Sample records for submicrosecond rise times

  1. A model with nonzero rise time for AE signals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Abstract. Acoustic emission (AE) signals are conventionally modelled as damped or decaying sinusoidal functions. A major drawback of this model is its negligible or zero rise time. This paper proposes an alternative model, which provides for the rising part of the signal without sacrificing the analytical tractability and ...

  2. RISE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortenzi, M.; Petrini, F.; Bontempi, F.


    This paper originates from a European research proposal entitled RISE (Resilient Infrastructures and Structures against Emergencies). In RISE the assessment of the resilience of an urban development is carried out within an effective theoretical framework in which the large scale urban built...... are considered both at a local level, by investi-gating the network elements (nodes and links) and at a global level, by considering the interactions between the elements and the response of the entire network. A basic application focusing on a specific analysis aspect (the local resilience of a critical...

  3. RISE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortenzi, M.; Petrini, F.; Bontempi, F.


    infrastructure is perceived as a network, where nodes represent premises for the activities of the infrastructure and links represent the physical connections between them. The framework implies that the response to a critical event and the capability of recovering from the consequence of a disaster......This paper originates from a European research proposal entitled RISE (Resilient Infrastructures and Structures against Emergencies). In RISE the assessment of the resilience of an urban development is carried out within an effective theoretical framework in which the large scale urban built...... are considered both at a local level, by investi-gating the network elements (nodes and links) and at a global level, by considering the interactions between the elements and the response of the entire network. A basic application focusing on a specific analysis aspect (the local resilience of a critical...

  4. Neural processing of amplitude and formant rise time in dyslexia. (United States)

    Peter, Varghese; Kalashnikova, Marina; Burnham, Denis


    This study aimed to investigate how children with dyslexia weight amplitude rise time (ART) and formant rise time (FRT) cues in phonetic discrimination. Passive mismatch responses (MMR) were recorded for a/ba/-/wa/contrast in a multiple deviant odd-ball paradigm to identify the neural response to cue weighting in 17 children with dyslexia and 17 age-matched control children. The deviant stimuli had either partial or full ART or FRT cues. The results showed that ART did not generate an MMR in either group, whereas both partial and full FRT cues generated MMR in control children while only full FRT cues generated MMR in children with dyslexia. These findings suggest that children, both controls and those with dyslexia, discriminate speech based on FRT cues and not ART cues. However, control children have greater sensitivity to FRT cues in speech compared to children with dyslexia. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Submicrosecond Power-Switching Test Circuit (United States)

    Folk, Eric N.


    A circuit that changes an electrical load in a switching time shorter than 0.3 microsecond has been devised. This circuit can be used in testing the regulation characteristics of power-supply circuits . especially switching power-converter circuits that are supposed to be able to provide acceptably high degrees of regulation in response to rapid load transients. The combination of this power-switching circuit and a known passive constant load could be an attractive alternative to a typical commercially available load-bank circuit that can be made to operate in nominal constant-voltage, constant-current, and constant-resistance modes. The switching provided by a typical commercial load-bank circuit in the constant-resistance mode is not fast enough for testing of regulation in response to load transients. Moreover, some test engineers do not trust the test results obtained when using commercial load-bank circuits because the dynamic responses of those circuits are, variously, partly unknown and/or excessively complex. In contrast, the combination of this circuit and a passive constant load offers both rapid switching and known (or at least better known) load dynamics. The power-switching circuit (see figure) includes a signal-input section, a wide-hysteresis Schmitt trigger that prevents false triggering in the event of switch-contact bounce, a dual-bipolar-transistor power stage that drives the gate of a metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), and the MOSFET, which is the output device that performs the switching of the load. The MOSFET in the specific version of the circuit shown in the figure is rated to stand off a potential of 100 V in the "off" state and to pass a current of 20 A in the "on" state. The switching time of this circuit (the characteristic time of rise or fall of the potential at the drain of the MOSFET) is .300 ns. The circuit can accept any of three control inputs . which one depending on the test that one seeks to perform: a

  6. RISE: a fast-readout imager for exoplanet transit timing


    Steele, IA; Bates, SD; Gibson, N.; Keenan, F.; Meaburn, J.; Mottram, CJ; Pollacco, D.; Todd, I.


    By the precise timing of the low amplitude (0.005 - 0.02 magnitude) transits of exoplanets around their parent star it should be possible to infer the presence of other planetary bodies in the system down to Earth-like masses. We describe the design and construction of RISE, a fast-readout frame transfer camera for the Liverpool Telescope designed to carry out this experiment. The results of our commissioning tests are described as well as the data reduction procedure necessary. We present li...

  7. RISE: a fast-readout imager for exoplanet transit timing (United States)

    Steele, I. A.; Bates, S. D.; Gibson, N.; Keenan, F.; Meaburn, J.; Mottram, C. J.; Pollacco, D.; Todd, I.


    By the precise timing of the low amplitude (0.005 - 0.02 magnitude) transits of exoplanets around their parent star it should be possible to infer the presence of other planetary bodies in the system down to Earth-like masses. We describe the design and construction of RISE, a fast-readout frame transfer camera for the Liverpool Telescope designed to carry out this experiment. The results of our commissioning tests are described as well as the data reduction procedure necessary. We present light curves of two objects, showing that the desired timing and photometric accuracy can be obtained providing that autoguiding is used to keep the target on the same detector pixel for the entire (typically 4 hour) observing run.

  8. Submicrosecond Q-Switching Er-Doped All-Fiber Ring Laser Based on Black Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Cai


    Full Text Available Black phosphorus (BP, a new two-dimensional (2D material, has been deeply developed for extensive applications in electronics and optoelectronics due to its similar physical structure to graphene and thickness dependent direct band gap. Here, we demonstrated a submicrosecond passive Q-switching Er-doped fiber laser with BP as saturable absorber (SA. The BP saturable absorber was fabricated by mechanical exfoliation method. By taking full advantage of the ultrafast relaxation time of BP-SA and careful design of compact ring cavity, we obtained stable Q-switching pulses output with a shortest duration as narrow as 742 ns. With increasing the pump power, the pulse repetition rate accreted gradually almost linearly from 9.78 to 61.25 kHz, and the pulse duration declined rapidly at lower pump power regime and retained approximate stationary at higher pump power regime from 3.05 to 0.742 μs. The experimental results indicate that BP-SA can be an effective SA for nanosecond Q-switching pulse generation.

  9. The effects of rise/fall time and plateau time on ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. (United States)

    Kantner, Claudia; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Drexl, Markus; Gürkov, Robert


    Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) are strongly influenced by recording conditions and stimulus parameters. Throughout the published literature, a large variety of stimuli is used for eliciting oVEMP. Our objective was to determine the effects of different rise/fall times and plateau times on oVEMP amplitudes and latencies. 32 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. 500 Hz air-conducted tone bursts with the parameters rise-plateau-fall time 0-4-0, 4-0-4, 2-2-2 and 2-4-2 ms were used for eliciting oVEMP. For all stimuli, response prevalences were 100 %. The 4-0-4 ms stimulus generated the smallest amplitudes, whereas the 2-2-2 and 0-4-0 ms stimuli achieved the largest amplitudes. n1 and p1 latencies were significantly shorter for the 0-4-0 ms than for the other stimuli, whereas latencies in response to the 4-0-4 ms stimulus were prolonged. Hence, a variety of stimuli is suitable for evoking oVEMP in healthy subjects. We recommend a 2-2-2 ms stimulus for clinical testing of oVEMP elicited by air conducted sound, because it reproducibly generates oVEMP without exposing the ear to unnecessary amounts of acoustic energy.

  10. An Empirical Fitting Method for Type Ia Supernova Light Curves. II. Estimating the First-light Time and Rise Time (United States)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.


    We investigate a new empirical fitting method for the optical light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that is able to estimate the first-light time of SNe Ia, even when they are not discovered extremely early. With an improved ability to estimate the time of first light for SNe Ia, we compute the rise times for a sample of 56 well-observed SNe Ia. We find rise times ranging from 10.5 to 20.5 days, with a mean of 16.0 days, and confirm that the rise time is generally correlated with the decline rate {{Δ }}{m}15(B), but with large scatter. The rise time could be an additional parameter to help classify SN Ia subtypes.

  11. Excitation of dielectric barrier discharges by unipolar submicrosecond square pulses (United States)

    Liu, Shuhai; Neiger, Manfred


    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) are self-extinguishing discharges due to charge accumulation on dielectric surfaces. In order to take advantage of these surface charges also at a low repetition frequency, high-voltage unipolar square pulses (amplitude up to 15 kV, rise and fall time less than 20 ns) are applied to drive DBDs. For electrical diagnostics of this novel excitation method, a temporally dynamic model for diffuse DBDs is introduced, from which equations were derived which allow the calculation of internal electrical quantities in the discharge gap from measured external electrical quantities. It was found, following a primary discharge at the rising front or at the top of the voltage pulse, that a secondary discharge is induced at the end of the falling voltage flank without simultaneously consuming energy from the external circuit. The energy needed is provided by the accumulated surface and space charges left by the primary discharge, which are totally or partially lost under normal low-frequency sine or square wave excitation. Secondary discharges are observed in a wide range of electrode configurations, gases and gas pressures for both homogeneous and filamentary discharges. In the case of filamentary modes, secondary discharges are found to develop along the remaining channels of the preceding primary discharges. Experiments for ozone synthesis show an improved energy efficiency of 8-9 eV per ozone molecule, which is about 30% better than that achieved with sine wave excitation.

  12. Relationship of morning cortisol to circadian phase and rising time in young adults with delayed sleep times. (United States)

    Rea, Mark S; Figueiro, Mariana G; Sharkey, Katherine M; Carskadon, Mary A


    The present study was aimed at further elucidating the relationship between circadian phase, rising time, and the morning cortisol awakening response (CAR). The results presented here are a secondary analysis of experimental data obtained from a study of advanced sleep-wake schedules and light exposures on circadian phase advances measured by dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO). The present results demonstrate that morning CAR is strongly related to rising time and more weakly related to DLMO phase.

  13. Relationship of Morning Cortisol to Circadian Phase and Rising Time in Young Adults with Delayed Sleep Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Rea


    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at further elucidating the relationship between circadian phase, rising time, and the morning cortisol awakening response (CAR. The results presented here are a secondary analysis of experimental data obtained from a study of advanced sleep-wake schedules and light exposures on circadian phase advances measured by dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO. The present results demonstrate that morning CAR is strongly related to rising time and more weakly related to DLMO phase.

  14. X-ray polarimetry with a conventional gas proportional counter through rise-time analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashida, K; Tsunemi, H; Torii, K; Murakami, H; Ohno, Y; Tamura, K


    We have performed an experiment on the signal rise time of a Xe gas proportional counter using a polarized X-ray beam of synchrotron orbital radiation with energies from 10 to 40 keV. When the counter anode is perpendicular to the electric vector of the incident X-ray photons, the average rise time becomes significantly longer than that for the parallel case. This indicates that the conventional gas proportional counters are useful for X-ray polarimetry. The moderate modulation contrast of this rise-time polarimeter (M=0.1 for 10 keV X-rays and M=0.35 for 40 keV X-rays), with capability of the simultaneous measuring X-ray energies and the timing, would be useful for applications in X-ray astronomy and in other fields.

  15. Comparison of occlusion break responses and vacuum rise times of phacoemulsification systems. (United States)

    Sharif-Kashani, Pooria; Fanney, Douglas; Injev, Val


    Occlusion break surge during phacoemulsification cataract surgery can lead to potential surgical complications. The purpose of this study was to quantify occlusion break surge and vacuum rise time of current phacoemulsification systems used in cataract surgery. Occlusion break surge at vacuum pressures between 200 and 600 mmHg was assessed with the Infiniti® Vision System, the WhiteStar Signature® Phacoemulsification System, and the Centurion® Vision System using gravity-fed fluidics. Centurion Active FluidicsTM were also tested at multiple intraoperative pressure target settings. Vacuum rise time was evaluated for Infiniti, WhiteStar Signature, Centurion, and Stellaris® Vision Enhancement systems. Rise time to vacuum limits of 400 and 600 mmHg was assessed at flow rates of 30 and 60 cc/minute. Occlusion break surge was analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance. The Centurion system exhibited substantially less occlusion break surge than the other systems tested. Surge area with Centurion Active Fluidics was similar to gravity fluidics at an equivalent bottle height. At all Centurion Active Fluidics intraoperative pressure target settings tested, surge was smaller than with Infiniti and WhiteStar Signature. Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise time and Stellaris had the slowest. No system tested reached the 600-mmHg vacuum limit. In this laboratory study, Centurion had the least occlusion break surge and similar vacuum rise times compared with the other systems tested. Reducing occlusion break surge may increase safety of phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

  16. Transistorized Marx bank pulse circuit provides voltage multiplication with nanosecond rise-time (United States)

    Jung, E. A.; Lewis, R. N.


    Base-triggered avalanche transistor circuit used in a Marx bank pulser configuration provides voltage multiplication with nanosecond rise-time. The avalanche-mode transistors replace conventional spark gaps in the Marx bank. The delay time from an input signal to the output signal to the output is typically 6 nanoseconds.

  17. Semiconductor sharpeners providing a subnanosecond voltage rise time of GW-range pulses (United States)

    Gusev, A. I.; Pedos, M. S.; Rukin, S. N.; Timoshenkov, S. P.; Tsyranov, S. N.


    The article describes semiconductor sharpeners providing a subnanosecond voltage rise time of GW-range pulses. The sharpeners are made as stacks of series-connected dynistor structures built into an oil-filled coaxial line with 48 Ω wave impedance at the place of an inner conductor. Two sequential sections of pulse sharpening are used. An input voltage pulse has the amplitude of 540 kV with the rise time of ˜1.2 ns at 0.2-0.9 level from the amplitude and voltage rise rate of ˜0.3 MV/ns. After pulse propagation through the sharpening sections, its rise time is reduced down to 360 ps, and the voltage rise rate is increased up to ˜0.95 MV/ns. Peak power of the sharpened pulse is within the range of 4.5-5.5 GW. The sharpeners are tested at a pulse repetition frequency of up to 1 kHz. Sharpener operation is studied by numerical simulation methods. Experimental waveforms of output pulses and the corresponding calculated voltage-time dependences are in statistical agreement.

  18. Sub-microsecond temporal evolution of edge density during edge localized modes in KSTAR tokamak plasmas inferred from ion cyclotron emission (United States)

    Chapman, B.; Dendy, R. O.; McClements, K. G.; Chapman, S. C.; Yun, G. S.; Thatipamula, S. G.; Kim, M. H.


    During edge localised mode (ELM) crashes in KSTAR deuterium plasmas, bursts of spectrally structured ion cyclotron emission (ICE) are detected. Usually the ICE spectrum chirps downwards during an ELM crash, on sub-microsecond timescales. For KSTAR ICE where the separation of spectral peak frequencies is close to the proton cyclotron frequency Ω_cp at the outer plasma edge, we show that the driving population of energetic ions is likely to be a subset of the 3 MeV fusion protons, born centrally on deeply passing orbits which drift from the core to the edge plasma. We report first principles modelling of this scenario using a particle-in-cell code, which evolves the full orbit dynamics of large numbers of energetic protons, thermal deuterons, and electrons self-consistently with the electric and magnetic fields. The Fourier transform of the excited fields in the nonlinear saturated regime of the simulations is the theoretical counterpart to the measured ICE spectra. Multiple simulation runs for different, adjacent, values of the plasma density under KSTAR edge conditions enable us to infer the theoretical dependence of ICE spectral structure on the local electron number density. By matching this density dependence to the observed time-dependence of chirping ICE spectra in KSTAR, we obtain sub-microsecond time resolution of the evolving local electron number density during the ELM crash.

  19. Discriminating cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time using a GEM detector (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Yin; Zhao, Sheng-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Qi, Hui-Rong; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Ke-Yan; Hu, Bi-Tao; Zhang, Yi


    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors have been used in cosmic muon scattering tomography and neutron imaging over the last decade. In this work, a triple GEM device with an effective readout area of 10 cm × 10 cm is developed, and a method of discriminating between cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time is tested. The energy resolution of the GEM detector is tested by 55Fe ray source to prove the GEM detector has a good performance. Analysis of the complete signal-cycles allows us to get the rise time and pulse heights. The experiment result indicates that cosmic muons and X-rays can be discriminated with an appropriate rise time threshold. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11135002, 11275235, 11405077, 11575073)

  20. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in man. 1: Effect of stimulus rise-fall time and duration (United States)

    Hecox, K.; Squires, N.; Galambos, R.


    Short latency (under 10 msec) responses elicited by bursts of white noise were recorded from the scalps of human subjects. Response alterations produced by changes in the noise burst duration (on-time), inter-burst interval (off-time), and onset and offset shapes were analyzed. The latency of the most prominent response component, wave V, was markedly delayed with increases in stimulus rise time but was unaffected by changes in fall time. Increases in stimulus duration, and therefore in loudness, resulted in a systematic increase in latency. This was probably due to response recovery processes, since the effect was eliminated with increases in stimulus off-time. The amplitude of wave V was insensitive to changes in signal rise and fall times, while increasing signal on-time produced smaller amplitude responses only for sufficiently short off-times. It was concluded that wave V of the human auditory brainstem evoked response is solely an onset response.

  1. Modular High Voltage Pulse Converter for Short Rise and Decay Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, S.


    This thesis explores a modular HV pulse converter technology with short rise and decay times. A systematic methodology to derive and classify HV architectures based on a modularization level of power building blocks of the HV pulse converter is developed to summarize existing architectures and

  2. Rise Time Perception and Detection of Syllable Stress in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia (United States)

    Leong, Victoria; Hamalainen, Jarmo; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Goswami, Usha


    Introduction: The perception of syllable stress has not been widely studied in developmental dyslexia, despite strong evidence for auditory rhythmic perceptual difficulties. Here we investigate the hypothesis that perception of sound rise time is related to the perception of syllable stress in adults with developmental dyslexia. Methods: A…

  3. Rise Time Perception in Children with Reading and Combined Reading and Language Difficulties (United States)

    Beattie, Rachel L.; Manis, Franklin R.


    Using a non-speech-specific measure of prosody, rise time perception, Goswami and her colleagues have found that individuals with dyslexia perform significantly worse than nonimpaired readers. Studies have also found that children and adults with specific language impairment were impaired on these tasks. Despite the high comorbidity of these…

  4. SPS Injection and Beam Quality for LHC Heavy Ions With 150 ns Kicker Rise Time

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, Brennan; Ducimetière, Laurent; Kotzian, Gerd; Uythoven, Jan; Velotti, Francesco


    As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHC heavy ions, the SPS injection kicker system rise time needs reduction below its present 225 ns. One technically challenging option under consideration is the addition of fast Pulse Forming Lines in parallel to the existing Pulse Forming Networks for the 12 kicker magnets MKP-S, targeting a system field rise time of 100 ns. An alternative option is to optimise the system to approach the existing individual magnet field rise time (2-98%) of 150 ns. This would still significantly increase the number of colliding bunches in LHC while minimising the cost and effort of the system upgrade. The observed characteristics of the present system are described, compared to the expected system rise time, together with results of simulations and measurements with 175 and 150 ns injection batch spacing. The expected beam quality at injection into LHC is quantified, with the emittance growth and simulated tail population taking into account expected jitter and synchronisatio...

  5. Compact submicrosecond, high current generator for wire explosion experiments (United States)

    Aranchuk, L. E.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Larour, J.


    The PIAF generator was designed for low total energy and high energy density experiments with liners, X-pinch or fiber Z-pinch loads. These studies are of interest for such applications as surface and material science, microscopy of biological specimens, lithography of x-ray sensitive resists, and x-ray backlighting of pulsed-power plasmas. The generator is based on an RLC circuit that includes six NWL 180 nF-50 kV capacitors that store up to 1.3 kJ. The capacitors are connected in parallel to a single multispark switch designed to operate at atmospheric pressure. The switch allows reaching a time delay between the trigger pulse and the current pulse of less than 80 ns and has jitter of 6 ns. The total inductance without a load compartment was optimized to be as low as 16 nH, which leads to extremely low impedance of ˜0.12 Ω. A 40 kV initial voltage provides 250 kA maximum current in a 6 nH inductive load with a 180 ns current rise time. PIAF has dimensions of 660×660×490 mm and weight of less than 100 kg, thus manifesting itself as robust, simple to operate, and cost effective. A description of the PIAF generator and the initial experimental results on PIAF with an X-pinch type load are reported. The generator was demonstrated to operate successfully with an X-pinch type load. The experiments first started with investigation of the previously unexplored X-pinch conduction time range, 100 ns-1 μs. A single short radiation pulse was obtained that came from a small, point-like plasma. The following x-ray source characteristics were achieved: typical hot spot size of 50-100 μm, radiation pulse duration of 1.5-2 ns, and radiation yield of about 250-500 mJ in the softer spectral range (hν⩾700 eV) and 50-100 mJ in the harder one (hν⩾1 keV). These results provide the potential for further application of this source, such as use as a backlight diagnostic tool.

  6. Music, rhythm, rise time perception and developmental dyslexia: Perception of musical meter predicts reading and phonology


    M. Huss; Verney, J.P.; Fosker, Tim; Mead, N.; Goswami, U.


    Introduction: Rhythm organises musical events into patterns and forms, and rhythm perception in music is usually studied by using metrical tasks. Metrical structure also plays an organisational function in the phonology of language, via speech prosody, and there is evidence for rhythmic perceptual difficulties in developmental dyslexia. Here we investigate the hypothesis that the accurate perception of musical metrical structure is related to basic auditory perception of rise time, and also t...

  7. Luminescent rise times of inorganic phosphors excited by high intensity ultraviolet light. (United States)

    Anderson, R J; Ricchio, S G


    The relative delay between excitation and luminescence was measured for a number of common inorganic phosphors using short, high intensity excitation pulses. The delays were found to be much shorter than anticipated; on the basis of low intensity pulsed luminescence measurements and were found to be extremely intensity-dependent. Both the luminescence rise and decay times were found to be intensitydependent as well, with the luminescence pulse waveform tending to approach the exciting pulse at the higher excitation intensities.

  8. Music, rhythm, rise time perception and developmental dyslexia: perception of musical meter predicts reading and phonology. (United States)

    Huss, Martina; Verney, John P; Fosker, Tim; Mead, Natasha; Goswami, Usha


    Rhythm organises musical events into patterns and forms, and rhythm perception in music is usually studied by using metrical tasks. Metrical structure also plays an organisational function in the phonology of language, via speech prosody, and there is evidence for rhythmic perceptual difficulties in developmental dyslexia. Here we investigate the hypothesis that the accurate perception of musical metrical structure is related to basic auditory perception of rise time, and also to phonological and literacy development in children. A battery of behavioural tasks was devised to explore relations between musical metrical perception, auditory perception of amplitude envelope structure, phonological awareness (PA) and reading in a sample of 64 typically-developing children and children with developmental dyslexia. We show that individual differences in the perception of amplitude envelope rise time are linked to musical metrical sensitivity, and that musical metrical sensitivity predicts PA and reading development, accounting for over 60% of variance in reading along with age and I.Q. Even the simplest metrical task, based on a duple metrical structure, was performed significantly more poorly by the children with dyslexia. The accurate perception of metrical structure may be critical for phonological development and consequently for the development of literacy. Difficulties in metrical processing are associated with basic auditory rise time processing difficulties, suggesting a primary sensory impairment in developmental dyslexia in tracking the lower-frequency modulations in the speech envelope. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  9. Rising methane: post-2007 growth, geographic loci, timings and isotopic shift (United States)

    Nisbet, Euan G.; Manning, Martin R.; Dlugokencky, Ed; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; Brownlow, Rebecca


    Atmospheric methane is rising rapidly again, after a period of stability [1]. NOAA report a global growth rate from 2007-2013 of 5.7±1.2 ppb yr-1, followed by extreme growth of 12.6±0.5 ppb in 2014 and 10.0±0.7 ppb in 2015. Growth has been accompanied by a shift in δ13C(CH4) (a measure of the 13C/12C isotope ratio in methane) to significantly more negative values since 2007. This isotopic shift has been observed in independently calibrated NOAA, Royal Holloway and NIWA-New Zealand measurements: thus the negative trend is real, global, and not a calibration artifact. Fossil fuel methane emissions, which are mostly more positive than atmospheric values, are not driving the rise in methane. Instead, the geographic loci of post-2007 growth, and the timings of the methane rise and isotopic shift suggest growth was dominated by significant increases in biogenic methane emissions, particularly in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere: for example in years with heavy rainfall under the Inter-Tropical Convergence, from wetlands and increased agricultural sources such as ruminants and rice paddies. Changes in the removal rate of methane by the OH radical or other sinks may also have occurred but do not appear fully to explain short term variations in methane isotopes. All these drivers of rising methane - wetlands, ruminants, changing sinks - may reflect underlying decade-long trends in tropical climate: methane may thus be an important climate-change signal. 1. Nisbet, E.G. et al. (2016) Rising atmospheric methane: 2007-2014 growth and isotopic shift, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 30, doi:10.1002/ 2016GB005406.

  10. Measuring Sea Level Rise-Induced Shoreline Changes and Inundation in Real Time (United States)

    Shilling, F.; Waetjen, D.; Grijalva, E.


    We describe a method to monitor shoreline inundation and changes in response to sea level rise (SLR) using a network of time-lapse cameras. We found for coastal tidal marshes that this method was sensitive to vertical changes in sea level of 20 cm has occurred in the San Francisco Bay and other US coastal areas and is likely to rise by another 30-45 cm by mid-century, which will flood and erode many coastal ecosystems, highways, and urban areas. This rapid degree of rise means that it is imperative to co-plan for natural and built systems. Many public facilities are adjacent to shoreline ecosystems, which both protect infrastructure from wave and tide energy and are home to regulated species and habitats. Accurate and timely information about the actual extent of SLR impacts to shorelines will be critical during built-system adaptation. Currently, satellite-sourced imagery cannot provide the spatial or temporal resolution necessary to investigate fine-scale shoreline changes, leaving a gap between predictive models and knowing how, where and when these changes are occurring. The method described is feasible for near-term (1 to 10 years) to long-term application and can be used for measuring fine-resolution shoreline changes (mashup. This information could be used to validate models predicting shoreline inundation and loss, inform SLR-adaptation planning, and to visualize SLR impacts to the public.

  11. Global Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Level Rise Estimation with Optimal Historical Time Lag Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa M. Aral


    Full Text Available Prediction of global temperatures and sea level rise (SLR is important for sustainable development planning of coastal regions of the world and the health and safety of communities living in these regions. In this study, climate change effects on sea level rise is investigated using a dynamic system model (DSM with time lag on historical input data. A time-invariant (TI-DSM and time-variant dynamic system model (TV-DSM with time lag is developed to predict global temperatures and SLR in the 21st century. The proposed model is an extension of the DSM developed by the authors. The proposed model includes the effect of temperature and sea level states of several previous years on the current temperature and sea level over stationary and also moving scale time periods. The optimal time lag period used in the model is determined by minimizing a synthetic performance index comprised of the root mean square error and coefficient of determination which is a measure for the reliability of the predictions. Historical records of global temperature and sea level from 1880 to 2001 are used to calibrate the model. The optimal time lag is determined to be eight years, based on the performance measures. The calibrated model was then used to predict the global temperature and sea levels in the 21st century using a fixed time lag period and moving scale time lag periods. To evaluate the adverse effect of greenhouse gas emissions on SLR, the proposed model was also uncoupled to project the SLR based on global temperatures that are obtained from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC emission scenarios. The projected SLR estimates for the 21st century are presented comparatively with the predictions made in previous studies.

  12. Sound localization: effects of reverberation time, speaker array, stimulus frequency, and stimulus rise/decay. (United States)

    Giguère, C; Abel, S M


    This research assessed the ability of human listeners to localize one-third octave noise bands in the horizontal plane. The effects of reverberation time (absorbent versus reverberant room), stimulus center frequency (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz), stimulus rise/decay time (5 vs 200 ms) and speaker array (frontal versus lateral) were investigated for four subjects using a forced-choice speaker-identification paradigm. Sound localization scores were consistently lower in the reverberant room than in the absorbent room. They also revealed strong frequency and azimuthal effects. The benefit of a shorter rise/decay time was small and limited to low frequencies. The identification of a speaker position depended strongly upon the array in which it was embedded, primarily because localization in the lateral array led to frequency-dependent front/back confusions and response bias. The results also illustrated the importance of choosing a coordinate system based on the auditory cone-of-confusion to analyze localization data for speaker arrays spanning the aural axis.

  13. An optically coupled power stimulus isolation unit with high voltage and fast rise time output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.O. Brasil


    Full Text Available Recent technological developments have created new devices that could improve and simplify the construction of stimulus isolators. HEXFET transistors can switch large currents and hundreds of volts in nanoseconds. The newer opto-isolators can give a pulse rise time of a few nanoseconds, with output compatible with MOSFET devices, in which delays are reduced to nanoseconds. Integrated DC/DC converters are now available. Using these new resources we developed a new electrical stimulus isolator circuit with selectable constant-current and constant-voltage modes, which are precise and easy to construct. The circuit works like a regulated power supply in both modes with output switched to zero or to free mode through an opto-isolator device. The isolator analyses showed good practical performance. The output to ground resistance was 1011 ohms and capacitance 35 picofarads. The rise time and fall time were identical (5 µs and constant. The selectable voltage or current output mode made it very convenient to use. The current mode, with higher output resistance values in low current ranges, permits intracellular stimulation even with tip resistances close to 100 megaohms. The high compliance of 200 V guarantees the value of the current stimulus. The very low output resistance in the voltage mode made the device highly suitable for extracellular stimulation with low impedance electrodes. Most importantly, these characteristics were achieved with a circuit that was easy to build and modify and assembled with components available in Brazil.

  14. An optically coupled power stimulus isolation unit with high voltage and fast rise time output. (United States)

    Brasil, R O; Leal-Cardoso, J H


    Recent technological developments have created new devices that could improve and simplify the construction of stimulus isolators. HEXFET transistors can switch large currents and hundreds of volts in nanoseconds. The newer opto-isolators can give a pulse rise time of a few nanoseconds, with output compatible with MOSFET devices, in which delays are reduced to nanoseconds. Integrated DC/DC converters are now available. Using these new resources we developed a new electrical stimulus isolator circuit with selectable constant-current and constant-voltage modes, which are precise and easy to construct. The circuit works like a regulated power supply in both modes with output switched to zero or to free mode through an opto-isolator device. The isolator analyses showed good practical performance. The output to ground resistance was 10(11) ohms and capacitance 35 picofarads. The rise time and fall time were identical (5 microseconds) and constant. The selectable voltage or current output mode made it very convenient to use. The current mode, with higher output resistance values in low current ranges, permits intracellular stimulation even with tip resistances close to 100 megaohms. The high compliance of 200 V guarantees the value of the current stimulus. The very low output resistance in the voltage mode made the device highly suitable for extracellular stimulation with low impedance electrodes. Most importantly, these characteristics were achieved with a circuit that was easy to build and modify and assembled with components available in Brazil.

  15. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Troyer, G L


    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse r...

  16. Analysis and Compensation of Dead-Time Effect of a ZVT PWM Inverter Considering the Rise- and Fall-Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailin Zhang


    Full Text Available The dead-time effect, as an intrinsic problem of the converters based on the half-bridge unit, leads to distortions in the converter output. Although several dead-time effect compensation or elimination methods have been proposed, they cannot fully remove the dead-time effect of blanking delay error, because the output current polarity is difficult detect accurately. This paper utilizes the zero-voltage-switching (ZVT technique to eliminate the blanking delay error, which is the main drawback of the hard-switching inverter, although the technique initially aims to improve the efficiency. A typical ZVT inverter—the auxiliary resonant snubber inverter (ARSI is analyzed. The blanking delay error is completely eliminated in the ARSI. Another error source caused by the finite rise- and fall-times of the voltage is analyzed, which was not considered in the hard-switching inverter. A compensation method based on the voltage error estimation is proposed to compensate the rise- and fall-error. A prototype was developed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control. Both the simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the qualities of the output current and voltage in the ARSI are better than that in the hard-switching inverter due to the elimination of the blanking delay error. The total harmonic distortion (THD of the output is further reduced by using the proposed compensation method in the ARSI.

  17. Measuring the diameter of rising gas bubbles by means of the ultrasound transit time technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, T., E-mail:; Eckert, K., E-mail:; Yang, X.; Odenbach, S.


    Highlights: • Ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) is applied to the zig-zag raise of gas bubble. • Comparison of bubble diameter and tilt, measured by UTTT, with high-speed imaging. • Uncertainty in the determination of the bubble diameter by UTTT is less than 7%. • UTTT is able to measure dynamic changes in bubble size in opaque liquids and vessels. • UTTT can be applied to liquid metal loops. - Abstract: This study presents ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) measurements of the diameter variations of single argon bubbles rising in a zig-zag trajectory in water. Simultaneous size measurements with a high-speed camera show that UTTT resolves both the apparent diameter and the tilt of the bubble axis with an accuracy of better than 7%. This qualifies UTTT for the measurement of bubble sizes in opaque liquids, such as liquid metals, or vessels.

  18. High-Voltage Power Supply With Fast Rise and Fall Times (United States)

    Bearden, Douglas B.; Acker, Richard M.; Kapuslka, Robert E.


    A special-purpose high-voltage power supply can be electronically switched on and off with fast rise and fall times, respectively. The output potential is programmable from 20 to 1,250 V. An output current of 50 A can be sustained at 1,250 V. The power supply was designed specifically for electronically shuttering a microchannel plate in an x-ray detector that must operate with exposure times as short as 1 ms. The basic design of the power supply is also adaptable to other applications in which there are requirements for rapid slewing of high voltages. The power-supply circuitry (see figure) includes a preregulator, which is used to program the output at 1/30 of the desired output potential. After the desired voltage has been set, the outputs of a pulse width modulator (PWM) are enabled and used to amplify the preregulator output potential by 30. The amplification is achieved by use of two voltage doublers with a transformer that has two primary and two secondary windings. A resistor is used to limit the current by controlling the drive voltage of two field-effect transistors (FETs) during turn-on of the PWM. A pulse transformer is used to turn on four FETs to short-circuit four output capacitors when the outputs of the PWM have been disabled. The most notable aspects of the performance of the power supply are a rise time of only 80 s and a fall time of only 60 s at a load current of 50 A or less. Another notable aspect is that the application of a 0-to-5-V square wave to a shutdown pin of the PWM causes the production of a 0-to-1,250-V square wave at the output terminals.

  19. Distinguishing Between Electrons and γ-Rays in Experiment TGV Using a Pulse Rise Time (United States)

    Čermák, P.; Štekl, I.; Beneš, P.; Brudanin, V. B.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Egorov, V. G.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kovalík, A.; Pismenniy, R.; Salamatin, A. V.; Timkin, V.; Vylov, Ts.; Vénos, D.


    The TGV (Telescope Germanium Vertical) collaboration is interested in the measurement of double-beta decay of 48Ca (TGV I) and 106Cd (TGV II). The background in the experiment TGV I has been suppressed by several methods. One of them was based on distinguishing between electrons and -rays due to the different rise time of the signals obtained from semiconductor detector. Two experimental setups have been tested, the first one used a charge-sensitive analog-to-digital converter, while the second one utilized digital oscilloscope. The reduction of the background counting rate (due to -rays) in single HPGe detector by a factor of (1.4-3.8) was reached.

  20. Timing and magnitude of accelerated relative sea-level rise in North Carolina (United States)

    Kemp, A. C.; Horton, B. P.; Culver, S. J.; Corbett, D. R.; van de Plassche, O.


    We present a 1000 year, high resolution record of relative sea-level rise (RSLR) from foraminifera preserved in salt-marsh sediments at four sites in North Carolina. Reconstructions of sea level across the region enable us to identify regional trends and spatial variation in the timing and magnitude of RSLR. In the absence of long-term instrumental records in this region, geologically derived estimates of former sea level are necessary to detect changes in the rate of RSLR. Using a foraminifera-based transfer function we show that RSLR increased at the start of the 19th Century from a background rate of 0.8mm/yr ± 0.04mm to 1.5mm/yr ± 0.16mm. We identified a second acceleration around 1900AD to ~4mm/yr. This current rate of RSLR has been reconciled with the available tide gauge data and validates our approach. Contemporary foraminifera were collected from 11 salt marshes in North Carolina representing a wide range of physiographic settings. The strong relationship between foraminifera and elevation in the modern environment was used to develop a regional scale transfer function. We reconstructed RSL by applying this transfer function to assemblages of foraminifera in four cores of salt-marsh peat recovered from sites across the Albemarle - Pamlico Estuarine system. The timing of RSL changes is constrained by age models developed from composite chronologies of conventional, high precision and bomb spike radiocarbon, 210Pb, 137Cs dating and a pollen chrono-horizon (Ambrosia). Recent geological investigations of historic RSL in North America (e.g., Maine and Connecticut) have identified accelerated rates of sea-level rise beginning in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. Our study suggests that in North Carolina the onset of rapid RSL change began earlier (around the beginning of the 19th Century) and is comprised of two distinct accelerations. High resolution studies of RSL change and accurate dating of accelerations may be able to provide new information

  1. Pulse generator using transistors and silicon controlled rectifiers produces high current pulses with fast rise and fall times (United States)

    Woolfson, M. G.


    Electrical pulse generator uses power transistors and silicon controlled rectifiers for producing a high current pulse having fast rise and fall times. At quiescent conditions, the standby power consumption of the circuit is equal to zero.

  2. Sub-microsecond beam notching at low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab


    A technique for creating a burst of 100 ns notches (beam extinctions) in an H{sup -} beam at 454 kHz has been developed at {le} 20 keV utilizing a Magnetron ion source with a slit extraction system and a split extractor. Each half of the extractor is treated as part of a 50 ohm transmission line which can be pulsed at {+-} 700 volts creating a 1400 volt gradient across the extractor. A beam current reduction of better than 95% has been observed at the end of the Fermilab 400 MeV Linac. Notched multi-turn charge-exchange injection into the Booster, a 400 MeV to 8 GeV synchrotron, has been demonstrated with a charge reduction in the resulting beam gap of 83%. Presently, the trailing edge of the notch may be adversely affected by space charge resulting in a beam recovery with two different time constants. Efforts to minimize this effect are discussed.

  3. Timed Rise from Floor as a Predictor of Disease Progression in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: An Observational Study (United States)

    Mazzone, Elena S.; Coratti, Giorgia; Sormani, Maria Pia; Messina, Sonia; Pane, Marika; D'Amico, Adele; Colia, Giulia; Fanelli, Lavinia; Berardinelli, Angela; Gardani, Alice; Lanzillotta, Valentina; D’Ambrosio, Paola; Petillo, Roberta; Cavallaro, Filippo; Frosini, Silvia; Bello, Luca; Bonfiglio, Serena; De Sanctis, Roberto; Rolle, Enrica; Forcina, Nicola; Magri, Francesca; Vita, Gianluca; Palermo, Concetta; Donati, Maria Alice; Procopio, Elena; Arnoldi, Maria Teresa; Baranello, Giovanni; Mongini, Tiziana; Pini, Antonella; Battini, Roberta; Pegoraro, Elena; Torrente, Yvan; Previtali, Stefano C.; Bruno, Claudio; Politano, Luisa; Comi, Giacomo P.; D’Angelo, Maria Grazia; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio


    Background The role of timed items, and more specifically, of the time to rise from the floor, has been reported as an early prognostic factor for disease progression and loss of ambulation. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible effect of the time to rise from the floor test on the changes observed on the 6MWT over 12 months in a cohort of ambulant Duchenne boys. Subjects and methods A total of 487 12-month data points were collected from 215 ambulant Duchenne boys. The age ranged between 5.0 and 20.0 years (mean 8.48 ±2.48 DS). Results The results of the time to rise from the floor at baseline ranged from 1.2 to 29.4 seconds in the boys who could perform the test. 49 patients were unable to perform the test at baseline and 87 at 12 month The 6MWT values ranged from 82 to 567 meters at baseline. 3 patients lost the ability to perform the 6mwt at 12 months. The correlation between time to rise from the floor and 6MWT at baseline was high (r = 0.6, p<0.01). Conclusions Both time to rise from the floor and baseline 6MWT were relevant for predicting 6MWT changes in the group above the age of 7 years, with no interaction between the two measures, as the impact of time to rise from the floor on 6MWT change was similar in the patients below and above 350 m. Our results suggest that, time to rise from the floor can be considered an additional important prognostic factor of 12 month changes on the 6MWT and, more generally, of disease progression. PMID:26982196

  4. Timed Rise from Floor as a Predictor of Disease Progression in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S Mazzone

    Full Text Available The role of timed items, and more specifically, of the time to rise from the floor, has been reported as an early prognostic factor for disease progression and loss of ambulation. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible effect of the time to rise from the floor test on the changes observed on the 6MWT over 12 months in a cohort of ambulant Duchenne boys.A total of 487 12-month data points were collected from 215 ambulant Duchenne boys. The age ranged between 5.0 and 20.0 years (mean 8.48 ±2.48 DS.The results of the time to rise from the floor at baseline ranged from 1.2 to 29.4 seconds in the boys who could perform the test. 49 patients were unable to perform the test at baseline and 87 at 12 month The 6MWT values ranged from 82 to 567 meters at baseline. 3 patients lost the ability to perform the 6mwt at 12 months. The correlation between time to rise from the floor and 6MWT at baseline was high (r = 0.6, p<0.01.Both time to rise from the floor and baseline 6MWT were relevant for predicting 6MWT changes in the group above the age of 7 years, with no interaction between the two measures, as the impact of time to rise from the floor on 6MWT change was similar in the patients below and above 350 m. Our results suggest that, time to rise from the floor can be considered an additional important prognostic factor of 12 month changes on the 6MWT and, more generally, of disease progression.

