, E.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a method to monitor shoreline inundation and changes in response to sea level rise (SLR) using a network of time-lapse cameras. We found for coastal tidal marshes that this method was sensitive to vertical changes in sea level of 20 cm has occurred in the San Francisco Bay and other US coastal areas and is likely to rise by another 30-45 cm by mid-century, which will flood and erode many coastal ecosystems, highways, and urban areas. This rapid degree of rise means that it is imperative to co-plan for natural and built systems. Many public facilities are adjacent to shoreline ecosystems, which both protect infrastructure from wave and tide energy and are home to regulated species and habitats. Accurate and timely information about the actual extent of SLR impacts to shorelines will be critical during built-system adaptation. Currently, satellite-sourced imagery cannot provide the spatial or temporal resolution necessary to investigate fine-scale shoreline changes, leaving a gap between predictive models and knowing how, where and when these changes are occurring. The method described is feasible for near-term (1 to 10 years) to long-term application and can be used for measuring fine-resolution shoreline changes (organize photographs that could be combined with related external data (e.g., gauged water levels) to create an information mashup. This information could be used to validate models predicting shoreline inundation and loss, inform SLR-adaptation planning, and to visualize SLR impacts to the public.

  5. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Troyer, G L

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse r...

  6. Analysis and Compensation of Dead-Time Effect of a ZVT PWM Inverter Considering the Rise- and Fall-Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailin Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The dead-time effect, as an intrinsic problem of the converters based on the half-bridge unit, leads to distortions in the converter output. Although several dead-time effect compensation or elimination methods have been proposed, they cannot fully remove the dead-time effect of blanking delay error, because the output current polarity is difficult detect accurately. This paper utilizes the zero-voltage-switching (ZVT technique to eliminate the blanking delay error, which is the main drawback of the hard-switching inverter, although the technique initially aims to improve the efficiency. A typical ZVT inverter—the auxiliary resonant snubber inverter (ARSI is analyzed. The blanking delay error is completely eliminated in the ARSI. Another error source caused by the finite rise- and fall-times of the voltage is analyzed, which was not considered in the hard-switching inverter. A compensation method based on the voltage error estimation is proposed to compensate the rise- and fall-error. A prototype was developed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control. Both the simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the qualities of the output current and voltage in the ARSI are better than that in the hard-switching inverter due to the elimination of the blanking delay error. The total harmonic distortion (THD of the output is further reduced by using the proposed compensation method in the ARSI.

  7. Measuring the diameter of rising gas bubbles by means of the ultrasound transit time technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, T., E-mail: Thomas.Richter6@tu-dresden.de; Eckert, K., E-mail: Kerstin.Eckert@tu-dresden.de; Yang, X.; Odenbach, S.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) is applied to the zig-zag raise of gas bubble. • Comparison of bubble diameter and tilt, measured by UTTT, with high-speed imaging. • Uncertainty in the determination of the bubble diameter by UTTT is less than 7%. • UTTT is able to measure dynamic changes in bubble size in opaque liquids and vessels. • UTTT can be applied to liquid metal loops. - Abstract: This study presents ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) measurements of the diameter variations of single argon bubbles rising in a zig-zag trajectory in water. Simultaneous size measurements with a high-speed camera show that UTTT resolves both the apparent diameter and the tilt of the bubble axis with an accuracy of better than 7%. This qualifies UTTT for the measurement of bubble sizes in opaque liquids, such as liquid metals, or vessels.

  8. Rise time of proton cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, J.; Gizzi, L. A.; Londrillo, P.; Mirzanejad, S.; Rovelli, T.; Sinigardi, S.; Turchetti, G.

    2017-04-01

    The Target Normal Sheath Acceleration regime for proton acceleration by laser pulses is experimentally consolidated and fairly well understood. However, uncertainties remain in the analysis of particle-in-cell simulation results. The energy spectrum is exponential with a cut-off, but the maximum energy depends on the simulation time, following different laws in two and three dimensional (2D, 3D) PIC simulations so that the determination of an asymptotic value has some arbitrariness. We propose two empirical laws for the rise time of the cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations, suggested by a model in which the proton acceleration is due to a surface charge distribution on the target rear side. The kinetic energy of the protons that we obtain follows two distinct laws, which appear to be nicely satisfied by PIC simulations, for a model target given by a uniform foil plus a contaminant layer that is hydrogen-rich. The laws depend on two parameters: the scaling time, at which the energy starts to rise, and the asymptotic cut-off energy. The values of the cut-off energy, obtained by fitting 2D and 3D simulations for the same target and laser pulse configuration, are comparable. This suggests that parametric scans can be performed with 2D simulations since 3D ones are computationally very expensive, delegating their role only to a correspondence check. In this paper, the simulations are carried out with the PIC code ALaDyn by changing the target thickness L and the incidence angle α, with a fixed a0 = 3. A monotonic dependence, on L for normal incidence and on α for fixed L, is found, as in the experimental results for high temporal contrast pulses.

  9. Investigation of electrodes under flow of a submicrosecond current pulse with linear density up to 3 MA/cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branitskii, A. V.; Grabovskii, E. V.; Dzhangobegov, V. V.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Sasorov, P. V.; Tkachenko, S. I.; Frolov, I. N.

    2016-01-01

    The states of current-carrying elements at the transmission of megaampere current into load are studied. It is determined that the expansion velocity of plasma generated at the outer surface of cylindrical tubes produced of stainless steel, at flowing through them of submicrosecond current pulses with linear density of 3 MA/cm is 5.5 km/s. The evolution of various modes of instability is analyzed.

  10. Timed Rise from Floor as a Predictor of Disease Progression in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S Mazzone

    Full Text Available The role of timed items, and more specifically, of the time to rise from the floor, has been reported as an early prognostic factor for disease progression and loss of ambulation. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible effect of the time to rise from the floor test on the changes observed on the 6MWT over 12 months in a cohort of ambulant Duchenne boys.A total of 487 12-month data points were collected from 215 ambulant Duchenne boys. The age ranged between 5.0 and 20.0 years (mean 8.48 ±2.48 DS.The results of the time to rise from the floor at baseline ranged from 1.2 to 29.4 seconds in the boys who could perform the test. 49 patients were unable to perform the test at baseline and 87 at 12 month The 6MWT values ranged from 82 to 567 meters at baseline. 3 patients lost the ability to perform the 6mwt at 12 months. The correlation between time to rise from the floor and 6MWT at baseline was high (r = 0.6, p<0.01.Both time to rise from the floor and baseline 6MWT were relevant for predicting 6MWT changes in the group above the age of 7 years, with no interaction between the two measures, as the impact of time to rise from the floor on 6MWT change was similar in the patients below and above 350 m. Our results suggest that, time to rise from the floor can be considered an additional important prognostic factor of 12 month changes on the 6MWT and, more generally, of disease progression.

  11. Time dependent rise and decay of photocurrent in zinc oxide nanoparticles in ambient and vacuum medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Rajkumar; Srivastava, Rajneesh K.

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle has been synthesized by cost effective Co-precipitation method and studied its photo-response activity. The synthesized ZnO nanomaterial was characterized by using various analytical techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the XRD results, it is confirmed that synthesized ZnO nanomaterial possess hexagonal wurtzite phase structure with an average crystallite size of ∼16–17 nm. The UV-Visible absorption spectrum shows that it has blue shift compared to their bulk counterparts. Photoluminescence spectra of ZnO nanoparticles have a strong violet band at 423 nm and three weak bands at 485 nm (blue), 506 nm (green), and 529 nm (green). The presence of hydroxyl group was confirmed by FTIR. The photo-response analysis was studied by the time-dependent rise and decay photocurrent of ZnO nanoparticle was tested in the air as well as vacuum medium.

  12. Relativistic rise measurement by cluster counting method in time expansion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Walenta, A.H.

    1979-10-01

    A new approach to the measurement of the ionization energy loss for the charged particle identification in the region of the relativistic rise was tested experimentally. The method consists of determining in a special drift chamber (TEC) the number of clusters of the primary ionization. The method gives almost the full relativistic rise and narrower landau distribution. The consequences for a practical detector are discussed

  13. Comparison of vacuum rise time, vacuum limit accuracy, and occlusion break surge of 3 new phacoemulsification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young Keun; Miller, Kevin M

    2009-08-01

    To compare vacuum rise time, vacuum limit accuracy, and occlusion break surge of 3 new phacoemulsification machines. Jules Stein Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA. The vacuum rise time under normal and enhanced aspiration modes, vacuum limit accuracy, and occlusion break surge of the Infiniti Vision System, Stellaris Vision Enhancement System, and WhiteStar Signature Phacoemulsification System were tested. Vacuum rise time and limit accuracy were measured at limit settings of 400 mm Hg and 600 mm Hg. Surge area was recorded at vacuum limit settings of 200 mm Hg, 300 mm Hg, 400 mm Hg, and 500 mm Hg. The Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise times under normal and enhanced aspiration modes. At 4 seconds, the vacuum limit accuracy was greatest with the Infiniti at the 400 mm Hg limit and the Signature at the 600 mm Hg limit. The Stellaris did not reach either vacuum target. The Infiniti performed better than the other 2 machines during testing of occlusion break surge at all vacuum limit settings above 200 mm Hg. Under controlled laboratory test conditions, the Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise time, greatest vacuum limit accuracy at 400 mm Hg, and least occlusion break surge. These results can be explained by the lower compliance of the Infiniti system.

  14. Time to PSA rise differentiates the PSA bounce after HDR and LDR brachytherapy of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchardt, Wojciech; Skowronek, Janusz

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the differences in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce (PB) after high-dose-rate (HDR-BT) or low-dose-rate (LDR-BT) brachytherapy alone in prostate cancer patients. Ninety-four patients with localized prostate cancer (T1-T2cN0), age ranged 50-81 years, were treated with brachytherapy alone between 2008 and 2010. Patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, Gleason score ≤ 7. The LDR-BT total dose was 144-145 Gy, in HDR-BT - 3 fractions of 10.5 or 15 Gy. The initial PSA level (iPSA) was assessed before treatment, then PSA was rated every 3 months over the first 2 years, and every 6 months during the next 3 years. Median follow-up was 3.0 years. Mean iPSA was 7.8 ng/ml. In 58 cases, PSA decreased gradually without PB or biochemical failure (BF). In 24% of patients, PB was observed. In 23 cases (24%), PB was observed using 0.2 ng/ml definition; in 10 cases (11%), BF was diagnosed using nadir + 2 ng/ml definition. The HDR-BT and LDR-BT techniques were not associated with higher level of PB (26 vs. 22%, p = 0.497). Time to the first PSA rise finished with PB was significantly shorter after HDR-BT then after LDR-BT (median, 10.5 vs. 18.0 months) during follow-up. Predictors for PB were observed only after HDR-BT. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and higher Gleason score decreased the risk of PB (HR = 0.11, p = 0.03; HR = 0.51, p = 0.01). The higher PSA nadir and longer time to PSA nadir increased the risk of PB (HR 3.46, p = 0.02; HR 1.04, p = 0.04). There was no predictors for PB after LDR-BT. HDR-BT and LDR-BT for low and intermediate risk prostate cancer had similar PB rate. The PB occurred earlier after HDR-BT than after LDR-BT. ADT and higher Gleason score decreased, and higher PSA nadir and longer time to PSA nadir increased the risk of PB after HDR-BT.

  15. Correction of incomplete charge collection in CdTe detectors using the correlation with the rise time distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horovitz, Yossi.

    1994-01-01

    Experimentally and theoretically it was found that there is a correlation between tile pulse rise time and the amount of charge that is collected in the detector contacts. As the rise time becomes longer less charge is collected. In this thesis it has been proven that one can find from this correlation, with the aid of a mathematical function, the theoretical amount of charge that has to be collected in the contacts if no trapping took place. This mathematical function called the correction function, f(t), is dependent on the rise time and the material quality (the trap concentration). In order to find the correction function, a computer, simulation was written. This computer program simulates, based on a phenomenological theoretical model, the charge collection in the detector. This model depends on three parameters (for the holes and for the electrons) that characterized the charge collection quality of the detector. The parameters are: the mean free time to be trapped, the detrapping time and the transit time that depends on the electric field. By a comparison between the simulation output and experimental data, these parameters were found. The correction function was found to be linear with rise time. This conclusion is confirmed experimentally. In this work experiments have been carried out that measured the correlation between two parameters. These experiments measured, for each photon that interacts with the detector, the pulse rise time and the pulse amplitude. A computer program accepts these spectra and substitute each element in the correction function and corrects for the incomplete charge collection. It was found that the correction function does not depend on the energy of the radiation source and source-detector geometry but depends on the material quality. The application of the correction function to the two dimensional spectra gives a correction of tens of percents in charge collection and provides an improvement in the resolution and the peak

  16. Timing and mechanism of the rise of the Shillong Plateau in the Himalayan foreland.

    OpenAIRE

    Govin, Gwladys; Najman, Yanina Manya Rachel; Copley, Alex; Millar, Ian; Van der Beek, Peter; Huyghe, Pascale; Grujic, Djordje; Davenport, Jesse

    2018-01-01

    The Shillong Plateau (northeastern India) constitutes the only significant topography in the Himalayan foreland. Knowledge of its surface uplift history is key to understanding topographic development and unraveling tectonic–climate–topographic coupling in the eastern Himalaya. We use the sedimentary record of the Himalayan foreland basin north of the Shillong Plateau to show that the paleo-Brahmaputra river was redirected north and west by the rising plateau at 5.2–4.9 Ma. We suggest that on...

  17. Rise time reduction of thermal actuators operated in air and water through optimized pre-shaped open-loop driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, T; Doll, J C; Loizeau, F; Pruitt, B L; Hosseini, N; Fantner, G E; Peng, A W; Ricci, A J

    2017-01-01

    Electrothermal actuators have many advantages compared to other actuators used in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). They are simple to design, easy to fabricate and provide large displacements at low voltages. Low voltages enable less stringent passivation requirements for operation in liquid. Despite these advantages, thermal actuation is typically limited to a few kHz bandwidth when using step inputs due to its intrinsic thermal time constant. However, the use of pre-shaped input signals offers a route for reducing the rise time of these actuators by orders of magnitude. We started with an electrothermally actuated cantilever having an initial 10–90% rise time of 85 μ s in air and 234 μ s in water for a standard open-loop step input. We experimentally characterized the linearity and frequency response of the cantilever when operated in air and water, allowing us to obtain transfer functions for the two cases. We used these transfer functions, along with functions describing desired reduced rise-time system responses, to numerically simulate the required input signals. Using these pre-shaped input signals, we improved the open-loop 10–90% rise time from 85 μ s to 3 μ s in air and from 234 μ s to 5 μ s in water, an improvement by a factor of 28 and 47, respectively. Using this simple control strategy for MEMS electrothermal actuators makes them an attractive alternative to other high speed micromechanical actuators such as piezoelectric stacks or electrostatic comb structures which are more complex to design, fabricate, or operate. (paper)

  18. Rise Time Reduction of Thermal Actuators Operated in Air and Water through Optimized Pre-Shaped Open-Loop Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T; Doll, J C; Loizeau, F; Hosseini, N; Peng, A W; Fantner, G; Ricci, A J; Pruitt, B L

    2017-01-01

    Electrothermal actuators have many advantages compared to other actuators used in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). They are simple to design, easy to fabricate and provide large displacements at low voltages. Low voltages enable less stringent passivation requirements for operation in liquid. Despite these advantages, thermal actuation is typically limited to a few kHz bandwidth when using step inputs due to its intrinsic thermal time constant. However, the use of pre-shaped input signals offers a route for reducing the rise time of these actuators by orders of magnitude. We started with an electrothermally actuated cantilever having an initial 10-90% rise time of 85 μs in air and 234 μs in water for a standard open-loop step input. We experimentally characterized the linearity and frequency response of the cantilever when operated in air and water, allowing us to obtain transfer functions for the two cases. We used these transfer functions, along with functions describing desired reduced rise-time system responses, to numerically simulate the required input signals. Using these pre-shaped input signals, we improved the open-loop 10-90% rise time from 85 μs to 3 μs in air and from 234 μs to 5 μs in water, an improvement by a factor of 28 and 47, respectively. Using this simple control strategy for MEMS electrothermal actuators makes them an attractive alternative to other high speed micromechanical actuators such as piezoelectric stacks or electrostatic comb structures which are more complex to design, fabricate, or operate.

  19. Investigation on the Factors Influencing Construction Time and Cost Overrun for High-Rise Building Projects In Penang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Haslinda, A.; Xian, T. Wei; Norfarahayu, K.; Muhamad Hanafi, R.; Fikri, H. Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Time and cost overruns have become one prominent issue for most construction projects around the world. Project costing and timeframe extension had been causing a lot of wastage and loss of opportunity for many parties involved. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the factors influencing time and cost overruns for high-rise construction projects in Penang, Malaysia. A set of questionnaires survey was distributed to the project managers who had been or currently involved in the high-rise building projects in Penang to get their input and perceptions for each factor identified as well as its frequency of occurrence. In order to rank all the factors gathered, the mean index of the most distinguishing factors and its frequency of occurrence were multiplied to get the severity index. The results revealed that for time overrun, the most predominant causes were due to design changes, inadequate planning and scheduling and poor labor productivity. Meanwhile, the predominant causes of cost overrun were poor pre-construction budget and material cost planning, inaccurate quantity take-off and materials cost increased by inflation. The significance of establishing the issues related to time and cost overruns for the high-rise building construction project is to provide a greater insight and understanding on the causes of delays, particularly among the main project players: contractors, client, and consultants.

  20. The Rise of Euroscepticism in Times of Crisis. Evidence from the 2008–2013 Eurobarometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bârgăoanu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The financial and economic turmoil within the European Union has significantly impacted upon the way in which the European citizens assess the advantages of EU membership and the future of the integration process. Intensely preoccupied with the economic problems, the EU leadership has lost sight of the constant decrease of public support and the increasing lack of citizens’ confidence in the Union. This paper seeks to show the dynamics of public opinion between 2008 and 2013 with a special focus on the rise of Euroscepticism, using secondary data analysis of standard Eurobarometers. Our longitudinal analysis reveals the dynamics of EU-related attitudes and perceptions before, during, and after most of events that are usually labeled under the rather generic term “crisis”.

  1. Effects of drive current rise-time and initial load density distribution on Z-pinch characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Yao-Yong; Guo Yong-Hui; Wang Wen-Sheng; Qiu Ai-Ci

    2005-01-01

    A two-dimensional, three-temperature radiation magneto-hydrodynamics model is applied to the investigation of evolutional trends in x-ray radiation power, energy, peak plasma temperature and density as functions of drive current rise-time and initial load density distribution by using the typical experimental parameters of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch on the Qiangguang-Ⅰ generator. The numerical results show that as the drive current rise-time is shortened, x-ray radiation peak power, energy, peak plasma density and peak ion temperature increase approximately linearly, but among them the x-ray radiation peak power increases more quickly. As the initial plasma density distribution in the radial direction becomes gradually flattened, the peak radiation power and the peak ion-temperature almost exponentially increase, while the radiation energy and the peak plasma density change only a little. The main effect of shortening drive current rise-time is to enhance compression of plasma, and the effect of flattening initial load density distribution in the radial direction is to raise the plasma temperature. Both of the approaches elevate the x-ray peak radiation power.

  2. The rise of global warming skepticism: exploring affective image associations in the United States over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    This article explores how affective image associations to global warming have changed over time. Four nationally representative surveys of the American public were conducted between 2002 and 2010 to assess public global warming risk perceptions, policy preferences, and behavior. Affective images (positive or negative feelings and cognitive representations) were collected and content analyzed. The results demonstrate a large increase in "naysayer" associations, indicating extreme skepticism about the issue of climate change. Multiple regression analyses found that holistic affect and "naysayer" associations were more significant predictors of global warming risk perceptions than cultural worldviews or sociodemographic variables, including political party and ideology. The results demonstrate the important role affective imagery plays in judgment and decision-making processes, how these variables change over time, and how global warming is currently perceived by the American public. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. High-voltage isolation transformer for sub-nanosecond rise time pulses constructed with annular parallel-strip transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Akira

    2011-07-01

    A novel annular parallel-strip transmission line was devised to construct high-voltage high-speed pulse isolation transformers. The transmission lines can easily realize stable high-voltage operation and good impedance matching between primary and secondary circuits. The time constant for the step response of the transformer was calculated by introducing a simple low-frequency equivalent circuit model. Results show that the relation between the time constant and low-cut-off frequency of the transformer conforms to the theory of the general first-order linear time-invariant system. Results also show that the test transformer composed of the new transmission lines can transmit about 600 ps rise time pulses across the dc potential difference of more than 150 kV with insertion loss of -2.5 dB. The measured effective time constant of 12 ns agreed exactly with the theoretically predicted value. For practical applications involving the delivery of synchronized trigger signals to a dc high-voltage electron gun station, the transformer described in this paper exhibited advantages over methods using fiber optic cables for the signal transfer system. This transformer has no jitter or breakdown problems that invariably occur in active circuit components.

  4. Luminescence rise time in self-activated PbWO4 and Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 scintillation crystals

    CERN Document Server

    E. Auffray; A. Borisevich; V. Gulbinas; A. Fedorov; M. Korjik; M.T. Lucchini; V. Mechinsky; S. Nargelas; E. Songaila; G. Tamulaitis; A. Vaitkevičius; S. Zazubovich

    2016-01-01

    The time resolution of scintillation detectors of ionizing radiation is one of the key parameters sought for in the current and future high-energy physics experiments. This study is encouraged by the necessity to find novel detection methods enabling a sub-10-ps time resolution in scintillation detectors and is focused on the exploitation of fast luminescence rise front. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and thermally stimulated luminescence techniques have been used to study two promising scintillators: self-activated lead tungstate (PWO, PbWO4) and Ce-doped gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (GAGG, Gd3Al2Ga3O12). A sub-picosecond PL rise time is observed in PWO, while longer processes in the PL response in GAGG:Ce are detected and studied. The mechanisms responsible for the PL rise time in self-activated and doped scintillators are under discussion.

  5. Contrasting characteristics of sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air and atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J L; Liu, D X; Iza, F; Kong, M G; Rong, M Z

    2010-01-01

    Glow discharges in air are often considered to be the ultimate low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas for numerous chamber-free applications. This is due to the ubiquitous presence of air and the perceived abundance of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in air plasmas. In this paper, sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air plasmas are shown to produce a low concentration of excited oxygen atoms but an abundance of excited nitrogen species, UV photons and ozone molecules. This contrasts sharply with the efficient production of excited oxygen atoms in comparable helium-oxygen discharges. Relevant reaction chemistry analysed with a global model suggests that collisional excitation of O 2 by helium metastables is significantly more efficient than electron dissociative excitation of O 2 , electron excitation of O and ion-ion recombination. These results suggest different practical uses of the two oxygen-containing atmospheric discharges, with air plasmas being well suited for nitrogen and UV based chemistry and He-O 2 plasmas for excited atomic oxygen based chemistry. (fast track communication)

  6. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Contrasting characteristics of sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air and atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen glow discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. L.; Liu, D. X.; Iza, F.; Rong, M. Z.; Kong, M. G.

    2010-01-01

    Glow discharges in air are often considered to be the ultimate low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas for numerous chamber-free applications. This is due to the ubiquitous presence of air and the perceived abundance of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in air plasmas. In this paper, sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air plasmas are shown to produce a low concentration of excited oxygen atoms but an abundance of excited nitrogen species, UV photons and ozone molecules. This contrasts sharply with the efficient production of excited oxygen atoms in comparable helium-oxygen discharges. Relevant reaction chemistry analysed with a global model suggests that collisional excitation of O2 by helium metastables is significantly more efficient than electron dissociative excitation of O2, electron excitation of O and ion-ion recombination. These results suggest different practical uses of the two oxygen-containing atmospheric discharges, with air plasmas being well suited for nitrogen and UV based chemistry and He-O2 plasmas for excited atomic oxygen based chemistry.

  7. Minimization of the external heating power by long fusion power rise-up time for self-ignition access in the helical reactor FFHR2m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitarai, O.; Sagara, A.; Chikaraishi, H.; Imagawa, S.; Shishkin, A.A.; Motojima, O.

    2006-10-01

    Minimization of the external heating power to access self-ignition is advantageous to increase the reactor design flexibility and to reduce the capital and operating costs of the plasma heating device in a helical reactor. In this work we have discovered that a larger density limit leads to a smaller value of the required confinement enhancement factor, lower density limit margin reduces the external heating power, and over 300 s of the fusion power rise-up time makes it possible to reach a minimized heating power. While the fusion power rise-up time in a tokamak is limited by the OH transformer flux or the current drive capability, any fusion power rise-up time can be employed in a helical reactor for reducing the thermal stresses of the blanket and shields, because the confinement field is generated by the external helical coils. (author)

  8. Application of the pulse-rise-time discriminator for background noise decreasing in proportional x-ray counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goganov, D.A.; Guslina, A.G.; Korolev, V.F.; Lozinskij, B.S.; Sklyankin, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The intrinsic background of commercial rising edge discriminator - based proportional counters has been measured. The block-diagram of the experimental apparatus comprises the detector to be tested, a charge-sensitive amplifier with an amplitude analyzer, a rising edge discriminator (RED) and a scaling device. The rising edges have been analyzed in the range between 0.2 to 0.7 of the pulse amplitude. The RED threshold has been preset to cut off all the edges longer than those of 55 Fe (to register 87% of the 55 Fe quanta). It has been found that by limiting the amplitude discriminator window to +-20% and using a RED the background of commercial counters can be reduced by about an order

  9. From RISING to the DESPEC fast-timing project within NUSTAR at FAIR: Sub-nanosecond nuclear timing spectroscopy with LaBr3 scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarises a presentation given at the IRRMA8 conference in June 2011 which reviewed briefly the topic of current research studies in the evolution of nuclear structure with changing proton and neutron numbers. A short review of relevant contemporary spectroscopic studies of the structure of nuclei with highly exotic N/Z ratios using projectile fragmentation and fission reactions is given, together with an overview of some of the physics research aims to be attacked using the proposed Decay Spectroscopy (DESPEC) LaBr 3 Fast-Timing gamma-ray array for the NUSTAR project at the upcoming Facility for Anti-Proton and Ion Research (FAIR). Examples of recent results using both ‘isomer’ and β − -delayed gamma-ray decay measurements with the Stopped RISING hyper-pure germanium array at GSI are summarised and used to highlight some of the fundamental physics studies which are expected to become available in this area of research in the coming decade. Examples of the performance of cerium-doped LaBr 3 detectors from ‘in-beam’ test experiments are presented together with initial plans for the geometry of the planned multi-detector LaBr 3 (Ce) array for DESPEC. - Highlights: ► The paper presents an overview of nuclear excitation systematics in even–even nuclei. ► The paper gives a description of the Stopped RISING gamma-ray spectrometer. ► This paper gives some of the recent scientific results in nuclear spectroscopy of exotic nuclei. ► The paper shows the use of halide scintillation detectors for gamma-ray decay studies of nuclei. ► This paper shows the use of LaBr 3 detectors to nuclear excited state lifetimes in the ns regime.

  10. Green's function for a switched plasma medium and a perturbation technique for the study of wave propagation in a transient plasma with a small rise time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalluri, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    The main effect of switching a medium (creating a temporal discontinuity in the properties of a medium) is the splitting of the source (incident) wave into new waves whose frequencies are different. Lightning induced effects in the ionosphere cause a temporary enhancement of ionization. Such transient plasmas have a time-varying plasma frequency ω p (t) with a rise time T r . If the period t 0 of a source wave existing before the transient effect begins is much larger than the rise time, the ionization change may be idealized as a sudden switching of the medium. The solution to this initial value problem with a step-change in the electron density profile is known and this profile will be considered as a reference profile. The topic of this paper is the solution of the initial value problem when t 0 is comparable to the rise time T r . The initial motivation for investigating the problem is given below. There is considerable interest in the ionospheric physics community to investigate the recently discovered Sprites phenomenon which are red emissions in the lower D region induced by the lightning discharges from a cloud to the ground. The preliminary indications are that the Sprite is a plasma with electron density enhanced by about 10 1 to 10 3 /cc in a rise time of about 100 micros

  11. An Enterprise Model of Rising Ship Costs: Loss of Learning Due to Time between Ships and Labor Force Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Summerville, Jessica R.; Cullis, Bethia L.; Druker, Eric R.; Rutledge, Gabriel B.; Braxton, Peter J.; Coleman, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) Since the end of the Cold War, the perceived need for Navy ships has dropped, and so the shipbuilding budget has dropped. Seemingly coincidental with this budgetary pressure, and perversely aggravating the problem, ship costs began to rise steeply. We will set aside that ships have grown in weight by about three percent per year since World War II and that ever-more weapon systems are being put into them, and confine ourselves to discu...

  12. Rising equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a financial rankings survey of the independent energy industry indicating that lenders and investors provided more than five billion dollars in capital for new, private power projects during the first six months of 1992. The topics of the article include rising equity requirements, corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, project finance investors, revenue bonds, project finance lenders for new projects, project finance lenders for restructurings, and project finance advisors

  13. Zero-crossing detector with sub-microsecond jitter and crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, G. John; Kuhnle, Paul F.; Sydnor, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    A zero-crossing detector (ZCD) was built and tested with a new circuit design which gives reduced time jitter compared to previous designs. With the new design, time jitter is reduced for the first time to a value which approaches that due to noise in the input amplifying stage. Additionally, with fiber-optic transmission of the output signal, crosstalk between units has been eliminated. The measured values are in good agreement with circuit noise calculations and approximately ten times lower than that for ZCD's presently installed in the JPL test facility. Crosstalk between adjacent units was reduced even more than the jitter.

  14. Effect of liquid gate bias rising time in pH sensors based on Si nanowire ion sensitive field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jungkyu; Choi, Sungju; Kim, Jungmok; Park, Tae Jung; Park, Byung-Gook; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Dae Hwan; Mo, Hyun-Sun

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of rising time (TR) of liquid gate bias (VLG) on transient responses in pH sensors based on Si nanowire ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs). As TR becomes shorter and pH values decrease, the ISFET current takes a longer time to saturate to the pH-dependent steady-state value. By correlating VLG with the internal gate-to-source voltage of the ISFET, we found that this effect occurs when the drift/diffusion of mobile ions in analytes in response to VLG is delayed. This gives us useful insight on the design of ISFET-based point-of-care circuits and systems, particularly with respect to determining an appropriate rising time for the liquid gate bias.

  15. Experimental study of multilayer DBD excited by sub-microsecond pulse power at atmospheric air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jie; Xie Yutong; Wang Yuan; Jiang Xiaoguo; Long Jidong; Zhang Linwen; Li Xi

    2014-01-01

    Multilayer dielectric barrier discharge can efficiently enlarge the volume of plasma and its interreaction surface area with materials in the longitudinal direction, which seems attractive to the industry application. In this paper, a new plasma generator of DBD structure which has multilayer dielectric barrier boards is introduced, and homogeneous plasma has been obtained in atmospheric pressure air. The discharge filaments can't be distinguished by common camera with the exposure time of l/17 s. Experiments of high speed photography with the exposure time of 5 ns has been carried out to the discharge with three layers of dielectric barrier boards with each gap width of 2 mm. It can be found that luminescence of the discharge distributes uniformly throughout the upper and the lower gaps. The two layers of the luminescent intensity keeps good consistency with each other, and this indicates that breakdown of each gap layers happens at the same time in a multilayer DBD. (authors)

  16. Ciguatera incidence in the US Virgin Islands has not increased over a 30-year time period despite rising seawater temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Elizabeth G; Grattan, Lynn M; Cook, Robert L; Smith, Tyler B; Anderson, Donald M; Morris, J Glenn

    2013-05-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common marine food poisoning worldwide. It has been hypothesized that increasing seawater temperature will result in increasing ciguatera incidence. In St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, we performed an island-wide telephone survey (N = 807) and a medical record review of diagnosed ciguatera cases at the emergency department of the sole hospital and compared these data with comparable data sources collected in 1980. Annual incidence from both recent data sources remained high (12 per 1,000 among adults in the telephone survey). However, the combined data sources suggest that incidence has declined by 20% or more or remained stable over 30 years, whereas seawater temperatures were increasing. Illness was associated with lower education levels, higher levels of fish consumption, and having previous episodes of ciguatera; population shifts from 1980 to 2010 in these factors could explain an incidence decline of approximately 3 per 1,000, obscuring effects from rising seawater temperature.

  17. SPHINX: a generator based on 1 microsecond current rise time LTD stages. Status and first results for production of soft X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangeant, Ch.; Roques, B.; Cadiergues, R.

    2005-01-01

    SPHINX is the new name of the facility developed for soft X-ray production. This facility is based on the ECF2 generator which was designed as a 1-3 MJ, 1 μs rise time, 5-10 MA current driver. We present a detailed view of the technology used for the capacitor bank, for the central vacuum part and for the Z-pinch loads [ru

  18. Assessment of Temperature Rise and Time of Alveolar Ridge Splitting by Means of Er:YAG Laser, Piezosurgery, and Surgical Saw: An Ex Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys, Jacek; Flieger, Rafał; Dominiak, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    The most common adverse effect after bone cutting is a thermal damage. The aim of our study was to evaluate the bone temperature rise during an alveolar ridge splitting, rating the time needed to perform this procedure and the time to raise the temperature of a bone by 10°C, as well as to evaluate the bone carbonization occurrence. The research included 60 mandibles ( n = 60) of adult pigs, divided into 4 groups ( n = 15). Two vertical and one horizontal cut have been done in an alveolar ridge using Er:YAG laser with set power of 200 mJ (G1), 400 mJ (G2), piezosurgery unit (G3), and a saw (G4). The temperature was measured by K-type thermocouple. The highest temperature gradient was noted for piezosurgery on the buccal and lingual side of mandible. The temperature rises on the bone surface along with the increase of laser power. The lower time needed to perform ridge splitting was measured for a saw, piezosurgery, and Er:YAG laser with power of 400 mJ and 200 mJ, respectively. The temperature rise measured on the bone over 10°C and bone carbonization occurrence was not reported in all study groups. Piezosurgery, Er:YAG laser (200 mJ and 400 mJ), and surgical saw are useful and safe tools in ridge splitting surgery.

  19. Assessment of Temperature Rise and Time of Alveolar Ridge Splitting by Means of Er:YAG Laser, Piezosurgery, and Surgical Saw: An Ex Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Matys

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common adverse effect after bone cutting is a thermal damage. The aim of our study was to evaluate the bone temperature rise during an alveolar ridge splitting, rating the time needed to perform this procedure and the time to raise the temperature of a bone by 10°C, as well as to evaluate the bone carbonization occurrence. The research included 60 mandibles (n=60 of adult pigs, divided into 4 groups (n=15. Two vertical and one horizontal cut have been done in an alveolar ridge using Er:YAG laser with set power of 200 mJ (G1, 400 mJ (G2, piezosurgery unit (G3, and a saw (G4. The temperature was measured by K-type thermocouple. The highest temperature gradient was noted for piezosurgery on the buccal and lingual side of mandible. The temperature rises on the bone surface along with the increase of laser power. The lower time needed to perform ridge splitting was measured for a saw, piezosurgery, and Er:YAG laser with power of 400 mJ and 200 mJ, respectively. The temperature rise measured on the bone over 10°C and bone carbonization occurrence was not reported in all study groups. Piezosurgery, Er:YAG laser (200 mJ and 400 mJ, and surgical saw are useful and safe tools in ridge splitting surgery.

  20. Deformation of zirconium - niobium alloy E635 in sub-microsecond shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, D. N.; Kozelkov, O. E.; Mayorova, A. S.; Malyugina, A. S.; Mokrushin, S. S.; Pavlenko, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Strength characteristics of zirconium - niobium alloy E635 were measured under shock - wave loading conditions at normal and elevated temperatures and results of these measurements are presented. Measurements were taken in conditions when samples were impacted by plane shock waves with the pressure up to 13 GPa and duration from ˜0.05 μs up to 1 μs. Free-surface velocity profiles were recorded with the help of VISAR and PDV laser Doppler velocimeters having nanosecond time resolution. Evolution of elastic precursors with samples thickness varying from 0.5 up to 8 mm is also considered. Measured attenuation of the elastic precursor was used to determine plastic strain rate behind the precursor front. Temperature effect on the value of dynamic elastic limit and spall strength at normal and elevated temperatures is studied. This work is implemented with the support of the State Atomic Energy Corporation "Rosatom" under State Contract H.4x.44.90.13.1111.

  1. Deformation of zirconium – niobium alloy E635 in sub-microsecond shock waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakov D.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strength characteristics of zirconium - niobium alloy E635 were measured under shock - wave loading conditions at normal and elevated temperatures and results of these measurements are presented. Measurements were taken in conditions when samples were impacted by plane shock waves with the pressure up to 13 GPa and duration from ∼0.05 μs up to 1 μs. Free-surface velocity profiles were recorded with the help of VISAR and PDV laser Doppler velocimeters having nanosecond time resolution. Evolution of elastic precursors with samples thickness varying from 0.5 up to 8 mm is also considered. Measured attenuation of the elastic precursor was used to determine plastic strain rate behind the precursor front. Temperature effect on the value of dynamic elastic limit and spall strength at normal and elevated temperatures is studied. This work is implemented with the support of the State Atomic Energy Corporation “Rosatom” under State Contract H.4x.44.90.13.1111.

  2. Submicrosecond electro-optic switching in the liquid-crystal smectic A phase: The soft-mode ferroelectric effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, G.; Dahl, I.; Keller, P.; Kuczyński, W.; Lagerwall, S. T.; Skarp, K.; Stebler, B.

    1987-08-01

    A new liquid-crystal electro-optic modulating device similar to the surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid-crystal device is described. It uses the same kind of ferroelectric chiral smectics and the same geometry as that device (thin sample in the ``bookshelf '' layer arrangement) but instead of using a tilted smectic phase like the C* phase, it utilizes the above-lying, nonferroelectric A phase, taking advantage of the electroclinic effect. The achievable optical intensity modulation that can be detected through the full range of the A phase is considerably lower than for the surface-stabilized device, but the response is much faster. Furthermore, the response is strictly linear with respect to the applied electric field. The device concept is thus appropriate for modulator rather than for display applications. We describe the underlying physics and present measurements of induced tilt angle, of light modulation depth, and of rise time.

  3. Timing of breast cancer surgery in relation to the menstrual cycle the rise and fall of a hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroman, N.

    2008-01-01

    It has been claimed that the timing of surgery in relation to the menstrual cycle can significantly influence the prognosis among premenopausal women with primary breast cancer. The literature on the subject is reviewed. The results are heterogeneous, and the quality of the studies is in general...

  4. Improvement in limit of detection in particle induced X-ray emission by means of rise time and pulse shape discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, Tibor E-mail: tibpapp@netscape.nettibpapp@yahoo.ca; Lakatos, Tamas; Nejedly, Zdenek; Campbell, John L

    2002-04-01

    A digital signal processor, based upon high-rate sampling of the preamplifier output, and equipped with rise time and pulse shape discrimination, has been tested in three situations. This processor provided significant improvement of particle induced X-ray emission and X-ray fluorescence detection limits over the state of the art analog processors, depending on the energy and intensity distribution of the X-ray spectra. Additionally it had a superior performance when measurements were performed in an environment of large electronic noise and in large nuclear background environment. It has also improved the reduction of several artifacts in X-ray spectra.

  5. [The reasons and background for the rise of college education of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-jie; Huang, Ying; Li, Jie

    2009-09-01

    With western learning spreading throughout the orient, the survival and development of TCM was restrained to a large degree due to the medical administrative policy, educational system and diffusion of western medicine at different social levels. Facing this adversity, the TCM sector complied with the changing times and survived through persistent efforts as well as wide and solid popular foundations, striving actively for the legitimacy status of TCM education and establishing several TCM colleges. During the course of running the colleges, the TCM sector was brave in changing ideas and giving and accepting new knowledge, it explored a comprehensive educational syllabus, which not only promoted the development of TCM education in the Republican period of China, but also laid a foundation for TCM education in the new period.

  6. Generation of ultra-fast cumulative water jets by sub-microsecond underwater electrical explosion of conical wire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, D.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Gleizer, S.; Gruzinsky, K.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2015-12-15

    The results of experiments with underwater electrical explosion of modified conical arrays of copper and aluminum wires are presented. A pulsed generator producing a 550 kA-amplitude current with a 400 ns rise time was used in the explosion of the arrays. The array explosion generates water flows converging at the axis of the cone. This flow generates a fast-moving water jet with a velocity exceeding 1.8 × 10{sup 5 }cm/s, which was observed being ejected from the surface of the water covering the array. The positions of the water jet were measured by multiple-exposure fast framing imaging. In experiments, the apex angle of the array, the thickness of the water layer above the arrays, or the material of the wires was altered, which changed the resulting velocities and shapes of the emitted jets. A model that considers the converging stationary flow of a slightly compressible fluid is suggested. The velocities and shapes of the jets obtained by this model agree well with the experimentally measured jet velocities.

  7. Microfossil measures of rapid sea-level rise: Timing of response of two microfossil groups to a sudden tidal-flooding experiment in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B.P.; Milker, Yvonne; Dura, T.; Wang, Kelin; Bridgeland, W.T.; Brophy, Laura S.; Ewald, M.; Khan, Nicole; Engelhart, S.E.; Nelson, Alan R.; Witter, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Comparisons of pre-earthquake and post-earthquake microfossils in tidal sequences are accurate means to measure coastal subsidence during past subduction earthquakes, but the amount of subsidence is uncertain, because the response times of fossil taxa to coseismic relative sea-level (RSL) rise are unknown. We measured the response of diatoms and foraminifera to restoration of a salt marsh in southern Oregon, USA. Tidal flooding following dike removal caused an RSL rise of ∼1 m, as might occur by coseismic subsidence during momentum magnitude (Mw) 8.1–8.8 earthquakes on this section of the Cascadia subduction zone. Less than two weeks after dike removal, diatoms colonized low marsh and tidal flats in large numbers, showing that they can record seismically induced subsidence soon after earthquakes. In contrast, low-marsh foraminifera took at least 11 months to appear in sizeable numbers. Where subsidence measured with diatoms and foraminifera differs, their different response times may provide an estimate of postseismic vertical deformation in the months following past megathrust earthquakes.

  8. An Empirical Fitting Method to Type Ia Supernova Light Curves. III. A Three-parameter Relationship: Peak Magnitude, Rise Time, and Photospheric Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2018-05-01

    We examine the relationship between three parameters of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia): peak magnitude, rise time, and photospheric velocity at the time of peak brightness. The peak magnitude is corrected for extinction using an estimate determined from MLCS2k2 fitting. The rise time is measured from the well-observed B-band light curve with the first detection at least 1 mag fainter than the peak magnitude, and the photospheric velocity is measured from the strong absorption feature of Si II λ6355 at the time of peak brightness. We model the relationship among these three parameters using an expanding fireball with two assumptions: (a) the optical emission is approximately that of a blackbody, and (b) the photospheric temperatures of all SNe Ia are the same at the time of peak brightness. We compare the precision of the distance residuals inferred using this physically motivated model against those from the empirical Phillips relation and the MLCS2k2 method for 47 low-redshift SNe Ia (0.005 Ia in our sample with higher velocities are inferred to be intrinsically fainter. Eliminating the high-velocity SNe and applying a more stringent extinction cut to obtain a “low-v golden sample” of 22 SNe, we obtain significantly reduced scatter of 0.108 ± 0.018 mag in the new relation, better than those of the Phillips relation and the MLCS2k2 method. For 250 km s‑1 of residual peculiar motions, we find 68% and 95% upper limits on the intrinsic scatter of 0.07 and 0.10 mag, respectively.

  9. A two-level model of rise time in quantum cascade laser materials applied to 5 micron, 9 micron and terahertz-range wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J F; Yong, K S C; Haldar, M K

    2014-01-01

    An equivalent circuit simulation of a two-level rate equation model for quantum cascade laser (QCL) materials is used to study the turn on delay and rise time for three QCLs with 5 micron, 9 micron and terahertz-range wavelengths. In order to do this it is necessary that the model can deal with large signal responses and not be restricted to small signal responses; the model used here is capable of this. The effect of varying some of the characteristic times in the model is also investigated. The comparison of the terahertz wave QCL with the others is particularly important given the increased interest in terahertz sources which have a large range of important applications, such as in medical imaging

  10. Luminescence rise time in self-activated PbWO{sub 4} and Ce-doped Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 12} scintillation crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffray, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Augulis, R. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių av. 231, Vilnius (Lithuania); Borisevich, A. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Bobruiskaya str. 11, Minsk (Belarus); Gulbinas, V. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių av. 231, Vilnius (Lithuania); Fedorov, A.; Korjik, M. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Bobruiskaya str. 11, Minsk (Belarus); Lucchini, M.T. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Mechinsky, V. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Bobruiskaya str. 11, Minsk (Belarus); Nargelas, S. [Vilnius University, Universiteto str. 3, Vilnius (Lithuania); Songaila, E. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių av. 231, Vilnius (Lithuania); Tamulaitis, G. [Vilnius University, Universiteto str. 3, Vilnius (Lithuania); Vaitkevičius, A., E-mail: augustas.vaitkevicius@ff.vu.lt [Vilnius University, Universiteto str. 3, Vilnius (Lithuania); Zazubovich, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str. 1, Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-10-15

    The time resolution of scintillation detectors of ionizing radiation is one of the key parameters sought for in the current and future high-energy physics experiments. This study is encouraged by the necessity to find novel detection methods enabling a sub-10-ps time resolution in scintillation detectors and is focused on the exploitation of fast luminescence rise front. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and thermally stimulated luminescence techniques have been used to study two promising scintillators: self-activated lead tungstate (PWO, PbWO{sub 4}) and Ce-doped gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (GAGG, Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 12}). A sub-picosecond PL rise time is observed in PWO, while longer processes in the PL response in GAGG:Ce are detected and studied. The mechanisms responsible for the PL rise time in self-activated and doped scintillators are under discussion. - Highlights: • Photoluminescence rise time is studied in two scintillators: PWO and GAGG:Ce. • Sub-picosecond photoluminescence rise time in PWO is observed for the first time. • A multicomponent luminescence rise edge is observed in GAGG:Ce. • The mechanisms behind luminescence kinetics in the crystals are under discussion.

  11. The changing timing of births in Iran: an explanation of the rise and fall in fertility after the 1979 Islamic Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Amir; McQuillan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Studies exploring the course of period fertility in Iran after the 1979 Islamic Revolution have not examined systematically the role played by changes in the timing of births. Using retrospective data from the 2000 Iran Demographic and Health Survey and frailty hazard models, this study finds that the rise in fertility in the early 1980s was due to faster transitions to the first birth among all social groups of women and to the fourth birth largely among illiterate and less educated women. In contrast, the rapid fertility decline after 1985 is attributed to slower transition to successive births, especially to the second, third, and fourth births. These findings point to the importance of education and contraceptive use (measured by length of previous birth interval) as key determinants of birth timing in Iran. Interaction between age at marriage and education positively influenced the timing of births, with stronger effects among highly educated women, suggesting that the onset of rapid fertility decline was likely driven by these highly educated women. Another interaction between the gender of prior children and education shows that birth timing, even among highly educated women, appears to have been influenced by son preference in Iran.

  12. An Investigation of the Sub-Microsecond Features of Dynamic Crack Propagation in PMMA and the Rdx-Based Explosive PBX 9205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, P. D.; Hill, L. G.

    2007-12-01

    A dynamic crack propagating in a brittle material releases enough thermal energy to produce visible light. The dynamic fracture of even macroscopically amorphous materials becomes unsteady as the crack propagation velocity approaches the material wave-speeds. The heat generated at a crack-tip, especially as it jumps, may be a mechanism to initiate a self-sustaining reaction in an energetic material. Experiments were conducted in specimens to simulate an infinite plate for ˜10 μs. The initial specimens were 152 mm square by 6 mm thick acrylic sheets, and were fabricated to study non-steady near-wave-speed crack propagation. A variant of this specimen embedded a 25 mm×3 mm PBX 9205 pellet to explore the influence of dynamic Mode-I cracks in these materials. The crack was initiated by up to 0.24 g of Detasheet placed along a precursor 50 mm long notch, with a shield to contain the reaction products and prevent propagation along the fractured surfaces. The crack was studied by means of a streak camera and a Fourier-filter of the light reflecting off the newly minted surfaces. The sub-microsecond behavior of holes initiating, preceding and coalescing with the main crack were observed in the PMMA samples. The embedding and mechanical loading of explosives by this technique did not initiate a self-sustaining reaction in preliminary testing.

  13. An initial investigation of the sub-microsecond features of dynamic crack propagation in PMMA and the RDX-based explosive PBX 9205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, Peter; Hill, Larry

    2007-06-01

    A dynamic crack propagating in a brittle material releases enough thermal energy to produce visible light. The dynamic fracture of even macroscopically amorphous materials becomes unsteady as the crack propagation velocity approaches the material wave-speeds. The heat generated at a crack-tip, especially as it jumps, may be a mechanism to initiate a self-sustaining reaction in an energetic material. Experiments were conducted in specimens to simulate an infinite plate for 20 μs. The initial specimens were 152 mm square by 6 mm thick acrylic sheets, and were fabricated to study non-steady near-wave-speed crack propagation. A variant of this specimen embedded a 25 mm x 3 mm PBX 9205 pellet to explore the influence of dynamic Mode-I cracks in these materials. The crack was initiated by up to 0.2 g of Detasheet placed along a precursor 50 mm long notch, with a shield to contain the reaction products and prevent propagation along the fractured surfaces. The crack was studied by means of a streak camera and a Fourier-filter of the light reflecting off the newly minted surfaces. The sub-microsecond behavior of holes initiating, preceding and coalescing with the main crack were observed in the PMMA samples. The embedding and mechanical loading of explosives by this technique did not initiate a self-sustaining reaction in preliminary testing.