  5. A 200 kV fast rise time, low jitter, trigger system with magnetic pulse sharpener

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaitly, N.C.; Ramrus, A. [Maxwell Labs., Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Coleman, M.D. [Directed Technologies, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Earley, L.M.; Downing, J.N.; Reisch, H.H.; Caudill, L.D.; Eversol, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    The DARHT Facility is being designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to produce high resolution flash radiographs of hydrodynamic experiments. Two linear induction accelerators (LIA), each in the range of 16 to 20 MeV, will be used to produce intense bremsstrahlung X-ray pulses of short duration (60 ns flat top). Each LIA will produce a 3 kA, high brightness, electron beam using a 4 MeV injector and a series of 250 kV induction cells. Technology demonstration of key accelerator subsystems is under progress at the DARHT Integrated Test Stand (ITS). The eight inductions cells present in the ITS are driven by a Maxwell prototype Induction Cell Pulsed Power Supply (ICPPS) which provides 250 kV, 70ns pulses via four Blumleins. Each Blumlein drives two cells and is triggered using independently controlled trigger units. This turnkey DARHT Trigger System, consisting of four separate trigger units, provides 200 kV trigger pulses with low jitter and fast rise time to each of the four Blumlein coaxial spark gaps. Details of the trigger system design and results obtained during extensive testing at Maxwell are described.

  6. Diversity of Decline-Rate-Corrected Type 1a Supernova Rise times:One Mode or Two?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strovink, Mark


    B-band light-curve rise times for eight unusually well-observed nearby Type Ia supernova (SNe) are fitted by a newly developed template-building algorithm, using light-curve functions that are smooth, flexible, and free of potential bias from externally derived templates and other prior assumptions. From the available literature, photometric BVRI data collected over many months, including the earliest points, are reconciled, combined, and fitted to a unique time of explosion for each SN. On average, after they are corrected for light-curve decline rate, three SNe rise in 18.81 {+-} 0.36 days, while five SNe rise in 16.64 {+-} 0.21 days. If all eight SNe are sampled from a single parent population (a hypothesis not favored by statistical tests), the rms intrinsic scatter of the decline-rate-corrected SN rise time is 0.96{sub -0.25}{sup +0.52} days--a first measurement of this dispersion. The corresponding global mean rise time is 17.44 {+-} 0.39 days, where the uncertainty is dominated by intrinsic variance. This value is {approx}2 days shorter than two published averages that nominally are twice as precise, though also based on small samples. When comparing high-z to low-z SN luminosities for determining cosmological parameters, bias can be introduced by use of a light-curve template with an unrealistic rise time. If the period over which light curves are sampled depends on z in a manner typical of current search and measurement strategies, a two-day discrepancy in template rise time can bias the luminosity comparison by {approx}0.03 magnitudes.

  7. Investigation of electrodes under flow of a submicrosecond current pulse with linear density up to 3 MA/cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branitskii, A. V.; Grabovskii, E. V.; Dzhangobegov, V. V.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M., E-mail:; Sasorov, P. V. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation Troitsk Institute For Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI) (Russian Federation); Tkachenko, S. I. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University) (Russian Federation); Frolov, I. N. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation Troitsk Institute For Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI) (Russian Federation)


    The states of current-carrying elements at the transmission of megaampere current into load are studied. It is determined that the expansion velocity of plasma generated at the outer surface of cylindrical tubes produced of stainless steel, at flowing through them of submicrosecond current pulses with linear density of 3 MA/cm is 5.5 km/s. The evolution of various modes of instability is analyzed.

  8. Destruction of hazardous air pollutants using a fast rise time pulsed corona reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzekwa, R.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico87545-1663 (United States); Grothaus, M.G. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, P.O. Drawer 28510, San Antonio, Texas78228-0510 (United States); Hutcherson, R.K. [OSRAM Sylvania, Inc., 71 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915 (United States); Roush, R.A. [Federal Bureau of Investigation, Engineering Research Facility, MS EST-5, Building 27958-A, Quantico, Virginia22135 (United States); Brown, R. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, Virginia22448-5100 (United States)


    Increasingly stringent environmental regulation imposed on both the military and civilian sectors has created a growing demand for alternative abatement methods for a variety of hazardous compounds. One alternative, the nonthermal plasma, shows promise of providing an efficient means for the destruction of dilute concentrations of hazardous air pollutants. The Dahlgren Laboratory of the Naval Surface Warfare Center has extensively investigated one type of nonthermal plasma discharge, the pulsed corona reactor, for the destruction of volatile organic compounds and chemical warfare agents. In this reactor, a fast rise time ({approximately}10ns), short duration ({lt}100ns), high-voltage pulse is repetitively delivered to a wire-cylinder electrode geometry, thereby producing a multitude of streamer discharges along its length. The resulting nonthermal plasma contains highly reactive chemical radicals which can interact with and destroy the hazardous molecules entrained in the ambient atmosphere flowing through the reactor volume. Increased electrical efficiency was obtained using a combination of high efficiency constant-current capacitor-charging, high repetition-rate spark gap switching, and resonant energy transfer to the reactor. Promising results have been obtained for toluene, methylene chloride, and dichlorodifluoromethane in air at concentrations of a few hundred parts per million. The device has been operated at voltages up to 30 kV, pulse repetition rates up to 1.4 kHz, and flow rates up to 60 scr(l)/min. Detailed electrical measurements have been made to properly characterize the electrical properties of the pulsed corona reactor and to validate subsequent improvements in the reactor energy efficiency. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Masayuki; Nogami, Daisaku [Kwasan Observatory, Kyoto University, 17-1 Kitakazan-ohmine-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kawabata, Miho; Masumoto, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Katsura [Astronomical Institute, Osaka Kyoiku University, Asahigaoka, Kashiwara, Osaka 582-8582 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaomi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Takaki, Katsutoshi; Ueno, Issei; Itoh, Ryosuke [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kawabata, Koji S.; Moritani, Yuki; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Arai, Akira; Honda, Satoshi [Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Nishiyama, Koichi [Kurume, Fukuoka-ken (Japan); Kabashima, Fujio, E-mail: [Miyaki-cho, Saga-ken (Japan)


    We report photometric and spectroscopic observations of the nearby Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) 2012ht from –15.8 days to +49.1 days after B-band maximum. The decline rate of the light curve is Δm {sub 15}(B) = 1.39 ± 0.05 mag, which is intermediate between normal and subluminous SNe Ia, and similar to that of the ''transitional'' Type Ia SN 2004eo. The spectral line profiles also closely resemble those of SN 2004eo. We were able to observe SN 2012ht at a very early phase, when it was still rising and was about three magnitudes fainter than at the peak. The rise time to the B-band maximum is estimated to be 17.6 ± 0.5 days and the time of the explosion is MJD 56277.98 ± 0.13. SN 2012ht is the first transitional SN Ia whose rise time is directly measured without using light curve templates, and the fifth SN Ia overall. This rise time is consistent with those of the other four SNe within the measurement error, even including the extremely early detection of SN 2013dy. The rising part of the light curve can be fitted by a quadratic function, and shows no sign of a shock-heating component due to the interaction of the ejecta with a companion star. The rise time is significantly longer than that inferred for subluminous SNe such as SN 1991bg, which suggests that a progenitor and/or explosion mechanism of transitional SNe Ia are more similar to normal SNe Ia rather than to subluminous SNe Ia.

  10. Sub-microsecond x-ray imaging using hole-collecting Schottky type CdTe with charge-integrating pixel array detectors (United States)

    Becker, J.; Tate, M. W.; Shanks, K. S.; Philipp, H. T.; Weiss, J. T.; Purohit, P.; Chamberlain, D.; Gruner, S. M.


    CdTe is increasingly being used as the x-ray sensing material in imaging pixel array detectors for x-rays, generally above 20 keV, where silicon sensors become unacceptably transparent. Unfortunately CdTe suffers from polarization, which can alter the response of the material over time and with accumulated dose. Most prior studies used long integration times or CdTe that was not of the hole-collecting Schottky type. We investigated the temporal response of hole-collecting Schottky type CdTe sensors on timescales ranging from tens of nanoseconds to several seconds. We found that the material shows signal persistence on the timescale of hundreds of milliseconds attributed to the detrapping of a shallow trap, and additional persistence on sub-microsecond timescales after polarization. The results show that this type of CdTe can be used for time resolved studies down to approximately 100 ns. However quantitative interpretation of the signal requires careful attention to bias voltages, polarization and exposure history.

  11. Rise time reduction of thermal actuators operated in air and water through optimized pre-shaped open-loop driving (United States)

    Larsen, T.; Doll, J. C.; Loizeau, F.; Hosseini, N.; Peng, A. W.; Fantner, G. E.; Ricci, A. J.; Pruitt, B. L.


    Electrothermal actuators have many advantages compared to other actuators used in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). They are simple to design, easy to fabricate and provide large displacements at low voltages. Low voltages enable less stringent passivation requirements for operation in liquid. Despite these advantages, thermal actuation is typically limited to a few kHz bandwidth when using step inputs due to its intrinsic thermal time constant. However, the use of pre-shaped input signals offers a route for reducing the rise time of these actuators by orders of magnitude. We started with an electrothermally actuated cantilever having an initial 10-90% rise time of 85 μs in air and 234 μs in water for a standard open-loop step input. We experimentally characterized the linearity and frequency response of the cantilever when operated in air and water, allowing us to obtain transfer functions for the two cases. We used these transfer functions, along with functions describing desired reduced rise-time system responses, to numerically simulate the required input signals. Using these pre-shaped input signals, we improved the open-loop 10-90% rise time from 85 μs to 3 μs in air and from 234 μs to 5 μs in water, an improvement by a factor of 28 and 47, respectively. Using this simple control strategy for MEMS electrothermal actuators makes them an attractive alternative to other high speed micromechanical actuators such as piezoelectric stacks or electrostatic comb structures which are more complex to design, fabricate, or operate.

  12. The Rise of Euroscepticism in Times of Crisis. Evidence from the 2008–2013 Eurobarometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bârgăoanu


    Full Text Available The financial and economic turmoil within the European Union has significantly impacted upon the way in which the European citizens assess the advantages of EU membership and the future of the integration process. Intensely preoccupied with the economic problems, the EU leadership has lost sight of the constant decrease of public support and the increasing lack of citizens’ confidence in the Union. This paper seeks to show the dynamics of public opinion between 2008 and 2013 with a special focus on the rise of Euroscepticism, using secondary data analysis of standard Eurobarometers. Our longitudinal analysis reveals the dynamics of EU-related attitudes and perceptions before, during, and after most of events that are usually labeled under the rather generic term “crisis”.

  13. Speech perception in rats: use of duration and rise time cues in labeling of affricate/fricative sounds. (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Howell, Peter; Sackin, Stevie; Pizzimenti, Lisa; Rosen, Stuart


    The voiceless affricate/fricative contrast has played an important role in developing auditory theories of speech perception. This type of theory draws some of its support from experimental data on animals. However, nothing is known about differential responding of affricate/fricative continua by animals. In the current study, the ability of hooded rats to "label" an affricate/fricative continuum was tested. Transfer (without retraining) to analogous nonspeech continua was also tested. The nonspeech continua were chosen so that if transfer occurred, it would indicate whether the animals had learned to use rise time or duration cues to differentiate affricates from fricatives. The data from 9 of 10 rats indicated that rats can discriminate between these cues and do so in a similar manner to human subjects. The data from 9 of 10 rats also demonstrated that the rise time of the stimulus was the basis of the discrimination; the remaining rat appeared to use duration. PMID:14674729

  14. Barrier discharges driven by sub-microsecond pulses at atmospheric pressure: Breakdown manipulation by pulse width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoder, Tomas; Hoeft, Hans; Kettlitz, Manfred; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Brandenburg, Ronny [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, INP Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)


    Barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure in nitrogen-oxygen mixture powered by high voltage pulses of widths between 10 {mu}s and 200 ns were investigated. The development of the microdischarges on rising and falling slopes was recorded by streak and intensified CCD cameras simultaneously. The breakdown on the falling slope strongly depends on the pulse width. As a result of pulse width variation the starting point of ignition changes and positive and negative streamers occur simultaneously in the falling slope. The observed effect is caused by the electric field rearrangement in the gap due to the different positive ion densities related to their gap crossing times.

  15. Gender Differences in Time Use among Adolescents in Developing Countries: Implications of Rising School Enrollment Rates (United States)

    Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Grant, Monica; Ritchie, Amanda


    This comparative analysis of gender differences in time use among adolescents uses surveys from five developing countries and is motivated by an interest in gender role socialization and gendered patterns of behavior during adolescence. Exploring differences in work (both noneconomic household work and labor market work) and leisure time among…

  16. [Comment on “Doctorate time rising sharply: How long should it take” by William Glen] Defining TTD (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.

    In response to the Forum article “Doctorate Time Rising Sharply: How long should it take?” by William Glen (March 27, 1990), I contend that Glen (and the authors of a book he cites) may be overlooking a possible explanation for the rise in time to doctorate (TTD). Is the time one spends working in his/her field between degrees considered and tabulated? It might be that after obtaining a bachelors or masters degree, the student seeks employment for a number of years before returning to school.Using myself as an example, after graduating with a masters degree in 1981 (bachelors in 1979), I worked as a research associate for NASA before returning to school in 1984. I completed my doctorate degree in 1987, making my actual time in school between the bachelors and doctorate degrees only 5 years. The TTD as defined in Forum would yield 8 years. I know of many others who have proceeded in getting a doctorate degree in a similar fashion. My TTD of 8 years in no way reflects institutional factors as suggested in the article.

  17. Concerning the width of spark channels with different polarities in submicrosecond sliding discharges in noble gases (United States)

    Trusov, K. K.


    Previously, the parameters of submicrosecond (with a duration of ceramic surface in Ne, Ar, and Xe were studied only for the negative polarity of the applied voltage. The experimental data indicate that the channels expand in the transverse direction mainly due to electron drift from the channel surface layer under the action of the electric field perpendicular to the channel axis and subsequent gas ionization by these electrons. To investigate mechanisms for the channel development in a sliding discharge—in particular, to determine the contribution of electron drift—it is necessary to carry out experiments similar to those performed earlier for the opposite polarity of the applied voltage. Here, the results of measurements of the widths of the spark channels of negativeand positive-polarity sliding discharges excited in Ne, Ar, and Xe at pressures of 30 and 100 kPa are presented and discussed. It is shown that, depending on the pressure and sort of gas, the averaged optical width of positive-polarity channels is smaller by a factor of 1.27-1.60 than that of negative-polarity channels. The experimental data are analyzed using the theory of propagation of ionization waves with different polarities in gases. Analysis has shown that electron diffusion contributes insignificantly to channel expansion and that, for both polarities, the channel expansion rate exceeds the electron drift velocity in the transverse electric field near the channel. In the framework of the so-called approximation of nonlocalized initial conditions, the measured ratio between of the widths of negativeand positive-polarity channels and their relation to the electron mobility are explained by the channel expansion governed by both electron drift and primary free electrons produced by a short-term source in a narrow region ahead of the front of the expansion wave. Numerical simulations show that the width of this region is comparable with that of the wave front and is more than one order of

  18. The rise of global warming skepticism: exploring affective image associations in the United States over time. (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony


    This article explores how affective image associations to global warming have changed over time. Four nationally representative surveys of the American public were conducted between 2002 and 2010 to assess public global warming risk perceptions, policy preferences, and behavior. Affective images (positive or negative feelings and cognitive representations) were collected and content analyzed. The results demonstrate a large increase in "naysayer" associations, indicating extreme skepticism about the issue of climate change. Multiple regression analyses found that holistic affect and "naysayer" associations were more significant predictors of global warming risk perceptions than cultural worldviews or sociodemographic variables, including political party and ideology. The results demonstrate the important role affective imagery plays in judgment and decision-making processes, how these variables change over time, and how global warming is currently perceived by the American public. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. On using peak amplitude and rise time for AE source characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    302. M A Majeed and C R L Murthy. 3.1 Pa and Rt for triangular input function. Suppose that sources are triangular stress pulses which originate and arrive at the transducer input at time t = 0. The output due to such a stress pulse is given by (16) from which we get the peak amplitude Pa (i.e. max gT (t)) as. Pa = CAT. ∫ f 2.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco Suárez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Díaz, A. J., E-mail: [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)


    We present high-spatial resolution spectropolarimetric observations of a quiescent hedgerow prominence taken in the He I 1083.0 nm triplet. The observation consisted of a time series in sit-and-stare mode of ∼36 minutes duration. The spectrograph's slit crossed the prominence body and we recorded the time evolution of individual vertical threads. Eventually, we observed the development of a dark Rayleigh-Taylor plume that propagated upward with a velocity, projected onto the plane of the sky, of 17 km s{sup –1}. Interestingly, the plume apex collided with the prominence threads pushing them aside. We inferred Doppler shifts, Doppler widths, and magnetic field strength variations by interpreting the He I Stokes profiles with the HAZEL code. The Doppler shifts show that clusters of threads move coherently while individual threads have oscillatory patterns. Regarding the plume we found strong redshifts (∼9-12 km s{sup –1}) and large Doppler widths (∼10 km s{sup –1}) at the plume apex when it passed through the prominence body and before it disintegrated. We associate the redshifts with perspective effects while the Doppler widths are more likely due to an increase in the local temperature. No local variations of the magnetic field strength associated with the passage of the plume were found; this leads us to conclude that the plumes are no more magnetized than the surroundings. Finally, we found that some of the threads' oscillations are locally damped, what allowed us to apply prominence seismology techniques to infer additional prominence physical parameters.

  1. Electrophysiological aspects of the middle ear muscle reflex in the rat: latency, rise time and effect on sound transmission. (United States)

    van den Berge, H; Kingma, H; Kluge, C; Marres, E H


    The latency, the rise time and the influence of the acoustic reflex on sound transmission were investigated in the adult rat during ketamin anesthesia. This was done by recordings of the cochlear microphonics (CM) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings of the reflex responses of the tensor tympani muscle. The acoustic reflex was elicited by contralateral acoustic stimuli of which the intensity and frequency was varied. Ipsilaterally, the effect on sound transmission was determined by estimating the change in amplitude of the CM's of ipsilateral administered subliminal stimuli. It was shown that both the tensor tympani muscle and the stapedius muscle contribute in the reflex. The latency as well as the rise time of the reflex determined by CM recordings showed to be short (minimal values: 12 and 7 ms respectively). The mean latency of the tensor tympani muscle reflex, measured by EMG, was about 7 ms. The attenuation of 0.25-8 kHz tone bursts upto 115 dB SPL is limited to a mean maximum of 15 dB SPL. The maximal attenuation was shown to occur at 1 kHz. Frequencies above 2 kHz appeared to be the best elicitor of the middle ear muscle reflex.

  2. An advanced vision-based system for real-time displacement measurement of high-rise buildings (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Han; Ho, Hoai-Nam; Shinozuka, Masanobu; Lee, Jong-Jae


    This paper introduces an advanced vision-based system for dynamic real-time displacement measurement of high-rise buildings using a partitioning approach. The partitioning method is based on the successive estimation of relative displacements and rotational angles at several floors using a multiple vision-based displacement measurement system. In this study, two significant improvements were made to realize the partitioning method: (1) time synchronization, (2) real-time dynamic measurement. Displacement data and time synchronization information are wirelessly transferred via a network using the TCP/IP protocol. The time synchronization process is periodically conducted by the master system to guarantee the system time at the master and slave systems are synchronized. The slave system is capable of dynamic real-time measurement and it is possible to economically expand measurement points at slave levels using commercial devices. To verify the accuracy and feasibility of the synchronized multi-point vision-based system and partitioning approach, many laboratory tests were carried out on a three-story steel frame model. Furthermore, several tests were conducted on a five-story steel frame tower equipped with a hybrid mass damper to experimentally confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  3. Investigation on F layer height rise and equatorial spread F onset time: Signature of standing large-scale wave (United States)

    Joshi, Lalit Mohan; Balwada, S.; Pant, T. K.; Sumod, S. G.


    Equatorial spread F observations have been categorized into three categories based on ionograms recorded over Sriharikota. First category comprised cases where the onset of equatorial spread F (ESF) was concurrent with the peak h'F time. Second and third categories comprised cases where the onset of ESF happened with a delay of 30 min and more than 30 min, respectively, with reference to the peak h'F time. Average peak h'F in the first category was more than 35 km higher than that in the second and third categories. Also, the peak vertical (upward) plasma drift was higher in the first category. Assuming the genesis of F region irregularity to have happened at or before the time of F layer attaining the peak height, late onset of ESF indicates the genesis of irregularities to have happened westward of Sriharikota. The fact that the peak h'F values were remarkably different in the three categories indicates a zonal variation of eastward electric field and postsunset height rise of F layer. The relative magnitude of the F layer height rise in the three different categories over Sriharikota has also been found to be significantly different than that over Thumba, an equatorial (magnetic) station located 360 km westward of Sriharikota longitude. This scenario points toward the existence of a large-scale zonal standing wave in the F layer and its important role in F region instability process. Results presented in the manuscript have been discussed in the light of current understanding on the large-scale wave structure.

  4. Sub-microsecond vapor plume dynamics under different keyhole penetration regimes in deep penetration laser welding (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Pang, Shengyong; Shao, Xinyu; Wang, Chunming; Zhang, Xiaosi; Jiang, Ping; Xiao, Jianzhong


    It is well-known that distinct vapor plume dynamics occur during deep penetration laser welding under different keyhole penetration states. However, there is little knowledge about the physical characteristics of vapor plumes (velocity, pressure, flow patterns, etc) located inside transient keyholes of varying penetration regimes in laser welding. This lack of knowledge is primarily because mesoscale vapor plumes are highly dynamic and generally invisible. Based on a well-tested three-dimensional multiphase laser welding model, we conducted a computational study on vapor plume dynamics inside transient keyholes during the fiber laser welding of 304 austenite stainless steel as a function of keyhole penetration regimes. We observed three keyhole regimes of penetration: full penetration, partial penetration and no penetration. We then physically analyzed the vapor plumes in these regimes. We determined that the vapor plume velocities and pressures in all three regimes were uneven and oscillated following the dynamic keyhole with a characteristic timescale in sub-microseconds. Only when the keyhole approached the full penetration regime did vapor plumes begin to violently eject from the bottom of the keyhole opening, whereas in the partial penetration regime, even when the bottom part of the keyhole was open, most of the vapor plume ejected from the upper keyhole opening. This latter observation was similar to that in the no penetration mode. We studied the physical mechanism of this behavior by analyzing the keyhole temperature and vapor plume velocity distributions. We determined that the upward ejection of the vapor plume from the upper keyhole opening was the result of an uneven micro-meter scale boiling phenomenon of the transient keyhole governed by Fresnel absorptions dependent on the local inclination angle of the keyhole wall. Similarly, we determined that the ejection of the vapor plume from the bottom of the keyhole opening resulted from pressure

  5. High-voltage isolation transformer for sub-nanosecond rise time pulses constructed with annular parallel-strip transmission lines. (United States)

    Homma, Akira


    A novel annular parallel-strip transmission line was devised to construct high-voltage high-speed pulse isolation transformers. The transmission lines can easily realize stable high-voltage operation and good impedance matching between primary and secondary circuits. The time constant for the step response of the transformer was calculated by introducing a simple low-frequency equivalent circuit model. Results show that the relation between the time constant and low-cut-off frequency of the transformer conforms to the theory of the general first-order linear time-invariant system. Results also show that the test transformer composed of the new transmission lines can transmit about 600 ps rise time pulses across the dc potential difference of more than 150 kV with insertion loss of -2.5 dB. The measured effective time constant of 12 ns agreed exactly with the theoretically predicted value. For practical applications involving the delivery of synchronized trigger signals to a dc high-voltage electron gun station, the transformer described in this paper exhibited advantages over methods using fiber optic cables for the signal transfer system. This transformer has no jitter or breakdown problems that invariably occur in active circuit components.

  6. Measuring the EMS patient access time interval and the impact of responding to high-rise buildings. (United States)

    Morrison, Laurie J; Angelini, Mark P; Vermeulen, Marian J; Schwartz, Brian


    To measure the patient access time interval and characterize its contribution to the total emergency medical services (EMS) response time interval; to compare the patient access time intervals for patients located three or more floors above ground with those less than three floors above or below ground, and specifically in the apartment subgroup; and to identify barriers that significantly impede EMS access to patients in high-rise apartments. An observational study of all patients treated by an emergency medical technician paramedics (EMT-P) crew was conducted using a trained independent observer to collect time intervals and identify potential barriers to access. Of 118 observed calls, 25 (21%) originated from patients three or more floors above ground. The overall median and 90th percentile (95% confidence interval) patient access time intervals were 1.61 (1.27, 1.91) and 3.47 (3.08, 4.05) minutes, respectively. The median interval was 2.73 (2.22, 3.03) minutes among calls from patients located three or more stories above ground compared with 1.25 (1.07, 1.55) minutes among those at lower levels. The patient access time interval represented 23.5% of the total EMS response time interval among calls originating less than three floors above or below ground and 32.2% of those located three or more stories above ground. The most frequently encountered barriers to access included security code entry requirements, lack of directional signs, and inability to fit the stretcher into the elevator. The patient access time interval is significantly long and represents a substantial component of the total EMS response time interval, especially among ambulance calls originating three or more floors above ground. A number of barriers appear to contribute to delayed paramedic access.

  7. Real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of asymptomatic Clostridium difficile colonization and rising C. difficile-associated disease rates. (United States)

    Koo, Hoonmo L; Van, John N; Zhao, Meina; Ye, Xunyan; Revell, Paula A; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Grimes, Carolyn Z; Koo, Diana C; Lasco, Todd; Kozinetz, Claudia A; Garey, Kevin W; DuPont, Herbert L


    To evaluate the accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) detection, after hospital CDAD rates significantly increased following real-time PCR initiation for CDAD diagnosis. Hospital-wide surveillance study following examination of CDAD incidence density rates by interrupted time series design. Large university-based hospital. Hospitalized adult patients. CDAD rates were compared before and after real-time PCR implementation in a university hospital and in the absence of physician and infection control practice changes. After real-time PCR introduction, all hospitalized adult patients were screened for C. difficile by testing a fecal specimen by real-time PCR, toxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and toxigenic culture. CDAD hospital rates significantly increased after changing from cell culture cytotoxicity assay to a real-time PCR assay. One hundred ninety-nine hospitalized subjects were enrolled, and 101 fecal specimens were collected. C. difficile was detected in 18 subjects (18%), including 5 subjects (28%) with either definite or probable CDAD and 13 patients (72%) with asymptomatic C. difficile colonization. The majority of healthcare-associated diarrhea is not attributable to CDAD, and the prevalence of asymptomatic C. difficile colonization exceeds CDAD rates in healthcare facilities. PCR detection of asymptomatic C. difficile colonization among patients with non-CDAD diarrhea may be contributing to rising CDAD rates and a significant number of CDAD false positives. PCR may be useful for CDAD screening, but further study is needed to guide interpretation of PCR detection of C. difficile and the value of confirmatory tests. A gold standard CDAD diagnostic assay is needed.

  8. Spectral and Timing Properties of IGR J17091-3624 in the Rising Hard State During Its 2016 Outburst (United States)

    Xu, Yanjun; Harrison, Fiona; Fuerst, Felix; Garcia, Javier; Walton, Dom; Tomsick, John


    We present a spectral and timing study of the NuSTAR and Swift observations of IGR J17091-3624 in the hard state during its outburst in 2016. IGR J17091-3624 is a galactic black hole binary candidate that has been previously observed to display variability patterns similar to GRS 1915+105, despite the apparent faintness compared to its counterpart. Disk reflection features are clearly revealed in the NuSTAR data taken in three epochs. Fitting with relativistic reflection models reveals the accretion disk is truncated during all epochs and the modeling favors a low disk inclination. The source flux increased by ~50% during the observations, the steepening of the spectral continuum is accompanied by a declination in the high energy cut-off. A type-C QPO increasing in frequency is detected in the NuSTAR data. In addition, we find a secondary peak centered at about 2.3 times the fundamental QPO frequency in the power spectra. This unconventional frequency questions the harmonic origin of the feature. We investigate the evolution of the timing and spectral properties on the rising phase of the outburst and discuss its physical implications.

  9. Copernicus Rising (United States)

    Rose, Michael A.


    Copernicus Rising began as a historical biography when it was first conceived, but as the writing progressed it quickly became a rather absurd play that took historical research and twisted it through the lens of my own wit, philosophy and personal affection for the characters. When working with historical figures--characters who existed in a very tangible way in our own history--the playwriting process opens a dialogue between different points in time and space. The difficulty lies in finding a unique and clear voice amongst the discordant personalities involved in this time and space overlap, both in the writing and production processes, in order to get to the heart of what the play is really all about. This thesis follows the journey of the play from its historical roots through the creation of an absurd journey both insides and outside time, space and the human mind. The first part of the thesis explains the beginnings of the concept and outlines much of the research and development that went into the play. The next part outlines the process of production and integrating the world on paper with that of moving bodies on stage. In the final part, post-production discussions and audience feedback sessions shape the play into the draft included in this thesis.

  10. Luminescence rise time in self-activated PbWO4 and Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 scintillation crystals

    CERN Document Server

    E. Auffray; A. Borisevich; V. Gulbinas; A. Fedorov; M. Korjik; M.T. Lucchini; V. Mechinsky; S. Nargelas; E. Songaila; G. Tamulaitis; A. Vaitkevičius; S. Zazubovich


    The time resolution of scintillation detectors of ionizing radiation is one of the key parameters sought for in the current and future high-energy physics experiments. This study is encouraged by the necessity to find novel detection methods enabling a sub-10-ps time resolution in scintillation detectors and is focused on the exploitation of fast luminescence rise front. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and thermally stimulated luminescence techniques have been used to study two promising scintillators: self-activated lead tungstate (PWO, PbWO4) and Ce-doped gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (GAGG, Gd3Al2Ga3O12). A sub-picosecond PL rise time is observed in PWO, while longer processes in the PL response in GAGG:Ce are detected and studied. The mechanisms responsible for the PL rise time in self-activated and doped scintillators are under discussion.

  11. The standing heel-rise test: relation to chronic venous disorders and balance, gait, and walk time in injection drug users. (United States)

    Pieper, Barbara; Templin, Thomas N; Birk, Thomas J; Kirsner, Robert S


    Injection drug use can impair mobility. When mobility is impaired in combination with other potential pathologic changes to the veins, muscles, and joints of the lower legs, chronic venous disorders can develop. The heel-rise test, an assessment of eccentric-concentric muscle action of calf muscle function with regard to plantar flexion, can be used to measure ankle mobility. To examine the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the heel-rise test in relation to chronic venous disorders in persons with a history of injection drug use (N = 104), a test-retest study (M = 45.9+/-12.9 days from first to second test) was conducted. Participants were assessed for chronic venous disorders of the legs and walk time; they also completed the heel-rise and Tinetti Balance and Gait tests. Test-retest reliability was found to be good for full heel rise of right and left legs (ICC = .66 and .67, respectively). Heel-rise performance was positively correlated with balance (r = .38 to .47) and gait (r = .38 to .45) and negatively related to walk time (r = -.30 to -.35) (P test as a measure of calf muscle function is supported by these results, implicating the role of mobility restriction in the etiology of venous disease. Although more research is needed regarding its performance, the heel-rise test may be a low-cost, noninvasive screening or assessment tool in a variety of outpatient settings.

  12. The effect of rise/fall time of 500 Hz short tone bursts on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential. (United States)

    Singh, Niraj Kumar; Apeksha, Kumari


    Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) is a biphasic potential recorded from the Sternocleidomastoid muscle in response to loud acoustic stimulation and assesses the intactness of the Sacculocolic pathway. The literature on clinical utility of cVEMP has been growing rapidly, though not without inconsistencies despite involving alike population. A close scrutiny of the methods across such studies revealed an inconsistent use of stimulus parameters; especially rise/fall times (RFTs). However the effect of RFTs on cVEMP has been largely unexplored. The study aimed at exploring the effect of varying RFTs on cVEMP and obtaining optimum RFT to enable reliable recording of cVEMPs. The cVEMPs were recorded from both ears of 30 healthy individuals with normal audio-vestibular system using 500 Hz short tone-bursts (STBs) at 95 dB nHL and varying the RFTs from 1 to 8 ms at all integer values. There was significant prolongation of latencies with increasing RFTs (p< 0.05). The largest amplitudes were obtained for 2 to 3 ms RFTs, though significantly smaller amplitude was obtained only for 8 ms RFT (p< 0.05), thereby rendering 8 ms RFT unfit for cVEMP recording. The 1 ms RFT produced smallest variability across individuals and would also result in lesser duration of exposure to loud sound. The RFT of 1 ms of 500 Hz STBs are optimum for recording cVEMPs. This is owing to large amplitudes and least variability demonstrated for this RFT.

  13. In vitro destruction of anterior human lens capsule by submicrosecond pulses of Yb,Er:Glass laser (United States)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Gagarsky, Sergey V.; Sergeev, Andrey N.; Smirnov, Sergey N.


    The results of in vitro pilot study of anterior lens capsule destruction by submicrosecond pulses of Yb,Er:Glass laser as well as results of 2% agar gel damage threshold investigation are presented. It was established that the local destruction of anterior lens capsule is possible without any ruptures at energy densities up to 25 J/cm2 when exposed to 30 laser pulses, delivered via 200 μm optical quartz fiber. It was found that 2% agar gel damage threshold determined as minimal value of laser energy density required for appearance of the visually identifiable damage of agar gel decreases with the increase in the number of laser pulses. The 2% agar gel damage threshold on the air for a single laser pulse impact was about 2.3-3.3 J/cm2, for 5 pulses impact - about 1.8-2.5 J/cm2 and for 10 pulses impact - about 1.6-2.4 J/cm2.

  14. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Contrasting characteristics of sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air and atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen glow discharges (United States)

    Walsh, J. L.; Liu, D. X.; Iza, F.; Rong, M. Z.; Kong, M. G.


    Glow discharges in air are often considered to be the ultimate low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas for numerous chamber-free applications. This is due to the ubiquitous presence of air and the perceived abundance of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in air plasmas. In this paper, sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air plasmas are shown to produce a low concentration of excited oxygen atoms but an abundance of excited nitrogen species, UV photons and ozone molecules. This contrasts sharply with the efficient production of excited oxygen atoms in comparable helium-oxygen discharges. Relevant reaction chemistry analysed with a global model suggests that collisional excitation of O2 by helium metastables is significantly more efficient than electron dissociative excitation of O2, electron excitation of O and ion-ion recombination. These results suggest different practical uses of the two oxygen-containing atmospheric discharges, with air plasmas being well suited for nitrogen and UV based chemistry and He-O2 plasmas for excited atomic oxygen based chemistry.

  15. Analysis of the processes occurring in a submicrosecond discharge with a linear current density of up to 3 MA/cm through a thick-wall stainless-steel electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branitsky, A. V.; Grabovski, E. V.; Dzhangobegov, V. V.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Mitrofanov, I. N.; Oleinik, G. M., E-mail:; Sasorov, P. V. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Tkachenko, S. I. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Frolov, I. N. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)


    The state of conductors carrying a megampere current from the generator to the load is studied experimentally. It is found that the plasma produced from cylindrical stainless-steel tubes during the passage of a submicrosecond current pulse with a linear density of 3 MA/cm expands with a velocity of 5.5 km/s. Numerical results on the diffusion of the magnetic field induced by a current with a linear density of 1–3MA/cm into metal electrodes agree with the experimental data on the penetration time of the magnetic field. For a linear current density of 3.1 MA/cm, the experimentally determined electric field strength on the inner surface of the tube is 4 kV/cm. The calculated electric field strength on the inner surface of the tube turns out to be two times higher, which can be explained by plasma production on the outer and inner surfaces of the electrode.

  16. Luminescence rise time in self-activated PbWO4 and Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 scintillation crystals


    Auffray, E; Augulis, R.; Borisevich, A.; Gulbinas, V.; Fedorov, A; Korjik, M; Lucchini, M T; Mechinsky, V; Nargelas, S; E. Songaila; Tamulaitis, G.; Vaitkevičius, A; Zazubovich, S.


    The time resolution of scintillation detectors of ionizing radiation is one of the key parameters sought for in the current and future high-energy physics experiments. This study is encouraged by the necessity to find novel detection methods enabling a sub-10-ps time resolution in scintillation detectors and is focused on the exploitation of fast luminescence rise front. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and thermally stimulated luminescence techniques have been used to study ...

  17. The Rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Stasiuk, David; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette


    The research-based installation, The Rise, is led by the concept of a growing architecture able to sense and dynamically adapt to its environment as it grows into form while continuously reacting to its own material performance and behavioral constraints. This process is enabled through the careful...... a material system with simulation and the iterative generation of geometry through a process of calibration at different stages of design. The project leverages emerging computational strategies for growth in a model for an architectural practice that engages the complexity and interdependencies...

  18. A short-lived chromospheric flare-point with a lifetime of 20 seconds and rise and fall times of 5 seconds (United States)

    Hyder, C. L.; Epstein, G. L.; Hobbs, R. W.


    We have observed a chromospheric brightening in the H alpha and Ca II K lines with a diameter of about 1 arc second. The time structure of this event, obtained with a relative resolution of 1 second, shows the rise time to be 4 seconds, the lifetime (FWHM) to be 20 seconds, and the decay time to be 5 seconds. This imposes new constraints on flare-point models. These restrictions can be accommodated easily by either an infall-impact flare model or a model invoking the precipitation of high-energy particles from the corona.

  19. Assessment of Temperature Rise and Time of Alveolar Ridge Splitting by Means of Er:YAG Laser, Piezosurgery, and Surgical Saw: An Ex Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Matys


    Full Text Available The most common adverse effect after bone cutting is a thermal damage. The aim of our study was to evaluate the bone temperature rise during an alveolar ridge splitting, rating the time needed to perform this procedure and the time to raise the temperature of a bone by 10°C, as well as to evaluate the bone carbonization occurrence. The research included 60 mandibles (n=60 of adult pigs, divided into 4 groups (n=15. Two vertical and one horizontal cut have been done in an alveolar ridge using Er:YAG laser with set power of 200 mJ (G1, 400 mJ (G2, piezosurgery unit (G3, and a saw (G4. The temperature was measured by K-type thermocouple. The highest temperature gradient was noted for piezosurgery on the buccal and lingual side of mandible. The temperature rises on the bone surface along with the increase of laser power. The lower time needed to perform ridge splitting was measured for a saw, piezosurgery, and Er:YAG laser with power of 400 mJ and 200 mJ, respectively. The temperature rise measured on the bone over 10°C and bone carbonization occurrence was not reported in all study groups. Piezosurgery, Er:YAG laser (200 mJ and 400 mJ, and surgical saw are useful and safe tools in ridge splitting surgery.

  20. Age-related changes in slow wave activity rise time and NREM sleep EEG with and without zolpidem in healthy young and older adults (United States)

    Chinoy, Evan D.; Frey, Danielle J.; Kaslovsky, Daniel N.; Meyer, Francois G.; Wright, Kenneth P.


    Objective Whether there are age-related changes in slow wave activity (SWA) rise time, a marker of homeostatic sleep drive, is unknown. Additionally, although sleep medication use is highest among older adults, the quantitative electroencephalographic (EEG) profile of the most commonly prescribed sleep medication, zolpidem, in older adults is also unknown. We therefore quantified age-related and regional brain differences in sleep EEG with and without zolpidem. Methods Thirteen healthy young adults aged 21.9 ± 2.2 years and 12 healthy older adults aged 67.4 ± 4.2 years participated in a randomized, double-blind, within-subject study that compared placebo to 5 mg zolpidem. Results Older adults showed a smaller rise in SWA and zolpidem increased age-related differences in SWA rise time such that age differences were observed earlier after latency to persistent sleep. Age-related differences in EEG power differed by brain region. Older, but not young, adults showed zolpidem-dependent reductions in theta and alpha frequencies. Zolpidem decreased stage 1 in older adults and did not alter other age-related sleep architecture parameters. Conclusions SWA findings provide additional support for reduced homeostatic sleep drive or reduced ability to respond to sleep drive with age. Consequences of reduced power in theta and alpha frequencies in older adults remain to be elucidated. PMID:24980066

  1. Submicrosecond rearrangeable nonblocking silicon-on-insulator thermo-optic 4x4 switch matrix. (United States)

    Li, Yuntao; Yu, Jinzhong; Chen, Shaowu; Li, Yanping; Chen, Yuanyuan


    A rearrangeable nonblocking silicon-on-insulator-based thermo-optic 4x4 switch matrix is designed and fabricated. A spot-size converter is integrated to reduce the insertion loss, and a new driving circuit is designed to improve the response speed. The insertion loss is less than 10 dB, and the response time is 950 ns.

  2. Sub-Microsecond Temperature Measurement in Liquid Water Using Laser Induced Thermal Acoustics (United States)

    Alderfer, David W.; Herring, G. C.; Danehy, Paul M.; Mizukaki, Toshiharu; Takayama, Kazuyoshi


    Using laser-induced thermal acoustics, we demonstrate non-intrusive and remote sound speed and temperature measurements over the range 10 - 45 C in liquid water. Averaged accuracy of sound speed and temperature measurements (10 s) are 0.64 m/s and 0.45 C respectively. Single-shot precisions based on one standard deviation of 100 or greater samples range from 1 m/s to 16.5 m/s and 0.3 C to 9.5 C for sound speed and temperature measurements respectively. The time resolution of each single-shot measurement was 300 nsec.

  3. System-on-chip architecture for secure sub-microsecond synchronization systems


    Moreira Ciruelos, Naiara


    213 p. En esta tesis, se pretende abordar los problemas que conlleva la protección cibernética del Precision Time Protocol (PTP). Éste es uno de los protocolos de comunicación más sensibles de entre los considerados por los organismos de estandarización para su aplicación en las futuras Smart Grids o redes eléctricas inteligentes. PTP tiene como misión distribuir una referencia de tiempo desde un dispositivo maestro al resto de dispositivos esclavos, situados dentro de una misma red, de fo...

  4. Timing of breast cancer surgery in relation to the menstrual cycle the rise and fall of a hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroman, N.


    It has been claimed that the timing of surgery in relation to the menstrual cycle can significantly influence the prognosis among premenopausal women with primary breast cancer. The literature on the subject is reviewed. The results are heterogeneous, and the quality of the studies is in general...

  5. Deformation of zirconium – niobium alloy E635 in sub-microsecond shock waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakov D.N.


    Full Text Available Strength characteristics of zirconium - niobium alloy E635 were measured under shock - wave loading conditions at normal and elevated temperatures and results of these measurements are presented. Measurements were taken in conditions when samples were impacted by plane shock waves with the pressure up to 13 GPa and duration from ∼0.05 μs up to 1 μs. Free-surface velocity profiles were recorded with the help of VISAR and PDV laser Doppler velocimeters having nanosecond time resolution. Evolution of elastic precursors with samples thickness varying from 0.5 up to 8 mm is also considered. Measured attenuation of the elastic precursor was used to determine plastic strain rate behind the precursor front. Temperature effect on the value of dynamic elastic limit and spall strength at normal and elevated temperatures is studied. This work is implemented with the support of the State Atomic Energy Corporation “Rosatom” under State Contract H.4x.

  6. Microfossil measures of rapid sea-level rise: Timing of response of two microfossil groups to a sudden tidal-flooding experiment in Cascadia (United States)

    Horton, B.P.; Milker, Yvonne; Dura, T.; Wang, Kelin; Bridgeland, W.T.; Brophy, Laura S.; Ewald, M.; Khan, Nicole; Engelhart, S.E.; Nelson, Alan R.; Witter, Robert C.


    Comparisons of pre-earthquake and post-earthquake microfossils in tidal sequences are accurate means to measure coastal subsidence during past subduction earthquakes, but the amount of subsidence is uncertain, because the response times of fossil taxa to coseismic relative sea-level (RSL) rise are unknown. We measured the response of diatoms and foraminifera to restoration of a salt marsh in southern Oregon, USA. Tidal flooding following dike removal caused an RSL rise of ∼1 m, as might occur by coseismic subsidence during momentum magnitude (Mw) 8.1–8.8 earthquakes on this section of the Cascadia subduction zone. Less than two weeks after dike removal, diatoms colonized low marsh and tidal flats in large numbers, showing that they can record seismically induced subsidence soon after earthquakes. In contrast, low-marsh foraminifera took at least 11 months to appear in sizeable numbers. Where subsidence measured with diatoms and foraminifera differs, their different response times may provide an estimate of postseismic vertical deformation in the months following past megathrust earthquakes.

  7. Global analysis of Förster resonance energy transfer in live cells measured by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy exploiting the rise time of acceptor fluorescence. (United States)

    Laptenok, Sergey P; Borst, Jan Willem; Mullen, Katharine M; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Visser, Antonie J W G; van Amerongen, Herbert


    A methodology is described for the quantitative determination of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in live cells using the rise time of acceptor fluorescence as determined with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). An advantage of this method is that only those molecules that are involved in the energy-transfer process are monitored. This contrasts with current methods that measure either steady-state fluorescence of donor and acceptor molecules or time-resolved fluorescence of donor molecules, and thereby probe a mixture of donor molecules that are involved in FRET and those that are fluorescent but not involved in FRET. The absence of FRET can, for instance, be due to unwanted acceptor bleaching or incomplete maturing of visible proteins that should act as acceptor molecules. In addition, parameters describing the rise of acceptor fluorescence and the decay of donor fluorescence can be determined via simultaneous global analysis of multiple FLIM images, thereby increasing the reliability of the analysis. In the present study, plant protoplasts transfected with fusions of visible fluorescent proteins are used to illustrate the new data analysis method. It is demonstrated that the distances estimated with the present method are substantially smaller than those estimated from the average donor lifetimes, due to a fraction of non-transferring donor molecules. Software to reproduce the presented results is provided in an open-source and freely available package called "TIMP" for "The R project for Statistical Computing".

  8. Time trends for thyroid cancer in northwestern Spain: true rise in the incidence of micro and larger forms of papillary thyroid carcinoma. (United States)

    Rego-Iraeta, Antonia; Pérez-Méndez, Luisa F; Mantinan, Beatriz; Garcia-Mayor, Ricardo V


    Thyroid cancer incidence is increasing throughout the world. Most studies attribute this rise entirely to the increase in papillary carcinoma, the most common thyroid malignancy in iodine-sufficient areas. A variety of nonetiological factors such as changes in clinical practice may affect the incidence of thyroid cancer and some researchers have suggested that this rise is only apparent due to an increase in diagnostic activity. Since data on the epidemiology of thyroid cancer in Spain are scarce, the main goal of this study was to analyze changes in thyroid cancer presentation, incidence, and prevalence in Vigo (northwestern Spain) between 1978 and 2001, and to investigate the relationship between the incidence rates and trends in tumor size and thyroid surgery. In this descriptive epidemiologic study, an analysis was carried out on new thyroid cancer cases obtained from the Pathology Registry of the University Hospital of Vigo (500,000 inhabitants). Trends in age, sex, thyroid surgery, histological type, tumor size, and incidence rates were calculated. The prevalence of thyroid cancer was determined in three cross-sectional surveys. The rate of population undergoing thyroid surgery significantly increased over time. Out of 322 new primary thyroid cancers, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was the predominant type (76%). The age-standardized incidence rate shows a significant increase in females: 1.56 per 100,000 year (1978 to 1985) to 3.83 (1986 to 1993) and 8.23 (1994 to 2001); and in males: 0.33, 1.19, and 2.65, respectively. PTC was mainly responsible for this pattern and was the result of both the increase in micropapillary thyroid carcinoma (MPTC) incidence and in PTC measuring more than 1 cm. Besides MPTC cases, no significant variations were observed in tumor size over time. In northwestern Spain, the incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing. These data should be taken into account when planning health resources for these patients. Our results may reflect

  9. [Hearing loss due to leisure time noise is on the rise. The ear also needs a rest period]. (United States)

    Eggemann, C; Koester, M; Zorowka, P


    Noise during leisure time is increasingly leading to temporary and permanent hearing loss, with most victims being adolescents and young adults. Particularly harmful is permanent exposure to noise, since the highly sensitive ear is not designed to tolerate it. On average, youngsters aged between 14 and 20 years spend 3 hours and more listening to music. In discos, concerts in particular, as well as listening to music via headphones, sound levels of 100 dB are regularly reached and exceeded, and levels of 90 dB are already considered to represent a definite risk. Noise is, however, experienced as offensive and painful at levels of about 120-140 dB, and this leads to the danger of its harmful effects being underestimated. Treatment of hearing loss depends on whether it is acute or chronic and comprises infusion therapy, stress reduction, acoustic rest or interposed periods free of noise and, where indicated the fitting of a suitable hearing aid. In view of the immense significance of hearing impairment for the economy, public health, and society at large, its prevention--not only by protective, but also preventive, measures--warrants greater attention.

  10. Measurement of intrinsic rise times for various L(Y)SO and LuAG scintillators with a general study of prompt photons to achieve 10 ps in TOF-PET. (United States)

    Gundacker, Stefan; Auffray, Etiennette; Pauwels, Kristof; Lecoq, Paul


    The coincidence time resolution (CTR) of scintillator based detectors commonly used in positron emission tomography is well known to be dependent on the scintillation decay time (τd) and the number of photons detected (n'), i.e. CTR proportional variant √τd/n'. However, it is still an open question to what extent the scintillation rise time (τr) and other fast or prompt photons, e.g. Cherenkov photons, at the beginning of the scintillation process influence the CTR. This paper presents measurements of the scintillation emission rate for different LSO type crystals, i.e. LSO:Ce, LYSO:Ce, LSO:Ce codoped Ca and LGSO:Ce. For the various LSO-type samples measured we find an average value of 70 ps for the scintillation rise time, although some crystals like LSO:Ce codoped Ca seem to have a much faster rise time in the order of 20 ps. Additional measurements for LuAG:Ce and LuAG:Pr show a rise time of 535 ps and 251 ps, respectively. For these crystals, prompt photons (Cherenkov) can be observed at the beginning of the scintillation event. Furthermore a significantly lower rise time value is observed when codoping with calcium. To quantitatively investigate the influence of the rise time to the time resolution we measured the CTR with the same L(Y)SO samples and compared the values to Monte Carlo simulations. Using the measured relative light yields, rise- and decay times of the scintillators we are able to quantitatively understand the measured CTRs in our simulations. Although the rise time is important to fully explain the CTR variation for the different samples tested we determined its influence on the CTR to be in the order of a few percent only. This result is surprising because, if only photonstatistics of the scintillation process is considered, the CTR would be proportional to the square root of the rise time. The unexpected small rise time influence on the CTR can be explained by the convolution of the scintillation rate with the single photon time

  11. Correlation between average frequency and RA value (rise time/amplitude) for crack classification of reinforced concrete beam using acoustic emission technique (United States)

    Noorsuhada, M. N.; Abdul Hakeem, Z.; Soffian Noor, M. S.; Noor Syafeekha, M. S.; Azmi, I.


    Health monitoring of structures during their service life become a vital thing as it provides crucial information regarding the performance and condition of the structures. Acoustic emission (AE) is one of the non-destructive techniques (NDTs) that could be used to monitor the performance of the structures. Reinforced concrete (RC) beam associated with AE monitoring was monotonically loaded to failure under three-point loading. Correlation between average frequency and RA value (rise time / amplitude) was computed. The relationship was established to classify the crack types that propagated in the RC beam. The crack was classified as tensile crack and shear crack. It was found that the relationship is well matched with the actual crack pattern that appeared on the beam surface. Hence, this relationship is useful for prediction of the crack occurrence in the beam and its performance can be determined.

  12. Rising cancer antigen 125 level and the type and timing of treatment for recurrent ovarian cancer: a clinical dilemma, but what would women do? (United States)

    Harrison, James D; Juraskova, Ilona; Anderson, Caroline; Nattress, Kathryn; Beale, Philip; Lopez, Anna-Lena; Carter, Jonathan


    Clinical uncertainty currently exists for the timing of treatment for women with epithelial ovarian cancer who are under surveillance for their first recurrence and have rising cancer antigen 125 levels. This study ascertained women's preferences for this clinical scenario and the impact of regular surveillance on psychosocial well-being. Women with a diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer who had completed primary treatment and were in surveillance for their first recurrence were eligible to participate. Treatment preferences were ascertained using the Prospective Measure of Preference, and psychological well-being was ascertained using a series of psychological scales. Women (n = 21) had highly variable preferences for the type and timing of second-line treatment when basing their decision on rising cancer antigen 125 levels. Around half indicated a preference against treatment and were willing to trade life expectancy (WTT) to avoid chemotherapy (WTT = 0.45) or tamoxifen (WTT = 0.50). For these women, strong preferences against treatment were reflected in high Prospective Measure of Preference utility scores (0.15 for chemotherapy and 0.19 for tamoxifen). The negative experience of chemotherapy, the uncertainty about tamoxifen's effectiveness, and remaining symptom-free influenced these decisions. The remaining women indicated they would begin chemotherapy or tamoxifen immediately. These women believed taking early steps to treatment was positive and a coping mechanism; however, some revealed unrealistic expectations of treatment. Most women reported good levels of psychological well-being and were coping with ongoing surveillance. Women in surveillance for recurrent ovarian cancer have highly variable preferences, and their reasons for their treatment choices are diverse. Therefore, although uncertainty exists for this clinical scenario, treatment preference should be ascertained on an individual basis.

  13. Evaluation of luminescence decay measurements probed on pure and doped Pt(IV) hexahalogeno complexes I. Exponential rise time and decay curves applying various statistical tests (United States)

    Biertümpel, Ingo; Schmidtke, Hans-Herbert


    Statistical methods are shown to be superior for evaluating luminescence lifetime curves of complex compounds to usual regression procedures. A simple model for the intensity change with time valid for the rise time and the decay period of emission is proposed which considers contributions of exponential decay in time intervals which compare to the time resolution of the equipment available. Mean square fittings to measured points furnish lifetimes and amplitudes of multi-exponential model functions (hypotheses) which are tested applying various statistical methods. Well-established procedures as residual analysis, the autocorrelation function, chi-square test, Durbin-Watson and the Run test are used for investigating whether the results are normal distributed and autocorrelated. For physical interpretation a hypothesis function is only acceptable if all test statistics support non-rejection. Curve fitting and statistical checks are applied on low-temperature lifetime measurements carried out on various Pt(IV) hexahalogeno complexes. Pure materials and compounds doped in suitable host crystals supply essentially identical decay parameters.

  14. Rise/fall and plateau time optimization for cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential elicited by short tone bursts of 500 Hz. (United States)

    Singh, Niraj Kumar; Kumar, Prawin; Aparna, T H; Barman, Animesh


    Literature on clinical utility of cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) has been increasing rapidly, though not without inconsistencies in spite of involving similar populations. Close examination of methods across studies exposed the use of variable stimulus parameters, especially rise/fall time (R/FT) and plateau time (PT) as the possible reason. However the effect of variation in R/FT and PT on cVEMP response parameters has been largely uncharted. The study aimed at evaluating the impact of R/FT and PT on cVEMPs elicited by 500-Hz short tone-bursts (STBs) at 95 dB nHL using R/FT from 1 to 4 ms and PT from 0 to 3 ms. 30 healthy individuals with normal audio-vestibular system. Significant prolongation of latencies with increasing R/FT and PT (p < 0.05) was noticed. The amplitude however varied significantly only for some R/FTs and PTs. R/FT of 2 ms, in combination with 1-ms PT, produced large amplitudes with lowest variability in amplitude and latency parameters. R/FT of 2 ms along with PT of 1 ms formed a good amalgamation and could be considered optimum for clinical recording of cVEMPs elicited by 500-Hz STBs, although slight deviances in these parameters might not impact the outcome significantly.

  15. The "Rise-Peak-Fall" Pattern of Time Dependency of the Cardiovascular Pleiotropic Effects of Treatment With Low-dose Atorvastatin, Losartan, and a Combination Thereof in Rats. (United States)

    Janic, Miodrag; Lunder, Mojca; Cerne, Darko; Marc, Janja; Jerin, Ales; Skitek, Milan; Drevensek, Gorazd; Sabovic, Miso


    Treatment with low, subtherapeutic doses of statins and sartans expresses beneficial pleiotropic effects on the arterial wall. The present study explored whether these effects depend on treatment duration. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and received low-dose atorvastatin, low-dose losartan, their combination, or saline (control) daily. After 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks of treatment, the animals were anesthetized, blood samples taken, and hearts and thoracic aortas isolated. Thoracic aorta endothelium-dependent relaxation and parameters of the isolated heart exposed to ischemic-reperfusion injury were assessed along with blood serum parameters and vasoactive genes expression. Low-dose atorvastatin, losartan, and especially their combination showed the characteristic time dependency of all studied parameters (thoracic aorta relaxation, isolated heart parameters, C-reactive protein values, genes encoding endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and CD40). The peak in efficacy was observed after 6 weeks of treatment and subsequently steadily declined. The peak versus control values were significant for all measured parameters. Only a combination of atorvastatin and losartan increased nitric oxide and decreased asymmetric dimethylarginine. A characteristic time-dependent "rise-peak-fall" pattern of the cardiovascular pleiotropic effects of statins and sartans in subtherapeutic low doses was revealed. Evidently, resistance to the explored treatment occurs after a certain period.

  16. Neural Code-Neural Self-information Theory on How Cell-Assembly Code Rises from Spike Time and Neuronal Variability. (United States)

    Li, Meng; Tsien, Joe Z


    A major stumbling block to cracking the real-time neural code is neuronal variability - neurons discharge spikes with enormous variability not only across trials within the same experiments but also in resting states. Such variability is widely regarded as a noise which is often deliberately averaged out during data analyses. In contrast to such a dogma, we put forth the Neural Self-Information Theory that neural coding is operated based on the self-information principle under which variability in the time durations of inter-spike-intervals (ISI), or neuronal silence durations, is self-tagged with discrete information. As the self-information processor, each ISI carries a certain amount of information based on its variability-probability distribution; higher-probability ISIs which reflect the balanced excitation-inhibition ground state convey minimal information, whereas lower-probability ISIs which signify rare-occurrence surprisals in the form of extremely transient or prolonged silence carry most information. These variable silence durations are naturally coupled with intracellular biochemical cascades, energy equilibrium and dynamic regulation of protein and gene expression levels. As such, this silence variability-based self-information code is completely intrinsic to the neurons themselves, with no need for outside observers to set any reference point as typically used in the rate code, population code and temporal code models. Moreover, temporally coordinated ISI surprisals across cell population can inherently give rise to robust real-time cell-assembly codes which can be readily sensed by the downstream neural clique assemblies. One immediate utility of this self-information code is a general decoding strategy to uncover a variety of cell-assembly patterns underlying external and internal categorical or continuous variables in an unbiased manner.

  17. Time-series analysis of two hydrothermal plumes at 9°50'N East Pacific Rise reveals distinct, heterogeneous bacterial populations. (United States)

    Sylvan, J B; Pyenson, B C; Rouxel, O; German, C R; Edwards, K J


    We deployed sediment traps adjacent to two active hydrothermal vents at 9°50'N on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) to assess the variability in bacterial community structure associated with plume particles on the timescale of weeks to months, to determine whether an endemic population of plume microbes exists, and to establish ecological relationships between bacterial populations and vent chemistry. Automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) indicated that there are separate communities at the two different vents and temporal community variations between each vent. Correlation analysis between chemistry and microbiology indicated that shifts in the coarse particulate (>1 mm) Fe/(Fe+Mn+Al), Cu, V, Ca, Al, (232) Th, and Ti as well as fine-grained particulate (particle-attached plume environment is genetically distinct from the surrounding seawater. While work to date in hydrothermal environments has focused on determining the microbial communities on hydrothermal chimneys and the basaltic lavas that form the surrounding seafloor, little comparable data exist on the plume environment that physically and chemically connects them. By employing sediment traps for a time-series approach to sampling, we show that bacterial community composition on plume particles changes on timescales much shorter than previously known. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. An Investigation of the Sub-Microsecond Features of Dynamic Crack Propagation in PMMA and the Rdx-Based Explosive PBX 9205 (United States)

    Washabaugh, P. D.; Hill, L. G.


    A dynamic crack propagating in a brittle material releases enough thermal energy to produce visible light. The dynamic fracture of even macroscopically amorphous materials becomes unsteady as the crack propagation velocity approaches the material wave-speeds. The heat generated at a crack-tip, especially as it jumps, may be a mechanism to initiate a self-sustaining reaction in an energetic material. Experiments were conducted in specimens to simulate an infinite plate for ˜10 μs. The initial specimens were 152 mm square by 6 mm thick acrylic sheets, and were fabricated to study non-steady near-wave-speed crack propagation. A variant of this specimen embedded a 25 mm×3 mm PBX 9205 pellet to explore the influence of dynamic Mode-I cracks in these materials. The crack was initiated by up to 0.24 g of Detasheet placed along a precursor 50 mm long notch, with a shield to contain the reaction products and prevent propagation along the fractured surfaces. The crack was studied by means of a streak camera and a Fourier-filter of the light reflecting off the newly minted surfaces. The sub-microsecond behavior of holes initiating, preceding and coalescing with the main crack were observed in the PMMA samples. The embedding and mechanical loading of explosives by this technique did not initiate a self-sustaining reaction in preliminary testing.

  19. submitter Measurement of intrinsic rise times for various L(Y)SO and LuAG scintillators with a general study of prompt photons to achieve 10 ps in TOF-PET

    CERN Document Server

    Gundacker, Stefan; Pauwels, Kristof; Lecoq, Paul


    The coincidence time resolution (CTR) of scintillator based detectors commonly used in positron emission tomography is well known to be dependent on the scintillation decay time (${{\\tau}_{d}}$ ) and the number of photons detected (${{n}^{\\prime}}$ ), i.e. $CTR\\propto \\sqrt{{{\\tau}_{d}}/{{n}^{\\prime}}}$ . However, it is still an open question to what extent the scintillation rise time (${{\\tau}_{r}}$ ) and other fast or prompt photons, e.g. Cherenkov photons, at the beginning of the scintillation process influence the CTR. This paper presents measurements of the scintillation emission rate for different LSO type crystals, i.e. LSO:Ce, LYSO:Ce, LSO:Ce codoped Ca and LGSO:Ce. For the various LSO-type samples measured we find an average value of 70 ps for the scintillation rise time, although some crystals like LSO:Ce codoped Ca seem to have a much faster rise time in the order of 20 ps. Additional measurements for LuAG:Ce and LuAG:Pr show a rise time of 535 ps and 251 ps, respectively. For these crystals, promp...

  20. Effect of rate of current rise in the output windings on the space -time distribution of the electron beam in a betatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakhlov, V.L.; Filimonov, A.A.; Kashkovskii, V.V.


    This paper reports on the results of a study of the effect of the rate of current rise in the output windings of a betatron on the parameters of the resultant electron beam. It is shown that the rate of current rise in the windings only changes the duration of the radiation pulse associated with the beam and its delay relative to the initiation of the current pulse in the windings. The spatial distribution of the beam is determined mainly by the distribution of the magnetic field of the betatron. The findings of this study have made it possible to simplify the current pulse generator in the output-winding supply circuit of the PMB-6E betatron, reduce its size, and increase its reliability.

  1. Effect of rate of current rise in the output windings on the space-time distribution of the electron beam in a betatron (United States)

    Chakhlov, V. L.; Kashkovskii, V. V.; Filimonov, A. A.


    This article reports results of a study of the effect of the rate of current rise in the output windings of a betatron on the parameters of the resultant electron beam. It is shown that the rate of current rise in the windings only changes the duration of the radiation pulse associated with the beam and its delay relative to the initiation of the current pulse in the windings. The spatial distribution of the beam is determined mainly by the distribution of the magnetic field of the betatron. The findings obtained from the study made it possible to simplify the current pulse generator in the output-winding supply circuit of the PMB-6E betatron, reduce its size, and make it more reliable.

  2. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.


    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  3. High rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, M.


    The feasibility of developing new energy conservation standards for high rise residential-type buildings including hotels, motels, apartment houses, and lodging houses is discussed. Differences between the high and low rise residential building energy regulations are summarized. The data collection method and results are presented. (MCW)

  4. The rise and rise of renewable cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Peter


    Full Text Available The decoupling of fossil fuels from growth in economic activity has been proceeding rapidly for most of the 21st century and is analysed globally in terms of structures and technologies for energy efficiency and for switching to renewable energy in the world’s cities. This is leading to the decline of coal and oil. The evidence suggests that the changes are based on demand for the structures and technologies that are emerging, facilitating a disruptive process. The rise of renewable cities can therefore be expected to accelerate.

  5. A Reduced-Order Controller Considering High-Order Modal Information of High-Rise Buildings for AMD Control System with Time-Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo-Hua Li


    Full Text Available Time-delays of control force calculation, data acquisition, and actuator response will degrade the performance of Active Mass Damper (AMD control systems. To reduce the influence, model reduction method is used to deal with the original controlled structure. However, during the procedure, the related hierarchy information of small eigenvalues will be directly discorded. As a result, the reduced-order model ignores the information of high-order mode, which will reduce the design accuracy of an AMD control system. In this paper, a new reduced-order controller based on the improved Balanced Truncation (BT method is designed to reduce the calculation time and to retain the abandoned high-order modal information. It includes high-order natural frequency, damping ratio, and vibration modal information of the original structure. Then, a control gain design method based on Guaranteed Cost Control (GCC algorithm is presented to eliminate the adverse effects of data acquisition and actuator response time-delays in the design process of the reduced-order controller. To verify its effectiveness, the proposed methodology is applied to a numerical example of a ten-storey frame and an experiment of a single-span four-storey steel frame. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the reduced-order controller with GCC algorithm has an excellent control effect; meanwhile it can compensate time-delays effectively.

  6. Dendritic morphology and its effects on the amplitude and rise-time of synaptic signals in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells. (United States)

    Henze, D A; Cameron, W E; Barrionuevo, G


    Detailed anatomical analysis and compartmental modeling techniques were used to study the impact of CA3b pyramidal cell dendritic morphology and hippocampal anatomy on the amplitude and time course of dendritic synaptic signals. We have used computer-aided tracing methods to obtain accurate three-dimensional representations of 8 CA3b pyramidal cells. The average total dendritic length was 6,332 +/- 1,029 microns and 5,062 +/- 1,397 microns for the apical and basilar arbors, respectively. These cells also exhibited a rough symmetry in their maximal transverse and septotemporal extents (311 +/- 84 microns and 269 +/- 106 microns). From the calculated volume of influence (the volume of the neuropil from which the dendritic structures can receive input), it was found that these cells show a limited symmetry between their proximal apical and basilar dendrites (2.1 +/- 1.2 x 10(6) microns 3 and 3.5 +/- 1.1 x 10(6) microns 3, respectively). Based upon these data, we propose that the geometry of these cells can be approximated by a combination of two cones for the apical arbor and a single cone for the basilar arbor. The reconstructed cells were used to build compartmental models and investigate the extent to which the cellular anatomy determines the efficiency with which dendritic synaptic signals are transferred to the soma. We found that slow, long lasting signals show only approximately a 50% attenuation when they occur in the most distal apical dendrites. However, synaptic transients similar to those seen in fast glutamatergic transmission are transferred much less efficiently, showing up to a 95% attenuation. The relationship between the distance along the dendrites and the observed attenuation for a transient is described simply by single exponential functions with parameters of 195 and 147 microns for the apical and basilar arbors respectively. In contrast, there is no simple relation that describes how a transient is attenuated with respect to these cells

  7. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali


    Iran is viewed by many as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middl...... regional powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....... East, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other...

  8. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo


    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East, ...... powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one......., and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other regional...

  9. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East, ...... powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one......., and its brand of Shi‘ism  has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other regional...

  10. Chinas Rise: A Time for Choosing (United States)


    all of these decisions are fraught with risk and none are palatable. The United States has consciously chosen schizophrenia in relation to China’ and important role in this new world is a failure to adjust to these realities and accept its place.2 In order to do this, the United States...situation in which the probability of war . . . [is] so low that it [is] virtually not to be taken into account in the international relationship

  11. The rise and rise of medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, Paula E-mail:


    As Sydney gets ready to host the World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering later this month, Paula Gould reports on the state of the art in imaging technology. Medical physics has come a long way since Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen first described a 'new kind of ray' back in 1895. The discovery that X-rays could be used to display the innermost workings of the human body on a photographic plate was of immediate interest to the medical community at the time. Today, over a century later, the phrase 'going for a scan' can refer to any one of a multitude of different medical-imaging techniques that are used for diagnosis and treatment. The transmission and detection of X-rays still lies at the heart of radiography, angiography, fluoroscopy and conventional mammography examinations. However, traditional film-based scanners are gradually being replaced by digital systems that are based primarily on caesium-iodide scintillators coupled to flat-panel detectors. Some systems rely on charged-coupled devices (CCD) rather than flat panels but the end result is the same: the data can be viewed, moved and stored without a single piece of film ever being exposed. (U.K.)

  12. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators (United States)

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.


    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  13. Was the economic crisis 1997-1998 responsible for rising suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia? A time-trend analysis for Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Cheng, Andrew T A


    In 1997-1998 a widespread economic crisis hit the economies of many East/Southeast Asian countries; its impact on suicide rates across the region has not been systematically documented. We investigated the impact of the Asian economic crisis (1997-1998) on suicide in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. Suicide and population data for the period 1985-2006 were extracted from the World Health Organisation's mortality database and Taiwanese mortality statistics. Sex-specific age-standardised suicide rates for people aged 15years or above were analysed using joinpoint regression. Trends in divorce, marriage, unemployment, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and alcohol consumption were compared with trends in suicide rates graphically and using time-series analysis. Suicide mortality decreased in the late 1980s and early 1990s but subsequently increased markedly in all countries except Singapore, which had steadily declining suicide rates throughout the study period. Compared to 1997, male rates in 1998 rose by 39% in Japan, 44% in Hong Kong and 45% in Korea; rises in female rates were less marked. Male rates also rose in Thailand, but accurate data were incomplete. The economic crisis was associated with 10,400 more suicides in 1998 compared to 1997 in Japan, Hong Kong and Korea. Similar increases in suicide rates were not seen in Taiwan and Singapore, the two countries where the economic crisis had a smaller impact on GDP and unemployment. Time-series analyses indicated that some of the crisis's impact on male suicides was attributable to increases in unemployment. These findings suggest an association of the Asian economic crisis with a sharp increase in suicide mortality in some, but not all, East/Southeast Asian countries, and that these increases were most closely associated with rises in unemployment.

  14. The rise of Chrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tamary


    Full Text Available Since Chrome’s initial release in 2008 it has grown in market share, and now controls roughly half of the desktop browsers market. In contrast with Internet Explorer, the previous dominant browser, this was not achieved by marketing practices such as bundling the browser with a pre-loaded operating system. This raises the question of how Chrome achieved this remarkable feat, while other browsers such as Firefox and Opera were left behind. We show that both the performance of Chrome and its conformance with relevant standards are typically better than those of the two main contending browsers, Internet Explorer and Firefox. In addition, based on a survey of the importance of 25 major features, Chrome product managers seem to have made somewhat better decisions in selecting where to put effort. Thus the rise of Chrome is consistent with technical superiority over the competition.

  15. Is sea-level rising?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    There has been considerable research on sea-level-rise caused by global warming. The various reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) made assessments of observed sea level rise and future projections. Figure 1 shows a global...

  16. States' Budgets Reflect Rising Tax Collections (United States)

    Hoff, David J.


    Many state budgets are reaping the benefits of tax revenues that are rising faster than at any time since the economic slowdown ended. Overall tax collections by states rose by 11.7 percent in the first quarter of 2005, giving the legislatures extra cash to shore up school aid, increase teacher pay, and finance new initiatives such as full-day…

  17. Calculation of Temperature Rise in Calorimetry. (United States)

    Canagaratna, Sebastian G.; Witt, Jerry


    Gives a simple but fuller account of the basis for accurately calculating temperature rise in calorimetry. Points out some misconceptions regarding these calculations. Describes two basic methods, the extrapolation to zero time and the equal area method. Discusses the theoretical basis of each and their underlying assumptions. (CW)

  18. Freely rising light solid spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Christian; Biesheuvel, A.; Lohse, Detlef


    This paper examines the behavior of spheres rising freely in a Newtonian fluid when the ratio between the density of the spheres and that of the surrounding fluid is about 0.02. High-speed imaging is used to reconstruct three-dimensional trajectories of the rising spheres. From the analysis of the

  19. Surface Tension and Capillary Rise (United States)

    Walton, Alan J.


    Discussion of the shortcomings of textbook explanations of surface tension, distinguishing between concepts of tension and capillary rise. The arguments require only a clear understanding of Newtonian mechanics, notably potential energy. (DF)

  20. Growing bubbles rising in line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Harper


    Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.

  1. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard


    or later. Because it is difficult to disentangle period effects from cohort effects, demographers, epidemiologists, actuaries, and other population scientists often disagree about cohort effects' relative importance. In particular, some advocate forecasts of life expectancy based on period trends; others...... favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between...

  2. The rise and fall of spinning tops (United States)

    Cross, Rod


    The motion of four different spinning tops was filmed with a high-speed video camera. Unlike pointed tops, tops with a rounded peg precess initially about a vertical axis that lies well outside the top, and then spiral inward until the precession axis passes through a point close to the center-of-mass. The center-of-mass of a top with a rounded peg can rise as a result of rolling rather than sliding friction, contrary to the explanation normally given for the rise of spinning tops. A tippe top was also filmed and was observed to jump vertically off a horizontal surface several times while the center-of-mass was rising, contrary to the usual assumption that the normal reaction force on a tippe top remains approximately equal to its weight. It was found that the center-of-mass of a tippe top rises as a result of rolling friction at low spin frequencies and as a result of sliding friction at high spin frequencies. It was also found that, at low spin frequencies, a tippe top can precess at two different frequencies simultaneously.

  3. Temperature rise of installed FCC (United States)

    Hankins, J. D.


    Report discusses temperature profiles of installed FCC for wood and tile surfaces. Three-conductor FCC was tested at twice nominal current-carrying capacity over bare floor and under carpet, with result indicating that temperature rise is not a linear function of current with FCC at this level.

  4. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard


    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier...... favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between...... female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975-2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915-1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts...

  5. China’s Peaceful Rise (United States)


    strategic defeat.”8 Mearsheimer’s analysis falls short in its presumption that security dilemmas, though the theoretical honey traps9 of great power...victim.” See, “ honey trap,” (accessed August 23, 2013). 10 Charles Glaser, “Will China’s Rise Lead to War? Why...Indonesia, tunnels in Brazil, power grids in Cambodia, hydroelectric projects in Laos, bridges in Vietnam, roads in Zambia, factories in Malaysia

  6. Centrifuge modelling of capillary rise


    Depountis, N.; DAVIES, MCR; Harris, C; Burkhart, S; THOREL, L; A. Rezzoug; Konig, D; Merrifield, C; CRAIG, WH


    This paper reports results from centrifuge tests designed to investigate capillary rise in soils subjected to different gravitational fields. The experimental programme is part of the EU-funded NECER project (Network of European Centrifuges for Environmental Geotechnic Research), whose objective is to investigate the appropriateness of geotechnical centrifuge modelling for the investigation of geoenvironmental problems, particularly with reference to partially saturated soils. The tests were ...

  7. Sea level rise with warming above 2 degree (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John


    Holding the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C, has been agreed by the representatives of the 196 parties of United Nations, as an appropriate threshold beyond which climate change risks become unacceptably high. Sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate for the more than 600 million people living in low-elevation coastal areas less than 10 meters above sea level. Fragile coastal ecosystems and increasing concentrations of population and economic activity in coastal areas, are reasons why future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of the warming climate. Furthermore, sea level is set to continue to rise for centuries after greenhouse gas emissions concentrations are stabilised due to system inertia and feedback time scales. Impact, risk, adaptation policies and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on regional and local sea level rise projections and local projections can differ substantially from the global one. Here we provide probabilistic sea level rise projections for the global coastline with warming above the 2 degree goal. A warming of 2°C makes global ocean rise on average by 20 cm, but more than 90% of coastal areas will experience greater rises, 40 cm along the Atlantic coast of North America and Norway, due to ocean dynamics. If warming continues above 2°C, then by 2100 sea level will rise with speeds unprecedented throughout human civilization, reaching 0.9 m (median), and 80% of the global coastline will exceed the global ocean sea level rise upper 95% confidence limit of 1.8 m. Coastal communities of rapidly expanding cities in the developing world, small island states, and vulnerable tropical coastal ecosystems will have a very limited time after mid-century to adapt to sea level rises.

  8. Efficient production of high-rise buildings


    Hoseini, Hanif


    Production of one family houses has over time developed successfully in Sweden and producers have managed to reduce the production costs and industrialize the production process. The development has however not been that successful when it comes to high-rise buildings. There are many attempts made, but no one has really managed to create a product that can persuade the market. The systems used are not flexible and cannot cope very well with variations in the design. The aim of this work has b...

  9. World medical schools: The sum also rises. (United States)

    Rigby, Perry G; Gururaja, Ramnarayan P


    There is a worldwide shortage of doctors, which is true in most countries and on most continents. To enumerate the number of medical schools in the world at two different times, showing the trends and relating this to population is a beginning. The number is actually going up and has done so for some time; this has increased the supply of physicians and broadened healthcare delivery. The number to count for geographic and regional information about the medical schools relates directly to the supply of doctors. Regions were chosen from WHO and Foundation for the Advancement of International Medical Education and Research data to illustrate geographic distributions, physicians per patient and kinetics. The number of medical schools has consistently been rising around the world. However, world order is reverting to disorder, considering wars, disease and beleaguered stand-offs. None. Eight countries contain 40% of medical schools; however, several locations are rising faster than the rest. Some regions are stable, but sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia and South America have increased the most in percentage recently, but not uniformly. Medical schools are related not only by geography, political boundaries and population but are concentrated in some regions. Graduate Medical Education positions appear to be short on a worldwide basis, as well as in some regions and countries. The number of medical schools is increasing worldwide and the identification of rapidly rising geographic areas is useful in exploring, planning and comparing regions. Controversy continues in a variety of locations, especially concerning Graduate Medical Education. In addition to funding, faculty candidates and accreditation, new schools are confronting a variety of choices in standards and quality, sizing and regional concerns.

  10. Super high-rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maryon, J.C.


    This patent describes a super high-rise building for human occupation having at least 100 vertically spaced, human-occupiable stories comprising: a foundation; and a hollow vertical prism of reinforced concrete, mounted on the foundation and being at least 100 stories high, for transmitting to the foundation substantially all loads above at least the 75th floor of the building in a manner such that automatic lateral rigidity, stability, and strength are attained. The sides of the prism have apertures for such purposes as allowing human movement between the inside end and outside of the prism. The portion of substantially any horizontal circumference of the prism which is occupied by the apertures is less than about 25% of the horizontal circumference.

  11. Geochemistry and age of Shatsky, Hess, and Ojin Rise seamounts: Implications for a connection between the Shatsky and Hess Rises (United States)

    Tejada, Maria Luisa G.; Geldmacher, Jörg; Hauff, Folkmar; Heaton, Daniel; Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Hoernle, Kaj; Heydolph, Ken; Sager, William W.


    Shatsky Rise in the Northwest Pacific is the best example so far of an oceanic plateau with two potential hotspot tracks emanating from it: the linear Papanin volcanic ridge and the seamounts comprising Ojin Rise. Arguably, these hotspot tracks also project toward the direction of Hess Rise, located ∼1200 km away, leading to speculations that the two plateaus are connected. Dredging was conducted on the massifs and seamounts around Shatsky Rise in an effort to understand the relationship between these plateaus and associated seamounts. Here, we present new 40Ar/39Ar ages and trace element and Nd, Pb, and Hf isotopic data for the recovered dredged rocks and new trace elements and isotopic data for a few drill core samples from Hess Rise. Chemically, the samples can be subdivided into plateau basalt-like tholeiites and trachytic to alkalic ocean-island basalt compositions, indicating at least two types of volcanic activity. Tholeiites from the northern Hess Rise (DSDP Site 464) and the trachytes from Toronto Ridge on Shatsky's TAMU massif have isotopic compositions that overlap with those of the drilled Shatsky Rise plateau basalts, suggesting that both Rises formed from the same mantle source. In contrast, trachytes from the southern Hess Rise (DSDP Site 465A) have more radiogenic Pb isotopic ratios that are shifted toward a high time-integrated U/Pb (HIMU-type mantle) composition. The compositions of the dredged seamount samples show two trends relative to Shatsky Rise data: one toward lower 143Nd/144Nd but similar 206Pb/204Pb ratios, the other toward similar 143Nd/144Nd but more radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb ratios. These trends can be attributed to lower degrees of melting either from lower mantle material during hotspot-related transition to plume tail or from less refractory shallow mantle components tapped during intermittent deformation-related volcanism induced by local tectonic extension between and after the main volcanic-edifice building episodes on Shatsky

  12. Temperature rise in superfluid helium pumps (United States)

    Kittel, Peter


    The temperature rise of a fountain effect pump (FEP) and of a centrifugal pump (CP) are compared. Calculations and estimates presented here show that under the operating conditions expected during the resupply of superfluid helium in space, a centrifugal pump will produce a smaller temperature rise than will a fountain effect pump. The temperature rise for the FEP is calculated assuming an ideal pump, while the temperature rise of the CP is estimated from the measured performance of a prototype pump. As a result of this smaller temperature rise and of the different operating characteristics of the two types of pumps, transfers will be more effective using a centrifugal pump.

  13. Rise in seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 among highly sexual active homosexual men and an increasing association between herpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV over time (1984-2003)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Colette; Pfrommer, Christiaan; Mindel, Adrian; Taylor, Janette; Spaargaren, Joke; Berkhout, Ben; Coutinho, Roel; Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.


    OBJECTIVES: Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are both highly prevalent. The rate of genital HSV-1 transmission is reportedly increasing over time. HSV-2 is considered to be an important risk factor for HIV transmission. We therefore studied changes in the HSV-1 and HSV-2

  14. Coastal sea level rise with warming above 2 degree (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John


    Two degrees global warming above the pre-industrial level has been suggested as an appropriate threshold beyond which climate change risks become unacceptably high. This '2 degree' threshold is likely to be reached between 2040 and 2050 for both Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and 4.5. Resulting sea level rises will not be globally uniform due to ocean dynamical processes and changes in gravity associated with water mass-redistribution. Here we provide probabilistic sea level rise projections for the global coastline with warming above the 2 degree goal. We demonstrate that by 2040 with two degree warming under the RCP8.5 scenario more than 90% of coastal areas will experience sea level rise exceeding the global estimate of 0.2 m, with up to 0.4 m expected along the Atlantic coast of North America and Norway. If warming continues above two degree, then by 2100 sea level will rise with speeds unprecedented throughout human civilization, reaching 0.9 m (median), and 80% of the global coastline will exceed the global ocean sea level rise upper 95% confidence limit of 1.8 m. Coastal communities of rapidly expanding cities in the developing world, small island states, and vulnerable tropical coastal ecosystems will have a very limited time after mid-century to adapt to sea level rises.

  15. Real-time monitoring of hydrophobic aggregation reveals a critical role of cooperativity in hydrophobic effect (United States)

    Jiang, Liguo; Cao, Siqin; Cheung, Peter Pak-Hang; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Leung, Chris Wai Tung; Peng, Qian; Shuai, Zhigang; Tang, Ben Zhong; Yao, Shuhuai; Huang, Xuhui


    The hydrophobic interaction drives nonpolar solutes to aggregate in aqueous solution, and hence plays a critical role in many fundamental processes in nature. An important property intrinsic to hydrophobic interaction is its cooperative nature, which is originated from the collective motions of water hydrogen bond networks surrounding hydrophobic solutes. This property is widely believed to enhance the formation of hydrophobic core in proteins. However, cooperativity in hydrophobic interactions has not been successfully characterized by experiments. Here, we quantify cooperativity in hydrophobic interactions by real-time monitoring the aggregation of hydrophobic solute (hexaphenylsilole, HPS) in a microfluidic mixer. We show that association of a HPS molecule to its aggregate in water occurs at sub-microsecond, and the free energy change is -5.8 to -13.6 kcal mol-1. Most strikingly, we discover that cooperativity constitutes up to 40% of this free energy. Our results provide quantitative evidence for the critical role of cooperativity in hydrophobic interactions.