  14. Pulsed sub-microsecond dielectric barrier discharge treatment of simulated glass manufacturing industry flue gas: removal of SO2 and NOx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khacef, A; Cormier, J M

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the removal of SO 2 and NOx from simulated glass manufacturing industry flue gas containing O 2 , N 2 , NO, NO 2 , CO 2 , SO 2 and H 2 O using a sub-microsecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure. Removal efficiencies of SO 2 and NOx (NO+NO 2 ) were achieved as a function of gas temperature for two specific energies and two initial NO, NO 2 and SO 2 concentrations. The higher SO 2 and NOx removal efficiencies were achieved in a gas stream containing 163 ppm of SO 2 , 523 ppm of NO, 49 ppm of NO 2 , 14% of CO 2 , 8% of O 2 , 16% of H 2 O and N 2 as balance. The experimental results were evaluated using the energy cost or W-value (eV/molecule removed). About 100% of SO 2 and 36% of NOx were removed at a gas temperature of 100 deg. C with an energy cost of about 45 eV/molecule removed and 36 eV/molecule removed, respectively. These results indicate that DBD plasmas have the potential to remove SO 2 and NOx from gas streams without additives

  15. Plant ecosystem responses to rising atmospheric CO2: applying a "two-timing" approach to assess alternative hypotheses for mechanisms of nutrient limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlyn, B.; Jiang, M.; Zaehle, S.

    2017-12-01

    There is now ample experimental evidence that the response of terrestrial vegetation to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration is modified by soil nutrient availability. How to represent nutrient cycling processes is thus a key consideration for vegetation models. We have previously used model intercomparison to demonstrate that models incorporating different assumptions predict very different responses at Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiments. Careful examination of model outputs has provided some insight into the reasons for the different model outcomes, but it is difficult to attribute outcomes to specific assumptions. Here we investigate the impact of individual assumptions in a generic plant carbon-nutrient cycling model. The G'DAY (Generic Decomposition And Yield) model is modified to incorporate alternative hypotheses for nutrient cycling. We analyse the impact of these assumptions in the model using a simple analytical approach known as "two-timing". This analysis identifies the quasi-equilibrium behaviour of the model at the time scales of the component pools. The analysis provides a useful mathematical framework for probing model behaviour and identifying the most critical assumptions for experimental study.

  16. Contemporary sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  17. Plume rise from multiple sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A simple enhancement factor for plume rise from multiple sources is proposed and tested against plume-rise observations. For bent-over buoyant plumes, this results in the recommendation that multiple-source rise be calculated as [(N + S)/(1 + S)]/sup 1/3/ times the single-source rise, Δh 1 , where N is the number of sources and S = 6 (total width of source configuration/N/sup 1/3/ Δh 1 )/sup 3/2/. For calm conditions a crude but simple method is suggested for predicting the height of plume merger and subsequent behavior which is based on the geometry and velocity variations of a single buoyant plume. Finally, it is suggested that large clusters of buoyant sources might occasionally give rise to concentrated vortices either within the source configuration or just downwind of it

  18. submitter Measurement of intrinsic rise times for various L(Y)SO and LuAG scintillators with a general study of prompt photons to achieve 10 ps in TOF-PET

    CERN Document Server

    Gundacker, Stefan; Pauwels, Kristof; Lecoq, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The coincidence time resolution (CTR) of scintillator based detectors commonly used in positron emission tomography is well known to be dependent on the scintillation decay time (${{\\tau}_{d}}$ ) and the number of photons detected (${{n}^{\\prime}}$ ), i.e. $CTR\\propto \\sqrt{{{\\tau}_{d}}/{{n}^{\\prime}}}$ . However, it is still an open question to what extent the scintillation rise time (${{\\tau}_{r}}$ ) and other fast or prompt photons, e.g. Cherenkov photons, at the beginning of the scintillation process influence the CTR. This paper presents measurements of the scintillation emission rate for different LSO type crystals, i.e. LSO:Ce, LYSO:Ce, LSO:Ce codoped Ca and LGSO:Ce. For the various LSO-type samples measured we find an average value of 70 ps for the scintillation rise time, although some crystals like LSO:Ce codoped Ca seem to have a much faster rise time in the order of 20 ps. Additional measurements for LuAG:Ce and LuAG:Pr show a rise time of 535 ps and 251 ps, respectively. For these crystals, promp...

  19. Coal prices rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  20. Plume rise predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Anyone involved with diffusion calculations becomes well aware of the strong dependence of maximum ground concentrations on the effective stack height, h/sub e/. For most conditions chi/sub max/ is approximately proportional to h/sub e/ -2 , as has been recognized at least since 1936 (Bosanquet and Pearson). Making allowance for the gradual decrease in the ratio of vertical to lateral diffusion at increasing heights, the exponent is slightly larger, say chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/ - 2 . 3 . In inversion breakup fumigation, the exponent is somewhat smaller; very crudely, chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/ -1 . 5 . In any case, for an elevated emission the dependence of chi/sub max/ on h/sub e/ is substantial. It is postulated that a really clever ignorant theoretician can disguise his ignorance with dimensionless constants. For most sources the effective stack height is considerably larger than the actual source height, h/sub s/. For instance, for power plants with no downwash problems, h/sub e/ is more than twice h/sub s/ whenever the wind is less than 10 m/sec, which is most of the time. This is unfortunate for anyone who has to predict ground concentrations, for he is likely to have to calculate the plume rise, Δh. Especially when using h/sub e/ = h/sub s/ + Δh instead of h/sub s/ may reduce chi/sub max/ by a factor of anywhere from 4 to infinity. Factors to be considered in making plume rise predictions are discussed

  1. Understanding Coastal Wetland Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise Enhanced Inundation Using Real-Time Stage Monitoring, LiDAR, and Monte Carlo Simulation in Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H.; Zhang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetlands are one of the most productive ecological systems in the world, providing critical habitat area and valuable ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. However, due to their location in low lying areas, coastal wetlands are particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise (SLR). Everglades National Park (ENP) encompasses the southern-most portion of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem, and is the largest subtropical wetland in the USA. Water depths have shown to have a significant relationship to vegetation community composition and organization while also playing a crucial role in vegetation health throughout the Everglades. Live plants play a vital role in maintaining soil structure (i.e. elevation), and decreases in vegetation health can cause peat collapse or wetland loss resulting in dramatic habitat, organic soil, and elevation loss posing concerns for Everglades management and restoration. One suspected mechanism for peat collapse is enhanced inundation due to SLR, thus mapping and modeling water depths is a critical component to understanding the potential impacts of future SLR. Previous research in the Everglades focused on a conventional Water Depth Model (WDM) approach where a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is subtracted from a Water Table Elevation Model (WTEM). In this study, the conventional WDM approach is extended to a more rigorous WDM technique so that the accuracy and precision of the underlying data may be considered. Monte Carlo simulation is used to propagate probability distributions through our SLR depth model using our Random Forest-based LiDAR DEM, Empirical Bayesian Kriging-based WTEMs, uncertainties in vertical datums, soil accretion projections, and regional sea-level rise projections. Water depth maps were produced for the wet and dry seasons in April and October, which successfully revealed the potential spatial and temporal water depth variations due to future SLR. It is concluded that a more rigorous WDM technique helps

  2. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  3. A fluorescence-based method for direct measurement of submicrosecond intramolecular contact formation in biopolymers: an exploratory study with polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Robert R; Huang, Fang; Gramlich, Gabriela; Nau, Werner M

    2002-01-30

    A fluorescent amino acid derivative (Fmoc-DBO) has been synthesized, which contains 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) as a small, hydrophilic fluorophore with an extremely long fluorescence lifetime (325 ns in H2O and 505 ns in D2O under air). Polypeptides containing both the DBO residue and an efficient fluorescence quencher allow the measurement of rate constants for intramolecular end-to-end contact formation. Bimolecular quenching experiments indicated that Trp, Cys, Met, and Tyr are efficient quenchers of DBO (k(q) = 20, 5.1, 4.5, and 3.6 x 10(8) M(-1) x s(-1) in D2O), while the other amino acids are inefficient. The quenching by Trp, which was selected as an intrinsic quencher, is presumed to involve exciplex-induced deactivation. Flexible, structureless polypeptides, Trp-(Gly-Ser)n-DBO-NH2, were prepared by standard solid-phase synthesis, and the rates of contact formation were measured through the intramolecular fluorescence quenching of DBO by Trp with time-correlated single-photon counting, laser flash photolysis, and steady-state fluorometry. Rate constants of 4.1, 6.8, 4.9, 3.1, 2.0, and 1.1 x 10(7) s(-1) for n = 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 were obtained. Noteworthy was the relatively slow quenching for the shortest peptide (n = 0). The kinetic data are in agreement with recent transient absorption studies of triplet probes for related peptides, but the rate constants are significantly larger. In contrast to the flexible structureless Gly-Ser polypeptides, the polyproline Trp-Pro4-DBO-NH2 showed insignificant fluorescence quenching, suggesting that a high polypeptide flexibility and the possibility of probe-quencher contact is essential to induce quenching. Advantages of the new fluorescence-based method for measuring contact formation rates in biopolymers include high accuracy, fast time range (100 ps-1 micros), and the possibility to perform measurements in water under air.

  4. Credentialism, Adults, and Part-Time Higher Education in the United Kingdom: An Account of Rising Take Up and Some Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Alison

    2001-01-01

    Explains the growing importance of higher-level qualifications for adults in the UK, highlighting statistical trends in commitment to learning and qualifying-the result of taking part-time courses in higher education. Most part-time undergraduates fund their own tuition. Mature students' backgrounds and perspectives partly account for their rising…

  5. Decreases in Psychological Well-Being Among American Adolescents After 2012 and Links to Screen Time During the Rise of Smartphone Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Martin, Gabrielle N; Campbell, W Keith

    2018-01-22

    In nationally representative yearly surveys of United States 8th, 10th, and 12th graders 1991-2016 (N = 1.1 million), psychological well-being (measured by self-esteem, life satisfaction, and happiness) suddenly decreased after 2012. Adolescents who spent more time on electronic communication and screens (e.g., social media, the Internet, texting, gaming) and less time on nonscreen activities (e.g., in-person social interaction, sports/exercise, homework, attending religious services) had lower psychological well-being. Adolescents spending a small amount of time on electronic communication were the happiest. Psychological well-being was lower in years when adolescents spent more time on screens and higher in years when they spent more time on nonscreen activities, with changes in activities generally preceding declines in well-being. Cyclical economic indicators such as unemployment were not significantly correlated with well-being, suggesting that the Great Recession was not the cause of the decrease in psychological well-being, which may instead be at least partially due to the rapid adoption of smartphones and the subsequent shift in adolescents' time use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  7. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  8. A Reduced-Order Controller Considering High-Order Modal Information of High-Rise Buildings for AMD Control System with Time-Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo-Hua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-delays of control force calculation, data acquisition, and actuator response will degrade the performance of Active Mass Damper (AMD control systems. To reduce the influence, model reduction method is used to deal with the original controlled structure. However, during the procedure, the related hierarchy information of small eigenvalues will be directly discorded. As a result, the reduced-order model ignores the information of high-order mode, which will reduce the design accuracy of an AMD control system. In this paper, a new reduced-order controller based on the improved Balanced Truncation (BT method is designed to reduce the calculation time and to retain the abandoned high-order modal information. It includes high-order natural frequency, damping ratio, and vibration modal information of the original structure. Then, a control gain design method based on Guaranteed Cost Control (GCC algorithm is presented to eliminate the adverse effects of data acquisition and actuator response time-delays in the design process of the reduced-order controller. To verify its effectiveness, the proposed methodology is applied to a numerical example of a ten-storey frame and an experiment of a single-span four-storey steel frame. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the reduced-order controller with GCC algorithm has an excellent control effect; meanwhile it can compensate time-delays effectively.

  9. Time course of the rise in UV fluorescence intensity following irradiation and experimental conditions for the determination of this parameter in vital Ehrlich-ascitic tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, K.

    1977-01-01

    The use of the impulse cytophotometric method of measurement in the UV region of the spectrum has allowed to determine the change of primary fluorescence intensity on vital unstained cells without the influence of UV exposure or other factors affecting the measuring result in an uncontrollable way. The studies on the influence of storage time and -temperature have shown that a storage time of up to 25 min at 20 0 C has no effect on the fluorescence intensity of Ehrlich ascites cells. On day 11 after inoculation the fluorescence level is about 20% higher than on day 8, but is much better reproducible at the latter date. After 600 rads gamma irradiation applied on the 6th day, this parameter starts oscillating around normal values and is stabilized within 20 hrs after irradiation; these values remain constant in the next 40 hrs. Even after exposure to 100, 200 and 300 rads gamma radiation a constant UV fluorescence intensity is registered in this time interval. Measurements of this parameter in the phase of relative constancy allow a clear-cut interpretation of the results of further radiobiological investigations. (author)

  10. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed by many as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle...... East, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other...... regional powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  11. The rise and rise of alternative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchi, Maurice N.

    2011-01-01

    Before scientific medicine appeared on the scene less than 200 years ago, alternative medicine existed side by side with what was considered to be college-certified medical practice. Surgery took a bit longer to become an academic discipline, looked down on by medical doctors and was, for a long time restricted to unqualified barbers. Since then, with the application of the scientific method, medicine has made, and is still making enormous strides. We do no...

  12. Chinas Rise: A Time for Choosing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    use of small surrogate or proxy wars since 1945 to prove their theory. However, sixty-seven years of history is statistically insignificant, given...knowledge this would now be a measure too late, only slowing their growth and possibly doing as much (or more) harm domestically and internationally as...were born from the same mother . Despite a century and a quarter of disputes, there still remained much that was similar between them. Once

  13. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  14. The rise of Chrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tamary

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since Chrome’s initial release in 2008 it has grown in market share, and now controls roughly half of the desktop browsers market. In contrast with Internet Explorer, the previous dominant browser, this was not achieved by marketing practices such as bundling the browser with a pre-loaded operating system. This raises the question of how Chrome achieved this remarkable feat, while other browsers such as Firefox and Opera were left behind. We show that both the performance of Chrome and its conformance with relevant standards are typically better than those of the two main contending browsers, Internet Explorer and Firefox. In addition, based on a survey of the importance of 25 major features, Chrome product managers seem to have made somewhat better decisions in selecting where to put effort. Thus the rise of Chrome is consistent with technical superiority over the competition.

  15. Was the economic crisis 1997-1998 responsible for rising suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia? A time-trend analysis for Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Cheng, Andrew T A

    2009-04-01

    In 1997-1998 a widespread economic crisis hit the economies of many East/Southeast Asian countries; its impact on suicide rates across the region has not been systematically documented. We investigated the impact of the Asian economic crisis (1997-1998) on suicide in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. Suicide and population data for the period 1985-2006 were extracted from the World Health Organisation's mortality database and Taiwanese mortality statistics. Sex-specific age-standardised suicide rates for people aged 15years or above were analysed using joinpoint regression. Trends in divorce, marriage, unemployment, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and alcohol consumption were compared with trends in suicide rates graphically and using time-series analysis. Suicide mortality decreased in the late 1980s and early 1990s but subsequently increased markedly in all countries except Singapore, which had steadily declining suicide rates throughout the study period. Compared to 1997, male rates in 1998 rose by 39% in Japan, 44% in Hong Kong and 45% in Korea; rises in female rates were less marked. Male rates also rose in Thailand, but accurate data were incomplete. The economic crisis was associated with 10,400 more suicides in 1998 compared to 1997 in Japan, Hong Kong and Korea. Similar increases in suicide rates were not seen in Taiwan and Singapore, the two countries where the economic crisis had a smaller impact on GDP and unemployment. Time-series analyses indicated that some of the crisis's impact on male suicides was attributable to increases in unemployment. These findings suggest an association of the Asian economic crisis with a sharp increase in suicide mortality in some, but not all, East/Southeast Asian countries, and that these increases were most closely associated with rises in unemployment.

  16. HiRISE: The People's Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A. S.; Eliason, E.; Gulick, V. C.; Spinoza, Y.; Beyer, R. A.; HiRISE Team

    2010-12-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera, orbiting Mars since 2006 on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), has returned more than 17,000 large images with scales as small as 25 cm/pixel. From it’s beginning, the HiRISE team has followed “The People’s Camera” concept, with rapid release of useful images, explanations, and tools, and facilitating public image suggestions. The camera includes 14 CCDs, each read out into 2 data channels, so compressed images are returned from MRO as 28 long (up to 120,000 line) images that are 1024 pixels wide (or binned 2x2 to 512 pixels, etc.). This raw data is very difficult to use, especially for the public. At the HiRISE operations center the raw data are calibrated and processed into a series of B&W and color products, including browse images and JPEG2000-compressed images and tools to make it easy for everyone to explore these enormous images (see http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/). Automated pipelines do all of this processing, so we can keep up with the high data rate; images go directly to the format of the Planetary Data System (PDS). After students visually check each image product for errors, they are fully released just 1 month after receipt; captioned images (written by science team members) may be released sooner. These processed HiRISE images have been incorporated into tools such as Google Mars and World Wide Telescope for even greater accessibility. 51 Digital Terrain Models derived from HiRISE stereo pairs have been released, resulting in some spectacular flyover movies produced by members of the public and viewed up to 50,000 times according to YouTube. Public targeting began in 2007 via NASA Quest (http://marsoweb.nas.nasa.gov/HiRISE/quest/) and more than 200 images have been acquired, mostly by students and educators. At the beginning of 2010 we released HiWish (http://www.uahirise.org/hiwish/), opening HiRISE targeting to anyone in the world with Internet access, and already more

  17. On Capillary Rise and Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of capillary rise and nucleation is presented. It is shown that both phenomena result from a balance between two competing energy factors: a volume energy and a surface energy. Such a comparison may help to introduce nucleation with a topic familiar to the students, capillary rise. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  18. The 1988 coal outlook: steadily rising consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soras, C.G.; Stodden, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    Total coal use - domestic and foreign - will reach 910 million tons in 1988, an expansion of 1.3% from an estimated 898 million tons in 1987. The overall rise in consumption will add to inventory needs. Moreover, lower interest rates cut effective carrying costs and further encourage the holding of coal stocks by users. The results will be a gain in inventories of 3.5 tons by the end of 1988. As a result of all these factors, coal production is anticipated to rise by 11.6 million tons, or 1.2%, which projects firm markets in a time of relatively soft economic conditions in the USA. 2 tabs.

  19. Strategic advantages of high-rise construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaskova Natalya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods to assess the competitiveness of different types of real estate in the context of huge changes of new technological way of life don’t provide building solutions that would be correct from a strategic perspective. There are many challenges due to changes in the consumers’ behavior in the housing area. A multiplicity of life models, a variety of opportunities and priorities, traditions and new trends in construction should be assessed in terms of prospective benefits in the environment of the emerging new world order. At the same time, the mane discourse of high-rise construction mainly relates to its design features, technical innovations, and architectural accents. We need to clarify the criteria for economic evaluation of high-rise construction in order to provide decisions with clear and quantifiable contexts. The suggested approach to assessing the strategic advantage of high-rise construction and the prospects for capitalization of high-rise buildings poses new challenges for the economy to identify adequate quantitative assessment methods of the high-rise buildings economic efficiency, taking into account all stages of their life cycle.

  20. Strategic advantages of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaskova, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    Traditional methods to assess the competitiveness of different types of real estate in the context of huge changes of new technological way of life don't provide building solutions that would be correct from a strategic perspective. There are many challenges due to changes in the consumers' behavior in the housing area. A multiplicity of life models, a variety of opportunities and priorities, traditions and new trends in construction should be assessed in terms of prospective benefits in the environment of the emerging new world order. At the same time, the mane discourse of high-rise construction mainly relates to its design features, technical innovations, and architectural accents. We need to clarify the criteria for economic evaluation of high-rise construction in order to provide decisions with clear and quantifiable contexts. The suggested approach to assessing the strategic advantage of high-rise construction and the prospects for capitalization of high-rise buildings poses new challenges for the economy to identify adequate quantitative assessment methods of the high-rise buildings economic efficiency, taking into account all stages of their life cycle.

  1. Rise of a cold plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Michio

    1977-06-01

    The rise of smoke from the stacks of two research reactors in normal operation was measured by photogrametric method. The temperature of effluent gas is less than 20 0 C higher than that of the ambient air (heat emission of the order 10 4 cal s -1 ), and the efflux velocity divided by the wind speed is between 0.5 and 2.8 in all 16 smoke runs. The field data obtained within downwind distance of 150m are compared with those by plume rise formulas presently available. Considering the shape of bending-over plume, the Briggs' formula for 'jet' gives a reasonable explanation of the observed plume rise. (auth.)

  2. Influence of PSA, PSA velocity and PSA doubling time on contrast-enhanced 18F-choline PET/CT detection rate in patients with rising PSA after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, Orazio; Calabria, Ferdinando; Tavolozza, Mario; Caracciolo, Cristiana Ragano; Orlacchio, Antonio; Danieli, Roberta; Simonetti, Giovanni; Agro, Enrico Finazzi; Miano, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced 18 F-choline PET/CT in restaging patients with prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in relation to PSA, PSA velocity (PSAve) and PSA doubling time (PSAdt). PET/CT was performed in 49 patients (age range 58-87 years) with rising PSA (mean 4.13 ng/ml) who were divided in four groups according to PSA level: ≤1 ng/ml, 1 to ≤2 ng/ml, 2 to ≤4 ng/ml, and >4 ng/ml. PSAve and PSAdt were measured. PET and CT scans were interpreted separately and then together. PET/CT diagnosed relapse in 33 of the 49 patients (67%). The detection rates were 20%, 55%, 80% and 87% in the PSA groups ≤1, 1 to ≤2, 2 to ≤4 and >4 ng/ml, respectively. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 18 patients (38.9%) with a PSA ≤2 ng/ml, and in 26 of 31 (83.9%) with a PSA >2 ng/ml. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 25 patients (84%) with PSAdt ≤6 months, and in 12 of 24 patients (50%) with PSAdt >6 months, and was positive in 26 of 30 patients (86%) with a PSAve >2 ng/ml per year, and in 7 of 19 patients (36.8%) with PSAve ≤2 ng/ml per year. PET alone was positive in 31 of 49 patients (63.3%), and of these 31 patients, CT was negative in 14 but diagnosed bone lesions in 2 patients in whom PET alone was negative. CT with the administration of intravenous contrast medium did not provide any further information. Detection rate of 18 F-choline imaging is closely related to PSA and PSA kinetics. In particular, 18 F-choline PET/CT is recommended in patients with PSA >2 ng/ml, PSAdt ≤6 months and PSAve >2 ng/ml per year. CT is useful for detecting bone metastases that are not 18 F-choline-avid. The use of intravenous contrast agent seems unnecessary. (orig.)

  3. Influence of PSA, PSA velocity and PSA doubling time on contrast-enhanced {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT detection rate in patients with rising PSA after radical prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, Orazio [University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional, Rome (Italy); IRCCS Neuromed, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Pozzilli (Italy); Calabria, Ferdinando [IRCCS Neuromed, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Pozzilli (Italy); Tavolozza, Mario; Caracciolo, Cristiana Ragano; Orlacchio, Antonio; Danieli, Roberta; Simonetti, Giovanni [University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional, Rome (Italy); Agro, Enrico Finazzi; Miano, Roberto [University Hospital ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Urology, Rome (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT in restaging patients with prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in relation to PSA, PSA velocity (PSAve) and PSA doubling time (PSAdt). PET/CT was performed in 49 patients (age range 58-87 years) with rising PSA (mean 4.13 ng/ml) who were divided in four groups according to PSA level: {<=}1 ng/ml, 1 to {<=}2 ng/ml, 2 to {<=}4 ng/ml, and >4 ng/ml. PSAve and PSAdt were measured. PET and CT scans were interpreted separately and then together. PET/CT diagnosed relapse in 33 of the 49 patients (67%). The detection rates were 20%, 55%, 80% and 87% in the PSA groups {<=}1, 1 to {<=}2, 2 to {<=}4 and >4 ng/ml, respectively. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 18 patients (38.9%) with a PSA {<=}2 ng/ml, and in 26 of 31 (83.9%) with a PSA >2 ng/ml. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 25 patients (84%) with PSAdt {<=}6 months, and in 12 of 24 patients (50%) with PSAdt >6 months, and was positive in 26 of 30 patients (86%) with a PSAve >2 ng/ml per year, and in 7 of 19 patients (36.8%) with PSAve {<=}2 ng/ml per year. PET alone was positive in 31 of 49 patients (63.3%), and of these 31 patients, CT was negative in 14 but diagnosed bone lesions in 2 patients in whom PET alone was negative. CT with the administration of intravenous contrast medium did not provide any further information. Detection rate of {sup 18}F-choline imaging is closely related to PSA and PSA kinetics. In particular, {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT is recommended in patients with PSA >2 ng/ml, PSAdt {<=}6 months and PSAve >2 ng/ml per year. CT is useful for detecting bone metastases that are not {sup 18}F-choline-avid. The use of intravenous contrast agent seems unnecessary. (orig.)

  4. The Rise of Blog Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the growth of blogs in popular culture, and the fact that they are becoming more widely accepted in the media industry. The rise and popularity of blogs--short for "Web logs"--are causing journalism educators to overhaul their teachings. In fact, blogging's influence varies from one university program to the next, just like…

  5. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier...... favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between...... female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975-2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915-1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts...

  6. Rising sea levels and small island states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the problems small island nations face with respect to sea level rise caused by global warming. Many small island nations are very vulnerable to sea level rise. Particularly at risk are coral reef atolls, which are generally quite small, lie within three metres of current sea levels, and have no land at higher elevations to relocate populations and economic activity. Volcanic islands in the Pacific have high ground, but it is largely rugged, high relief and soil-poor. The most vulnerable islands are those that consist entirely of atolls and reef islands, such as Kirabai, Maldives, Tokelau and Tuvalu. Small island states, which by themselves have little power or influence in world affairs, have banded together to form the Strategic Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). This alliance had grown to include 42 states by the time of the 1992 U.N. Earth Summit. Although the greenhouse effect is mainly caused by industrial nations, developing countries will suffer the most from it. Choices of response strategy will depend on environmental, economic and social factors. Most small island nations do not have the resources to fight sea level rise in the way that the Dutch have. Retreat can occur as a gradual process or as catastrophic abandonment. Prohibiting construction close to the water's edge is a good approach. Sea level histories for each island state should be compiled and updated, island geomorphology and settlement patterns should be surveyed to determine risk areas, storm regimes should be determined, and information on coastal impacts of sea level rise should be disseminated to the public

  7. Is sea-level rising?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    correction in the estimation of trends obtained for tide gauge records. The altimeter data permits to prepare spatial maps of sea-level rise trends. We present a map prepared for the Indian Ocean (Figure 4) north of 10oS , which shows a fairly uniform... drawn information from research papers published by the author and report of the IPCC AR5 WG1 Chapter 13: Sea Level Changes, in which the author has served as a ‘Lead Author’. Figure1 is prepared using data from the University of Colorado. Nerem, R...

  8. Sea Level Rise Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, N.; Huang, T.; Boening, C.; Gill, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Research related to sea level rise crosses multiple disciplines from sea ice to land hydrology. The NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) is a one-stop source for current sea level change information and data, including interactive tools for accessing and viewing regional data, a virtual dashboard of sea level indicators, and ongoing updates through a suite of editorial products that include content articles, graphics, videos, and animations. The architecture behind the SLCP makes it possible to integrate web content and data relevant to sea level change that are archived across various data centers as well as new data generated by sea level change principal investigators. The Extensible Data Gateway Environment (EDGE) is incorporated into the SLCP architecture to provide a unified platform for web content and science data discovery. EDGE is a data integration platform designed to facilitate high-performance geospatial data discovery and access with the ability to support multi-metadata standard specifications. EDGE has the capability to retrieve data from one or more sources and package the resulting sets into a single response to the requestor. With this unified endpoint, the Data Analysis Tool that is available on the SLCP can retrieve dataset and granule level metadata as well as perform geospatial search on the data. This talk focuses on the architecture that makes it possible to seamlessly integrate and enable discovery of disparate data relevant to sea level rise.

  9. World medical schools: The sum also rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Perry G; Gururaja, Ramnarayan P

    2017-06-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of doctors, which is true in most countries and on most continents. To enumerate the number of medical schools in the world at two different times, showing the trends and relating this to population is a beginning. The number is actually going up and has done so for some time; this has increased the supply of physicians and broadened healthcare delivery. The number to count for geographic and regional information about the medical schools relates directly to the supply of doctors. Regions were chosen from WHO and Foundation for the Advancement of International Medical Education and Research data to illustrate geographic distributions, physicians per patient and kinetics. The number of medical schools has consistently been rising around the world. However, world order is reverting to disorder, considering wars, disease and beleaguered stand-offs. None. Eight countries contain 40% of medical schools; however, several locations are rising faster than the rest. Some regions are stable, but sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia and South America have increased the most in percentage recently, but not uniformly. Medical schools are related not only by geography, political boundaries and population but are concentrated in some regions. Graduate Medical Education positions appear to be short on a worldwide basis, as well as in some regions and countries. The number of medical schools is increasing worldwide and the identification of rapidly rising geographic areas is useful in exploring, planning and comparing regions. Controversy continues in a variety of locations, especially concerning Graduate Medical Education. In addition to funding, faculty candidates and accreditation, new schools are confronting a variety of choices in standards and quality, sizing and regional concerns.

  10. Diagnostics from three rising submillimeter bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ai-Hua; Li, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xin-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate three novel rising submillimeter (THz) bursts that occurred sequentially in Super Active Region NOAA 10486. The average rising rate of the flux density above 200 GHz is only 20 sfu GHz −1 (corresponding to spectral index α of 1.6) for the THz spectral components of the 2003 October 28 and November 4 bursts, but it attained values of 235 sfu GHz −1 (α = 4.8) in the 2003 November 2 burst. The steeply rising THz spectrum can be produced by a population of highly relativistic electrons with a low-energy cutoff of 1 MeV, but it only requires a low-energy cutoff of 30 keV for the two slowly rising THz bursts, via gyrosynchrotron (GS) radiation based on our numerical simulations of burst spectra in the magnetic dipole field case. The electron density variation is much larger in the THz source than in the microwave (MW) source. It is interesting that the THz source radius decreased by 20%–50% during the decay phase for the three events, but the MW source increased by 28% for the 2003 November 2 event. In the paper we will present a formula that can be used to calculate the energy released by ultrarelativistic electrons, taking the relativistic correction into account for the first time. We find that the energy released by energetic electrons in the THz source exceeds that in the MW source due to the strong GS radiation loss in the THz range, although the modeled THz source area is 3–4 orders smaller than the modeled MW source one. The total energies released by energetic electrons via the GS radiation in radio sources are estimated, respectively, to be 5.2 × 10 33 , 3.9 × 10 33 and 3.7 × 10 32 erg for the October 28, November 2 and 4 bursts, which are 131, 76 and 4 times as large as the thermal energies of 2.9 × 10 31 , 2.1 × 10 31 and 5.2 × 10 31 erg estimated from soft X-ray GOES observations. (paper)

  11. Plume rise measurements at Turbigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anfossi, D

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of plume measurements obtained during that campaign by the ENEL ground-based Lidar. The five stacks of Turbigo Power Plant have different heights and emission parameters and their plumes usually combine, so a model for multiple sources was used to predict the plume rises. These predictions are compared with the observations. Measurements of sigma/sub v/ and sigma/sub z/ over the first 1000 m are compared with the curves derived from other observations in the Po Valley, using the no-lift balloon technique over the same range of downwind distance. Skewness and kurtosis distributions are shown, both along the vertical and the horizontal directions. In order to show the plume structure in more detail, we present two examples of Lidar-derived cross sections and the corresponding vertically and horizontally integrated concentration profiles.

  12. Superphenix set to rise again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorozynski, A.

    1993-01-01

    Superphenix, France's seemingly jinxed fast breeder reactor, which has not produced a single kilowatt of energy in more than 3 years, looks set to rise up next year like the mythical bird it is named after. The $5 billion reactor, the largest fast breeder in the world, has just been given the seal of approval by a public commission ordered by the government to look at the pros and cons of restarting. It still has hoops to jump through: a safety check and approval from the ministries of industries and environment. But the consortium of French, Italian, and German power utilities that run the plant are confident they can get it running by next summer. The Superphenix that rises out of the ashes will, however, be a different species of bird from the one planned 20 years ago. The consortium plans to turn the reactor into a debreeder, one that will incinerate more plutonium than it produces and so eat into Europe's plutonium stockpile. Calculations by Superphenix staff and the Atomic Energy Commission indicate that a plutonivorous fast breeder could incinerate 15 to 25 kilograms of plutonium while producing 1 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity-scarcely enough to make a dent in the tonnes of plutonium produced by Electricite de France's reactors each year. The Superphenix consortium is anxious to get the reactor back on line. The annual cost of upkeep and repair of the idle plant and salaries for its 700 staff may reach $140 million this year, 20% more than if the plant was running normally. If restarted, the existing core and a second one ready on the shelf will generate electricity worth $1.3 billion

  13. Large Topographic Rises on Venus: Implications for Mantle Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofan, Ellen R.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Bindschandler, Duane L.; Senske, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Topographic rises on Venus have been identified that are interpreted to be the surface manifestation of mantle upwellings. These features are classified into groups based on their dominant morphology. Atla and Beta Regiones are classified as rift-dominated, Dione, western Eistla, Bell, and Imdr Regiones as volcano-dominated, and Themis, eastern Eistla, and central Eistla Regiones as corona-dominated. At several topographic rises, geologic indicators were identified that may provide evidence of uplifted topography (e.g., volcanic flow features trending upslope). We assessed the minimum contribution of volcanic construction to the topography of each rise, which in general represents less than 5% of the volume of the rise, similar to the volumes of edifices at terrestrial hotspot swells. The total melt volume at each rise is approximated to be 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 6) cu km. The variations in morphology, topography, and gravity signatures at topographic rises are not interpreted to indicate variations in stage of evolution of a mantle upwelling. Instead, the morphologic variations between the three classes of topographic rises are interpreted to indicate the varying influences of lithospheric structure, plume characteristics, and regional tectonic environment. Within each class, variations in topography, gravity, and amount of volcanism may be indicative of differing stages of evolution. The similarity between swell and volcanic volumes for terrestrial and Venusian hotspots implies comparable time-integrated plume strengths for individual upwellings on the two planets.

  14. The Climate Science Special Report: Rising Seas and Changing Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    GMSL has risen by about 16-21 cm since 1900. Ocean heat content has increased at all depths since the 1960s, and global mean sea-surface temperature increased 0.7°C/century between 1900 to 2016. Human activity contributed substantially to generating a rate of GMSL rise since 1900 faster than during any preceding century in at least 2800 years. A new set of six sea-level rise scenarios, spanning a range from 30 cm to 250 cm of 21st century GMSL rise, were developed for the CSSR. The lower scenario is based on linearly extrapolating the past two decades' rate of rise. The upper scenario is informed by literature estimates of maximum physically plausible values, observations indicating the onset of marine ice sheet instability in parts of West Antarctica, and modeling of ice-cliff and ice-shelf instability mechanisms. The new scenarios include localized projections along US coastlines. There is significant variability around the US, with rates of rise likely greater than GMSL rise in the US Northeast and the western Gulf of Mexico. Under scenarios involving extreme Antarctic contributions, regional rise would be greater than GMSL rise along almost all US coastlines. Historical sea-level rise has already driven a 5- to 10-fold increase in minor tidal flooding in several US coastal cities since the 1960s. Under the CSSR's Intermediate sea-level rise scenario (1.0 m of GMSL rise in 2100) , a majority of NOAA tide gauge locations will by 2040 experience the historical 5-year coastal flood about 5 times per year. Ocean changes are not limited to rising sea levels. Ocean pH is decreasing at a rate that may be unparalleled in the last 66 million years. Along coastlines, ocean acidification can be enhanced by changes in the upwelling (particularly along the US Pacific Coast); by episodic, climate change-enhanced increases in freshwater input (particularly along the US Atlantic Coast); and by the enhancement of biological respiration by nutrient runoff. Climate models project

  15. Large Volcanic Rises on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-01-01

    Large volcanic rises on Venus have been interpreted as hotspots, or the surface manifestation of mantle upwelling, on the basis of their broad topographic rises, abundant volcanism, and large positive gravity anomalies. Hotspots offer an important opportunity to study the behavior of the lithosphere in response to mantle forces. In addition to the four previously known hotspots, Atla, Bell, Beta, and western Eistla Regiones, five new probable hotspots, Dione, central Eistla, eastern Eistla, Imdr, and Themis, have been identified in the Magellan radar, gravity and topography data. These nine regions exhibit a wider range of volcano-tectonic characteristics than previously recognized for venusian hotspots, and have been classified as rift-dominated (Atla, Beta), coronae-dominated (central and eastern Eistla, Themis), or volcano-dominated (Bell, Dione, western Eistla, Imdr). The apparent depths of compensation for these regions ranges from 65 to 260 km. New estimates of the elastic thickness, using the 90 deg and order spherical harmonic field, are 15-40 km at Bell Regio, and 25 km at western Eistla Regio. Phillips et al. find a value of 30 km at Atla Regio. Numerous models of lithospheric and mantle behavior have been proposed to interpret the gravity and topography signature of the hotspots, with most studies focusing on Atla or Beta Regiones. Convective models with Earth-like parameters result in estimates of the thickness of the thermal lithosphere of approximately 100 km. Models of stagnant lid convection or thermal thinning infer the thickness of the thermal lithosphere to be 300 km or more. Without additional constraints, any of the model fits are equally valid. The thinner thermal lithosphere estimates are most consistent with the volcanic and tectonic characteristics of the hotspots. Estimates of the thermal gradient based on estimates of the elastic thickness also support a relatively thin lithosphere (Phillips et al.). The advantage of larger estimates of

  16. Development of the bubble rise model in RELAP-UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.

    1977-11-01

    Several improvements have been made to the 'bubble rise calculation' in the code RELAP-UK, which models the separation of the steam and water phases within specified volumes of the coolant circuit. The bubble rise velocity and the bubble density gradient parameter are no longer necessarily user-defined constants, as the code can calculate their values at each time step according to the local fluid conditions. In particular, the calculation of the bubble rise velocity is consistent with the RELAP-UK drift flux correlation. It is now possible to represent a vertical column by a stack of vertically-adjacent bubble-rise volumes. Any mixture level existing within the column can freely pass between the volumes in the stack. The facilities are demonstrated in this paper by a simple computational example. (author)

  17. Rising prices squeeze gas marketer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-06-19

    Apollo Gas, a Toronto-based gas marketer, is considering options to enhance unit holder value, including sale of its 21,000 gas supply contracts, just weeks after it was forced out of the Alberta market by rising gas prices. Although the company had reported first quarter revenues of more than $15 million and earnings through that period of about $2.1 million, increases of 33 per cent and 38 per cent respectively over the same period in 1999, the company is resigned to the fact that such performance markers are not likely to be reached again in the foreseeable future, hence the decision to sell. About 95 per cent of Apollo's current transportation service volumes are matched to existing fixed-price supply contract which are due to expire in November 2000. After that, it is about 75 per cent matched for the balance of the term of its customer contracts (mostly five years). This means that the company is exposed to market prices that are likely to continue to increase. If this prediction holds true, Apollo would be forced to purchase the unhedged volumes of gas it needs to service its customers in the spot market at prices higher than prices the company is charging to its customers.

  18. Rising prices squeeze gas marketer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-01-01

    Apollo Gas, a Toronto-based gas marketer, is considering options to enhance unit holder value, including sale of its 21,000 gas supply contracts, just weeks after it was forced out of the Alberta market by rising gas prices. Although the company had reported first quarter revenues of more than $15 million and earnings through that period of about $2.1 million, increases of 33 per cent and 38 per cent respectively over the same period in 1999, the company is resigned to the fact that such performance markers are not likely to be reached again in the foreseeable future, hence the decision to sell. About 95 per cent of Apollo's current transportation service volumes are matched to existing fixed-price supply contract which are due to expire in November 2000. After that, it is about 75 per cent matched for the balance of the term of its customer contracts (mostly five years). This means that the company is exposed to market prices that are likely to continue to increase. If this prediction holds true, Apollo would be forced to purchase the unhedged volumes of gas it needs to service its customers in the spot market at prices higher than prices the company is charging to its customers

  19. Rise in seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 among highly sexual active homosexual men and an increasing association between herpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV over time (1984-2003)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Colette; Pfrommer, Christiaan; Mindel, Adrian; Taylor, Janette; Spaargaren, Joke; Berkhout, Ben; Coutinho, Roel; Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are both highly prevalent. The rate of genital HSV-1 transmission is reportedly increasing over time. HSV-2 is considered to be an important risk factor for HIV transmission. We therefore studied changes in the HSV-1 and HSV-2

  20. The rise of colliding beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1992-06-01

    It is a particular pleasure for me to have this opportunity to review for you the rise of colliding beams as the standard technology for high-energy-physics accelerators. My own career in science has been intimately tied up in the transition from the old fixed-target technique to colliding-beam work. I have led a kind of double life both as a machine builder and as an experimenter, taking part in building and using the first of the colliding-beam machines, the Princeton-Stanford Electron-Electron Collider, and building the most recent advance in the technology, the Stanford Linear Collider. The beginning was in 1958, and in the 34 years since there has been a succession of both electron and proton colliders that have increased the available center-of-mass energy for hard collisions by more than a factor of 1000. For the historians here, I regret to say that very little of this story can be found in the conventional literature. Standard operating procedure for the accelerator physics community has been publication in conference proceedings, which can be obtained with some difficulty, but even more of the critical papers are in internal laboratory reports that were circulated informally and that may not even have been preserved. In this presentation I shall review what happened based on my personal experiences and what literature is available. I can speak from considerable experience on the electron colliders, for that is the topic in which I was most intimately involved. On proton colliders my perspective is more than of an observer than of a participant, but I have dug into the literature and have been close to many of the participants

  1. Technological innovations and the rise of social inequalities in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Daniel; Eikemo, Terje Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Social inequalities in health have been categorised as a human-rights issue that requires action. Unfortunately, these inequalities are on the rise in many countries, including welfare states. Various theories have been offered to explain the persistence (and rise) of these inequalities over time, including the social determinants of health and fundamental cause theory. Interestingly, the rise of modern social inequalities in health has come at a time of great technological innovation. This article addresses whether these technological innovations are significantly influencing the persistence of modern social inequalities in health. A theoretical argument is offered for this potential connection and is discussed alongside the typical social determinants of health perspective and the increasingly popular fundamental cause perspective. This is followed by a proposed research agenda for further investigation of the potential role that technological innovations may play in influencing social inequalities in health.

  2. Barrier response to Holocene sea-level rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejrup, Morten; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Johannessen, Peter N

    Normally it is believed that sea-level rise causes coastal barrier retreat. However, sea-level is only one of the parameters determining the long term coastal development of barrier coasts. Sediment supply is an equally important determinant and may overshadow the effects of sea-level rise....... Conceptually this has been known for a long time but for the first time we can show the relative effect of these two parameters. We have studied three neighboring barrier islands in the Wadden Sea, and described their 3D morphological evolution during the last 8000 years. It appears that the barrier islands...... a much stronger component of sea-level control. The distance between the islands is only 50 km, and therefore our study shows that prediction of barrier development during a period of rising sea level may be more complicated than formerly believed....

  3. Regional approaches in high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconopisceva, O. G.; Proskurin, G. A.

    2018-03-01

    The evolutionary process of high-rise construction is in the article focus. The aim of the study was to create a retrospective matrix reflecting the tasks of the study such as: structuring the most iconic high-rise objects within historic boundaries. The study is based on contemporary experience of high-rise construction in different countries. The main directions and regional specifics in the field of high-rise construction as well as factors influencing the further evolution process are analyzed. The main changes in architectural stylistics, form-building, constructive solutions that focus on the principles of energy efficiency and bio positivity of "sustainable buildings", as well as the search for a new typology are noted. The most universal constructive methods and solutions that turned out to be particularly popular are generalized. The new typology of high-rises and individual approach to urban context are noted. The results of the study as a graphical scheme made it possible to represent the whole high-rise evolution. The new spatial forms of high-rises lead them to new role within the urban environments. Futuristic hyperscalable concepts take the autonomous urban space functions itself and demonstrate us how high-rises can replace multifunctional urban fabric, developing it inside their shells.

  4. Solar power's rise and promise

    OpenAIRE

    Pernia, Ernesto M.; Generoso, Maria Janela M.

    2015-01-01

    Time was when solar energy was facilely dismissed as impractical, inefficient, and pricey. In recent years, however, innovations in technology, regulation, and financing have resulted in remarkable efficiency improvements and price reductions, thereby reversing the skepticism about this renewable energy (RE) source. In this paper, we explore how this has happened, to what extent photovoltaic solar technology has been accepted around the world, and what might be its potential for inclusive gre...

  5. Inertial rise of a meniscus on a vertical cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    O’ Kiely, Doireann; Whiteley, Jonathan P.; Oliver, James M.; Vella, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    © © 2015 Cambridge University PressA. We consider the inertia-dominated rise of a meniscus around a vertical circular cylinder. Previous experiments and scaling analysis suggest that the height of the meniscus, h-{m}, grows with the time following

  6. Timescales for detecting a significant acceleration in sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Ivan D; Wahl, Thomas; Rohling, Eelco J; Price, René M; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B; Calafat, Francisco M; Dangendorf, Sönke

    2014-04-14

    There is observational evidence that global sea level is rising and there is concern that the rate of rise will increase, significantly threatening coastal communities. However, considerable debate remains as to whether the rate of sea level rise is currently increasing and, if so, by how much. Here we provide new insights into sea level accelerations by applying the main methods that have been used previously to search for accelerations in historical data, to identify the timings (with uncertainties) at which accelerations might first be recognized in a statistically significant manner (if not apparent already) in sea level records that we have artificially extended to 2100. We find that the most important approach to earliest possible detection of a significant sea level acceleration lies in improved understanding (and subsequent removal) of interannual to multidecadal variability in sea level records.

  7. Temperature rise and stress induced by microcracks in accelerating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The temperature rise and induced stress due to Ohmic heating in the vicinity of microcracks on the walls of high-gradient accelerating structures are considered. The temperature rise and induced stress depend on the orientation of the crack with respect to the rf magnetic field, the shape of the crack, and the power and duration of the rf pulse. Under certain conditions the presence of cracks can double the temperature rise over that of a smooth surface. Stress at the bottom of the cracks can be several times larger than that of the case when there are no cracks. We study these effects both analytically and by computer simulation. It is shown that the stress in cracks is maximal when the crack depth is on the order of the thermal penetration depth.

  8. RADIOACTIVELY POWERED RISING LIGHT CURVES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    The rising luminosity of the recent, nearby supernova 2011fe shows a quadratic dependence with time during the first ≈0.5-4 days. In addition, studies of the composite light curves formed from stacking together many Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have found similar power-law indices for the rise, but may also show some dispersion that may indicate diversity. I explore what range of power-law rises are possible due to the presence of radioactive material near the surface of the exploding white dwarf (WD). I summarize what constraints such a model places on the structure of the progenitor and the distribution and velocity of ejecta. My main conclusion is that for the inferred explosion time for SN 2011fe, its rise requires an increasing mass fraction X 56 ≈ (4-6) × 10 –2 of 56 Ni distributed between a depth of ≈10 –2 and 0.3 M ☉ below the WD's surface. Radioactive elements this shallow are not found in simulations of a single C/O detonation. Scenarios that may produce this material include helium-shell burning during a double-detonation ignition, a gravitationally confined detonation, and a subset of deflagration to detonation transition models. In general, the power-law rise can differ from quadratic depending on the details of the velocity, density, and radioactive deposition gradients in a given event. Therefore, comparisons of this work with observed bolometric rises of SNe Ia would place strong constraints on the properties of the shallow outer layers, providing important clues for identifying the elusive progenitors of SNe Ia.

  9. Inertial rise of a meniscus on a vertical cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    O’Kiely, Doireann

    2015-03-03

    © © 2015 Cambridge University PressA. We consider the inertia-dominated rise of a meniscus around a vertical circular cylinder. Previous experiments and scaling analysis suggest that the height of the meniscus, h-{m}, grows with the time following the initiation of rise, t, like h-{m}\\\\propto t^{1/2}. This is in contrast to the rise on a vertical plate, which obeys the classic capillary-inertia scaling h-{m}\\\\propto t^{2/3}. We highlight a subtlety in the scaling analysis that yielded h-{m}\\\\propto t^{1/2} and investigate the consequences of this subtlety. We develop a potential flow model of the dynamic problem, which we solve using the finite element method. Our numerical results agree well with previous experiments but suggest that the correct early time behaviour is, in fact, h-{m}\\\\propto t^{2/3}. Furthermore, we show that at intermediate times the dynamic rise of the meniscus is governed by two parameters: the contact angle and the cylinder radius measured relative to the capillary length scale, t^{2/3}. This result allows us to collapse previous experimental results with different cylinder radii (but similar static contact angles) onto a single master curve.

  10. Rising tides, rising gates: The complex ecogeomorphic response of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise and human interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi, Steven G.; Rodríguez, José F.; Saintilan, Neil; Riccardi, Gerardo; Saco, Patricia M.

    2018-04-01

    Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to submergence due to sea-level rise, as shown by predictions of up to 80% of global wetland loss by the end of the century. Coastal wetlands with mixed mangrove-saltmarsh vegetation are particularly vulnerable because sea-level rise can promote mangrove encroachment on saltmarsh, reducing overall wetland biodiversity. Here we use an ecogeomorphic framework that incorporates hydrodynamic effects, mangrove-saltmarsh dynamics, and soil accretion processes to assess the effects of control structures on wetland evolution. Migration and accretion patterns of mangrove and saltmarsh are heavily dependent on topography and control structures. We find that current management practices that incorporate a fixed gate for the control of mangrove encroachment are useful initially, but soon become ineffective due to sea-level rise. Raising the gate, to counteract the effects of sea level rise and promote suitable hydrodynamic conditions, excludes mangrove and maintains saltmarsh over the entire simulation period of 100 years

  11. A distributed real-time system for event-driven control and dynamic data acquisition on a fusion plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, J.; Combo, A.; Batista, A.; Correia, M.; Trotman, D.; Waterhouse, J.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2000-01-01

    A distributed real-time trigger and timing system, designed in a tree-type topology and implemented in VME and CAMAC versions, has been developed for a magnetic confinement fusion experiment. It provides sub-microsecond time latencies for the transport of small data objects allowing event-driven discharge control with failure counteraction, dynamic pre-trigger sampling and event recording as well as accurate simultaneous triggers and synchronism on all nodes with acceptable optimality and predictability of timeliness. This paper describes the technical characteristics of the hardware components (central unit composed by one or more reflector crates, event and synchronism reflector cards, event and pulse node module, fan-out and fan-in modules) as well as software for both tests and integration on a global data acquisition system. The results of laboratory operation for several configurations and the overall performance of the system are presented and analysed

  12. Drivers of Pontocaspian Biodiversity Rise and Demise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselingh, Frank; Flecker, Rachel; Wilke, Thomas; Leroy, Suzanne; Krijgsman, Wout; Stoica, Marius

    2015-04-01

    In the past two million years, the region of the Black Sea Basin, Caspian Basin and adjacent Anatolia and the Balkans were the stage of the evolution of a unique brackish water fauna, the so-called Pontocaspian fauna. The fauna is the result of assembly of genera with a Paratethyan origin and Anatolian origins during the Early Pleistocene. The rapid diversification of the Pontocaspian fauna is the result of the very dynamic nature of the lakes (the Caspian Sea is technically a lake) and seas in the region in the past two million years. In most times the various lake basins were isolated (like today), but in other episodes connections existed. Regional and global climate as well as the regional tectonic regimes were main drivers of lake basin evolution. Over the past 80 years a major biodiversity crisis is hitting the Pontocaspian faunas due to environmental degradation, pollution and invasive species. In the new EU-ETN PRIDE (Drivers of Pontocaspian Biodiversity Rise and Demise)we will be documenting the geological context of past diversifications and turnover events. We present examples of rapid turnover (biodiversity crises) in the Quaternary, assess driving forces and draw implications for the nature of the current human-mediated biodiversity crisis in the region.

  13. Climate Adaptation and Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA supports the development and maintenance of water utility infrastructure across the country. Included in this effort is helping the nation’s water utilities anticipate, plan for, and adapt to risks from flooding, sea level rise, and storm surge.

  14. Experimental researches on the single-bubble rising behavior in the water excited by oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jiejin; Zhong Minghuang; Wang Ke; Zeng Xixiang; Lin Yongcheng; WATANABE Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    This study try to carry out experiments to research the bubble rising behavior in the water excited by oscillation and focus on its dynamics characteristics under the oscillation condition with different oscillation frequencies and amplitudes, and get the relationship between bubble's characteristic parameter, such as the bubble shape, rising velocity, etc, and the influence parameters of time, oscillation frequencies, amplitudes, etc. The rising rule of the single bubble in the water excited by oscillation has been concluded. (authors)

  15. Rising utilization of inpatient pediatric asthma pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Sunitha V; Rodean, Jonathan; Bekmezian, Arpi; Hall, Matt; Shah, Samir S; Mahant, Sanjay; Parikh, Kavita; Morse, Rustin; Puls, Henry; Cabana, Michael D

    2018-02-01

    Clinical pathways are detailed care plans that operationalize evidence-based guidelines into an accessible format for health providers. Their goal is to link evidence to practice to optimize patient outcomes and delivery efficiency. It is unknown to what extent inpatient pediatric asthma pathways are being utilized nationally. (1) Describe inpatient pediatric asthma pathway design and implementation across a large hospital network. (2) Compare characteristics of hospitals with and without pathways. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional, survey study of hospitals in the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings Network (75% children's hospitals, 25% community hospitals). Our survey determined if each hospital used a pathway and pathway characteristics (e.g. pathway elements, implementation methods). Hospitals with and without pathways were compared using Chi-square tests (categorical variables) and Student's t-tests (continuous variables). Surveys were distributed to 3-5 potential participants from each hospital and 302 (74%) participants responded, representing 86% (106/123) of surveyed hospitals. From 2005-2015, the proportion of hospitals utilizing inpatient asthma pathways increased from 27% to 86%. We found variation in pathway elements, implementation strategies, electronic medical record integration, and compliance monitoring across hospitals. Hospitals with pathways had larger inpatient pediatric programs [mean 12.1 versus 6.1 full-time equivalents, p = 0.04] and were more commonly free-standing children's hospitals (52% versus 23%, p = 0.05). From 2005-2015, there was a dramatic rise in implementation of inpatient pediatric asthma pathways. We found variation in many aspects of pathway design and implementation. Future studies should determine optimal implementation strategies to better support hospital-level efforts in improving pediatric asthma care and outcomes.

  16. Methods of erection of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherednichenko Nadezhda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the factors determining the choice of methods for organizing the construction and production of construction and installation work for the construction of high-rise buildings. There are also indicated specific features of their underground parts, characterized by powerful slab-pile foundations, large volumes of earthworks, reinforced bases and foundations for assembly cranes. The work cycle is considered when using reinforced concrete, steel and combined skeletons of high-rise buildings; the areas of application of flow, separate and complex methods are being disclosed. The main conditions for the erection of high-rise buildings and their components are singled out: the choice of formwork systems, delivery and lifting of concrete mixes, installation of reinforcement, the formation of lifting and transporting and auxiliary equipment. The article prescribes the reserves of reduction in the duration of construction due to the creation of: complex mechanized technologies for the efficient construction of foundations in various soil conditions, including in the heaving, swelling, hindered, subsidence, bulk, water-saturated forms; complex mechanized technologies for the erection of monolithic reinforced concrete structures, taking into account the winter conditions of production and the use of mobile concrete-laying complexes and new generation machines; modular formwork systems, distinguished by their versatility, ease, simplicity in operation suitable for complex high-rise construction; more perfect methodology and the development of a set of progressive organizational and technological solutions that ensure a rational relationship between the processes of production and their maximum overlap in time and space.

  17. Methods of erection of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, Nadezhda; Oleinik, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    The article contains the factors determining the choice of methods for organizing the construction and production of construction and installation work for the construction of high-rise buildings. There are also indicated specific features of their underground parts, characterized by powerful slab-pile foundations, large volumes of earthworks, reinforced bases and foundations for assembly cranes. The work cycle is considered when using reinforced concrete, steel and combined skeletons of high-rise buildings; the areas of application of flow, separate and complex methods are being disclosed. The main conditions for the erection of high-rise buildings and their components are singled out: the choice of formwork systems, delivery and lifting of concrete mixes, installation of reinforcement, the formation of lifting and transporting and auxiliary equipment. The article prescribes the reserves of reduction in the duration of construction due to the creation of: complex mechanized technologies for the efficient construction of foundations in various soil conditions, including in the heaving, swelling, hindered, subsidence, bulk, water-saturated forms; complex mechanized technologies for the erection of monolithic reinforced concrete structures, taking into account the winter conditions of production and the use of mobile concrete-laying complexes and new generation machines; modular formwork systems, distinguished by their versatility, ease, simplicity in operation suitable for complex high-rise construction; more perfect methodology and the development of a set of progressive organizational and technological solutions that ensure a rational relationship between the processes of production and their maximum overlap in time and space.

  18. Study on rapid evacuation in high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available More and more high rising buildings emerged in modern cities, but emergency evacuation of tall buildings has been a worldwide difficult problem. In this paper, a new evacuation device for high rising buildings in fire accident was proposed and studied. This device mainly consisted of special spiral slideway and shunt valve. People in this device could fast slide down to the first floor under gravity without any electric power and physical strength, which is suitable for various emergency evacuation including mobility-impaired persons. The plane simulation test has shown that human being in alternative clockwise and counterclockwise movement will not become dizzy. The evacuated people should wear protection pad, which can prevent slider from being injured by surface friction with the slide, and eliminate the friction coefficient difference caused by different clothes and slide surface. The calculation results show that the evacuation speed of the new device is much faster than traditional staircases. Moreover, such new evacuation device can also be used as a means of vertical transportation in high-rise buildings partly. People can take it from any floor to ground floor directly, which not only save time for waiting for the lifts but also save the power. The new evacuation system is of simple structure, easy to use, and suitable for evacuation and partly used as vertical downwards traffic, which shows light on solving world-wide difficulties on fast evacuation in high-rise buildings.

  19. Socioecological Aspects of High-rise Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Michael; Ivanova, Zinaida

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the authors consider the socioecological problems that arise in the construction and operation of high-rise buildings. They study different points of view on high-rise construction and note that the approaches to this problem are very different. They also analyse projects of modern architects and which attempts are made to overcome negative impacts on nature and mankind. The article contains materials of sociological research, confirming the ambivalent attitude of urban population to high-rise buildings. In addition, one of the author's sociological survey reveals the level of environmental preparedness of the university students, studying in the field of "Construction of unique buildings and structures", raising the question of how future specialists are ready to take into account socioecological problems. Conclusion of the authors: the construction of high-rise buildings is associated with huge social and environmental risks, negative impact on the biosphere and human health. This requires deepened skills about sustainable design methods and environmental friendly construction technologies of future specialists. Professor M. Eichner presents in the article his case study project results on implementation of holistic eco-sustainable construction principles for mixed-use high-rise building in the metropolis of Cairo.

  20. Socioecological Aspects of High-rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichner Michael

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors consider the socioecological problems that arise in the construction and operation of high-rise buildings. They study different points of view on high-rise construction and note that the approaches to this problem are very different. They also analyse projects of modern architects and which attempts are made to overcome negative impacts on nature and mankind. The article contains materials of sociological research, confirming the ambivalent attitude of urban population to high-rise buildings. In addition, one of the author’s sociological survey reveals the level of environmental preparedness of the university students, studying in the field of "Construction of unique buildings and structures", raising the question of how future specialists are ready to take into account socioecological problems. Conclusion of the authors: the construction of high-rise buildings is associated with huge social and environmental risks, negative impact on the biosphere and human health. This requires deepened skills about sustainable design methods and environmental friendly construction technologies of future specialists. Professor M. Eichner presents in the article his case study project results on implementation of holistic eco-sustainable construction principles for mixed-use high-rise building in the metropolis of Cairo.

  1. Statistics of EMIC Rising Tones Observed by the Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsbee, K. M.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C. W.; Santolik, O.

    2017-12-01

    We will present results from an ongoing statistical study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave rising tones observed by the Van Allen Probes. Using data from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) fluxgate magnetometer, we have identified orbits by both Van Allen Probes with EMIC wave events from the start of the mission in fall 2012 through fall 2016. Orbits with EMIC wave events were further examined for evidence of rising tones. Most EMIC wave rising tones were found during H+ band EMIC wave events. In Fourier time-frequency power spectrograms of the fluxgate magnetometer data, H+ band rising tones generally took the form of triggered emission type events, where the discrete rising tone structures rapidly rise in frequency out of the main band of observed H+ EMIC waves. A smaller percentage of EMIC wave rising tone events were found in the He+ band, where rising tones may appear as discrete structures with a positive slope embedded within the main band of observed He+ EMIC waves, similar in appearance to whistler-mode chorus elements. Understanding the occurrence rate and properties of rising tone EMIC waves will provide observational context for theoretical studies indicating that EMIC waves exhibiting non-linear behavior, such as rising tones, may be more effective at scattering radiation belt electrons than ordinary EMIC waves.

  2. Numerical simulation of superheated vapor bubble rising in stagnant liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkhaniani, N.; Ansari, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    In present study, the rising of superheated vapor bubble in saturated liquid is simulated using volume of fluid method in OpenFOAM cfd package. The surface tension between vapor-liquid phases is considered using continuous surface force method. In order to reduce spurious current near interface, Lafaurie smoothing filter is applied to improve curvature calculation. Phase change is considered using Tanasawa mass transfer model. The variation of saturation temperature in vapor bubble with local pressure is considered with simplified Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The couple velocity-pressure equation is solved using PISO algorithm. The numerical model is validated with: (1) isothermal bubble rising and (2) one-dimensional horizontal film condensation. Then, the shape and life time history of single superheated vapor bubble are investigated. The present numerical study shows vapor bubble in saturated liquid undergoes boiling and condensation. It indicates bubble life time is nearly linear proportional with bubble size and superheat temperature.

  3. Beam Induced Pressure Rise at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, S Y; Bai, Mei; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Cameron, Peter; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Gullotta, Justin; He, Ping; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Iriso, Ubaldo; Lee, Roger C; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Peggs, Steve; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smart, Loralie; Snydstrup, Louis; Thieberger, Peter; Trbojevic, Dejan; Wang, Lanfa; Wei, Jie; Zeno, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Beam induced pressure rise in RHIC warm sections is currently one of the machine intensity and luminosity limits. This pressure rise is mainly due to electron cloud effects. The RHIC warm section electron cloud is associated with longer bunch spacings compared with other machines, and is distributed non-uniformly around the ring. In addition to the countermeasures for normal electron cloud, such as the NEG coated pipe, solenoids, beam scrubbing, bunch gaps, and larger bunch spacing, other studies and beam tests toward the understanding and counteracting RHIC warm electron cloud are of interest. These include the ion desorption studies and the test of anti-grazing ridges. For high bunch intensities and the shortest bunch spacings, pressure rises at certain locations in the cryogenic region have been observed during the past two runs. Beam studies are planned for the current 2005 run and the results will be reported.

  4. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  5. Information and Competitive Advantage: The Rise of General Motors.

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Seth W

    1997-01-01

    During the mid-1920s Alfred P. Sloan instituted a number of innovations designed to provide the operating divisions at General Motors with more accurate and more timely information regarding final consumer demand. These innovations have not received much attention in attempts to explain General Motors' remarkable rise to dominance of the U.S. domestic automobile industry. The present article reviews these events and provides statistical tests affirming the success of these innovations at the ...

  6. Artificial Intelligence and Urbanization: The Rise of the Elysium City

    OpenAIRE

    MUNOZ, J. Mark; NAQVI, Al

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. From ancient times, Greek religion introduced Elysium as a heavenly place to which admission was exclusively reserved for mortals related to gods, heroes, and those blessed by gods. We argue that the rise of artificial intelligence technology will lead to the creation of Elysium cities. Elysium cities agents will be technologists, technocrats, intelligent machines, and wealthy capitalists. These cities will be the first embracers of the artificial intelligence technology and will do...

  7. The Rise of the Digital Public Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing shift to digital offerings among public libraries. Libraries increasingly are fulfilling roles as technology hubs for their communities, with high demand for technology and career development training resources. Ebooks and other digital materials are on the rise, while print is being scaled back. More libraries are turning to…

  8. How oxygen gave rise to eukaryotic sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hörandl, Elvira; Speijer, Dave

    2018-01-01

    9years ago. The large amount of ROS coming from a bacterial endosymbiont gave rise to DNA damage and vast increases in host genome mutation rates. Eukaryogenesis and chromosome evolution represent adaptations to oxidative stress. The host, an archaeon, most probably already had repair mechanisms

  9. Rising Political Consciousness: Transformational Learning in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Mazalan; Muhamad, Mazanah

    As part of a larger study (not discussed) ten educated Malaysian citizens were interviewed to find whether their rising political consciousness, over a ten year period (1988-1999), indicated that their transformation was influenced by their culture. The subjects were between 35-45 years old, married, with an average of four children. All were…

  10. Can income redistribution help changing rising inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article compares the rise in inequality concerning net household incomes in a number of European countries and Canada, the USA and Australia. Two important factors are used to explain this worrying trend: a growing of unequal market incomes and/or a declining redistribution of income through

  11. Why does a spinning egg rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2018-03-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented concerning the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that an egg rises quickly while it is sliding and then more slowly when it starts rolling. The angular momentum of the egg projected in the XZ plane changed in the same direction as the friction torque, as expected, by rotating away from the vertical Z axis. The latter result does not explain the rise. However, an even larger effect arises from the Y component of the angular momentum vector. As the egg rises, the egg rotates about the Y axis, an effect that is closely analogous to rotation of the egg about the Z axis. Both effects can be described in terms of precession about the respective axes. Steady precession about the Z axis arises from the normal reaction force in the Z direction, while precession about the Y axis arises from the friction force in the Y direction. Precession about the Z axis ceases if the normal reaction force decreases to zero, and precession about the Y axis ceases if the friction force decreases to zero.

  12. Sea level rise : A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of sea level rise on Water Management, it is useful to understand the mechanisrns that determine the level of the sea. In this study, a literature survey is executed to analyze these mechanisms. Climate plays a centra! role in these mechanisms, Climate mainly changes

  13. Tube temperature rise limits: Boiling considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderwater, R.G.

    1952-03-26

    A revision of tube power limits based on boiling considerations was presented earlier. The limits were given on a basis of tube power versus header pressure. However, for convenience of operation, the limits have been converted from tube power to permissible water temperature rise. The permissible {triangle}t`s water are given in this document.

  14. The economic consequences of oil price rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescaroux, Francois

    2006-05-01

    The author discusses the possible consequences of oil barrel price rise. First, he discusses the main results of analysis's which have been performed for thirty years regarding the impact of oil price on economical activity. He proposes interpretations of these studies and of their conclusions, and tries to draw lessons regarding effects which can be expected from the recent evolutions of energy markets

  15. The Enigma of Mercury's Northern Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P. B.

    2018-05-01

    Various aspects of the "northern rise" make it hard to explain: Its composition and chronology don't stand out from its surroundings, it seems to have uplifted late, and it has a huge gravity anomaly. We'll discuss the possible formation mechanisms.

  16. Updating Maryland's sea-level rise projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Donald F.; Atkinson, Larry P.; Boicourt, William C.; Boon, John D.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Dalrymple, Robert A.; Ezer, Tal; Horton, Benjamin P.; Johnson, Zoe P.; Kopp, Robert E.; Li, Ming; Moss, Richard H.; Parris, Adam; Sommerfield, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    With its 3,100 miles of tidal shoreline and low-lying rural and urban lands, “The Free State” is one of the most vulnerable to sea-level rise. Historically, Marylanders have long had to contend with rising water levels along its Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean and coastal bay shores. Shorelines eroded and low-relief lands and islands, some previously inhabited, were inundated. Prior to the 20th century, this was largely due to the slow sinking of the land since Earth’s crust is still adjusting to the melting of large masses of ice following the last glacial period. Over the 20th century, however, the rate of rise of the average level of tidal waters with respect to land, or relative sea-level rise, has increased, at least partially as a result of global warming. Moreover, the scientific evidence is compelling that Earth’s climate will continue to warm and its oceans will rise even more rapidly. Recognizing the scientific consensus around global climate change, the contribution of human activities to it, and the vulnerability of Maryland’s people, property, public investments, and natural resources, Governor Martin O’Malley established the Maryland Commission on Climate Change on April 20, 2007. The Commission produced a Plan of Action that included a comprehensive climate change impact assessment, a greenhouse gas reduction strategy, and strategies for reducing Maryland’s vulnerability to climate change. The Plan has led to landmark legislation to reduce the state’s greenhouse gas emissions and a variety of state policies designed to reduce energy consumption and promote adaptation to climate change.

  17. Humidity Distributions in Multilayered Walls of High-rise Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunova, Olga; Musorina, Tatiana; Ishkov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The limitation of free territories in large cities is the main reason for the active development of high-rise construction. Given the large-scale projects of high-rise buildings in recent years in Russia and abroad and their huge energy consumption, one of the fundamental principles in the design and reconstruction is the use of energy-efficient technologies. The main heat loss in buildings occurs through enclosing structures. However, not always the heat-resistant wall will be energy-efficient and dry at the same time (perhaps waterlogging). Temperature and humidity distributions in multilayer walls were studied in the paper, and the interrelation of other thermophysical characteristics was analyzed.

  18. Integrating wildfire plume rises within atmospheric transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, D. V.; Kochanski, A.; Wu, D.; Urbanski, S. P.; Krueger, S. K.; Lin, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Wildfires can generate significant pyro-convection that is responsible for releasing pollutants, greenhouse gases, and trace species into the free troposphere, which are then transported a significant distance downwind from the fire. Oftentimes, atmospheric transport and chemistry models have a difficult time resolving the transport of smoke from these wildfires, primarily due to deficiencies in estimating the plume injection height, which has been highlighted in previous work as the most important aspect of simulating wildfire plume transport. As a result of the uncertainties associated with modeled wildfire plume rise, researchers face difficulties modeling the impacts of wildfire smoke on air quality and constraining fire emissions using inverse modeling techniques. Currently, several plume rise parameterizations exist that are able to determine the injection height of fire emissions; however, the success of these parameterizations has been mixed. With the advent of WRF-SFIRE, the wildfire plume rise and injection height can now be explicitly calculated using a fire spread model (SFIRE) that is dynamically linked with the atmosphere simulated by WRF. However, this model has only been tested on a limited basis due to computational costs. Here, we will test the performance of WRF-SFIRE in addition to several commonly adopted plume parameterizations (Freitas, Sofiev, and Briggs) for the 2013 Patch Springs (Utah) and 2012 Baker Canyon (Washington) fires, for both of which observations of plume rise heights are available. These plume rise techniques will then be incorporated within a Lagrangian atmospheric transport model (STILT) in order to simulate CO and CO2 concentrations during NASA's CARVE Earth Science Airborne Program over Alaska during the summer of 2012. Initial model results showed that STILT model simulations were unable to reproduce enhanced CO concentrations produced by Alaskan fires observed during 2012. Near-surface concentrations were drastically

  19. Sea-level rise risks to coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the consequence of sea-level rise for coastal cities has long lead times and huge political implications. Civilisation has emerged and developed during a period of several thousand years during which in geological terms sea level has been unusually stable. We have now moved out of this period and the challenge will be to develop a long-term proactive assessment approach to manage this challenge. In 2005 there were 136 coastal cities with a population exceeding one million people and a collective population of 400 million people. All these coastal cities are threatened by flooding from the sea to varying degrees and these risks are increasing due to growing exposure (people and assets), rising sea levels due to climate change, and in some cities, significant coastal subsidence due to human agency (drainage and groundwater withdrawals from susceptible soils). In these cities we wish to avoid major flood events, with associated damage and potentially deaths and ultimately decline of the cities. Flood risks grow with sea-level rise as it raises extreme sea levels. As sea levels continue to rise, protection will have to be progressively upgraded. Even with this, the magnitude of losses when flood events do occur would increase as coastal cities expand, and water depths and hence unit damage increase with sea-level rise/subsidence. This makes it critical to also prepare for larger coastal flood disasters than we experience today and raises questions on the limits to adaptation. There is not an extensive literature or significant empirical information on the limits to adaptation in coastal cities. These limits are not predictable in a formal sense - while the rise in mean sea level raises the likelihood of a catastrophic flood, extreme events are what cause damage and trigger a response, be it abandonment, a defence upgrade or something else. There are several types of potential limits that could be categorised into three broad types: • Physical

  20. Rise of oil prices and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document reprints the talk of the press conference given by D. de Villepin, French prime minister, on August 16, 2005 about the alarming rise of oil prices. In his talk, the prime minister explains the reasons of the crisis (increase of worldwide consumption, political tensions in the Middle East..) and presents the strategy and main trends of the French energy policy: re-launching of energy investments in petroleum refining capacities and in the nuclear domain (new generation of power plants), development of renewable energy sources and in particular biofuels, re-launching of the energy saving policy thanks to financial incentives and to the development of clean vehicles and mass transportation systems. In a second part, the prime minister presents his policy of retro-cession of petroleum tax profits to low income workers, and of charge abatement to professionals having an occupation strongly penalized by the rise of oil prices (truckers, farmers, fishermen, taxi drivers). (J.S.)

  1. High and rising health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Paul B

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. is spending a growing share of the GDP on health care, outpacing other industrialized countries. This synthesis examines why costs are higher in the U.S. and what is driving their growth. Key findings include: health care inefficiency, medical technology and health status (particularly obesity) are the primary drivers of rising U.S. health care costs. Health payer systems that reward inefficiencies and preempt competition have impeded productivity gains in the health care sector. The best evidence indicates medical technology accounts for one-half to two-thirds of spending growth. While medical malpractice insurance and defensive medicine contribute to health costs, they are not large enough factors to significantly contribute to a rise in spending. Research is consistent that demographics will not be a significant factor in driving spending despite the aging baby boomers.

  2. The rise of precarious employment in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, David; Biegert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Long considered the classic coordinated market economy featuring employment security and relatively little employment precarity, the German labor market has undergone profound changes in recent decades. We assess the evidence for a rise in precarious employment in Germany from 1984 to 2013. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) through the Luxembourg Income Study, we examine low-wage employment, working poverty, and temporary employment. We also analyze changes in the demogra...

  3. Present-day sea level rise: a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazenave, A.; Llovel, W.; Lombard, A.

    2008-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes have improved considerably in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing data sets have become available. Here we report on the current knowledge of present-day sea level change. We briefly present observational results on sea level change from satellite altimetry since 1993 and tide gauges for the past century. We next discuss recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on time scales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion, land ice mass loss and land water storage change. For the 1993-2003 decade, the sum of climate-related contributions agree well (within the error bars) with the altimetry-based sea level, half of the observed rate of rise being due to ocean thermal expansion, land ice plus land waters explaining the other half. Since about 2003, thermal expansion increase has stopped, whereas the sea level continues to rise, although at a reduced rate compared to the previous decade (2.5 mm/yr versus 3.1 mm/yr). Recent increases in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets appear able to account alone for the rise in sea level reported over the last five years. (authors)

  4. Limits on the speed of gravitational waves from pulsar timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskaran, D.; Polnarev, A. G.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Postnov, K. A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, analyzing the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the field of gravitational waves, we show the presence and significance of the so-called surfing effect for pulsar timing measurements. It is shown that, due to the transverse nature of gravitational waves, the surfing effect leads to enormous pulsar timing residuals if the speed of gravitational waves is smaller than the speed of light. This fact allows one to place significant constraints on parameter ε, which characterizes the relative deviation of the speed of gravitational waves from the speed of light. We show that the existing constraints from pulsar timing measurements already place stringent limits on ε and consequently on the mass of the graviton m g . The limits on m g -24 are 2 orders of magnitude stronger than the current constraints from Solar System tests. The current constraints also allow one to rule out massive gravitons as possible candidates for cold dark matter in the galactic halo. In the near future, the gravitational wave background from extragalactic super massive black hole binaries, along with the expected submicrosecond pulsar timing accuracy, will allow one to achieve constraints of ε < or approx. 0.4% and possibly stronger.

  5. SEISMIC Analysis of high-rise buildings with composite metal damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ruixue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly studies on the mechanical characteristics and application effect of composite metal damper in the high-rise buildings via the numerical simulation analysis. The research adopts the elastic and elastic-plastic dynamic approach and the displacement time history response and damper energy dissipation capacity and so on of the high-rise building are compared and analyzed before and after installation. The analysis found that the energy dissipation characteristic of metallic dampers is good. High-rise building story drift significantly is reduced and the extent of damage of the walls and coupling beams is decreased, achieved a good energy dissipation effect. Composite metal damper can effectively and economically improve the seismic performance of high-rise buildings, meet the requirement of the 3-level design for seismic resistance. The result has certain reference significance for the application of metallic damper in the high-rise buildings.

  6. Economics of high-rise construction: the feasibility of skyscrapers building in the Russian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Artur; Petrova, Daria

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the economic aspects of constructing high-rise buildings in the world and in Russia. Data on the number of high-rise buildings in Russian cities with a million population are presented. It is proved that interest in high-rise construction in Russia has been formed only in Moscow and partly in St. Petersburg and Yekaterinburg. The analysis showed that the reason for this is the expensiveness of high-rise construction. According to the enlarged macro-calculation, the cost of building 1 m2 of the area of the Federation Towers complex (Moscow City) is about 2710 /m2. Practically a possibility of return on investments in the foreseeable time interval exists only in Moscow. For the regions of Russia this task is rather complicated. Population density in regional Russian cities is quite low, business entities do not have the necessary financial resources for investing in high-rise construction, and investments from abroad absent.

  7. Rising climate variability and synchrony in North Pacific ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Bryan

    2017-04-01

    Rising climate variability and synchrony in North Pacific ecosystems Evidence is growing that climate variability of the northeast Pacific Ocean has increased over the last century, culminating in such events as the record-breaking El Niño years 1983, 1998, and 2016 and the unusually persistent 2014/15 North Pacific Ocean heat wave known as "The Blob." Of particular concern is that rising variability could increase synchrony within and among North Pacific ecosystems, which could reduce the diversity of biological responses to climate (i.e. the "portfolio effect"), diminish resilience, and leave populations more prone to extirpation. To test this phenomenon, we use a network of multidecadal fish otolith growth-increment chronologies that were strongly correlated to records of winter (Jan-Mar) sea level. These biological and physical datasets spanned the California Current through the Gulf of Alaska. Synchrony was quantified as directional changes in running (31-year window) mean pairwise correlation within sea level and then within otolith time series. Synchrony in winter sea level at the nine stations with the longest records has increased by more than 40% over the 1950-2015 interval. Likewise, synchrony among the eight longest otolith chronologies has increased more than 100% over a comparable time period. These directional changes in synchrony are highly unlikely due to chance alone, as confirmed by comparing trends in observed data to those in simulated data (n = 10,000 iterations) with time series of identical number, length, and autocorrelation. Ultimately, this trend in rising synchrony may be linked to increased impacts of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on mid-latitude ecosystems of North America, and may therefore reflect a much broader, global-scale signature.

  8. PERSPECTIVE: The tripping points of sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Alan D.

    2009-12-01

    coastal management in which options for shore protection or retreats are clearly identified and where economic, ecosystem and social impacts can be clearly evaluated. At stake are both the future of wetlands that provide important ecosystem services and the safety and sustainability of our coastal communities. This is a huge challenge requiring adequate data, long-term planning, federal-state cooperation, and integration of environmental laws. The time is at hand to assess a business-as-usual response to sea level rise or to explore a more holistic and integrated approach. President Obama has said: `The threat from climate change is serious, it is urgent, and it is growing. Our generation's response to this challenge will be judged by history, for if we fail to meet it—boldly, swiftly, and together—we risk consigning future generations to an irreversible catastrophe' [3]. Though the President was talking about action to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, cooperation to address the consequences of rising sea level and changing climate is just as urgent. References [1] Titus J G et al 2009 State and local governments plan for development of most land vulnerable to rising sea level along the US Atlantic coast Environ. Res. Lett. 4 044008 [2] US Global Change Research Program 2009 Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States (June 2009) [3] www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-by-the-President-at-UN-Secretary-General-Ban-Ki-moons-Climate-Change-Summit/

  9. The economic consequences of rising oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescaroux, F.

    2006-05-01

    In the context of rising crude oil prices observed in the last five years, this paper attempts to shed light on the possible consequences of a costlier barrel. We shall begin with a brief presentation of the main results of the analyses conducted in the last 30 years, concerning the impact of energy prices on economic activity. We shall then interpret these analyses and their conclusions, and try to draw a number of lessons about the anticipated effects of the recent trend in energy prices. (author)

  10. Sea level rise in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Pavlov, Vladimir; Bourke, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012760 About 60 tide-gauge stations in the Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian and Chukchi Seas have recorded the sea level change from the 1950s through 1990s. Over this 40-year period, most of these stations show a significant sea level rise (SLR). In light of global change, this SLR could be a manifestation of warming in the Artic coupled with a decrease of sea ice extent, warming of Atlantic waters, changes in...

  11. The rise and fall of the ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Paul [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Recent data from heavy ion collisions at RHIC show unexpectedly large near-angle correlations that broaden longitudinally with centrality. The amplitude of this ridge-like correlation rises rapidly with centrality, reaches a maximum, and then falls in the most central collisions. In this talk we explain how this behavior can be easily understood in a picture where final momentum-space correlations are driven by initial coordinate space density fluctuations. We propose {nu}{sub n}{sup 2}/{epsilon}{sub n,part}{sup 2} as a useful way to study these effects and explain what it tells us about the collision dynamics.

  12. Consumerism and wellness: rising tide, falling cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaszewicz, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Annual employer-sponsored health plan cost increases have been slowing incrementally due to slowing health care utilization--a phenomenon very likely tied to the proliferation of health management activities, wellness programs and other consumerism strategies. This article describes the sharp rise in recent years of consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) and explains what developments must happen for genuine consumer-directed health care to realize its full potential. These developments include gathering transparent health care information, increasing consumer demand for that information and creating truly intuitive data solutions that allow consumers to easily access information in order to make better health care decisions.

  13. Hydrodynamics in a swarm of rising bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riboux, G.

    2007-04-01

    In many applications, bubbles are used to agitate a liquid in order to enhance mixing and transfer. This work is devoted to the study of the hydrodynamics in a stable bubble column. Experimentally, we have determined the properties of the velocity fluctuations inside and behind a homogeneous swarm of rising bubbles for different bubble sizes and gas volume fractions α: self-similarity in α 0,4 , spectrum in k -3 and integral length scale controlled by buoyancy. Numerically, we have reproduced these properties by means of large-scale simulations, the bubbles being modeled by volume-forces. This confirms that the dynamics is controlled by wake interactions. (author)

  14. The rising home birth trend in America

    OpenAIRE

    Nurlan Aliyev; Chastidy Roldan; Bulent Cakmak

    2015-01-01

    In recent years home birth rates are increased in the whole world, mainly in the United States (US). Between 2004-2012, non-hospital births increasing rate is 89% in the US. Home birth increased especially among the married, non-Hispanic, over 35 years of age, multipar and singleton pregnancies. However the high rate of cesarean birth did not increase in recent years in the US, now it has been stable at 32%. It is reported that the stability of the cesarean rate is related to rising rate of h...

  15. Nuclear costs: why do they keep rising?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power has performed badly in recent years as a new investment everywhere except Japan and Korea. This has mainly been for orthodox financial and economic reasons. Among the factors contributing to this loss of competitiveness, persistently rising real capital costs have been particularly important. While the nuclear industry has believed it could control and reduce capital costs, increasing regulatory stringency has made designs more complex and correspondingly more costly. These cost increasing factors have far outweighed traditional cost reducing factors (like learning). The only lasting way to meet increasing stringency in safety at acceptably low cost is likely to be the development of new and simpler reactor designs. (author)

  16. Low-rise shear wall failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.R.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Reed, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the data that are available concerning the structural response of low-rise shear walls is presented. This data will be used to address two failure modes associated with the shear wall structures. First, data concerning the seismic capacity of the shear walls with emphasis on excessive deformations that can cause equipment failure are examined. Second, data concerning the dynamic properties of shear walls (stiffness and damping) that are necessary to compute the seismic inputs to attached equipment are summarized. This case addresses the failure of equipment when the structure remains functional. 23 refs

  17. On the design of high-rise buildings with a specified level of reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolganov, Andrey; Kagan, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    High-rise buildings have a specificity, which significantly distinguishes them from traditional buildings of high-rise and multi-storey buildings. Steel structures in high-rise buildings are advisable to be used in earthquake-proof regions, since steel, due to its plasticity, provides damping of the kinetic energy of seismic impacts. These aspects should be taken into account when choosing a structural scheme of a high-rise building and designing load-bearing structures. Currently, modern regulatory documents do not quantify the reliability of structures. Although the problem of assigning an optimal level of reliability has existed for a long time. The article shows the possibility of designing metal structures of high-rise buildings with specified reliability. Currently, modern regulatory documents do not quantify the reliability of high-rise buildings. Although the problem of assigning an optimal level of reliability has existed for a long time. It is proposed to establish the value of reliability 0.99865 (3σ) for constructions of buildings and structures of a normal level of responsibility in calculations for the first group of limiting states. For increased (construction of high-rise buildings) and reduced levels of responsibility for the provision of load-bearing capacity, it is proposed to assign respectively 0.99997 (4σ) and 0.97725 (2σ). The coefficients of the use of the cross section of a metal beam for different levels of security are given.

  18. Gas-rise velocities during kicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.B. (Sedco Forex (FR))

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on experiments to examine gas migration rates in drilling muds that were performed in a 15-m-long, 200-mm-ID inclinable flow loop where air injection simulates gas entry during a kick. These tests were conducted using a xanthum gum (a common polymer used in drilling fluids) solution to simulate drilling muds as the liquid phase and air as the gas phase. This work represents a significant extension of existing correlations for gas/liquid flows in large pipe diameters with non- Newtonian fluids. Bubbles rise faster in drilling muds than in water despite the increased viscosity. This surprising result is caused by the change in the flow regime, with large slug-type bubbles forming at lower void fractions. The gas velocity is independent of void fraction, thus simplifying flow modeling. Results show that a gas influx will rise faster in a well than previously believed. This has major implications for kick simulation, with gas arriving at the surface earlier than would be expected and the gas outflow rate being higher than would have been predicted. A model of the two-phase gas flow in drilling mud, including the results of this work, has been incorporated into the joint Schlumberger Cambridge Research (SCR)/BP Intl. kick model.

  19. Rising synchrony controls western North American ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Bryan A.; van der Sleen, Peter; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Griffin, Daniel; Sydeman, William J.; Dunham, Jason B.; Rykaczewski, Ryan R.; Garcia-Reyes, Marisol; Safeeq, Mohammad; Arismendi, Ivan; Bograd, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    Along the western margin of North America, the winter expression of the North Pacific High (NPH) strongly influences interannual variability in coastal upwelling, storm track position, precipitation, and river discharge. Coherence among these factors induces covariance among physical and biological processes across adjacent marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we show that over the past century the degree and spatial extent of this covariance (synchrony) has substantially increased, and is coincident with rising variance in the winter NPH. Furthermore, centuries‐long blue oak (Quercus douglasii) growth chronologies sensitive to the winter NPH provide robust evidence that modern levels of synchrony are among the highest observed in the context of the last 250 years. These trends may ultimately be linked to changing impacts of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on mid‐latitude ecosystems of North America. Such a rise in synchrony may destabilize ecosystems, expose populations to higher risks of extinction, and is thus a concern given the broad biological relevance of winter climate to biological systems.

  20. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark, and to investi......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark......, and to investigate the incidence. We suggest guidelines for treatment. First we reviewed the medical records of 51 patients diagnosed with MCC from 1995 until 2006 in eastern Denmark. The nation-wide incidence of MCC was extracted from the Danish Cancer Registry for the calculations for the period 1986-2003. We...... reviwed published papers about MCC based on a MEDLINE search. Fourteen of the 51 patients developed recurrence, and 37 (73%) died during the study period. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1-122). A total of 153 patients were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and showed that incidence rates had...

  1. Colliding Epidemics and the Rise of Cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C. Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discovered more than 100 years ago as a human pathogen, the Cryptococcus neoformans–Cryptococcus gattii (C. neoformans–C. gattii complex has seen a large global resurgence in its association with clinical disease in the last 30 years. First isolated in fermenting peach juice, and identified as a human pathogen in 1894 in a patient with bone lesions, this environmental pathogen has now found niches in soil, trees, birds, and domestic pets. Cryptococcosis is well recognized as an opportunistic infection and was first noted to be associated with reticuloendothelial cancers in the 1950s. Since then, advances in transplant immunology, medical science and surgical techniques have led to increasing numbers of solid organ transplantations (SOT and hematological stem cell transplantations being performed, and the use of biological immunotherapeutics in increasingly high-risk and older individuals, have contributed to the further rise in cryptococcosis. Globally, however, the major driver for revivification of cryptococcosis is undoubtedly the HIV epidemic, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa where access to care and antiretroviral therapy remains limited and advanced immunodeficiency, poverty and malnutrition remains the norm. As a zoonotic disease, environmental outbreaks of both human and animal cryptococcosis have been reported, possibly driven by climate change. This is best exemplified by the resurgence of C. gattii infection in Vancouver Island, Canada, and the Pacific Northwest of the United States since 1999. Here we describe how the colliding epidemics of HIV, transplantation and immunologics, climate change and migration have contributed to the rise of cryptococcosis.

  2. Use of formwork systems in high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakova, Oksana

    2018-03-01

    Erection of high quality buildings and structures within a reasonable time frame is the crucial factor for the competitiveness of any construction organization. The main material used in high-rise construction is insitu reinforced concrete. The technology of its use is directly related to the use of formwork systems. Formwork systems and formwork technologies basically determine the speed of construction and labor intensity of concreting operations. Therefore, it is also possible to achieve the goal of reducing the construction time and labor intensity of works performed by improving the technology of formwork systems use. Currently there are unresolved issues in the area of implementation of monolithic technology projects, and problems related to the selection of a formwork technology, high labor intensity of works, poor quality of materials and structures, etc. are the main ones. The article presents organizational and technological measures, by means of which introduction it is possible to shorten the duration of construction. A comparison of operations performed during formwork installation according to the conventional technology and taking into account the implemented organizational and technological measures is presented. The results of a comparative analysis of economic efficiency assessments are also presented on the example of a specific construction project before and after the implementation of the above mentioned measures. The study showed that introduction of the proposed organizational and technological model taking into account optimization of reinforcing and concreting works significantly improves the efficiency of a high-rise construction project. And further improvement of technologies for the use of insitu reinforced concrete is a promising direction in the construction of high-rise buildings.

  3. Use of formwork systems in high-rise construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurakova Oksana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Erection of high quality buildings and structures within a reasonable time frame is the crucial factor for the competitiveness of any construction organization. The main material used in high-rise construction is insitu reinforced concrete. The technology of its use is directly related to the use of formwork systems. Formwork systems and formwork technologies basically determine the speed of construction and labor intensity of concreting operations. Therefore, it is also possible to achieve the goal of reducing the construction time and labor intensity of works performed by improving the technology of formwork systems use. Currently there are unresolved issues in the area of implementation of monolithic technology projects, and problems related to the selection of a formwork technology, high labor intensity of works, poor quality of materials and structures, etc. are the main ones. The article presents organizational and technological measures, by means of which introduction it is possible to shorten the duration of construction. A comparison of operations performed during formwork installation according to the conventional technology and taking into account the implemented organizational and technological measures is presented. The results of a comparative analysis of economic efficiency assessments are also presented on the example of a specific construction project before and after the implementation of the above mentioned measures. The study showed that introduction of the proposed organizational and technological model taking into account optimization of reinforcing and concreting works significantly improves the efficiency of a high-rise construction project. And further improvement of technologies for the use of insitu reinforced concrete is a promising direction in the construction of high-rise buildings.

  4. Coastal sea level rise with warming above 2 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke P; Riva, Riccardo E M; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John C

    2016-11-22

    Two degrees of global warming above the preindustrial level is widely suggested as an appropriate threshold beyond which climate change risks become unacceptably high. This "2 °C" threshold is likely to be reached between 2040 and 2050 for both Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and 4.5. Resulting sea level rises will not be globally uniform, due to ocean dynamical processes and changes in gravity associated with water mass redistribution. Here we provide probabilistic sea level rise projections for the global coastline with warming above the 2 °C goal. By 2040, with a 2 °C warming under the RCP8.5 scenario, more than 90% of coastal areas will experience sea level rise exceeding the global estimate of 0.2 m, with up to 0.4 m expected along the Atlantic coast of North America and Norway. With a 5 °C rise by 2100, sea level will rise rapidly, reaching 0.9 m (median), and 80% of the coastline will exceed the global sea level rise at the 95th percentile upper limit of 1.8 m. Under RCP8.5, by 2100, New York may expect rises of 1.09 m, Guangzhou may expect rises of 0.91 m, and Lagos may expect rises of 0.90 m, with the 95th percentile upper limit of 2.24 m, 1.93 m, and 1.92 m, respectively. The coastal communities of rapidly expanding cities in the developing world, and vulnerable tropical coastal ecosystems, will have a very limited time after midcentury to adapt to sea level rises unprecedented since the dawn of the Bronze Age.

  5. Soil Structure Interaction Effect on High Rise and Low Rise Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Pathak; PAresh H. SHAH

    2000-01-01

    Effect of supporting soil on the response of structure has been analyzed in the present study. A low rise (G+ 5 storey) and a high rise (G+12 storey) building has been taken for the analysis. For both type of buildings, the response of building with and without consideration of soil structure interaction effect has been compared.Without interaction case is the case in which ends of the structure are assumed to be fixed while in interaction case, structure is assumed to be...

  6. FIRE EVACUATION FROM HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors. In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds the temperature of the ambient air acceptable for humans by far (70 °С. The experiments demonstrate that combustion products contain hundreds of toxic chemical compounds. The most hazardous of them include carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, chloride and cyanic hydrogen, aldehydes and acrolein. The author provides the pattern of their influence on the human body. The smoke consists of unburned particles of carbon and aerosols. The size of particles fluctuates within 0.05-50 MMK. Smoke produces a physiological and psychological impact on human beings. It has been proven that dangerous fire factors emerge within the first five to ten minutes of the emergency situation. Evacuation is the principal method of safety assurance. However, the velocity of propagation of smoke and heat is so high that even if the fire prevention system is in operation, people may be blocked both on the floors that are exposed to the fire and those that escape its propagation. New evacuation and rescue methods are recommended by the author. Various ways and methods of use of life-saving facilities are also provided. Safe evacuation is feasible from buildings where the number of stories does not exceed 10- 12. During evacuation, high density human streams are formed inside buildings, therefore, the period of stay in a burning building is increased. The calculations have proven that a two-minute delay of evacuation converts into a safe evacuation of only 13-15% of people. Low reliability of

  7. Not dead yet: the rise, fall and persistence of the BCG Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Dag Øivind

    2017-01-01

    The BCG Matrix was introduced almost 50 years ago, and is today considered one of the most iconic strategic planning techniques. Using management fashion theory as a theoretical lens, this paper examines the historical rise, fall and persistence of the BCG Matrix. The analysis highlights the role played by fashion-setting actors (e.g., consultants, business schools and business media) in the rise of the BCG Matrix. However, over time, portfolio planning models such as the BCG Matrix were atta...

  8. Exploring the unprecedented rise in Danish burglary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, David W.M.

    2012-01-01

    burglary increased so dramatically. This paper explores four sets of possible explanations for the increase, namely: Changes in public reporting, police recording and insurance practices; changes in population age, drug use and economic recession; increasing crime tourism; and impediments policing caused...... by the National Police Reform of 2007. While some or all of these factors may have contributed to the overall rise, none of them come close to explaining it on their own. This absence of evidence is especially interesting in light of widespread assumptions in the media and among some police about foreign burglary......-year period 2005-2010, plus data on long term crime trends (1990-2010) and other social indicators....

  9. Is the Kingdom of Bicycles Rising Again?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Christensen, Hilda

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on new types of cycling in postsocialist China, especially mountain and sports biking, and on the particular entanglements of gender and class brought with them. The shift in mobility and biking from the Mao era to the postsocialist China is analyzed in the contexts of cultural......-analytical notions of global assemblages and gendered interpellations. Based on Chinese newspaper materials and fieldwork in Beijing and Shanghai, the article examines the social and gendered implications of the new biking cultures. These new biking practices mainly interpellate new middle-class men...... and masculinities as part of an exclusive leisure culture. If the “Kingdom of the Bicycles” is going to rise again, there is a need for a broader scope that addresses access for all, including women and families, as smart bikers, as well as biking as a daily mode of transportation....

  10. AHP 21: Review: The Sun Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun Rises is a model study contextualizing an oral narrative tradition in the social and ritual fabric of a remote community in northeast India. In many ways a companion volume to Himalayan Tribal Tales (Blackburn 2008, the text presents the first substantial translation of a key ritual text of the Apantani Valley dwellers in Arunachal Pradesh, located on the contested border between China (Tibet and India. The Apatani speak a Tibeto-Burman language, practice intensive rice agriculture in carefully terraced fields, and number about 35,000. Their clans populate several centuries-old villages. Until recently, they were separated from the lowlands of Assam and surrounded only by peoples practicing various forms of shifting agriculture. The valley dwellers have increasingly encountered modernization over the last few decades, including Indian and global popular culture, and Christianity. ...

  11. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Jeppesen, Søren; Hansen, Michael W.

    of African firm strategy and performance that takes into account the specificities of the African business environment and African firm capabilities. The paper starts by juxtaposing the widespread pessimistic view of African business with more recent, optimistic studies on African firms’ performance....... The latter suggests that profound improvements in African business performance are indeed under way: with the private sector playing a more important role as an engine of growth, with the rise of a capable African entrepreneurial class, and with the emergence of dynamic and competitive African enterprises...... in the literature, the authors suggest an analytical framework for understanding African business performance, underlining the interplay between contextual specificities, firm capabilities, and firm strategy....

  12. Analysis of Sea Level Rise in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, K. M.; Huang, T.; Quach, N. T.; Boening, C.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Sea Level Change Portal provides scientists and the general public with "one-stop" source for current sea level change information and data. Sea Level Rise research is a multidisciplinary research and in order to understand its causes, scientists must be able to access different measurements and to be able to compare them. The portal includes an interactive tool, called the Data Analysis Tool (DAT), for accessing, visualizing, and analyzing observations and models relevant to the study of Sea Level Rise. Using NEXUS, an open source, big data analytic technology developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the DAT is able provide user on-the-fly data analysis on all relevant parameters. DAT is composed of three major components: A dedicated instance of OnEarth (a WMTS service), NEXUS deep data analytic platform, and the JPL Common Mapping Client (CMC) for web browser based user interface (UI). Utilizing the global imagery, a user is capable of browsing the data in a visual manner and isolate areas of interest for further study. The interfaces "Analysis" tool provides tools for area or point selection, single and/or comparative dataset selection, and a range of options, algorithms, and plotting. This analysis component utilizes the Nexus cloud computing platform to provide on-demand processing of the data within the user-selected parameters and immediate display of the results. A RESTful web API is exposed for users comfortable with other interfaces and who may want to take advantage of the cloud computing capabilities. This talk discuss how DAT enables on-the-fly sea level research. The talk will introduce the DAT with an end-to-end tour of the tool with exploration and animating of available imagery, a demonstration of comparative analysis and plotting, and how to share and export data along with images for use in publications/presentations. The session will cover what kind of data is available, what kind of analysis is possible, and what are the outputs.