  16. Technological innovations and the rise of social inequalities in health. (United States)

    Weiss, Daniel; Eikemo, Terje Andreas


    Social inequalities in health have been categorised as a human-rights issue that requires action. Unfortunately, these inequalities are on the rise in many countries, including welfare states. Various theories have been offered to explain the persistence (and rise) of these inequalities over time, including the social determinants of health and fundamental cause theory. Interestingly, the rise of modern social inequalities in health has come at a time of great technological innovation. This article addresses whether these technological innovations are significantly influencing the persistence of modern social inequalities in health. A theoretical argument is offered for this potential connection and is discussed alongside the typical social determinants of health perspective and the increasingly popular fundamental cause perspective. This is followed by a proposed research agenda for further investigation of the potential role that technological innovations may play in influencing social inequalities in health.

  17. Criteria Describing High-Rise Buildings


    Ernestas Gaudutis


    Although the evolution of high rise buildings according to different literature sources counts the 2nd century, however, until now, no universally accepted criterion to characterize them has been established. Considering standards used in different countries of the world and various sources of literature, this article tries to sign the existing situation and offer a criterion to mark high rise buildings. The analysis of the reasons of the notion describing high rise buildings is carried out a...

  18. Criteria Describing High-Rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Gaudutis


    Full Text Available Although the evolution of high rise buildings according to different literature sources counts the 2nd century, however, until now, no universally accepted criterion to characterize them has been established. Considering standards used in different countries of the world and various sources of literature, this article tries to sign the existing situation and offer a criterion to mark high rise buildings. The analysis of the reasons of the notion describing high rise buildings is carried out and its relations with high rise construction rudiments found in different cultures are characterized. Article in Lithuanian

  19. Gravitational salt tectonics above a rising basement plateau offshore Algeria (United States)

    Gaullier, Virginie; Vendeville, Bruno C.; Besème, Grégoire; Legoux, Gaetan; Déverchère, Jacques; Lymer, Gaël


    Seismic data (survey "MARADJA 1", 2003) offshore the Algerian coast have imaged an unexpected deformation pattern of the Messinian salt (Mobile Unit; MU) and its sedimentary overburden (Messinian Upper Unit and Plio-Quaternary) above an actively rising plateau in the subsalt basement. From a geodynamic point of view, the region is undergoing crustal convergence, as attested by the Boumerdes earthquake (2003, magnitude 6.8). The rise of this plateau, forming a 3D promontory restricted to the area offshore Algiers, is associated with that geodynamic setting. The seismic profiles show several subsalt thrusts (Domzig et al. 2006). The data provided additional information on the deformation of the Messinian mobile evaporitic unit and its Plio-Quaternary overburden. Margin-perpendicular profiles show mostly compressional features (anticlines and synclines) that had little activity during Messinian times, then grew more during Plio-Quaternary times. A few normal faults are also present, but are not accompanied by salt rise. By contrast, margin-parallel profiles clearly show that extensional, reactive salt diapiric ridges (symptomatic with their triangular shape in cross section) formed early, as early as the time of deposition of the Messinian Upper Unit, as recorded by fan-shaped strata. These ridges have recorded E-W, thin-skinned gravity gliding above the Messinian salt, as a response to the rise of the basement plateau. We tested this hypothesis using two analogue models, one where we assumed that the rise of the plateau started after Messinian times (initially tabular salt across the entire region), the second model assumed that the plateau had already risen partially as the Messininan Mobile Unit was deposited (salt initially thinner above the plateau than in the adjacent regions). In both experiments, the rise of the plateau generated preferential E-W extension above the salt, combined with N-S shortening. Extension was caused by gravity gliding of the salt from

  20. Global coastal hazards from future sea level rise (United States)

    Gornitz, Vivien


    A rise of sea level between 0.3 and 0.9 m by the end of the next century, caused by predicted greenhouse climate warming, would endanger human populations, cities, ports, and wetlands in low-lying coastal areas, through inundation, erosion and salinization. The consequences of a global sea level rise would be spatially non-uniform because of local or regional vertical crustal movements, differential resistance to erosion, varying wave climates, and changeable longshore currents. Although many factors can influence sea level, leading to a noisy record, various studies utilizing tide-gauge data find an average global rate of sea level rise of 1-2 mm/yr, over the last 100 years. This trend is part of a general rise over the last 300 years, since the low point of the Little Ice Age. Sea level rise may accelerate 3-8 times over present rates, within the next century. The permanently inundated coastal zone would extend to a depth equivalent to the vertical rise in sea level. Major river deltas, coastal wetlands and coral islands would be most affected. Episodic flooding by storm waves and surges would penetrate even farther inland. Beach and cliff erosion will be accentuated. Saltwater penetration into coastal aquifers and estuaries could contaminate urban water supplies and affect agricultural production. Research on relative risks and impacts of sea level rise on specific localities is still at an early stage. Development of a global coastal hazards data base, intended to provide an overview of the relative vulnerabilities of the world's coastlines, is described in this paper. To date, information on seven variables, associated with inundation and erosion hazards, has been compiled for the U.S., and parts of Canada and Mexico. A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) has been designed to flag high risk coastal segments. Preliminary results are presented for the eastern United States, as a test case.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph S Nye Jr


    .... A century ago, Germany's rise and the fear it created in Britain helped cause World War I. Now, it's become a new conventional wisdom in some circles that China's rise and the fear it is creating in the US -- where recent polls show 60...

  2. Microcomputer controlled boxcar integrator with subnanosecond rise time (United States)

    Taylor, D. G.; Turley, T. J.; Rodgers, M. L.; Peterson, Steven H.; Demas, J. N.


    A low-cost 8-bit microcomputer interfaced with a sampling oscilloscope yields a versatile boxcar integrator. Firmware provides signal averaging, oscilloscope display of one or two transients, baseline stripping and restoration, X-Y plotting, tape punching and listing of data, and BASIC language data reduction.

  3. A model with nonzero rise time for AE signals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. M A Majeed1 2 C R L Murthy1. Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India; Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Noorul Islam College of Engineering, Kumaracoil, Thuckalay 629 175, India ...

  4. The Rise Time of N Waves Produced by Sparks (United States)


    Computer Program," NASA CR-1299, National Aeronautics and Space Administration , Washington, D.C., 1969. 2. W. D. Hayes and H. L. Runyan, Jr., "Sonic-Boom... Aplicada of Fluids "leonardo Torres Quevado" University of Manchester Serrano, 144-Madrid-6 Manchester M13 9PL SPAIN ENGLAND 82 T. Kamakura 90 Pia

  5. Temperature rise and stress induced by microcracks in accelerating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhu


    Full Text Available The temperature rise and induced stress due to Ohmic heating in the vicinity of microcracks on the walls of high-gradient accelerating structures are considered. The temperature rise and induced stress depend on the orientation of the crack with respect to the rf magnetic field, the shape of the crack, and the power and duration of the rf pulse. Under certain conditions the presence of cracks can double the temperature rise over that of a smooth surface. Stress at the bottom of the cracks can be several times larger than that of the case when there are no cracks. We study these effects both analytically and by computer simulation. It is shown that the stress in cracks is maximal when the crack depth is on the order of the thermal penetration depth.

  6. Fertility postponement is largely due to rising educational enrolment. (United States)

    Ní Bhrolcháin, Máire; Beaujouan, Eva


    The rise in educational enrolment is often cited as a possible cause of the trend to later childbearing in developed societies but direct evidence of its contribution to the aggregate change in fertility tempo is scarce. We show that rising enrolment, resulting in later ages at the end of education, accounts for a substantial part of the upward shift in the mean age at first birth in the 1980s and 1990s in Britain and in France. The postponement of first birth over that period has two components: a longer average period of enrolment and a post-enrolment component that is also related to educational level. The relationship between rising educational participation and the move to later fertility timing is almost certainly causal. Our findings therefore suggest that fertility tempo change is rooted in macro-economic and structural forces rather than in the cultural domain.

  7. Inertial rise of a meniscus on a vertical cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    O’Kiely, Doireann


    © © 2015 Cambridge University PressA. We consider the inertia-dominated rise of a meniscus around a vertical circular cylinder. Previous experiments and scaling analysis suggest that the height of the meniscus, h-{m}, grows with the time following the initiation of rise, t, like h-{m}\\\\propto t^{1/2}. This is in contrast to the rise on a vertical plate, which obeys the classic capillary-inertia scaling h-{m}\\\\propto t^{2/3}. We highlight a subtlety in the scaling analysis that yielded h-{m}\\\\propto t^{1/2} and investigate the consequences of this subtlety. We develop a potential flow model of the dynamic problem, which we solve using the finite element method. Our numerical results agree well with previous experiments but suggest that the correct early time behaviour is, in fact, h-{m}\\\\propto t^{2/3}. Furthermore, we show that at intermediate times the dynamic rise of the meniscus is governed by two parameters: the contact angle and the cylinder radius measured relative to the capillary length scale, t^{2/3}. This result allows us to collapse previous experimental results with different cylinder radii (but similar static contact angles) onto a single master curve.

  8. Arrested Bubble Rise in a Narrow Tube (United States)

    Lamstaes, Catherine; Eggers, Jens


    If a long air bubble is placed inside a vertical tube closed at the top it can rise by displacing the fluid above it. However, Bretherton found that if the tube radius, R, is smaller than a critical value Rc=0.918 ℓ _c, where ℓ _c=√{γ /ρ g} is the capillary length, there is no solution corresponding to steady rise. Experimentally, the bubble rise appears to have stopped altogether. Here we explain this observation by studying the unsteady bubble motion for Rmotion.

  9. The Rise of a Giant (United States)


    European astronomy has received a tremendous boost with the decision from ESO's governing body to proceed with detailed studies for the European Extremely Large Telescope. This study, with a budget of 57 million euro, will make it possible to start, in three years time, the construction of an optical/infrared telescope with a diameter around 40m that will revolutionise ground-based astronomy. The chosen design is based on a revolutionary concept specially developed for a telescope of this size. "The decision by the ESO Council to go ahead with the design study for an European Extremely Large Telescope is a very exciting one for European astronomy,", said Richard Wade, President of the ESO Council. "Today is a great day because the ESO Council has authorised us to go forward with the final design of the next flagship telescope of ESO,", says Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. ESO PR Photo 46/06 ESO PR Photo 46/06 The European Extremely Large Telescope (Artist's Impression) Since the end of last year, ESO has been working together with its user community of European astronomers and astrophysicists to define the new giant telescope needed by the middle of the next decade [1]. More than one hundred astronomers from all European countries have been involved throughout 2006, helping the ESO Project Offices to produce a novel concept, in which performance, cost, schedule and risk were carefully evaluated. This fast pace has also been possible thanks to early conceptual studies in Europe (such as the ESO OWL and the EURO-50 studies) and research and development done in collaboration with a large number of European institutes and high-tech industries to develop critical enabling technologies within the framework of the EU FP6 programme and with significant contributions from all partners. Provisionally dubbed E-ELT for the European Extremely Large Telescope, ESO's innovative concept was presented in detail two weeks ago to more than 250 European astronomers at a

  10. Why did employee health insurance contributions rise? (United States)

    Gruber, Jonathan; McKnight, Robin


    We explore the causes of the dramatic rise in employee contributions to health insurance over the past two decades. In 1982, 44% of those who were covered by their employer-provided health insurance had their costs fully financed by their employer, but by 1998 this had fallen to 28%. We discuss the theory of why employers might shift premiums to their employees, and empirically model the role of four factors suggested by the theory. We find that there was a large impact of falling tax rates, rising eligibility for insurance through the Medicaid system, rising medical costs, and increased managed care penetration. Overall, this set of factors can explain more than one-half of the rise in employee premiums over the 1982-1996 period.

  11. Pentecostalism & the Rise of a Zimbabwean Transnational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Gifts of the Spirit: Pentecostalism & the Rise of a Zimbabwean Transnational Religious Movement by David Maxwell (Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2006) – XI + 250 pp., ISBN 13:978-0-8124-1738-6, Paperback.

  12. Rapid rise and decay in petition signing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yasseri, Taha; Hale, Scott A; Margetts, Helen Z


    .... Petition signing is an example of collective action which has gained in popularity with rising use of social media and provides such data for the whole population of petition signatories for a given platform...

  13. Climate Adaptation and Sea Level Rise (United States)

    EPA supports the development and maintenance of water utility infrastructure across the country. Included in this effort is helping the nation’s water utilities anticipate, plan for, and adapt to risks from flooding, sea level rise, and storm surge.

  14. Bubble streams rising beneath an inclined surface (United States)

    Bird, James; Brasz, Frederik; Kim, Dayoung; Menesses, Mark; Belden, Jesse


    Bubbles released beneath a submerged inclined surface can tumble along the wall as they rise, dragging the surrounding fluid with them. This effect has recently regained attention as a method to mitigate biofouling in marine environment, such as a ship hull. It appears that the efficacy of this approach may be related to the velocity of the rising bubbles and the extent that they spread laterally as they rise. Yet, it is unclear how bubble stream rise velocity and lateral migration depend on bubble size, flow rate, and inclination angle. Here we perform systematic experiments to quantify these relationships for both individual bubble trajectories and ensemble average statistics. Research supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant Number award N00014-16-1-3000.

  15. Cusped Bubbles Rising through Polyelectrolyte Solutions (United States)

    Belmonte, Andrew; Sostarecz, Michael


    It is well known that a bubble rising in a polymer fluid can have a cusp-like tail. We report on an experimental study of bubbles rising through solutions of glycerol/water with the addition of the polymer xanthan gum, a polyelectrolyte which becomes more rigid as the free ion concentration is increased. The addition of salt also decreases the elasticity of the xanthan gum solutions, and we observe its effects on the velocity and shape of the cusped bubble.

  16. The Rise of IPv6: Benefits and Costs of Transforming Military Cyberspace (United States)


    March–April 2015 Air & Space Power Journal | 103 Feature The Rise of IPv6 Benefits and Costs of Transforming Military Cyberspace Dr. Panayotis A...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Rise of IPv6 : Benefits and Costs of Transforming Military Cyberspace 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Journal | 104 Yannakogeorgos The Rise of IPv6 Feature loted and autonomous systems that will in time become core mission enablers.1 Too often

  17. Nothing But MORB at Shatsky Rise (United States)

    Natland, J. H.


    I compare basaltic rocks and glasses obtained by IODP Expedition 324 drilling at Shatsky Rise, a Jurassic Large Igneous Province in the northwestern Pacific, to mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) from the Indian Ocean and East Pacific Rise. Data are compositions in Sano et al (2012) and electron-probe microanalyses of spinel and clinopyroxene. Although several different basalt types were obtained from Shatsky Rise, they all have counterparts along modern spreading ridges, namely depleted (normal, or N-type) and enriched (E-type) MORB plus one extremely depleted type, here termed 'truly depleted'. The latter is similar to eastern Pacific basalts from small intra-transform spreading segments (e.g., Siqueiros fracture zone) and near-ridge seamounts. Basalts from Shatsky Rise are mainly strongly differentiated ferrobasalts; some appear to have mixed with or assimilated small amounts of silicic differentiates and with E-MORB. Similar processes also occur along the East Pacific Rise (9N, Endeavor Deep, Pacific-Antarctic East Pacific Rise). Some clinopyroxene crystals occur in gabbro clots at one site. The textures and mineral compositions resemble those of gabbro cumulates at Hess Deep, eastern Pacific. Spinel compositions from two sites, including in 'truly depleted' basalt, are similar to those in strongly depleted picritic basalt from Siqueiros Fracture Zone, except that they crystallized at lower temperature. Petrogenetic models suggest slightly lower temperatures and smaller degrees of partial melting for all parental Shatsky basalts than for either the N-type or depleted (D-type) MORB of Gale et al (2013). Those with smaller extents of melting resemble basalts from the very slowly spreading and deeply rifted Southwest Indian Ridge near the Indian Ocean triple junction. In summary, Shatsky Rise basalts in all respects resemble those of modern spreading ridges, but mostly to the East Pacific Rise. Compositions of mantle sources were similar; conditions of partial melting

  18. Study on rapid evacuation in high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang


    Full Text Available More and more high rising buildings emerged in modern cities, but emergency evacuation of tall buildings has been a worldwide difficult problem. In this paper, a new evacuation device for high rising buildings in fire accident was proposed and studied. This device mainly consisted of special spiral slideway and shunt valve. People in this device could fast slide down to the first floor under gravity without any electric power and physical strength, which is suitable for various emergency evacuation including mobility-impaired persons. The plane simulation test has shown that human being in alternative clockwise and counterclockwise movement will not become dizzy. The evacuated people should wear protection pad, which can prevent slider from being injured by surface friction with the slide, and eliminate the friction coefficient difference caused by different clothes and slide surface. The calculation results show that the evacuation speed of the new device is much faster than traditional staircases. Moreover, such new evacuation device can also be used as a means of vertical transportation in high-rise buildings partly. People can take it from any floor to ground floor directly, which not only save time for waiting for the lifts but also save the power. The new evacuation system is of simple structure, easy to use, and suitable for evacuation and partly used as vertical downwards traffic, which shows light on solving world-wide difficulties on fast evacuation in high-rise buildings.

  19. Numerical simulation of superheated vapor bubble rising in stagnant liquid (United States)

    Samkhaniani, N.; Ansari, M. R.


    In present study, the rising of superheated vapor bubble in saturated liquid is simulated using volume of fluid method in OpenFOAM cfd package. The surface tension between vapor-liquid phases is considered using continuous surface force method. In order to reduce spurious current near interface, Lafaurie smoothing filter is applied to improve curvature calculation. Phase change is considered using Tanasawa mass transfer model. The variation of saturation temperature in vapor bubble with local pressure is considered with simplified Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The couple velocity-pressure equation is solved using PISO algorithm. The numerical model is validated with: (1) isothermal bubble rising and (2) one-dimensional horizontal film condensation. Then, the shape and life time history of single superheated vapor bubble are investigated. The present numerical study shows vapor bubble in saturated liquid undergoes boiling and condensation. It indicates bubble life time is nearly linear proportional with bubble size and superheat temperature.

  20. Distribution trend of high-rise buildings worldwide and factor exploration (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Qiao


    This paper elaborates the development phenomenon of high-rise buildings nowadays. The development trend of super high-rise buildings worldwide is analyzed based on data from the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, taking the top 100 high-rise buildings in different continents and with the time development and building type as the objects. Through analysis, the trend of flourishing of UAE super high-rise buildings and stable development of European and American high-rise buildings is obtained. The reasons for different development degrees of the regions are demonstrated from the aspects of social development, economy, culture and consciousness. This paper also presents unavoidable issues of super high-rise buildings and calls for rational treatment to these buildings.

  1. Rise Over Thermal Estimation Algorithm Optimization and Implementation


    Irshad, Saba; Nepal, Purna Chandra


    The uplink load for the scheduling of Enhanced-Uplink (E-UL) channels determine the achievable data rate for Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) systems, therefore its accurate measurement carries a prime significance. The uplink load also known as Rise-over-Thermal (RoT), which is the quotient of the Received Total Wideband Power (RTWP) and the Thermal Noise Power floor. It is a major parameter which is calculated at each Transmission Time Interval (TTI) for maintaining cell cover...

  2. Visualizing Sea Level Rise with Augmented Reality (United States)

    Kintisch, E. S.


    Looking Glass is an application on the iPhone that visualizes in 3-D future scenarios of sea level rise, overlaid on live camera imagery in situ. Using a technology known as augmented reality, the app allows a layperson user to explore various scenarios of sea level rise using a visual interface. Then the user can see, in an immersive, dynamic way, how those scenarios would affect a real place. The first part of the experience activates users' cognitive, quantitative thinking process, teaching them how global sea level rise, tides and storm surge contribute to flooding; the second allows an emotional response to a striking visual depiction of possible future catastrophe. This project represents a partnership between a science journalist, MIT, and the Rhode Island School of Design, and the talk will touch on lessons this projects provides on structuring and executing such multidisciplinary efforts on future design projects.

  3. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  4. An analysis of rising health care costs. (United States)

    Thorne, L M


    Why are medical costs rising so rapidly? What are the factors involved that influence those costs? Does inflation affect health care costs? Can anything be done? The solutions to these complex issues are not clearly understood. It is clear, however, that the resolutions to these questions must be found quickly. If the causes of rising medical care costs are not promptly diagnosed and treated, we may find our economic health to be in critical condition. This paper attempts to better understand the reasons for increasing health care costs. The role that inflation plays relative to health care costs is investigated.

  5. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin


    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark, and to investi......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark...

  6. Sea Level Rise National Coastal Property Model (United States)

    The impact of sea level rise on coastal properties depends critically on the human response to the threat, which in turn depends on several factors, including the immediacy of the risk, the magnitude of property value at risk, options for adapting to the threat and the cost of th...

  7. Sea level rise : A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, G.H.P.


    In order to assess the impact of sea level rise on Water Management, it is useful to understand the mechanisrns that determine the level of the sea. In this study, a literature survey is executed to analyze these mechanisms. Climate plays a centra! role in these mechanisms, Climate mainly changes

  8. The Rise of School-Supporting Nonprofits (United States)

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko; Gazley, Beth


    This paper examines voluntary contributions to public education via charitable school foundations, booster clubs, parent teacher associations, and parent teacher organizations. We use panel data on school-supporting charities with national coverage from 1995 to 2010, which we geocode and match to school districts. We document the meteoric rise of…

  9. the Rising Profile of Modern Nigerian Art

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 18, 2011 ... Art Pricing and the Nigerian Economy, 1960-2008; the. Rising Profile of Modern Nigerian ... for a piece of painting by a Nigerian artist to be priced for so much as five hundred guineas(about five ..... up sculptural pieces, mural, or mosaic works on new buildings built all over the country. By beginning of the ...

  10. Ideology and the rise of early states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van


    Professor Carneiro is a distinguished American scholar who made a seminal contribution to the debate about the rise of the early state. As early as in 1970, he published a landmark paper in the authoritative journal Science on the circumscription theory about the emergence of the (early) state. This

  11. The Rise of the Digital Public Library (United States)

    McKendrick, Joseph


    There is a growing shift to digital offerings among public libraries. Libraries increasingly are fulfilling roles as technology hubs for their communities, with high demand for technology and career development training resources. Ebooks and other digital materials are on the rise, while print is being scaled back. More libraries are turning to…

  12. Melanoma continues to rise throughout the world

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article: Melanoma continues to rise throughout the world. 530 ... of melanoma. The radiation in the ultraviolet B range is said to be the critical component. Generally, worldwide, the incidence of melanoma in white people4,5 correlates inversely with .... lymphocytes, mitotic rate, regression, angiolymphatic invasion ...

  13. Pay rise should be at least 10. (United States)

    Johnson, Melody


    I think a minimum 10% pay rise would retain homegrown nurses. Morale and nursing levels need to be improved to help reduce stress. When you go to the wire with nothing to spare in the establishment, and it all goes pear-shaped, everyone becomes stretched and stressed. Managers should listen to staff at the coal face about this.

  14. Can income redistribution help changing rising inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.


    In this article compares the rise in inequality concerning net household incomes in a number of European countries and Canada, the USA and Australia. Two important factors are used to explain this worrying trend: a growing of unequal market incomes and/or a declining redistribution of income through

  15. Updating Maryland's sea-level rise projections (United States)

    Boesch, Donald F.; Atkinson, Larry P.; Boicourt, William C.; Boon, John D.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Dalrymple, Robert A.; Ezer, Tal; Horton, Benjamin P.; Johnson, Zoe P.; Kopp, Robert E.; Li, Ming; Moss, Richard H.; Parris, Adam; Sommerfield, Christopher K.


    With its 3,100 miles of tidal shoreline and low-lying rural and urban lands, “The Free State” is one of the most vulnerable to sea-level rise. Historically, Marylanders have long had to contend with rising water levels along its Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean and coastal bay shores. Shorelines eroded and low-relief lands and islands, some previously inhabited, were inundated. Prior to the 20th century, this was largely due to the slow sinking of the land since Earth’s crust is still adjusting to the melting of large masses of ice following the last glacial period. Over the 20th century, however, the rate of rise of the average level of tidal waters with respect to land, or relative sea-level rise, has increased, at least partially as a result of global warming. Moreover, the scientific evidence is compelling that Earth’s climate will continue to warm and its oceans will rise even more rapidly. Recognizing the scientific consensus around global climate change, the contribution of human activities to it, and the vulnerability of Maryland’s people, property, public investments, and natural resources, Governor Martin O’Malley established the Maryland Commission on Climate Change on April 20, 2007. The Commission produced a Plan of Action that included a comprehensive climate change impact assessment, a greenhouse gas reduction strategy, and strategies for reducing Maryland’s vulnerability to climate change. The Plan has led to landmark legislation to reduce the state’s greenhouse gas emissions and a variety of state policies designed to reduce energy consumption and promote adaptation to climate change.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker ÖZDEMİR


    Full Text Available In this paper, an application to high-rise buildings of VPM (Vertical Production Method and an example will be given which is composition of two distinct and preferable methods are CPM (Critical Path Method that is prefering against traditional Bar-Charts or schedules especially in big and costly investments and LOB (Line of Balance technique that is suitable for using in linear project planning. Thus, it could be expected that to show the way of the method to designer and manufacturer about subjects which are activity, priority and sequencing of high-rise project, speeds of activity and construction, completion times, to add or take out some terms to schedule at the state of project changing.

  17. Rising income and the subjective well-being of nations. (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Tay, Louis; Oishi, Shigehiro


    We explored whether rising income in nations is associated with increasing subjective well-being (SWB), with several advances over earlier work. Our methods are improved in that across time, the same well-being questions were asked in the same order, and we employed broad and equivalent representative samples over time from a large number of nations. We also assessed psychosocial factors that might mediate the relation of income and SWB. We found that changes in household income were associated with concomitant changes in life evaluations, positive feelings, and negative feelings. The effects of gross domestic product (GDP) change were weaker and significant only for life evaluations, perhaps because GDP was a less certain index of the standard of living of the average household. The association of income and SWB is more likely to occur when the average person's material welfare accompanies rising income, when people become more satisfied with their finances, and when people become more optimistic about their futures. People did not adapt to the income rises during the period of years we studied, in that income rises produced SWB increases that did not return to earlier levels. It appears that previous researchers failed to come to agreement because of the small sample sizes of the nations, the inconsistent methods across years and surveys, and the lack of measures of potential mediating variables. Analyses of income relative to people in one's nation and between-nation slopes together suggest that income standards are now largely global, with little effect of national social comparison. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Estimating Hardness from the USDC Tool-Bit Temperature Rise (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart


    A method of real-time quantification of the hardness of a rock or similar material involves measurement of the temperature, as a function of time, of the tool bit of an ultrasonic/sonic drill corer (USDC) that is being used to drill into the material. The method is based on the idea that, other things being about equal, the rate of rise of temperature and the maximum temperature reached during drilling increase with the hardness of the drilled material. In this method, the temperature is measured by means of a thermocouple embedded in the USDC tool bit near the drilling tip. The hardness of the drilled material can then be determined through correlation of the temperature-rise-versus-time data with time-dependent temperature rises determined in finite-element simulations of, and/or experiments on, drilling at various known rates of advance or known power levels through materials of known hardness. The figure presents an example of empirical temperature-versus-time data for a particular 3.6-mm USDC bit, driven at an average power somewhat below 40 W, drilling through materials of various hardness levels. The temperature readings from within a USDC tool bit can also be used for purposes other than estimating the hardness of the drilled material. For example, they can be especially useful as feedback to control the driving power to prevent thermal damage to the drilled material, the drill bit, or both. In the case of drilling through ice, the temperature readings could be used as a guide to maintaining sufficient drive power to prevent jamming of the drill by preventing refreezing of melted ice in contact with the drill.

  19. Sea-level rise risks to coastal cities (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.


    Understanding the consequence of sea-level rise for coastal cities has long lead times and huge political implications. Civilisation has emerged and developed during a period of several thousand years during which in geological terms sea level has been unusually stable. We have now moved out of this period and the challenge will be to develop a long-term proactive assessment approach to manage this challenge. In 2005 there were 136 coastal cities with a population exceeding one million people and a collective population of 400 million people. All these coastal cities are threatened by flooding from the sea to varying degrees and these risks are increasing due to growing exposure (people and assets), rising sea levels due to climate change, and in some cities, significant coastal subsidence due to human agency (drainage and groundwater withdrawals from susceptible soils). In these cities we wish to avoid major flood events, with associated damage and potentially deaths and ultimately decline of the cities. Flood risks grow with sea-level rise as it raises extreme sea levels. As sea levels continue to rise, protection will have to be progressively upgraded. Even with this, the magnitude of losses when flood events do occur would increase as coastal cities expand, and water depths and hence unit damage increase with sea-level rise/subsidence. This makes it critical to also prepare for larger coastal flood disasters than we experience today and raises questions on the limits to adaptation. There is not an extensive literature or significant empirical information on the limits to adaptation in coastal cities. These limits are not predictable in a formal sense - while the rise in mean sea level raises the likelihood of a catastrophic flood, extreme events are what cause damage and trigger a response, be it abandonment, a defence upgrade or something else. There are several types of potential limits that could be categorised into three broad types: • Physical

  20. Body positions used by healthy and frail older adults to rise from the floor. (United States)

    Ulbrich, J; Raheja, A; Alexander, N B


    The purpose of this study was to describe how older adults, particularly more physically impaired older adults, might differ from healthy controls in the body positions used to rise from the floor. Cross-sectional analysis of young, healthy older, and congregate housing older women. University-based laboratory and congregate housing facility. Healthy young university student controls (n = 22, mean age 23 years); healthy old adults living independently in the community (n = 24, mean age 73 years); and congregate housing older adults (n = 29, mean age 81 years). Videotaping and timing of rising from a supine position on the floor to standing. In addition to the time taken to rise from the floor, 10 specific trunk and extremity positions used during the rise, termed Intermediate Positions (IP), were identified. The Young controls had the fastest rise time and used the fewest number of IP, whereas the Congregate residents had the slowest rise time and used the most IP, with the Healthy old adults intermediate in both time and IP use. Prevalence of certain IP, together with correlational and factor analyses, suggest that use of Sit and Crouch was the most preferred rise strategy for the Young controls, whereas use of Tuck, Crouch-Kneel, All Fours, and Bearwalk was the most preferred rise strategy among the Congregate residents. The Healthy old used IP common to both Young and Congregate residents, reflecting a rise strategy intermediate to the latter groups. A substantial subset of the Congregate residents (38%) were unable to rise without assistance and appeared to use certain preparatory positions (Sit, Kneel, Tuck) but were unable to get into presumably more challenging positions (Crouch-Kneel, All Fours, Bearwalk). With increasing age and physical impairment, body positions used during rising from the floor suggest a preference for maintaining upper and lower extremity contact with the floor, presumably minimizing the lower extremity strength requirements to rise

  1. Simulations of Rising Hydrodynamic and Magnetohydrodynamic Bubbles (United States)

    Ricker, P. M.; Robinson, K.; Dursi, L. J.; Rosner, R.; Calder, A. C.; Zingale, M.; Truran, J. W.; Linde, T.; Caceres, A.; Fryxell, B.; Olson, K.; Riley, K.; Siegel, A.; Vladimirova, N.

    Motivated by recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of X-ray emission voids in galaxy cluster cooling flows, we have investigated the behavior of rising bubbles in stratified atmospheres using the FLASH adaptive-mesh simulation code. We present results from two-dimensional simulations with and without the effects of magnetic fields, and with varying bubble sizes and background stratifications. We find purely hydrodynamic bubbles to be unstable; a dynamically important magnetic field is required to maintain a bubble's integrity. This suggests that, even absent thermal conduction, for bubbles to be persistent enough to be regularly observed, they must be supported in large part by magnetic fields. We also observe that magnetically supported bubbles leave a tail as they rise. The structure of these tails may provide clues to the bubble's dynamical history.

  2. Numerical and approximate solutions for plume rise (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Ramesh; Gordon Hall, J.

    Numerical and approximate analytical solutions are compared for turbulent plume rise in a crosswind. The numerical solutions were calculated using the plume rise model of Hoult, Fay and Forney (1969, J. Air Pollut. Control Ass.19, 585-590), over a wide range of pertinent parameters. Some wind shear and elevated inversion effects are included. The numerical solutions are seen to agree with the approximate solutions over a fairly wide range of the parameters. For the conditions considered in the study, wind shear effects are seen to be quite small. A limited study was made of the penetration of elevated inversions by plumes. The results indicate the adequacy of a simple criterion proposed by Briggs (1969, AEC Critical Review Series, USAEC Division of Technical Information extension, Oak Ridge, Tennesse).



    Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich; Dinh Cong Hung Dinh Cong Hung


    The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors. In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds th...

  4. Social Sustainability of High-Rise Buildings


    Mohammad Javad Mahdavinejad; Ali Sadraie; Golrokh Sadraie


    Nowadays, High-rise building is proposed as a dominant form in world’s Major cities which its rapid growth has caused social and cultural concerns of the residents of these buildings. Social capital is remembered as a basis for economic development of any society. Its importance can be seen in the economic development of developing countries. Social capital is the invisible wealth of a country that encompasses institutions, relationships and norms that shape social interactions. In this paper...

  5. Temperature rise in tissue ablation using multi-frequency ultrasound. (United States)

    Sijia Guo; Yun Jing; Xiaoning Jiang


    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is becoming an increasingly important noninvasive surgical tool, despite the challenges in temperature rise control and unwanted heating problems. In this study, experiments and simulations on tissue ablation effectiveness were performed using multi-frequency HIFU with frequency differences of more than 500 kHz (center frequencies are 950 kHz, 1.5 MHz, and 3.3 MHz). In the experiments, the temperature was recorded as chicken breast tissue was heated by single-frequency, dual-frequency, and tri-frequency HIFU configurations at controlled acoustic power and exposure time. 5% to 10% temperature rise differences were observed between single- and multi-frequency modes, indicating that multi-frequency HIFU is more effective at producing faster temperature rises. Cavitation detection tests were conducted to compare the cavitation pressure fields between single- and multi-frequency ultrasound. Moreover, simulations on single-frequency and multi-frequency acoustic fields as well as bio-heating-induced temperature fields were performed. With the comparison between experimental and simulation results, we believe that the more effective tissue ablation using multi-frequency ultrasound is likely attributed to the enhanced cavitation, a promising result for HIFU applications.

  6. Temperature rise during photo-polymerization for onlay luting. (United States)

    Onisor, Ioana; Asmussen, Erik; Krejci, Ivo


    (1) To measure the temperature rise during long-time irradiation needed to lute adhesive indirect restorations, with one halogen and five LED high-power lamps, in a simulated oral environment, and (2) to propose a technique to reduce heat. Temperature within the pulp chamber of an extracted human molar in a 35 degrees C water bath, before and after restoration with a ceramic onlay, was continuously recorded during 3 x 120 seconds of irradiation for different curing regimens, with and without cooling by compressed air, water and water spray. Temperature rise in a thermo-insulated well was also measured during 120 seconds of irradiation with LEDemetron II and TuTu. Maximal temperature rise of 6.2 degrees C/7.7 degrees C on intact/onlay restored tooth was found after 3 x 120 seconds of irradiation. Compressed air application reduced the temperature by 4 degrees C for LEDemetron II, while water spray increased the temperature by 15.1 degrees C for TuTu. Temperature decreased with irradiation distance, except for LEDemetron II. Air was heated up to 65 degrees C after 120 seconds of irradiation in an insulated well with TuTu.

  7. Claritas rise, Mars: Pre-Tharsis magmatism? (United States)

    Dohm, J.M.; Anderson, R.C.; Williams, J.-P.; Ruiz, J.; McGuire, P.C.; Buczkowski, D.L.; Wang, R.; Scharenbroich, L.; Hare, T.M.; Connerney, J.E.P.; Baker, V.R.; Wheelock, S.J.; Ferris, J.C.; Miyamoto, H.


    Claritas rise is a prominent ancient (Noachian) center of tectonism identified through investigation of comprehensive paleotectonic information of the western hemisphere of Mars. This center is interpreted to be the result of magmatic-driven activity, including uplift and associated tectonism, as well as possible hydrothermal activity. Coupled with its ancient stratigraphy, high density of impact craters, and complex structure, a possible magnetic signature may indicate that it formed during an ancient period of Mars' evolution, such as when the dynamo was in operation. As Tharsis lacks magnetic signatures, Claritas rise may pre-date the development of Tharsis or mark incipient development, since some of the crustal materials underlying Tharsis and older parts of the magmatic complex, respectively, could have been highly resurfaced, destroying any remanent magnetism. Here, we detail the significant characteristics of the Claritas rise, and present a case for why it should be targeted by the Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Mars Express spacecrafts, as well as be considered as a prime target for future tier-scalable robotic reconnaissance. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  8. SEISMIC Analysis of high-rise buildings with composite metal damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ruixue


    Full Text Available This paper mainly studies on the mechanical characteristics and application effect of composite metal damper in the high-rise buildings via the numerical simulation analysis. The research adopts the elastic and elastic-plastic dynamic approach and the displacement time history response and damper energy dissipation capacity and so on of the high-rise building are compared and analyzed before and after installation. The analysis found that the energy dissipation characteristic of metallic dampers is good. High-rise building story drift significantly is reduced and the extent of damage of the walls and coupling beams is decreased, achieved a good energy dissipation effect. Composite metal damper can effectively and economically improve the seismic performance of high-rise buildings, meet the requirement of the 3-level design for seismic resistance. The result has certain reference significance for the application of metallic damper in the high-rise buildings.

  9. Rising climate variability and synchrony in North Pacific ecosystems (United States)

    Black, Bryan


    Rising climate variability and synchrony in North Pacific ecosystems Evidence is growing that climate variability of the northeast Pacific Ocean has increased over the last century, culminating in such events as the record-breaking El Niño years 1983, 1998, and 2016 and the unusually persistent 2014/15 North Pacific Ocean heat wave known as "The Blob." Of particular concern is that rising variability could increase synchrony within and among North Pacific ecosystems, which could reduce the diversity of biological responses to climate (i.e. the "portfolio effect"), diminish resilience, and leave populations more prone to extirpation. To test this phenomenon, we use a network of multidecadal fish otolith growth-increment chronologies that were strongly correlated to records of winter (Jan-Mar) sea level. These biological and physical datasets spanned the California Current through the Gulf of Alaska. Synchrony was quantified as directional changes in running (31-year window) mean pairwise correlation within sea level and then within otolith time series. Synchrony in winter sea level at the nine stations with the longest records has increased by more than 40% over the 1950-2015 interval. Likewise, synchrony among the eight longest otolith chronologies has increased more than 100% over a comparable time period. These directional changes in synchrony are highly unlikely due to chance alone, as confirmed by comparing trends in observed data to those in simulated data (n = 10,000 iterations) with time series of identical number, length, and autocorrelation. Ultimately, this trend in rising synchrony may be linked to increased impacts of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on mid-latitude ecosystems of North America, and may therefore reflect a much broader, global-scale signature.

  10. PERSPECTIVE: The tripping points of sea level rise (United States)

    Hecht, Alan D.


    coastal management in which options for shore protection or retreats are clearly identified and where economic, ecosystem and social impacts can be clearly evaluated. At stake are both the future of wetlands that provide important ecosystem services and the safety and sustainability of our coastal communities. This is a huge challenge requiring adequate data, long-term planning, federal-state cooperation, and integration of environmental laws. The time is at hand to assess a business-as-usual response to sea level rise or to explore a more holistic and integrated approach. President Obama has said: `The threat from climate change is serious, it is urgent, and it is growing. Our generation's response to this challenge will be judged by history, for if we fail to meet it—boldly, swiftly, and together—we risk consigning future generations to an irreversible catastrophe' [3]. Though the President was talking about action to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, cooperation to address the consequences of rising sea level and changing climate is just as urgent. References [1] Titus J G et al 2009 State and local governments plan for development of most land vulnerable to rising sea level along the US Atlantic coast Environ. Res. Lett. 4 044008 [2] US Global Change Research Program 2009 Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States (June 2009) [3]

  11. 3D simulations of rising magnetic flux tubes in a compressible rotating interior: The effect of magnetic tension (United States)

    Fournier, Y.; Arlt, R.; Ziegler, U.; Strassmeier, K. G.


    Context. Long-term variability in solar cycles represents a challenging constraint for theoretical models. Mean-field Babcock-Leighton dynamos that consider non-instantaneous rising flux tubes have been shown to exhibit long-term variability in their magnetic cycle. However a relation that parameterizes the rise-time of non-axisymmetric magnetic flux tubes in terms of stellar parameters is still missing. Aims: We aim to find a general parameterization of the rise-time of magnetic flux tubes for solar-like stars. Methods: By considering the influence of magnetic tension on the rise of non-axisymmetric flux tubes, we predict the existence of a control parameter referred as Γα1α2. This parameter is a measure of the balance between rotational effects and magnetic effects (buoyancy and tension) acting on the magnetic flux tube. We carry out two series of numerical experiments (one for axisymmetric rise and one for non-axisymmetric rise) and demonstrate that Γα1α2 indeed controls the rise-time of magnetic flux tubes. Results: We find that the rise-time follows a power law of Γα1α2 with an exponent that depends on the azimuthal wavenumber of the magnetic flux loop. Conclusions: Compressibility does not impact the rise of magnetic flux tubes, while non-axisymmetry does. In the case of non-axisymmetric rise, the tension force modifies the force balance acting on the magnetic flux tube. We identified the three independent parameters required to predict the rise-time of magnetic flux tubes, that is, the stellar rotation rate, the magnetic flux density of the flux tube, and its azimuthal wavenumber. We combined these into one single relation that is valid for any solar-like star. We suggest using this generalized relation to constrain the rise-time of magnetic flux tubes in Babcock-Leighton dynamo models.

  12. Coherence time limit of the biphotons generated in a dense cold atom cloud. (United States)

    Han, Zhiguang; Qian, Peng; Zhou, L; Chen, J F; Zhang, Weiping


    Biphotons with narrow bandwidth and long coherence time can enhance light-atom interaction, which leads to strong coupling between photonic and atomic qubits. Such strong coupling is desirable in quantum information processing, quantum storage and communication. In particular, paired photons with a long coherence time over submicroseconds facilitate the direct manipulation of biphoton wavefunction. In this paper, we report the narrow-band biphotons with a coherence time of 2.34 μs generated from spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) in a dense cold atom cloud, in which the anti-Stokes photons go through a narrow electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) window. In our knowledge, this is the best record of coherence time for paired photons achieved so far. A number of factors limiting the coherence time are analyzed in detail. We find the EIT coherence plays an essential role in determining the coherence time for paired photons. The EIT dephasing rate is the ultimate limit to the coherence time, and an ultra-long coherence time above ten microseconds is possible by further improvement of the dephasing rate below 100 kHz.

  13. Diabesity: an overview of a rising epidemic. (United States)

    Farag, Youssef M K; Gaballa, Mahmoud R


    'Diabesity' is the term for diabetes occurring in the context of obesity. In this review, we will overview the latest epidemiological data available describing the rising prevalence, health impact and economic impact of diabesity. We will also outline the measures required to slowdown this newly evolving epidemic. The global prevalence of diabetes in 2010 was 284 million people worldwide constituting around 6.4% of the world population, which is higher than was projected in earlier studies. Furthermore, the projections for 2030 show the prevalence to reach 439 million individuals comprising ~7.7% of the world population. The burden of diabetes on the world economy has been rising steadily in the last decade to reach $376 billion in 2010 and is expected to reach $490 billion in 2030. Diabesity represents a substantial economic burden as reflected by diabetes and obesity consuming 14 and 5.7% of the USA's total health expenditure, respectively, representing the highest known expenditure on diabesity worldwide. When costs associated with being overweight were also included, the upper limit of obesity expenditure rises to 9.1% of the USA's total healthcare expenditure. The highest recorded expenditure on diabetes alone was in Saudi Arabia consuming 21% of the country's total health expenditure, with no data available about the health expenditure on obesity. The health impact of diabesity is substantial to include long-term diabetic complications, reduction in health-related functioning, reduction of quality of life and reduced overall life expectancy. Long-term complications include myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular stroke and end-stage renal disease. Also recent advances have found that there is an association between chronic stress, depression and sleeping troubles to both diabetes and obesity. This century is the unprecedented diabetogenic era in human history. It is thus urgent to take steps including screening, prevention and early management in an attempt to

  14. Sea level rise in the Arctic Ocean


    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Pavlov, Vladimir; Bourke, Robert H.


    The article of record as published may be found at About 60 tide-gauge stations in the Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian and Chukchi Seas have recorded the sea level change from the 1950s through 1990s. Over this 40-year period, most of these stations show a significant sea level rise (SLR). In light of global change, this SLR could be a manifestation of warming in the Artic coupled with a decrease of sea ice extent, warming of Atlantic waters, changes in...

  15. Sea-Level Rise by 2100

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A; Clark, P.A; Cazenave, A; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A; Merrifield, M.A; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    VOL 342 20 DECEMBER 2013 1445 LETTERS edited by Jennifer Sills 1462 COMMENTARY LETTERS I BOOKS I POLICY FORUM I EDUCATION FORUM I PERSPECTIVES 1452 Defending the nest IBI Prize Essay C R E D IT : A N D R E W M A N D E M A K E R /W IK IM E... D IA C O M M O N S Sea-Level Rise by 2100 IN HIS NEWS AND ANALYSIS PIECE REPORTING ON THE NEWLY RELEASED FIFTH ASSESSMENT report (AR5) by Working Group I (WGI) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (“A Stronger IPCC Report,” 4...

  16. Consumerism and wellness: rising tide, falling cost. (United States)

    Domaszewicz, Alexander


    Annual employer-sponsored health plan cost increases have been slowing incrementally due to slowing health care utilization--a phenomenon very likely tied to the proliferation of health management activities, wellness programs and other consumerism strategies. This article describes the sharp rise in recent years of consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) and explains what developments must happen for genuine consumer-directed health care to realize its full potential. These developments include gathering transparent health care information, increasing consumer demand for that information and creating truly intuitive data solutions that allow consumers to easily access information in order to make better health care decisions.

  17. Temperature Rises In Pumps For Superfluid Helium (United States)

    Kittel, Peter


    Report discusses increases in temperature of superfluid helium in centrifugal and fountain-effect pumps. Intended for use in transfers of superfluid helium in outer space. Increases in temperature significantly affect losses during transfers and are important in selection of temperatures of supply tanks. Purpose of study, increase in temperature in fountain-effect pump calculated on basis of thermodynamic considerations, starting from assumption of ideal pump. Results of recent tests of ceramic material intended for use in such pumps support this assumption. Overall, centrifugal pumps more effective because it produces smaller rise in temperature.

  18. "Too posh to push": the rise and rise of a catchphrase. (United States)

    Weaver, Jane; Magill-Cuerden, Julia


    The phrase "too posh to push" was coined over 14 years ago to describe maternal request for cesarean section in the absence of clinical indications. The phrase was readily taken up and used by the United Kingdom media despite limited evidence that many women request cesarean sections or have an aversion to vaginal birth. The objectives of this study were to explore the way in which the phrase was used; the context and themes associated with it. To better understand the part the news media might play in public and health care professionals' perceptions, all articles using the phrase in eight UK national weekday newspapers from 1999 to 2011 (n = 335) were subjected to content analysis. Key themes have changed over the years but some themes, such as celebrity cesareans, the risks of cesarean section, and the rising cesarean rate, have remained. Four different definitions of the term "too posh to push" were identified. Levels of usage of these terms changed over time. Misinterpretation of the National Sentinel Cesarean Section Audit results and a tendency to confuse elective cesarean section with maternal request for a cesarean have suggested that more "too posh to push" cesareans occurred than is probably the case. The phrase seems to have become well established. It is likely that press handling of the topic has continued to contribute to the impression that cesarean purely for maternal request is common. The association with celebrity continues to fuel press interest in the topic. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Coastal sea level rise with warming above 2 °C. (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke P; Riva, Riccardo E M; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John C


    Two degrees of global warming above the preindustrial level is widely suggested as an appropriate threshold beyond which climate change risks become unacceptably high. This "2 °C" threshold is likely to be reached between 2040 and 2050 for both Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and 4.5. Resulting sea level rises will not be globally uniform, due to ocean dynamical processes and changes in gravity associated with water mass redistribution. Here we provide probabilistic sea level rise projections for the global coastline with warming above the 2 °C goal. By 2040, with a 2 °C warming under the RCP8.5 scenario, more than 90% of coastal areas will experience sea level rise exceeding the global estimate of 0.2 m, with up to 0.4 m expected along the Atlantic coast of North America and Norway. With a 5 °C rise by 2100, sea level will rise rapidly, reaching 0.9 m (median), and 80% of the coastline will exceed the global sea level rise at the 95th percentile upper limit of 1.8 m. Under RCP8.5, by 2100, New York may expect rises of 1.09 m, Guangzhou may expect rises of 0.91 m, and Lagos may expect rises of 0.90 m, with the 95th percentile upper limit of 2.24 m, 1.93 m, and 1.92 m, respectively. The coastal communities of rapidly expanding cities in the developing world, and vulnerable tropical coastal ecosystems, will have a very limited time after midcentury to adapt to sea level rises unprecedented since the dawn of the Bronze Age.

  20. Coastal sea level rise with warming above 2 °C (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke P.; Riva, Riccardo E. M.; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John C.


    Two degrees of global warming above the preindustrial level is widely suggested as an appropriate threshold beyond which climate change risks become unacceptably high. This “2 °C” threshold is likely to be reached between 2040 and 2050 for both Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and 4.5. Resulting sea level rises will not be globally uniform, due to ocean dynamical processes and changes in gravity associated with water mass redistribution. Here we provide probabilistic sea level rise projections for the global coastline with warming above the 2 °C goal. By 2040, with a 2 °C warming under the RCP8.5 scenario, more than 90% of coastal areas will experience sea level rise exceeding the global estimate of 0.2 m, with up to 0.4 m expected along the Atlantic coast of North America and Norway. With a 5 °C rise by 2100, sea level will rise rapidly, reaching 0.9 m (median), and 80% of the coastline will exceed the global sea level rise at the 95th percentile upper limit of 1.8 m. Under RCP8.5, by 2100, New York may expect rises of 1.09 m, Guangzhou may expect rises of 0.91 m, and Lagos may expect rises of 0.90 m, with the 95th percentile upper limit of 2.24 m, 1.93 m, and 1.92 m, respectively. The coastal communities of rapidly expanding cities in the developing world, and vulnerable tropical coastal ecosystems, will have a very limited time after midcentury to adapt to sea level rises unprecedented since the dawn of the Bronze Age. PMID:27821743

  1. Initiation of the Slow-Rise and Fast-Rise Phases of an Erupting Solar Filament by Localized Emerging Magnetic Field via Microflaring (United States)

    Sterling, A. C.; Moore, R. L.; Harra, L. K.


    EUV data from EIT show that a filament of 2001 February 28 underwent a slow-rise phase lasting about 6 hrs, before rapidly erupting in a fast-rise phase. Concurrent images in soft X-rays (SXRs) from Yohkoh/SXT show that a series of three microflares, prominent in SXT images but weak in EIT approx.195 Ang EUV images, occurred near one end of the filament. The first and last microflares occurred respectively in conjunction with the start of the slow-rise phase and the start of the fast-rise phase, and the second microflare corresponded to a kink in the filament trajectory. Beginning within 10 hours of the start of the slow rise, new magnetic flux emerged at the location of the microflaring. This localized new flux emergence and the resulting microflares, consistent with reconnection between the emerging field and the sheared sigmoid core magnetic field holding the filament, apparently caused the slow rise of this field and the transition to explosive eruption. For the first time in such detail, the observations show this direct action of localized emerging flux in the progressive destabilization of a sheared core field in the onset of a coronal mass ejection (CME). Similar processes may have occurred in other recently-studied events, NASA supported this work through NASA SR&T and SEC GI grants.

  2. Colliding Epidemics and the Rise of Cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C. Chang


    Full Text Available Discovered more than 100 years ago as a human pathogen, the Cryptococcus neoformans–Cryptococcus gattii (C. neoformans–C. gattii complex has seen a large global resurgence in its association with clinical disease in the last 30 years. First isolated in fermenting peach juice, and identified as a human pathogen in 1894 in a patient with bone lesions, this environmental pathogen has now found niches in soil, trees, birds, and domestic pets. Cryptococcosis is well recognized as an opportunistic infection and was first noted to be associated with reticuloendothelial cancers in the 1950s. Since then, advances in transplant immunology, medical science and surgical techniques have led to increasing numbers of solid organ transplantations (SOT and hematological stem cell transplantations being performed, and the use of biological immunotherapeutics in increasingly high-risk and older individuals, have contributed to the further rise in cryptococcosis. Globally, however, the major driver for revivification of cryptococcosis is undoubtedly the HIV epidemic, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa where access to care and antiretroviral therapy remains limited and advanced immunodeficiency, poverty and malnutrition remains the norm. As a zoonotic disease, environmental outbreaks of both human and animal cryptococcosis have been reported, possibly driven by climate change. This is best exemplified by the resurgence of C. gattii infection in Vancouver Island, Canada, and the Pacific Northwest of the United States since 1999. Here we describe how the colliding epidemics of HIV, transplantation and immunologics, climate change and migration have contributed to the rise of cryptococcosis.

  3. Gas-rise velocities during kicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.B. (Sedco Forex (FR))


    This paper reports on experiments to examine gas migration rates in drilling muds that were performed in a 15-m-long, 200-mm-ID inclinable flow loop where air injection simulates gas entry during a kick. These tests were conducted using a xanthum gum (a common polymer used in drilling fluids) solution to simulate drilling muds as the liquid phase and air as the gas phase. This work represents a significant extension of existing correlations for gas/liquid flows in large pipe diameters with non- Newtonian fluids. Bubbles rise faster in drilling muds than in water despite the increased viscosity. This surprising result is caused by the change in the flow regime, with large slug-type bubbles forming at lower void fractions. The gas velocity is independent of void fraction, thus simplifying flow modeling. Results show that a gas influx will rise faster in a well than previously believed. This has major implications for kick simulation, with gas arriving at the surface earlier than would be expected and the gas outflow rate being higher than would have been predicted. A model of the two-phase gas flow in drilling mud, including the results of this work, has been incorporated into the joint Schlumberger Cambridge Research (SCR)/BP Intl. kick model.

  4. Stomatal conductance increases with rising temperature. (United States)

    Urban, Josef; Ingwers, Miles; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O


    Stomatal conductance directly modifies plant water relations and photosynthesis. Many environmental factors affecting the stomatal conductance have been intensively studied but temperature has been largely neglected, even though it is one of the fastest changing environmental variables and it is rising due to climate change. In this study, we describe how stomata open when the temperature increases. Stomatal conductance increased by ca 40% in a broadleaf and a coniferous species, poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) when temperature was increased by 10 °C, from 30 °C to 40 °C at a constant vapor pressure deficit of 1 kPa. The mechanism of regulating stomatal conductance by temperature was, at least partly, independent of other known mechanisms linked to water status and carbon metabolism. Stomatal conductance increased with rising temperature despite the decrease in leaf water potential, increase in transpiration, increase in intercellular CO2 concentration and was decoupled from photosynthesis. Increase in xylem and mesophyll hydraulic conductance coming from lower water viscosity may to some degree explain temperature dependent opening of stomata. The direct stomatal response to temperature allows plants to benefit from increased evaporative cooling during the heat waves and from lower stomatal limitations to photosynthesis but they may be jeopardized by faster depletion of soil water.

  5. China's Overt Economic Rise and Latent Human Capital Investment: Achieving Milestones and Competing for the Top


    Constant, Amelie F.; Tien, Bienvenue; Zimmermann, Klaus F; Meng, Jingzhou


    We provide an overview of China's economic rise through time. Over the past decade, China has maintained 10% growth in GDP, albeit with a GDP per capita at the low level of a developing country. Its tremendous economic development has overlooked the growing social inequalities and rising resentments of the 'cheap' workers and those laid off. The main contributor to its ascension is international trade and investment in physical capital, often at the expense of the environment. The year 1978 w...

  6. Not dead yet: the rise, fall and persistence of the BCG Matrix


    Dag Øivind Madsen


    The BCG Matrix was introduced almost 50 years ago, and is today considered one of the most iconic strategic planning techniques. Using management fashion theory as a theoretical lens, this paper examines the historical rise, fall and persistence of the BCG Matrix. The analysis highlights the role played by fashion-setting actors (e.g., consultants, business schools and business media) in the rise of the BCG Matrix. However, over time, portfolio planning models such as the BCG Matrix were atta...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich


    Full Text Available The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors. In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds the temperature of the ambient air acceptable for humans by far (70 °С. The experiments demonstrate that combustion products contain hundreds of toxic chemical compounds. The most hazardous of them include carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, chloride and cyanic hydrogen, aldehydes and acrolein. The author provides the pattern of their influence on the human body. The smoke consists of unburned particles of carbon and aerosols. The size of particles fluctuates within 0.05-50 MMK. Smoke produces a physiological and psychological impact on human beings. It has been proven that dangerous fire factors emerge within the first five to ten minutes of the emergency situation. Evacuation is the principal method of safety assurance. However, the velocity of propagation of smoke and heat is so high that even if the fire prevention system is in operation, people may be blocked both on the floors that are exposed to the fire and those that escape its propagation. New evacuation and rescue methods are recommended by the author. Various ways and methods of use of life-saving facilities are also provided. Safe evacuation is feasible from buildings where the number of stories does not exceed 10- 12. During evacuation, high density human streams are formed inside buildings, therefore, the period of stay in a burning building is increased. The calculations have proven that a two-minute delay of evacuation converts into a safe evacuation of only 13-15% of people. Low reliability of

  8. AHP 21: Review: The Sun Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender


    Full Text Available The Sun Rises is a model study contextualizing an oral narrative tradition in the social and ritual fabric of a remote community in northeast India. In many ways a companion volume to Himalayan Tribal Tales (Blackburn 2008, the text presents the first substantial translation of a key ritual text of the Apantani Valley dwellers in Arunachal Pradesh, located on the contested border between China (Tibet and India. The Apatani speak a Tibeto-Burman language, practice intensive rice agriculture in carefully terraced fields, and number about 35,000. Their clans populate several centuries-old villages. Until recently, they were separated from the lowlands of Assam and surrounded only by peoples practicing various forms of shifting agriculture. The valley dwellers have increasingly encountered modernization over the last few decades, including Indian and global popular culture, and Christianity. ...

  9. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin


    , and to investigate the incidence. We suggest guidelines for treatment. First we reviewed the medical records of 51 patients diagnosed with MCC from 1995 until 2006 in eastern Denmark. The nation-wide incidence of MCC was extracted from the Danish Cancer Registry for the calculations for the period 1986-2003. We......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark...... reviwed published papers about MCC based on a MEDLINE search. Fourteen of the 51 patients developed recurrence, and 37 (73%) died during the study period. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1-122). A total of 153 patients were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and showed that incidence rates had...

  10. Analysis of Sea Level Rise in Action (United States)

    Gill, K. M.; Huang, T.; Quach, N. T.; Boening, C.


    NASA's Sea Level Change Portal provides scientists and the general public with "one-stop" source for current sea level change information and data. Sea Level Rise research is a multidisciplinary research and in order to understand its causes, scientists must be able to access different measurements and to be able to compare them. The portal includes an interactive tool, called the Data Analysis Tool (DAT), for accessing, visualizing, and analyzing observations and models relevant to the study of Sea Level Rise. Using NEXUS, an open source, big data analytic technology developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the DAT is able provide user on-the-fly data analysis on all relevant parameters. DAT is composed of three major components: A dedicated instance of OnEarth (a WMTS service), NEXUS deep data analytic platform, and the JPL Common Mapping Client (CMC) for web browser based user interface (UI). Utilizing the global imagery, a user is capable of browsing the data in a visual manner and isolate areas of interest for further study. The interfaces "Analysis" tool provides tools for area or point selection, single and/or comparative dataset selection, and a range of options, algorithms, and plotting. This analysis component utilizes the Nexus cloud computing platform to provide on-demand processing of the data within the user-selected parameters and immediate display of the results. A RESTful web API is exposed for users comfortable with other interfaces and who may want to take advantage of the cloud computing capabilities. This talk discuss how DAT enables on-the-fly sea level research. The talk will introduce the DAT with an end-to-end tour of the tool with exploration and animating of available imagery, a demonstration of comparative analysis and plotting, and how to share and export data along with images for use in publications/presentations. The session will cover what kind of data is available, what kind of analysis is possible, and what are the outputs.

  11. Numerical Investigation of Microgravity Tank Pressure Rise Due to Boiling (United States)

    Hylton, Sonya; Ibrahim, Mounir; Kartuzova, Olga; Kassemi, Mohammad


    The ability to control self-pressurization in cryogenic storage tanks is essential for NASAs long-term space exploration missions. Predictions of the tank pressure rise in Space are needed in order to inform the microgravity design and optimization process. Due to the fact that natural convection is very weak in microgravity, heat leaks into the tank can create superheated regions in the liquid. The superheated regions can instigate microgravity boiling, giving rise to pressure spikes during self-pressurization. In this work, a CFD model is developed to predict the magnitude and duration of the microgravity pressure spikes. The model uses the Schrage equation to calculate the mass transfer, with a different accommodation coefficient for evaporation at the interface, condensation at the interface, and boiling in the bulk liquid. The implicit VOF model was used to account for the moving interface, with bounded second order time discretization. Validation of the models predictions was carried out using microgravity data from the Tank Pressure Control Experiment, which flew aboard the Space Shuttle Mission STS-52. Although this experiment was meant to study pressurization and pressure control, it underwent boiling during several tests. The pressure rise predicted by the CFD model compared well with the experimental data. The ZBOT microgravity experiment is scheduled to fly on February 2016 aboard the ISS. The CFD model was also used to perform simulations for setting parametric limits for the Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiments Test Matrix in an attempt to avoid boiling in the majority of the test runs that are aimed to study pressure increase rates during self-pressurization. *Supported in part by NASA ISS Physical Sciences Research Program, NASA HQ, USA

  12. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Drakopoulos, Michael [Diamond Light Source, I12 Joint Engineering, Environmental, Processing (JEEP) Beamline, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Rack, Alexander [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Eakins, Daniel E., E-mail: [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)


    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  13. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) hear rising frequency sounds as looming. (United States)

    Ghazanfar, Asif A; Maier, Joost X


    Rising sound intensity provides an important cue for the detection of looming objects. Studies with humans indirectly suggest that rising pitch can also signal a looming object. This link between rising intensity and rising frequency is puzzling because no physical rise in frequency occurs when a sound source approaches. Putative explanations include (a) the idea that the loudness of sound depends on its frequency, (b) the frequent co-occurrence of rising intensity with rising frequency in vocalizations generates an association between the 2 features, and (c) auditory neurons process amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds similarly. If these hypotheses are valid, then rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)--which share some homologies in the vocal production apparatus and auditory system--should also associate rising frequency with rising intensity, and thus should perceive rising frequency as a looming sound source. A head-turning assay and a preferential-looking paradigm revealed that monkeys show an attentional bias toward rising versus falling frequency sounds and link the former to visual looming signals. This suggests that monkeys hear a rising frequency sound as a looming sound source even though, in the real world, no such link exists. 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  14. 46 CFR 111.20-5 - Temperature rise. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature rise. 111.20-5 Section 111.20-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Transformer Construction, Installation, and Protection § 111.20-5 Temperature rise. (a) The temperature rise, based on an ambient temperature of 40 degrees C, must not exceed the following: (1) For...

  15. Sensitivity of air quality simulation to smoke plume rise (United States)

    Yongqiang Liu; Gary Achtemeier; Scott Goodrick


    Plume rise is the height smoke plumes can reach. This information is needed by air quality models such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate physical and chemical processes of point-source fire emissions. This study seeks to understand the importance of plume rise to CMAQ air quality simulation of prescribed burning to plume rise. CMAQ...

  16. Investigation of fire-induced collapse scenarios for a steel high-rise building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco


    The paper deals with the problem of understanding and evaluating the structural response of steel buildings to fire and outlines a general framework for the structural fire safety design of high-rise building. Among all building typology, the fire design of high-rise buildings is particularly...... (architectural design choices and active measures) and won’t be investigated in detail in this paper; the paper focus instead on structural design aspects, with specific reference to the iii) enhanced susceptibility of high-rise buildings to disproportionate collapse, due to the significant vertical elevation...... still a relatively low temperature at the time of failure: in this respect, the example of a high rise building is presented in the paper, where, depending on the fire scenarios considered and as different beam-column stiffness ratio, fire damages can remain localized to the heated zone or involve other...

  17. Investigating Early Holocene Sea Level Rise in the Mississippi Delta within a Global Context (United States)

    Steponaitis, E.; Vetter, L.; Tornqvist, T. E.; Rosenheim, B. E.


    Radiocarbon dating of basal peat in the Mississippi Delta yields a high-resolution record of early Holocene sea level rise (10.3-7.7 ka). Relative sea level (RSL) records are crucial to our understanding of the contributions of different ice sheets to global sea level rise. The early Holocene is a critical time period with regard to sea level rise because the high temperatures and rapid rates of ice sheet melting may be analogous to future conditions. In the Mississippi Delta, peat that immediately overlies the stable Pleistocene basement records the elevation of intertidal marshes that formed as the basement was submerged; the depth of the peat indicates the position of past sea level. The proximity of our study area to the Laurentide Ice Sheet makes our record relevant to determine the contribution of this ice sheet to early Holocene sea level rise. Comparison of the Mississippi Delta RSL record to distal RSL records shows significant global variations in local rates of sea level rise during the early Holocene. These comparisons lay the groundwork for future GIA modeling that will constrain the magnitude and timing of the contribution of different ice sheets to sea level rise.

  18. The Impacts of Rising Temperatures on Aircraft Takeoff Performance (United States)

    Coffel, Ethan; Thompson, Terence R.; Horton, Radley M.


    Steadily rising mean and extreme temperatures as a result of climate change will likely impact the air transportation system over the coming decades. As air temperatures rise at constant pressure, air density declines, resulting in less lift generation by an aircraft wing at a given airspeed and potentially imposing a weight restriction on departing aircraft. This study presents a general model to project future weight restrictions across a fleet of aircraft with different takeoff weights operating at a variety of airports. We construct performance models for five common commercial aircraft and 19 major airports around the world and use projections of daily temperatures from the CMIP5 model suite under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emissions scenarios to calculate required hourly weight restriction. We find that on average, 10 - 30% of annual flights departing at the time of daily maximum temperature may require some weight restriction below their maximum takeoff weights, with mean restrictions ranging from 0.5 to 4% of total aircraft payload and fuel capacity by mid- to late century. Both mid-sized and large aircraft are affected, and airports with short runways and high temperatures, or those at high elevations, will see the largest impacts. Our results suggest that weight restriction may impose a non-trivial cost on airlines and impact aviation operations around the world and that adaptation may be required in aircraft design, airline schedules, and/or runway lengths.

  19. Mangrove Sedimentation and Response to Relative Sea-Level Rise. (United States)

    Woodroffe, C D; Rogers, K; McKee, K L; Lovelock, C E; Mendelssohn, I A; Saintilan, N


    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions, related primarily to elevation and hydroperiod, influence mangrove distributions; this review considers how these distributions change over time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks, and tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas measurements made using surface elevation tables and marker horizons provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in a continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  20. Mangrove sedimentation and response to relative sea-level rise (United States)

    Woodroffe, CD; Rogers, K.; Mckee, Karen L.; Lovelock, CE; Mendelssohn, IA; Saintilan, N.


    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions influence mangrove distributions, primarily related to elevation and hydroperiod; this review considers how these adjust through time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks; tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon, but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas Surface Elevation Table-Marker Horizon measurements (SET-MH) provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  1. Rising statin use and effect on ischemic stroke outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haymore Joseph


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors have neuroprotective effects in experimental stroke models and are commonly prescribed in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine if patients taking statins before hospital admission for stroke had an improved clinical outcome. Methods This was an observational study of 436 patients admitted to the National Institutes of Health Suburban Hospital Stroke Program between July 2000 and December 2002. Self-reported risk factors for stroke were obtained on admission. Stroke severity was determined by the admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score. Good outcome was defined as a Rankin score Results There were 436 patients with a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke; statin data were available for 433 of them. A total of 95/433 (22% of patients were taking a statin when they were admitted, rising from 16% in 2000 to 26% in 2002. Fifty-one percent of patients taking statins had a good outcome compared to 38% of patients not taking statins (p = 0.03. After adjustment for confounding factors, statin pretreatment was associated with a 2.9 odds (95% CI: 1.2–6.7 of a good outcome at the time of hospital discharge. Conclusions The proportion of patients taking statins when they are admitted with stroke is rising rapidly. Statin pretreatment was significantly associated with an improved functional outcome at discharge. This finding could support the early initiation of statin therapy after stroke.

  2. Optimization of water distribution systems in high-rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loh, Han Tong; Chew, T.C.


    The scarcity of land in Singapore has led to a rapid escalation of land prices in recent years. This has resulted in developers building taller and taller buildings in order to maximize their return on building projects. Due to the height involved, the water distribution system in such buildings is a multi-stage one. Hence the problem of deciding the number of stages and the location of each stage arises. In this paper, we will describe the design decisions to be taken in the preliminary design of a multi-stage water distribution system in a high-rise building and pose it as an optimization problem to minimize the overall cost of implementation. The variable costcomponents are the cost of pumps, the floor space cost and the operational cost of the water distribution system. We will describe a study on a 66-story building and highlight the major findings. Interesting results are observed when the cost components are taken one at a time. The strategy for finding the optimum or near optimum for other high-rise buildings will be discussed.

  3. Determination of Temperature Rise and Temperature Differentials of CEMII/B-V Cement for 20MPa Mass Concrete using Adiabatic Temperature Rise Data (United States)

    Chee Siang, GO


    Experimental test was carried out to determine the temperature rise characteristics of Portland-Fly-Ash Cement (CEM II/B-V, 42.5N) of Blaine fineness 418.6m2/kg and 444.6m2/kg respectively for 20MPa mass concrete under adiabatic condition. The estimation on adiabatic temperature rise by way of CIRIA C660 method (Construction Industry Research & Information Information) was adopted to verify and validate the hot-box test results by simulating the heat generation curve of the concrete under semi-adiabatic condition. Test result found that Portland fly-ash cement has exhibited decrease in the peak value of temperature rise and maximum temperature rise rate. The result showed that the temperature development and distribution profile, which is directly contributed from the heat of hydration of cement with time, is affected by the insulation, initial placing temperature, geometry and size of concrete mass. The mock up data showing the measured temperature differential is significantly lower than the technical specifications 20°C temperature differential requirement and the 27.7°C limiting temperature differential for granite aggregate concrete as stipulated in BS8110-2: 1985. The concrete strength test result revealed that the 28 days cubes compressive strength was above the stipulated 20MPa characteristic strength at 90 days. The test demonstrated that with proper concrete mix design, the use of Portland flyash cement, combination of chilled water and flake ice, and good insulation is effective in reducing peak temperature rise, temperature differential, and lower adiabatic temperature rise for mass concrete pours. As far as the determined adiabatic temperature rise result was concern, the established result could be inferred for in-situ thermal properties of 20MPa mass concrete application, as the result could be repeatable on account of similar type of constituent materials and concrete mix design adopted for permanent works at project site.

  4. Geochemistry and Age of Shatsky, Hess, and Ojin Rise seamounts: Implications for a connection between the Shatsky and Hess Rises


    Tejada, Maria Luisa G.; Geldmacher, Jörg; Hauff, Folkmar; Heaton, Daniel; Koppers, Anthony A.P.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Hoernle, Kaj; Heydolph, Ken; Sager, William W.


    Shatsky Rise in the Northwest Pacific is the best example so far of an oceanic plateau with two potential hotspot tracks emanating from it: the linear Papanin volcanic ridge and the seamounts comprising Ojin Rise. Arguably, these hotspot tracks also project toward the direction of Hess Rise, located ∼1200 km away, leading to speculations that the two plateaus are connected. Dredging was conducted on the massifs and seamounts around Shatsky Rise in an effort to understand the relationship betw...

  5. Time-resolved Spectroscopy of a Sheared Flow Stabilized Z-pinch Plasma (United States)

    Forbes, Eleanor


    The ZaP Flow Z-pinch Project investigates the use of sheared-axial flows to stabilize an otherwise unstable plasma configuration. Diagnostics with sub-microsecond resolution are required to obtain accurate time-resolved data since the plasma pulse is approximately 100 μs. Analyzing the Doppler shift of impurity line radiation from the pinch provides a measure of the velocity profile and is a reliable method of determining the plasma sheared flow. The velocity profile is spatially resolved through the use of a 20-chord fiber bundle. The ZaP-HD experiment has used a PI-MAX intensified CCD array to record a single time-resolved spectrum per plasma pulse. Obtaining the evolution of the velocity profile using this method required spectra acquired over hundreds of pulses with identical initial parameters and varying acquisition times. The use of a Kirana 05M ultra-fast framing camera is investigated for recording time-resolved velocity profiles during a single pulse. The Kirana utilizes an ultraviolet intensifier to record 180 frames of UV light at up to 2 million frames per second. An ultraviolet optics system is designed to couple the exit port of an Acton SP-500i spectrometer to the Kirana UV intensifier and focus spectra at the camera detector plane. This work is supported by US DoE FES, NNSA, and ARPA-E ALPHA.

  6. Marine geology of the Hess Rise: 2. Basement morphology, sediment thickness, and structural geology (United States)

    Kroenke, Loren W.; Nemoto, Kenji


    The basement morphology and sediment thickness of the Hess Rise, an oceanic plateau in the central North Pacific, have been mapped on the basis of seismic reflection profiles. The acoustic stratigraphy on and around the rise is correlated with the lithostratigraphy at Deep Sea Drilling Project sites 464, 310, 465, and 466. A total sediment isopach chart of the rise reveals small-scale departures from the expected sedimentary pattern (thick sediment in shallow areas; thin sediment in deep areas). Sediment-filled basement depressions result from mass transport; thin sediment (<50 m) occurs on steep scarps, basement ridges, and areas affected by bottom currents. A pre-Senonian sediment isopach chart shows a thickening from less than 50 m to more than 250 m of sediment from the northeast to the southwest. This trend seems explainable only in terms of the time-transgressive nature of seafloor formed at a mid-ocean ridge. The axial trend of the rise (N30°W) parallels nearby Mesozoic magnetic lineations and seems to be isochronous as deduced from the Deep Sea Drilling Project data. The Hess Rise began developing in late Aptian time along a segment of the Pacific-Farallon Ridge. Important events in the history of the rise are late-stage volcanism on the southern margin of the rise along the Mendocino Fracture Zone, tectonism and volcanism about 85 Ma that resulted in a major regional unconformity (reflector C), and another period of tectonism and volcanism between 65 and 43 Ma that coincided with the formation of the Emperor Seamounts and created structural benches on the western side of the rise. A significant change in the paleoenvironment that apparently occurred around the Paleogene-Neogene boundary (˜25-20 Ma) caused pronounced changes in the depositional environment and resulted in another major regional unconformity (reflector A).

  7. Northern East Pacific Rise: Magnetic anomaly and bathymetric framework (United States)

    Klitgord, Kim D.; Mammerickx, Jacqueline


    The oceanic crust in the eastern Pacific between 7°N and 30°N and east of 127°W contains a fairly complete history of the spreading centers associated with the East Pacific Rise since 25 m.y. B.P. (late Oligocene). In this paper, we have summarized the seafloor spreading magnetic-anomaly data and the bathymetric data that reflect the record of this tectonic history. The well-defined magnetic lineations north of the Clarion fracture zone, in the mouth of the Gulf of California, and on the east flank of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) are carefully examined and used to provide a guide for interpreting the spreading pattern between the Clarion and Clipperton fracture zones, southward of the Rivera fracture zone over the Mathematician Ridge, and over the entire EPR east of the Mathematician Ridge between the Rivera and Siqueiros fracture zones. The bathymetric data provide a trace of the fracture zone pattern in each of the above mentioned areas. The fracture zone bathymetry and the seafloor spreading magnetic lineations on the EPR south of the Rivera fracture zone have a distinctive fanning pattern caused by close poles of rotation and plate boundary reorganizations. All these data provide a good record of the plate reorganizations in the middle Miocene at magnetic anomaly 5 A time (12.5 to 11 m.y. B.P.), in the late Miocene at magnetic anomaly 3'-4 time (6.5 m.y. B.P.), and in the Pliocene at magnetic anomaly 2'-3 time (3.5 m.y. B.P.). Several abandoned spreading centers, including the Mathematician Ridge, were left behind as a result of these reorganizations. The Mathematician Ridge is shown to be a set of ridges and trough whose origin is related to the tectonic activity associated with each of the above mentioned reorganizations since anomaly 5A.

  8. Volcanic rocks cored on hess rise, Western Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Vallier, T.L.; Windom, K.E.; Seifert, K.E.; Thiede, Jorn


    Large aseismic rises and plateaus in the western Pacific include the Ontong-Java Plateau, Magellan Rise, Shatsky Rise, Mid-Pacific Mountains, and Hess Rise. These are relatively old features that rise above surrounding sea floors as bathymetric highs. Thick sequences of carbonate sediments overlie, what are believed to be, Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous volcanic pedestals. We discuss here petrological and tectonic implications of data from volcanic rocks cored on Hess Rise. The data suggest that Hess Rise originated at a spreading centre in the late early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian stages). Subsequent off-ridge volcanism in the late Albian-early Cenomanian stages built a large archipelago of oceanic islands and seamounts composed, at least in part, of alkalic rocks. The volcanic platform subsided during its northward passage through the mid-Cretaceousequatorial zone. Faulting and uplift, and possibly volcanism, occurred in the latest Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian stages). Since then, Hess Rise continued its northward movement and subsidence. Volcanic rocks from holes drilled on Hess Rise during IPOD Leg 62 (Fig. 1) are briefly described here and we relate the petrological data to the origin and evolution of that rise. These are the first volcanic rocks reported from Hess Rise. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  9. The Rise of Islamic Feminism in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haya al-Mughni


    Full Text Available The paper examines the emergence of Islamic Feminism in Kuwait, based on the writings and personal accounts of leading Islamist women activists.  It begins with an analysis of the socio-political factors that led to the creation of Islamic groups in the 1980s. It then outlines the role of women in the growth of the Islamic movement and shows how the contradictions between women’s contributions to the Islamic cause and the secondary role they play within the Islamic organizations controlled by men were conducive to the rise of Islamic feminism in the 1990s. The paper also demonstrates how the involvement of islamist women in the struggle for suffrage forging a coalition with liberal women activists had played a decisive role in changing the position of islamist groups towards the enfranchisement of women. The last two sections of the paper look at the participation of islamist women activists in the re-definition of the dichotomy between the public and private spheres and at their involvement in the process of interpretation of Islamic sources, known as Ijtihâd. The paper concludes that the engagement of islamist women activists in the discourse of women’s rights can be powerful agent of change towards a more egalitarian society.

  10. Seismic Stratigraphy of the Shatsky Rise Sediment Cap and Implications for Pelagic Sedimentation on Oceanic Rises (United States)

    Sager, W. W.; Clark, R. W.; Weil, A. B.


    Shatsky Rise, an oceanic plateau in the northwest Pacific, contains several basement highs (Tamu, Ori, and Shirshov massifs), each capped with an expanded record of pelagic sedimentation since the early Cretaceous. A common view is that these layers reflect basin-wide oceanographic conditions, including such major events as Cretaceous ocean anoxia and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. In previous years, the seismic stratigraphy for the Shatsky Rise sediment cap has been interpreted from DSDP and ODP drilling data and low-quality seismic reflection profiles from several cruises. These studies focused primarily on the southern summit of Tamu Massif and concluded that sedimentation was continuous except during major oceanographic events resulting in hiatuses across Shatsky Rise (e.g. increased circulation or shoaling of the carbonate compensation depth). The accepted stratigraphic model, based on data from Tamu Massif, includes five major layers punctuated by four unconformities. Recent, high-quality seismic reflection data and additional drilling allow us to revisit this model. The data reveal that deposition was more heterogeneous than previously thought. While all three sediment caps appear to have similar depositional histories, the records of each massif also display local variability. Both Ori and Shirshov have unique stratigraphic sequences that deviate from the five-part model of Tamu Massif. At a finer scale, each sediment cap exhibits significant internal complexities within seismic units, in contrast to the expected uniform deposition. The stratigraphic model determined in one part of the sediment cap cannot be confidently applied to the rest of the massif (or to adjacent massifs) without additional evidence to aid correlations. Our study suggests that factors such as variable currents flowing over the plateau topography contributed to significant lateral variability of the sedimentation atop Shatsky Rise.

  11. Historical Perspective on the Rise and Fall and Rise of Antibiotics and Human Weight Gain. (United States)

    Podolsky, Scott H


    In recent medical and popular literature, audiences have been asked to consider whether antibiotics have contributed to the rising obesity epidemic. Prominent magazines have stated that weight may be adversely affected by antibiotics that destroy existing microbiomes and replace them with less helpful ones. However, there is a long history of efforts to investigate the relationship between antibiotics and human weight gain. In the early 1950s, amid initial findings that low doses of antibiotics served as growth promoters in animal livestock, investigators explored the role of antibiotics as magic bullets for human malnutrition. Nevertheless, early enthusiasm was tempered by controlled studies showing that antibiotics did not serve as useful, nonspecific growth promoters for humans. In subsequent decades, against the backdrop of rising concern over antibiotic resistance, investigators studying the role of antibiotics in acute malnutrition have had to navigate a more complicated public health calculus. In a related historical stream, scientists since the 1910s have explored the role of the intestinal microflora in human health. By the 2000s, as increasing resources and more sophisticated tools were devoted to understanding the microbiome (a term coined in 2001), attention would turn to the role of antibiotics and the intestinal microflora in the rising obesity epidemic. Despite scientific and commercial enthusiasm, easy answers (whether about antibiotics or probiotics) have again given way to an appreciation for the complexity of human growth. History encourages caution about our hopes for simplistic answers for presumed "fat drugs" and slimming probiotics alike.

  12. Dynamics of a bubble rising in gravitational field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bernardis Enrico


    Full Text Available The rising motion in free space of a pulsating spherical bubble of gas and vapour driven by the gravitational force, in an isochoric, inviscid liquid is investigated. The liquid is at rest at the initial time, so that the subsequent flow is irrotational. For this reason, the velocity field due to the bubble motion is described by means of a potential, which is represented through an expansion based on Legendre polynomials. A system of two coupled, ordinary and nonlinear differential equations is derived for the vertical position of the bubble center of mass and for its radius. This latter equation is a modified form of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, including a term proportional to the kinetic energy associated to the translational motion of the bubble.

  13. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron (United States)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.


    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  14. Oil Price Rise and the Great Recession of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Siamak MONADJEMI


    Full Text Available The financial crises of 2007-2008, caused wide-spread falling output and unemployment, in the affected countries and also globally. The severity of the recession was such that it was called the “Great Recession”. As a result of an increase in demand from China and India, at the same time, oil prices rose significantly. The empirical results from this study show that oil price changes negatively affected global growth rate in the 1970s but not in the 1990s and 2000s. These results suggest that the Great Recession in 2008 that initiated by the financial crises, was independent of a significant rise in oil prices.