  13. Rising workload or rising work pressure in general practice in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.H. de; Hutten, J.B.F.; Steultjens, M.; Schellevis, F.

    2002-01-01

    Background: General practice in the Netherlands seems to be in a crisis. Worries about shortages of GP's, the first strike of general practitioners in 2001 and the rapid increase of triage systems in out of hours care are signs that work pressure and/or workload are rising. But systematic evidence

  14. Numerical Investigation of Microgravity Tank Pressure Rise Due to Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Sonya; Ibrahim, Mounir; Kartuzova, Olga; Kassemi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control self-pressurization in cryogenic storage tanks is essential for NASAs long-term space exploration missions. Predictions of the tank pressure rise in Space are needed in order to inform the microgravity design and optimization process. Due to the fact that natural convection is very weak in microgravity, heat leaks into the tank can create superheated regions in the liquid. The superheated regions can instigate microgravity boiling, giving rise to pressure spikes during self-pressurization. In this work, a CFD model is developed to predict the magnitude and duration of the microgravity pressure spikes. The model uses the Schrage equation to calculate the mass transfer, with a different accommodation coefficient for evaporation at the interface, condensation at the interface, and boiling in the bulk liquid. The implicit VOF model was used to account for the moving interface, with bounded second order time discretization. Validation of the models predictions was carried out using microgravity data from the Tank Pressure Control Experiment, which flew aboard the Space Shuttle Mission STS-52. Although this experiment was meant to study pressurization and pressure control, it underwent boiling during several tests. The pressure rise predicted by the CFD model compared well with the experimental data. The ZBOT microgravity experiment is scheduled to fly on February 2016 aboard the ISS. The CFD model was also used to perform simulations for setting parametric limits for the Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiments Test Matrix in an attempt to avoid boiling in the majority of the test runs that are aimed to study pressure increase rates during self-pressurization. *Supported in part by NASA ISS Physical Sciences Research Program, NASA HQ, USA

  15. Early rising children are more active than late risers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kohyama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Jun KohyamaDepartment of Pediatrics, Tokyo Kita Shakai Hoken Hospital, Tokyo, JapanBackground: A low level of physical activity impacts mental as well as physical health. This study investigated the daily lifestyle habits that affect physical activity in young children.Methods: The relationship between physical activity, assessed by means of a Mini-Mitter Actiwatch device, and observed daily lifestyle habits was analyzed for 204 children, aged 12 to 40 months (average: 22.6 months, for whom 6-consecutive-day data from both the Actiwatch and sleep log were obtained.Results: An older age, male gender, and early waking time showed significant positive correlations with physical activity level. Multiple regression analysis revealed that these three variables were significant predictors of physical activity.Conclusion: Promoting an early rising time is suggested to be an important element of cultivating good health in young children.Keywords: physical activity, children, actigraphy, morning light

  16. Can salt marshes survive sea level rise ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambroni, N.; Seminara, G.

    2008-12-01

    Stability of salt marshes is a very delicate issue depending on the subtle interplay among hydrodynamics, morphodynamics and ecology. In fact, the elevation of the marsh platform depends essentially on three effects: i) the production of soil associated with sediments resuspended by tidal currents and wind waves in the adjacent tidal flats, advected to the marsh and settling therein; ii) production of organic sediments by the salt marsh vegetation; iii) soil 'loss' driven by sea level rise and subsidence. In order to gain insight into the mechanics of the process, we consider a schematic configuration consisting of a salt marsh located at the landward end of a tidal channel connected at the upstream end with a tidal sea, under different scenarios of sea level rise. We extend the simple 1D model for the morphodynamic evolution of a tidal channel formulated by Lanzoni and Seminara (2002, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 107, C1) allowing for sediment resuspension in the channel and vegetation growth in the marsh using the depth dependent model of biomass productivity of Spartina proposed by Morris et al. (2002, Ecology, 83, pp. 2869 - 2877). We first focus on the case of a tide dominated salt marsh neglecting wind driven sediment resuspension in the shoal. Results show that the production of biomass plays a crucial role on salt marsh stability and, provided productivity is high enough, it may turn out to be sufficient to counteract the effects of sea level rise even in the absence of significant supply of mineral sediments. The additional effect of wind resuspension is then introduced. Note that the wind action is twofold: on one hand, it generates wind waves the amplitude of which is strongly dependent on shoal depth and wind fetch; on the other hand, it generates currents driven by the surface setup induced by the shear stress acting on the free surface. Here, each contribution is analysed separately. Results show that the values of bottom stress induced by

  17. Mangrove Sedimentation and Response to Relative Sea-Level Rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, C D; Rogers, K; McKee, K L; Lovelock, C E; Mendelssohn, I A; Saintilan, N

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions, related primarily to elevation and hydroperiod, influence mangrove distributions; this review considers how these distributions change over time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks, and tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas measurements made using surface elevation tables and marker horizons provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in a continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  18. Mangrove sedimentation and response to relative sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, CD; Rogers, K.; Mckee, Karen L.; Lovelock, CE; Mendelssohn, IA; Saintilan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions influence mangrove distributions, primarily related to elevation and hydroperiod; this review considers how these adjust through time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks; tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon, but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas Surface Elevation Table-Marker Horizon measurements (SET-MH) provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  19. Rising statin use and effect on ischemic stroke outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haymore Joseph

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors have neuroprotective effects in experimental stroke models and are commonly prescribed in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine if patients taking statins before hospital admission for stroke had an improved clinical outcome. Methods This was an observational study of 436 patients admitted to the National Institutes of Health Suburban Hospital Stroke Program between July 2000 and December 2002. Self-reported risk factors for stroke were obtained on admission. Stroke severity was determined by the admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score. Good outcome was defined as a Rankin score Results There were 436 patients with a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke; statin data were available for 433 of them. A total of 95/433 (22% of patients were taking a statin when they were admitted, rising from 16% in 2000 to 26% in 2002. Fifty-one percent of patients taking statins had a good outcome compared to 38% of patients not taking statins (p = 0.03. After adjustment for confounding factors, statin pretreatment was associated with a 2.9 odds (95% CI: 1.2–6.7 of a good outcome at the time of hospital discharge. Conclusions The proportion of patients taking statins when they are admitted with stroke is rising rapidly. Statin pretreatment was significantly associated with an improved functional outcome at discharge. This finding could support the early initiation of statin therapy after stroke.

  20. The Impact of Rising Temperatures on Aircraft Takeoff Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.; Thompson, T. R.

    2017-12-01

    Steadily rising mean and extreme temperatures as a result of climate change will likely impact the air transportation system over the coming decades. As air temperatures rise at constant pressure, air density declines, resulting in less lift generation by an aircraft wing at a given airspeed and potentially imposing a weight restriction on departing aircraft. This study presents a general model to project future weight restrictions across a fleet of aircraft with different takeoff weights operating at a variety of airports. We construct performance models for five common commercial aircraft and 19 major airports around the world and use projections of daily temperatures from the CMIP5 model suite under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emissions scenarios to calculate required hourly weight restriction. We find that on average, 10-30% of annual flights departing at the time of daily maximum temperature may require some weight restriction below their maximum takeoff weights, with mean restrictions ranging from 0.5 to 4% of total aircraft payload and fuel capacity by mid- to late century. Both mid-sized and large aircraft are affected, and airports with short runways and high tempera- tures, or those at high elevations, will see the largest impacts. Our results suggest that weight restriction may impose a non-trivial cost on airlines and impact aviation operations around the world and that adaptation may be required in aircraft design, airline schedules, and/or runway lengths.

  1. Technological features of installation of transformable low-rise buildings from sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleshivtsev Aleksandr Aleksandrovich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research: organizational and technological solutions are considered in the construction of transformable low-rise residential buildings using sandwich panels. Aims: rational choice of organizational and technological solutions for the rhythmic construction of the underground and above-ground part of the transformable low-rise buildings in order to reduce labor costs and construction time. Materials and methods: methods of computer modeling of the technological processes are used to determine the duration of the construction of the low-rise buildings. Results: rational methods for erecting a complex of transformable low-rise buildings are defined, parameters of technological processes are established, an analysis of technological operations is provided for the construction of transformable low-rise residential buildings using sandwich panels. Conclusions: now organizational and technological solutions for the construction of transformable low-rise residential buildings with the use of sandwich panels reduce labour costs, increase the construction pace and as well as the using of improved technological processes in the construction of such buildings leads to a reduction in construction time.

  2. Determination of Temperature Rise and Temperature Differentials of CEMII/B-V Cement for 20MPa Mass Concrete using Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Siang, GO

    2017-07-01

    Experimental test was carried out to determine the temperature rise characteristics of Portland-Fly-Ash Cement (CEM II/B-V, 42.5N) of Blaine fineness 418.6m2/kg and 444.6m2/kg respectively for 20MPa mass concrete under adiabatic condition. The estimation on adiabatic temperature rise by way of CIRIA C660 method (Construction Industry Research & Information Information) was adopted to verify and validate the hot-box test results by simulating the heat generation curve of the concrete under semi-adiabatic condition. Test result found that Portland fly-ash cement has exhibited decrease in the peak value of temperature rise and maximum temperature rise rate. The result showed that the temperature development and distribution profile, which is directly contributed from the heat of hydration of cement with time, is affected by the insulation, initial placing temperature, geometry and size of concrete mass. The mock up data showing the measured temperature differential is significantly lower than the technical specifications 20°C temperature differential requirement and the 27.7°C limiting temperature differential for granite aggregate concrete as stipulated in BS8110-2: 1985. The concrete strength test result revealed that the 28 days cubes compressive strength was above the stipulated 20MPa characteristic strength at 90 days. The test demonstrated that with proper concrete mix design, the use of Portland flyash cement, combination of chilled water and flake ice, and good insulation is effective in reducing peak temperature rise, temperature differential, and lower adiabatic temperature rise for mass concrete pours. As far as the determined adiabatic temperature rise result was concern, the established result could be inferred for in-situ thermal properties of 20MPa mass concrete application, as the result could be repeatable on account of similar type of constituent materials and concrete mix design adopted for permanent works at project site.

  3. Sea level rise and the geoid: factor analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hongzhi; Sadovski, Alexey; Jeffress, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Sea levels are rising around the world, and this is a particular concern along most of the coasts of the United States. A 1989 EPA report shows that sea levels rose 5-6 inches more than the global average along the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf Coasts in the last century. The main reason for this is coastal land subsidence. This sea level rise is considered more as relative sea level rise than global sea level rise. Thus, instead of studying sea level rise globally, this paper describes a statistical...

  4. Gas demand to rise in the Usa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Could US consumption of natural gas rise by as much as 13 quadrillion Btu (quads) over the next 20 years? A new study conducted for the American Gas Foundation by Washington Policy and Analysis says it's certainly a possibility if appropriate policies are implemented. 'Fueling the Future: Natural Gas and New Technologies for a Cleaner 21. Century', confirms what natural gas industry professionals have long suspected: changes in US energy policy that favor increased use of natural gas could improve air quality, conserve energy and reduce reliance on imported oil from politically unstable countries. Consequently, the study forecasts that the environmental, economic and efficiency advantages of natural gas-combined with advances in gas-related technologies and the introduction of new end-use technologies - could help push. US gas consumption into the 35-quad range over the next two decades. Currently, American gas demand is close to 22 quads a year. The study tracks two scenarios: a 'current projection', which shows gas demand reaching nearly 30 quads by 2020, and an 'accelerated projection', which foresees demand topping 35 quads by then based on the adoption of national policies encouraging greater use of natural gas. (authors)

  5. The Rise of Islamic Feminism in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haya al-Mughni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the emergence of Islamic Feminism in Kuwait, based on the writings and personal accounts of leading Islamist women activists.  It begins with an analysis of the socio-political factors that led to the creation of Islamic groups in the 1980s. It then outlines the role of women in the growth of the Islamic movement and shows how the contradictions between women’s contributions to the Islamic cause and the secondary role they play within the Islamic organizations controlled by men were conducive to the rise of Islamic feminism in the 1990s. The paper also demonstrates how the involvement of islamist women in the struggle for suffrage forging a coalition with liberal women activists had played a decisive role in changing the position of islamist groups towards the enfranchisement of women. The last two sections of the paper look at the participation of islamist women activists in the re-definition of the dichotomy between the public and private spheres and at their involvement in the process of interpretation of Islamic sources, known as Ijtihâd. The paper concludes that the engagement of islamist women activists in the discourse of women’s rights can be powerful agent of change towards a more egalitarian society.

  6. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Guan, Dabo

    2015-07-09

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 10(9) m(3) (Gm(3)), or 22% of China's total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm(3) yr(-1) or 3.6 m(3) of water to produce a GJ (10(9) J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability.

  7. The rise and fall of refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper described the rise and fall of refineries in Montreal. Well before Calgary, Montreal was the hub of activity for oil refineries because Montreal was the principle consuming market for petroleum products in Canada. The location was good, particularly since the soil was clay which helped prevent soil infiltration of petroleum. The first refinery in Montreal was constructed in 1916 by Esso, followed by Texaco in 1921 and Gulf in 1931. Initially oil was shipped by boat to the Port of Montreal from Saudi Arabia. Later, the petroleum came mostly from Venezuela. At the beginning of the 1980s many refineries were closed because they became obsolete and upgrading them would have been too costly. Only 3 refineries remain in Quebec, of which 2 are in Montreal. They are owned by Shell and PetroCanada. The third refinery in Quebec is in St-Romuald and is owned by UltraMar. One of the major contributing factors to the decline of the refining industry in Montreal was the decision in 1984 by former Prime Minister Trudeau to force Canadian provinces to purchase their petroleum from Alberta. This caused the petrochemical industry to locate in Sarnia in Ontario, leaving the Montreal refining centre to become obsolete. 3 figs

  8. Shapes and rising velocities of single bubbles rising through an inner subchannel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Akio; Nakahara, Yusuke; Adachi, Yoshihiro; Hosokawa, Shigeo

    2003-01-01

    Shapes and velocities of single air bubbles rising through stagnant and flowing waters in an inner subchannel are measured by making use of fluorocarbon tubes. It is confirmed that (1) bubble shapes and motions in the subchannel are by far different from those in simple geometry, and they depend on the ratio λ of the bubble diameter to the subchannel hydraulic diameter, (2) when λ > 0.9, a part of a bubble intrudes into neighboring subchannels, and thereby a kind of void drift takes place even with a single bubble, (3) the terminal velocity V T of a small bubble (λ T for cell-Taylor bubbles (λ > 0.9) is presented, and (5) the rising velocity V B in laminar an turbulent flow conditions are well evaluated by substituting the proposed V T models and the ratio of the maximum liquid velocity to the mean liquid velocity into the Nicklin correlation. (author)

  9. Modeling rises and falls in money addicted social hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2014-08-01

    The emergence of large communities is inherently associated with the creation of social structures. Connections between individuals are indispensable for cooperative action of agents building social groups. Moreover, social groups usually evolve and their structure changes over time. Consequently, an underlying network connecting individuals is not static, reflecting an ongoing adaptation to new conditions. The evolution of social connections is influenced by the relative position (hierarchy) of individuals building the system as well as by the availability of resources. We explore this aspect of human ambition by modeling the interplay of social networking and an uneven distribution of external resources. The model naturally generates social hierarchies. Remarkably, this social structure exhibits a rise-and-fall behavior. A well pronounced quasi-periodic dynamics, which is closely associated with the dissipation of resources that are needed to sustain the social links, is revealed.

  10. Oil Price Rise and the Great Recession of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Siamak MONADJEMI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The financial crises of 2007-2008, caused wide-spread falling output and unemployment, in the affected countries and also globally. The severity of the recession was such that it was called the “Great Recession”. As a result of an increase in demand from China and India, at the same time, oil prices rose significantly. The empirical results from this study show that oil price changes negatively affected global growth rate in the 1970s but not in the 1990s and 2000s. These results suggest that the Great Recession in 2008 that initiated by the financial crises, was independent of a significant rise in oil prices.

  11. Modeling rises and falls in money addicted social hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of large communities is inherently associated with the creation of social structures. Connections between individuals are indispensable for cooperative action of agents building social groups. Moreover, social groups usually evolve and their structure changes over time. Consequently, an underlying network connecting individuals is not static, reflecting an ongoing adaptation to new conditions. The evolution of social connections is influenced by the relative position (hierarchy) of individuals building the system as well as by the availability of resources. We explore this aspect of human ambition by modeling the interplay of social networking and an uneven distribution of external resources. The model naturally generates social hierarchies. Remarkably, this social structure exhibits a rise-and-fall behavior. A well pronounced quasi-periodic dynamics, which is closely associated with the dissipation of resources that are needed to sustain the social links, is revealed. (paper)

  12. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  13. Anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D.

    2012-07-09

    The anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in a porous medium discovered experimentally more than a decade ago is described. The developed theory is based on considering the principal modes of motion of the menisci that collectively form the wetting front on the Darcy scale. These modes, which include (i) dynamic wetting mode, (ii) threshold mode, and (iii) interface depinning process, are incorporated into the boundary conditions for the bulk equations formulated in the regular framework of continuum mechanics of porous media, thus allowing one to consider a general case of three-dimensional flows. The developed theory makes it possible to describe all regimes observed in the experiment, with the time spanning more than four orders of magnitude, and highlights the dominant physical mechanisms at different stages of the process. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  14. Relativistic rise measurements with very fine sampling intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlam, T.; Platner, E.D.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Kramer, M.A.; Teramoto, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The motivation of this work was to determine whether the technique of charged particle identification via the relativistic rise in the ionization loss can be significantly improved by virtue of very small sampling intervals. A fast-sampling ADC and a longitudinal drift geometry were used to provide a large number of samples from a single drift chamber gap, achieving sampling intervals roughly 10 times smaller than any previous study. A single layer drift chamber was used, and tracks of 1 meter length were simulated by combining together samples from many identified particles in this detector. These data were used to study the resolving power for particle identification as a function of sample size, averaging technique, and the number of discrimination levels (ADC bits) used for pulse height measurements

  15. [The rise and fall of an physician entrepreneur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörnyei, Sándor

    2002-01-01

    In 1927 one of the most up-to-date and most beautiful sanatoriums of Central Europe was built on the hills of Buda by László Jakab MD (1875-1940), who at that time had already run - since 1909 - a successful health-resort, the rather popular and successful "Liget-Sanatorium": following a period of expansion and flourishing, his enterprise bankrupted. (The building itself was renewed after World War II - it served first as a hospital for tuberculosis patients and later as a university clinic for internal medicine.) This article tells the story of an entrepreneur physician, including his former and more successful attempts to run a health-care business, and gives detailed account of the rise and fall of private health-resort in prewar Hungary.

  16. Dynamics of a bubble rising in gravitational field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bernardis Enrico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising motion in free space of a pulsating spherical bubble of gas and vapour driven by the gravitational force, in an isochoric, inviscid liquid is investigated. The liquid is at rest at the initial time, so that the subsequent flow is irrotational. For this reason, the velocity field due to the bubble motion is described by means of a potential, which is represented through an expansion based on Legendre polynomials. A system of two coupled, ordinary and nonlinear differential equations is derived for the vertical position of the bubble center of mass and for its radius. This latter equation is a modified form of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, including a term proportional to the kinetic energy associated to the translational motion of the bubble.

  17. Design of solar systems in high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Alexander; Chudinov, Dmitry; Yaremenko, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, the renovation program is being implemented in the megapolises of Russia. Innovative high-rise buildings are built instead of morally and physically obsolete houses, where non-traditional renewable energy sources are used to the fullest extent, under the effect of which they are located. The possibility to use solar systems with variation of their design parameters is considered. It is established that solar systems have high technical potential. The share of heat load, that is provided by using solar energy, varies from 4 to 84% depending on the time of the year. Economic indicators restrain the use of such panels. The payback period is about 8 years at the current cost for thermal energy.

  18. The rise and fall of gluten!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Imran; Branchi, Federica; Sanders, David S

    2015-08-01

    Mankind has existed for 2·5 million years but only in the last 10,000 years have we been exposed to wheat. Wheat was first cultivated in the Fertile Crescent (South Western Asia) with a farming expansion that lasted from about 9000BC to 4000BC. Thus it could be considered that wheat (and gluten) is a novel introduction to man's diet! Prior to 1939 the rationing system had already been devised. This led to an imperative to try to increase agricultural production. Thus it was agreed in 1941 that there was a need to establish a Nutrition Society. The very roots of the society were geared towards necessarily increasing the production of wheat. This goal was achieved and by the end of the 20th century, global wheat output had expanded 5-fold. Perhaps as a result the epidemiology of coeliac disease (CD) or gluten sensitive enteropathy has changed. CD is a state of heightened immunological responsiveness to ingested gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. CD now affects 1 % or more of all adults, for which the treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. However, there is a growing body of evidence to show that a far greater proportion of individuals without coeliac disease are taking a gluten-free diet of their own volition. This clinical entity has been termed non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), although the condition is fraught with complexities due to overlap with other gluten-based constituents that can also trigger similar clinical symptoms. This review will explore the relationship between gluten, the rising prevalence of modern coeliac disease, and the new entity of NCGS along with its associated uncertainties.

  19. Mathematical modeling of the Phoenix Rising pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a tightly controlled process in mammalian cells. It is important for embryogenesis, tissue homoeostasis, and cancer treatment. Apoptosis not only induces cell death, but also leads to the release of signals that promote rapid proliferation of surrounding cells through the Phoenix Rising (PR pathway. To quantitatively understand the kinetics of interactions of different molecules in this pathway, we developed a mathematical model to simulate the effects of various changes in the PR pathway on the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a key factor for promoting cell proliferation. These changes include activation of caspase 3 (C3, caspase 7 (C7, and nuclear factor κB (NFκB. In addition, we simulated the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2 inhibition and C3 knockout on the level of secreted PGE2. The model predictions on PGE2 in MEF and 4T1 cells at 48 hours after 10-Gray radiation were quantitatively consistent with the experimental data in the literature. Compared to C7, the model predicted that C3 activation was more critical for PGE2 production. The model also predicted that PGE2 production could be significantly reduced when COX2 expression was blocked via either NFκB inactivation or treatment of cells with exogenous COX2 inhibitors, which led to a decrease in the rate of conversion from arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 in the PR pathway. In conclusion, the mathematical model developed in this study yielded new insights into the process of tissue regrowth stimulated by signals from apoptotic cells. In future studies, the model can be used for experimental data analysis and assisting development of novel strategies/drugs for improving cancer treatment or normal tissue regeneration.

  20. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  1. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Drakopoulos, Michael [Diamond Light Source, I12 Joint Engineering, Environmental, Processing (JEEP) Beamline, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Rack, Alexander [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Eakins, Daniel E., E-mail: d.eakins@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-24

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  2. In vitro pulp chamber temperature rise from irradiation and exotherm of flowable composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroudi, Kusai; Silikas, Nick; Watts, David C

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pulpal temperature rise induced during the polymerization of flowable and non-flowable composites using light-emitting diode (LED) and halogen (quartz-tungsten-halogen) light-curing units (LCUs). Five flowable and three non-flowable composites were examined. Pulpal temperature changes were recorded over 10 min in a sample primary tooth by a thermocouple. A conventional quartz-tungsten-halogen source and two LEDs, one of which was programmable, were used for light curing the resin composites. Three repetitions per material were made for each LCU. There was a wide range of temperature rises among the materials (P < 0.05). Temperature rises ranged between 1.3 degrees C for Filtek Supreme irradiated by low-power LED and 4.5 degrees C for Grandio Flow irradiated by high-power LED. The highest temperature rises were observed with both the LED high-power and soft-start LCUs. The time to reach the exothermic peak varied significantly between the materials (P < 0.05). Pulpal temperature rise is related to both the radiant energy output from LCUs and the polymerization exotherm of resin composites. A greater potential risk for heat-induced pulp damage might be associated with high-power LED sources. Flowable composites exhibited higher temperature rises than non-flowable materials, because of higher resin contents.

  3. Modeling the Effects of Sea-Level Rise on Groundwater Levels in Coastal New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Knott, J. F.; Daniel, J.; Kirshen, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal communities with high population density and low topography are vulnerable from sea-level rise (SLR) caused by climate change. Groundwater in coastal communities will rise with sea level impacting water quality, the structural integrity of infrastructure, and natural ecosystem health. SLR-induced groundwater rise has been studied in areas of high aquifer transmissivity and in low-lying areas immediately along the coast. In this regional study, we investigate SLR-induced groundwater rise in a coastal area characterized by shallow unconsolidated deposits overlying fractured bedrock, typical of the glaciated northeast United States. MODFLOW, a numerical groundwater-flow model, is used with groundwater observations, lidar topography, surface-water hydrology, and groundwater withdrawals to investigate SLR-induced changes in groundwater levels and vadose-zone thickness in New Hampshire's Seacoast. The SLR groundwater signal is detected up to 5 km from the coast, more than 3 times farther inland than projected surface-water flooding associated with SLR. Relative groundwater rise ranges from 38 to 98% of SLR within 1 km of the shoreline and drops below 4% between 4 and 5 km from the coast. The largest magnitude of SLR-induced groundwater rise occurs in the marine and estuarine deposits and land areas with tidal water bodies on three sides. In contrast, groundwater rise is dampened near streams. Groundwater inundation caused by 2 m of SLR is projected to contribute 48% of the total land inundation area in the City of Portsmouth with consequences for built and natural resources. Freshwater wetlands are projected to expand 3% by year 2030 increasing to 25% by year 2100 coupled with water-depth increases. These results imply that underground infrastructure and natural resources in coastal communities will be impacted by rising groundwater much farther inland than previously thought when considering only surface-water flooding from SLR.

  4. Population dynamics of Hawaiian seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeff S; Reynolds, Michelle H; Seavy, Nathaniel E; Krause, Crystal M

    2012-08-01

    Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong fidelity to natal colonies, and such colonies on low-lying islands may be threatened by sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore the population dynamics of seabird colonies and the potential effects sea-level rise may have on these rookeries. We compiled historic observations, a 30-year time series of seabird population abundance, lidar-derived elevations, and aerial imagery of all the islands of French Frigate Shoals. To estimate the population dynamics of 8 species of breeding seabirds on Tern Island from 1980 to 2009, we used a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer population growth rates, density dependence, process variation, and observation error. All species increased in abundance, in a pattern that provided evidence of density dependence. Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor), Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Spectacled Terns (Onychoprion lunatus), and White Terns (Gygis alba) are likely at carrying capacity. Density dependence may exacerbate the effects of sea-level rise on seabirds because populations near carrying capacity on an island will be more negatively affected than populations with room for growth. We projected 12% of French Frigate Shoals will be inundated if sea level rises 1 m and 28% if sea level rises 2 m. Spectacled Terns and shrub-nesting species are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise, but seawalls and habitat restoration may mitigate the effects of sea-level rise. Losses of seabird nesting habitat may be substantial in the Hawaiian Islands by 2100 if sea levels rise 2 m. Restoration of higher-elevation seabird colonies represent a more enduring conservation solution for Pacific seabirds. Conservation Biology ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology. No claim to original

  5. [Pigment dispersion and Artisan implants: crystalline lens rise as a safety criterion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikoff, G; Bourgeon, G; Jodai, H Jitsuo; Fontaine, A; Vieira Lellis, F; Trinquet, L

    2005-06-01

    To validate the theoretical notion of a crystalline lens rise as a safety criterion for ARTISAN implants in order to prevent the development of pigment dispersion in the implanted eye. Crystalline lens rise is defined by the distance between the crystalline lens's anterior pole and the horizontal plane joining the opposite iridocorneal recesses. We analyzed the biometric measurements of 87 eyes with an Artisan implant. A comparative analysis of the crystalline lens rise was carried out on the nine eyes having developed pigment dispersion and 78 eyes with no problems. Among the modern anterior segment imaging devices (Artemis, Scheimpflug photography, optical coherence tomography, radiology exploration, magnetic resonance imaging, TDM), an anterior chamber optical coherence tomography (AC-OCT) prototype was used. This working hypothesis was confirmed by this study: the crystalline lens rise must be considered as a new safety criterion for implanting Artisan phakic lenses. Indeed, the higher the crystalline lens's rise, the greater the risk of developing pigment dispersion in the pupil area. This complication is more frequent in hyperopes than in myopes. We can consider that there is little or no risk of pigment dispersion if the rise is below 600 microm; however, at 600 microm or greater, there is a 67% rate of pupillary pigment dispersion. In certain cases, when the implant was loosely fixed, there was no traction on the iris root. This is a complication that can be avoided or delayed. The crystalline lens rise must be part of new safety criteria to be taken into consideration when inserting an Artisan implant. This notion must also be applied to other types of phakic implants. The distance remaining between the crystalline lens rise and a 600-micromm theoretical safety level allows one to calculate a safety time interval.

  6. Population dynamics of Hawaiian seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeff S.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; Krause, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong fidelity to natal colonies, and such colonies on low-lying islands may be threatened by sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore the population dynamics of seabird colonies and the potential effects sea-level rise may have on these rookeries. We compiled historic observations, a 30-year time series of seabird population abundance, lidar-derived elevations, and aerial imagery of all the islands of French Frigate Shoals. To estimate the population dynamics of 8 species of breeding seabirds on Tern Island from 1980 to 2009, we used a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer population growth rates, density dependence, process variation, and observation error. All species increased in abundance, in a pattern that provided evidence of density dependence. Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor), Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Spectacled Terns (Onychoprion lunatus), and White Terns (Gygis alba) are likely at carrying capacity. Density dependence may exacerbate the effects of sea-level rise on seabirds because populations near carrying capacity on an island will be more negatively affected than populations with room for growth. We projected 12% of French Frigate Shoals will be inundated if sea level rises 1 m and 28% if sea level rises 2 m. Spectacled Terns and shrub-nesting species are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise, but seawalls and habitat restoration may mitigate the effects of sea-level rise. Losses of seabird nesting habitat may be substantial in the Hawaiian Islands by 2100 if sea levels rise 2 m. Restoration of higher-elevation seabird colonies represent a more enduring conservation solution for Pacific seabirds.

  7. SEA-LEVEL RISE. Sea-level rise due to polar ice-sheet mass loss during past warm periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, A; Carlson, A E; Long, A J; Milne, G A; Clark, P U; DeConto, R; Horton, B P; Rahmstorf, S; Raymo, M E

    2015-07-10

    Interdisciplinary studies of geologic archives have ushered in a new era of deciphering magnitudes, rates, and sources of sea-level rise from polar ice-sheet loss during past warm periods. Accounting for glacial isostatic processes helps to reconcile spatial variability in peak sea level during marine isotope stages 5e and 11, when the global mean reached 6 to 9 meters and 6 to 13 meters higher than present, respectively. Dynamic topography introduces large uncertainties on longer time scales, precluding robust sea-level estimates for intervals such as the Pliocene. Present climate is warming to a level associated with significant polar ice-sheet loss in the past. Here, we outline advances and challenges involved in constraining ice-sheet sensitivity to climate change with use of paleo-sea level records. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Justin C.; SunRISE Team

    2018-06-01

    The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission of Opportunity currently in Phase A. SunRISE is a constellation of spacecraft flying in a 10-km diameter formation and operating as the first imaging radio interferometer in space. The purpose of SunRISE is to reveal critical aspects of solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and transport into space by making the first spatially resolved observations of coherent Type II and III radio bursts produced by electrons accelerated at CMEs or released from flares. SunRISE will focus on solar Decametric-Hectometric (DH, 0.1 space before major SEP events, but cannot be seen on Earth due to ionospheric absorption. This talk will describe SunRISE objectives and implementation. Presented on behalf of the entire SunRISE team.

  9. Rise and Shock: Optimal Defibrillator Placement in a High-rise Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Timothy C Y

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in high-rise buildings experience lower survival and longer delays until paramedic arrival. Use of publicly accessible automated external defibrillators (AED) can improve survival, but "vertical" placement has not been studied. We aim to determine whether elevator-based or lobby-based AED placement results in shorter vertical distance travelled ("response distance") to OHCAs in a high-rise building. We developed a model of a single-elevator, n-floor high-rise building. We calculated and compared the average distance from AED to floor of arrest for the two AED locations. We modeled OHCA occurrences using floor-specific Poisson processes, the risk of OHCA on the ground floor (λ 1 ) and the risk on any above-ground floor (λ). The elevator was modeled with an override function enabling direct travel to the target floor. The elevator location upon override was modeled as a discrete uniform random variable. Calculations used the laws of probability. Elevator-based AED placement had shorter average response distance if the number of floors (n) in the building exceeded three quarters of the ratio of ground-floor OHCA risk to above-ground floor risk (λ 1 /λ) plus one half (n ≥ 3λ 1 /4λ + 0.5). Otherwise, a lobby-based AED had shorter average response distance. If OHCA risk on each floor was equal, an elevator-based AED had shorter average response distance. Elevator-based AEDs travel less vertical distance to OHCAs in tall buildings or those with uniform vertical risk, while lobby-based AEDs travel less vertical distance in buildings with substantial lobby, underground, and nearby street-level traffic and OHCA risk.

  10. Does a Rise in Income Inequality Lead to Rises in Transportation Inequality and Mobility Practice Inequality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Purwanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and economic inequalities have sharpened in the late 20th century. During this period, Europe has witnessed a rising unemployment rate, a declining wages for the least qualified workers, a slowing of income growth, and an increasing gap between the richest and the poorest. Based on the hypothesis of the relation between socio-economic condition and mobility behaviour, it is necessary to ask how these socio-economic inequalities manifest themselves in transportation: does a rise in income inequality lead to a rise in transportation inequality and mobility practice inequality? This question is particularly relevant today as some European countries are facing high socio-economic inequalities following the financial crisis that started in 2008. Using results from transport, car ownership and mobility surveys as well as household surveys from the Paris (Île-de-France region between eighties and late nineties, this paper tries to answer this question. The results show how inequalities in transportation and mobility practice have decreased during the period in spite of an increase in income inequalities. We find that the evolution of socio-economic inequality, most specifically income inequality was simply one of the determining factors of the evolution of inequalities in transportation and mobility practice. In fact, the most important role in that evolution is not played by the evolution of income inequality but by the evolution of elasticity between transportation and income. Reducing the effects of this elasticity should be the main target of transport policies to diminish inequality in transportation and mobility practice.

  11. Progressive Collapse of High-Rise Buildings from Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pershakov Valerii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considers ensuring the stability of structures of high-rise buildings against progressive collapse due to fire, proposed measures to ensure the stability of high-rise buildings due to progressive collapse. The analysis of large fires in high-rise buildings with progressive collapse and review of the literature on the issue of progressive collapse. The analysis of the Ukrainian normative documents on progressive collapse resistance.

  12. Rising damp in building walls: the wall base ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.S.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q.; Freitas, V.P. de [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratorio de Fisica das Construcoes (LFC), Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-12-15

    This work intends to validate a new system for treating rising damp in historic buildings walls. The results of laboratory experiments show that an efficient way of treating rising damp is by ventilating the wall base, using the HUMIVENT technique. The analytical model presented describes very well the observed features of rising damp in walls, verified by laboratory tests, who contributed for a simple sizing of the wall base ventilation system that will be implemented in historic buildings. (orig.)

  13. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Sonia; Barnett, Jon; Fincher, Ruth; Hurlimann, Anna; Mortreux, Colette; Waters, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies

  14. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.graham@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Barnett, Jon, E-mail: jbarn@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Fincher, Ruth, E-mail: r.fincher@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Hurlimann, Anna, E-mail: anna.hurlimann@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Architecture and Planning Building, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Mortreux, Colette, E-mail: colettem@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Waters, Elissa, E-mail: elissa.waters@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies.

  15. 'Stutter timing' for charge decay time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, John; Harbour, John; Pavey, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the approach of 'stutter timing' that has been developed to improve the accuracy of measuring charge decay times in the presence of noise in compact and portable charge decay test instrumentation. The approach involves starting and stopping the timing clock as the noisy signal rises above and falls below the target threshold voltage level.

  16. Administrators' Pay Rises Less than Inflation Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Debra E.

    1990-01-01

    For the second time in three years, raises for administrators have fallen behind the inflation rate, says a survey conducted by the College and University Personnel Association. At public institutions increases have remained stable. At private institutions, which rely on tuition to finance their payroll, raises tended to vary more. (MLW)

  17. Rising cyclin-CDK levels order cell cycle events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Oikonomou

    Full Text Available Diverse mitotic events can be triggered in the correct order and time by a single cyclin-CDK. A single regulator could confer order and timing on multiple events if later events require higher cyclin-CDK than earlier events, so that gradually rising cyclin-CDK levels can sequentially trigger responsive events: the "quantitative model" of ordering.This 'quantitative model' makes predictions for the effect of locking cyclin at fixed levels for a protracted period: at low cyclin levels, early events should occur rapidly, while late events should be slow, defective, or highly variable (depending on threshold mechanism. We titrated the budding yeast mitotic cyclin Clb2 within its endogenous expression range to a stable, fixed level and measured time to occurrence of three mitotic events: growth depolarization, spindle formation, and spindle elongation, as a function of fixed Clb2 level. These events require increasingly more Clb2 according to their normal order of occurrence. Events occur efficiently and with low variability at fixed Clb2 levels similar to those observed when the events normally occur. A second prediction of the model is that increasing the rate of cyclin accumulation should globally advance timing of all events. Moderate (<2-fold overexpression of Clb2 accelerates all events of mitosis, resulting in consistently rapid sequential cell cycles. However, this moderate overexpression also causes a significant frequency of premature mitoses leading to inviability, suggesting that Clb2 expression level is optimized to balance the fitness costs of variability and catastrophe.We conclude that mitotic events are regulated by discrete cyclin-CDK thresholds. These thresholds are sequentially triggered as cyclin increases, yielding reliable order and timing. In many biological processes a graded input must be translated into discrete outputs. In such systems, expression of the central regulator is likely to be tuned to an optimum level, as we

  18. Measurement of the timing behaviour of off-the-shelf cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Volker

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a measurement method suitable for investigating the timing properties of cameras. A single light source illuminates the camera detector starting with a varying defined delay after the camera trigger. Pixels from the recorded camera frames are summed up and normalised, and the resulting function is indicative of the overlap between illumination and exposure. This allows one to infer the trigger delay and the exposure time with sub-microsecond accuracy. The method is therefore of interest when off-the-shelf cameras are used in reactive systems or synchronised with other cameras. It can supplement radiometric and geometric calibration methods for cameras in scientific use. A closer look at the measurement results reveals deviations from the ideal camera behaviour of constant sensitivity limited to the exposure interval. One of the industrial cameras investigated retains a small sensitivity long after the end of the nominal exposure interval. All three investigated cameras show non-linear variations of sensitivity at O≤ft({{10}-3}\\right) to O≤ft({{10}-2}\\right) during exposure. Due to its sign, the latter effect cannot be described by a sensitivity function depending on the time after triggering, but represents non-linear pixel characteristics.

  19. Planning of Low-rise Urban Housing Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, O.

    In many countries industrialization of house building has led to the building of large, monotonous housing areas with high-rise construction. In Denmark, however, smaller, varied housing areas with low-rise construction and urban features have become predominant. This report contains guidelines...... for the planning of such housing areas....

  20. The Rise of Conservatism since World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Dan T.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the rise of the conservatism movement in the United States since World War II. States that laissez-faire capitalism and the rise of communism contributed to the popularity of conservatism in the United States. Focuses on the role of U.S. Presidents, such as Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. (CMK)

  1. The rise and fall of V4334 Sagittarii (Sakurai's object)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duerbeck, HW; Liller, W; Sterken, C; Benetti, S; van Genderen, AM; Arts, J; Kurk, JD; Janson, M; Voskes, T; Brogt, E; Arentoft, T; Dijkstra, R

    CCD UBVRi photometry of the final helium flash object V4334 Sgr (Sakurai's object) carried out during 1997-1999 is presented, and the light curve from its prediscovery rise to the dust obscuration phase is constructed. The optical light curve can be divided into four sections, the rise to maximum,

  2. Mechanism of rising cross sections in hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershtejn, S.S.; Logunov, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of sea constituents with each other and valence quarks, occurring in high-energy hadron collisions, is shown to explain the experimentally observed law for the rise of total cross sections, as well as the energy value at which this rise starts and the difference in these energy values for πN, KN and NN(N-barN) reactions

  3. The New Woman in "The Sun Also Rises"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoping

    2010-01-01

    Hemingway is a famous American writer and a spokesman of the Lost Generation. His life attitude of the characters in the novels influenced the whole world. His first masterpiece "The Sun Also Rises" contributes a lot to the rise of feminism and make the world began to be familiar with a term: The New Woman through the portrayal of Brett.…

  4. Behavioural addiction—A rising tide?

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Sam; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J; Goudriaan, Anna E; van, Holst Ruth Janke; Zohar, Joseph; Grant, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘addiction’ was traditionally used in relation to centrally active substances, such as cocaine, alcohol, or nicotine. Addiction is not a unitary construct but rather incorporates a number of features, such as repetitive engagement in behaviours that are rewarding (at least initially), loss of control (spiralling engagement over time), persistence despite untoward functional consequences, and physical dependence (evidenced by withdrawal symptoms when intake of the substance diminishes...

  5. Application of a rising plate meter to estimate forage yield on dairy farms in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurately assessing pasture forage yield is necessary for producers who want to budget feed expenses and make informed pasture management decisions. Clipping and weighing forage from a known area is a direct method to measure pasture forage yield, however it is time consuming. The rising plate mete...

  6. Living with sea-level rise and climate change: a case study of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koningsveld, M.; Mulder, J.P.M. P.M.; Stive, M.J.F.; van der Valk, L.; van der Weck, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    Based on historical hindsight, this paper shows that sea-level rise has played a fundamental role in the development of the low-lying environment of the Netherlands. It was beneficial in morphological terms during the mid-Holocene, but from Roman times, it has been a threat to the coastal zone

  7. Effective inundation of continental United States communities with 21st century sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina A. Dahl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent, tidally driven coastal flooding is one of the most visible signs of sea level rise. Recent studies have shown that such flooding will become more frequent and extensive as sea level continues to rise, potentially altering the landscape and livability of coastal communities decades before sea level rise causes coastal land to be permanently inundated. In this study, we identify US communities that will face effective inundation—defined as having 10% or more of livable land area flooded at least 26 times per year—with three localized sea level rise scenarios based on projections for the 3rd US National Climate Assessment. We present these results in a new, online interactive tool that allows users to explore when and how effective inundation will impact their communities. In addition, we identify communities facing effective inundation within the next 30 years that contain areas of high socioeconomic vulnerability today using a previously published vulnerability index. With the Intermediate-High and Highest sea level rise scenarios, 489 and 668 communities, respectively, would face effective inundation by the year 2100. With these two scenarios, more than half of communities facing effective inundation by 2045 contain areas of current high socioeconomic vulnerability. These results highlight the timeframes that US coastal communities have to respond to disruptive future inundation. The results also underscore the importance of limiting future warming and sea level rise: under the Intermediate-Low scenario, used as a proxy for sea level rise under the Paris Climate Agreement, 199 fewer communities would be effectively inundated by 2100.

  8. Disposal of Kitchen Waste from High Rise Apartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Kirki; Bharti, Ajay; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-09-01

    The high rise building has numbers of floor and rooms having variety of users or tenants for residential purposes. The huge quantities of heterogenous mixtures of domestic food waste are generated from every floor of the high rise residential buildings. Disposal of wet and biodegradable domestic kitchen waste from high rise buildings are more expensive in regards of collection and vertical transportation. This work is intended to address the technique to dispose of the wet organic food waste from the high rise buildings or multistory building at generation point with the advantage of gravity and vermicomposting technique. This innovative effort for collection and disposal of wet organic solid waste from high rise apartment is more economical and hygienic in comparison with present system of disposal.

  9. The advisability of high-rise construction in the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergievskaya, Natalia; Pokrovskaya, Tatyana; Vorontsova, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    In this article there discusses the question of advisability high-rise construction, the reasons for its use, both positive and negative sides of it. On the one hand, a number of authors believe that it is difficult to avoid high-rise construction due to the limited areas in very large cities. On the other hand, a number of other authors draw attention to the problems associated with high-rise construction. The author of the article analyses examples of high-rise construction in several countries (UAE, Dubai "Burj Khalifa"; Japan "Tokyo Sky Tree"; United States of America, "Willis Tower"; Russia "Federation Tower") and proves the advisability of high-rise construction in the city.

  10. Sea level rise and the geoid: factor analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sadovski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea levels are rising around the world, and this is a particular concern along most of the coasts of the United States. A 1989 EPA report shows that sea levels rose 5-6 inches more than the global average along the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf Coasts in the last century. The main reason for this is coastal land subsidence. This sea level rise is considered more as relative sea level rise than global sea level rise. Thus, instead of studying sea level rise globally, this paper describes a statistical approach by using factor analysis of regional sea level rates of change. Unlike physical models and semi-empirical models that attempt to approach how much and how fast sea levels are changing, this methodology allows for a discussion of the factor(s that statistically affects sea level rates of change, and seeks patterns to explain spatial correlations.

  11. The rise of sea level. To understand and to anticipate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    By proposing and briefly commenting graphs and drawings, this publication propose brief presentations of the main issues related to sea level rise: global warming and climate disturbance, description of the phenomenon of sea level rise (difference between sea ice and ground ice, melting of glaciers), increase of sea level rise during the twentieth century, territories at risk (examples of Greenland, Tuvalu, Shanghai), acceleration of ice melting during the twenty first century with many coastal areas at risk, already noticed and possible future impacts in France (glaciers runoff, threatened coasts, example of the Xynthia tempest), how to be united and to anticipate (a threat for millions of people, adaptation to sea level rise, limitation of global warming to limit sea level rise)

  12. Projecting Future Sea Level Rise for Water Resources Planning in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Kao, K.; Chung, F.

    2008-12-01

    Sea level rise is one of the major concerns for the management of California's water resources. Higher water levels and salinity intrusion into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta could affect water supplies, water quality, levee stability, and aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna species and their habitat. Over the 20th century, sea levels near San Francisco Bay increased by over 0.6ft. Some tidal gauge and satellite data indicate that rates of sea level rise are accelerating. Sea levels are expected to continue to rise due to increasing air temperatures causing thermal expansion of the ocean and melting of land-based ice such as ice on Greenland and in southeastern Alaska. For water planners, two related questions are raised on the uncertainty of future sea levels. First, what is the expected sea level at a specific point in time in the future, e.g., what is the expected sea level in 2050? Second, what is the expected point of time in the future when sea levels will exceed a certain height, e.g., what is the expected range of time when the sea level rises by one foot? To address these two types of questions, two factors are considered: (1) long term sea level rise trend, and (2) local extreme sea level fluctuations. A two-step approach will be used to develop sea level rise projection guidelines for decision making that takes both of these factors into account. The first step is developing global sea level rise probability distributions for the long term trends. The second step will extend the approach to take into account the effects of local astronomical tides, changes in atmospheric pressure, wind stress, floods, and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. In this paper, the development of the first step approach is presented. To project the long term sea level rise trend, one option is to extend the current rate of sea level rise into the future. However, since recent data indicate rates of sea level rise are accelerating, methods for estimating sea level rise

  13. Model and Algorithm for Substantiating Solutions for Organization of High-Rise Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisimov Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the models and the algorithm for the optimal plan formation for the organization of the material and logistical processes of the high-rise construction project and their financial support are developed. The model is based on the representation of the optimization procedure in the form of a non-linear problem of discrete programming, which consists in minimizing the execution time of a set of interrelated works by a limited number of partially interchangeable performers while limiting the total cost of performing the work. The proposed model and algorithm are the basis for creating specific organization management methodologies for the high-rise construction project.

  14. Model and Algorithm for Substantiating Solutions for Organization of High-Rise Construction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Vladimir; Anisimov, Evgeniy; Chernysh, Anatoliy

    2018-03-01

    In the paper the models and the algorithm for the optimal plan formation for the organization of the material and logistical processes of the high-rise construction project and their financial support are developed. The model is based on the representation of the optimization procedure in the form of a non-linear problem of discrete programming, which consists in minimizing the execution time of a set of interrelated works by a limited number of partially interchangeable performers while limiting the total cost of performing the work. The proposed model and algorithm are the basis for creating specific organization management methodologies for the high-rise construction project.

  15. Chemostratigraphy at DSDP Sites 386 (Bermuda Rise) and 144 (Demerara Rise), Implications for Euxinic Conditions During OAE-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, P. A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Sinninghe-Damsté, J. S.; Sandler, A.