  15. [The rise and fall of an physician entrepreneur]. (United States)

    Dörnyei, Sándor


    In 1927 one of the most up-to-date and most beautiful sanatoriums of Central Europe was built on the hills of Buda by László Jakab MD (1875-1940), who at that time had already run - since 1909 - a successful health-resort, the rather popular and successful "Liget-Sanatorium": following a period of expansion and flourishing, his enterprise bankrupted. (The building itself was renewed after World War II - it served first as a hospital for tuberculosis patients and later as a university clinic for internal medicine.) This article tells the story of an entrepreneur physician, including his former and more successful attempts to run a health-care business, and gives detailed account of the rise and fall of private health-resort in prewar Hungary.

  16. Anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D.


    The anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in a porous medium discovered experimentally more than a decade ago is described. The developed theory is based on considering the principal modes of motion of the menisci that collectively form the wetting front on the Darcy scale. These modes, which include (i) dynamic wetting mode, (ii) threshold mode, and (iii) interface depinning process, are incorporated into the boundary conditions for the bulk equations formulated in the regular framework of continuum mechanics of porous media, thus allowing one to consider a general case of three-dimensional flows. The developed theory makes it possible to describe all regimes observed in the experiment, with the time spanning more than four orders of magnitude, and highlights the dominant physical mechanisms at different stages of the process. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  17. In vitro pulp chamber temperature rise from irradiation and exotherm of flowable composites. (United States)

    Baroudi, Kusai; Silikas, Nick; Watts, David C


    The aim of this study was to investigate the pulpal temperature rise induced during the polymerization of flowable and non-flowable composites using light-emitting diode (LED) and halogen (quartz-tungsten-halogen) light-curing units (LCUs). Five flowable and three non-flowable composites were examined. Pulpal temperature changes were recorded over 10 min in a sample primary tooth by a thermocouple. A conventional quartz-tungsten-halogen source and two LEDs, one of which was programmable, were used for light curing the resin composites. Three repetitions per material were made for each LCU. There was a wide range of temperature rises among the materials (P Temperature rises ranged between 1.3 degrees C for Filtek Supreme irradiated by low-power LED and 4.5 degrees C for Grandio Flow irradiated by high-power LED. The highest temperature rises were observed with both the LED high-power and soft-start LCUs. The time to reach the exothermic peak varied significantly between the materials (P temperature rise is related to both the radiant energy output from LCUs and the polymerization exotherm of resin composites. A greater potential risk for heat-induced pulp damage might be associated with high-power LED sources. Flowable composites exhibited higher temperature rises than non-flowable materials, because of higher resin contents.

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamics of rising droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Matthew [Lake Superior State University; Francois, Marianne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The main goal of this study is to perform simulations of droplet dynamics using Truchas, a LANL-developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, and compare them to a computational study of Hysing et al.[IJNMF, 2009, 60:1259]. Understanding droplet dynamics is of fundamental importance in liquid-liquid extraction, a process used in the nuclear fuel cycle to separate various components. Simulations of a single droplet rising by buoyancy are conducted in two-dimensions. Multiple parametric studies are carried out to ensure the problem set-up is optimized. An Interface Smoothing Length (ISL) study and mesh resolution study are performed to verify convergence of the calculations. ISL is a parameter for the interface curvature calculation. Further, wall effects are investigated and checked against existing correlations. The ISL study found that the optimal ISL value is 2.5{Delta}x, with {Delta}x being the mesh cell spacing. The mesh resolution study found that the optimal mesh resolution is d/h=40, for d=drop diameter and h={Delta}x. In order for wall effects on terminal velocity to be insignificant, a conservative wall width of 9d or a nonconservative wall width of 7d can be used. The percentage difference between Hysing et al.[IJNMF, 2009, 60:1259] and Truchas for the velocity profiles vary from 7.9% to 9.9%. The computed droplet velocity and interface profiles are found in agreement with the study. The CFD calculations are performed on multiple cores, using LANL's Institutional High Performance Computing.

  19. The rise and fall of gluten! (United States)

    Aziz, Imran; Branchi, Federica; Sanders, David S


    Mankind has existed for 2·5 million years but only in the last 10,000 years have we been exposed to wheat. Wheat was first cultivated in the Fertile Crescent (South Western Asia) with a farming expansion that lasted from about 9000BC to 4000BC. Thus it could be considered that wheat (and gluten) is a novel introduction to man's diet! Prior to 1939 the rationing system had already been devised. This led to an imperative to try to increase agricultural production. Thus it was agreed in 1941 that there was a need to establish a Nutrition Society. The very roots of the society were geared towards necessarily increasing the production of wheat. This goal was achieved and by the end of the 20th century, global wheat output had expanded 5-fold. Perhaps as a result the epidemiology of coeliac disease (CD) or gluten sensitive enteropathy has changed. CD is a state of heightened immunological responsiveness to ingested gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. CD now affects 1 % or more of all adults, for which the treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. However, there is a growing body of evidence to show that a far greater proportion of individuals without coeliac disease are taking a gluten-free diet of their own volition. This clinical entity has been termed non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), although the condition is fraught with complexities due to overlap with other gluten-based constituents that can also trigger similar clinical symptoms. This review will explore the relationship between gluten, the rising prevalence of modern coeliac disease, and the new entity of NCGS along with its associated uncertainties.

  20. Mathematical modeling of the Phoenix Rising pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Liu


    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a tightly controlled process in mammalian cells. It is important for embryogenesis, tissue homoeostasis, and cancer treatment. Apoptosis not only induces cell death, but also leads to the release of signals that promote rapid proliferation of surrounding cells through the Phoenix Rising (PR pathway. To quantitatively understand the kinetics of interactions of different molecules in this pathway, we developed a mathematical model to simulate the effects of various changes in the PR pathway on the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a key factor for promoting cell proliferation. These changes include activation of caspase 3 (C3, caspase 7 (C7, and nuclear factor κB (NFκB. In addition, we simulated the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2 inhibition and C3 knockout on the level of secreted PGE2. The model predictions on PGE2 in MEF and 4T1 cells at 48 hours after 10-Gray radiation were quantitatively consistent with the experimental data in the literature. Compared to C7, the model predicted that C3 activation was more critical for PGE2 production. The model also predicted that PGE2 production could be significantly reduced when COX2 expression was blocked via either NFκB inactivation or treatment of cells with exogenous COX2 inhibitors, which led to a decrease in the rate of conversion from arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 in the PR pathway. In conclusion, the mathematical model developed in this study yielded new insights into the process of tissue regrowth stimulated by signals from apoptotic cells. In future studies, the model can be used for experimental data analysis and assisting development of novel strategies/drugs for improving cancer treatment or normal tissue regeneration.

  1. Rising cost of anticancer drugs in Australia. (United States)

    Karikios, D J; Schofield, D; Salkeld, G; Mann, K P; Trotman, J; Stockler, M R


    Anticancer drugs are often expensive and are contributing to the growing cost of cancer care. Concerns have been raised about the effect rising costs may have on availability of new anticancer drugs. This study aims to determine the recent changes in the costs of anticancer drugs in Australia. Publicly available expenditure and prices paid by the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) for anticancer drugs from 2000 to 2012 were reviewed. The measures used to determine changes in cost were total PBS expenditure and average price paid by the PBS per prescription for anticancer drugs and for all PBS listed drugs. An estimated monthly price paid for newly listed anticancer drugs was also calculated. Annual PBS expenditure on anticancer drugs rose from A$65 million in 1999-2000 to A$466 million in 2011-2012; an average increase of 19% per annum. The average price paid by the PBS per anticancer drug prescription, adjusted for inflation, increased 133% from A$337 to A$786. The real average annual increase in the price per anticancer drug prescription was more than double that for all other PBS drugs combined (7.6% vs 2.8%, difference 4.8%, 95% confidence interval -0.4% to 10.1%, P = 0.07). The median price for a month's treatment of the new anticancer drugs listed was A$4919 (range A$1003 to A$12 578, 2012 prices). PBS expenditure and the price of anticancer drugs in Australia rose substantially from 2000 to 2012. Dealing with these burgeoning costs will be a major challenge for our health system and for those affected by cancer. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Population dynamics of Hawaiian seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeff S.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; Krause, Crystal M.


    Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong fidelity to natal colonies, and such colonies on low-lying islands may be threatened by sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore the population dynamics of seabird colonies and the potential effects sea-level rise may have on these rookeries. We compiled historic observations, a 30-year time series of seabird population abundance, lidar-derived elevations, and aerial imagery of all the islands of French Frigate Shoals. To estimate the population dynamics of 8 species of breeding seabirds on Tern Island from 1980 to 2009, we used a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer population growth rates, density dependence, process variation, and observation error. All species increased in abundance, in a pattern that provided evidence of density dependence. Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor), Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Spectacled Terns (Onychoprion lunatus), and White Terns (Gygis alba) are likely at carrying capacity. Density dependence may exacerbate the effects of sea-level rise on seabirds because populations near carrying capacity on an island will be more negatively affected than populations with room for growth. We projected 12% of French Frigate Shoals will be inundated if sea level rises 1 m and 28% if sea level rises 2 m. Spectacled Terns and shrub-nesting species are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise, but seawalls and habitat restoration may mitigate the effects of sea-level rise. Losses of seabird nesting habitat may be substantial in the Hawaiian Islands by 2100 if sea levels rise 2 m. Restoration of higher-elevation seabird colonies represent a more enduring conservation solution for Pacific seabirds.

  3. Submicrosecond-timescale readout of carbon nanotube mechanical motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerwaldt, H.B.; Johnston, S.R.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Steele, G.A.


    We report fast readout of the motion of a carbon nanotube mechanical resonator. A close-proximity high electron mobility transistor amplifier is used to increase the bandwidth of the measurement of nanotube displacements from the kHz to the MHz regime. Using an electrical detection scheme with the

  4. A cellular automaton model for the rise of magma (United States)

    Piegari, Ester; di Maio, Rosa; Milano, Leopoldo; Scandone, Roberto


    Eruptions of volcanoes are complex natural events highly variable in size and time. Over the last couple of decades, statistical analyses of erupted volume and repose time catalogues have been performed for a large number of volcanoes. The aim of such analyses is either to predict future eruptive events or to define physical models for improving our understanding of the volcanic processes that cause eruptions. In particular, for this latter purpose we study a statistical model of eruption triggering caused by the fracturing of the crust above a magma reservoir residing in the crust. When the fracturing reaches the reservoir, magma is allowed to ascend because of its buoyancy. It will be found in batches along the transport region and it will ascend as long as fractures are developed to its tip; when a path is opened to the surface, an eruption occurs involving all batches connected to the opening. We model the vertical section of a volcanic edifice by means of a two-dimensional grid and characterize the state of each cell of the grid by assigning the values of two dynamical variables: a time dependent variable e describing the status of the local stress and a time-dependent variable n describing the presence of magma. At first step of approximation, we treat the magma presence field n as a diffusing lattice gas, and, therefore, we assume its value to be either zero or one if the corresponding cell is empty or filled by magma, respectively. We study the probability distribution, P(V), of eruptions of volume V and the probability distribution, P(t), of inter-event time t and find that the model is able to reproduce, at least in a descriptive way, the essential statistical features of the activity of volcanoes. A key component of magma is the quantity of dissolved gas as it gives magma its explosive character, because the volume of gas expands as the pressure decreases on raising towards the surface. Then, to more accurately describe the rise of magma in a volcanic

  5. Rethinking of Critical Regionalism in High-Rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Zahiri


    Full Text Available The character of height and density of newly high-rise cities, along with the force of globalization, have jeopardized the character of dwellings once entailing a regional flavor. The critical regionalism which serves as a resistant medium against placelessness and lack of identity in the International Style has focused more on mid-rise or low-rise solutions rather than providing direct high-rise resolutions. Additionally, high-rise endeavors are not compatible with critical regionalism theories. This has happened partly due to critical regionalism theories multi-facet character inherent in its dialectic structure. Thus, to remedy the inadvertency of texts in the discourse of architectural regionalism, the present study seeks rethinking of critical regionalism by focusing on the pathology of high-rise buildings in the issues pertaining to place and identity. Finally, the architectonic articulation to place-making and identity-giving is discussed.

  6. Dynamics of bubble rising at small Reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhipov Vladimir


    Full Text Available Results of experimental study of a single spherical bubble rising in the non-stationary regime in a viscous liquid (with and without surfactant at small Reynolds numbers Re<1 have been presented. Improved empirical correlations for drag coefficient of the bubble rising with and without surfactant in the stationary regime have been obtained. Influence of nonstationary effects on the dynamics of bubble rising has been analyzed.

  7. Progressive Collapse of High-Rise Buildings from Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pershakov Valerii


    Full Text Available Considers ensuring the stability of structures of high-rise buildings against progressive collapse due to fire, proposed measures to ensure the stability of high-rise buildings due to progressive collapse. The analysis of large fires in high-rise buildings with progressive collapse and review of the literature on the issue of progressive collapse. The analysis of the Ukrainian normative documents on progressive collapse resistance.

  8. Rise and Shock: Optimal Defibrillator Placement in a High-rise Building. (United States)

    Chan, Timothy C Y


    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in high-rise buildings experience lower survival and longer delays until paramedic arrival. Use of publicly accessible automated external defibrillators (AED) can improve survival, but "vertical" placement has not been studied. We aim to determine whether elevator-based or lobby-based AED placement results in shorter vertical distance travelled ("response distance") to OHCAs in a high-rise building. We developed a model of a single-elevator, n-floor high-rise building. We calculated and compared the average distance from AED to floor of arrest for the two AED locations. We modeled OHCA occurrences using floor-specific Poisson processes, the risk of OHCA on the ground floor (λ1) and the risk on any above-ground floor (λ). The elevator was modeled with an override function enabling direct travel to the target floor. The elevator location upon override was modeled as a discrete uniform random variable. Calculations used the laws of probability. Elevator-based AED placement had shorter average response distance if the number of floors (n) in the building exceeded three quarters of the ratio of ground-floor OHCA risk to above-ground floor risk (λ1/λ) plus one half (n ≥ 3λ1/4λ + 0.5). Otherwise, a lobby-based AED had shorter average response distance. If OHCA risk on each floor was equal, an elevator-based AED had shorter average response distance. Elevator-based AEDs travel less vertical distance to OHCAs in tall buildings or those with uniform vertical risk, while lobby-based AEDs travel less vertical distance in buildings with substantial lobby, underground, and nearby street-level traffic and OHCA risk.

  9. Does a Rise in Income Inequality Lead to Rises in Transportation Inequality and Mobility Practice Inequality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Purwanto


    Full Text Available Social and economic inequalities have sharpened in the late 20th century. During this period, Europe has witnessed a rising unemployment rate, a declining wages for the least qualified workers, a slowing of income growth, and an increasing gap between the richest and the poorest. Based on the hypothesis of the relation between socio-economic condition and mobility behaviour, it is necessary to ask how these socio-economic inequalities manifest themselves in transportation: does a rise in income inequality lead to a rise in transportation inequality and mobility practice inequality? This question is particularly relevant today as some European countries are facing high socio-economic inequalities following the financial crisis that started in 2008. Using results from transport, car ownership and mobility surveys as well as household surveys from the Paris (Île-de-France region between eighties and late nineties, this paper tries to answer this question. The results show how inequalities in transportation and mobility practice have decreased during the period in spite of an increase in income inequalities. We find that the evolution of socio-economic inequality, most specifically income inequality was simply one of the determining factors of the evolution of inequalities in transportation and mobility practice. In fact, the most important role in that evolution is not played by the evolution of income inequality but by the evolution of elasticity between transportation and income. Reducing the effects of this elasticity should be the main target of transport policies to diminish inequality in transportation and mobility practice.

  10. Rising atmospheric methane: 2007–2014 growth and isotopic shift

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nisbet, E. G; Dlugokencky, E. J; Manning, M. R; Lowry, D; Fisher, R. E; France, J. L; Michel, S. E; Miller, J. B; White, J. W. C; Vaughn, B; Bousquet, P; Pyle, J. A; Warwick, N. J; Cain, M; Brownlow, R; Zazzeri, G; Lanoisellé, M; Manning, A. C; Gloor, E; Worthy, D. E. J; Brunke, E.‐G; Labuschagne, C; Wolff, E. W; Ganesan, A. L


    .... The isotopic evidence presented here suggests that the methane rise was dominated by significant increases in biogenic methane emissions, particularly in the tropics, for example, from expansion...

  11. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Sonia, E-mail: [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Barnett, Jon, E-mail: [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Fincher, Ruth, E-mail: [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Hurlimann, Anna, E-mail: [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Architecture and Planning Building, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Mortreux, Colette, E-mail: [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Waters, Elissa, E-mail: [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia)


    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies.

  12. The Rise and Fall of Type Ia Supernova Light Curves in the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, Brian T.; /Notre Dame U.; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U.; Kessler, Richard; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Frieman, Joshua A.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Jha, Saurabh W.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Kasen, Daniel; /UC, Santa Cruz; Marriner, John; /Fermilab; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U., ICG /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U.


    We analyze the rise and fall times of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. From a set of 391 light curves k-corrected to the rest-frame B and V bands, we find a smaller dispersion in the rising portion of the light curve compared to the decline. This is in qualitative agreement with computer models which predict that variations in radioactive nickel yield have less impact on the rise than on the spread of the decline rates. The differences we find in the rise and fall properties suggest that a single 'stretch' correction to the light curve phase does not properly model the range of SN Ia light curve shapes. We select a subset of 105 light curves well observed in both rise and fall portions of the light curves and develop a '2-stretch' fit algorithm which estimates the rise and fall times independently. We find the average time from explosion to B-band peak brightness is 17.38 {+-} 0.17 days, but with a spread of rise times which range from 13 days to 23 days. Our average rise time is shorter than the 19.5 days found in previous studies; this reflects both the different light curve template used and the application of the 2-stretch algorithm. The SDSS-II supernova set and the local SNe Ia with well-observed early light curves show no significant differences in their average rise-time properties. We find that slow-declining events tend to have fast rise times, but that the distribution of rise minus fall time is broad and single peaked. This distribution is in contrast to the bimodality in this parameter that was first suggested by Strovink (2007) from an analysis of a small set of local SNe Ia. We divide the SDSS-II sample in half based on the rise minus fall value, t{sub r} - t{sub f} {approx}< 2 days and t{sub r} - t{sub f} > 2 days, to search for differences in their host galaxy properties and Hubble residuals; we find no difference in host galaxy properties or Hubble

  13. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women’s life expectancy (United States)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lenart, Adam; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W.


    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier or later. Because it is difficult to disentangle period effects from cohort effects, demographers, epidemiologists, actuaries, and other population scientists often disagree about cohort effects’ relative importance. In particular, some advocate forecasts of life expectancy based on period trends; others favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975–2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915–1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts and is not attributable to period effects. PMID:27035998

  14. Does Falling Smoking Lead to Rising Obesity?


    Jonathan Gruber; Michael Frakes


    The strong negative correlation over time between smoking rates and obesity have led some to suggest that reduced smoking is increasing weight gain in the U.S.. This conclusion is supported by the findings of Chou et al. (2004), who conclude that higher cigarette prices lead to increased body weight. We investigate this issue and find no evidence that reduced smoking leads to weight gain. Using the cigarette tax rather than the cigarette price and controlling for non-linear time effects, we f...

  15. Rising cyclin-CDK levels order cell cycle events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Oikonomou

    Full Text Available Diverse mitotic events can be triggered in the correct order and time by a single cyclin-CDK. A single regulator could confer order and timing on multiple events if later events require higher cyclin-CDK than earlier events, so that gradually rising cyclin-CDK levels can sequentially trigger responsive events: the "quantitative model" of ordering.This 'quantitative model' makes predictions for the effect of locking cyclin at fixed levels for a protracted period: at low cyclin levels, early events should occur rapidly, while late events should be slow, defective, or highly variable (depending on threshold mechanism. We titrated the budding yeast mitotic cyclin Clb2 within its endogenous expression range to a stable, fixed level and measured time to occurrence of three mitotic events: growth depolarization, spindle formation, and spindle elongation, as a function of fixed Clb2 level. These events require increasingly more Clb2 according to their normal order of occurrence. Events occur efficiently and with low variability at fixed Clb2 levels similar to those observed when the events normally occur. A second prediction of the model is that increasing the rate of cyclin accumulation should globally advance timing of all events. Moderate (<2-fold overexpression of Clb2 accelerates all events of mitosis, resulting in consistently rapid sequential cell cycles. However, this moderate overexpression also causes a significant frequency of premature mitoses leading to inviability, suggesting that Clb2 expression level is optimized to balance the fitness costs of variability and catastrophe.We conclude that mitotic events are regulated by discrete cyclin-CDK thresholds. These thresholds are sequentially triggered as cyclin increases, yielding reliable order and timing. In many biological processes a graded input must be translated into discrete outputs. In such systems, expression of the central regulator is likely to be tuned to an optimum level, as we

  16. Synchrotron radiation-based quasi-elastic scattering using time-domain interferometry with multi-line gamma rays. (United States)

    Saito, Makina; Masuda, Ryo; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Seto, Makoto


    We developed a multi-line time-domain interferometry (TDI) system using 14.4 keV Mössbauer gamma rays with natural energy widths of 4.66 neV from 57Fe nuclei excited using synchrotron radiation. Electron density fluctuations can be detected at unique lengths ranging from 0.1 nm to a few nm on time scales from several nanoseconds to the sub-microsecond order by quasi-elastic gamma-ray scattering (QGS) experiments using multi-line TDI. In this report, we generalize the established expression for a time spectrum measured using an identical single-line gamma-ray emitter pair to the case of a nonidentical pair of multi-line gamma-ray emitters by considering the finite energy width of the incident synchrotron radiation. The expression obtained illustrates the unique characteristics of multi-line TDI systems, where the finite incident energy width and use of a nonidentical emitter pair produces further information on faster sub-picosecond-scale dynamics in addition to the nanosecond dynamics; this was demonstrated experimentally. A normalized intermediate scattering function was extracted from the spectrum and its relaxation form was determined for a relaxation time of the order of 1 μs, even for relatively large momentum transfer of ~31 nm-1. The multi-line TDI method produces a microscopic relaxation picture more rapidly and accurately than conventional single-line TDI.

  17. Multi-timescale measurements of brain responses in visual cortex during functional stimulation using time-resolved spectroscopy (United States)

    Lebid, Solomiya; O'Neill, Raymond; Markham, Charles; Ward, Tomás; Coyle, Shirley


    Studies of neurovascular coupling (hemodynamic changes and neuronal activation) in the visual cortex using a time-domain single photon counting system have been undertaken. The system operates in near infrared (NIR) range of spectrum and allows functional brain monitoring to be done non-invasively. The detection system employs a photomultiplier and multi-channel scaler to detect and record emerging photons with sub-microsecond resolution (the effective collection time per curve point is ~ 200 ns). Localisation of the visual evoked potentials in the brain was done using knowledge obtained from electroencephalographic (EEG) studies and previous frequency-domain optical NIR spectroscopic systems. The well-known approach of visual stimulation of the human brain, which consists of an alternating black and white checkerboard pattern used previously for the EEG study of neural responses, is applied here. The checkerboard pattern is synchronized with the multi-channel scaler system and allows the analysis of time variation in back-scattered light, at different stimulation frequencies. Slow hemodynamic changes in the human brain due to Hb-HbO2 changes in the blood flow were observed, which is evidence of the system's capability to monitor these changes. Monocular visual tests were undertaken and compared with those done with an EEG system. In some subjects a fast optical response on a time scale commensurate with the neural activity associated with the visual cortex was detected. Future work will concentrate on improved experimental protocols and apparatus to confirm the existence of this important physiological signal.

  18. Consideration of Reactor Installation to Mitigate Voltage Rise Caused by the Connection of a Renewable Energy Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonho Ok


    Full Text Available This paper describes the detailed analysis of a reactor application for a power plant to mitigate the voltage rise of a distribution line (DL caused by the connection of distributed resources (DRs. The maximum capacity of renewable energy generators (REGs that meets the acceptable voltage rise of a DL and the necessary capacity of the reactor to mitigate that voltage rise according to the different types of REGs are analyzed. The re-coordination of a protection relay and the loss of generation revenue as well as the installation location of a reactor are described. Finally, the ON/OFF conditions of the reactor, such as the magnitudes of the grid voltage and generator voltage, and the duration time of the voltage rise are analyzed. As the voltage rise is mitigated and self-limited in small power plants, it is confirmed that the capacity of the DRs connected to the DL can be increased through a field demonstration.

  19. Is School Bullying Really on the Rise? (United States)

    Rigby, Ken; Smith, Peter K.


    Whether bullying in schools is increasing, as is widely believed, was investigated drawing upon empirical studies undertaken in a wide range of countries in which findings had been published describing its prevalence at different points in time between 1990 and 2009. Results do not support the view that reported bullying in general has increased…

  20. Rescuing Education: The Rise of Experiential Learning (United States)

    McKenzie, Malcolm


    The term "experiential education" can be--and has been--applied to a wide range of educational programming. Malcolm McKenzie's working definition of experiential education is this: it promotes learning through direct experience, often outside the classroom, at times not directly related to academic courses, frequently not graded,…

  1. High tides and rising seas: potential effects on estuarine waterbirds (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Sanders, G.M.; Prosser, D.J.; Cahoon, D.R.; Greenberg, Russell; Maldonado, Jesus; Droege, Sam; McDonald, M.V.


    Coastal waterbirds are vulnerable to water-level changes especially under predictions of accelerating sea-level rise and increased storm frequency in the next century. Tidal and wind-driven fluctuations in water levels affecting marshes, their invertebrate communities, and their dependent waterbirds are manifested in daily, monthly, seasonal, annual, and supra-annual (e.g., decadal or 18.6-yr) periodicities. Superimposed on these cyclic patterns is a long-term (50?80 yr) increase in relative sea-level rise that varies from about 2?4 + mm/yr along the Atlantic coastline. At five study sites selected on marsh islands from Cape Cod, Massachusetts to coastal Virginia, we monitored marsh elevation changes and flooding, tide variations over time, and waterbird use. We found from longterm marsh core data that marsh elevations at three of five sites may not be sufficient to maintain pace with current sea-level rise. Results of the short-term (3?4 yr) measures using surface elevation tables suggest a more dramatic difference, with marsh elevation change at four of five sites falling below relative sea-level rise. In addition, we have found a significant increase (in three of four cases) in the rate of surface marsh flooding in New Jersey and Virginia over the past 70?80 yr during May?July when waterbirds are nesting on or near the marsh surface. Short-term, immediate effects of flooding will jeopardize annual fecundity of many species of concern to federal and state agencies, most notably American Black Duck (Anas rubripes), Nelson?s Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni), Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow (A. caudacutus), Seaside Sparrow (A. maritima), Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana nigrescens), Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis), Forster?s Tern (Sterna forsteri), Gull-billed Tern (S. nilotica), Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), and American Oystercatcher (Haemotopus palliatus). Forster?s Terns are probably most at risk given the large proportion of their

  2. A review on rising bubble dynamics in viscosity-stratified fluids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Systems with a bubble rising in a fluid, which has a variation of viscosity in space and time can be found in various natural phenomena and industrial applications, including food processing, oil extraction, waste processing and biochemical reactors, to name a few. A review of the aspects studied in the literature on ...

  3. Rising incidence of breast cancer among female cancer survivors: implications for surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle); W.J. Louwman; L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)


    textabstractThe number of female cancer survivors has been rising rapidly. We assessed the occurrence of breast cancer in these survivors over time. We computed incidence of primary breast cancer in two cohorts of female cancer survivors with a first diagnosis of cancer at ages 30+ in the periods

  4. Diagnostic Substitution for Intellectual Disability: A Flawed Explanation for the Rise in Autism (United States)

    Nevison, Cynthia D.; Blaxill, Mark


    Time trends in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) prevalence from the United States Individuals with Disabilities Education Act data were computed from 2000 to 2011 for each state and each age from 6 to 17. These trends did not support the hypothesis that diagnostic substitution for ID can explain the ASD rise over…

  5. Mars reconnaissance orbiter's high resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE) (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.; Eliason, E.M.; Bergstrom, J.W.; Bridges, N.T.; Hansen, C.J.; Delamere, W.A.; Grant, J. A.; Gulick, V.C.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Keszthelyi, L.; Kirk, R.L.; Mellon, M.T.; Squyres, S. W.; Thomas, N.; Weitz, C.M.


    The HiRISE camera features a 0.5 m diameter primary mirror, 12 m effective focal length, and a focal plane system that can acquire images containing up to 28 Gb (gigabits) of data in as little as 6 seconds. HiRISE will provide detailed images (0.25 to 1.3 m/pixel) covering ???1% of the Martian surface during the 2-year Primary Science Phase (PSP) beginning November 2006. Most images will include color data covering 20% of the potential field of view. A top priority is to acquire ???1000 stereo pairs and apply precision geometric corrections to enable topographic measurements to better than 25 cm vertical precision. We expect to return more than 12 Tb of HiRISE data during the 2-year PSP, and use pixel binning, conversion from 14 to 8 bit values, and a lossless compression system to increase coverage. HiRISE images are acquired via 14 CCD detectors, each with 2 output channels, and with multiple choices for pixel binning and number of Time Delay and Integration lines. HiRISE will support Mars exploration by locating and characterizing past, present, and future landing sites, unsuccessful landing sites, and past and potentially future rover traverses. We will investigate cratering, volcanism, tectonism, hydrology, sedimentary processes, stratigraphy, aeolian processes, mass wasting, landscape evolution, seasonal processes, climate change, spectrophotometry, glacial and periglacial processes, polar geology, and regolith properties. An Internet Web site (HiWeb) will enable anyone in the world to suggest HiRISE targets on Mars and to easily locate, view, and download HiRISE data products. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Effective inundation of continental United States communities with 21st century sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina A. Dahl


    Full Text Available Recurrent, tidally driven coastal flooding is one of the most visible signs of sea level rise. Recent studies have shown that such flooding will become more frequent and extensive as sea level continues to rise, potentially altering the landscape and livability of coastal communities decades before sea level rise causes coastal land to be permanently inundated. In this study, we identify US communities that will face effective inundation—defined as having 10% or more of livable land area flooded at least 26 times per year—with three localized sea level rise scenarios based on projections for the 3rd US National Climate Assessment. We present these results in a new, online interactive tool that allows users to explore when and how effective inundation will impact their communities. In addition, we identify communities facing effective inundation within the next 30 years that contain areas of high socioeconomic vulnerability today using a previously published vulnerability index. With the Intermediate-High and Highest sea level rise scenarios, 489 and 668 communities, respectively, would face effective inundation by the year 2100. With these two scenarios, more than half of communities facing effective inundation by 2045 contain areas of current high socioeconomic vulnerability. These results highlight the timeframes that US coastal communities have to respond to disruptive future inundation. The results also underscore the importance of limiting future warming and sea level rise: under the Intermediate-Low scenario, used as a proxy for sea level rise under the Paris Climate Agreement, 199 fewer communities would be effectively inundated by 2100.

  7. The New Woman in "The Sun Also Rises" (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoping


    Hemingway is a famous American writer and a spokesman of the Lost Generation. His life attitude of the characters in the novels influenced the whole world. His first masterpiece "The Sun Also Rises" contributes a lot to the rise of feminism and make the world began to be familiar with a term: The New Woman through the portrayal of Brett.…

  8. Experimentation and Prediction of Temperature Rise in Turning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimentation and Prediction of Temperature Rise in Turning Process using Response Surface Methodology. ... Reducing the temperature rise during turning operation improves the quality of the product and reduces tool wear. Experiments are conducted as per the Design of Experiments (DoE) of Response Surface ...

  9. The rise of free daily newspapers in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Piet Bakker


    Whereas most continents see circulation of newspapers drop, Latin America is one of the few areas in the world with rising newspaper circulation. A substantial part of this rise is caused by the introduction of free newspapers in a dozen countries on the continent. We map this development, discuss

  10. Planning of Low-rise Urban Housing Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, O.

    In many countries industrialization of house building has led to the building of large, monotonous housing areas with high-rise construction. In Denmark, however, smaller, varied housing areas with low-rise construction and urban features have become predominant. This report contains guidelines...... for the planning of such housing areas....

  11. The Rise of Conservatism since World War II. (United States)

    Carter, Dan T.


    Discusses the rise of the conservatism movement in the United States since World War II. States that laissez-faire capitalism and the rise of communism contributed to the popularity of conservatism in the United States. Focuses on the role of U.S. Presidents, such as Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. (CMK)

  12. Social scientists' failure of analytical nerve: 'Africa Rising' from above ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If Africa has been 'rising' since the outset of early 2000s commodity super-cycle, as so many of its elites and allied international economic actors claim, what are we to make of the evidence of growing popular uprisings? This survey of narratives and evidence finds convincing the converse claim that 'rising' translates into ...

  13. The Rise and Fall of the Neo-Liberal University (United States)

    Davies, Bronwyn; Gottsche, Michael; Bansel, Peter


    The rise of neo-liberal universities over the last 15-20 years has been characterised as an inevitable effect both of globalisation and the associated dominance of capital. In this article we will analyse that rise, seeking to understand how it has come about and its impact on intellectual work. In the final pages of the article we turn towards…

  14. The Florence Rise, the Western Bend of the Cyprus Arc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodside, J.M.; Mascle, J.; Zitter, T.A.C.; Limonov, A.F.; Ergun, M.; Volkonskaia, A.


    The Florence Rise is a submarine feature extending from the island of Cyprus in the southeast to the Anaximander Mountains which form the northwestern end of the Cyprus Arc south of western Turkey. The eastern Florence Rise includes a topographic high near Cyprus while its central domain displays

  15. Dough Rising Ability of Tamarindus Indica, Citrus Limon and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dough Rising Ability of Tamarindus Indica, Citrus Limon and Hibiscus Sabdariffa Yeast. Isolates. Ado, A. 1. , Ajibade, G.A. 2 ... yeasts correlate positively with the standard yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisea) in maize dough rising (α = 0.05> p – value 0.02, .... The sterile medium was allowed to cool at 55. 0. C, subsequently ...

  16. Svalbard glacier elevation changes and contribution to sea level rise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuth, Christopher; Moholdt, Geir; Kohler, Jack; Hagen, Jon Ove; Kääb, Andreas


    ... third of the total observed global sea level rise. It is therefore important to quantify glacier volume changes for the various glaciated regions in the world, both to estimate glacial sea level contribution and to link such contributions to regional climatic changes. In this paper we estimate the contribution of Svalbard glaciers to sea level rise. Various m...

  17. Counting rises and levels in r-color compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we address the problem of counting the r -color compositions having a prescribed number of rises. Formulas for the relevant generating functions are computed which count the compositions in question according to a certain statistic. Furthermore, we find explicit formulas for the total number of rises within all of ...

  18. Recording non-local temperature rise in the RTP tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Mantica, P.; Gorini, G.; de Kloe, J.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; R. T. P. Team,


    In the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP) plasmas with electron cyclotron heating (ECH), a transient rise of the core T-e is observed when hydrogen pellets are injected tangentially to induce fast cooling of the peripheral region. The core T-e rise is a sharp function of the normalized power

  19. Validation of smoke plume rise models using ground based lidar (United States)

    Cyle E. Wold; Shawn Urbanski; Vladimir Kovalev; Alexander Petkov; Wei Min Hao


    Biomass fires can significantly degrade regional air quality. Plume rise height is one of the critical factors determining the impact of fire emissions on air quality. Plume rise models are used to prescribe the vertical distribution of fire emissions which are critical input for smoke dispersion and air quality models. The poor state of model evaluation is due in...

  20. Disposal of Kitchen Waste from High Rise Apartment (United States)

    Ori, Kirki; Bharti, Ajay; Kumar, Sunil


    The high rise building has numbers of floor and rooms having variety of users or tenants for residential purposes. The huge quantities of heterogenous mixtures of domestic food waste are generated from every floor of the high rise residential buildings. Disposal of wet and biodegradable domestic kitchen waste from high rise buildings are more expensive in regards of collection and vertical transportation. This work is intended to address the technique to dispose of the wet organic food waste from the high rise buildings or multistory building at generation point with the advantage of gravity and vermicomposting technique. This innovative effort for collection and disposal of wet organic solid waste from high rise apartment is more economical and hygienic in comparison with present system of disposal.

  1. Disposal of Kitchen Waste from High Rise Apartment (United States)

    Ori, Kirki; Bharti, Ajay; Kumar, Sunil


    The high rise building has numbers of floor and rooms having variety of users or tenants for residential purposes. The huge quantities of heterogenous mixtures of domestic food waste are generated from every floor of the high rise residential buildings. Disposal of wet and biodegradable domestic kitchen waste from high rise buildings are more expensive in regards of collection and vertical transportation. This work is intended to address the technique to dispose of the wet organic food waste from the high rise buildings or multistory building at generation point with the advantage of gravity and vermicomposting technique. This innovative effort for collection and disposal of wet organic solid waste from high rise apartment is more economical and hygienic in comparison with present system of disposal.

  2. Radiometric Calibration of Mars HiRISE High Resolution Imagery Based on Fpga (United States)

    Hou, Yifan; Geng, Xun; Xing, Shuai; Tang, Yonghe; Xu, Qing


    Due to the large data amount of HiRISE imagery, traditional radiometric calibration method is not able to meet the fast processing requirements. To solve this problem, a radiometric calibration system of HiRISE imagery based on field program gate array (FPGA) is designed. The montage gap between two channels caused by gray inconsistency is removed through histogram matching. The calibration system is composed of FPGA and DSP, which makes full use of the parallel processing ability of FPGA and fast computation as well as flexible control characteristic of DSP. Experimental results show that the designed system consumes less hardware resources and the real-time processing ability of radiometric calibration of HiRISE imagery is improved.

  3. Rise of an argon bubble in liquid steel in the presence of a transverse magnetic field (United States)

    Jin, K.; Kumar, P.; Vanka, S. P.; Thomas, B. G.


    The rise of gaseous bubbles in viscous liquids is a fundamental problem in fluid physics, and it is also a common phenomenon in many industrial applications such as materials processing, food processing, and fusion reactor cooling. In this work, the motion of a single argon gas bubble rising in quiescent liquid steel under an external magnetic field is studied numerically using a Volume-of-Fluid method. To mitigate spurious velocities normally generated during numerical simulation of multiphase flows with large density differences, an improved algorithm for surface tension modeling, originally proposed by Wang and Tong ["Deformation and oscillations of a single gas bubble rising in a narrow vertical tube," Int. J. Therm. Sci. 47, 221-228 (2008)] is implemented, validated and used in the present computations. The governing equations are integrated by a second-order space and time accurate numerical scheme, and implemented on multiple Graphics Processing Units with high parallel efficiency. The motion and terminal velocities of the rising bubble under different magnetic fields are compared and a reduction in rise velocity is seen in cases with the magnetic field applied. The shape deformation and the path of the bubble are discussed. An elongation of the bubble along the field direction is seen, and the physics behind these phenomena is discussed. The wake structures behind the bubble are visualized and effects of the magnetic field on the wake structures are presented. A modified drag coefficient is obtained to include the additional resistance force caused by adding a transverse magnetic field.

  4. Crustal structure of Shatsky Rise from joint refraction and reflection seismic tomography (United States)

    Korenaga, J.; Sager, W. W.


    Shatsky Rise in the western Pacific is one of a few gigantic oceanic plateaus in the world, with a surface area of ˜ 4.8 ± 105~km2 (about the same size as California). In contrast to other large oceanic plateaus formed during the Cretaceous Quite Period, Shatsky Rise formed during the frequent reversals of magnetic polarity, allowing its tectonic environment to be resolved in detail. It was formed at a rapidly spreading ridge-ridge-ridge triple junction, so the effect of lithospheric lid on magma migration is expected to be minimal, thereby facilitating the petrological interpretation of its seismic structure in terms of parental mantle processes. In the summer of 2010, a seismic refraction survey combined with multichannel seismic profiling was conducted across Shatsky Rise. Twenty eight ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed along two crossing perpendicular lines, and all of the instruments were recovered successfully, yielding a large volume of high-quality wide-angle refraction and reflection data, with the source-receiver distance often exceeding 200~km. In this contribution, we present the P-wave velocity structure of the Shatsky Rise crust, which is constructed by joint refraction and reflection travel time tomography, and also discuss its implications for the origin of Shatsky Rise.

  5. Estimating Temperature Rise Due to Flashlamp Heating Using Irreversible Temperature Indicators (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay M.


    One of the nondestructive thermography inspection techniques uses photographic flashlamps. The flashlamps provide a short duration (about 0.005 sec) heat pulse. The short burst of energy results in a momentary rise in the surface temperature of the part. The temperature rise may be detrimental to the top layer of the part being exposed. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure the nondestructive nature of the technique. Amount of the temperature rise determines whether the flashlamp heating would be detrimental to the part. A direct method for the temperature measurement is to use of an infrared pyrometer that has much shorter response time than the flash duration. In this paper, an alternative technique is given using the irreversible temperature 'indicators. This is an indirect technique and it measures the temperature rise on the irreversible temperature indicators and computes the incident heat flux. Once the heat flux is known, the temperature rise on the part can be computed. A wedge shaped irreversible temperature indicator for measuring the heat flux is proposed. A procedure is given to use the wedge indicator.

  6. Online Citizen Science with Clickworkers & MRO HiRISE E/PO (United States)

    Gulick, V. C.; Deardorff, G.; Kanefsky, B.; HiRISE Science Team


    contributors. In HiRISE Clickworkers, over a dozen different geologic features have been identified on over 57,000 image tiles. A key objective of Clickworkers has been to break up work into manageable chunks so that people can contribute a few minutes at a time and their work all adds up. Our HiRISE Student Image Challenges (, another online citizen science project, provide educators and students a virtual science team experience. Registered participants are given access to HiWeb, the HiRISE team’s image suggestion facility to submit their image suggestions. Once the images are returned, students browse, pan and zoom through their acquired images online and at full resolution before they are released to the public ( Students fill out a report form summarizing the key results of their image analysis and with the help of a HiRISE team member write a caption for their image. The image is posted on the HiRISE image release website along with the caption, with credit to the suggesting class and school. HiWish, HiRISE’s public image suggestion website (see McEwen et al., this mtg.), provides a simpler interface for the public at large to submit HiRISE images. HiWish also provides a list of recently submitted image requests.

  7. The rise of the mega-region


    Florida, Richard; Gulden, Tim; Mellander, Charlotta


    This paper develops new data on mega-regions. It takes issue with theories of globalization which argue that global economic activity is being more widely decentralized--'the world is flat'. We use a global dataset of night-time light emissions to produce an objectively consistent set of mega-regions for the globe. We draw on high-resolution population data to estimate the population of each of these regions. We then process the light data in combination with national gross domestic product (...

  8. Ravenna. Rise of a Late Antique Capital


    Cirelli, Enrico


    The town of Ravenna, in northern Italy, today contains eight buildings listed on the UNESCO World Heritage list, all dating between the fiflh and the sixth centuries - a time when it was one of the most important cities of the Mediterranean. The Roman town under­went a major tranformation at the beginning of the fifth century, from a small Roman 'Municipium' to an Imperial capital. This role called far new buildings of power, housing the Imperial Court and the related bureaucratic body, a Bis...

  9. Sea-Level Rise Impacts on Hudson River Marshes (United States)

    Hooks, A.; Nitsche, F. O.


    The response of tidal marshes to increasing sea-level rise is uncertain. Tidal marshes can adapt to rising sea levels through vertical accretion and inland migration. Yet tidal marshes are vulnerable to submergence if the rate of sea-level rise exceeds the rate of accretion and if inland migration is limited by natural features or development. We studied how Piermont and Iona Island Marsh, two tidal marshes on the Hudson River, New York, would be affected by sea-level rise of 0.5m, 1m, and 1.5m by 2100. This study was based on the 2011-2012 Coastal New York LiDAR survey. Using GIS we mapped sea-level rise projections accounting for accretion rates and calculated the submerged area of the marsh. Based on the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve Vegetation 2005 dataset, we studied how elevation zones based on vegetation distributions would change. To evaluate the potential for inland migration, we assessed land cover around each marsh using the National Land Cover Database 2011 Land Cover dataset and examined the slope beyond the marsh boundaries. With an accretion rate of 0.29cm/year and 0.5m of sea-level rise by 2100, Piermont Marsh would be mostly unchanged. With 1.5m of sea-level rise, 86% of Piermont Marsh would be flooded. For Iona Island Marsh with an accretion rate of 0.78cm/year, sea-level rise of 0.5m by 2100 would result in a 4% expansion while 1.5m sea-level rise would cause inundation of 17% of the marsh. The results indicate that Piermont and Iona Island Marsh may be able to survive rates of sea-level rise such as 0.5m by 2100 through vertical accretion. At rates of sea-level rise like 1.5m by 2100, vertical accretion cannot match sea-level rise, submerging parts of the marshes. High elevations and steep slopes limit Piermont and Iona Island Marsh's ability to migrate inland. Understanding the impacts of sea-level rise on Piermont and Iona Island Marsh allows for long-term planning and could motivate marsh conservation programs.

  10. The Rise and Fall of Western Homohysteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Anderson


    Full Text Available In this essay, I draw upon my pro-feminist background to describe the formulation of the concept of homohysteria and explain its heuristic utility in conceptualizing historical shifts in heterosexual men's gendered regimes. I suggest that in times of high homohysteria, heterosexual men are compelled to align their identities and behaviors with orthodox (hypermasculine notions of men's masculinity. This is in order to avoid homosexualization. Conversely, heterosexual men retain considerably more gendered freedom in times of low or no homohysteria. I describe this as a cultural process related to homophobia and define the term homohysteria as men's fear of being homosexualized, through association with feminized behavior. I suggest that there are three elements necessary in its production: (1 mass awareness that homosexuality exists as a static sexual orientation, (2 a cultural Zeitgeist of disapproval of homosexuality, and (3 the conflation of femininity with homosexuality. I then show how, through identity politics, homohysteria can eventually give way to less homosexually panicked masculinities, something I describe as inclusive masculinities.

  11. The contribution of sea-level rise to flooding in large river catchments (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, I.; Hopson, T. M.; Gilleland, E.; Lamarque, J.; Hu, A.; Simmer, C.


    Climate change is expected to both impact sea level rise as well as flooding. Our study focuses on the combined effect of climate change on upper catchment precipitation as well as on sea-level rise at the river mouths and the impact this will have on river flooding both at the coast and further upstream. We concentrate on the eight catchments of the Amazonas, Congo, Orinoco, Ganges/Brahmaputra/Meghna, Mississippi, St. Lawrence, Danube and Niger rivers. To assess the impact of climate change, upper catchment precipitation as well as monthly mean thermosteric sea-level rise at the river mouth outflow are taken from the four CCSM4 1° 20th Century ensemble members as well as from six CCSM4 1° ensemble members for the RCP scenarios RCP8.5, 6.0, 4.5 and 2.6. Continuous daily time series for average catchment precipitation and discharge are available for each of the catchments. To arrive at a future discharge time series, we used these observations to develop a simple statistical hydrological model which can be applied to the modelled future upper catchment precipitation values. The analysis of this surrogate discharge time series alone already yields significant changes in flood return levels as well as flood duration. Using the geometry of the river channel, the backwater effect of sea-level rise is incorporated in our analysis of both flood frequencies and magnitudes by calculating the effective additional discharge due to the increase in water level at the river mouth outflow, as well as its tapering impact upstream. By combining these effects, our results focus on the merged impact of changes in extreme precipitation with increases in river height due to sea-level rise at the river mouths. Judging from our preliminary results, the increase in effective discharge due to sea-level rise cannot be neglected when discussing late 21st century flooding in the respective river basins. In particular, we find that especially in countries with low elevation gradient, flood

  12. Iron partitioning between the dissolved and particulate phase within a rising hydrothermal plume: Beebe Vents, Piccard Hydrothermal Field, Mid-Cayman Rise. (United States)

    Breier, J. A., Jr.; Estapa, M. L.; German, C. R.


    Particle processes place first order controls on the transfer of high temperature hydrothermal metals from the lithosphere to the oceans. Within buoyant rising hydrothermal plumes, settling attenuates metal concentrations, and settling is controlled by particle precipitation and growth. To improve our understanding of these processes we collected samples from rising hydrothermal plumes in the Piccard field of the Mid-Cayman Rise in 2012 and 2013. We used a combination of remotely operated vehicle and water-rosette sampling techniques. From these samples, we measured dissolved and particulate Fe and optical proxies of particle size distribution in vertical plume profiles spanning >150 m of the initial plume rise. The measurements from 2013 show that more than 50% of the >1 mmol per kg vent flux partitions to the particulate phase within the first meter of plume rise. The plume is rapidly diluted over 1000 times in the first 16 meters but during this stage the partitioning ratio between dissolved and particulate Fe remains relatively constant. Above 16 m, plume dilution continues more slowly but the Fe partitioning ratio shifts towards the dissolved until 90% of the total Fe concentration, 620 nmol per kg plume fluid, is dissolved. It is not clear to what extent this shift is due to settling or oxidative particle dissolution and both are likely. However, particle size distribution measurements from 2013 show the plume is dominated by small particles, and that particles >100 μm are rare. Thus in this setting, despite rapid precipitation, particle growth and settling are surprisingly slow and a relatively stronger role for particle dissolution is suggested.

  13. The Rise and Decline of Japanese Pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cai


    Full Text Available The Japanese pacifist constitution has been a symbol of Japan’s commitment to peace and more importantly its renunciation of wartime militarism. There has been strong support for its continuing existence amongst the Japanese populace despite persistent attempts by the Japanese government to amend it. However, the prevalent pacifist sentiment is showing signs of fading vitality in recent times. This article purports to examine the underlying forces that contributed to the development and the decline of Japanese pacifism. A host of domestic and international factors were responsible for the growth of pacifism and its subsequent decline, but only three important domestic factors will be examined in detail: the concept of victimhood in the development of pacifism and its implication for its continuing strength, the importance of peace education and the role played by the influential Japan’s Teachers’ Union on the formation of pacifist conscience and finally, the influence of leftist organisations on the organised peace movement.

  14. The Rise of the Financial Planning Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cull


    Full Text Available The financial planning industry in Australia has experienced significant reform in the lastdecade. This reform has not only made a considerable impact on financial planners but also onother groups such as the accounting profession, regulators, the financial services industry,educators and consumers. Although consumer protection was at the heart of this reform, it hasalso prompted the industry and other groups to consider financial planning as a profession.This paper begins with a definition of financial planning, followed by a discussion of thehistorical origins of financial planning. Several examples are used to illustrate how the industryhas developed and changed over time considering the impact of social, cultural, institutional,political and economic factors. Particular attention is given to the role of the accountingprofession and government regulation in Australia. The paper concludes with a discussion of theprofessionalisation of financial planning in light of the increased pressure for changes inremuneration practice in the industry.

  15. Models for the rise of the dinosaurs. (United States)

    Benton, Michael J; Forth, Jonathan; Langer, Max C


    Dinosaurs arose in the early Triassic in the aftermath of the greatest mass extinction ever and became hugely successful in the Mesozoic. Their initial diversification is a classic example of a large-scale macroevolutionary change. Diversifications at such deep-time scales can now be dissected, modelled and tested. New fossils suggest that dinosaurs originated early in the Middle Triassic, during the recovery of life from the devastating Permo-Triassic mass extinction. Improvements in stratigraphic dating and a new suite of morphometric and comparative evolutionary numerical methods now allow a forensic dissection of one of the greatest turnovers in the history of life. Such studies mark a move from the narrative to the analytical in macroevolutionary research, and they allow us to begin to answer the proposal of George Gaylord Simpson, to explore adaptive radiations using numerical methods. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Floor heating of high-rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korff, H.K.


    When planning a large housing estate near Aschaffenburg in the years from 1962 to 1965, the decision was made to use electric floor heating fed mainly by off-peak electricity. In order to keep the cost of heating at an acceptable level and for better use of the storage effect, a type of thermal insulation was installed which was far in advance of the methods used at the time. The heat transmission coefficient of the external walls was later on found to be 0.88 W/m/sup 2/K. This value fully meets the requirements as specified in the thermal insulation ordinance which came into force in 1977. A cost analysis has shown that the heating costs are not higher than in similar buildings equipped with conventional heating systems.

  17. The Paris Agreement's imprint on 2300 sea level rise (United States)

    Mengel, Matthias; Nauels, Alexander; Rogelj, Joeri; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich


    The 2015 Paris Agreement aims at reducing climate-related risks by putting a limit to global mean temperature increase. Furthermore, global greenhouse gas emissions should peak as soon as possible and reach net-zero in the second half of the 21st century under the agreement. Sea level rise is one of the major impacts of climate change and will continue for long after emissions have ceased. Here we quantify the effect of near-term and long-term emissions constraints of the Paris Agreement on climate-driven sea level rise until 2300 using a contribution-based methodology that is consistent with the IPCC AR5 sea level estimates. We study median sea level rise for scenarios stabilizing global mean temperatures between 1.5° C and 2° C above pre-industrial levels and net-zero greenhouse gas emission scenarios that lead to declining temperatures. Once global mean temperatures pass 1.5 °C, sea level rise below one meter until 2300 is out of reach for temperature stabilization scenarios. Net-zero emissions can reduce sea level rise caused by temperature overshoot only within limits. By linking sea level rise to near-term mitigation action, we find that delayed near-term mitigation action leads to increased sea level rise far beyond 2100.

  18. Potential impact of sea level rise on French islands worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Bellard


    Full Text Available Although sea level rise is one of the most certain consequences of global warming, yet it remains one of the least studied. Several studies strongly suggested that sea level rise will accelerate in the future with a potentially rise from 0.5 to 2 m at the end of the century. However, currently island conservation programs do not take into account the potential effects of sea level rise. Therefore, we investigated the potential consequences of sea level rise for 1,269 French islands worldwide, by assessing the total number of island that will be totally submerged for three different scenarios (1, 2 and 3 m. Under the worst scenario, up to 12% of all islands could be entirely submerged. Two regions displayed the most significant loss of island: New Caledonia and French Polynesia. Focusing on New Caledonia, we highlighted that endemic plant species that are already classified as critically endangered by the IUCN will be the most vulnerable to sea level rise. Losses of insular habitats will thus be important in the next decades for the French islands. Given that French islands covers all latitudes in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans and in the Mediterranean, our results suggested that the implications for the 180 000 islands around the world should be considerable. Therefore, decision makers are required to define island conservation priorities that will suffer of the future sea level rise.

  19. The Import of the Cortisol Rise in Child Care Differs as a Function of Behavioral Inhibition (United States)

    Gunnar, Megan R.; Kryzer, Erin; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Phillips, Deborah A.


    Children of ages 3 to 4.5 years (N = 107; 45 boys, 62 girls) were studied twice, 6 months apart, to examine whether the cortisol rise in child care at Time 1 (T1) was associated with (a) changes in anxious, vigilant behavior from T1 to Time 2 (T2) and (b) higher internalizing symptoms at T2. Controlling for measures of home environment and child…

  20. Chair rise capacity and associated factors in older home-care clients. (United States)

    Tiihonen, Miia; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Nykänen, Irma


    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of older home-care clients to perform the five times chair rise test and associated personal characteristics, nutritional status and functioning. The study sample included 267 home-care clients aged ≥75 years living in Eastern and Central Finland. The home-care clients were interviewed at home by home-care nurses, nutritionists and pharmacists. The collected data contained sociodemographic factors, functional ability (Barthel Index, IADL), cognitive functioning (MMSE), nutritional status (MNA), depressive symptoms (GDS-15), medical diagnoses and drug use. The primary outcome was the ability to perform the five times chair rise test. Fifty-one per cent ( n=135) of the home-care clients were unable to complete the five times chair rise test. Twenty-three per cent ( n=64) of the home-care clients had good chair rise capacity (≤17 seconds). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, fewer years of education (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.18), lower ADL (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.34-1.78) and low MNA scores (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.20) and a higher number of co-morbidities (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.02-1.43) were associated with inability to complete the five times chair rise test. Poor functional mobility, which was associated with less education, a high number of co-morbidities and poor nutritional status, was common among older home-care clients. To maintain and to prevent further decline in functional mobility, physical training and nutritional services are needed. (NutOrMed, Identifier: NCT02214758).

  1. Anthropogenic forcing dominates sea level rise since 1850

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John


    The rate of sea level rise and its causes are topics of active debate. Here we use a delayed response statistical model to attribute the past 1000 years of sea level variability to various natural (volcanic and solar radiative) and anthropogenic (greenhouse gases and aerosols) forcings. We show...... that until 1800 the main drivers of sea level change are volcanic and solar radiative forcings. For the past 200 years sea level rise is mostly associated with anthropogenic factors. Only 4 ± 1.5 cm (25% of total sea level rise) during the 20th century is attributed to natural forcings, the remaining 14 ± 1...

  2. Flooded Dark Matter and S level rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Unwin, James [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago,Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)


    Most dark matter models set the dark matter relic density by some interaction with Standard Model particles. Such models generally assume the existence of Standard Model particles early on, with the dark matter relic density a later consequence of those interactions. Perhaps a more compelling assumption is that dark matter is not part of the Standard Model sector and a population of dark matter too is generated at the end of inflation. This democratic assumption about initial conditions does not necessarily provide a natural value for the dark matter relic density, and furthermore superficially leads to too much entropy in the dark sector relative to ordinary matter. We address the latter issue by the late decay of heavy particles produced at early times, thereby associating the dark matter relic density with the lifetime of a long-lived state. This paper investigates what it would take for this scenario to be compatible with observations in what we call Flooded Dark Matter (FDM) models and discusses several interesting consequences. One is that dark matter can be very light and furthermore, light dark matter is in some sense the most natural scenario in FDM as it is compatible with larger couplings of the decaying particle. A related consequence is that the decay of the field with the smallest coupling and hence the longest lifetime dominates the entropy and possibly the matter content of the Universe, a principle we refer to as “Maximum Baroqueness”. We also demonstrate that the dark sector should be colder than the ordinary sector, relaxing the most stringent free-streaming constraints on light dark matter candidates. We will discuss the potential implications for the core-cusp problem in a follow-up paper. The FDM framework will furthermore have interesting baryogenesis implications. One possibility is that dark matter is like the baryon asymmetry and both are simultaneously diluted by a late entropy dump. Alternatively, FDM is compatible with an elegant

  3. Buying time promotes happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whillans, Ashley; Dunn, Elizabeth; Smeets, Paul M.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Norton, M.I.


    Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada,

  4. Temperatures rising: brown fat and bone. (United States)

    Motyl, Katherine J; Rosen, Clifford J


    Caloric restriction is associated with a reduction in body weight and temperature, as well as a reduction in trabecular bone volume and paradoxically an increase in adipocytes within the bone marrow. The nature of these adipocytes is uncertain, although there is emerging evidence of a direct relationship between bone remodeling and brown adipocytes. For example, in heterotrophic ossification, brown adipocytes set up a hypoxic gradient that leads to vascular invasion, chondrocyte differentiation, and subsequent bone formation. Additionally, deletion of retinoblastoma protein in an osteosarcoma model leads to increased hibernoma (brown fat tumor). Brown adipose tissue (BAT) becomes senescent with age at a time when thermoregulation is altered, bone loss becomes apparent, and sympathetic activity increases. Interestingly, heart rate is an unexpected but good predictor of fracture risk in elderly individuals, pointing to a key role for the sympathetic nervous system in senile osteoporosis. Hence the possibility exists that BAT could play an indirect role in age-related bone loss. However, evidence of an indirect effect from thermogenic dysfunction on bone loss is currently limited. Here, we present current evidence for a relationship between brown adipose tissue and bone as well as provide novel insights into the effects of thermoregulation on bone mineral density.

  5. Rise of Racetrack Memory! Domain Wall Spin-Orbitronics (United States)

    Parkin, Stuart

    Memory-storage devices based on the current controlled motion of a series of domain walls (DWs) in magnetic racetracks promise performance and reliability beyond that of conventional magnetic disk drives and solid state storage devices (1). Racetracks that are formed from atomically thin, perpendicularly magnetized nano-wires, interfaced with adjacent metal layers with high spin-orbit coupling, give rise to domain walls that exhibit a chiral Néel structure (2). These DWs can be moved very efficiently with current via chiral spin-orbit torques (2,3). Record-breaking current-induced DW speeds exceeding 1,000 m/sec are found in synthetic antiferromagnetic structures (3) in which the net magnetization of the DWs is tuned to almost zero, making them ``invisible''. Based on these recent discoveries, Racetrack Memory devices have the potential to operate on picosecond timescales and at densities more than 100 times greater than other memory technologies. (1) S.S.P. Parkin et al., Science 320, 5873 (2008); S.S.P. Parkin and S.-H. Yang, Nat. Nano. 10, 195 (2015). (2) K.-S. Ryu metal. Nat. Nano. 8, 527 (2013). (3) S.-H. Yang, K.-S. Ryu and S.S.P. Parkin, Nat. Nano. 10, 221 (2015). (4). S.S.P. Parkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3598 (1991).

  6. The Rise and Fall of R&D Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tomasello, Mario V; Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank


    Drawing on a large database of publicly announced R&D alliances, we track the evolution of R&D networks in a large number of economic sectors over a long time period (1986-2009). Our main goal is to evaluate temporal and sectoral robustness of the main statistical properties of empirical R&D networks. By studying a large set of indicators, we provide a more complete description of these networks with respect to the existing literature. We find that most network properties are invariant across pooled and sectoral networks. This result suggests the presence of universal laws governing the dynamics of R&D networks. Moreover, we find that many properties of R&D networks are characterized by a non-monotonic trend with a peak in the mid-nineties. This allows us to define the mid-nineties as a "Golden Age" characterized by the rise-and-fall of R&D networks. Finally, we show that many properties of empirical R&D networks support predictions of the recent theoretical literature on R&D n...

  7. Compounding effects of sea level rise and fluvial flooding. (United States)

    Moftakhari, Hamed R; Salvadori, Gianfausto; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sanders, Brett F; Matthew, Richard A


    Sea level rise (SLR), a well-documented and urgent aspect of anthropogenic global warming, threatens population and assets located in low-lying coastal regions all around the world. Common flood hazard assessment practices typically account for one driver at a time (e.g., either fluvial flooding only or ocean flooding only), whereas coastal cities vulnerable to SLR are at risk for flooding from multiple drivers (e.g., extreme coastal high tide, storm surge, and river flow). Here, we propose a bivariate flood hazard assessment approach that accounts for compound flooding from river flow and coastal water level, and we show that a univariate approach may not appropriately characterize the flood hazard if there are compounding effects. Using copulas and bivariate dependence analysis, we also quantify the increases in failure probabilities for 2030 and 2050 caused by SLR under representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5. Additionally, the increase in failure probability is shown to be strongly affected by compounding effects. The proposed failure probability method offers an innovative tool for assessing compounding flood hazards in a warming climate.

  8. Mass exchanger for high-rise buildings with aquifer storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolido, H.W.A.; Veltkamp, W.B.; Schaap, A.B. [LEVEL Energy Technology, Son (Netherlands)


    Aquifer storage systems are used to withdraw cold in summer and heat in winter. In high-rise buildings the technical installations are preferably placed on the top floor and so water from the aquifer has to be pressurised. Heat is absorbed or released here and the water returns to the aquifer. To recover potential energy from the pressurised water a turbine-pump combination may be used or the high pressure circuit is separated from the low pressure circuit by a heat exchanger. Van Berkel (1991) found that turbine-pump combinations recover only about 25-40 % of the potential energy. Application of a heat exchanger typically shows a thermal efficiency of 80 %. The proposed mass exchanger combines pressure separation with high effective heat transport. The high pressure circuit in the building and the low pressure aquifer circuit, are separated by a rotating element with rotation symmetric distributed chambers. Chunks of water are cut from the high pressure circuit and rotated into the low pressure circuit while at the same time an equal amount of water is transported from the low into the high pressure circuit. In these chambers also separation of warm and cold water is realised, due to the plug flow. Testing a scale model demonstrated the feasibility of the design, indicating a pressure recovery and thermal effectivity of the apparatus of 99 % and of 96 %. (orig.)

  9. Mars' Active Surface: Observing Changes with Orthorectified HiRISE Images (United States)

    Mattson, S.; McEwen, A. S.; Ojha, L.; Bridges, N. T.; Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Mogk, N.


    Active processes on Mars have been observed and documented with high resolution images from orbit. The HiRISE camera, operating on MRO since 2006, acquires images of the surface of Mars at up to 25 cm pixel scale, and has stereo capability. The use of HiRISE stereo images to produce digital terrain models (DTMs) allows for orthorectification of the stereo pair and other images targeted over the same area. HiRISE DTMs typically have 1 or 2 m horizontal resolution with vertical precision on the order of 10's of cm. DTM production with HiRISE requires that the source stereo pair has similar lighting and minimal surface differences. However, there is no similar requirement for orthorectifying other images taken of the same area. Changes on the surface can then be measured accurately in the orthoimages as topographic distortions have been minimized. Time sequences of surface changes can be constructed from a series of orthoimages, providing essential data for understanding their rate and magnitude. Some of the current areas of study using HiRISE DTMs and orthoimages include recurring slope lineae (RSL) (McEwen et al., Science 333, 740, 2011), dune and ripple migration (Bridges et al., Nature 485, 339, 2012), seasonal frost changes, and gully activity. In some cases, DTMs from before and after significant surface movement can be compared to measure volumetric changes. The demand for HiRISE DTMs and orthoimages has led to advances in techniques for their production and analysis. Improved image processing and terrain editing tools result in better DTMs and orthoimages, as well as minimize the time required to produce them. We present here ongoing work to refine these techniques and develop new methods for generating orthoimage sequences, including orthorectification of the HiRISE 3-band color strip. Results are illustrated using series of orthoimages over dunes, RSL sites and other areas of Martian surface activity. HiRISE DTMs and orthoimages are released to the Planetary

  10. Sea Level Rise Impacts on Precipitation-Induced Flooding (United States)

    Buzzanga, B. A.


    Global sea level rise (SLR) is one of the most immediate impacts of climate change, and poses a significant threat to low-lying coastal communities worldwide. The metropolitan region of Hampton Roads in Southeastern Virginia is one such community, and one where knowledge surrounding SLR is rapidly accumulating. However, most of the research is focused exclusively on surface water processes despite the presence of a shallow groundwater table closely connected to them. SLR will continue to cause the groundwater table to increase in tidally influenced areas of Hampton Road, and thereby decrease storage capacity of the unsaturated zone (UZ). This study investigates how reduced unsaturated storage changes the rainfall-runoff relationship and the resulting areal-flood hazard spectrum. We choose a tidal watershed in Hampton Roads to conduct a conceptual yet realistic simulation of the hydrologic cycle using ten years of historical precipitation data with SLR scenarios from 0 m (current) to 2 m in 0.3048 m intervals. Groundwater infiltration from the land surface, recharge, and evapotranspiration are simulated using the Unsaturated-Zone Flow package with MODFLOW-NWT.Groundwater rise is simulated by increasing the stage of the tidal stream that drains the watershed. Precipitation and overland runoff are simulated using the surface water model SWMM. The two models are coupled to permit the exchange of boundary condition values at each time step. An ensemble approach is taken to test model sensitivity to parameters configurations and determine the contribution of SLR to runoff generation. The primary result of this study quantifies the relationship between SLR and runoff which enables decision makers to more effectively plan for, minimize risk of, and adapt to flooding hazards. This investigation also assesses how water content in the UZ changes in response to precipitation for different SLR scenarios. This result has widespread importance, such as decisions in crop choice or

  11. The rises and falls of disconnection syndromes. (United States)

    Catani, Marco; ffytche, Dominic H


    In a brain composed of localized but connected specialized areas, disconnection leads to dysfunction. This simple formulation underlay a range of 19th century neurological disorders, referred to collectively as disconnection syndromes. Although disconnectionism fell out of favour with the move against localized brain theories in the early 20th century, in 1965, an American neurologist brought disconnection to the fore once more in a paper entitled, 'Disconnexion syndromes in animals and man'. In what was to become the manifesto of behavioural neurology, Norman Geschwind outlined a pure disconnectionist framework which revolutionized both clinical neurology and the neurosciences in general. For him, disconnection syndromes were higher function deficits that resulted from white matter lesions or lesions of the association cortices, the latter acting as relay stations between primary motor, sensory and limbic areas. From a clinical perspective, the work reawakened interest in single case studies by providing a useful framework for correlating lesion locations with clinical deficits. In the neurosciences, it helped develop contemporary distributed network and connectionist theories of brain function. Geschwind's general disconnectionist paradigm ruled clinical neurology for 20 years but in the late 1980s, with the re-emergence of specialized functional roles for association cortex, the orbit of its remit began to diminish and it became incorporated into more general models of higher dysfunction. By the 1990s, textbooks of neurology were devoting only a few pages to classical disconnection theory. Today, new techniques to study connections in the living human brain allow us, for the first time, to test the classical formulation directly and broaden it beyond disconnections to include disorders of hyperconnectivity. In this review, on the 40th anniversary of Geschwind's publication, we describe the changing fortunes of disconnection theory and adapt the general framework

  12. The rise of novelty in ecosystems. (United States)

    Radeloff, Volker C; Williams, John W; Bateman, Brooke L; Burke, Kevin D; Carter, Sarah K; Childress, Evan S; Cromwell, Kara J; Gratton, Claudio; Hasley, Andrew O; Kraemer, Benjamin M; Latzka, Alexander W; Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Meine, Curt D; Munoz, Samuel E; Neeson, Thomas M; Pidgeon, Anna M; Rissman, Adena R; Rivera, Ricardo J; Szymanski, Laura M; Usinowicz, Jacob


    Rapid and ongoing change creates novelty in ecosystems everywhere, both when comparing contemporary systems to their historical baselines, and predicted future systems to the present. However, the level of novelty varies greatly among places. Here we propose a formal and quantifiable definition of abiotic and biotic novelty in ecosystems, map abiotic novelty globally, and discuss the implications of novelty for the science of ecology and for biodiversity conservation. We define novelty as the degree of dissimilarity of a system, measured in one or more dimensions relative to a reference baseline, usually defined as either the present or a time window in the past. In this conceptualization, novelty varies in degree, it is multidimensional, can be measured, and requires a temporal and spatial reference. This definition moves beyond prior categorical definitions of novel ecosystems, and does not include human agency, self-perpetuation, or irreversibility as criteria. Our global assessment of novelty was based on abiotic factors (temperature, precipitation, and nitrogen deposition) plus human population, and shows that there are already large areas with high novelty today relative to the early 20th century, and that there will even be more such areas by 2050. Interestingly, the places that are most novel are often not the places where absolute changes are largest; highlighting that novelty is inherently different from change. For the ecological sciences, highly novel ecosystems present new opportunities to test ecological theories, but also challenge the predictive ability of ecological models and their validation. For biodiversity conservation, increasing novelty presents some opportunities, but largely challenges. Conservation action is necessary along the entire continuum of novelty, by redoubling efforts to protect areas where novelty is low, identifying conservation opportunities where novelty is high, developing flexible yet strong regulations and policies, and

  13. Field monitoring of column shortenings in a high-rise building during construction. (United States)

    Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon


    The automatic monitoring of shortenings of vertical members in high-rise buildings under construction is a challenging issue in the high-rise building construction field. In this study, a practical system for monitoring column shortening in a high-rise building under construction is presented. The proposed monitoring system comprises the following components: (1) a wireless sensing system and (2) the corresponding monitoring software. The wireless sensing system comprises the sensors and energy-efficient wireless sensing units (sensor nodes, master nodes, and repeater nodes), which automate the processes for measuring the strains of vertical members and transmitting the measured data to the remote server. The monitoring software enables construction administrators to monitor real-time data collected by the server via an Internet connection. The proposed monitoring system is applied to actual 66-floor and 72-floor high-rise buildings under construction. The system enables automatic and real-time measurements of the shortening of vertical members, which can result in more precise construction.

  14. Smoking on the Rise in Movies Aimed at Young (United States)

    ... page: Smoking On the Rise in Movies Aimed at Young: ... The number of youth-focused films that showed smoking rose sharply between 2010 and 2016, a new ...

  15. Analysis of coastal protection under rising flood risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Lickley


    Full Text Available Infrastructure located along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts is exposed to rising risk of flooding from sea level rise, increasing storm surge, and subsidence. In these circumstances coastal management commonly based on 100-year flood maps assuming current climatology is no longer adequate. A dynamic programming cost–benefit analysis is applied to the adaptation decision, illustrated by application to an energy facility in Galveston Bay. Projections of several global climate models provide inputs to estimates of the change in hurricane and storm surge activity as well as the increase in sea level. The projected rise in physical flood risk is combined with estimates of flood damage and protection costs in an analysis of the multi-period nature of adaptation choice. The result is a planning method, using dynamic programming, which is appropriate for investment and abandonment decisions under rising coastal risk.

  16. Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women (United States)

    ... Disparities Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women Disparities in Lung Health Series More ... the U.S. live with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Millions more ...

  17. Counting rises and levels in r-color compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    0331-x. Counting rises and levels in r-color compositions. TOUFIK MANSOUR. ∗ and MARK SHATTUCK. 1Department of Mathematics, University of Haifa, 31905 Haifa, Israel. *Corresponding author. E-mail:; ...

  18. Prognostic Value of Absolute versus Relative Rise of Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maternal outcome than a relative rise in the systolic/diastolic blood pressure from mid pregnancy, which did not reach this absolute level. We conclude that in the Nigerian obstetric population, the practice of diagnosing pregnancy hypertension on ...

  19. Sediment Data from the Continental Rise (ZIMMERMAN72 shapefile) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Short cores were collected on the continental rise off Georges Bank. The character of the sediments and measured bottom currents show that the Western Boundary...

  20. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a unique disease on the rise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Monsjou, Hester S.; Balm, Alfons J. M.; van den Brekel, Michiel M.; Wreesmann, Volkert B.


    Despite successful efforts to control tobacco and alcohol consumption in the western world, several developed countries report rising oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) incidence figures, specifically in young individuals. Similar to anogenital cancers, a significant proportion of OPSCC

  1. USGS Map service: Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coastal vulnerability index (CVI)provides a preliminary overview, at a National scale, of the relative susceptibility of the Nation's coast to sea-level rise....

  2. Magma chamber and mantle reflections - East Pacific Rise (United States)

    Herron, Thomas J.; Stoffa, Paul L.; Buhl, Peter


    A multichannel seismic reflection profile of stacked and migrated common depth point data across the East Pacific Rise near the Siqueiros Fracture Zone supports and extends previous observations (at two crossings 27 to 50 km to the south) of reflections assumed to be from the top of a magma chamber and of reflections from the M-discontinuity. The reflection assumed to be associated with the top of the magma chamber is 1-1/2 to 2 km below the sea floor. The combined results of the three crossings suggest that the chamber is continuous along the Rise crest and that its width, which varies from 2 to 8 km, correlates with the width of the Rise crest as indicated by the bathymetric contours. The reflections from the crust-mantle boundary can be detected beneath the raised axial block of the East Pacific Rise and although weak, can be detected beneath the magma chamber.

  3. Sea Level Rise Impacts on Ramsar Wetlands of International Importance (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Sea Level Rise Impacts on Ramsar Wetlands of International Importance data set represents the results of an analysis using the boundaries for Ramsar sites...

  4. Empirical Operational Energy Analysis of Downtown High-Rise vs. Suburban Low-Rise Lifestyles: A Chicago Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Du


    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the concentration of people living in high-density city centers offers greater operational energy efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions than lower-density expanded suburbs. The prevailing assumption is that lower-density suburbs are dominated by larger low-rise buildings that have higher building energy use requirements and greater per-person automobile travel requirements than high-density city centers dominated by medium- and high-rise buildings located in close proximity to a variety of public transit systems. However, very few studies to date have utilized empirical data at an individual household scale to evaluate differences in the operational energy (OE footprints for both building and transportation energy end-uses between high-rise urban and low-rise suburban households. Therefore, this work collects empirical data on building and transportation OE consumption by individuals and households living in two economically similar groups: existing high-rise residential buildings in downtown Chicago, IL, USA and existing low-rise residential buildings in suburban Oak Park, IL, USA. Data were collected from over 500 households via an online survey. We considered the following components of residential living: (1 building OE (BOE, which includes electricity and/or natural gas use for all building energy end-uses; and (2 transportation OE (TOE, which includes the OE for multiple modes of transportation (i.e., automobile, bus, subway, regional train, etc. based on average travel behavior in each location, as well as the OE for supporting transportation infrastructure. We estimate that downtown high-rise living in this sample of residences in Chicago, IL accounts for approximately 427 GJ of primary OE per household per year, on average, which was 14% lower than the average for suburban low-rise living in the Oak Park, IL homes (499 GJ per household per year. However, on a per-person basis, downtown high-rise living

  5. Vzpomínání na Easter Rising


    Reiterová, Martina


    5 Abstract The bachelor thesis focuses on the official policy of remembering the Easter Rising in Ireland in 1916. The attention concentrates on the political representatives of the Irish Free State and Irish Republic from 1922 to 2006 and their attitude towards commemorations of the Easter Rising. The topic is elaborated using mainly English secondary sources and also some primary sources like political documents and videos. Regarding the methodology, the so-called collective memory concept ...

  6. Adapting to Rising Sea Level: A Florida Perspective (United States)

    Parkinson, Randall W.


    Global climate change and concomitant rising sea level will have a profound impact on Florida's coastal and marine systems. Sea-level rise will increase erosion of beaches, cause saltwater intrusion into water supplies, inundate coastal marshes and other important habitats, and make coastal property more vulnerable to erosion and flooding. Yet most coastal areas are currently managed under the premise that sea-level rise is not significant and the shorelines are static or can be fixed in place by engineering structures. The new reality of sea-level rise and extreme weather due to climate change requires a new style of planning and management to protect resources and reduce risk to humans. Scientists must: (1) assess existing coastal vulnerability to address short term management issues and (2) model future landscape change and develop sustainable plans to address long term planning and management issues. Furthermore, this information must be effectively transferred to planners, managers, and elected officials to ensure their decisions are based upon the best available information. While there is still some uncertainty regarding the details of rising sea level and climate change, development decisions are being made today which commit public and private investment in real estate and associated infrastructure. With a design life of 30 yrs to 75 yrs or more, many of these investments are on a collision course with rising sea level and the resulting impacts will be significant. In the near term, the utilization of engineering structures may be required, but these are not sustainable and must ultimately yield to "managed withdrawal" programs if higher sea-level elevations or rates of rise are forthcoming. As an initial step towards successful adaptation, coastal management and planning documents (i.e., comprehensive plans) must be revised to include reference to climate change and rising sea-level.

  7. The Rise of Hospitalists: An Opportunity for Clinical Ethics. (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew W; Real de Asua, Diego; Fins, Joseph J


    Translating ethical theories into clinical practice presents a perennial challenge to educators. While many suggestions have been put forth to bridge the theory-practice gap, none have sufficiently remedied the problem. We believe the ascendance of hospital medicine, as a dominant new force in medical education and patient care, presents a unique opportunity that could redefine the way clinical ethics is taught. The field of hospital medicine in the United States is comprised of more than 50,000 hospitalists-specialists in inpatient medicine-representing the fastest growing subspecialty in the history of medicine, and its members have emerged as a dominant new force around which medical education and patient care pivot. This evolution in medical education presents a unique opportunity for the clinical ethics community. Through their proximity to patients and trainees, hospitalists have the potential to teach medical ethics in real time on the wards, but most hospitalists have not received formal training in clinical ethics. We believe it is time to strengthen the ties between hospital medicine and medical ethics, and in this article we outline how clinical ethicists might collaborate with hospitalists to identify routine issues that do not rise to the level of an "ethics consult," but nonetheless require an intellectual grounding in normative reasoning. We use a clinical vignette to explore how this approach might enhance and broaden the scope of medical education that occurs in the inpatient setting: A patient with an intra-abdominal abscess is admitted to the academic hospitalist teaching service for drainage of the fluid, hemodynamic support, and antimicrobial therapy. During the initial encounter with the hospitalist and his team of medical students and residents, the patient reports night sweats and asks if this symptom could be due to the abscess. How should the hospitalist approach this question? Copyright 2017 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights

  8. NOAA Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry Sea Level Rise Products: Global and regional sea level time series and trend maps for the major ocean basins and marginal seas, based on measurements from satellite radar altimeters, from 1992-12-17 to 2017-08-11 (NCEI Accession 0125535) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains global and regional mean sea level time series and trend maps calculated on a continual basis since December 1992 by Laboratory for...

  9. Short Lived Climate Pollutants cause a Long Lived Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise (United States)

    Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.


    Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on short lived climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study

  10. Stress-induced rise in body temperature is repeatable in free-ranging Eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus). (United States)

    Careau, Vincent; Réale, Denis; Garant, Dany; Speakman, John R; Humphries, Murray M


    In response to handling or other acute stressors, most mammals, including humans, experience a temporary rise in body temperature (T(b)). Although this stress-induced rise in T(b) has been extensively studied on model organisms under controlled environments, individual variation in this interesting phenomenon has not been examined in the field. We investigated the stress-induced rise in T(b) in free-ranging eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) to determine first if it is repeatable. We predicted that the stress-induced rise in T(b) should be positively correlated to factors affecting heat production and heat dissipation, including ambient temperature (T(a)), body mass (M(b)), and field metabolic rate (FMR). Over two summers, we recorded both T(b) within the first minute of handling time (T(b1)) and after 5 min of handling time (T(b5)) 294 times on 140 individuals. The mean ∆T(b) (T(b5) - T(b1)) during this short interval was 0.30 ± 0.02°C, confirming that the stress-induced rise in T(b) occurs in chipmunks. Consistent differences among individuals accounted for 40% of the total variation in ∆T(b) (i.e. the stress-induced rise in T(b) is significantly repeatable). We also found that the stress-induced rise in T(b) was positively correlated to T(a), M(b), and mass-adjusted FMR. These results confirm that individuals consistently differ in their expression of the stress-induced rise in T(b) and that the extent of its expression is affected by factors related to heat production and dissipation. We highlight some research constraints and opportunities related to the integration of this laboratory paradigm into physiological and evolutionary ecology.

  11. A policy hackathon for analysing impacts and solutions up to 20 metres sea-level rise (United States)

    Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Bouwer, Laurens; Kwadijk, Jaap


    We organised a policy hackathon in order to quantify the impacts accelerated and high-end sea-level rise up to 20 metres on the coast of the Netherlands, and develop possible solutions. This was done during one day, with 20 experts that had a wide variety of disciplines, including hydrology, geology, coastal engineering, economics, and public policy. During the process the problem was divided up into several sub-sets of issues that were analysed and solved within small teams of between 4 to 8 people. Both a top-down impact analysis and bottom-up vulnerability analysis was done by answering the questions: What is the impact of sea level rise of x meter?; and How much sea level rise can be accommodated with before transformative actions are needed? Next, adaptation tipping points were identified that describe conditions under which the coastal system starts to perform unacceptably. Reasons for an adaptation tipping point can be technical (technically not possible), economic (cost-benefits are negative), or resources (available space, sand, energy production, financial). The results are presented in a summary document, and through an infographic displaying different adaptation tipping points and milestones that occur when the sea level rises up to 20 m. No technical limitations were found for adaptation, but many important decisions need to be taken. Although accelerated sea level rise seems far away it can have important consequences for short-term decisions that are required for transformative actions. Such extensive actions require more time for implementation. Also, other action may become ineffective before their design life. This hackathon exercise shows that it is possible to map within a short time frame the issues at hand, as well as potentially effective solutions. This can be replicated for other problems, and can be useful for several decision-makers that require quick but in-depth analysis of their long-term planning problems.

  12. Anomalously coarse-grained siliciclastic sediments on slope of Tiburon Rise, western Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, J.F.