    2008-05-01

    Chemostratigraphic studies of DSDP Site 386 on the Bermuda Rise and Site 144 on the Demerara Rise indicate that euxinic conditions developed at these deep-water sites during the time interval that corresponds to Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2). The data show a large increase in Fe/Al ratios, and dispersed pyrite aggregates (Site 386 Core 43, Section 3). Such findings at these deep oceanic sites are compatible with earlier studies showing that sediments in euxinic settings display increases in Fe/Al ratios due to the scavenging of dissolved Fe, and is also in agreement with previous Pr/Ph ratio of cyanobacteria showing low thermal stress, supporting in situ derivation. Elemental analyses at Site 386 also show that relatively high Sr/CaO ratios are present before and after OAE 2, indicating an increased contribution of biogenic carbonates, but not during the C/T boundary event. When Cr is plotted against Al2O3 in conjunction with a solid line representing the Cr/Al2O3 ratio in average shale, half of the samples fall above and half fall below this line. The values that plot above this line are all from Cores 47, 44, 43, and 42, which contain higher TOC. Their strong Cr enrichment with respect to the average shale can be indicative of an algal source of the OM, as this biota preferentially concentrates Cr. Competitive exclusion due to dominance of opportunistic prokaryotic blooms in combination with oxygen depletion can be invoked to explain the conditions that developed and were unfavorable to most other organisms throughout the water column during OAE 2. Sediments from DSDP Site 144 also reveal increased molecular fossils indicative of green sulfur bacteria, which are further characteristic of euxinic conditions (Kuypers et al., 2002; Forster et al., 2004). These results are in agreement with earlier works that showed lipids at DSDP Site 144 are predominantly of an autochthonous origin with primary production as the dominant source (Simoneit and Stuermer, 1982

  16. Volcanic Outgassing and the Rise of Atmospheric O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The release of reduced volcanic gases played a major role in determining atmospheric composition and redox state during the Earth's Archean era. Along with anerobic iron oxidation during deposition of banded iron-formations (BIFs), volcanic outgassing was one of two major sources of reductants, typically monitored as H2 equivalents, to the early atmosphere. These H2 sources were balanced by sinks of reductants, including escape of hydrogen to space and burial of organic matter and pyrite. The sinks for H2 can alternatively be thought of as sources for O2, following the stoichiometry: 2 H2 + O2 2 H2O. During the Archean, H2 sources were large enough to balance burial of organic matter and pyrite and still allow lots of hydrogen to escape. Sometime close to 2.4 Ga, the redox balance shifted: Either the H2 sources became smaller, or the H2 sinks became larger. The result was that O2 began to accumulate in the atmosphere for the first time, even though it was being produced by cyanobacteria well before this. This allowed a new O2 sink (H2 source) to become operative, namely, oxidative weathering of the land surface and seafloor. On the modern Earth, the redox budget is largely a balance between burial of organic matter and pyrite and oxidative weathering on land. What caused the system to shift to the oxidized state at 2.4 Ga remains a matter of debate. A secular decrease in volcanic outgassing rates alone cannot do this, as organic carbon burial is (loosely) tied to outgassing by the carbon isotope record. Roughly 15-20% of CO2 entering the combined atmosphere-ocean system appears to have been buried as organic carbon; hence, more volcanic outgassing implies more organic carbon burian (and, hence, more O2 production), if everything else stays the same. Other factors were not the same, however. Progressive growth of the continents may have helped O2 to rise, both by changing the ratio of submarine to subaerial outgassing and by facilitating greater recycling of carbon

  17. Crustal structure of Shatsky Rise from joint refraction and reflection seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, J.; Sager, W. W.

    2011-12-01

    Shatsky Rise in the western Pacific is one of a few gigantic oceanic plateaus in the world, with a surface area of ˜ 4.8 ± 105~km2 (about the same size as California). In contrast to other large oceanic plateaus formed during the Cretaceous Quite Period, Shatsky Rise formed during the frequent reversals of magnetic polarity, allowing its tectonic environment to be resolved in detail. It was formed at a rapidly spreading ridge-ridge-ridge triple junction, so the effect of lithospheric lid on magma migration is expected to be minimal, thereby facilitating the petrological interpretation of its seismic structure in terms of parental mantle processes. In the summer of 2010, a seismic refraction survey combined with multichannel seismic profiling was conducted across Shatsky Rise. Twenty eight ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed along two crossing perpendicular lines, and all of the instruments were recovered successfully, yielding a large volume of high-quality wide-angle refraction and reflection data, with the source-receiver distance often exceeding 200~km. In this contribution, we present the P-wave velocity structure of the Shatsky Rise crust, which is constructed by joint refraction and reflection travel time tomography, and also discuss its implications for the origin of Shatsky Rise.

  18. Increasing coccolith calcification during CO2 rise of the penultimate deglaciation (Termination II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, K. J. S.; Berger, C.; Kinkel, Hanno

    2014-01-01

    during Termination II. This is partly due to an assemblage shift towards larger and heavier calcifying morphotypes, but mainly an effect of increasing coccolithophore calcification. This increase is exactly mirroring the rise in atmospheric CO2, contradicting previous findings from Termination I......Glacial to interglacial environmental changes have a strong impact on coccolithophore assemblage composition. At the same time, glacial terminations are characterised by an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. In order to determine how these two processes influence the calcite production...... for the coccolithophore calcification increase during atmospheric CO2 rise. Our results illustrate that even during rising atmospheric CO2 the conditions of the seawater carbonate system can be favourable for coccolithophore calcification. The total CaCO3 production of a coccolithophore assemblage under increasing CO2...

  19. RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF MARS HiRISE HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGERY BASED ON FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the large data amount of HiRISE imagery, traditional radiometric calibration method is not able to meet the fast processing requirements. To solve this problem, a radiometric calibration system of HiRISE imagery based on field program gate array (FPGA is designed. The montage gap between two channels caused by gray inconsistency is removed through histogram matching. The calibration system is composed of FPGA and DSP, which makes full use of the parallel processing ability of FPGA and fast computation as well as flexible control characteristic of DSP. Experimental results show that the designed system consumes less hardware resources and the real-time processing ability of radiometric calibration of HiRISE imagery is improved.

  20. Numerical modelling of inert gas bubble rising in liquid metal pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, Arjun; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Ponraju, D.; Nashine, B K.

    2016-01-01

    Two-phase flow finds several applications in safe operation of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). Numerical modelling of bubble rise dynamics in liquid metal pool of SFR is essential for the evaluation of residence time and shape changes, which are of utmost importance for simulating associated heat and mass transfer processes involved in reactor safety. A numerical model has been developed based on OpenFOAM for the evaluation of two-dimensional inert gas bubble rise dynamics in stagnant liquid metal pool. The governing model equations are discretized and solved using the Volume of Fluid based solver available in OpenFOAM with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The model has been validated with available numerical benchmark results for laminar transient two-phase flow. The model has been used to evaluate velocity and rise trajectory of argon gas bubble with different diameters through a pool of liquid sodium. (author)

  1. Online Citizen Science with Clickworkers & MRO HiRISE E/PO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, V. C.; Deardorff, G.; Kanefsky, B.; HiRISE Science Team

    2010-12-01

    contributors. In HiRISE Clickworkers, over a dozen different geologic features have been identified on over 57,000 image tiles. A key objective of Clickworkers has been to break up work into manageable chunks so that people can contribute a few minutes at a time and their work all adds up. Our HiRISE Student Image Challenges (http://quest.nasa.gov), another online citizen science project, provide educators and students a virtual science team experience. Registered participants are given access to HiWeb, the HiRISE team’s image suggestion facility to submit their image suggestions. Once the images are returned, students browse, pan and zoom through their acquired images online and at full resolution before they are released to the public (http://marsoweb.nas.nasa.gov/HiRISE/quest/). Students fill out a report form summarizing the key results of their image analysis and with the help of a HiRISE team member write a caption for their image. The image is posted on the HiRISE image release website along with the caption, with credit to the suggesting class and school. HiWish, HiRISE’s public image suggestion website (see McEwen et al., this mtg.), provides a simpler interface for the public at large to submit HiRISE images. HiWish also provides a list of recently submitted image requests.

  2. The rising sun of particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, G.

    1985-01-01

    A new entrant is set to join the select league of big-time high energy Laboratories. Thanks to imaginative planning and hard work, the Japanese KEK (Ko Enerugi butsurigaku Kenkyusho) National Laboratory will soon become a new world focus for particle physics research. KEK's original research programme was (and still is) based on a modest 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron which began regular operation in 1977. But even before this got underway, plans were being prepared for a big new machine which would push the Laboratory to the forefront of physics. The TRISTAN project as initially proposed forsaw a variety of colliding beam options, hence the name 'TRi-ring Intersecting STorage Accelerators in Nippon'. Subsequent thinking focused on the electron-positron option, leaving other possibilities for the future. Hence the Tri-ring in the original name has been modified to 'TRansposable Ring'. (orig./HSI).

  3. Nuclear operating costs are rising exponentially - official

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Information Agency of the United States Department of Energy has collected data on the operations of nuclear power plants in the United States. A statistical regression analysis was made of this data base. This shows that the escalation in annual, real non-fuel operating costs is such that the operating cost savings made by closing down an old nuclear plant would be sufficient to pay the capital and operating costs of replacing it with a brand new coal-fired plant. The main reason for the increasing operating and maintenance costs is the cost of replacement power i.e. the higher the economic penalty of plant breakdown the more the utility has to spend on maintenance. Another reason is time -not the age of the plant - but the year the data was collected. The economic case for nuclear power is seriously challenged. (U.K.)

  4. The (gradual) rise of memory inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenerman, Paul

    2018-05-01

    Memory inflation, as a term, has been used for 15 years now to describe the longitudinal development of stable, expanded CD8 + T memory pools with a distinct phenotype and functional profile which emerge in specific infection and vaccine settings. These settings have in common the persistence of antigen, especially cytomegalovirus infection but also more recently adenoviral vector vaccination. However, in contrast to chronic infections which lead to "exhaustion" the repeated antigen encounters experienced by CD8 + T cells lead to development of a robust T-cell population structure which maintains functionality and size. In this review, I will discuss how the ideas around this form of memory have evolved over time and some new models which can help explain how these populations are induced and sustained. These models are relevant to immunity against persistent viruses, to novel vaccine strategies and to concepts about aging. © 2018 The Author. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Rise and Decline of Japanese Pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese pacifist constitution has been a symbol of Japan’s commitment to peace and more importantly its renunciation of wartime militarism. There has been strong support for its continuing existence amongst the Japanese populace despite persistent attempts by the Japanese government to amend it. However, the prevalent pacifist sentiment is showing signs of fading vitality in recent times. This article purports to examine the underlying forces that contributed to the development and the decline of Japanese pacifism. A host of domestic and international factors were responsible for the growth of pacifism and its subsequent decline, but only three important domestic factors will be examined in detail: the concept of victimhood in the development of pacifism and its implication for its continuing strength, the importance of peace education and the role played by the influential Japan’s Teachers’ Union on the formation of pacifist conscience and finally, the influence of leftist organisations on the organised peace movement.

  6. Models for the rise of the dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Michael J; Forth, Jonathan; Langer, Max C

    2014-01-20

    Dinosaurs arose in the early Triassic in the aftermath of the greatest mass extinction ever and became hugely successful in the Mesozoic. Their initial diversification is a classic example of a large-scale macroevolutionary change. Diversifications at such deep-time scales can now be dissected, modelled and tested. New fossils suggest that dinosaurs originated early in the Middle Triassic, during the recovery of life from the devastating Permo-Triassic mass extinction. Improvements in stratigraphic dating and a new suite of morphometric and comparative evolutionary numerical methods now allow a forensic dissection of one of the greatest turnovers in the history of life. Such studies mark a move from the narrative to the analytical in macroevolutionary research, and they allow us to begin to answer the proposal of George Gaylord Simpson, to explore adaptive radiations using numerical methods. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rising Temperatures Reduce Global Wheat Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Martre, P.; Rötter, R. P.; Lobell, D. B.; Cammarano, D.; Kimball, B. A.; Ottman, M. J.; Wall, G. W.; White, J. W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Crop models are essential tools for assessing the threat of climate change to local and global food production. Present models used to predict wheat grain yield are highly uncertain when simulating how crops respond to temperature. Here we systematically tested 30 different wheat crop models of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project against field experiments in which growing season mean temperatures ranged from 15 degrees C to 32? degrees C, including experiments with artificial heating. Many models simulated yields well, but were less accurate at higher temperatures. The model ensemble median was consistently more accurate in simulating the crop temperature response than any single model, regardless of the input information used. Extrapolating the model ensemble temperature response indicates that warming is already slowing yield gains at a majority of wheat-growing locations. Global wheat production is estimated to fall by 6% for each degree C of further temperature increase and become more variable over space and time.

  8. The Rise of the Financial Planning Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cull

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The financial planning industry in Australia has experienced significant reform in the lastdecade. This reform has not only made a considerable impact on financial planners but also onother groups such as the accounting profession, regulators, the financial services industry,educators and consumers. Although consumer protection was at the heart of this reform, it hasalso prompted the industry and other groups to consider financial planning as a profession.This paper begins with a definition of financial planning, followed by a discussion of thehistorical origins of financial planning. Several examples are used to illustrate how the industryhas developed and changed over time considering the impact of social, cultural, institutional,political and economic factors. Particular attention is given to the role of the accountingprofession and government regulation in Australia. The paper concludes with a discussion of theprofessionalisation of financial planning in light of the increased pressure for changes inremuneration practice in the industry.

  9. Microscopic time-resolved imaging of singlet oxygen by delayed fluorescence in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Marek; Dědic, Roman; Hála, Jan

    2017-11-08

    Singlet oxygen is a highly reactive species which is involved in a number of processes, including photodynamic therapy of cancer. Its very weak near-infrared emission makes imaging of singlet oxygen in biological systems a long-term challenge. We address this challenge by introducing Singlet Oxygen Feedback Delayed Fluorescence (SOFDF) as a novel modality for semi-direct microscopic time-resolved wide-field imaging of singlet oxygen in biological systems. SOFDF has been investigated in individual fibroblast cells incubated with a well-known photosensitizer aluminium phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate. The SOFDF emission from the cells is several orders of magnitude stronger and much more readily detectable than the very weak near-infrared phosphorescence of singlet oxygen. Moreover, the analysis of SOFDF kinetics enables us to estimate the lifetimes of the involved excited states. Real-time SOFDF images with micrometer spatial resolution and submicrosecond temporal-resolution have been recorded. Interestingly, a steep decrease in the SOFDF intensity after the photodynamically induced release of a photosensitizer from lysosomes has been demonstrated. This effect could be potentially employed as a valuable diagnostic tool for monitoring and dosimetry in photodynamic therapy.

  10. Flooded Dark Matter and S level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub; Unwin, James

    2016-01-01

    Most dark matter models set the dark matter relic density by some interaction with Standard Model particles. Such models generally assume the existence of Standard Model particles early on, with the dark matter relic density a later consequence of those interactions. Perhaps a more compelling assumption is that dark matter is not part of the Standard Model sector and a population of dark matter too is generated at the end of inflation. This democratic assumption about initial conditions does not necessarily provide a natural value for the dark matter relic density, and furthermore superficially leads to too much entropy in the dark sector relative to ordinary matter. We address the latter issue by the late decay of heavy particles produced at early times, thereby associating the dark matter relic density with the lifetime of a long-lived state. This paper investigates what it would take for this scenario to be compatible with observations in what we call Flooded Dark Matter (FDM) models and discusses several interesting consequences. One is that dark matter can be very light and furthermore, light dark matter is in some sense the most natural scenario in FDM as it is compatible with larger couplings of the decaying particle. A related consequence is that the decay of the field with the smallest coupling and hence the longest lifetime dominates the entropy and possibly the matter content of the Universe, a principle we refer to as “Maximum Baroqueness”. We also demonstrate that the dark sector should be colder than the ordinary sector, relaxing the most stringent free-streaming constraints on light dark matter candidates. We will discuss the potential implications for the core-cusp problem in a follow-up paper. The FDM framework will furthermore have interesting baryogenesis implications. One possibility is that dark matter is like the baryon asymmetry and both are simultaneously diluted by a late entropy dump. Alternatively, FDM is compatible with an elegant

  11. Flooded Dark Matter and S level rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Unwin, James [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago,Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2016-03-03

    Most dark matter models set the dark matter relic density by some interaction with Standard Model particles. Such models generally assume the existence of Standard Model particles early on, with the dark matter relic density a later consequence of those interactions. Perhaps a more compelling assumption is that dark matter is not part of the Standard Model sector and a population of dark matter too is generated at the end of inflation. This democratic assumption about initial conditions does not necessarily provide a natural value for the dark matter relic density, and furthermore superficially leads to too much entropy in the dark sector relative to ordinary matter. We address the latter issue by the late decay of heavy particles produced at early times, thereby associating the dark matter relic density with the lifetime of a long-lived state. This paper investigates what it would take for this scenario to be compatible with observations in what we call Flooded Dark Matter (FDM) models and discusses several interesting consequences. One is that dark matter can be very light and furthermore, light dark matter is in some sense the most natural scenario in FDM as it is compatible with larger couplings of the decaying particle. A related consequence is that the decay of the field with the smallest coupling and hence the longest lifetime dominates the entropy and possibly the matter content of the Universe, a principle we refer to as “Maximum Baroqueness”. We also demonstrate that the dark sector should be colder than the ordinary sector, relaxing the most stringent free-streaming constraints on light dark matter candidates. We will discuss the potential implications for the core-cusp problem in a follow-up paper. The FDM framework will furthermore have interesting baryogenesis implications. One possibility is that dark matter is like the baryon asymmetry and both are simultaneously diluted by a late entropy dump. Alternatively, FDM is compatible with an elegant

  12. Behavioural addiction-A rising tide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J; Goudriaan, Anna E; van Holst, Ruth Janke; Zohar, Joseph; Grant, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    The term 'addiction' was traditionally used in relation to centrally active substances, such as cocaine, alcohol, or nicotine. Addiction is not a unitary construct but rather incorporates a number of features, such as repetitive engagement in behaviours that are rewarding (at least initially), loss of control (spiralling engagement over time), persistence despite untoward functional consequences, and physical dependence (evidenced by withdrawal symptoms when intake of the substance diminishes). It has been suggested that certain psychiatric disorders characterized by maladaptive, repetitive behaviours share parallels with substance addiction and therefore represent 'behavioural addictions'. This perspective has influenced the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), which now has a category 'Substance Related and Addictive Disorders', including gambling disorder. Could other disorders characterised by repetitive behaviours, besides gambling disorder, also be considered 'addictions'? Potential examples include kleptomania, compulsive sexual behaviour, 'Internet addiction', trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), and skin-picking disorder. This paper seeks to define what is meant by 'behavioural addiction', and critically considers the evidence for and against this conceptualisation in respect of the above conditions, from perspectives of aetiology, phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurobiology, and treatment. Research in this area has important implications for future diagnostic classification systems, neurobiological models, and novel treatment directions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Secular rise in economically valuable personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus; Pekkarinen, Tuomas; Sarvimäki, Matti; Terviö, Marko; Uusitalo, Roope

    2017-06-20

    Although trends in many physical characteristics and cognitive capabilities of modern humans are well-documented, less is known about how personality traits have evolved over time. We analyze data from a standardized personality test administered to 79% of Finnish men born between 1962 and 1976 ( n = 419,523) and find steady increases in personality traits that predict higher income in later life. The magnitudes of these trends are similar to the simultaneous increase in cognitive abilities, at 0.2-0.6 SD during the 15-y window. When anchored to earnings, the change in personality traits amounts to a 12% increase. Both personality and cognitive ability have consistent associations with family background, but the trends are similar across groups defined by parental income, parental education, number of siblings, and rural/urban status. Nevertheless, much of the trends in test scores can be attributed to changes in the family background composition, namely 33% for personality and 64% for cognitive ability. These composition effects are mostly due to improvements in parents' education. We conclude that there is a "Flynn effect" for personality that mirrors the original Flynn effect for cognitive ability in magnitude and practical significance but is less driven by compositional changes in family background.

  14. The RiSE climbing robot: body and leg design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A.; Goldman, D. I.; Full, R. J.; Buehler, M.

    2006-05-01

    The RiSE robot is a biologically inspired, six legged climbing robot, designed for general mobility in scansorial (vertical walls, horizontal ledges, ground level) environments. It exhibits ground reaction forces that are similar to animal climbers and does not rely on suction, magnets or other surface-dependent specializations to achieve adhesion and shear force. We describe RiSE's body and leg design as well as its electromechanical, communications and computational infrastructure. We review design iterations that enable RiSE to climb 90° carpeted, cork covered and (a growing range of) stucco surfaces in the quasi-static regime.

  15. Anthropogenic forcing dominates sea level rise since 1850

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2009-01-01

    The rate of sea level rise and its causes are topics of active debate. Here we use a delayed response statistical model to attribute the past 1000 years of sea level variability to various natural (volcanic and solar radiative) and anthropogenic (greenhouse gases and aerosols) forcings. We show...... that until 1800 the main drivers of sea level change are volcanic and solar radiative forcings. For the past 200 years sea level rise is mostly associated with anthropogenic factors. Only 4 ± 1.5 cm (25% of total sea level rise) during the 20th century is attributed to natural forcings, the remaining 14 ± 1...

  16. Leasing instruments of high-rise construction financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Olga; Ivleva, Elena; Sukhacheva, Viktoria; Rumyantseva, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The leasing sector of the business economics is expanding. Leasing instruments for high-rise construction financing allow to determine the best business behaviour in the leasing economy sector, not only in the sphere of transactions with equipment and vehicles. Investments in high-rise construction have a multiplicative effect. It initiates an active search and leasing instruments use in the economic behaviour of construction organizations. The study of the high-rise construction sector in the structure of the leasing market participants significantly expands the leasing system framework. The scheme of internal and external leasing process factors influence on the result formation in the leasing sector of economy is offered.

  17. Chair rise capacity and associated factors in older home-care clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiihonen, Miia; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Nykänen, Irma

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of older home-care clients to perform the five times chair rise test and associated personal characteristics, nutritional status and functioning. The study sample included 267 home-care clients aged ≥75 years living in Eastern and Central Finland. The home-care clients were interviewed at home by home-care nurses, nutritionists and pharmacists. The collected data contained sociodemographic factors, functional ability (Barthel Index, IADL), cognitive functioning (MMSE), nutritional status (MNA), depressive symptoms (GDS-15), medical diagnoses and drug use. The primary outcome was the ability to perform the five times chair rise test. Fifty-one per cent ( n=135) of the home-care clients were unable to complete the five times chair rise test. Twenty-three per cent ( n=64) of the home-care clients had good chair rise capacity (≤17 seconds). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, fewer years of education (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.18), lower ADL (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.34-1.78) and low MNA scores (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.20) and a higher number of co-morbidities (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.02-1.43) were associated with inability to complete the five times chair rise test. Poor functional mobility, which was associated with less education, a high number of co-morbidities and poor nutritional status, was common among older home-care clients. To maintain and to prevent further decline in functional mobility, physical training and nutritional services are needed. (NutOrMed, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02214758).

  18. The rise of novelty in ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeloff, Volker C; Williams, John W; Bateman, Brooke L; Burke, Kevin D; Carter, Sarah K; Childress, Evan S; Cromwell, Kara J; Gratton, Claudio; Hasley, Andrew O; Kraemer, Benjamin M; Latzka, Alexander W; Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Meine, Curt D; Munoz, Samuel E; Neeson, Thomas M; Pidgeon, Anna M; Rissman, Adena R; Rivera, Ricardo J; Szymanski, Laura M; Usinowicz, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    Rapid and ongoing change creates novelty in ecosystems everywhere, both when comparing contemporary systems to their historical baselines, and predicted future systems to the present. However, the level of novelty varies greatly among places. Here we propose a formal and quantifiable definition of abiotic and biotic novelty in ecosystems, map abiotic novelty globally, and discuss the implications of novelty for the science of ecology and for biodiversity conservation. We define novelty as the degree of dissimilarity of a system, measured in one or more dimensions relative to a reference baseline, usually defined as either the present or a time window in the past. In this conceptualization, novelty varies in degree, it is multidimensional, can be measured, and requires a temporal and spatial reference. This definition moves beyond prior categorical definitions of novel ecosystems, and does not include human agency, self-perpetuation, or irreversibility as criteria. Our global assessment of novelty was based on abiotic factors (temperature, precipitation, and nitrogen deposition) plus human population, and shows that there are already large areas with high novelty today relative to the early 20th century, and that there will even be more such areas by 2050. Interestingly, the places that are most novel are often not the places where absolute changes are largest; highlighting that novelty is inherently different from change. For the ecological sciences, highly novel ecosystems present new opportunities to test ecological theories, but also challenge the predictive ability of ecological models and their validation. For biodiversity conservation, increasing novelty presents some opportunities, but largely challenges. Conservation action is necessary along the entire continuum of novelty, by redoubling efforts to protect areas where novelty is low, identifying conservation opportunities where novelty is high, developing flexible yet strong regulations and policies, and

  19. The Import of the Cortisol Rise in Child Care Differs as a Function of Behavioral Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnar, Megan R.; Kryzer, Erin; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Phillips, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Children of ages 3 to 4.5 years (N = 107; 45 boys, 62 girls) were studied twice, 6 months apart, to examine whether the cortisol rise in child care at Time 1 (T1) was associated with (a) changes in anxious, vigilant behavior from T1 to Time 2 (T2) and (b) higher internalizing symptoms at T2. Controlling for measures of home environment and child…

  20. 4D modeling in high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakina, Anastasiya; Simankina, Tatyana; Lukinov, Vitaly

    2018-03-01

    High-rise construction is a complex construction process, requiring the use of more perfected and sophisticated tools for design, planning and construction management. The use of BIM-technologies allows minimizing the risks associated with design errors and errors that occur during construction. This article discusses a visual planning method using the 4D model, which allows the project team to create an accurate and complete construction plan, which is much more difficult to achieve with the help of traditional planning methods. The use of the 4D model in the construction of a 70-story building allowed to detect spatial and temporal errors before the start of construction work. In addition to identifying design errors, 4D modeling has allowed to optimize the construction, as follows: to optimize the operation of cranes, the placement of building structures and materials at various stages of construction, to optimize the organization of work performance, as well as to monitor the activities related to the preparation of the construction site for compliance with labor protection and safety requirements, which resulted in saving money and time.

  1. Intumescent coatings with improved properties for high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, Andrey; Zybina, Olga; Tanklevsky, Leonid; Lebedev, Vasily; Andreev, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    The paper overviews the way of creating intumescent fire-protective compositions with improved properties by adding nano-and micro-sized supplements into them. Intumescent paints are inert at low temperatures, and at higher temperatures they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The modified intumescent paints are able to form a more stable charred layer than the classical paints. The stability of a charred layer is crucial if the fire safety in high-rise construction must be secured, because a weak charred layer will not provide a required fire endurance for steel bearing structures and they will break down in case of fire. The fire-protective properties of modified intumescent paints were estimated using an electrical furnace. Also the way of thermal decomposition of the paints was studied with thermogravimetric analysis. Results show that modified intumescent paints form a charred layer with improved fire-protective properties; it can serve as a thermal barrier for a longer period of time. Thermogravimetric analysis confirms this fact showing that the temperatures of full thermal decay in case of modified paints are higher than those of non-modified paints.

  2. 4D modeling in high-rise construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakina Anastasiya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-rise construction is a complex construction process, requiring the use of more perfected and sophisticated tools for design, planning and construction management. The use of BIM-technologies allows minimizing the risks associated with design errors and errors that occur during construction. This article discusses a visual planning method using the 4D model, which allows the project team to create an accurate and complete construction plan, which is much more difficult to achieve with the help of traditional planning methods. The use of the 4D model in the construction of a 70-story building allowed to detect spatial and temporal errors before the start of construction work. In addition to identifying design errors, 4D modeling has allowed to optimize the construction, as follows: to optimize the operation of cranes, the placement of building structures and materials at various stages of construction, to optimize the organization of work performance, as well as to monitor the activities related to the preparation of the construction site for compliance with labor protection and safety requirements, which resulted in saving money and time.

  3. Rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure influences vascular sympathetic response to mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Khadigeh; Macefield, Vaughan G; Hissen, Sarah L; Joyner, Michael J; Taylor, Chloe E

    2016-12-15

    Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders. Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA. In positive responders there is a more sluggish rise in blood pressure during mental stress, which appears to be MSNA-driven. This study suggests that whether MSNA has a role in the pressor response is dependent upon the reactivity of blood pressure early in the task. Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. The aim was to examine the early blood pressure response to stress in positive and negative responders and thus its influence on the direction of change in MSNA. Blood pressure and MSNA were recorded continuously in 21 healthy young males during 2 min mental stressors (mental arithmetic, Stroop test) and physical stressors (cold pressor, handgrip exercise, post-exercise ischaemia). Participants were classified as negative or positive responders according to the direction of the mean change in MSNA during the stressor tasks. The peak changes, time of peak and rate of changes in blood pressure were compared between groups. During mental arithmetic negative responders experienced a significantly greater rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure in the first minute of the task (1.3 ± 0.5 mmHg s -1 ) compared with positive responders (0.4 ± 0.1 mmHg s -1 ; P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the Stroop test. Physical tasks elicited robust parallel increases in blood pressure and MSNA across

  4. Synchrotron radiation-based quasi-elastic scattering using time-domain interferometry with multi-line gamma rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Makina; Masuda, Ryo; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Seto, Makoto

    2017-10-02

    We developed a multi-line time-domain interferometry (TDI) system using 14.4 keV Mössbauer gamma rays with natural energy widths of 4.66 neV from 57 Fe nuclei excited using synchrotron radiation. Electron density fluctuations can be detected at unique lengths ranging from 0.1 nm to a few nm on time scales from several nanoseconds to the sub-microsecond order by quasi-elastic gamma-ray scattering (QGS) experiments using multi-line TDI. In this report, we generalize the established expression for a time spectrum measured using an identical single-line gamma-ray emitter pair to the case of a nonidentical pair of multi-line gamma-ray emitters by considering the finite energy width of the incident synchrotron radiation. The expression obtained illustrates the unique characteristics of multi-line TDI systems, where the finite incident energy width and use of a nonidentical emitter pair produces further information on faster sub-picosecond-scale dynamics in addition to the nanosecond dynamics; this was demonstrated experimentally. A normalized intermediate scattering function was extracted from the spectrum and its relaxation form was determined for a relaxation time of the order of 1 μs, even for relatively large momentum transfer of ~31 nm -1 . The multi-line TDI method produces a microscopic relaxation picture more rapidly and accurately than conventional single-line TDI.

  5. Analysis of coastal protection under rising flood risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Lickley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure located along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts is exposed to rising risk of flooding from sea level rise, increasing storm surge, and subsidence. In these circumstances coastal management commonly based on 100-year flood maps assuming current climatology is no longer adequate. A dynamic programming cost–benefit analysis is applied to the adaptation decision, illustrated by application to an energy facility in Galveston Bay. Projections of several global climate models provide inputs to estimates of the change in hurricane and storm surge activity as well as the increase in sea level. The projected rise in physical flood risk is combined with estimates of flood damage and protection costs in an analysis of the multi-period nature of adaptation choice. The result is a planning method, using dynamic programming, which is appropriate for investment and abandonment decisions under rising coastal risk.

  6. Application of tuned mass dampers in high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplyshev, Vyacheslav; Mylnik, Alexey; Pushkareva, Maria; Agakhanov, Murad; Burova, Olga

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the use of tuned mass dampers in high-rise construction for significant acceleration and amplitude of vibrations of the upper floors under dynamic wind influences. The susceptibility of people to accelerations in high-rise buildings and possible means of reducing wind-induced fluctuations in buildings are analyzed. The statistics of application of tuned mass dampers in high-rise construction all over the world is presented. The goal of the study is to identify an economically attractive solution that allows the fullest use of the potential of building structures in high-rise construction, abandoning the need to build massive frames leading to over-consumption of materials.

  7. Can False Advertising Give Rise to Antitrust Liability? (2)

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Cole

    2014-01-01

    With the Retractable Technologies case, is the theory that false advertising can give rise to violations of the Sherman Act, while rarely invoked, gaining traction? Christopher A. Cole (Crowell & Moring)

  8. Can False Advertising Give Rise to Antitrust Liability?

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Cole

    2014-01-01

    With the Retractable Technologies case, is the theory that false advertising can give rise to violations of the Sherman Act, while rarely invoked, gaining traction? Christopher A. Cole (Crowell & Moring)

  9. African Gifts of the Spirit: Pentecostalism & the Rise of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Gifts of the Spirit: Pentecostalism & the Rise of a Zimbabwean Transnational Religious Movement by David Maxwell (Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2006) – XI + 250 pp., ISBN 13:978-0-8124-1738-6, Paperback.

  10. Special considerations for testing rising rotating stem MOVs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffa, A.

    1992-01-01

    Rising stem gate and globe valves have one plane of motion: linear. The stem is either pushed or pulled into position. For rising and rotating stems however, there are two planes of motion: linear and rotational. The stem is twisted in addition to being pushed or pulled into position. Typical motor operated valve (MOV) sizing equations account only for the linear requirements of the valve to open or close. Theoretical calculations performed for a two-dimensional system predict that in the running load region, rotational torque requirements far exceed the linear requirements. To validate the theoretical model, torque testing of rising rotating stem valves was preformed, using Liberty Technologies Valve Operation Test and Evaluation System (VOTES). Theoretical and empirical data have produced a new perspective for operational requirements and a guideline for testing rising rotating stem valves

  11. Prognostic Value of Absolute versus Relative Rise of Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maternal outcome than a relative rise in the systolic/diastolic blood pressure from mid pregnancy, which did not reach this absolute level. We conclude that in the Nigerian obstetric population, the practice of diagnosing pregnancy hypertension on ...

  12. The Rise of Pan-Islamism in Britain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shepard, Scott

    2006-01-01

    .... This thesis explains what is fueling the rise of pan-Islamism in Britain. For many Muslims, their religious identity is stronger than their British identity because they are alienated from the rest of society...

  13. Rising public debt profile in Nigeria: risks and sustainablity issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rising public debt profile in Nigeria: risks and sustainablity issues. ... and state governments has echoed new concerns for policy stakeholders in Nigeria. ... the share of concessional loan in external debt stock and develop Public-Private ...

  14. Experimentation and Prediction of Temperature Rise in Turning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimentation and Prediction of Temperature Rise in Turning Process using Response Surface Methodology. ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  15. The Global Economic Crisis and the Africa Rising Narrative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth back on the global agenda, with lowering oil prices and the rising of fracking .... workforce is informalised labour (Bieler et al 2008), while in the rural areas .... community gardens, and socially-owned renewable energy projects, which.

  16. Page | 131 RISING CASES OF RAPE OFFENCES IN NIGERIA: NEW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Key words: Rape, Rising Cases, New Measures, Penetration, Criminal Justice System, Tripod. 1. Introduction ... International Law and Jurisprudence, Faculty of Law, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. .... 10 Sexual Offences Act 2003 of the UK.

  17. Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women Disparities in Lung Health Series More ... the U.S. live with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Millions more ...

  18. Anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D.; Sprittles, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in a porous medium discovered experimentally more than a decade ago is described. The developed theory is based on considering the principal modes of motion of the menisci that collectively form the wetting

  19. Mixotrophic organisms become more heterotrophic with rising temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilken, S.; Huisman, J.; Naus-Wiezer, S.; van Donk, E.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic theory of ecology predicts that temperature affects heterotrophic processes more strongly than autotrophic processes. We hypothesized that this differential temperature response may shift mixotrophic organisms towards more heterotrophic nutrition with rising temperature. The hypothesis

  20. Historical Cavern Floor Rise for All SPR Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Dylan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) contains the largest supply is the largest stockpile of government-owned emergency crude oil in the world. The oil is stored in multiple salt caverns spread over four sites in Louisiana and Texas. Cavern infrastructure near the bottom of the cavern can be damaged from vertical floor movement. This report presents a comprehensive history of floor movements in each cavern. Most of the cavern floor rise rates ranged from 0.5-3.5 ft/yr, however, there were several caverns with much higher rise rates. BH103, BM106, and BH105 had the three highest rise rates. Information from this report will be used to better predict future vertical floor movements and optimally place cavern infrastructure. The reasons for floor rise are not entirely understood and should be investigated.

  1. Adapting to Rising Sea Level: A Florida Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Randall W.

    2009-07-01

    Global climate change and concomitant rising sea level will have a profound impact on Florida's coastal and marine systems. Sea-level rise will increase erosion of beaches, cause saltwater intrusion into water supplies, inundate coastal marshes and other important habitats, and make coastal property more vulnerable to erosion and flooding. Yet most coastal areas are currently managed under the premise that sea-level rise is not significant and the shorelines are static or can be fixed in place by engineering structures. The new reality of sea-level rise and extreme weather due to climate change requires a new style of planning and management to protect resources and reduce risk to humans. Scientists must: (1) assess existing coastal vulnerability to address short term management issues and (2) model future landscape change and develop sustainable plans to address long term planning and management issues. Furthermore, this information must be effectively transferred to planners, managers, and elected officials to ensure their decisions are based upon the best available information. While there is still some uncertainty regarding the details of rising sea level and climate change, development decisions are being made today which commit public and private investment in real estate and associated infrastructure. With a design life of 30 yrs to 75 yrs or more, many of these investments are on a collision course with rising sea level and the resulting impacts will be significant. In the near term, the utilization of engineering structures may be required, but these are not sustainable and must ultimately yield to "managed withdrawal" programs if higher sea-level elevations or rates of rise are forthcoming. As an initial step towards successful adaptation, coastal management and planning documents (i.e., comprehensive plans) must be revised to include reference to climate change and rising sea-level.

  2. Field monitoring of column shortenings in a high-rise building during construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-10-24

    The automatic monitoring of shortenings of vertical members in high-rise buildings under construction is a challenging issue in the high-rise building construction field. In this study, a practical system for monitoring column shortening in a high-rise building under construction is presented. The proposed monitoring system comprises the following components: (1) a wireless sensing system and (2) the corresponding monitoring software. The wireless sensing system comprises the sensors and energy-efficient wireless sensing units (sensor nodes, master nodes, and repeater nodes), which automate the processes for measuring the strains of vertical members and transmitting the measured data to the remote server. The monitoring software enables construction administrators to monitor real-time data collected by the server via an Internet connection. The proposed monitoring system is applied to actual 66-floor and 72-floor high-rise buildings under construction. The system enables automatic and real-time measurements of the shortening of vertical members, which can result in more precise construction.

  3. MODELING THE RISE OF FIBRIL MAGNETIC FIELDS IN FULLY CONVECTIVE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Maria A.; Browning, Matthew K., E-mail: mweber@astro.ex.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-20

    Many fully convective stars exhibit a wide variety of surface magnetism, including starspots and chromospheric activity. The manner by which bundles of magnetic field traverse portions of the convection zone to emerge at the stellar surface is not especially well understood. In the solar context, some insight into this process has been gleaned by regarding the magnetism as consisting partly of idealized thin flux tubes (TFTs). Here we present the results of a large set of TFT simulations in a rotating spherical domain of convective flows representative of a 0.3 M {sub ⊙} main-sequence star. This is the first study to investigate how individual flux tubes in such a star might rise under the combined influence of buoyancy, convection, and differential rotation. A time-dependent hydrodynamic convective flow field, taken from separate 3D simulations calculated with the anelastic equations, impacts the flux tube as it rises. Convective motions modulate the shape of the initially buoyant flux ring, promoting localized rising loops. Flux tubes in fully convective stars have a tendency to rise nearly parallel to the rotation axis. However, the presence of strong differential rotation allows some initially low-latitude flux tubes of moderate strength to develop rising loops that emerge in the near-equatorial region. Magnetic pumping suppresses the global rise of the flux tube most efficiently in the deeper interior and at lower latitudes. The results of these simulations aim to provide a link between dynamo-generated magnetic fields, fluid motions, and observations of starspots for fully convective stars.

  4. Modeling work of the dispatching service of high-rise building as queuing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement'eva, Marina; Dement'eva, Anastasiya

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the results of calculating the performance indicators of the dispatcher service of a high-rise building as a queuing system with an unlimited queue. The calculation was carried out for three models: with a single control room and brigade of service, with a single control room and a specialized service, with several dispatch centers and specialized services. The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of the structural scheme of the organization of the dispatcher service of a high-rise building on the amount of operating costs and the time of processing and fulfilling applications. The problems of high-rise construction and their impact on the complication of exploitation are analyzed. The composition of exploitation activities of high-rise buildings is analyzed. The relevance of the study is justified by the need to review the role of dispatch services in the structure of management of the quality of buildings. Dispatching service from the lower level of management of individual engineering systems becomes the main link in the centralized automated management of the exploitation of high-rise buildings. With the transition to market relations, the criterion of profitability at the organization of the dispatching service becomes one of the main parameters of the effectiveness of its work. A mathematical model for assessing the efficiency of the dispatching service on a set of quality of service indicators is proposed. The structure of operating costs is presented. The algorithm of decision-making is given when choosing the optimal structural scheme of the dispatching service of a high-rise building.

  5. Principles for the formation of an effective concept of multifunctional high-rise construction investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beliakov Sergei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment projects of high-rise construction have a number of features that determine specific risks and additional opportunities that require analysis and accounting in the formation of an effective project concept. The most significant features of high-rise construction include long construction time, complexity of technical and technological solutions, complexity of decisions on the organization of construction and operation, high cost of construction and operation, complexity in determining the ratio of areas designed to accommodate different functional areas, when organizing and coordinating the operation of the facility, with internal zoning. Taking into account the specificity of high-rise construction, among the factors determining the effectiveness of projects, it is advisable to consider as key factors: organizational, technological and investment factors. Within the framework of the article, the author singled out key particular functions for each group of factors under consideration, and also developed a system of principles for the formation of an effective concept of multifunctional high-rise construction investment projects, including the principle of logistic efficiency, the principle of optimal functional zoning, the principle of efficiency of equipment use, the principle of optimizing technological processes, the principle maximization of income, the principle of fund management, the principle of risk management . The model of formation of an effective concept of investment projects of multifunctional high-rise construction developed by the author can contribute to the development of methodological tools in the field of managing the implementation of high-rise construction projects, taking into account their specificity in the current economic conditions.

  6. Water movement in glass bead porous media: 1. Experiments of capillary rise and hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, T. X.; Biggar, J. W.; Nielsen, D. R.

    1994-12-01

    Experimental observations of capillary rise and hysteresis of water or ethanol in glass beads are presented to improve our understanding of those physical processes in porous media. The results provide evidence that capillary rise into porous media cannot be fully explained by a model of cylinders. They further demonstrate that the "Ink bottle" model does not provide an adequate explanation of hysteresis. Glass beads serving as a model for ideal soil are enclosed in a rectangular glass chamber model. A TV camera associated with a microscope was used to record the processes of capillary rise and drainage. It is clearly shown during capillary rise that the fluid exhibits a "jump" behavior at the neck of the pores in an initially dry profile or at the bottom of the water film in an initially wet profile. Under an initially dry condition, the jump initiates at the particle with smallest diameter. The jump process continues to higher elevations until at equilibrium the surface tensile force is balanced by the hydrostatic force. The wetting front at that time is readily observed as flat and saturated. Under an initially wet condition, capillary rise occurs as a water film thickening process associated with the jump process. Trapped air behind the wetting front renders the wetting front irregular and unsaturated. The capillary rise into an initially wet porous medium can be higher than that into an initially dry profile. During the drying process, large surface areas associated with the gas-liquid interface develop, allowing the porous medium to retain more water than during the wetting process at the same pressure. That mechanism explains better the hysteresis phenomenon in porous media in contrast to other mechanisms that now prevail.

  7. Experimental investigation of channel avulsion frequency on river deltas under rising sea levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, J.; Chadwick, A. J.; Steele, S.; Lamb, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas are low-relief landscapes that are socioeconomically important; they are home to over half a billion people worldwide. Many deltas are built by cycles of lobe growth punctuated by abrupt channel shifts, or avulsions, which often reoccur at a similar location and with a regular frequency. Previous experimental work has investigated the effect of hydrodynamic backwater in controlling channel avulsion location and timing on deltas under constant sea level conditions, but it is unclear how sea-level rise impacts avulsion dynamics. We present results from a flume experiment designed to isolate the role of relative sea-level rise on the evolution of a backwater-influenced delta. The experiment was conducted in the river-ocean facility at Caltech, where a 7m long, 14cm wide alluvial river drains into a 6m by 3m "ocean" basin. The experimental delta grew under subcritical flow, a persistent backwater zone, and a range of sea level rise rates. Without sea level rise, lobe progradation produced in-channel aggradation and periodic avulsions every 3.6 ± 0.9 hours, which corresponded to when channels aggraded to approximately one-half of their flow depth. With a modest rate of sea-level rise (0.25 mm/hr), we observed enhanced aggradation in the backwater zone, causing channels to aggrade more quickly and avulse more frequently (every 2.1 ± 0.6 hours). In future work, we expect further increases in the rate of relative sea-level rise to cause avulsion frequency to decrease as the delta drowns and the backwater zone retreats upstream. Experimental results can serve as tests of numerical models that are needed for hazard mitigation and coastal sustainability efforts on drowning deltas.

  8. Principles for the formation of an effective concept of multifunctional high-rise construction investment projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliakov, Sergei

    2018-03-01

    Investment projects of high-rise construction have a number of features that determine specific risks and additional opportunities that require analysis and accounting in the formation of an effective project concept. The most significant features of high-rise construction include long construction time, complexity of technical and technological solutions, complexity of decisions on the organization of construction and operation, high cost of construction and operation, complexity in determining the ratio of areas designed to accommodate different functional areas, when organizing and coordinating the operation of the facility, with internal zoning. Taking into account the specificity of high-rise construction, among the factors determining the effectiveness of projects, it is advisable to consider as key factors: organizational, technological and investment factors. Within the framework of the article, the author singled out key particular functions for each group of factors under consideration, and also developed a system of principles for the formation of an effective concept of multifunctional high-rise construction investment projects, including the principle of logistic efficiency, the principle of optimal functional zoning, the principle of efficiency of equipment use, the principle of optimizing technological processes, the principle maximization of income, the principle of fund management, the principle of risk management . The model of formation of an effective concept of investment projects of multifunctional high-rise construction developed by the author can contribute to the development of methodological tools in the field of managing the implementation of high-rise construction projects, taking into account their specificity in the current economic conditions.

  9. The Rise of Hospitalists: An Opportunity for Clinical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew W; Real de Asua, Diego; Fins, Joseph J

    2017-01-01

    Translating ethical theories into clinical practice presents a perennial challenge to educators. While many suggestions have been put forth to bridge the theory-practice gap, none have sufficiently remedied the problem. We believe the ascendance of hospital medicine, as a dominant new force in medical education and patient care, presents a unique opportunity that could redefine the way clinical ethics is taught. The field of hospital medicine in the United States is comprised of more than 50,000 hospitalists-specialists in inpatient medicine-representing the fastest growing subspecialty in the history of medicine, and its members have emerged as a dominant new force around which medical education and patient care pivot. This evolution in medical education presents a unique opportunity for the clinical ethics community. Through their proximity to patients and trainees, hospitalists have the potential to teach medical ethics in real time on the wards, but most hospitalists have not received formal training in clinical ethics. We believe it is time to strengthen the ties between hospital medicine and medical ethics, and in this article we outline how clinical ethicists might collaborate with hospitalists to identify routine issues that do not rise to the level of an "ethics consult," but nonetheless require an intellectual grounding in normative reasoning. We use a clinical vignette to explore how this approach might enhance and broaden the scope of medical education that occurs in the inpatient setting: A patient with an intra-abdominal abscess is admitted to the academic hospitalist teaching service for drainage of the fluid, hemodynamic support, and antimicrobial therapy. During the initial encounter with the hospitalist and his team of medical students and residents, the patient reports night sweats and asks if this symptom could be due to the abscess. How should the hospitalist approach this question? Copyright 2017 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights

  10. Trend analysis of modern high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radushinsky, Dmitry; Gubankov, Andrey; Mottaeva, Asiiat

    2018-03-01

    The article reviews the main trends of modern high-rise construction considered a number of architectural, engineering and technological, economic and image factors that have influenced the intensification of construction of high-rise buildings in the 21st century. The key factors of modern high-rise construction are identified, which are associated with an attractive image component for businessmen and politicians, with the ability to translate current views on architecture and innovations in construction technologies and the lobbying of relevant structures, as well as the opportunity to serve as an effective driver in the development of a complex of national economy sectors with the achievement of a multiplicative effect. The estimation of the priority nature of participation of foreign architectural bureaus in the design of super-high buildings in Russia at the present stage is given. The issue of economic expediency of construction of high-rise buildings, including those with only a residential function, has been investigated. The connection between the construction of skyscrapers as an important component of the image of cities in the marketing of places and territories, the connection of the availability of a high-rise center, the City, with the possibilities of attracting a "creative class" and the features of creating a large working space for specialists on the basis of territorial proximity and density of high-rise buildings.

  11. Do we have to take an acceleration of sea level rise into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingh, D.; Baart, F.; de Ronde, J.

    2012-04-01

    In view of preservation of safety against inundation and of the many values and functions of the coastal zone, coastal retreat is no longer acceptable. That is why it was decided to maintain the Dutch coastline on its position in 1990. Later the preservation concept was extended to the Dutch coastal foundation, which is the area that encompasses all dune area's and hard sea defences and reaches seawards until the 20m depth contour line. Present Dutch coastal policy is to grow with sea level by means of sand nourishments. A main issue for the planning of sand nourishments is the rate of sea level rise, because that is the main parameter for the volume of the sand needed. The question is than relevant if we already have to take into account an acceleration of sea level rise. Six stations with long water level records, well spread along the Dutch coast, were analysed. Correction of the measured data was considered necessary for an adaptation of the NAP in 2005 as a consequence of movements of the top of the pleistoceen, on which the NAP bench marks have been founded, and for the 18.6 year (nodal) cycle in the time series of yearly mean sea levels. It has been concluded that along the Dutch coast no significant acceleration of sea level rise could be detected yet. Over the last 120 years sea level rose with an average speed of 19 cm per century relative to NAP (the Dutch ordnance datum). Time series shorter than about 50 years showed less robust estimates of sea level rise. Future sea level rise also needs consideration in view of the estimate of future sand nourishment volumes. Scenario's for sea level rise have been derived for the years 2050 and 2100 relative to 1990 by the KNMI (Dutch Met Office) in 2006 for the Dutch situation. Plausible curves have been drawn from 1990 tangent to the linear regression line in 1990 and forced through the high and low scenario projections for 2050 and 2100. These curves show discrepancies with measurements of the last decade

  12. NOAA Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry Sea Level Rise Products: Global and regional sea level time series and trend maps for the major ocean basins and marginal seas, based on measurements from satellite radar altimeters, from 1992-12-17 to 2017-08-11 (NCEI Accession 0125535)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains global and regional mean sea level time series and trend maps calculated on a continual basis since December 1992 by Laboratory for...

  13. Short Lived Climate Pollutants cause a Long Lived Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on short lived climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study

  14. Buying time promotes happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whillans, Ashley; Dunn, Elizabeth; Smeets, Paul M.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Norton, M.I.

    2017-01-01

    Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada,

  15. Capillary Rise: Validity of the Dynamic Contact Angle Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingkeng; Nikolov, Alex D; Wasan, Darsh T

    2017-08-15

    The classical Lucas-Washburn-Rideal (LWR) equation, using the equilibrium contact angle, predicts a faster capillary rise process than experiments in many cases. The major contributor to the faster prediction is believed to be the velocity dependent dynamic contact angle. In this work, we investigated the dynamic contact angle models for their ability to correct the dynamic contact angle effect in the capillary rise process. We conducted capillary rise experiments of various wetting liquids in borosilicate glass capillaries and compared the model predictions with our experimental data. The results show that the LWR equations modified by the molecular kinetic theory and hydrodynamic model provide good predictions on the capillary rise of all the testing liquids with fitting parameters, while the one modified by Joos' empirical equation works for specific liquids, such as silicone oils. The LWR equation modified by molecular self-layering model predicts well the capillary rise of carbon tetrachloride, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, and n-alkanes with the molecular diameter or measured solvation force data. The molecular self-layering model modified LWR equation also has good predictions on the capillary rise of silicone oils covering a wide range of bulk viscosities with the same key parameter W(0), which results from the molecular self-layering. The advantage of the molecular self-layering model over the other models reveals the importance of the layered molecularly thin wetting film ahead of the main meniscus in the energy dissipation associated with dynamic contact angle. The analysis of the capillary rise of silicone oils with a wide range of bulk viscosities provides new insights into the capillary dynamics of polymer melts.

  16. Building more effective sea level rise models for coastal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, D.; Buckel, C.; Collini, R.; Meckley, T.

    2017-12-01

    For over a decade, increased attention on coastal resilience and adaptation to sea level rise has resulted in a proliferation of predictive models and tools. This proliferation has enhanced our understanding of our vulnerability to sea level rise, but has also led to stakeholder fatigue in trying to realize the value of each advancement. These models vary in type and complexity ranging from GIS-based bathtub viewers to modeling systems that dynamically couple complex biophysical and geomorphic processes. These approaches and capabilities typically have the common purpose using scenarios of global and regional sea level change to inform adaptation and mitigation. In addition, stakeholders are often presented a plethora of options to address sea level rise issues from a variety of agencies, academics, and consulting firms. All of this can result in confusion, misapplication of a specific model/tool, and stakeholder feedback of "no more new science or tools, just help me understand which one to use". Concerns from stakeholders have led to the question; how do we move forward with sea level rise modeling? This presentation will provide a synthesis of the experiences and feedback derived from NOAA's Ecological Effects of Sea level Rise (EESLR) program to discuss the future of predictive sea level rise impact modeling. EESLR is an applied research program focused on the advancement of dynamic modeling capabilities in collaboration with local and regional stakeholders. Key concerns from stakeholder engagement include questions about model uncertainty, approaches for model validation, and a lack of cross-model comparisons. Effective communication of model/tool products, capabilities, and results is paramount to address these concerns. Looking forward, the most effective predictions of sea level rise impacts on our coast will be attained through a focus on coupled modeling systems, particularly those that connect natural processes and human response.

  17. Specific features of modern multifunctional high-rise building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukhina, Lyubov; Samosudova, Natal'ja

    2018-03-01

    The article analyzes the main reasons for the development of high-rise building construction the most important of which-is a limitation of the urban areas and, consequently, the high price of land reserved for construction. New engineering and compositional solutions for the creation of new types of buildings are considered - complex technical designs of a large number of storeys completely meet the new requirements for safety and comfort. Some peculiarities of designing high-rise buildings and searching for optimal architectural and planning solutions are revealed since, with external architectural simplicity, high-rise buildings have complex structural and technological and space-planning solutions. We consider the specific features of a high-rise housing in various countries around the world, including Russia, such as the layout of the multi-storey residential buildings, depending on the climatic characteristics of the regions, assessment of the geological risk of the construction site, the choice of parameters and functional purpose of the sections of the territory of high-rise construction, location of the town-planning object for substantiating the overall dimensions of the building, assessment of changes aeration and engineering and hydrological conditions of the site. A special place in the article on the problems of improvement of the territory, the device of courtyards, landscaping, the device of playing and sports grounds. The main conclusion in the article is the following problem - when developing high-rise housing construction, the development of high-rise housing, and an increase in the population density in the territory of large cities of Russia, necessary to create a comfortable and safe level of residents living and not a decrease, but an improvement in the quality of the urban environment.

  18. A policy hackathon for analysing impacts and solutions up to 20 metres sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Bouwer, Laurens; Kwadijk, Jaap

    2017-04-01

    We organised a policy hackathon in order to quantify the impacts accelerated and high-end sea-level rise up to 20 metres on the coast of the Netherlands, and develop possible solutions. This was done during one day, with 20 experts that had a wide variety of disciplines, including hydrology, geology, coastal engineering, economics, and public policy. During the process the problem was divided up into several sub-sets of issues that were analysed and solved within small teams of between 4 to 8 people. Both a top-down impact analysis and bottom-up vulnerability analysis was done by answering the questions: What is the impact of sea level rise of x meter?; and How much sea level rise can be accommodated with before transformative actions are needed? Next, adaptation tipping points were identified that describe conditions under which the coastal system starts to perform unacceptably. Reasons for an adaptation tipping point can be technical (technically not possible), economic (cost-benefits are negative), or resources (available space, sand, energy production, financial). The results are presented in a summary document, and through an infographic displaying different adaptation tipping points and milestones that occur when the sea level rises up to 20 m. No technical limitations were found for adaptation, but many important decisions need to be taken. Although accelerated sea level rise seems far away it can have important consequences for short-term decisions that are required for transformative actions. Such extensive actions require more time for implementation. Also, other action may become ineffective before their design life. This hackathon exercise shows that it is possible to map within a short time frame the issues at hand, as well as potentially effective solutions. This can be replicated for other problems, and can be useful for several decision-makers that require quick but in-depth analysis of their long-term planning problems.

  19. A Zn isotope perspective on the rise of continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, M-L; Fujii, T; Rosing, M; Quitté, G; Télouk, P; Albarède, F

    2013-05-01

    Zinc isotope abundances are fairly constant in igneous rocks and shales and are left unfractionated by hydrothermal processes at pH 1‰ during the ~2.35 Ga Great Oxygenation Event. By 1.8 Ga, BIF δ(66) Zn has settled to the modern value of FeMn nodules and encrustations (~0.9‰). The Zn cycle is largely controlled by two different mechanisms: Zn makes strong complexes with phosphates, and phosphates in turn are strongly adsorbed by Fe hydroxides. We therefore review the evidence that the surface geochemical cycles of Zn and P are closely related. The Zn isotope record echoes Sr isotope evidence, suggesting that erosion starts with the very large continental masses appearing at ~2.7 Ga. The lack of Zn fractionation in pre-2.9 Ga BIFs is argued to reflect the paucity of permanent subaerial continental exposure and consequently the insignificant phosphate input to the oceans and the small output of biochemical sediments. We link the early decline of δ(66) Zn between 3.0 and 2.7 Ga with the low solubility of phosphate in alkaline groundwater. The development of photosynthetic activity at the surface of the newly exposed continents increased the oxygen level in the atmosphere, which in turn triggered acid drainage and stepped up P dissolution and liberation of heavy Zn into the runoff. Zinc isotopes provide a new perspective on the rise of continents, the volume of carbonates on continents, changing weathering conditions, and compositions of the ocean through time. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Magma chamber interaction giving rise to asymmetric oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwer, D.; Ghil, M.; Calais, E.

    2017-12-01

    Geodetic time series at four volcanoes (Okmok, Akutan, Shishaldin, and Réunion) are processed using Multi-channel Singular Spectrum Analysis (M-SSA) and reveal sawtooth-shaped oscillations ; the latter are characterized by short intervals of fast inflations followed by longer intervals of slower deflations. At Okmok and Akutan, the oscillations are first damped and then accentuated. At Okmok, the increase in amplitude of the oscillations is followed by an eruption. We first show that the dynamics of these four volcanoes bears similarities with that of a simple nonlinear, dissipative oscillator, indicating that the inflation-deflation episodes are relaxation oscillations. These observations imply that ab initio dynamical models of magma chambers should possess an asymmetric oscillatory regime. Next, based on the work of Whitehead and Helfrich [1991], we show that a model of two magma chambers — connected by a cylindrical conduit in which the magma viscosity depends on temperature — gives rise to asymmetric overpressure oscillations in the magma reservoirs. These oscillations lead to surface deformations that are consistent with those observed at the four volcanoes in this study. This relaxation oscillation regime occurs only when the vertical temperature gradient in the host rock between the two magma chambers is large enough and when the magma flux entering the volcanic system is sufficiently high. The magma being supplied by a deeper source region, the input flux depends on the pressure difference between the source and the deepest reservoir. When this difference is not sufficiently high, the magma flux exponentially decreases, leading to damped oscillations as observed at Akutan and Okmok. The combination of observational and modeling results clearly supports the role of relaxation oscillations in the dynamics of volcanic systems.

  1. Down the Neoliberal Path: The Rise of Free Choice Feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Čakardić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The free choice ideology dictates that any time a woman makes a choice it is an act of feminism. The idea that personal choice presupposes the faraway horizons of freedom and its guarantee, as well as the undoubted potentials of women’s empowerment, makes up the central position of the critique in this essay. Our text is divided into two parts. In the first part of the paper we are going to outline the basic assumptions of neoliberalism, in order to use them as foundations for the argument about its feminist affirmation. We will illustrate the relationship between neoliberalism and feminism by using the example of women's entrepreneurship, which is usually interpreted as a strategy of undeniable emancipation. In the second part of the essay, as a concrete response to ‘neoliberal feminism’, we are going to point to the progressive potential of social reproduction theory and socialist-feminist practice to be further developed out of it. Given the intention of this text is not to exhibit a detailed historical-comparative analysis of feminism, we are merely going to use concrete examples to illustrate the link between feminism and neoliberalism, and to map the shift from early second-wave feminism to identity politics and the cultural turn that swallows up the critique of political economy.   Article received: June 2, 2017; Article accepted: June 16, 2017; Published online: October 15, 2017; Original scholarly paper How to cite this article: Čakardić, Ankica. "Down the Neoliberal Path: The Rise of Free Choice Feminism." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 14 (2017: 33-44. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i14.215

  2. High-rise construction in the Saint Petersburg agglomeration in 1703–1950s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sementsov Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of high-rise construction (implemented projects and developments in Saint Petersburg and the Saint Petersburg agglomeration since the foundation of the city in 1703 till the 1950s are considered. Based on these regularities, a single spatially developed system of vertical dominants is formed. High-rise construction in the city and its suburbs started in the 1710s and continues up to the present time. In the considered decades (1703–1950s, high-rise construction mostly performed urban-planning functions (with vertical and symbolic dominants, relying on patterns of the visual perception of man-made landscapes under development. Since the 1710s, the construction of vertical dominants (mainly temples, spires of towers, lighthouses, etc. of five ranks (depending on the altitude range and in relation to the background development was conducted in territories of the entire agglomeration. These dominants were arranged in landscapes of the city and suburbs with almost mathematically precise accuracy and according to special regulations. Such dominants obtained particular descriptive and silhouette characteristics in accordance with the conditions of spatial perception. In some periods of city development, attempts were made to create monuments (symbolic dominants of specific height and include those in the spatial system of high-rise dominants as significant elements of the city silhouette.

  3. Sea Level Rise Impacts on Wastewater Treatment Systems Along the U.S. Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Michelle A.; Berry, Matthew S.; Stacey, Mark T.

    2018-04-01

    As sea levels rise, coastal communities will experience more frequent and persistent nuisance flooding, and some low-lying areas may be permanently inundated. Critical components of lifeline infrastructure networks in these areas are also at risk of flooding, which could cause significant service disruptions that extend beyond the flooded zone. Thus, identifying critical infrastructure components that are exposed to sea level rise is an important first step in developing targeted investment in protective actions and enhancing the overall resilience of coastal communities. Wastewater treatment plants are typically located at low elevations near the coastline to minimize the cost of collecting consumed water and discharging treated effluent, which makes them particularly susceptible to coastal flooding. For this analysis, we used geographic information systems to assess the exposure of wastewater infrastructure to various sea level rise projections at the national level. We then estimated the number of people who would lose wastewater services, which could be more than five times as high as previous predictions of the number of people at risk of direct flooding due to sea level rise. We also performed a regional comparison of wastewater exposure to marine and groundwater flooding in the San Francisco Bay Area. Overall, this analysis highlights the widespread exposure of wastewater infrastructure in the United States and demonstrates that local disruptions to infrastructure networks may have far-ranging impacts on areas that do not experience direct flooding.

  4. Coralgal reef morphology records punctuated sea-level rise during the last deglaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Pankaj; Droxler, André W; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A; Tunnell, John W; Shirley, Thomas C

    2017-10-19

    Coralgal reefs preserve the signatures of sea-level fluctuations over Earth's history, in particular since the Last Glacial Maximum 20,000 years ago, and are used in this study to indicate that punctuated sea-level rise events are more common than previously observed during the last deglaciation. Recognizing the nature of past sea-level rises (i.e., gradual or stepwise) during deglaciation is critical for informing models that predict future vertical behavior of global oceans. Here we present high-resolution bathymetric and seismic sonar data sets of 10 morphologically similar drowned reefs that grew during the last deglaciation and spread 120 km apart along the south Texas shelf edge. Herein, six commonly observed terrace levels are interpreted to be generated by several punctuated sea-level rise events forcing the reefs to shrink and backstep through time. These systematic and common terraces are interpreted to record punctuated sea-level rise events over timescales of decades to centuries during the last deglaciation, previously recognized only during the late Holocene.

  5. Effects of Sea Level Rise on Groundwater Flow Paths in a Coastal Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, S. K.; Clark, J. F.; Bennett, M. W.; Richardson, E.; Stute, M.

    2008-05-01

    Changes in groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system, South Florida, from the rise in sea level at the end of the last glacial period may be indicative of changes coastal aquifers will experience with continued sea level rise. As sea level rises, the hydraulic head near the coast increases. Coastal aquifers can therefore experience decreased groundwater gradients (increased residence times) and seawater intrusion. Stable isotopes of water, dissolved noble gas temperatures, radiocarbon and He concentrations were analyzed in water collected from 68 wells in the Floridan aquifer system throughout South Florida. Near the recharge area, geochemical data along groundwater flow paths in the Upper Floridan aquifer show a transition from recently recharged groundwater to glacial-aged water. Down gradient from this transition, little variation is apparent in the stable isotopes and noble gas recharge temperatures, indicating that most of the Upper Floridan aquifer contains groundwater recharged during the last glacial period. The rapid 120-meter rise in sea level marking the end of the last glacial period increased the hydraulic head in the Floridan aquifer system near the coast, slowing the flow of groundwater from the recharge area to the ocean and trapping glacial-aged groundwater. The raised sea level also flooded half of the Florida platform and caused seawater to intrude into the Lower Floridan. This circulation of seawater in the Lower Floridan continues today as our data indicate that the groundwater is similar to modern seawater with a freshwater component entering vertically from the recharge area to the Upper Floridan.

  6. High-rise construction in the Saint Petersburg agglomeration in 1703-1950s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sementsov, Sergey; Akulova, Nadezhda; Kurakina, Severina

    2018-03-01

    Regularities of high-rise construction (implemented projects and developments) in Saint Petersburg and the Saint Petersburg agglomeration since the foundation of the city in 1703 till the 1950s are considered. Based on these regularities, a single spatially developed system of vertical dominants is formed. High-rise construction in the city and its suburbs started in the 1710s and continues up to the present time. In the considered decades (1703-1950s), high-rise construction mostly performed urban-planning functions (with vertical and symbolic dominants), relying on patterns of the visual perception of man-made landscapes under development. Since the 1710s, the construction of vertical dominants (mainly temples, spires of towers, lighthouses, etc.) of five ranks (depending on the altitude range and in relation to the background development) was conducted in territories of the entire agglomeration. These dominants were arranged in landscapes of the city and suburbs with almost mathematically precise accuracy and according to special regulations. Such dominants obtained particular descriptive and silhouette characteristics in accordance with the conditions of spatial perception. In some periods of city development, attempts were made to create monuments (symbolic dominants) of specific height and include those in the spatial system of high-rise dominants as significant elements of the city silhouette.

  7. Force acting on a spherical bubble rising through a quiescent liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    1996-01-01

    The direct numerical simulation is performed on the spherical bubble unsteadily rising through a quiescent liquid. The method is based on a finite-volume solution of the equations on an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. The calculations are performed for a bubble rising through a clean liquid and contaminated one. Following the former experimental results, the tangential stress free condition is given for a clean bubble, and no-slip condition for contaminated one. The numerical results are compared with those of the model equation of the translational motion of the bubble, which is often used in numerical models of a bubbly flow. The steady drag, added mass and history terms are checked up by the comparison. It is revealed that the history force effect is negligible for a bubble rising through the clean liquid beyond Re=O(50). From the numerical point of view, the fact that the history force is negligible is quite important, because it reduces the calculation time and memory for a bubbly flow model. For a contaminated bubble, history force effect is not negligible even though the Reynolds number is high enough. It is found that the expression of the history force by Basset kernel gives an over-estimation of the history force for the bubble rising at moderate Reynolds number. This error becomes larger with increasing Reynolds number and it reduces the accuracy to calculate the bubble motion by the model equation. (author)

  8. Economic efficiency of high-rise construction in the Moscow program of renovation of housing stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misailovov, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    The article considers a new initiative of the regional authorities of updating the housing stock designated as the renovation of housing. Its main aspects are analyzed, including the nature of program, economic efficiency of its implementation due to high-rise construction and the regulatory and legislative framework, the procedure for implementing the program, and the time frame for its implementation. The role of the program for regions in which high depreciation of the housing stock is combined with a limited number of sites for a new housing construction is disclosed. The high-rise construction in the renovation program is presented as a variant of a successful solution not only of the tasks of renovating the housing stock, but also of filling the regional budget. The social and economic orientation of the high-rise construction and the involvement of residents in the process of making town-planning decisions in the field of high-rise construction at all stages of implementing the program are shown.

  9. Sea level rise impacts on wastewater treatment systems along the U.S. coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, M.; Berry, M.; Stacey, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    As sea levels rise, coastal communities will experience more frequent and persistent nuisance flooding, and some low-lying areas may be permanently inundated. Critical components of lifeline infrastructure networks in these areas are also at risk of flooding, which could cause significant service disruptions that extend beyond the flooded zone. Thus, identifying critical infrastructure components that are vulnerable to sea level rise is an important first step in developing targeted investment in protective actions and enhancing the overall resilience of coastal communities. Wastewater treatment plants are typically located at low elevations near the coastline to minimize the cost of collecting consumed water and discharging treated effluent, which makes them particularly susceptible to coastal flooding. For this analysis, we used geographic information systems to assess the vulnerability of wastewater infrastructure to various sea level rise projections at the national level. We then estimated the number of people who would lose wastewater services, which could be more than three times as high as previous predictions of the number of people at risk of direct flooding due to sea level rise. We also considered several case studies of wastewater infrastructure in mid-sized cities to determine how topography and system configuration (centralized versus distributed) impact vulnerability. Overall, this analysis highlights the widespread vulnerability of wastewater infrastructure in the U.S. and demonstrates that local disruptions to infrastructure networks may have far-ranging impacts on areas that do not experience direct flooding.

  10. Analysis of plume rise data from five TVA steam plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anfossi, D.

    1985-01-01

    A large data set containing the measurements of the rise of plumes emitted by five TVA steam plants was examined. Particular attention was paid to the problem of the merging of the plumes emitted by adjacent stacks and to the role played by the wind angle in this respect. It was demonstrated that there is a noticeable rise enhancement of merged plumes with respect to single emissions, both in neutral and in stable conditions, as far as transversal and parallel plumes are concerned. For plumes advected normal to the row of the stacks the enhancement is noticeable only in the final stage of rise. The existence of a critical angle for merging suggested enhancement is noticeable only in the final stage of rise. The existence of a critical angle for merging suggested by Briggs was examined. Finally, a formula to describe plume rise in the transitional and in the final phase, both in neutral and stable conditions, is proposed; it was obtained by interpolation of two familiar Brigg's equations

  11. Identifying the Academic Rising Stars via Pairwise Citation Increment Ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chuxu

    2017-08-02

    Predicting the fast-rising young researchers (the Academic Rising Stars) in the future provides useful guidance to the research community, e.g., offering competitive candidates to university for young faculty hiring as they are expected to have success academic careers. In this work, given a set of young researchers who have published the first first-author paper recently, we solve the problem of how to effectively predict the top k% researchers who achieve the highest citation increment in Δt years. We explore a series of factors that can drive an author to be fast-rising and design a novel pairwise citation increment ranking (PCIR) method that leverages those factors to predict the academic rising stars. Experimental results on the large ArnetMiner dataset with over 1.7 million authors demonstrate the effectiveness of PCIR. Specifically, it outperforms all given benchmark methods, with over 8% average improvement. Further analysis demonstrates that temporal features are the best indicators for rising stars prediction, while venue features are less relevant.

  12. Being Left Behind Amidst Africa’s Rising Imagery: The Maasai In The World Of Information And Communication Technologies (ICTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric E Otenyo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Today the media is replete with stories about Africa rising and enjoying middle –income status. Those promoting the narrative of Africa rising include the World Bank and western –trained elites. The narrative of success assumes that prosperity trickles down to Indigenous communities, who are pictured consuming mobile phones and tablets. At the same time, Hollywood and western media outlets continue to present images of Indigenous Maasai as a cultural export to be consumed. With emphasis on social media narratives, this paper interrogates the continued marginalisation of the Maasai people amidst the myth of a rising Africa. In sum, the Africa rising myth and penetration of ICTs in rural areas masks the dispossession of Maasai means of livelihood, and therefore worsening the groups’ conditions of living.

  13. Development of wide-band, time and energy resolving, optical photon detectors with application to imaging astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.J.; Cabrera, B.; Romani, R.W.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Nam, S.W.; Clarke, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs) are showing promise for the wide-band spectroscopy of individual photons from the mid-infrared (IR), through the optical, and into the near ultraviolet (UV). Our TES sensors are ∼20 μm square, 40 nm thick tungsten (W) films with a transition temperature of about 80 mK. We typically attain an energy resolution of 0.15 eV FWHM over the optical range with relative timing resolution of 100 ns. Single photon events with sub-microsecond risetimes and few microsecond falltimes have been achieved allowing count rates in excess of 30 kHz per pixel. Additionally, tungsten is approximately 50% absorptive in the optical (dropping to 10% in the IR) giving these devices an intrinsically high quantum efficiency. These combined traits make our detectors attractive for fast spectrophotometers and photon-starved applications such as wide-band, time and energy resolved astronomical observations. We present recent results from our work toward the fabrication and testing of the first TES optical photon imaging arrays

  14. Pancreatic rupture in four cats with high-rise syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehmann, Lea M; Dörner, Judith; Hittmair, Katharina M; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Reifinger, Martin; Dupré, Gilles

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic trauma and rupture are rare after feline high-rise syndrome; however, should it happen, pancreatic enzymes will leak into the abdominal cavity and may cause pancreatic autodigestion and fatty tissue saponification. If not diagnosed and treated, it can ultimately lead to multiorgan failure and death. In this case series, 700 records of high-rise syndrome cats that presented between April 2001 and May 2006 were analysed, and four cats with pancreatic rupture were identified. Clinical signs, diagnosis using ultrasonography and lipase activity in blood and abdominal effusion, and treatment modalities are reported. Three cats underwent surgical abdominal exploration, one cat was euthanased. Rupture of the left pancreatic limb was confirmed in all cases. Two of the operated cats survived to date. High-rise syndrome can lead to abdominal trauma, including pancreatic rupture. A prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment should be considered.

  15. Temperature rising characteristics of ammonium diurante in microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bingguo; Peng JinHui; Huang Daifu; Zhang Libo; Hu Jinming; Zhuang Zebiao; Kong Dongcheng; Guo Shenghui; Li Chunxiang

    2010-01-01

    The temperature rising characteristics of ammonium diurante, triuranium octaoxide (U 3 O 8 ), and their mixture were investigated under microwave irradiation, aiming at exploring newly theoretical foundation for advanced metallurgical methods. The temperature rising curves showed that ammonium diurante had weak capability to absorb microwave energy, while triuranium octaoxide had the very strong absorption capability. The temperature of mixture containing 20% of U 3 O 8 could rise from room temperature to 1171 K within 280 s. The ability to absorb microwave energy for the mixture with different ratios increased with the increase in the amount of U 3 O 8 . These are in good agreement with the results of Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory. It is feasible to calcine ammonium diurante by adding of small amounts of U 3 O 8 in microwave fields.

  16. Study of the Effectiveness of Outrigger System for High-Rise Composite Buildings for Cyclonic Region

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fawzia; A. Nasir; T. Fatima

    2011-01-01

    The demands of taller structures are becoming imperative almost everywhere in the world in addition to the challenges of material and labor cost, project time line etc. This paper conducted a study keeping in view the challenging nature of high-rise construction with no generic rules for deflection minimizations and frequency control. The effects of cyclonic wind and provision of outriggers on 28-storey, 42-storey and 57-storey are examined in this paper and certain conclusions are made which...

  17. A simple dynamic rising nuclear cloud based model of ground radioactive fallout for atmospheric nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yi

    2008-01-01

    A simple dynamic rising nuclear cloud based model for atmospheric nuclear explosion radioactive prediction was presented. The deposition of particles and initial cloud radius changing with time before the cloud stabilization was considered. Large-scale relative diffusion theory was used after cloud stabilization. The model was considered reasonable and dependable in comparison with four U.S. nuclear test cases and DELFIC model results. (authors)

  18. The rise of patriotic journalism in Zimbabwe and its possible implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ranger, Terence

    2005-01-01

    The article sees the rise of ‘patriotic journalism’ in recent Zimbabwe as representing something qualitatively different from any other forms of patriotism or journalism. The ‘patriotic journalism’ practiced by Jonathan Moyo’s ministry from 2000-5, was narrowly defined and destructive. At a time when Socialism had been abandoned, education and welfare undermined, patriotic journalism emerged as the Zimbabwean government’s last resort. The article unequivocally states that Zimbabweans ought no...

  19. Are common names becoming less common? The rise in uniqueness and individualism in Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    Yuji, Ogihara; Hiroyo, Fujita; Hitoshi, Tominaga; Sho, Ishigaki; Takuya, Kashimoto; Ayano, Takahashi; Kyoko, Toyohara; Yukiko, Uchida

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether Japanese culture has become more individualistic by investigating how the practice of naming babies has changed over time. Cultural psychology has revealed substantial cultural variation in human psychology and behavior, emphasizing the mutual construction of socio-cultural environment and mind. However, much of the past research did not account for the fact that culture is changing. Indeed, archival data on behavior (e.g., divorce rates) suggest a rise in individualism in...

  20. The rising of the land at the nuclear power plant Asco II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Sanchez, J.; Ubalde, L.

    1997-01-01

    The rising of the land on which Asco II is settled is a geological process of slow and falling evolution in the time, studied and followed by means of geophysical models of the underground and continuous auscultation. Their influence on the structures, equipment, components and systems is contemplated in the bases of the design of the power station, whose behaviour towards this phenomenon evolves satisfactorily in accordance with control parameters. (Author)

  1. Promotional Cultures: The Rise and Spread of Advertising, Public Relations, Marketing and Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Aeron

    2013-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, promotion is everywhere and everything has become promotable: everyday goods and organizations, people and ideas, cultures and futures. This engaging book looks at the rise of advertising, public relations, branding, marketing and lobbying, and explores where our promotional times have taken us.\\ud \\ud Promotional Cultures documents how the professions and practices of promotion have interacted with and reshaped so much in our world, from commodities, celebrities ...

  2. Anthropogenic sea level rise and adaptation in the Yangtze estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H.; Chen, J.; Chen, Z.; Ruan, R.; Xu, G.; Zeng, G.; Zhu, J.; Dai, Z.; Gu, S.; Zhang, X.; Wang, H.

    2016-02-01

    Sea level rise is a major projected threat of climate change. There are regional variations in sea level changes, depending on both naturally the tectonic subsidence, geomorphology, naturally changing river inputs and anthropogenic driven forces as artificial reservoir water impoundment within the watershed and urban land subsidence driven by ground water depletion in the river delta. Little is known on regional sea level fall in response to the channel erosion due to the sediment discharge decline by reservoir interception in the upstream watershed, and water level rise driven by anthropogenic measures as the land reclamation, deep waterway regulation and fresh water reservoir construction to the sea level change in estuaries. Changing coastal cities are situated in the delta regions expected to be threatened in various degrees. Shanghai belongs to those cities. Here we show that the anthropogenic driven sea level rise in the Yangtze estuary from the point of view of the continuous hydrodynamic system consisted of river catchment, estuary and coastal sea. Land subsidence is cited as 4 mm/a (2011-2030). Scour depth of the estuarine channel by upstream engineering as Three Gauge Dam is estimated at 2-10 cm (2011-2030). The rise of water level by deep waterway and land reclamation is estimated at 8-10 cm (2011-2030). The relative sea level rise will be speculated about 10 -16 cm (2011-2030), which these anthropogenic sea level changes will be imposed into the absolute sea level rise 2 mm/a and tectonic subsidence 1 mm/a measured in 1990s. The action guideline to the sea level rise strategy in the Shanghai city have been proposed to the Shanghai government as (1) recent actions (2012-2015) to upgrade the city water supply and drainage engineering and protective engineering; (2) interim actions (2016-2020) to improve sea level monitoring and early warning system, and then the special, city, regional planning considering sea level rise; (3) long term actions (2021

  3. Seismic damage assessment for high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Roger E.

    1980-01-01

    The problem considered in this project, conducted by URS/John A. Blume & Associates, Engineers (URS/Blume), for the U.S. Geological Survey, is the identification, evaluation, and correlation of ground-motion and structural parameters in order to improve procedures for predicting dollar losses for high-rise structures damaged by earthquakes. Ground-motion data bases, analytical techniques, and known motion-damage relationships already developed for high-rise buildings and for other classes of structures will be refined and extended so that reliable quantitative seismic risk evaluations can be made.

  4. The Dark Knight Rises: Kita Butuh Simbol untuk Menggerakkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danu Widhyatmoko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The dark knight rises: We Need Symbols to Make Movements is a writing that covers values existing in the last movie of Batman trilogy: The Dark Knight Rises (TDKR. In the film, it is described how batman is not only presented as a hero who saved the town, but also is presented as a symbol that keeps hope of the Gotham city society. Through this writing, it is also discussed the relation between TDKR and the recent condition of Indonesia.   

  5. Detecting anthropogenic footprints in sea level rise: the role of complex colored noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Marcos, Marta; Müller, Alfred; Zorita, Eduardo; Jensen, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    While there is scientific consensus that global mean sea level (MSL) is rising since the late 19th century, it remains unclear how much of this rise is due to natural variability or anthropogenic forcing. Uncovering the anthropogenic contribution requires profound knowledge about the persistence of natural MSL variations. This is challenging, since observational time series represent the superposition of various processes with different spectral properties. Here we statistically estimate the upper bounds of naturally forced centennial MSL trends on the basis of two separate components: a slowly varying volumetric (mass and density changes) and a more rapidly changing atmospheric component. Resting on a combination of spectral analyses of tide gauge records, ocean reanalysis data and numerical Monte-Carlo experiments, we find that in records where transient atmospheric processes dominate, the persistence of natural volumetric changes is underestimated. If each component is assessed separately, natural centennial trends are locally up to ~0.5 mm/yr larger than in case of an integrated assessment. This implies that external trends in MSL rise related to anthropogenic forcing might be generally overestimated. By applying our approach to the outputs of a centennial ocean reanalysis (SODA), we estimate maximum natural trends in the order of 1 mm/yr for the global average. This value is larger than previous estimates, but consistent with recent paleo evidence from periods in which the anthropogenic contribution was absent. Comparing our estimate to the observed 20th century MSL rise of 1.7 mm/yr suggests a minimum external contribution of at least 0.7 mm/yr. We conclude that an accurate detection of anthropogenic footprints in MSL rise requires a more careful assessment of the persistence of intrinsic natural variability.

  6. Rise of an argon bubble in liquid steel in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, K.; Kumar, P.; Vanka, S. P., E-mail: spvanka@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Thomas, B. G. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Brown Hall W370-B, 1610 Illinois Street, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The rise of gaseous bubbles in viscous liquids is a fundamental problem in fluid physics, and it is also a common phenomenon in many industrial applications such as materials processing, food processing, and fusion reactor cooling. In this work, the motion of a single argon gas bubble rising in quiescent liquid steel under an external magnetic field is studied numerically using a Volume-of-Fluid method. To mitigate spurious velocities normally generated during numerical simulation of multiphase flows with large density differences, an improved algorithm for surface tension modeling, originally proposed by Wang and Tong [“Deformation and oscillations of a single gas bubble rising in a narrow vertical tube,” Int. J. Therm. Sci. 47, 221–228 (2008)] is implemented, validated and used in the present computations. The governing equations are integrated by a second-order space and time accurate numerical scheme, and implemented on multiple Graphics Processing Units with high parallel efficiency. The motion and terminal velocities of the rising bubble under different magnetic fields are compared and a reduction in rise velocity is seen in cases with the magnetic field applied. The shape deformation and the path of the bubble are discussed. An elongation of the bubble along the field direction is seen, and the physics behind these phenomena is discussed. The wake structures behind the bubble are visualized and effects of the magnetic field on the wake structures are presented. A modified drag coefficient is obtained to include the additional resistance force caused by adding a transverse magnetic field.

  7. Can sea level rise cause large submarine landslides on continental slopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlaub, Morelia

    2014-05-01

    Submarine landslides are one of the volumetrically most important sediment transport processes at continental margins. Moreover, these landslides are a major geohazard as they can cause damaging tsunamis and destroy seabed infrastructure. Due to their inaccessibility our understanding of what causes these landslides is limited and based on hypotheses that are difficult to test. Some of the largest submarine landslides, such as the Storegga Slide off Norway, occurred during times of eustatic sea level rise. It has been suggested that this global sea level rise was implicated in triggering of the landslides by causing an increase in excess pore pressure in the subseafloor. However, in a homogeneous slope a change in the thickness of the overlying water mass is not expected to affect its stability, as only the hydrostatic pressure component will change, whereas pore pressures in excess of hydrostatic will remain unaltered. Whether sufficiently rapid sea level rise, aided by rather impermeable sediment and complex layering, could cause excess pore pressures that may destabilise a continental slope is more difficult to answer and has not yet been tested. I use Finite Element Modelling to explore and quantify the direct effect of changes in the thickness of the overlying water mass on the stability of a generic sediment column with different stratigraphic conditions and hydro-mechanical properties. The results show that the direct effect of sea level rise on continental slope stability is minimal. Nevertheless, sea level rise may foster other processes, such as lithospheric stress changes resulting in increased seismicity, that could potentially cause large submarine landslides on continental slopes.

  8. Rise of an argon bubble in liquid steel in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, K.; Kumar, P.; Vanka, S. P.; Thomas, B. G.

    2016-01-01

    The rise of gaseous bubbles in viscous liquids is a fundamental problem in fluid physics, and it is also a common phenomenon in many industrial applications such as materials processing, food processing, and fusion reactor cooling. In this work, the motion of a single argon gas bubble rising in quiescent liquid steel under an external magnetic field is studied numerically using a Volume-of-Fluid method. To mitigate spurious velocities normally generated during numerical simulation of multiphase flows with large density differences, an improved algorithm for surface tension modeling, originally proposed by Wang and Tong [“Deformation and oscillations of a single gas bubble rising in a narrow vertical tube,” Int. J. Therm. Sci. 47, 221–228 (2008)] is implemented, validated and used in the present computations. The governing equations are integrated by a second-order space and time accurate numerical scheme, and implemented on multiple Graphics Processing Units with high parallel efficiency. The motion and terminal velocities of the rising bubble under different magnetic fields are compared and a reduction in rise velocity is seen in cases with the magnetic field applied. The shape deformation and the path of the bubble are discussed. An elongation of the bubble along the field direction is seen, and the physics behind these phenomena is discussed. The wake structures behind the bubble are visualized and effects of the magnetic field on the wake structures are presented. A modified drag coefficient is obtained to include the additional resistance force caused by adding a transverse magnetic field.

  9. Predicted peak temperature-rises around a high-level radioactive waste canister emplaced in the deep ocean bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipp, K.L.

    1978-06-01

    A simple mathematical model of heat conduction was used to evaluate the peak temperature-rise along the wall of a canister of high-level radioactive waste buried in deep ocean sediment. Three different amounts of vitrified waste, corresponding to standard Harvest, large Harvest, and AVM canisters, and three different waste loadings were studied. Peak temperature-rise was computed for the nine cases as a function of canister geometry and storage time between reprocessing and burial. Lower waste loadings or longer storage times than initially envisaged are necessary to prevent the peak temperature-rise from exceeding 200 0 C. The use of longer, thinner cylinders only modestly reduces the storage time for a given peak temperature. Effects of stacking of waste canisters and of close-packing were also studied. (author)

  10. Advanced real-time control systems for magnetically confined fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, B.; Sousa, J.; Fernandes, H.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Carvalho, B.B.; Neto, A.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time control of magnetically confined plasmas is a critical issue for the safety, operation and high performance scientific exploitation of the experimental devices on regimes beyond the current operation frontiers. The number of parameters and the data volumes used for the plasma properties identification scale normally not only with the machine size but also with the technology improvements, leading to a great complexity of the plant system. A strong computational power and fast communication infrastructure are needed to handle in real-time this information, allowing just-in-time decisions to achieve the fusion critical plasma conditions. These advanced control systems require a tiered infrastructure including the hardware layer, the signal-processing middleware, real-time timing and data transport, the real-time operating system tools and drivers, the framework for code development, simulation, deployment and experiment parameterization and the human real-time plasma condition monitoring and management. This approach is being implemented at CFN by offering a vertical solution for the forthcoming challenges, including ITER, the first experimental fusion reactor. A given set of tools and systems are described on this paper, namely: (i) an ATCA based hardware multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) platform, PCI and PCIe acquisition and control modules; (ii) FPGA and DSP parallelized signal processing algorithms; (iii) a signal data and event distribution system over a 2.5/10Gb optical network with sub-microsecond latencies; (iv) RTAI and Linux drivers; and (v) the FireSignal, FusionTalk, SDAS FireCalc application tools. (author)

  11. Multimodal analysis of diamond crystals and layers using RISE microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Váňa, R.; Dluhoš, J.; Varga, Marián; Schmid, Ch.; Kromka, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, Aug (2017), s. 2280-2281 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15003 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond * RISE microscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  12. Greenhouse effect, sea level rise, and coastal drainage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titus, J G; Kuo, C Y; Gibbs, M J; LaRoche, T B; Webb, M K; Waddell, J O

    1987-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide and other gases are expected to warm the earth several degrees in the next century, which would raise sea level a few feet and alter precipitation patterns. Both of these changes would have major impacts on the operation of coastal drainage systems. However, because sea level rise and climate change resulting from the greenhouse effect are still uncertain, most planners and engineers are ignoring the potential implications. Case studies of the potential impact on watersheds in Charleston, South Carolina, and Fort Walton Beach, Florida, suggest that the cost of designing a new system to accommodate a rise in sea level will sometimes be small compared with the retrofit cost that may ultimately be necessary if new systems are not designed for a rise. Rather than ignore the greenhouse effect until its consequences are firmly established, engineers and planners should evaluate whether it would be worthwhile to insure that new systems are not vulnerable to the risks of climate change and sea level rise.

  13. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  14. Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Murnane, Richard, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As the incomes of affluent and poor families have diverged over the past three decades, so too has the educational performance of their children. But how exactly do the forces of rising inequality affect the educational attainment and life chances of low-income children? In "Whither Opportunity?" a distinguished team of economists,…

  15. Rising South Korea : A Minor Player or a Regional Power?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, David; Flamm, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    South Korea's rising status in regional and global affairs has received significant attention in recent years. In academic, media, and policy debates, though, South Korea is usually regarded as a mere middle power that, due to its geopolitical situation, has only limited leeway in its foreign policy

  16. Rising energy prices and the economics of water in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zilberman, D.; Sproul, T.; Rajagopal, D.; Sexton, S.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Rising energy prices will alter water allocation and distribution. Water extraction and conveyance will become more costly and demand for hydroelectric power will grow. The higher cost of energy will substantially increase the cost of groundwater, whereas increasing demand for hydroelectric power

  17. RISING ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising CO2 concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere could alter Earth's climate system, but it is thought that higher concentrations may improve plant growth by way of the fertilization effect. Forests, an important part of the Earth's carbon cycle, are postulated to sequester a...

  18. Rising Sludge in Secondary Settlers Due to Denitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Dupont, Rene; Grau, Peter

    1993-01-01

    High suspended solids concentrations in settler effluents can be caused by rising sludge, which is the effect of flotation of solids by nitrogen gas resulting from biological denitrification. Many factors influence the nitrogen gas bubble evolution. The most important factor is the rate...

  19. Rising Opportunities in the Field of Engineering: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gloria S.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    In the Endicott Report a survey of businesses and industries indicated a lack of Black engineers, accountants, and graduates in business administration. The report indicated that competition is keen for Blacks talented in these fields. With the rising opportunities for Black talent, a clarification of needs and services must be projected to those…

  20. Suppressing the Morning Rise in Cortisol Impairs Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Meier, Flurina; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels impair memory retrieval. We investigated whether retrieval under naturally elevated glucocorticoid levels, i.e., during the morning rise in cortisol can be improved by suppressing cortisol. In a crossover study 16 men retrieved emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 d earlier) 30 min after morning…

  1. Rising pattern of breast cancer in young women | Adeniji | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To study the rising pattern of breast cancer in young women. Design: Retrospective study of cases of breast cancer from histopathological diagnosis. Setting: Department of Pathology, Ilorin Teaching Hospital Subjects: Breast cancer tissues sent to histopathology department for diagnosis Interventions: Tissue ...

  2. Unusual rise in mercury-resistant bacteria in coastal environs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; De, J.

    A sharp rise in mercury-resistant bacteria (MRB) capable of tolerating very high concentration of Hg was observed over the last 3-4 years in the coastal environs of India. While none or negligible colony-forming units (CFU) of bacteria were counted...

  3. Approximate analysis of high-rise frames with flexible connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderkamp, J.C.D.; Snijder, H.H.

    2000-01-01

    An approximate hand method for estimating horizontal deflections in high-rise steel frames with flexible beam–column connections subjected to horizontal loading is presented. The method is developed from the continuous medium theory for coupled walls which is expressed in non-dimensional structural

  4. Rising natural gas and electricity prices in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2004-01-01

    In a free market, the price for electricity rises rather than falls. And as for the gas price, the consumer will be facing strong fluctuations. For that matter, it is only slightly connected with the liberalization of the market. An employee of Roland Berger Strategy Consultants has delved deeply into the matter, down to the euro [nl

  5. Does Electroconvulsive therapy aggravate the rise in potassium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Potassium and creatine kinase levels increase after the administration of suxamethonium. This rise may be exaggerated by the combination of suxamethonium fasciculation and the modified tonic/clonic convulsion induced by electroconvulsive therapy. This study compared the magnitude of increase in ...

  6. Salaries of Head Coaches Are Rising, Survey Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Salaries of head coaches in college sports are rising, but a large salary gap remains between coaches of men's and women's teams. In a national ranking of institutions by salary averages, men's coaches at the median institution made 43% more than women's coaches. Some institutions provide more salary equity than others. The Justice Department is…

  7. John Ash and the Rise of the Children's Grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navest, Karlijn Marianne

    2011-01-01

    From the second half of the eighteenth century onwards a knowledge of grammar served as an important marker of class in England. In order to enable their children to rise in society, middle-class parents expected their sons and daughters to learn English grammar. Since England did not have an

  8. The Rise of Asia and strategic questions for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, G.; Roborgh, S.; Sweijs, T.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of Asia will shape the global landscape of the 21st century and have profound implications for the way Europeans live and do business. Against the background of changes in the global balance of power, demographic shifts, and growing resource scarcity, Asia´s advance will challenge Western

  9. 46 CFR 111.20-5 - Temperature rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Transformer Construction, Installation, and Protection § 111.20-5 Temperature rise. (a) The... than 40 degrees C, the transformer must be derated so that the total temperature stated in this section...

  10. Impact of capillary rise and recirculation on simulated crop yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, J.G.; Supit, I.; Dam, van J.C.; Walsum, van P.E.V.; Mulder, H.M.

    2018-01-01

    Upward soil water flow is a vital supply of water to crops. The purpose of this study is to determine if upward flow and recirculated percolation water can be quantified separately, and to determine the contribution of capillary rise and recirculated water to crop yield and groundwater recharge.

  11. India’s Rise, the European Union and the BRICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2015-01-01

    an understanding of the strategic partnership and discusses whether a rising India needs a Europe in decline. Sixth, it offers some tentative remarks on the recent shifts in interactions between the core players and the BRICS in the emerging world order and how these changes impact the India-EU relation. Finally...

  12. Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) for High Rise Construction: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehbaghi, Koorosh; Chenery, Rhea

    2017-12-01

    Due to its material element, Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) could be stronger than traditional Concrete. This is due to FRC internal material compounds and elements. Furthermore, FRC can also significantly improve flexural strength when compared to traditional Concrete. This improvement in flexural strength can be varied depending on the actual fibers used. Although not new, FRC is gradually gaining popularity in the construction industry, in particular for high rise structures. This is due to its flexural strength, especially for high seismic zones, as it will provide a better solution then reinforced Concrete. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the structural importance of FRC for the high rise construction. Although there has been numerous studies and literature in justifying the FRC for general construction; this paper will consider its use specifically for high rise construction. Moreover, this paper will closely investigate eight case studies from Australian and United States as a part of the FRC validation for high rise construction. In doing so, this paper will examine their Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) to determine their overall structural performance.

  13. The Resistable Rise of Surgical Sepsis in Malawi | Lavy | Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Resistable Rise of Surgical Sepsis in Malawi. C Lavy, C Schmidt, E Kalau, J Phuka. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  14. Punishing Kids: The Rise of the "Boot Camp"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Martin; Pini, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the rise of 'the boot camp' as a means of addressing "the problem of troubled youth" in contemporary industrialised nations such as Australia and the UK. Drawing on a corpus of publicly available material including press releases and policy documents, media reports, and programme websites, the paper explores…

  15. Thermodynamics of Capillary Rise: Why Is the Meniscus Curved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Ulf; Eriksson, Jan Christer

    2004-01-01

    The thermodynamics of capillary rise is explained as the gravitational elevation of the whole column of liquid caused by the positive connection between the liquid, and the solid wall of the capillary tube. The curvature of the meniscus is ascribed to the maintenance of a physiochemical balance throughout the gravitational column of liquid.

  16. Structural response of steel high rise buildings to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Due to the significant vertical elevation and complexity of the structural system, high rise buildings may suffer from the effects of fire more than other structures. For this reason, in addition to evacuation strategies and active fire protection, a careful consideration of structural response t...

  17. INFORMATION MODELING OF LIFE CYCLE OF HIGH-RISE CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusakova Elena Aleksandrovna

    2018-02-01

    cycle of high-rise buildings, which, unlike the systems being currently used, is not targeted at the company or production but on the project. The topicality of organizational reengineering of schemes of information interaction between the project’s participants is substantiated. It is shown that consolidation of methods and technologies for data management and project management should become the basis for strategic management of the project’s full life cycle. Conclusions: analysis of the accumulated experience in the development of unique and large-scale projects of high-rise buildings shows that managing the life cycle of the high-rise development project is a topical and unsolved problem that requires serious scientific and project research. The existing concepts and schemes for the project’s life cycle management and the interaction between all participants of the high-rise construction project should be substantially modernized taking into account the use of capabilities of digital modeling of the project (BIM - Building Information Modeling together with technologies for support of its life cycle (Continuous Acquisition and Life Cycle Support. At the same time, the development of an integrated information environment for the project’s life cycle should be based on the integration of data management and project management, which will ensure a multiple increase in the efficiency and competitiveness of a high-rise building project at all stages of its life cycle.

  18. Keep up or drown: adjustment of western Pacific coral reefs to sea-level rise in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woesik, R; Golbuu, Y; Roff, G

    2015-07-01

    Since the Mid-Holocene, some 5000 years ago, coral reefs in the Pacific Ocean have been vertically constrained by sea level. Contemporary sea-level rise is releasing these constraints, providing accommodation space for vertical reef expansion. Here, we show that Porites microatolls, from reef-flat environments in Palau (western Pacific Ocean), are 'keeping up' with contemporary sea-level rise. Measurements of 570 reef-flat Porites microatolls at 10 locations around Palau revealed recent vertical skeletal extension (78±13 mm) over the last 6-8 years, which is consistent with the timing of the recent increase in sea level. We modelled whether microatoll growth rates will potentially 'keep up' with predicted sea-level rise in the near future, based upon average growth, and assuming a decline in growth for every 1°C increase in temperature. We then compared these estimated extension rates with rates of sea-level rise under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Our model suggests that under low-mid RCP scenarios, reef-coral growth will keep up with sea-level rise, but if greenhouse gas concentrations exceed 670 ppm atmospheric CO2 levels and with +2.2°C sea-surface temperature by 2100 (RCP 6.0 W m(-2)), our predictions indicate that Porites microatolls will be unable to keep up with projected rates of sea-level rise in the twenty-first century.

  19. Accidents Preventive Practice for High-Rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Kai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand of high-rise projects continues to grow due to the reducing of usable land area in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The rapidly development of high-rise projects has leaded to the rise of fatalities and accidents. An accident that happened in a construction site can cause serious physical injury. The accidents such as people falling from height and struck by falling object were the most frequent accidents happened in Malaysian construction industry. The continuous growth of high-rise buildings indicates that there is a need of an effective safety and health management. Hence, this research aims to identify the causes of accidents and the ways to prevent accidents that occur at high-rise building construction site. Qualitative method was employed in this research. Interview surveying with safety officers who are involved in highrise building project in Kuala Lumpur were conducted in this research. Accidents were caused by man-made factors, environment factors or machinery factors. The accidents prevention methods were provide sufficient Personal Protective Equipment (PPE, have a good housekeeping, execute safety inspection, provide safety training and execute accidents investigation. In the meanwhile, interviewees have suggested the new prevention methods that were develop a proper site layout planning and de-merit and merit system among sub-contractors, suppliers and even employees regarding safety at workplace matters. This research helps in explaining the causes of accidents and identifying area where prevention action should be implemented, so that workers and top management will increase awareness in preventing site accidents.

  20. The Hunt for Pristine Cretaceous Astronomical Rhythms at Demerara Rise (Cenomanian-Coniacian)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C.; Meyers, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Rhythmic Upper Cretaceous strata from Demerara Rise (ODP leg 207) preserve a strong astronomical signature, and this attribute has facilitated the development of continuous astrochronologies to refine the geologic time scale and calibrate Late Cretaceous biogeochemical events. While the mere identification of astronomical rhythms is a crucial first step in many deep-time paleoceanographic investigations, accurate evaluation of often subtle amplitude and frequency modulations are required to: (1) robustly constrain the linkage between climate and sedimentation, and (2) evaluate the plausibility of different theoretical astrodynamical models. The availability of a wide range of geophysical, lithologic and geochemical data from multiple sites drilled at Demerara Rise - when coupled with recent innovations in the statistical analysis of cyclostratigraphic data - provides an opportunity to hunt for the most pristine record of Cretaceous astronomical rhythms at a tropical Atlantic location. To do so, a statistical metric is developed to evaluate the "internal" consistency of hypothesized astronomical rhythms observed in each data set, particularly with regard to the expected astronomical amplitude modulations. In this presentation, we focus on how the new analysis yields refinements to the existing astrochronologies, provides constraints on the linkages between climate and sedimentation (including the deposition of organic carbon-rich sediments at Demerara Rise), and allows a quantitative evaluation of the continuity of deposition across sites at multiple temporal scales.

  1. The rise of algae in Cryogenian oceans and the emergence of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocks, Jochen J; Jarrett, Amber J M; Sirantoine, Eva; Hallmann, Christian; Hoshino, Yosuke; Liyanage, Tharika

    2017-08-31

    The transition from dominant bacterial to eukaryotic marine primary productivity was one of the most profound ecological revolutions in the Earth's history, reorganizing the distribution of carbon and nutrients in the water column and increasing energy flow to higher trophic levels. But the causes and geological timing of this transition, as well as possible links with rising atmospheric oxygen levels and the evolution of animals, remain obscure. Here we present a molecular fossil record of eukaryotic steroids demonstrating that bacteria were the only notable primary producers in the oceans before the Cryogenian period (720-635 million years ago). Increasing steroid diversity and abundance marks the rapid rise of marine planktonic algae (Archaeplastida) in the narrow time interval between the Sturtian and Marinoan 'snowball Earth' glaciations, 659-645 million years ago. We propose that the incumbency of cyanobacteria was broken by a surge of nutrients supplied by the Sturtian deglaciation. The 'Rise of Algae' created food webs with more efficient nutrient and energy transfers, driving ecosystems towards larger and increasingly complex organisms. This effect is recorded by the concomitant appearance of biomarkers for sponges and predatory rhizarians, and the subsequent radiation of eumetazoans in the Ediacaran period.

  2. The rise of algae in Cryogenian oceans and the emergence of animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocks, Jochen J.; Jarrett, Amber J. M.; Sirantoine, Eva; Hallmann, Christian; Hoshino, Yosuke; Liyanage, Tharika

    2017-08-01

    The transition from dominant bacterial to eukaryotic marine primary productivity was one of the most profound ecological revolutions in the Earth’s history, reorganizing the distribution of carbon and nutrients in the water column and increasing energy flow to higher trophic levels. But the causes and geological timing of this transition, as well as possible links with rising atmospheric oxygen levels and the evolution of animals, remain obscure. Here we present a molecular fossil record of eukaryotic steroids demonstrating that bacteria were the only notable primary producers in the oceans before the Cryogenian period (720-635 million years ago). Increasing steroid diversity and abundance marks the rapid rise of marine planktonic algae (Archaeplastida) in the narrow time interval between the Sturtian and Marinoan ‘snowball Earth’ glaciations, 659-645 million years ago. We propose that the incumbency of cyanobacteria was broken by a surge of nutrients supplied by the Sturtian deglaciation. The ‘Rise of Algae’ created food webs with more efficient nutrient and energy transfers, driving ecosystems towards larger and increasingly complex organisms. This effect is recorded by the concomitant appearance of biomarkers for sponges and predatory rhizarians, and the subsequent radiation of eumetazoans in the Ediacaran period.

  3. Temperature rise, sea level rise and increased radiative forcing - an application of cointegration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmith, Torben; Thejll, Peter; Johansen, Søren

    2016-04-01

    We analyse the statistical relationship between changes in global temperature, global steric sea level and radiative forcing in order to reveal causal relationships. There are in this, however, potential pitfalls due to the trending nature of the time series. We therefore apply a statistical method called cointegration analysis, originating from the field of econometrics, which is able to correctly handle the analysis of series with trends and other long-range dependencies. Further, we find a relationship between steric sea level and temperature and find that temperature causally depends on the steric sea level, which can be understood as a consequence of the large heat capacity of the ocean. This result is obtained both when analyzing observed data and data from a CMIP5 historical model run. Finally, we find that in the data from the historical run, the steric sea level, in turn, is driven by the external forcing. Finally, we demonstrate that combining these two results can lead to a novel estimate of radiative forcing back in time based on observations.

  4. Rising tides or rising stars?: Dynamics of shared attention on Twitter during media events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Keegan, Brian; Margolin, Drew; Lazer, David

    2014-01-01

    "Media events" generate conditions of shared attention as many users simultaneously tune in with the dual screens of broadcast and social media to view and participate. We examine how collective patterns of user behavior under conditions of shared attention are distinct from other "bursts" of activity like breaking news events. Using 290 million tweets from a panel of 193,532 politically active Twitter users, we compare features of their behavior during eight major events during the 2012 U.S. presidential election to examine how patterns of social media use change during these media events compared to "typical" time and whether these changes are attributable to shifts in the behavior of the population as a whole or shifts from particular segments such as elites. Compared to baseline time periods, our findings reveal that media events not only generate large volumes of tweets, but they are also associated with (1) substantial declines in interpersonal communication, (2) more highly concentrated attention by replying to and retweeting particular users, and (3) elite users predominantly benefiting from this attention. These findings empirically demonstrate how bursts of activity on Twitter during media events significantly alter underlying social processes of interpersonal communication and social interaction. Because the behavior of large populations within socio-technical systems can change so dramatically, our findings suggest the need for further research about how social media responses to media events can be used to support collective sensemaking, to promote informed deliberation, and to remain resilient in the face of misinformation.

  5. Rising tides or rising stars?: Dynamics of shared attention on Twitter during media events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ru Lin

    Full Text Available "Media events" generate conditions of shared attention as many users simultaneously tune in with the dual screens of broadcast and social media to view and participate. We examine how collective patterns of user behavior under conditions of shared attention are distinct from other "bursts" of activity like breaking news events. Using 290 million tweets from a panel of 193,532 politically active Twitter users, we compare features of their behavior during eight major events during the 2012 U.S. presidential election to examine how patterns of social media use change during these media events compared to "typical" time and whether these changes are attributable to shifts in the behavior of the population as a whole or shifts from particular segments such as elites. Compared to baseline time periods, our findings reveal that media events not only generate large volumes of tweets, but they are also associated with (1 substantial declines in interpersonal communication, (2 more highly concentrated attention by replying to and retweeting particular users, and (3 elite users predominantly benefiting from this attention. These findings empirically demonstrate how bursts of activity on Twitter during media events significantly alter underlying social processes of interpersonal communication and social interaction. Because the behavior of large populations within socio-technical systems can change so dramatically, our findings suggest the need for further research about how social media responses to media events can be used to support collective sensemaking, to promote informed deliberation, and to remain resilient in the face of misinformation.

  6. Climate-change-driven accelerated sea-level rise detected in the altimeter era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerem, R S; Beckley, B D; Fasullo, J T; Hamlington, B D; Masters, D; Mitchum, G T

    2018-02-27

    Using a 25-y time series of precision satellite altimeter data from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2, and Jason-3, we estimate the climate-change-driven acceleration of global mean sea level over the last 25 y to be 0.084 ± 0.025 mm/y 2 Coupled with the average climate-change-driven rate of sea level rise over these same 25 y of 2.9 mm/y, simple extrapolation of the quadratic implies global mean sea level could rise 65 ± 12 cm by 2100 compared with 2005, roughly in agreement with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5) model projections. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  7. Behavior of pressure rise and condensation caused by water evaporation under vacuum at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Kazuyuki; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Fujii, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    Pressure rise and condensation characteristics during the ingress-of-coolant event (ICE) in fusion reactors were investigated using the preliminary ICE apparatus with a vacuum vessel (VV), an additional tank (AT) and an isolation valve (IV). A surface of the AT was cooled by water at RT. The high temperature and pressure water was injected into the VV which was heated up to 250degC and pressure and temperature transients in the VV were measured. The pressure increased rapidly with an injection time of the water because of the water evaporation. After the IV was opened and the VV was connected with the AT, the pressure in the VV decreased suddenly. From a series of the experiments, it was confirmed that control factors on the pressure rise were the flushing evaporation and boiling heat transfer in the VV, and then, condensation of the vapor after was effective to the depressurization in the VV. (author)

  8. A decade of sea level rise slowed by climate-driven hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reager, J T; Gardner, A S; Famiglietti, J S; Wiese, D N; Eicker, A; Lo, M-H

    2016-02-12

    Climate-driven changes in land water storage and their contributions to sea level rise have been absent from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change sea level budgets owing to observational challenges. Recent advances in satellite measurement of time-variable gravity combined with reconciled global glacier loss estimates enable a disaggregation of continental land mass changes and a quantification of this term. We found that between 2002 and 2014, climate variability resulted in an additional 3200 ± 900 gigatons of water being stored on land. This gain partially offset water losses from ice sheets, glaciers, and groundwater pumping, slowing the rate of sea level rise by 0.71 ± 0.20 millimeters per year. These findings highlight the importance of climate-driven changes in hydrology when assigning attribution to decadal changes in sea level. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Rising Tides or Rising Stars?: Dynamics of Shared Attention on Twitter during Media Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Keegan, Brian; Margolin, Drew; Lazer, David

    2014-01-01

    “Media events” generate conditions of shared attention as many users simultaneously tune in with the dual screens of broadcast and social media to view and participate. We examine how collective patterns of user behavior under conditions of shared attention are distinct from other “bursts” of activity like breaking news events. Using 290 million tweets from a panel of 193,532 politically active Twitter users, we compare features of their behavior during eight major events during the 2012 U.S. presidential election to examine how patterns of social media use change during these media events compared to “typical” time and whether these changes are attributable to shifts in the behavior of the population as a whole or shifts from particular segments such as elites. Compared to baseline time periods, our findings reveal that media events not only generate large volumes of tweets, but they are also associated with (1) substantial declines in interpersonal communication, (2) more highly concentrated attention by replying to and retweeting particular users, and (3) elite users predominantly benefiting from this attention. These findings empirically demonstrate how bursts of activity on Twitter during media events significantly alter underlying social processes of interpersonal communication and social interaction. Because the behavior of large populations within socio-technical systems can change so dramatically, our findings suggest the need for further research about how social media responses to media events can be used to support collective sensemaking, to promote informed deliberation, and to remain resilient in the face of misinformation. PMID:24854030

  10. Bifurcation of the Kuroshio Extension at the Shatsky Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlburt, Harley E.; Metzger, E. Joseph

    1998-04-01

    A 1/16° six-layer Pacific Ocean model north of 20°S is used to investigate the bifurcation of the Kuroshio Extension at the main Shatsky Rise and the pathway of the northern branch from the bifurcation to the subarctic front. Upper ocean-topographic coupling via a mixed barotropic-baroclinic instability is essential to this bifurcation and to the formation and mean pathway of the northern branch as are several aspects of the Shatsky Rise complex of topography and the latitude of the Kuroshio Extension in relation to the topography. The flow instabilities transfer energy to the abyssal layer where it is constrained by geostrophic contours of the bottom topography. The topographically constrained abyssal currents in turn steer upper ocean currents, which do not directly impinge on the bottom topography. This includes steering of mean pathways. Obtaining sufficient coupling requires very fine resolution of mesoscale variability and sufficient eastward penetration of the Kuroshio as an unstable inertial jet. Resolution of 1/8° for each variable was not sufficient in this case. The latitudinal extent of the main Shatsky Rise (31°N-36°N) and the shape of the downward slope on the north side are crucial to the bifurcation at the main Shatsky Rise, with both branches passing north of the peak. The well-defined, relatively steep and straight eastern edge of the Shatsky Rise topographic complex (30°N-42°N) and the southwestward abyssal flow along it play a critical role in forming the rest of the Kuroshio northern branch which flows in the opposite direction. A deep pass between the main Shatsky Rise and the rest of the ridge to the northeast helps to link the northern fork of the bifurcation at the main rise to the rest of the northern branch. Two 1/16° "identical twin" interannual simulations forced by daily winds 1981-1995 show that the variability in this region is mostly nondeterministic on all timescales that could be examined (up to 7 years in these 15-year

  11. Introduction of the bubble rise dynamic model into the ALMOD 3 code pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeira, A.A.; Camargo, C.T.M.

    1985-01-01

    A new evaporation model for the ALMOD 3 code pressurizer is implemented in order to estimate more accurately the water level behaviour and its influence in the pressure transient for very fast depressurization cases. For the inclusion of the bubble rise dynamic model it was necessary to consider a two-phase mixture in the water volume. The modifications don't require additional input data and virtually had not modified the processing time. The results and processing time for the original and the new models are presented. (F.E.) [pt

  12. Esterification of jatropha oil via ultrasonic irradiation with auto-induced temperature-rise effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade-Tacca, Cesar Augusto; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Manh, Do-Van; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Ji, Dar-Ren; Tseng, Jyi-Yeong; Shie, Je-Lueng

    2014-01-01

    Auto-induced temperature-rise effects of ultrasonic irradiation (UI) on the esterification performance of jatropha oil (JO) were studied. Comparisons with other methods of mechanical mixing (MM) and hand shaking mixing were made. Major system parameters examined include: esterification time (t E ), settling time (t S ) after esterification and temperature. Properties of acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), kinematic viscosity (KV) and density of JO and ester product were measured. The esterification conversion efficiencies (η) were determined and assessed. Sulfuric acid was used to catalyze the esterification using methyl alcohol. For esterification without temperature control, η at t E  = 10 and 30 min for UI of 56.73 and 83.23% are much higher than those for MM of 36.76 and 42.48%, respectively. At t E  = 10 min, the jatropha oil esters produced via UI and MM respectively possess AV of 15.82 and 23.12 mg KOH/g, IV of 111.49 and 113.22 g I 2 /100 g, KV of 22.41 and 22.51 mm 2 /s and density of 913.8 and 913.58 kg/m 3 , showing that UI is much better than MM in enhancing the reduction of AV. The t E exhibits more vigorous effect on AV for UI than MM. The UI offers auto-induced temperature-rise, improving the mixing and esterification extents. - Highlights: • Esterification of jatropha oil is pronounced under ultrasonic irradiation (UI). • UI can auto-induce temperature rise. • The induced temperature rise assists the mixing of UI in enhancing esterification. • UI offers better esterification than mechanical mixing with external heating. • An 83.23% reduction of FFA in jatropha-ester is achievable via UI in 30 min

  13. ACCELERATION OF SEA LEVEL RISE OVER MALAYSIAN SEAS FROM SATELLITE ALTIMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. A. Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea level rise becomes our concern nowadays as a result of variously contribution of climate change that cause by the anthropogenic effects. Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. Due to this change, sea level is now constantly rising and eventually will threaten many low-lying and unprotected coastal areas in many ways. This paper is proposing a significant effort to quantify the sea level trend over Malaysian seas based on the combination of multi-mission satellite altimeters over a period of 23 years. Eight altimeter missions are used to derive the absolute sea level from Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS. Data verification is then carried out to verify the satellite derived sea level rise data with tidal data. Eight selected tide gauge stations from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are chosen for this data verification. The pattern and correlation of both measurements of sea level anomalies (SLA are evaluated over the same period in each area in order to produce comparable results. Afterwards, the time series of the sea level trend is quantified using robust fit regression analysis. The findings clearly show that the absolute sea level trend is rising and varying over the Malaysian seas with the rate of sea level varies and gradually increase from east to west of Malaysia. Highly confident and correlation level of the 23 years measurement data with an astonishing root mean square difference permits the absolute sea level trend of the Malaysian seas has raised at the rate 3.14 ± 0.12 mm yr-1 to 4.81 ± 0.15 mm yr-1 for the chosen sub-areas, with an overall mean of 4.09 ± 0.12 mm yr-1. This study hopefully offers a beneficial sea level information to be applied in a wide range of related environmental and climatology issue such as flood and global warming.

  14. Implications of sea-level rise in a modern carbonate ramp setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokier, Stephen W.; Court, Wesley M.; Onuma, Takumi; Paul, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    This study addresses a gap in our understanding of the effects of sea-level rise on the sedimentary systems and morphological development of recent and ancient carbonate ramp settings. Many ancient carbonate sequences are interpreted as having been deposited in carbonate ramp settings. These settings are poorly-represented in the Recent. The study documents the present-day transgressive flooding of the Abu Dhabi coastline at the southern shoreline of the Arabian/Persian Gulf, a carbonate ramp depositional system that is widely employed as a Recent analogue for numerous ancient carbonate systems. Fourteen years of field-based observations are integrated with historical and recent high-resolution satellite imagery in order to document and assess the onset of flooding. Predicted rates of transgression (i.e. landward movement of the shoreline) of 2.5 m yr- 1 (± 0.2 m yr- 1) based on global sea-level rise alone were far exceeded by the flooding rate calculated from the back-stepping of coastal features (10-29 m yr- 1). This discrepancy results from the dynamic nature of the flooding with increased water depth exposing the coastline to increased erosion and, thereby, enhancing back-stepping. A non-accretionary transgressive shoreline trajectory results from relatively rapid sea-level rise coupled with a low-angle ramp geometry and a paucity of sediments. The flooding is represented by the landward migration of facies belts, a range of erosive features and the onset of bioturbation. Employing Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Church et al., 2013) predictions for 21st century sea-level rise, and allowing for the post-flooding lag time that is typical for the start-up of carbonate factories, it is calculated that the coastline will continue to retrograde for the foreseeable future. Total passive flooding (without considering feedback in the modification of the shoreline) by the year 2100 is calculated to likely be between 340 and 571 m with a flooding rate of 3

  15. Acceleration of Sea Level Rise Over Malaysian Seas from Satellite Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, A. I. A.; Din, A. H. M.; Khalid, N. F.; Omar, K. M.

    2016-09-01

    Sea level rise becomes our concern nowadays as a result of variously contribution of climate change that cause by the anthropogenic effects. Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. Due to this change, sea level is now constantly rising and eventually will threaten many low-lying and unprotected coastal areas in many ways. This paper is proposing a significant effort to quantify the sea level trend over Malaysian seas based on the combination of multi-mission satellite altimeters over a period of 23 years. Eight altimeter missions are used to derive the absolute sea level from Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS). Data verification is then carried out to verify the satellite derived sea level rise data with tidal data. Eight selected tide gauge stations from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are chosen for this data verification. The pattern and correlation of both measurements of sea level anomalies (SLA) are evaluated over the same period in each area in order to produce comparable results. Afterwards, the time series of the sea level trend is quantified using robust fit regression analysis. The findings clearly show that the absolute sea level trend is rising and varying over the Malaysian seas with the rate of sea level varies and gradually increase from east to west of Malaysia. Highly confident and correlation level of the 23 years measurement data with an astonishing root mean square difference permits the absolute sea level trend of the Malaysian seas has raised at the rate 3.14 ± 0.12 mm yr-1 to 4.81 ± 0.15 mm yr-1 for the chosen sub-areas, with an overall mean of 4.09 ± 0.12 mm yr-1. This study hopefully offers a beneficial sea level information to be applied in a wide range of related environmental and climatology issue such as flood and global warming.

  16. Estimates of the Economic Effects of Sea Level Rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwin, R.F.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2001-01-01

    Regional estimates of direct cost (DC) are commonly used to measure the economic damages of sea level rise. Such estimates suffer from three limitations: (1) values of threatened endowments are not well known, (2) loss of endowments does not affect consumer prices, and (3) international trade is disregarded. Results in this paper indicate that these limitations can significantly affect economic assessments of sea level rise. Current uncertainty regarding endowment values (as reflected in two alternative data sets), for example, leads to a 17 percent difference in coastal protection, a 36 percent difference in the amount of land protected, and a 36 percent difference in DC globally. Also, global losses in equivalent variation (EV), a welfare measure that accounts for price changes, are 13 percent higher than DC estimates. Regional EV losses may be up to 10 percent lower than regional DC, however, because international trade tends to redistribute losses from regions with relatively high damages to regions with relatively low damages. 43 refs

  17. China's rise as a major contributor to science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhang, Chunni; Lai, Qing

    2014-07-01

    In the past three decades, China has become a major contributor to science and technology. China now employs an increasingly large labor force of scientists and engineers at relatively high earnings and produces more science and engineering degrees than the United States at all levels, particularly bachelor's. China's research and development expenditure has been rising. Research output in China has been sharply increasing since 2002, making China the second largest producer of scientific papers after the United States. The quality of research by Chinese scientists has also been improving steadily. However, China's rise in science also faces serious difficulties, partly attributable to its rigid, top-down administrative system, with allegations of scientific misconduct trending upward.

  18. Exploring the mechanisms of rising bubbles in marine biofouling prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesses, Mark; Belden, Jesse; Dickenson, Natasha; Bird, James

    2015-11-01

    Fluid motion, such as flow past a ship, is known to inhibit the growth of marine biofouling. Bubbles rising along a submerged structure also exhibit this behavior, which is typically attributed to buoyancy induced flow. However, the bubble interface may also have a direct influence on inhibiting growth that is independent of the surrounding flow. Here we aim to decouple these two mechanisms through a combination of field and laboratory experiments. In this study, a wall jet and a stream of bubbles are used to create two flows near a submerged solid surface where biofouling occurs. The flow structure characteristics were recorded using PIV. This experimental analysis allows for us to compare the efficacy of each flow relative to its flow parameters. Exploration of the mechanisms at play in the prevention of biofouling by use of rising bubbles provides a foundation to predict and optimize this antifouling technique under various conditions.

  19. Future water table rise at Yucca Mountain: A regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has developed a program of Systematic Regulatory Analysis (SRA). The purpose of this program is to ensure that important technical issues related to compliance with 10 CFR Part 60 will be identified before receipt of a license application. A plan is being developed to review the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) demonstration of compliance in the license application for each part of the regulation. Under the siting criteria of NRC's Part 60, one of the potentially adverse conditions is the possibility that the water table may rise high enough to saturate a repository in the unsaturated zone. DOE must evaluate this and other conditions in a license application for a geologic repository site. DOE's evaluation must show compliance with the requirements of Part 60 with reasonable assurance. This paper describes the NRC staff's preliminary plans to review DOE's demonstration of compliance, including assumptions about a future rise of the water table

  20. Finland: Scandinavia's top gas user sees demand rising rapidly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    The rising demand for natural gas in Finland which already uses more gas than any other Nordic country is noted. The natural gas market which is based on sales to large industries and for heating is compared to the market in Denmark which is geared to small private heating customers. Imports of Norwegian gas allowing increased sales for power generation in Finland, and the influence of the impending Finnish application for membership of the EC on the gas market are considered. (UK)

  1. From Rising Bubble to RNA/DNA and Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Roman; Cieszyńska, Agata; Wereszka, Marzena; Borkowski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    In this study we have focused on the movement of rising bubbles in a salty water body. Experiments reviled that free buoyancy movement of bubbles forces displacement of ions, located on the outer side of the bubble wall curvatures. During the short moment of bubble passage, all ions in the vicinity of rising bubble, are separated into anions that are gathered on the bubble upper half sphere and cations that slip along the bottom concave half-sphere of a bubble and develop a sub-bubble vortex. The principle of ions separation bases on the differences in displacement resistance. In this way, relatively heavier and larger, thus more resistant to displacement anions are gathered on the rising bubble upper half sphere, while smaller and lighter cations are assembled on the bottom half sphere and within the sub-bubble vortex. The acceleration of motion generates antiparallel rotary of bi-ionic domains, what implies that anions rotate in clockwise (CW) and cationic in counter-clockwise (CCW) direction. Then, both rotational systems may undergo splicing and extreme condensing by bi-pirouette narrowing of rotary. It is suggested that such double helix motion of bi-ionic domains creates RNA/DNA molecules. Finally, when the bubble reaches the water surface it burst and the preprocessed RNA/DNA matter is ejected into the droplets. Since that stage, droplet is suspended in positively charged troposphere, thus the cationic domain is located in the droplet center, whilst negative ions are attracted to configure the outer areola. According to above, the present study implies that the rising bubbles in salty waters may incept synergistic processing of matter resulting in its rotational/spherical organization that led to assembly of RNA/DNA molecules and bacteria cells.

  2. Ransomware: A Rising Threat of new age Digital Extortion

    OpenAIRE

    Bhardwaj, Akashdeep; Subrahmanyam, G. V. B.; Avasthi, Vinay; Sastry, Hanumat

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to discover the surreptitious features of ransomware and to address it in information systems security research. It intends to elicit attention with regard to ransomware, a newly emerged cyber threat using such encryption technology as RSA, and to help both academic researchers and IT practitioners understand the technological characteristics of ransomware, along with its severity analysis. As ransomware infections continue to rise and attacks employing refined algorithm...

  3. Food availability and the rising obesity prevalence in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Geok-Lin Khor

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 1.1 billion adultsand 115 million children worldwide are overweight.In Malaysia, the second and third National Healthand Morbidity Surveys in 1996 and 2006 respectivelyreported a three-fold increase in obesity prevalenceamong adults, surging from 4.4% to 14% over the10-year period. Evidence of rising childhood obesityhas also emerged. The aim of this article is to gatherevidence from food availability data for an insightinto population shifts in dietary patterns...

  4. Analysis of Sea Level Rise in Singapore Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalich, Pavel; Luu, Quang-Hung

    2013-04-01

    Sea level in Singapore Strait is governed by various scale phenomena, from global to local. Global signals are dominated by the climate change and multi-decadal variability and associated sea level rise; at regional scale seasonal sea level variability is caused by ENSO-modulated monsoons; locally, astronomic tides are the strongest force. Tide gauge records in Singapore Strait are analyzed to derive local sea level trend, and attempts are made to attribute observed sea level variability to phenomena at various scales, from global to local. It is found that at annual scale, sea level anomalies in Singapore Strait are quasi-periodic, of the order of ±15 cm, the highest during northeast monsoon and the lowest during southwest monsoon. Interannual regional sea level falls are associated with El Niño events, while the rises are related to La Niña episodes; both variations are in the range of ±9 cm. At multi-decadal scale, sea level in Singapore Strait has been rising at the rate 1.2-1.9 mm/year for the period 1975-2009, 2.0±0.3 mm/year for 1984-2009, and 1.3-4.7 mm/year for 1993-2009. When compared with the respective global trends of 2.0±0.3, 2.4, and 2.8±0.8 mm/year, Singapore Strait sea level rise trend was weaker at the earlier period and stronger at the recent decade.

  5. Probabilistic reanalysis of twentieth-century sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Mitrovica, Jerry X

    2015-01-22

    Estimating and accounting for twentieth-century global mean sea level (GMSL) rise is critical to characterizing current and future human-induced sea-level change. Several previous analyses of tide gauge records--employing different methods to accommodate the spatial sparsity and temporal incompleteness of the data and to constrain the geometry of long-term sea-level change--have concluded that GMSL rose over the twentieth century at a mean rate of 1.6 to 1.9 millimetres per year. Efforts to account for this rate by summing estimates of individual contributions from glacier and ice-sheet mass loss, ocean thermal expansion, and changes in land water storage fall significantly short in the period before 1990. The failure to close the budget of GMSL during this period has led to suggestions that several contributions may have been systematically underestimated. However, the extent to which the limitations of tide gauge analyses have affected estimates of the GMSL rate of change is unclear. Here we revisit estimates of twentieth-century GMSL rise using probabilistic techniques and find a rate of GMSL rise from 1901 to 1990 of 1.2 ± 0.2 millimetres per year (90% confidence interval). Based on individual contributions tabulated in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this estimate closes the twentieth-century sea-level budget. Our analysis, which combines tide gauge records with physics-based and model-derived geometries of the various contributing signals, also indicates that GMSL rose at a rate of 3.0 ± 0.7 millimetres per year between 1993 and 2010, consistent with prior estimates from tide gauge records.The increase in rate relative to the 1901-90 trend is accordingly larger than previously thought; this revision may affect some projections of future sea-level rise.

  6. Counting rises and levels in r-color compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TOUFIK MANSOUR

    An r-color composition of a positive integer n is a sequence of positive integers, called parts, summing ... A non-increasing sequence of positive integers, called parts, whose sum is a given positive integer is called a ..... of d-ary r-color words according to the number of rises and the value of the statistic σ. (here, the variable y ...

  7. Building China’s soft power for a peaceful rise

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Worm, Verner

    2009-01-01

    With China’s rapid economic progress and steady increase in its international influence, China has gradually embarked on the soft power idea and has made developing its soft power as its national strategy. We argue that China’s soft power strategy is in accordance to Chinese Confucian culture and political value and fits well with its grand strategy of peaceful rise. Based on existing conceptualizations of soft power, we expanded the sources of soft power to six pillars: cul...

  8. The rise and fall of a Facebook hate group

    OpenAIRE

    Oboler, Andre

    2008-01-01

    One Facebook group has repeatedly caught the media’s attention. The group is called "Israel" is not a country!... ... Delist it from Facebook as a country! Despite the opinions of experts who highlighted the racist nature of the group, Facebook refused to take action. After unsuccessfully lobbying Facebook for intervention, a organization known as the Jewish Internet Defense Force took control of the Facebook group in late July 2008 and began to manually dismantle it from the inside. The rise...

  9. The rise of eating disorders in Asia: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    2015-01-01

    Once concentrated among adolescent Caucasian females in high-income Western countries, today, eating disorders (EDs) are truly global. Building upon previous work describing the rise of EDs among cultures in transition, we contextualize the emergence of EDs in Asia by locating this development within the broader discourse about the processes of change that have radically transformed Asian societies over the last three decades. By identifying where EDs are emerging in the region, and by examin...

  10. High rise syndrome with impalement in three cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratschke, K M; Kirby, B M

    2002-06-01

    Three cats were presented for management of impalement injuries sustained following falls from second storey windows onto spiked metal railings. Two cats presented with penetrating thoracic wounds and extensive pulmonary parenchymal trauma, while one presented with abdominal impalement and splenic rupture. Following stabilisation, all three cats underwent exploratory surgery. A good outcome was achieved in two of the cats: one with thoracic and one with abdominal penetration. Impalement injury secondary to free fallis a previously unreported variation of 'high rise syndrome' in cats.

  11. Rise of mean multiplicity depending on transverse momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troshin, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    Dependence of mean multiplicity on the transversal momentum transfer is studied. In framework of the model in view, based on possible probabilitic interpretation of the unitarity condition, and assuming a weak correlation between the recoil particle momenta in the intermediate n-particle state, it is shown that mean multiplicity increases linearly with rise of the transversal momentum. Behaviour of the mean multiplicity depending on the impact parameter is also studied

  12. The rise in F$_{2}^{p}$ at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D.; Forte, S

    1994-01-01

    We show that the rise in F_2^p at small x and large Q^2 seen at HERA is indeed the non-Regge double asymptotic scaling behaviour expected from the perturbative emission of strongly ordered hard gluons. An alternative explanation, in which there is no strong ordering, and a new hard Reggeon is generated, is also tried but found wanting: its theoretical short-comings are betrayed by its failure to properly account for the HERA data.

  13. How mangrove forests adjust to rising sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; McKee, Karen L.; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Saintilan, Neil; Reef, Ruth; Chen, Luzhen

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are among the most well described and widely studied wetland communities in the world. The greatest threats to mangrove persistence are deforestation and other anthropogenic disturbances that can compromise habitat stability and resilience to sea-level rise. To persist, mangrove ecosystems must adjust to rising sea level by building vertically or become submerged. Mangroves may directly or indirectly influence soil accretion processes through the production and accumulation of organic matter, as well as the trapping and retention of mineral sediment. In this review, we provide a general overview of research on mangrove elevation dynamics, emphasizing the role of the vegetation in maintaining soil surface elevations (i.e. position of the soil surface in the vertical plane). We summarize the primary ways in which mangroves may influence sediment accretion and vertical land development, for example, through root contributions to soil volume and upward expansion of the soil surface. We also examine how hydrological, geomorphological and climatic processes may interact with plant processes to influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with rising sea level. We draw on a variety of studies to describe the important, and often under-appreciated, role that plants play in shaping the trajectory of an ecosystem undergoing change.

  14. Geoscience meets the four horsemen?: Tracking the rise of neocatastrophism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Skrimshire, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Although it is acknowledged that there has been an exponential growth in neocatastrophist geoscience inquiry, the extent, chronology and origin of this mode have not been precisely scrutinized. In this study, we use the bibliographic research tool Scopus to explore 'catastrophic' words replete in the earth and planetary science literature between 1950 and 2009, assessing when, where and why catastrophism has gained new currency amongst the geoscience community. First, we elucidate an exponential rise in neocatastrophist research from the 1980s onwards. We then argue that the neocatastrophist mode came to prominence in North America during the 1960s and 1970s before being more widely espoused in Europe, essentially after 1980. We compare these trends with the EM-DAT disaster database, a worldwide catalogue that compiles more than 11,000 natural disasters stretching back to 1900. The findings imply a clear link between anthropogenically forced global change and an increase in disaster research (r 2 = 0.73). Finally, we attempt to explain the rise of neocatastrophism by highlighting seven non-exhaustive factors: (1) the rise of applied geoscience; (2) inherited geological epistemology; (3) disciplinary interaction and the diffusion of ideas from the planetary to earth sciences; (4) the advent of radiometric dating techniques; (5) the communications revolution; (6) webometry and the quest for high-impact geoscience; and (7) popular cultural frameworks.

  15. High-rise Buildings versus Outdoor Thermal Environment in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-sha Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief description of the over quick urbanization sinceChongqing, one of the biggest cities in China, has been a municipality directly under theCentral Government in 1997, excessive development and exceeding increase of high-risebuildings because of its special geographical position which finally leads to the worseningof the urban outdoor thermal environment. Then, this paper makes a bright balance to thefield measurement and simulated results of the wind speed field, temperature field of onemultifunctional high-rise building in Chongqing university located in the city center, andthe contrasted results validate the correctness of CFD in the outdoor thermal environmentalsimulation, expose the disadvantages of high-rise buildings on the aspects of blocking thewind field, decreasing wind speed which results in accumulation of the air-conditioningheat revolving around and periscian region where sunshine can not rip into. Finally, inorder to improve the urban outdoor thermal environment near the high-rise buildingsespecially for the angle of natural ventilation, this paper simulates the wind environment indifferent architectural compositions and architectural layouts by CFD, and the simulatedresults show that freestyle and tower buildings which can guarantee the wind speed andtake the air-conditioning heat away are much suitable and reasonable for the specialChongqing geography. These conclusions can also be used as a reference in othermountain cities, especially for the one with a great number of populations.

  16. Separating decadal global water cycle variability from sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlington, B D; Reager, J T; Lo, M-H; Karnauskas, K B; Leben, R R

    2017-04-20

    Under a warming climate, amplification of the water cycle and changes in precipitation patterns over land are expected to occur, subsequently impacting the terrestrial water balance. On global scales, such changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) will be reflected in the water contained in the ocean and can manifest as global sea level variations. Naturally occurring climate-driven TWS variability can temporarily obscure the long-term trend in sea level rise, in addition to modulating the impacts of sea level rise through natural periodic undulation in regional and global sea level. The internal variability of the global water cycle, therefore, confounds both the detection and attribution of sea level rise. Here, we use a suite of observations to quantify and map the contribution of TWS variability to sea level variability on decadal timescales. In particular, we find that decadal sea level variability centered in the Pacific Ocean is closely tied to low frequency variability of TWS in key areas across the globe. The unambiguous identification and clean separation of this component of variability is the missing step in uncovering the anthropogenic trend in sea level and understanding the potential for low-frequency modulation of future TWS impacts including flooding and drought.

  17. ECOSUSTAINABLE HIGH-RISE : The Environmentally Conscious Architecture of Skyscraper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Priatman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The term " green architecture " is related to evolving architecture which is sensitive to the environment and emerges from the environmental awareness due to the effects of destruction of air, water, energy and earth. It is characterized by improving energy efficiency, sustainability concept and holistic approach of the entire building enterprise, where all of the environmental factors are regarded as an objective. Although there are many of environmentally conscious architectural works today, but most of the building designers prefer to deal primarily with small-scale buildings (low to medium rise and often only in greenfield, rural or suburban sites. All those large scale, high-rise or tall buildings located in dense urban areas are regarded as avoidable objects that consumes a lot of energy, uses huge amounts of materials, and produces massive volumes of waste discharge into the environment. These intensive buildings deserve greater attention and should be designed by greater part of our expertise and effort to ecologically design than the smaller buildings with fewer problems. The paper discusses "green" dimensions applied to tall buildings/high-rise buildings with their innovative approach that leads to ecosustainable tall buildings.

  18. RAPIDLY RISING TRANSIENTS IN THE SUPERNOVA—SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA GAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcavi, Iair; Howell, D. Andrew [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93111 (United States); Wolf, William M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bildsten, Lars; McCully, Curtis; Valenti, Stefano [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Leloudas, Giorgos; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Katz, Boaz [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel); Hardin, Delphine; Astier, Pierre; Balland, Cristophe [LPNHE, CNRS-IN2P3 and University of Paris VI and VII, F-75005 Paris (France); Prajs, Szymon; Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Perley, Daniel A. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Svirski, Gilad [Racah Institute for Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lidman, Chris [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Carlberg, Ray G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Conley, Alex, E-mail: iarcavi@lcogt.net [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-389 (United States); and others

    2016-03-01

    We present observations of four rapidly rising (t{sub rise} ≈ 10 days) transients with peak luminosities between those of supernovae (SNe) and superluminous SNe (M{sub peak} ≈ −20)—one discovered and followed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and three by the Supernova Legacy Survey. The light curves resemble those of SN 2011kl, recently shown to be associated with an ultra-long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), though no GRB was seen to accompany our SNe. The rapid rise to a luminous peak places these events in a unique part of SN phase space, challenging standard SN emission mechanisms. Spectra of the PTF event formally classify it as an SN II due to broad Hα emission, but an unusual absorption feature, which can be interpreted as either high velocity Hα (though deeper than in previously known cases) or Si ii (as seen in SNe Ia), is also observed. We find that existing models of white dwarf detonations, CSM interaction, shock breakout in a wind (or steeper CSM), and magnetar spin down cannot readily explain the observations. We consider the possibility that a “Type 1.5 SN” scenario could be the origin of our events. More detailed models for these kinds of transients and more constraining observations of future such events should help to better determine their nature.

  19. Impact of sea level rise on tide gate function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sean; Miskewitz, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Sea level rise resulting from climate change and land subsidence is expected to severely impact the duration and associated damage resulting from flooding events in tidal communities. These communities must continuously invest resources for the maintenance of existing structures and installation of new flood prevention infrastructure. Tide gates are a common flood prevention structure for low-lying communities in the tidal zone. Tide gates close during incoming tides to prevent inundation from downstream water propagating inland and open during outgoing tides to drain upland areas. Higher downstream mean sea level elevations reduce the effectiveness of tide gates by impacting the hydraulics of the system. This project developed a HEC-RAS and HEC-HMS model of an existing tide gate structure and its upland drainage area in the New Jersey Meadowlands to simulate the impact of rising mean sea level elevations on the tide gate's ability to prevent upstream flooding. Model predictions indicate that sea level rise will reduce the tide gate effectiveness resulting in longer lasting and deeper flood events. The results indicate that there is a critical point in the sea level elevation for this local area, beyond which flooding scenarios become dramatically worse and would have a significantly negative impact on the standard of living and ability to do business in one of the most densely populated areas of America.

  20. Rumination syndrome: when the lower oesophageal sphincter rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcerol, Guillaume; Dechelotte, Pierre; Ducrotte, Philippe; Leroi, Anne Marie

    2011-07-01

    Rumination syndrome is an uncommon condition characterised by the self-induced regurgitation from the stomach to the mouth of recently ingested meal that is chewed and reswallowed. Rumination is caused by a voluntary rise in intra-abdominal and intra-gastric pressure leading to the reflux of the gastric content into the oesophagus. However, the precise mechanisms preventing reflux at the gastro-oesophageal junction during the rise in intra-gastric pressure remains unknown. In 5 patients, rumination episodes were monitored using combined multiple intra-luminal impedance monitoring, high resolution manometry, and video-fluoroscopic recording. We showed that the gastro-oesophageal junction moved from the abdominal cavity into the thorax creating a "pseudo-hernia". This occurred at a range of 1.4 ± 0.3 s before the rise in intra-oesophageal pressure and the gastro-oesophageal reflux. This displacement of the gastro-oesophageal junction into thorax, rather than a lower oesophageal sphincter opening, explains the mechanism of voluntary regurgitations occurring during rumination syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution of flexural deflection in the worldwide outer rise area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zi-Jun; Lin, Jing-Yi; Lin, Yi-Chin; Chin, Shao-Jinn; Chen, Yen-Fu

    2015-04-01

    The outer rise on the fringe of a subduction system is caused by an accreted load on the flexed oceanic lithosphere. The magnitude of the deflection is usually linked to the stress state beard by the oceanic plate. In a coupled subduction zone, the stress is abundantly accumulated across the plate boundary which should affect the flexural properties of the subducted plate. Thus, the variation of the outer rise in shape may reflect the seismogenic characteristics of the subduction system. In this study, we intent to find the correlation between the flexure deflection (Wb) of the outer rise and the subduction zone properties by comparing several slab parameters and the Wb distribution. The estimation of Wb is performed based on the available bathymetry data and the statistic analysis of earthquakes is from the global ISC earthquake catalog for the period of 1900-2015. Our result shows a progressive change of Wb in space, suggesting a robust calculation. The average Wb of worldwise subduction system spreads from 348 to 682 m. No visible distinction in the ranging of Wb was observed for different subduction zones. However, in a weak coupling subduction system, the standard variation of Wb has generally larger value. Relatively large Wb generally occurs in the center of the trench system, whereas small Wb for the two ends of trench. The comparison of Wb and several slab parameters shows that the Wb may be correlated with the maximal magnitude and the number of earthquakes. Otherwise, no clear relationship with other parameters can be obtained.

  2. IT Requirements Integration in High-Rise Construction Design Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Anastasia; Ilin, Igor; Esedulaev, Rustam

    2018-03-01

    The paper discusses the growing role of IT support for the operation of modern high-rise buildings, due to the complexity of managing engineering systems of buildings and the requirements of consumers for the IT infrastructure. The existing regulatory framework for the development of design documentation for construction, including high-rise buildings, is analyzed, and the lack of coherence in the development of this documentation with the requirements for the creation of an automated management system and the corresponding IT infrastructure is stated. The lack of integration between these areas is the cause of delays and inefficiencies both at the design stage and at the stage of putting the building into operation. The paper proposes an approach to coordinate the requirements of the IT infrastructure of high-rise buildings and design documentation for construction. The solution to this problem is possible within the framework of the enterprise architecture concept by coordinating the requirements of the IT and technological layers at the design stage of the construction.

  3. The terminal rise velocity of bubble in a liquid column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mario Ar Talaia

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: As it is know, buoyancy and drag forces govern bubble rising velocity in a liquid column. These forces strongly depend on fluid proprieties and gravity as well as bubble equivalent diameter. The present work reports about a set of experiments bubble rising velocity in a liquid column using liquid with different kinematics viscosity. Records of terminal velocity were obtained, over a wide range of dynamic viscosity. The results show that the terminal rise velocity of bubble is strongly influenced by the effect of kinematics viscosity. The interpretation of physical phenomenon is considered. The set data permit to have a game of terminal velocities of 7.96 - 32.86 cm.s -1 with Reynolds number of 0.8 - 7491. The bubble movement is recorded with a camera video, which will be presented. Our aim goal is to present an original set data and the results are discussed in light of theory of two-phase flow. Prediction of bubble terminal velocity is discussed, so as, the range of applicability. (author)

  4. Sea-level rise: towards understanding local vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Projections of global sea-level rise into the future have become more pessimistic over the past five years or so. A global rise by more than one metre by the year 2100 is now widely accepted as a serious possibility if greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated. That is witnessed by the scientific assessments that were made since the last IPCC report was published in 2007. The Delta Commission of the Dutch government projected up to 1.10 m as a 'high-end' scenario (Vellinga et al 2009). The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) projected up to 1.40 m (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research 2009), and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) gives a range of 0.90-1.60 m in its 2011 report (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 2011). And recently the US Army Corps of Engineers recommends using a 'low', an 'intermediate' and a 'high' scenario for global sea-level rise when planning civil works programmes, with the high one corresponding to a 1.50 m rise by 2100 (US Army Corps of Engineers 2011). This more pessimistic view is based on a number of observations, most importantly perhaps the fact that sea level has been rising at least 50% faster in the past decades than projected by the IPCC (Rahmstorf et al 2007, IPCC 2007). Also, the rate of rise (averaged over two decades) has accelerated threefold, from around 1 mm yr-1 at the start of the 20th century to around 3 mm yr-1 over the past 20 years (Church and White 2006), and this rate increase closely correlates with global warming (Rahmstorf et al 2011). The IPCC projections, which assume almost no further acceleration in the 20th century, thus look less plausible. And finally the observed net mass loss of the two big continental ice sheets (Van den Broeke et al 2011) calls into question the assumption that ice accumulation in Antarctica would largely balance ice loss from Greenland in the course of further global warming (IPCC 2007). With such a serious sea-level rise on the horizon

  5. On using peak amplitude and rise time for AE source characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The major objective of signal analysis is to study the characteristics of the sources of emissions. ... When AE is used as a non-destructive evaluation tool, this information is extracted using a .... Hence, frequency response H (f ) of the transducer.

  6. Rising Educational Expectations: Trends and Limits in Times of Economic Downturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Doug; Livingstone, D. W.

    2009-01-01

    Advocates for education have seized upon the current economic downturn as an opportunity to advance their cause. If governments are poised for an attempt to spend their way out of a deep recession, what better target than underfunded educational institutions, from daycare to universities? Public support for increased spending on education is…

  7. Overcoming Uncertainty: Agency, Stance and the Rise of Collective Action in Times of Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidemann, Kai

    2017-01-01

    How do people exert their agency in the face of large-scale societal crises? Merging strands of sociolinguistic scholarship with social movement theory, this article offers a way of looking at how grassroots actors work to overcome dramatic episodes of macro-structural instability and uncertainty

  8. Subpicosecond luminescence rise time in magnesium codoped GAGG:Ce scintillator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tamulaitis, G.; Vaitkevičius, A.; Nargelas, S.; Augulis, R.; Gulbinas, V.; Boháček, Karel; Nikl, Martin; Borisevich, A.; Fedorov, A.; Korjik, M.; Auffray, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 870, Oct (2017), s. 25-29 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-15569S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654168 - AIDA-2020 Grant - others:COST(XE) TD1401 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillator * GAGG garnet crystal * luminescence kinetics * radiation detector Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2016

  9. Gaia16aye binary microlensing event is rising for the 5th time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrzykowski, L.; Mroz, P.; Rybicki, K.; Altavilla, G.; Bakis, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Birenbaum, G.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Bonanos, A.; Bozza, V.; Britavskiy, N.; Burgaz, U.; Butterley, T.; Capuozzo, P.; Carrasco, J. M.; Chruslinska, M.; Damljanovic, G.; Dapergolas, T.; Dennefeld, M.; Dhillon, V. S.; Dominik, M.; Esenoglu, H.; Fossey, S.; Gomboc, A.; Hallokoun, N.; Hamanowicz, A.; Hardy, L. K.; Hudec, R.; Khamitov, I.; Klencki, J.; Kolaczkowski, Z.; Kolb, U.; Leonini, S.; Leto, G.; Lewis, F.; Liakos, A.; Littlefair, S. P.; Maoz, D.; Maund, J. R.; Mikolajczyk, P.; Palaversa, L.; Pawlak, M.; Penny, M.; Piascik, A.; Reig, P.; Rhodes, L.; Russell, D.; Sanchez, R. Z.; Shappee, B.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Sitek, M.; Sniegowska, M.; Sokolovsky, K.; Steele, I.; Street, R.; Tomasella, L.; Trascinelli, L.; Wiersema, K.; Wilson, R. W.; Zharkov, I.; Zola, S.; Zubareva, A.

    2017-05-01

    Gaia16aye, nicknamed Ayers Rock (19:40:01.13 +30:07:53.4, J2000) was detected in August 2016 and continue on-going, becoming the longest microlensing event found in the Galactic Disk (ATEL #9376, #9507).

  10. The rise of China and the time of Africa: Gauging Afro-Sino relations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article focuses on Sino-African relations, with specific reference to South Africa. An outline is provided of recent developments as a roadmap for the unfolding of this relationship. The question of whether China's African interest can be seen as tacit colonisation is discussed. Even if these fears are allayed, the question ...

  11. The rise of China and the time of Africa: Gauging Afro-Sino relations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-03

    Jul 3, 2015 ... will make a significant difference to African development. ... more than a million Chinese citizens in Africa, and Chinese construction programmes worth .... Cooperation (ITEC) agreement, trade and investment issues, and preparations for ..... subject, father and son, husband and wife, older and younger.

  12. Overdiagnosis and rising rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS): time for reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioutis, D; Thakar, R; Sultan, A H

    2017-11-01

    To determine the accuracy of clinical diagnosis of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) using three-dimensional (3D) endoanal ultrasound (EA-US) and to compare symptoms and anal manometry measurements between women with anal sphincters adequately repaired and those with persistent anal sphincter defects. The EA-US images of women with clinically diagnosed and repaired OASIS, defined as third- or fourth-degree perineal tear, who attended the perineal clinic at Croydon University Hospital over a 10-year period (2003-2013) were reanalyzed by a single expert blind to symptoms and the results of clinical examination. St Mark's Incontinence Scores (SMIS) and anal manometry measurements were obtained and compared between women with an intact anal sphincter and those with an anal sphincter scar and between those with an intact anal sphincter and those with a defect. Anal manometry measurements were compared between women with an external anal sphincter (EAS) defect and those with an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect. The images of 908 women were reanalyzed. No evidence of OASIS was found in 64 (7.0%) women, an EAS scar alone was detected in 520 (57.3%) and an anal sphincter defect in 324 (35.7%). Of the 324 women with a defect, 112 had an EAS defect, 90 had an IAS defect and 122 had a combined IAS and EAS defect. SMIS results were significantly higher in women with an anal sphincter defect compared with those with no evidence of OASIS (P = 0.018), but there was no significant difference in scores between women with an intact sphincter and those with an EAS scar only. Women with a defect had a significantly lower maximum resting pressure (median (range), 44 (8-106) vs 55 (29-86) mmHg; P 40) vs 25 (10-40) mm; P = 0.003). Seven percent of women with a clinical diagnosis of OASIS were wrongly diagnosed. We believe that this rate may differ from that of other units but training methods and competency assessment tools for the diagnosis and repair of OASIS need urgent reappraisal. The role of EA-US in the immediate postpartum period needs further evaluation as the accurate interpretation of the images is dependent on the expertise of the staff involved. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Rising calls for food safety. Radiation technology becomes a timely answer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, Paisan

    2001-01-01

    Food safety has become an issue of high priority to many governments. Well publicized cases have shown that an outbreak of a major foodborne disease can have health, political, and economic consequences. Coupled with the increasing interest and publicity by the media, public awareness and concerns about food safety have reached a new height. Issues related to mad cow disease, and genetically modified food have attracted further attention and concern. Awareness of risks involving microbiological contamination of food has increased significantly in the past decade. There have been several major foodborne disease outbreaks caused by various pathogenic bacteria and parasites and widespread coverage by the media. The outbreaks have focused closer attention on food processing technologies to ensure the safety and quality of food. This article reports on developments for the application of irradiation technology for food processing, which has been approved for use in more than 40 countries

  14. Present-day sea level rise: a synthesis; Hausse actuelle du niveau de la mer: synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, A.; Llovel, W. [Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiales (LEGOS), Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, 31 - Toulouse (France); Lombard, A. [CNES, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2008-11-15

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes have improved considerably in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing data sets have become available. Here we report on the current knowledge of present-day sea level change. We briefly present observational results on sea level change from satellite altimetry since 1993 and tide gauges for the past century. We next discuss recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on time scales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion, land ice mass loss and land water storage change. For the 1993-2003 decade, the sum of climate-related contributions agree well (within the error bars) with the altimetry-based sea level, half of the observed rate of rise being due to ocean thermal expansion, land ice plus land waters explaining the other half. Since about 2003, thermal expansion increase has stopped, whereas the sea level continues to rise, although at a reduced rate compared to the previous decade (2.5 mm/yr versus 3.1 mm/yr). Recent increases in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets appear able to account alone for the rise in sea level reported over the last five years. (authors)

  15. The Potential Effect of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Property Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J.

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that one consequence of increasing global sea level is that the frequency of flooding at low-lying coastal sites will increase. We review recent evidence that the effects coastal geometry will create substantial spatial variations in the changes in flooding frequency with scales of order 100km. Using a simple model of the evolution of coastal property values we demonstrate that a consequence of sea level rise is that the appreciation of coastal properties will peak, and then decline relative to higher properties. The time when the value reach a maximum is shown to depend upon the demand for the coastal property, and the local rate of change of flooding frequency due to sea level rise. The simple model is then extended to include, in an elementary manner, the effects on the value of adjacent but higher properties. We show that the effect of increased flooding frequency of the lower properties leads to an accelerated appreciation of the value of upland properties and an accelerated decline in the value of the coastal properties. We then provide some example calculations for selected sites. We conclude with a discussion of comparisons of the prediction of the analyses to recent data, and then comments on the impact of sea level rise on tax base of coastal communities.

  16. Observation-Driven Estimation of the Spatial Variability of 20th Century Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlington, B. D.; Burgos, A.; Thompson, P. R.; Landerer, F. W.; Piecuch, C. G.; Adhikari, S.; Caron, L.; Reager, J. T.; Ivins, E. R.

    2018-03-01

    Over the past two decades, sea level measurements made by satellites have given clear indications of both global and regional sea level rise. Numerous studies have sought to leverage the modern satellite record and available historic sea level data provided by tide gauges to estimate past sea level rise, leading to several estimates for the 20th century trend in global mean sea level in the range between 1 and 2 mm/yr. On regional scales, few attempts have been made to estimate trends over the same time period. This is due largely to the inhomogeneity and quality of the tide gauge network through the 20th century, which render commonly used reconstruction techniques inadequate. Here, a new approach is adopted, integrating data from a select set of tide gauges with prior estimates of spatial structure based on historical sea level forcing information from the major contributing processes over the past century. The resulting map of 20th century regional sea level rise is optimized to agree with the tide gauge-measured trends, and provides an indication of the likely contributions of different sources to regional patterns. Of equal importance, this study demonstrates the sensitivities of this regional trend map to current knowledge and uncertainty of the contributing processes.

  17. Assessing the impact of sea-level rise on a vulnerable coastal community in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Appeaning Addo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and its associated sea-level rise are expected to significantly affect vulnerable coastal communities. Although the extent of the impact will be localised, its assessment will adopt a monitoring approach that applies globally. The topography of the beach, the type of geological material and the level of human intervention will determine the extent of the area to be flooded and the rate at which the shoreline will move inland. Gleefe, a coastal community in Ghana, has experienced frequent flooding in recent times due to the increasing occurrence of storm surge and sea-level rise. This study used available geospatial data and field measurements to determine how the beach topography has contributed to the incidence of flooding at Gleefe. The topography is generally low-lying. Sections of the beach have elevations of around 1 m, which allows seawater to move inland during very high tide. Accelerated sea-level rise as predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC will destroy homes of the inhabitants and inundate the Densu wetlands behind the beach. Destruction of infrastructure will render the inhabitants homeless, whilst flooding of the wetlands will destroy the habitats of migratory birds and some endangered wildlife species such as marine turtle. Effective adaptation measures should be adopted to protect this very important coastal environment, the ecology of the wetlands and the livelihoods of the community dwellers.

  18. Development of sea level rise scenarios for climate change assessments of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Day, Richard H.; Michot, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Rising sea level poses critical ecological and economical consequences for the low-lying megadeltas of the world where dependent populations and agriculture are at risk. The Mekong Delta of Vietnam is one of many deltas that are especially vulnerable because much of the land surface is below mean sea level and because there is a lack of coastal barrier protection. Food security related to rice and shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta is currently under threat from saltwater intrusion, relative sea level rise, and storm surge potential. Understanding the degree of potential change in sea level under climate change is needed to undertake regional assessments of potential impacts and to formulate adaptation strategies. This report provides constructed time series of potential sea level rise scenarios for the Mekong Delta region by incorporating (1) aspects of observed intra- and inter-annual sea level variability from tide records and (2) projected estimates for different rates of regional subsidence and accelerated eustacy through the year 2100 corresponding with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate models and emission scenarios.

  19. Studies on the post-ictal rise in seizure threshold. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutt, D.J.; Cowen, P.J.; Green, A.R.

    1981-05-08

    Seizure thresholds were determined by timed infusion of a convulsant drug. Following an electroconvulsive shock (ECS) rats exhibited a raised seizure threshold to infusion of the GABA antagonist drugs, pentylenetetrazol, bicuculline and isopropyl-bicyclophosphate, but not to the glycine antagonist strychnine or the 5-HT agonist, quipazine. The increase in threshold was seen following a bicuculline-induced seizure and 30 min following the last of a course of ECS given once daily for 10 days. The rise in seizure threshold still occurred when animals were pretreated with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (200 mg . kg-1), p-chlorophenylalanine (200 mg . kg-2), naloxone (1 mg . kg-1) or indomethacin (20 mg . kg-1). Diazepam (2 mg . kg-1), flurazepam (10 mg . kg-1) and sodium valproate (400 mg . kg-1) elevated basal seizure threshold and a further rise followed the ECS. Phenytoin (40 mg . kg-1) and carbamazepine (40 mg . kg-1) had no effect on basal seizure threshold or the ECS-induce rise. (

  20. The Impact of Sea Level Rise on Florida's Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarath, S. U.

    2005-12-01

    Global warming and the resulting melting of polar ice sheets could increase global sea levels significantly. Some studies have predicted mean sea level increases in the order of six inches to one foot in the next 25 to 50 years. This could have severe irreversible impacts on low-lying areas of Florida's Everglades. The key objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of a one foot sea level rise on Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (CSSS) nesting areas within the Everglades National Park (ENP). A regional-scale hydrologic model is used to assess the sensitivities of this sea-level rise scenario. Florida's Everglades supports a unique ecosystem. At present, about 50 percent of this unique ecosystem has been lost due to urbanization and farming. Today, the water flow in the remnant Everglades is also regulated to meet a variety of competing environmental, water-supply and flood-control needs. A 30-year, eight billion dollar (1999 estimate) project has been initiated to improve Everglades' water flows. The expected benefits of this restoration project will be short-lived if the predicted sea level rise causes severe impacts on the environmentally sensitive areas of the Everglades. Florida's Everglades is home to many threatened and endangered species of wildlife. The Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow population in the ENP is one such species that is currently listed as endangered. Since these birds build their nests close to the ground surface (the base of the nest is approximately six inches from the ground surface), they are directly affected by any sea level induced ponding depth, frequency or duration change. Therefore, the CSSS population serves as a good indicator species for evaluating the negative impacts of sea level rise on the Everglades' ecosystem. The impact of sea level rise on the CSSS habitat is evaluated using the Regional Simulation Model (RSM) developed by the South Florida Water Management District. The RSM is an implicit, finite-volume, continuous

  1. Theoretical estimation of adiabatic temperature rise from the heat flow data obtained from a reaction calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Parichay K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This method for estimating ΔT ad (t) against time in a semi-batch reactor is distinctively pioneer and novel. ► It has established uniquely a direct correspondence between the evolution of ΔT ad (t) in RC and C A (t) in a semi-batch reactor. ► Through a unique reaction scheme, the independent effects of heat of mixing and reaction on ΔT ad (t) has been demonstrated quantitatively. ► This work will help to build a thermally safe corridor of a thermally hazard reaction. ► This manuscript, the author believes will open a new vista for further research in Adiabatic Calorimetry. - Abstract: A novel method for estimating the transient profile of adiabatic rise in temperature has been developed from the heat flow data for exothermic chemical reactions that are conducted in reaction calorimeter (RC). It has also been mathematically demonstrated by the present design that there exists a direct qualitative equivalence between the temporal evolution of the adiabatic temperature rise and the concentration of the limiting reactant for an exothermic chemical reaction, carried out in semi batch mode. The proposed procedure shows that the adiabatic temperature rise will always be less than that of the reaction executed at batch mode thereby affording a thermally safe corridor. Moreover, a unique reaction scheme has been designed to establish the independent heat effect of dissolution and reaction quantitatively. It is hoped that the testimony of the transient adiabatic temperature rise that can be prepared by the proposed method, may provide ample scope for further research.

  2. An Update of Sea Level Rise in the northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alothman, Abdulaziz; Bos, Machiel; Fernandes, Rui

    2017-04-01

    Relative sea level variations in the northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf have been estimated in the past using no more than 10 to 15 years of observations. In Alothman et al. (2014), we have almost doubled the period to 28.7 years by examining all available tide gauge data in the area and constructing a mean gauge time-series from seven coastal tide gauges. We found for the period 1979-2007 a relative sea level rise of about 2mm/yr, which correspond to an absolute sea level rise of about 1.5mm/yr based on the vertical displacement of GNSS stations in the region. By taking into account the temporal correlations we concluded that previous published results underestimate the true sea level rate error in this area by a factor of 5-10. In this work, we discuss and update the methodology and results from Alothman et al. (2014), particularly by checking and extending the GNSS solutions. Since 3 of the 6 GPS stations used only started observing in the end of 2011, the longer time series have now significantly lower uncertainties in the estimated vertical rate. In addition, we compare our results with GRACE derived ocean bottom pressure time series which are a good proxy of the changes in water mass in this area over time.

  3. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Raju, Muralikrishna; Watson, Valerie J.; Stack, Andrew G.; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10-5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g-1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in the LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g-1) had a negative rise potential (-31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to -6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. These results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.

  4. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-12-02

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10-5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g-1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in the LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g-1) had a negative rise potential (-31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to -6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. These results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.

  5. Biogeochemical Modeling of the Second Rise of Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. L.; Catling, D.; Claire, M.; Zahnle, K.

    2014-03-01

    The rise of atmospheric oxygen set the tempo for the evolution of complex life on Earth. Oxygen levels are thought to have increased in two broad steps: one step occurred in the Archean ~ 2.45 Ga (the Great Oxidation Event or GOE), and another step occured in the Neoproterozoic ~750-580 Ma (the Neoprotoerozoic Oxygenation Event or NOE). During the NOE, oxygen levels increased from ~1-10% of the present atmospheric level (PAL) (Holland, 2006), to ~15% PAL in the late Neoproterozoic, to ~100% PAL later in the Phanerozoic. Complex life requires O2, so this transition allowed complex life to evolve. We seek to understand what caused the NOE. To explore causes for the NOE, we build upon the biogeochemical model of Claire et al. (2006), which calculates the redox evolution of the atmosphere, ocean, biosphere, and crust in the Archean through to the early Proterozoic. In this model, the balance between oxygenconsuming and oyxgen-producing fluxes evolves over time such that at ~2.4 Ga, the rapidly acting sources of oxygen outweigh the rapidly-acting sinks. Or, in other words, at ~2.4 Ga, the flux of oxygen from organic carbon burial exceeds the sinks of oxygen from reaction with reduced volcanic and metamoprphic gases. The model is able to drive oxygen levels to 1-10% PAL in the Proterozoic; however, the evolving redox fluxes in the model cannot explain how oxygen levels pushed above 1-10% in the late Proterozoic. The authors suggest that perhaps another buffer, such as sulfur, is needed to describe Proterozoic and Phanerozoic redox evolution. Geologic proxies show that in the Proterozoic, up to 10% of the deep ocean may have been sulfidic. With this ocean chemistry, the global sulfur cycle would have worked differently than it does today. Because the sulfur and oxygen cycles interact, the oxygen concentration could have permanently changed due to an evolving sulfur cycle (in combination with evolving redox fluxes associated with other parts of the oxygen cycle and carbon

  6. Do pregnancy characteristics contribute to rising childhood cancer incidence rates in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Rebecca D; Osypuk, Theresa L; Poynter, Jenny N; Vock, David M; Spector, Logan G

    2018-03-01

    Since 1975, childhood cancer incidence rates have gradually increased in the United States; however, few studies have conducted analyses across time to unpack this temporal rise. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that increasing cancer incidence rates are due to secular trends in pregnancy characteristics that are established risk factors for childhood cancer incidence including older maternal age, higher birthweight, and lower birth order. We also considered temporal trends in sociodemographic characteristics including race/ethnicity and poverty. We conducted a time series county-level ecologic analysis using linked population-based data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries (1975-2013), birth data from the National Center for Health Statistics (1970-2013), and sociodemographic data from the US Census (1970-2010). We estimated unadjusted and adjusted average annual percent changes (AAPCs) in incidence of combined (all diagnoses) and individual types of cancer among children, ages 0-4 years, from Poisson mixed models. There was a statistically significant unadjusted temporal rise in incidence of combined childhood cancers (AAPC = 0.71%; 95% CI = 0.55-0.86), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (0.78%; 0.49-1.07), acute myeloid leukemia (1.86%; 1.13-2.59), central nervous system tumors (1.31%; 0.94-1.67), and hepatoblastoma (2.70%; 1.68-3.72). Adjustment for county-level maternal age reduced estimated AAPCs between 8% (hepatoblastoma) and 55% (combined). However, adjustment for other county characteristics did not attenuate AAPCs, and AAPCs remained significantly above 0% in models fully adjusted for county-level characteristics. Although rising maternal age may account for some of the increase in childhood cancer incidence over time, other factors, not considered in this analysis, may also contribute to temporal trends. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Why is the Groundwater Level Rising? A Case Study Using HARTT to Simulate Groundwater Level Dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Danis, Cara; Paffard, Andrew

    2017-12-01

      Groundwater from a shallow unconfined aquifer at a site in coastal New South Wales has been causing recent water logging issues. A trend of rising groundwater level has been anecdotally observed over the last 10 years. It was not clear whether the changes in groundwater levels were solely natural variations within the groundwater system or whether human interference was driving the level up. Time series topographic images revealed significant surrounding land use changes and human modification to the environment of the groundwater catchment. A statistical model utilising HARTT (multiple linear regression hydrograph analysis method) simulated the groundwater level dynamics at five key monitoring locations and successfully showed a trend of rising groundwater level. Utilising hydrogeological input from field investigations, the model successfully simulated the rise in the water table over time to the present day levels, whilst taking into consideration rainfall and land changes. The underlying geological/land conditions were found to be just as significant as the impact of climate variation. The correlation coefficient for the monitoring bores (MB), excluding MB4, show that the groundwater level fluctuation can be explained by the climate variable (rainfall) with the lag time between the atypical rainfall and groundwater level ranging from 4 to 7 months. The low R2 value for MB4 indicates that there are factors missing in the model which are primarily related to human interference. The elevated groundwater levels in the affected area are the result of long term cumulative land use changes, instigated by humans, which have directly resulted in detrimental changes to the groundwater aquifer properties.

  8. Using GNSS for Assessment Recent Sea Level Rise in the Northwestern Part of the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alothman, A. O.; Bos, M. S.; Fernandes, R.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the global warming acting recently (in the 21st century) on the planet Earth, an associated sea level rise is predicted to reach up to 30 cm to 60 cm in some regions. Sea level monitoring is important for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, since it is surrounded by very long cost of about 3400 km in length and hundreds of isolated islands. The eastern coast line of KSA, in the Arabian Gulf, needs some monitoring in the long term, due to low land nature of the region. Also, the ongoing oil withdrawal activities in the area, may affect the regional sea level rise. In addition to these two facts, the tectonic structure of the Arabian Peninsula is one factor. The Regional Relative sea level in the eastern cost of Saudi Arabia has been estimated in the past using tide gauge data of more than 28 years using the vertical displacement of permanent Global Navigation Satellite System GNSS stations having time span of only about 3 years. In this paper, we discuss and update the methodology and results from Alothman et al. (2014), particularly by checking and extending the GNSS solutions. Since 3 of the 6 GPS stations used only started observing in the end of 2011, the longer time series have now significantly lower uncertainties in the estimated vertical rate. Longer time span of GNSS observations were included and 500 synthetic time series were estimated and seasonal signals were analysed. it is concluded that the varying seasonal signal present in the GNSS time series causes an underestimation of 0.1 mm/yr for short time series of 3 years. In addition to the implications of using short time series to estimate the vertical land motion, we found that if the varying seasonal signals are present in the data, the problem is aggravated. This finding can be useful for other studies analyzing short GNSS time series.

  9. Abnormal transient rise in hepatic glucose production after oral glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, A; Litchfield, A; Fabris, S; Proietto, J

    1995-05-01

    A transient rise in hepatic glucose production (HGP) after an oral glucosa load has been reported in some insulin-resistant states such as in obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether this rise in HGP also occurs in subjects with established non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glucose kinetics were measured basally and during a double-label oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 NIDDM subjects and 12 non-diabetic 'control' subjects. Twenty minutes after the glucose load, HGP had increased 73% above basal in the NIDDM subjects (7.29 +/- 0.52 to 12.58 +/- 1.86 mumol/kg/min, P < 0.02). A transient rise in glucagon (12 pg/ml above basal, P < 0.004) occurred at a similar time. In contrast, the control subjects showed no rise in HGP or plasma glucagon. HGP began to suppress 40-50 min after the OGTT in both the NIDDM and control subjects. A 27% increase in the rate of gut-derived glucose absorption was also observed in the NIDDM group, which could be the result of increased gut glucose absorption or decreased first pass extraction of glucose by the liver. Therefore, in agreement with data in animal models of NIDDM, a transient rise in HGP partly contributes to the hyperglycemia observed after an oral glucose load in NIDDM subjects.

  10. Using simulations to forecast homeowner response to sea level rise in South Florida: Will they stay or will they go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuer, G.

    2017-12-01

    Sea level rise threatens coastal communities around the world, including South Florida which may be the most financially vulnerable region in the world. Proactive investments in sea level rise adaptive flood protections could reduce South Florida's financial vulnerability. However, it is unclear if local governments and homeowners will be willing to make those investments before it is too late. Our research explores this issue by reporting the results of a novel online simulation that accelerates 348 South Florida homeowners thirty-five years into the future so that they can `live' the effects of sea level rise. The results contain a mix of optimism and caution for the prospects of future adaptation. On the positive side over 75% of participants indicated a willingness to support bond issues to pay for adaptation, even as the costs of the measures and effects of sea level rise increased over the years. Likewise, we find little evidence that politically conservative residents who normally have more skeptical views about climate change would be any less inclined to support adaptation, or only look to information sources that downplay the threat. On the negative side, homeowner interest in moving out of the region increases steadily over time as the sea level rises. This is driven by an increase in worry associated with viewing more information within the simulation.

  11. Coral reef growth in an era of rapidly rising sea level: predictions and suggestions for long-term research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, R W; Smith, S V

    1988-01-01

    Coral reef growth is intimately linked to sea level. It has been postulated that over the next century, sea level will rise at a probable average rate of 15 mm/year, in response to fossil fuel emissions, heating, and melting of the Antarctic ice cap. This predicted rate of sea level rise is five times the present modal rate of vertical accretion on coral reef flats and 50% greater than the maximum vertical accretion rates apparently attained by coral reefs. We use these predictions and observations to offer the following hypothesis for reef growth over the next century. The vertical accretion rates of protected reef flats will accelerate from the present modal rate up to the maximum rate, in response to the more rapidly rising sea level. This more rapid vertical accretion rate will be insufficient to keep up with sea level rise, if present predictions prove to be correct. Less protected reef flats will slow their rate of growth as they become inundated and subjected to erosion by progressively larger waves. This projected sea level rise and postulated reef response will provide an opportunity for long- term studies of the response of coral reef systems to a predictable and measurable forcing function.

  12. The Rise and Fall of Star Formation Histories of Blue Galaxies at Redshifts 0.2 < z < 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Camilla; Kassin, Susan A.; Weiner, Benjamin; Charlot, Stephane; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Popular cosmological scenarios predict that galaxies form hierarchically from the merger of many progenitor, each with their own unique star formation history (SFH). We use the approach recently developed by Pacifici et al. to constrain the SFHs of 4517 blue (presumably star-forming) galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range O.2 galaxies rise and fall in a roughly symmetric bell-shaped manner, while those of low-mass galaxies rise progressively in time, consistent with the typically stronger activity of star formation in low-mass compared to high-mass galaxies. For galaxies of all masses, the star formation activity rises more rapidly at high than at low redshift. These findings imply that the standard approximation of exponentially declining SFHs wIdely used to interpret observed galaxy spectral energy distributions is not appropriate to constrain the physical parameters of star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts.

  13. Studies of the disruption prevention by ECRH at plasma current rise stage in limiter discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikaev, V.V.; Borshegovskij, A.A.; Chistyakov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of disruption prevention by means of ECRH in T-10 at the plasma current rise phase in limiter discharges with circular plasma cross-section were performed. Reliable disruption prevention by ECRH at HF power (P HF ) min level equal to 20% of ohmic heating power P OH was demonstrated. m/n=2/1 mode MHD-activity developed before disruption (with characteristic time ∼120 ms) can be considered as disruption precursor and can be used in a feedback system. (author)

  14. The Ford Foundation and the rise of behavioralism in political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Emily

    2012-01-01

    How did behavioralism, one of the most influential approaches to the academic study of politics in the twentieth century, become so prominent so quickly? I argue that many political scientists have either understated or ignored how the Ford Foundation's Behavioral Sciences Program gave form to behavioralism, accelerated its rise, and helped root it in political science. I then draw on archived documents from Ford as well as one of its major grantees, U. C. Berkeley, to present several examples of how Ford used its funds to encourage the behavioral approach at a time when it had few adherents among political scientists. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Smart glass as the method of improving the energy efficiency of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunova, Olga; Gumerova, Eliza; Miloradova, Nadezda

    2018-03-01

    The question that has to be answered in high-rise building is glazing and its service life conditions. Contemporary market offers several types of window units, for instance, wooden, aluminum, PVC and combined models. Wooden and PVC windows become the most widespread and competitive between each other. In recent times design engineers choose smart glass. In this article, the advantages and drawbacks of all types of windows are reviewed, and the recommendations are given according to choice of window type in order to improve energy efficiency of buildings.

  16. The rise of eating disorders in Asia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Kathleen M; Dunne, Patricia E

    2015-01-01

    Once concentrated among adolescent Caucasian females in high-income Western countries, today, eating disorders (EDs) are truly global. Building upon previous work describing the rise of EDs among cultures in transition, we contextualize the emergence of EDs in Asia by locating this development within the broader discourse about the processes of change that have radically transformed Asian societies over the last three decades. By identifying where EDs are emerging in the region, and by examining their particular expression, our aim is to explicate a fuller story of the relationship between culture and eating disorders. Much of the discussion of EDs in non-Western societies is predicated upon the assumption that an increase in EDs is the by-product of "Westernization", the term used to describe the process by which increased cultural contact with the West results in the transmission of so-called 'Western' ideas and cultural norms to a non-Western culture. While the Westernization literature represents a historical anchor in our understanding of EDs in Asia, we propose that this analysis is incomplete in that societal change in the form of industrialization and urbanization occurring independently from, or in tandem with, "Western" influence are critical factors contributing to the rise of EDs in Asia. Further, our review of eating disorders in Asia suggests that an understanding of the diversity and distinctiveness of the individual countries and cultures that comprise 'Asia' is crucial to understanding the emergence and rise of EDs across this vast region, suggesting that eating disorders are not culture-bound or culture-specific, but rather culture-reactive. Taking into account both the historical influence of Western culture and the more contemporary effects of Asian industrialization and urbanization, key distinctions among respective Asian cultures expands our understanding of the development and expression of EDs globally.

  17. SunRISE Mission Concept Step 2 Study Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibay, F.; Kasper, J. C.; Lazio, J.; Neilsen, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present an update on the Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) mission concept, which was selected for a Step 2 study as part of the Small Explorer (SMEX) Mission of Opportunity (MoO) call. SunRISE is space-based sparse array, composed of six 6U CubeSats, designed to localize the radio emission associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun. Radio emission from CMEs is a direct tracer of the particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Furthermore, CME radio emission is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required, and a small mission would make a fundamental advancement. Indeed, the state-of-the-art for tracking CME radio emission is defined by single antennas (Wind/WAVES, Stereo/SWAVES) in which the tracking is accomplished by assuming a frequency-to-density mapping. This type of Heliophysics mission would be inherently cost prohibitive in a traditional spacecraft paradigm. However, the use of CubeSats, accompanied by the miniaturization of subsystem components, enables the development of this concept at lower cost than ever before. We present the most recent updates on this mission concept, starting from the concept's performance as compared to the required science and driving technical requirements. We then focus on the SunRISE mission concept of operations, which consists of six 6U CubeSats placed in a GEO graveyard orbit for 6 months to achieve the aforementioned science goals. The spacecraft fly in a passive formation, which allows them to form an interferometer while minimizing the impact on operations complexity. We also present details of the engineering design and the key trades being performed as part of the Step 2 concept study.

  18. Particles of bottom and suspended sediments: height of rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodzinskaya Anna Gennadievna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, characteristic values of dynamic sizes of bottom and suspended sediments, including their probabilistic assessment, are considered. The article presents the processing results in respect of the experimental data for bottom and suspended sediments, obtained in the laboratory environment using samples and filming methods. The experiments have proven that the dynamic hydraulic size determines the height of rise for the particles of the saltation load, rather than suspended ones. In the laboratory environment, the maximal height of rise is mainly driven by the relative flow depth. According to the assessment made by the co-authors, depths of flows employed in the experiments designated for the identification of heights of rises, were comparable to saltation heights of particles. Besides, the saltation height of particles, having relative density well below 2.65, nearly always exceeded half of the depth of the laboratory flow. Hydrodynamic conditions favourable for the separation and motion of artificial particles in coarse surface tanks are far different from the motion of sand particles on the bottom of lowland rivers. Values of hydraulic resistance ratios typical for laboratory experiments by far exceed their values typical for lowland rivers, and it means that the conditions of the experiments performed in the laboratory were similar to those typical for mountain rivers. The research findings have proven that the particle separation and motion pattern, if artificial particles are made of the materials demonstrating variable density and elasticity values and if loose particles travel over fixed ones, is different from the pattern typical for natural particles having variable coarseness.

  19. Tooth Whitening And Temperature Rise With Two Bleaching Activation Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-ElMagd, D. M.; El-Sayad, I. I.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.

    2009-01-01

    To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and Intrapulpal temperature increase in vitro on freshly extracted upper human central incisors after chemical, Zoom AP light and diode laser activated bleaching. Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n = 10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel, for three applications of 15 min each. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power Zoom activation light (Zoom AP), for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 Watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. The whitening degree was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and Intrapulpal. The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as Zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than Zoom AP light. Diode laser used to activate bleaching gels is not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulp using power settings of 2 W.

  20. The Catholic Bishops and the Rise of Evangelical Catholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available White Catholics are increasingly trending toward the Republican Party, both as voters and candidates. Many of these Republican-leaning Catholics are displaying a more outspoken, culture-war oriented form of Catholicism that has been dubbed Evangelical Catholicism. Through their forceful disciplining of pro-choice Catholics and treatment of abortion in their quadrennial voting guides, as well as their emphasis on “religious liberty”, the U.S. bishops have played a major role in the rise of these Evangelical Catholics.

  1. Reconciling projections of the Antarctic contribution to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tamsin; Holden, Philip; Edwards, Neil; Wernecke, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Two recent studies of the Antarctic contribution to sea level rise this century had best estimates that differed by an order of magnitude (around 10 cm and 1 m by 2100). The first, Ritz et al. (2015), used a model calibrated with satellite data, giving a 5% probability of exceeding 30cm by 2100 for sea level rise due to Antarctic instability. The second, DeConto and Pollard (2016), used a model evaluated with reconstructions of palaeo-sea level. They did not estimate probabilities, but using a simple assumption here about the distribution shape gives up to a 5% chance of Antarctic contribution exceeding 2.3 m this century with total sea level rise approaching 3 m. If robust, this would have very substantial implications for global adaptation to climate change. How are we to make sense of this apparent inconsistency? How much is down to the data - does the past tell us we will face widespread and rapid Antarctic ice losses in the future? How much is due to the mechanism of rapid ice loss ('cliff failure') proposed in the latter paper, or other parameterisation choices in these low resolution models (GRISLI and PISM, respectively)? How much is due to choices made in the ensemble design and calibration? How do these projections compare with high resolution, grounding line resolving models such as BISICLES? Could we reduce the huge uncertainties in the palaeo-study? Emulation provides a powerful tool for understanding these questions and reconciling the projections. By describing the three numerical ice sheet models with statistical models, we can re-analyse the ensembles and re-do the calibrations under a common statistical framework. This reduces uncertainty in the PISM study because it allows massive sampling of the parameter space, which reduces the sensitivity to reconstructed palaeo-sea level values and also narrows the probability intervals because the simple assumption about distribution shape above is no longer needed. We present reconciled probabilistic

  2. Rise of energy prices: why and up to how much?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.; Gonnot, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    This article is a presentation given by D. Maillard, general director of the general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) of the French ministry of economy, finances and industry (Minefi), at the occasion of a colloquium held in Paris on December 8, 2004, and organised by the energy and development club. In his talk, D. Maillard explains the reasons of the rise of energy prices in 2004: international factors (volatility of the oil and gas markets) and European factors (liberalization and re-structuration of the electricity market, spot prices, increase of demand). (J.S.)

  3. Effects of environment temperature rise on marine life. Bibliographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancellin, J.; Eustache, M.; Vilquin, A.

    1973-12-01

    The effects of a temperature rise in the marine environment resulting from thermal wastes have already been covered by many studies. A body of data acquired on this subject, in the biological field, experimentally and in situ are reviewed. To this are added data concerning the major effects associated with the use of cooling systems, drag effect exerted on organisms by the pumping system and consequences due to the use of anti-fouling substances, as well as some ideas concerning the potential use of thermal wastes in the field of aquaculture [fr

  4. Logistics: Price Rises Incurred by High Oil Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai Zhihui

    2011-01-01

    @@ "When the oil price grows by 100%, the logistic indus-try will see a price growth of 40%, while the logistics in-dustry a price rise of 35%, which means every price increase of 5% in the oil price will bring along that of 2% in this industry." said Liu Zongsheng, General Manager of Itochu Logistics Co., Ltd., on the seminar "Focusing on the eco-nomic consequences of raising oil price, interest rate and deposit reserve ratio", which was held recently.

  5. Impact of capillary rise and recirculation on simulated crop yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kroes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Upward soil water flow is a vital supply of water to crops. The purpose of this study is to determine if upward flow and recirculated percolation water can be quantified separately, and to determine the contribution of capillary rise and recirculated water to crop yield and groundwater recharge. Therefore, we performed impact analyses of various soil water flow regimes on grass, maize and potato yields in the Dutch delta. Flow regimes are characterized by soil composition and groundwater depth and derived from a national soil database. The intermittent occurrence of upward flow and its influence on crop growth are simulated with the combined SWAP-WOFOST model using various boundary conditions. Case studies and model experiments are used to illustrate the impact of upward flow on yield and crop growth. This impact is clearly present in situations with relatively shallow groundwater levels (85 % of the Netherlands, where capillary rise is a well-known source of upward flow; but also in free-draining situations the impact of upward flow is considerable. In the latter case recirculated percolation water is the flow source. To make this impact explicit we implemented a synthetic modelling option that stops upward flow from reaching the root zone, without inhibiting percolation. Such a hypothetically moisture-stressed situation compared to a natural one in the presence of shallow groundwater shows mean yield reductions for grassland, maize and potatoes of respectively 26, 3 and 14 % or respectively about 3.7, 0.3 and 1.5 t dry matter per hectare. About half of the withheld water behind these yield effects comes from recirculated percolation water as occurs in free-drainage conditions and the other half comes from increased upward capillary rise. Soil water and crop growth modelling should consider both capillary rise from groundwater and recirculation of percolation water as this improves the accuracy of yield simulations. This also improves the

  6. Failure modes of low-rise shear walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.R.; Reed, J.W.; Salmon, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of available data concerning the structural response of low-rise shear walls is presented. These data will be used to address two failure modes associated with shear wall structures. First, the data concerning the seismic capacity of the shear walls are examined, with emphasis on excessive deformations that can cause equipment failure. Second, the data concerning the dynamic properties of shear walls (stiffness and damping) that are necessary for computing the seismic inputs to attached equipment are summarized. This case addresses the failure of equipment when the structure remains functional

  7. Impact of capillary rise and recirculation on simulated crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Joop; Supit, Iwan; van Dam, Jos; van Walsum, Paul; Mulder, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Upward soil water flow is a vital supply of water to crops. The purpose of this study is to determine if upward flow and recirculated percolation water can be quantified separately, and to determine the contribution of capillary rise and recirculated water to crop yield and groundwater recharge. Therefore, we performed impact analyses of various soil water flow regimes on grass, maize and potato yields in the Dutch delta. Flow regimes are characterized by soil composition and groundwater depth and derived from a national soil database. The intermittent occurrence of upward flow and its influence on crop growth are simulated with the combined SWAP-WOFOST model using various boundary conditions. Case studies and model experiments are used to illustrate the impact of upward flow on yield and crop growth. This impact is clearly present in situations with relatively shallow groundwater levels (85 % of the Netherlands), where capillary rise is a well-known source of upward flow; but also in free-draining situations the impact of upward flow is considerable. In the latter case recirculated percolation water is the flow source. To make this impact explicit we implemented a synthetic modelling option that stops upward flow from reaching the root zone, without inhibiting percolation. Such a hypothetically moisture-stressed situation compared to a natural one in the presence of shallow groundwater shows mean yield reductions for grassland, maize and potatoes of respectively 26, 3 and 14 % or respectively about 3.7, 0.3 and 1.5 t dry matter per hectare. About half of the withheld water behind these yield effects comes from recirculated percolation water as occurs in free-drainage conditions and the other half comes from increased upward capillary rise. Soil water and crop growth modelling should consider both capillary rise from groundwater and recirculation of percolation water as this improves the accuracy of yield simulations. This also improves the accuracy of the

  8. Population Aging in Iran and Rising Health Care Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirzaie

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion Based on the results of this research, it can be said that people throughout their life cycle always allocate a percentage of their total spending to health care costs, but the percentage of this allocation is different at different ages. In a way the demand for healthcare costs increases with aging, it rises significantly in the old age. At the macro level, due to an increase in the percentage of elderly in the population over the next decade, there will also be an increase in the share of health care costs.

  9. 230Th-238U disequilibrium systematics in oceanic tholeiites from 210N on the East Pacific Rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, S.; Finkel, R.C.; MacDougall, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Significant disequilibrium occurs between 230 Th and its parent, 238 U, in a suite of fresh basalt glasses from the RISE Project study area at 21 0 N on the East Pacific Rise. The ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) activity ratios observed for eight of nine samples from the crest of the axis at this site are constant within analytical uncertainty, with a value of 1.22. This observed homogeneity of ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) has two possible interpretations. First, the measured ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) can be considered to indicate a mantle-source for the RISE basalts with Th/U of 2.5. This interpretation, however, conflicts with the proposed correlation between ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr which predicts that ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) should equal 1.33 at the RISE site. A second possible interpretation is that radioactive decay of 230 Th, in the basalts themselves or in a magma chamber, has decreased ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) from 1.33 to the observed values. The required time span is 11,000 to > 100,000 years. However, petrologic arguments rule against long residence time in a magma chamber, and the spreading rate of this section of the East Pacific Rise (6 cm/yr) predicts that the maximum age for axis basalts is 27,000 years. Both interpretations of the measured ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) imply a low Th/U ratio for the RISE basalt source and suggest that the MORB source at this location is depleted in Th with respect to U relative to primitive mantle or bulk earth. (orig./WL)

  10. Exceptionally slow rise in differential reflectivity spectra of excitons in GaN: effect of excitation-induced dephasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, C.J.; Kenrow, J.; El Sayed, K.; Jho, Y.D.; Kim, D.S.; Song, J.J.; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Femtosecond differential reflectivity spectroscopy (DRS) and four-wave mixing (FWM) experiments were performed simultaneously to study the initial temporal dynamics of the exciton line-shapes in GaN epilayers. Beats between the A-B excitons were found only for positive time delay in both DRS and FWM experiments. The rise time at negative time delay for the DRS was much slower than the FWM signal or differential transmission spectroscopy at the exciton resonance. A numerical solution of a six band semiconductor Bloch equation model including nonlinearities at the Hartree-Fock level shows that this slow rise in the DRS results from excitation induced dephasing, that is, the strong density dependence of the dephasing time which changes with the laser excitation energy.

  11. Sirius Rising 139 AD: Hadrian, Tivoli, and the Tazza Farnese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakhus, P. L.

    2011-06-01

    The heliacal rising of Sirius in 139 AD, intersecting with the beginning of the Egyptian year after an interval of 1461 years, signaled abundant fertility derived from the flooding of the Nile and the resurrection of Osiris. Hadrian's preparation for this event, which he did not live to see, at his villa in Tivoli was concurrent with the establishment of the cult of Antinoos assimilated to Osiris, Hermes and Master of the Hounds, following his drowning in the Nile. The site of the obelisk marking Antinoos' tomb and describing his resurrection has recently been discovered near the so-called "Canopus" at Tivoli , where the prominent placement of Demeter/Isis/Sothis and Antinoos/Osiris suggests the rising of Sirius on 20 July 139 AD and flooding of the Nile. Furthermore, this astronomical-cultural event shown on coins and gems of the period, may also be represented in the much debated iconography of the Tazza Farnese, a carved Hellenistic sardonyx libation bowl owned by a prince of Samarkand, Lorenzo de' Medici, and Frederick II, and said to have been found in Hadrian's tomb.

  12. Volcanic rises on Venus: Geology, formation, and sequence of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senske, D. A.; Stofan, E. R.; Bindschadler, D. L.; Smrekar, S. E.

    1993-01-01

    Large centers of volcanism on Venus are concentrated primarily in the equatorial region of the planet and are associated with regional topographic rises. Analysis of both radar images and geophysical data suggest that these uplands are sites of mantle upwelling. Magellan radar imaging provides a globally contiguous data set from which the geology of these regions is evaluated and compared. In addition, high resolution gravity data currently being collected provide a basis to assess the relationship between these uplands and processes in the planet's interior. Studies of the geology of the three largest volcanic highlands (Beta Regio, Atla Regio, Western Eistla Regio) show them to be distinct, having a range of volcanic and tectonic characteristics. In addition to these large areas, a number of smaller uplands are identified and are being analyzed (Bell Regio, Imdr Regio, Dione Regio (Ushas, Innini, and Hathor Montes), and Themis Regio). To understand better the mechanisms by which these volcanic rises form and evolve, we assess their geologic and geophysical characteristics.

  13. Collective space of high-rise housing complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakaeva Tatyana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems of support of citizens a comfortable living environment in the conditions of the limited territory of the megalopolis, the typological principles of formation of space-planning structure high-rise residence complexes with public space. The collective space for residents of high-rise housing estates on the example of international experience of design and construction is in detail considered. The collective space and the area of the standard apartment are analysed on comfort classes: a social - complex Pinnacle @ Duxton, a business - Monde Condos and an elite - Hamilton Scotts. Interdependence the area of the standard flat and the total area of housing collective space, in addiction on the comfort level, is revealed. In the conditions of high-density urban development, the collective space allows to form the comfortable environment for accommodation. The recommendations for achievement of integrity and improvement of quality of the city environment are made. The convenient collective space makes a contribution to civil policy, it creates the socializing sense of interaction of residents, coagulates social effect.

  14. Crisis in the Resurgent City? The Rise of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Thor; Winther, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Copenhagen today appears to be a resurgent city and city region. It came back to life in the mid-1990s and, until recently, has shown marked growth in key variables such as jobs, income and inhabitants, primarily as a result of the rise and spatial dynamics of its service- and knowledge-based eco......Copenhagen today appears to be a resurgent city and city region. It came back to life in the mid-1990s and, until recently, has shown marked growth in key variables such as jobs, income and inhabitants, primarily as a result of the rise and spatial dynamics of its service- and knowledge......-based economy. Its resurgence is also evident in the central municipalities that 20 years ago struggled with the repercussions of a long-term urban crisis. Financially, the central city was almost doomed in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and the city of Copenhagen was close to bankruptcy. Central......-city development was characterized by a set of eroding processes that included de-industrialization, suburbanization, high unemployment rates, high welfare costs, an outdated housing market, strong segregation and various other factors. Copenhagen city and its city region have now been revitalized and today...

  15. Calcium supplementation and cardiovascular risk: A rising concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankeu, Aurel T; Ndip Agbor, Valirie; Noubiap, Jean Jacques

    2017-06-01

    Over the past decade, the number of individuals taking calcium supplementation worldwide has been on the rise, especially with the emergence of new pharmaceutical companies specialized in the marketing of dietary supplements; with calcium supplementation being their main business axis. This is mostly because of the established role of calcium in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and, to a lesser extent, its role in the prevention of fractures. Recently, a rising body of evidence on the adverse effect of calcium supplementation on nonskeletal, especially cardiovascular, health has been a cause for concern. In fact, a significant number of studies have reported an association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events, even though high dietary calcium intake was shown to have a protective effect. The mechanism by which calcium supplementation could cause a cardiovascular event was still unclear until a recent study published in the Journal of the American Heart Association. Combining this recent finding with available data associating calcium supplementation with cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality, we call on the need for an evidence-based approach to calcium supplementation, while stressing on the safety of dietary calcium intake over the former on cardiovascular health. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Salt Damage and Rising Damp Treatment in Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. P. Q. Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt damage can affect the service life of numerous building structures, both historical and contemporary, in a significant way. In this review, various damage mechanisms to porous building materials induced by salt action are analyzed. The importance of pretreatment investigations is discussed as well; in combination with the knowledge of salt and moisture transport mechanisms they can give useful indications regarding treatment options. The methods of salt damage treatment are assessed then, including both passive techniques based on environmental control, reduction of water transport, or conversion to less soluble salts and active procedures resulting in the removal of salts from deterioration zones. It is concluded that cellulose can still be considered as the favorite material presently used in desalination poultices but hydrophilic mineral wool can serve as its prospective alternative in future applications. Another important cause of building pathologies is the rising damp and, in this phenomenon, it is particularly severe considering the presence of salts in water. The treatment of rising damp in historic building walls is a very complex procedure and at Laboratory of Building Physics (LFC-FEUP a wall base hygroregulated ventilation system was developed and patented.

  17. Feline high-rise syndrome: 119 cases (1998-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vnuk, D; Pirkić, B; Maticić, D; Radisić, B; Stejskal, M; Babić, T; Kreszinger, M; Lemo, N

    2004-10-01

    High-rise syndrome was diagnosed in 119 cats over a 4-year period. 59.6% of cats were younger than one year, and the average height of the fall was four stories. High-rise syndrome was more frequent during the warmer period of the year. 96.5% of the presented cats, survived after the fall. 46.2% of cats had fractured limbs; 38.5% of fractures were of the forelimb, 61.5% of the hindlimb. The tibia was fractured most often (36.4%), followed by the femur (23.6%). 78.6% of femoral fractures were distal. The mean age of patients with femoral fractures was 9.1 months, and with tibial fractures 29.2 months. Thoracic trauma was diagnosed in 33.6% of cats. Pneumothorax was diagnosed in 20% of cats, and pulmonary contusions in 13.4%. Falls from the seventh or higher stories, are associated with more severe injuries and with a higher incidence of thoracic trauma.

  18. The hydrodynamics of bubble rise and impact with solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Rogerio; Klaseboer, Evert; Chan, Derek Y C

    2016-09-01

    A bubble smaller than 1mm in radius rises along a straight path in water and attains a constant speed due to the balance between buoyancy and drag force. Depending on the purity of the system, within the two extreme limits of tangentially immobile or mobile boundary conditions at the air-water interface considerably different terminal speeds are possible. When such a bubble impacts on a horizontal solid surface and bounces, interesting physics can be observed. We study this physical phenomenon in terms of forces, which can be of colloidal, inertial, elastic, surface tension and viscous origins. Recent advances in high-speed photography allow for the observation of phenomena on the millisecond scale. Simultaneous use of such cameras to visualize both rise/deformation and the dynamics of the thin film drainage through interferometry are now possible. These experiments confirm that the drainage process obeys lubrication theory for the spectrum of micrometre to millimetre-sized bubbles that are covered in this review. We aim to bridge the colloidal perspective at low Reynolds numbers where surface forces are important to high Reynolds number fluid dynamics where the effect of the surrounding flow becomes important. A model that combines a force balance with lubrication theory allows for the quantitative comparison with experimental data under different conditions without any fitting parameter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Collective space of high-rise housing complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeva, Tatyana

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the problems of support of citizens a comfortable living environment in the conditions of the limited territory of the megalopolis, the typological principles of formation of space-planning structure high-rise residence complexes with public space. The collective space for residents of high-rise housing estates on the example of international experience of design and construction is in detail considered. The collective space and the area of the standard apartment are analysed on comfort classes: a social - complex Pinnacle @ Duxton, a business - Monde Condos and an elite - Hamilton Scotts. Interdependence the area of the standard flat and the total area of housing collective space, in addiction on the comfort level, is revealed. In the conditions of high-density urban development, the collective space allows to form the comfortable environment for accommodation. The recommendations for achievement of integrity and improvement of quality of the city environment are made. The convenient collective space makes a contribution to civil policy, it creates the socializing sense of interaction of residents, coagulates social effect.

  20. Rise of Culture and Fall of Planning in Izmir, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şebnem Gökçen Dündar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Culture-led regeneration is now a rising feature of cities as they seek to establish themselves as competitive cities of culture. The rise of culture impacts considerably upon the quality of life in cities. The competition takes two major strategies: mega projects and mega-events. While the main cities of the economically advanced nations go through a wide range of experiences, their successes and failures should be taken into consideration by those other cities that wish to imitate the ones leading in the ranking. Cities of the developing world, however, may meet completely different problems even during the stage of planning. This paper reviews such a case, namely Izmir, by way of stating the city’s intentions to benefit from culture-driven strategies as seen through its indicators, and showing the evidence that cause it to fail in reaching its goals. The final statement shall emphasize the importance of cultural policiesto be formulated on a wider perspective.