    One surprising result of Ocean Drilling Project Leg 110 (Lesser Antilles forearc) was the discovery of extensive, anomalously coarse-grained Eocene-Oligocene siliciclastic deposits on the slope of the Tiburon Rise. These deposits are difficult to explain in terms of (1) mode of deposition and (2) timing of deposition with respect to sea level. These sands and silts occur at 1-150-cm thick planar-laminated beds within a 200-m thick sequences of hemipelagic clay. The siliciclastic layers locally exhibit graded bedding and partial Bouma sequences. Their quartz-rich composition and the rate occurrence of microcline and glaucophane suggest derivation from South America. Although these sediments probably reached the Tiburon Rise area as turbidites, their ultimate depositional mechanism is unclear. Despite local turbiditic textures, occurrence of the sediments on the slope of the rise, 400 m above the adjacent abyssal plain, suggests they are not predominantly turbidites. One possible explanation is transportation upslope by bottom currents. An alternative possibility is that during the Paleogene the rise was not a bathymetric high and that these are simply distal turbidites. However, interbedded calcilutite turbidites and small-scale slumps derived from higher on the rise demonstrate that paleoslopes existed during deposition of the siliciclastic sediments. The relationship between timing of deposition and sea level is also problematic. Deposition of the anomalously coarse-grained sediments occurred during a period of presumed high sea level, whereas sediments deposited during the subsequent late Oligocene sea level lowstand consist of fine-grained hemipelagic sediment. Exactly the opposite transition is predicted by traditional models of deep-sea siliciclastic sedimentation.

  13. Chair rising exercise is more effective than one-leg standing exercise in improving dynamic body balance: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Yamashita, F; Iwamoto, J; Osugi, T; Yamazaki, M; Takakuwa, M


    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the effect of a one-leg standing exercise and a chair-rising exercise on body balance in patients with locomotive disorders. Thirty ambulatory patients (mean age: 66.6 years) were randomly divided into two groups (n=15 in each group): a one-leg standing exercise group and a chair-rising exercise group. All the participants performed calisthenics of the major muscles, a tandem gait exercise, and a stepping exercise. The exercises were performed 3 days per week, and the study period was 5 months. Physical function was evaluated at baseline and at one-month intervals. No significant differences in the baseline characteristics were observed between the two groups. After the 5-month exercise program, the timed up and go, one-leg standing time, and tandem gait time improved significantly in the one-leg standing exercise group, while the walking time and chair-rising time in addition to above parameters improved significantly in the chair-rising exercise group. The improvements in the walking time, chair-rising time, and tandem gait time were significantly greater in the chair-rising exercise group than in the one-leg standing exercise group. The present study showed that the chair-rising exercise was more effective than the one-leg standing exercise for improving walking velocity and dynamic body balance.

  14. Tension between reducing sea-level rise and global warming through solar-radiation management (United States)

    Irvine, P. J.; Sriver, R. L.; Keller, K.


    Geoengineering using solar-radiation management (SRM) is gaining interest as a potential strategy to reduce future climate change impacts. Basic physics and past observations suggest that reducing insolation will, on average, cool the Earth. It is uncertain, however, whether SRM can reduce climate change stressors such as sea-level rise or rates of surface air temperature change. Here we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to quantify the possible response of sea levels and surface air temperatures to projected climate forcings and SRM strategies. We find that SRM strategies introduce a potentially strong tension between the objectives to reduce (1) the rate of temperature change and (2) sea-level rise. This tension arises primarily because surface air temperatures respond faster to radiative forcings than sea levels. Our results show that the forcing required to stop sea-level rise could cause a rapid cooling with a rate similar to the peak business-as-usual warming rate. Furthermore, termination of SRM was found to produce warming rates up to five times greater than the maximum rates under the business-as-usual CO2 scenario, whereas sea-level rise rates were only 30% higher. Reducing these risks requires a slow phase-out of many decades and thus commits future generations.

  15. Capillary rise simulation of saline waters of different concentrations in sandy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthawit Jitrapinate


    Full Text Available Soil salinity causes corrosion of engineering structures worldwide. The main cause of soil salinization is capillary rise of saline groundwater. Soil salinity can be mitigated once the capillary rise of saline groundwater in soils is understood. The objective of this paper is to present experimental results of capillary rising rates of different salt concentration waters in three sandy soils. Each sample comprised of a soil column 300-mm height and 50-mm in diameter steeped in a 25-mm deep saline water pool for a time period to allow for the capillary action to develop. The salinity strength varied from fresh water, EC = 2 dS/m, to medium saline (50, 100, and 150 dS/m, and to high saline water (200 dS/m. It was found that the highest rate of capillary rise occurred in medium saline waters, while the lowest is the fresh water. The very saline water has lower rate than the medium ones but higher than fresh water.

  16. Neoliberal Dispositif and the Rise of Fundamentalism: The Case of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Ashraf Raja


    Full Text Available While developmental theorists rely heavily on analysis of macro and micro economic theories and developmental sequencing, not much attention is paid to the undeniable linkage between the post-seventies liberalization of global economies and the rise of different kinds of religious fundamentalism. This article suggests that there is a strong connection between neoliberal economics and the rise of Islamic fundamentalism. The rise of Islamic fundamentalism in Pakistan can be directly linked to the insertion of performative religious acts, predominantly Islamic, into the national public sphere during the rule of Zia-ul-Haq. Since that time, the public sphere in Pakistan has been increasingly Islamized, and the space of minorities within the public sphere has constantly diminished. Furthermore, this rise of fundamentalism is inextricably linked with the deregulation policies adopted for Pakistan. Thus, as the state fails in its redemptive functions, the private religious charities encroach upon the civic functions of the state, which enables such entities to shape and imbue the public consciousness of their beneficiaries with an exclusivist and chauvinistic view of the world. The fundamentalist Islamic ideologies, that of the Taliban for example, must posit a threatening “other” in order to mobilize support and legitimate their own view of the nation;In most of cases, minorities become an easy target for this process of othering. In case of the Taliban, the same principles of exclusion are also extended to various Muslim sects that may not conform to the purist view of religion espoused by the Taliban.

  17. The Rise in Cortisol in Family Daycare: Associations With Aspects of Care Quality, Child Behavior, and Child Sex (United States)

    Gunnar, Megan R.; Kryzer, Erin; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Phillips, Deborah A.


    We examined the increase in salivary cortisol from mid-morning to mid-afternoon in 151 children (3.0-4.5 yrs) in full-time home-based daycare. Compared to cortisol levels at home, increases were noted in the majority of children (63%) at daycare, with 40% classified as a stress response. Observations at daycare revealed that intrusive, over-controlling care was associated with the cortisol rise. For girls, the cortisol rise was associated with anxious, vigilant behavior, while for boys the rise was associated with angry, aggressive behavior. Child behavior did not mediate or moderate relations between care quality and the cortisol rise, except for evidence that boys scoring low on angry-aggressive behavior were more sensitive to variations in warm-supportive care than boys scoring high on this behavior. PMID:20573109

  18. Being Left Behind Amidst Africa’s Rising Imagery: The Maasai In The World Of Information And Communication Technologies (ICTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric E Otenyo


    Full Text Available Today the media is replete with stories about Africa rising and enjoying middle –income status. Those promoting the narrative of Africa rising include the World Bank and western –trained elites. The narrative of success assumes that prosperity trickles down to Indigenous communities, who are pictured consuming mobile phones and tablets. At the same time, Hollywood and western media outlets continue to present images of Indigenous Maasai as a cultural export to be consumed. With emphasis on social media narratives, this paper interrogates the continued marginalisation of the Maasai people amidst the myth of a rising Africa. In sum, the Africa rising myth and penetration of ICTs in rural areas masks the dispossession of Maasai means of livelihood, and therefore worsening the groups’ conditions of living.

  19. Down the Neoliberal Path: The Rise of Free Choice Feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Čakardić


    Full Text Available The free choice ideology dictates that any time a woman makes a choice it is an act of feminism. The idea that personal choice presupposes the faraway horizons of freedom and its guarantee, as well as the undoubted potentials of women’s empowerment, makes up the central position of the critique in this essay. Our text is divided into two parts. In the first part of the paper we are going to outline the basic assumptions of neoliberalism, in order to use them as foundations for the argument about its feminist affirmation. We will illustrate the relationship between neoliberalism and feminism by using the example of women's entrepreneurship, which is usually interpreted as a strategy of undeniable emancipation. In the second part of the essay, as a concrete response to ‘neoliberal feminism’, we are going to point to the progressive potential of social reproduction theory and socialist-feminist practice to be further developed out of it. Given the intention of this text is not to exhibit a detailed historical-comparative analysis of feminism, we are merely going to use concrete examples to illustrate the link between feminism and neoliberalism, and to map the shift from early second-wave feminism to identity politics and the cultural turn that swallows up the critique of political economy.   Article received: June 2, 2017; Article accepted: June 16, 2017; Published online: October 15, 2017; Original scholarly paper How to cite this article: Čakardić, Ankica. "Down the Neoliberal Path: The Rise of Free Choice Feminism." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 14 (2017: 33-44. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i14.215


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Naik


    Full Text Available The discourse over change in the world order from a unipolar to multipolar has gained major attention in the recent times. While  the United States upholds the pivotal power position in the  international system it has experienced relative economic decline in  the recent periods. The economic growth among the countries of the Global South has led to their emergence as a new power contender in the international system. The grouping of Brazil, Russia, China, India, South Africa (BRICS has firmly developed an interregional set up trying to add a new constellation in the world order. It has  emerged as a new region of their own with certain shared similarities and common objectives. The group aims to create a niche in  international system by creating supplementary intuitions. Adopting reformist attitude, the group stresses on the creation of a multipolarworld order demanding recognition to the rising powers of the twenty-first century. The countries are asserting for expansion of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC, and reforms in the international fi nancial institutions. The group has pioneered a new  discourse of the Global South on the Responsibility while Protecting  and Climate Change. However, the internal rivalries and recent slow  growth of members leads to the speculation of the group in  coordinating in its endeavour of multipolar world reality. Highlighting  the BRICS as a new set of interregional interactions among the emerging powers, the paper while discussing the achievements and  divergences of the grouping will assess its capability and efforts in creating a multipolar world ordery.

  1. Vestibulopathy and age effects on head stability during chair rise. (United States)

    McGibbon, C A; Krebs, D E; Scarborough, D M


    It is unknown how vestibular dysfunction and age differentially affect balance control during functional activities. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the effects of age and vestibulopathy on head control when rising from a chair. Head relative to trunk (head-on-trunk) sagittal plane angular and linear control strategies were studied in patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) and in healthy subjects aged 30-80 years. A two-way analysis of variance was used to compare head-on-trunk kinematics by age (young vs elderly) and diagnosis (healthy vs BVH) at the time of liftoff from the seat. Angular control strategies differed with age but not diagnosis: young (healthy and BVH) subjects stabilized head rotations in space while elderly (healthy and BVH) subjects stabilized head rotations on the trunk. In contrast, linear control strategies differed by diagnosis but not age: BVH subjects (young and old) allowed a greater rate of head-on-trunk translation while healthy subjects (young and old) inhibited such translations. Young BVH subjects stabilized head-in-space rotations (as did young healthy subjects) without a functioning vestibular system, suggesting cervicocollic reflex and/or other sensory compensation for vestibular loss. Elderly BVH subjects stabilized head rotation with respect to the trunk, as did healthy elders, but did not stabilize head-on-trunk translations, suggesting a reliance on passive mechanical responses of the neck to sense head movements. We conclude that compensation strategies used by patients with vestibulopathy are age-dependent and appear to be more tractable in the younger BVH patient.

  2. Rise to dominance of angiosperm pioneers in European Cretaceous environments. (United States)

    Coiffard, Clément; Gomez, Bernard; Daviero-Gomez, Véronique; Dilcher, David L


    The majority of environments are dominated by flowering plants today, but it is uncertain how this dominance originated. This increase in angiosperm diversity happened during the Cretaceous period (ca. 145-65 Ma) and led to replacement and often extinction of gymnosperms and ferns. We propose a scenario for the rise to dominance of the angiosperms from the Barremian (ca. 130 Ma) to the Campanian (ca. 84 Ma) based on the European megafossil plant record. These megafossil data demonstrate that angiosperms migrated into new environments in three phases: (i) Barremian (ca. 130-125 Ma) freshwater lake-related wetlands; (ii) Aptian-Albian (ca. 125-100 Ma) understory floodplains (excluding levees and back swamps); and (iii) Cenomanian-Campanian (ca. 100-84 Ma) natural levees, back swamps, and coastal swamps. This scenario allows for the measured evolution of angiosperms in time and space synthesizing changes in the physical environment with concomitant changes in the biological environment. This view of angiosperm radiation in three phases reconciles previous scenarios based on the North American record. The Cretaceous plant record that can be observed in Europe is exceptional in many ways. (i) Angiosperms are well preserved from the Barremian to the Maastrichtian (ca. 65 Ma). (ii) Deposits are well constrained and dated stratigraphically. (iii) They encompass a full range of environments. (iv) European paleobotany provides many detailed studies of Cretaceous floras for analysis. These factors make a robust dataset for the study of angiosperm evolution from the Barremian to the Campanian that can be traced through various ecosystems and related to other plant groups occupying the same niches.

  3. Oceanographic controls over sediment water content: northern Bermuda rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.; Laine, E.P.


    Cores taken from the plateaus of Northern Bermuda Rise show that the region is underlain at depths of 1-5 m by a 1-3 m thick layer of hemipelagic lutites with anomalously high water contents. The lack of visually apparent textural and lithological changes in this extremely fine grained sediment rule out these common causes for variation in water content. The water content averages 175% within this layer and 100% immediately above and below it. This is an increase of 9.5% in porosity. The high water content sediment is confined to a period between 12 and 16 ka. Current work on the mineralogy of the sediments which comprise this layer suggest two oceanographic factors that may have influenced its formation. A meltwater spike associated with deglaciation may have altered the ecological conditions above the thermocline sufficiently to promote the increased production of radiolaria, resulting in the deposition of silica enriched sediment on the sea floor. A combination of textural and perhaps chemical factors caused by the silica enrichment may have influenced the increase in water content. Intensified bottom currents at this time also may have eroded smectite rich sediments from exposures of Neogene age and deposited them on the plateaus. An increase in smectite would increase the water content due to the extremely fine grain size and the chemistry of the clay. Thus, the lateral continuity and isochroniety of this layer, combined with its mineralogical characteristics suggests that oceanographic changes can influence water content and perhaps other geotechnical properties on a regional scale.

  4. Identifying the Academic Rising Stars via Pairwise Citation Increment Ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chuxu


    Predicting the fast-rising young researchers (the Academic Rising Stars) in the future provides useful guidance to the research community, e.g., offering competitive candidates to university for young faculty hiring as they are expected to have success academic careers. In this work, given a set of young researchers who have published the first first-author paper recently, we solve the problem of how to effectively predict the top k% researchers who achieve the highest citation increment in Δt years. We explore a series of factors that can drive an author to be fast-rising and design a novel pairwise citation increment ranking (PCIR) method that leverages those factors to predict the academic rising stars. Experimental results on the large ArnetMiner dataset with over 1.7 million authors demonstrate the effectiveness of PCIR. Specifically, it outperforms all given benchmark methods, with over 8% average improvement. Further analysis demonstrates that temporal features are the best indicators for rising stars prediction, while venue features are less relevant.

  5. Recent results in fragmentation isomer spectroscopy with rising

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietri, S. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Regan, P.H. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Podolyak, Zs. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)] (and others)


    The first results from the stopped beam RISING experimental campaign performed at the GSI laboratory in Darmstadt, Germany, are presented. RISING (Rare ISotope Investigations at GSI) constitutes a major new experimental program in European nuclear structure physics research aimed at using relativistic energy (typically around 1 GeV per nucleon) projectile fragmentation reactions to populate nuclei with highly exotic proton-to-neutron ratios compared to the line of beta stability. In its high-efficiency 'stopped beam' configuration, the RISING {gamma}-ray spectrometer consists of 105 individual, large volume germanium crystals which view a focal plane in which the exotic nuclei are brought to rest (i.e. 'stopped'). Here, decays from metastable or 'isomeric' states with half-lives in the nano to milliseconds range can be observed, often providing the first spectroscopic information on these exotic nuclear species. This paper introduces the physics aims of the stopped RISING collaboration and presents some technical details on the RISING detector array. Results of initial commissioning experiments are also shown and details of the planned future experimental program are given.

  6. A new fast-rise kicker magnet system by a waveform correction method using auxiliary magnets and a three bump orbit correction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Eiji, E-mail: [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Sakai, Yuya; Sakai, Izumi [Fukui University, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Takayama, Masakazu [Akita Prefectural University, 84-4 Aza Ebinokuchi, Tsuchiya, Yurihonjo, Akita 015-0055 (Japan); Yabukami, Shin [Tohoku Gakuin University, 1-13-1 Chuo, Tagajo, Miyagi 985-8537 (Japan); Ishi, Yoshihiro; Uesugi, Tomonori [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, 2 Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Nakamura, Tsukasa [Pulse Electric Engineering Special Device Industry Co. Ltd., 201B, 5-4-19 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0882 (Japan); Nakao, Yoshiaki [Fujikura Ltd., 1-5-1 Kiba, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Inagaki, Shigeru [Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)


    A fast-rise trial has been performed using auxiliary magnets, which are excited by damped oscillation. There is a possibility to achieve faster rise-time using a simple structure than a delayed line type magnet. A favorable result was obtained by the method. The outline of this scheme and the representative experimental results are described in this paper.

  7. The Effect of Consumer Learning Behavior on the Rising Bottled Water Consumption


    Huang, Lu; Liu, Yizao


    This paper examines the impact of consumer learning behavior on the rising bottled water consumption. Consumers are assumed with initial prior beliefs about the distribution of health effect of beverages and update their beliefs using health information in a Baysian manner. We find that the health effect perception for bottled water is much higher than for sugar sweetened soft drinks, which can explain the increase in bottled water consumption over time. According to our findings, health info...

  8. Civil Rights Law at Work: Sex Discrimination and the Rise of Maternity Leave Policies


    Kelly, Erin; Dobbin, Frank


    By the time Congress passed the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, many employers had created maternity leave programs. Analysts argue that they did so in response to the feminization of the workforce. This study charts the spread of maternity leave policies between 1955 and 1985 in a sample of 279 organizations. Sex discrimination law played a key role in the rise of maternity leave policies. Building on neoinstitutional theory, this article explores how the separation of powers shapes em...

  9. Are common names becoming less common? The rise in uniqueness and individualism in Japan


    Yuji eOgihara; Hiroyo eFujita; Hitoshi eTominaga; Sho eIshigaki; Takuya eKashimoto; Ayano eTakahashi; Kyoko eToyohara; Yukiko eUchida


    We examined whether Japanese culture has become more individualistic by investigating how the practice of naming babies has changed over time. Cultural psychology has revealed substantial cultural variation in human psychology and behavior, emphasizing the mutual construction of socio-cultural environment and mind. However, much of the past research did not account for the fact that culture is changing. Indeed, archival data on behavior (e.g., divorce rates) suggest a rise in individualism in...

  10. Modelling of Air Bubble Rising in Water and Polymeric Solution (United States)

    Hassan, N. M. S.; Khan, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Subaschandar, N.


    This study investigates a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for a single air bubble rising in water and xanthan gum solution. The bubble rise characteristics through the stagnant water and 0.05% xanthan gum solution in a vertical cylindrical column is modelled using the CFD code Fluent. Single air bubble rise dispersed into the continuous liquid phase has been considered and modelled for two different bubble sizes. Bubble velocity and vorticity magnitudes were captured through a surface-tracking technique i.e. Volume of Fluid (VOF) method by solving a single set of momentum equations and tracking the volume fraction of each fluid throughout the domain. The simulated results of the bubble flow contours at two different heights of the cylindrical column were validated by the experimental results and literature data. The model developed is capable of predicting the entire flow characteristics of different sizes of bubble inside the liquid column.

  11. Slower rise of exhaled breath temperature in cystic fibrosis. (United States)

    Bade, Geetanjali; Gupta, Sumita; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Talwar, Anjana


    To measure exhaled breath temperature in patients with cystic fibrosis. 17 patients (6-18 years) with cystic fibrosis and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this cross sectional study. Exhaled breath temperature was measured in subjects recruited in both the groups with a device X-halo and analyzed as plateau temperature achieved and rate of temperature rise. Patients with cystic fibrosis showed no significant difference in plateau temperature [34.4(32.3-34.6) versus 33.9 (33.0-34.4)oC; P=0.35] while mean (SEM.) rate of temperature rise was significantly less in patients [0.09 (0.01) versus 0.14 (0.02) ƼC/s ; P=0.04] as compared to controls. There was a slower rise of exhaled breath temperature in patients with cystic fibrosis whereas plateau temperature was not significantly different from controls.

  12. Life Satisfaction of Downtown High-Rise vs. Suburban Low-Rise Living: A Chicago Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Du


    Full Text Available There has been a long-standing debate about whether urban living is more or less sustainable than suburban living, and quality of life (QoL is one of several key measures of the social sustainability of residential living. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has examined life satisfaction among residents of downtown high-rise living compared to residents living in suburban low-rise housing. Further, very few studies have utilized building or neighborhood-scale data sets to evaluate residents’ life satisfaction, and even fewer have controlled for both individual and household-level variables such as gender, age, household size, annual income, and length of residence, to evaluate residents’ life satisfaction across different living scenarios. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate residents’ satisfaction with their place of residence as well as overall life in general via surveys of individuals living in existing high-rise residential buildings in downtown Chicago, IL, and in existing low-rise residential buildings in suburban Oak Park, IL. Over 1500 individuals were contacted directly, resulting in over 500 responses. The number of fully completed responses for this study was 177, including 94 from residents of four downtown high-rise buildings and 83 from residents in suburban low-rise homes. Residents living in downtown high-rise buildings had significantly higher life satisfaction scores than residents living in suburban low-rise homes when controlling for demographic differences; however, the differences were small, as housing type explained less than 5% of the observed variance in life satisfaction outcomes. The research also evaluated five life satisfaction domains including travel, accessibility, social interaction, safety, and overall residential environment (ORE. In all cases, residents of the downtown high-rises reported higher satisfaction levels, although the scores on all these five satisfaction domains

  13. Infrastructure of Bulgarian High-Rise Estates: Realities and Hopes


    Kalcheva, Elena; Taki, A. H.; Hadi, Yuri


    This chapter studies the quality and characteristics of the infrastructure in several high-rise estates in Sofia, Bulgaria and evaluates to which extend it serves the residents in the tall buildings. Most of the highrises in Sofia and their surroundings were built in the Soviet era so they represent a very old design concept and this is why it is no surprise that the quality of the public realm and the buildings is quite substandard. The spaces around the high-rises lack pub...

  14. The Dark Knight Rises: Kita Butuh Simbol untuk Menggerakkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danu Widhyatmoko


    Full Text Available The dark knight rises: We Need Symbols to Make Movements is a writing that covers values existing in the last movie of Batman trilogy: The Dark Knight Rises (TDKR. In the film, it is described how batman is not only presented as a hero who saved the town, but also is presented as a symbol that keeps hope of the Gotham city society. Through this writing, it is also discussed the relation between TDKR and the recent condition of Indonesia.   

  15. Coastal flooding by tropical cyclones and sea-level rise. (United States)

    Woodruff, Jonathan D; Irish, Jennifer L; Camargo, Suzana J


    The future impacts of climate change on landfalling tropical cyclones are unclear. Regardless of this uncertainty, flooding by tropical cyclones will increase as a result of accelerated sea-level rise. Under similar rates of rapid sea-level rise during the early Holocene epoch most low-lying sedimentary coastlines were generally much less resilient to storm impacts. Society must learn to live with a rapidly evolving shoreline that is increasingly prone to flooding from tropical cyclones. These impacts can be mitigated partly with adaptive strategies, which include careful stewardship of sediments and reductions in human-induced land subsidence.

  16. Structural response of steel high rise buildings to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco


    Due to the significant vertical elevation and complexity of the structural system, high rise buildings may suffer from the effects of fire more than other structures. For this reason, in addition to evacuation strategies and active fire protection, a careful consideration of structural response...... to fire is also very important. In this context, it is of interest to investigate the characteristics of the structural system that could possibly reduce local damages or mitigate the progression of failures in case of fire. In this paper, a steel high rise building is taken as case study and the response...

  17. Envelope parameters, their effect on high-rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, M.J.


    Makeup of the exterior envelope of a high-rise building - walls, insulation, glass, mass - greatly affects both peak and total structure energy usages. The influence of a well-designed building envelope on energy conservation is considered and the effects of envelope parameters on high-rise building energy use and costs are addressed. A general guideline for the building design team is given. By knowing the ramifications of certain design decisions, a design team can effectively plan a useful and energy-efficient building.

  18. The importance of plume rise on the concentrations and atmospheric impacts of biomass burning aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Walter


    Full Text Available We quantified the effects of the plume rise of biomass burning aerosol and gases for the forest fires that occurred in Saskatchewan, Canada, in July 2010. For this purpose, simulations with different assumptions regarding the plume rise and the vertical distribution of the emissions were conducted. Based on comparisons with observations, applying a one-dimensional plume rise model to predict the injection layer in combination with a parametrization of the vertical distribution of the emissions outperforms approaches in which the plume heights are initially predefined. Approximately 30 % of the fires exceed the height of 2 km with a maximum height of 8.6 km. Using this plume rise model, comparisons with satellite images in the visible spectral range show a very good agreement between the simulated and observed spatial distributions of the biomass burning plume. The simulated aerosol optical depth (AOD with data of an AERONET station is in good agreement with respect to the absolute values and the timing of the maximum. Comparison of the vertical distribution of the biomass burning aerosol with CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation retrievals also showed the best agreement when the plume rise model was applied. We found that downwelling surface short-wave radiation below the forest fire plume is reduced by up to 50 % and that the 2 m temperature is decreased by up to 6 K. In addition, we simulated a strong change in atmospheric stability within the biomass burning plume.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusakova Elena Aleksandrovna


    cycle of high-rise buildings, which, unlike the systems being currently used, is not targeted at the company or production but on the project. The topicality of organizational reengineering of schemes of information interaction between the project’s participants is substantiated. It is shown that consolidation of methods and technologies for data management and project management should become the basis for strategic management of the project’s full life cycle. Conclusions: analysis of the accumulated experience in the development of unique and large-scale projects of high-rise buildings shows that managing the life cycle of the high-rise development project is a topical and unsolved problem that requires serious scientific and project research. The existing concepts and schemes for the project’s life cycle management and the interaction between all participants of the high-rise construction project should be substantially modernized taking into account the use of capabilities of digital modeling of the project (BIM - Building Information Modeling together with technologies for support of its life cycle (Continuous Acquisition and Life Cycle Support. At the same time, the development of an integrated information environment for the project’s life cycle should be based on the integration of data management and project management, which will ensure a multiple increase in the efficiency and competitiveness of a high-rise building project at all stages of its life cycle.

  20. Evolution of energy in flow driven by rising bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzitelli, I.; Lohse, Detlef


    We investigate by direct numerical simulations the flow that rising bubbles cause in an originally quiescent fluid. We employ the Eulerian-Lagrangian method with two-way coupling and periodic boundary conditions. In order to be able to treat up to 288000 bubbles, the following approximations and

  1. Managing Problems of Acceptability through High Rise-Fall Repetitions (United States)

    Benjamin, Trevor; Walker, Traci


    This article examines one of the ways in which matters of truth, appropriateness, and acceptability are raised and managed within the course of everyday conversation. Using the methodology of conversation analysis, we show that by repeating what another participant has said and doing so with a high rise-fall intonation contour, a speaker claims…

  2. The Rise and Fall of the Australian DBA (United States)

    Kortt, Michael A.; Pervan, Simon J; Hogan, Owen


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the drivers behind the rise and fall of the Australian Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) and to assess its future. Design/methodology/approach: Data covering the period 1993-2013 was sourced from the Commonwealth Department of Education and Training to provide a comprehensive…

  3. Rising Sludge in Secondary Settlers Due to Denitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Dupont, Rene; Grau, Peter


    High suspended solids concentrations in settler effluents can be caused by rising sludge, which is the effect of flotation of solids by nitrogen gas resulting from biological denitrification. Many factors influence the nitrogen gas bubble evolution. The most important factor is the rate of biolog...

  4. The Resistable Rise of Surgical Sepsis in Malawi | Lavy | Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Resistable Rise of Surgical Sepsis in Malawi. C Lavy, C Schmidt, E Kalau, J Phuka. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  5. The Hemispheric Sign Rule of Current Helicity during the Rising ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We compute the signs of two different current helicity parameters (i.e., best and ) for 87 active regions during the rise of cycle 23. The results indicate that 59% of the active regions in the northern hemisphere have negative best and 65% in the southern hemisphere have positive. This is consistent with that of the cycle ...

  6. Rising trend in maternal mortality at the university of Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was 1074/100,000 live births. The main causes of maternal mortality were eclampsia in 34.6% of cases, haemorrhage (9.1%), HIV(17.8%) and puerperal infections (7.5%). There was rising trend in maternal mortality ratio over the study period. Factors contributing to maternal ...

  7. John Ash and the Rise of the Children's Grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navest, Karlijn Marianne


    From the second half of the eighteenth century onwards a knowledge of grammar served as an important marker of class in England. In order to enable their children to rise in society, middle-class parents expected their sons and daughters to learn English grammar. Since England did not have an

  8. Morphology of Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau from high resolution bathymetry (United States)

    Zhang, Jinchang; Sager, William W.; Durkin, William J.


    Newly collected, high resolution multi-beam sonar data are combined with previous bathymetry data to produce an improved bathymetric map of Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau. Bathymetry data show that two massifs within Shatsky Rise are immense central volcanoes with gentle flank slopes declining from a central summit. Tamu Massif is a slightly elongated, dome-like volcanic edifice; Ori Massif is square shaped and smaller in area. Several down-to-basin normal faults are observed on the western flank of the massifs but they do not parallel the magnetic lineations, indicating that these faults are probably not related to spreading ridge faulting. Moreover, the faults are observed only on one side of the massifs, which is contrary to expectations from a mechanism of differential subsidence around the massif center. Multi-beam data show many small secondary cones with different shapes and sizes that are widely-distributed on Shatsky Rise massifs, which imply small late-stage magma sources scattered across the surface of the volcanoes in the form of lava flows or explosive volcanism. Erosional channels occur on the flanks of Shatsky Rise volcanoes due to mass wasting and display evidence of down-slope sediment movement. These channels are likely formed by sediments spalling off the edges of summit sediment cap.

  9. Does Electroconvulsive therapy aggravate the rise in potassium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Potassium and creatine kinase levels increase after the administration of suxamethonium. This rise may be exaggerated by the combination of suxamethonium fasciculation and the modified tonic/clonic convulsion induced by electroconvulsive therapy. This study compared the magnitude of increase in ...

  10. Opioid-Linked Hospitalizations Rising Fastest for Women: Study (United States)

    ... page: Opioid-Linked Hospitalizations Rising Fastest for Women: Study U.S. ... 21, 2017 WEDNESDAY, June 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Opioid-related hospitalizations among women in the United States ...

  11. Rising pattern of breast cancer in young women | Adeniji | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To study the rising pattern of breast cancer in young women. Design: Retrospective study of cases of breast cancer from histopathological diagnosis. Setting: Department of Pathology, Ilorin Teaching Hospital Subjects: Breast cancer tissues sent to histopathology department for diagnosis Interventions: Tissue ...

  12. Rising energy prices and the economics of water in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zilberman, D.; Sproul, T.; Rajagopal, D.; Sexton, S.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.


    Rising energy prices will alter water allocation and distribution. Water extraction and conveyance will become more costly and demand for hydroelectric power will grow. The higher cost of energy will substantially increase the cost of groundwater, whereas increasing demand for hydroelectric power

  13. Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) for High Rise Construction: Case Studies (United States)

    Gharehbaghi, Koorosh; Chenery, Rhea


    Due to its material element, Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) could be stronger than traditional Concrete. This is due to FRC internal material compounds and elements. Furthermore, FRC can also significantly improve flexural strength when compared to traditional Concrete. This improvement in flexural strength can be varied depending on the actual fibers used. Although not new, FRC is gradually gaining popularity in the construction industry, in particular for high rise structures. This is due to its flexural strength, especially for high seismic zones, as it will provide a better solution then reinforced Concrete. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the structural importance of FRC for the high rise construction. Although there has been numerous studies and literature in justifying the FRC for general construction; this paper will consider its use specifically for high rise construction. Moreover, this paper will closely investigate eight case studies from Australian and United States as a part of the FRC validation for high rise construction. In doing so, this paper will examine their Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) to determine their overall structural performance.

  14. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu


    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  15. Thomas Hunt Morgan and the Rise of Genetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 11. Thomas Hunt Morgan and the Rise of Genetics. Amitabh Joshi. Article-in-a-Box Volume 8 ... Author Affiliations. Amitabh Joshi1. Animal Behaviour Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560 064. India.

  16. Effects of rising food prices on household food security on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 13, 2015 ... Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effects of rising food prices on people's perceptions and coping strategies regarding ... years. The village has 250 households, but of these, only 60 are femaleheaded. Therefore, the sample size was 60 households. The response rate was 100%.

  17. Cuchulain in the General Post Office : Gaelic revival, Irish rising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerssen, J.


    This article looks at the importance of the Gaelic language for the development of Irish nationalism in the decades leading up to, and following the Easter Rising of 1916. This importance was mainly symbolical: the Irish language was used mainly by revivalist activists, in a restricted number of

  18. Maud Rise - a snapshot through the water column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, A.; Bathmann, U.; Brix, S.; Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P.; Franeker, van J.A.


    The benthic fauna was investigated during the expedition ANT-XXIV/2 (2007/08) in relation to oceanographic features, biogeochemical properties and sediment characteristics, as well as the pelagic, benthic pelagic and air-breathing fauna. The results document that Maud Rise (MR) differs distinctly

  19. The support systems of unique high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumeyko Victor


    Full Text Available Tall buildings and skyscrapers perceive significant vertical loads and, moreover, have to resist large lateral effects which form strong gusts of wind and seismic events. In the world for the high-rise buildings with the nuclei of the stiffness are using streamers – outriggers, which connect the external column and the core form the support system and resist lateral loads. High-rise buildings construction grows promptly around the world and causes new problems which shall be solved on the basis of the modern constructive opportunities, by means of exact engineering assessment. Systems of outrigers and belts are very important in the modern engineering, because they provide effective control over side shifts of a building. They play an important role in high-rise unique buildings constructions, being a link between the central kernel and outer columns. The article deals with the design scheme of conventional conveyor of belts and outriggers – bandages, explores their applications, advantages and disadvantages of various options, problems with their design. Presented material enables the design of unique high-rise buildings to choose the most optimal design solution.

  20. Effects of rising food prices on household food security on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rising food prices can have a devastating effect on the health of poor households by making it more difficult for them to afford basic food baskets. Although South Africa is food secure as a nation, it does not mean that every household is able to access nutritionally adequate food. Objective: The objective of the ...

  1. The Rise and Fall of the United States Film Service. (United States)

    Couch, Richard; Hunt, Thomas


    Discusses the rise of the United States Film Service through the auspices of government relief organizations as part of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, the films which were produced by Pare Lorentz, and its demise brought about financial and political conflicts. (Author/AEF)

  2. The Rise of Asia and strategic questions for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, G.; Roborgh, S.; Sweijs, T.


    The rise of Asia will shape the global landscape of the 21st century and have profound implications for the way Europeans live and do business. Against the background of changes in the global balance of power, demographic shifts, and growing resource scarcity, Asia´s advance will challenge Western

  3. Rising South Korea : A Minor Player or a Regional Power?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, David; Flamm, Patrick


    South Korea's rising status in regional and global affairs has received significant attention in recent years. In academic, media, and policy debates, though, South Korea is usually regarded as a mere middle power that, due to its geopolitical situation, has only limited leeway in its foreign policy

  4. Implications of Rising Sea Level on Everglades Restoration (United States)

    Wanless, H. R.


    The strong likelihood of a significant rise in sea level during this century must be incorporated into the design of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) and its execution. With a warming Arctic and increased wind shear in the waters adjacent to Antarctica, accelerated ice melt of both Greenland and Antarctica has begun. With positive feedbacks, this melt appears irreversible on the century scale. Scientists of the Miami-Dade County Climate Change Task Force project that a global rise of sea level of at least 0.9-1.5 meters (3-5 feet) will occur by the end of the century. This anticipated rise will diminish the value of CERP unless (a) the design thoroughly incorporates a realistic sea level rise scenario and (b) there is a refocus of CERP's design to optimize water flow for wetland-community peat growth with the purpose of retarding saline encroachment. The goals of Everglades restoration must become (1) to provide an increase in water flowing at a gradually increasing elevation to permit rapid accumulation of robust organic peat beneath the freshwater wetland and (2) to actively manage the coastal mangrove wetland (e.g., aid hurricane recovery) to help it maintain a robust upwards-building peat margin. If this is done, the central and northern Everglades may survive as a healthy wetland habitat and provide fresh groundwater resources well into the next century. Actively building freshwater and mangrove peat and a dependable supply of freshwater are both critical to retarding saline encroachment up the Everglades depression. Without these, a 1.5 meter rise in sea level could move saline water nearly to Lake Okeechobee. Critical research questions and changes in management need to be addressed for this to succeed. The communities and conditions for optimal freshwater peat buildup must be documented and demonstrated. New management strategies must be designed and maintained to encourage rapid recovery of mangrove forests destroyed by hurricanes

  5. The rise of algae in Cryogenian oceans and the emergence of animals. (United States)

    Brocks, Jochen J; Jarrett, Amber J M; Sirantoine, Eva; Hallmann, Christian; Hoshino, Yosuke; Liyanage, Tharika


    The transition from dominant bacterial to eukaryotic marine primary productivity was one of the most profound ecological revolutions in the Earth's history, reorganizing the distribution of carbon and nutrients in the water column and increasing energy flow to higher trophic levels. But the causes and geological timing of this transition, as well as possible links with rising atmospheric oxygen levels and the evolution of animals, remain obscure. Here we present a molecular fossil record of eukaryotic steroids demonstrating that bacteria were the only notable primary producers in the oceans before the Cryogenian period (720-635 million years ago). Increasing steroid diversity and abundance marks the rapid rise of marine planktonic algae (Archaeplastida) in the narrow time interval between the Sturtian and Marinoan 'snowball Earth' glaciations, 659-645 million years ago. We propose that the incumbency of cyanobacteria was broken by a surge of nutrients supplied by the Sturtian deglaciation. The 'Rise of Algae' created food webs with more efficient nutrient and energy transfers, driving ecosystems towards larger and increasingly complex organisms. This effect is recorded by the concomitant appearance of biomarkers for sponges and predatory rhizarians, and the subsequent radiation of eumetazoans in the Ediacaran period.

  6. The rise of algae in Cryogenian oceans and the emergence of animals (United States)

    Brocks, Jochen J.; Jarrett, Amber J. M.; Sirantoine, Eva; Hallmann, Christian; Hoshino, Yosuke; Liyanage, Tharika


    The transition from dominant bacterial to eukaryotic marine primary productivity was one of the most profound ecological revolutions in the Earth’s history, reorganizing the distribution of carbon and nutrients in the water column and increasing energy flow to higher trophic levels. But the causes and geological timing of this transition, as well as possible links with rising atmospheric oxygen levels and the evolution of animals, remain obscure. Here we present a molecular fossil record of eukaryotic steroids demonstrating that bacteria were the only notable primary producers in the oceans before the Cryogenian period (720-635 million years ago). Increasing steroid diversity and abundance marks the rapid rise of marine planktonic algae (Archaeplastida) in the narrow time interval between the Sturtian and Marinoan ‘snowball Earth’ glaciations, 659-645 million years ago. We propose that the incumbency of cyanobacteria was broken by a surge of nutrients supplied by the Sturtian deglaciation. The ‘Rise of Algae’ created food webs with more efficient nutrient and energy transfers, driving ecosystems towards larger and increasingly complex organisms. This effect is recorded by the concomitant appearance of biomarkers for sponges and predatory rhizarians, and the subsequent radiation of eumetazoans in the Ediacaran period.

  7. Accidents Preventive Practice for High-Rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Kai Chen


    Full Text Available The demand of high-rise projects continues to grow due to the reducing of usable land area in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The rapidly development of high-rise projects has leaded to the rise of fatalities and accidents. An accident that happened in a construction site can cause serious physical injury. The accidents such as people falling from height and struck by falling object were the most frequent accidents happened in Malaysian construction industry. The continuous growth of high-rise buildings indicates that there is a need of an effective safety and health management. Hence, this research aims to identify the causes of accidents and the ways to prevent accidents that occur at high-rise building construction site. Qualitative method was employed in this research. Interview surveying with safety officers who are involved in highrise building project in Kuala Lumpur were conducted in this research. Accidents were caused by man-made factors, environment factors or machinery factors. The accidents prevention methods were provide sufficient Personal Protective Equipment (PPE, have a good housekeeping, execute safety inspection, provide safety training and execute accidents investigation. In the meanwhile, interviewees have suggested the new prevention methods that were develop a proper site layout planning and de-merit and merit system among sub-contractors, suppliers and even employees regarding safety at workplace matters. This research helps in explaining the causes of accidents and identifying area where prevention action should be implemented, so that workers and top management will increase awareness in preventing site accidents.

  8. A decade of sea level rise slowed by climate-driven hydrology. (United States)

    Reager, J T; Gardner, A S; Famiglietti, J S; Wiese, D N; Eicker, A; Lo, M-H


    Climate-driven changes in land water storage and their contributions to sea level rise have been absent from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change sea level budgets owing to observational challenges. Recent advances in satellite measurement of time-variable gravity combined with reconciled global glacier loss estimates enable a disaggregation of continental land mass changes and a quantification of this term. We found that between 2002 and 2014, climate variability resulted in an additional 3200 ± 900 gigatons of water being stored on land. This gain partially offset water losses from ice sheets, glaciers, and groundwater pumping, slowing the rate of sea level rise by 0.71 ± 0.20 millimeters per year. These findings highlight the importance of climate-driven changes in hydrology when assigning attribution to decadal changes in sea level. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Open and closed shear-walls in high-rise structural systems: Static and dynamic analysis (United States)

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Lacidogna, Giuseppe; Nitti, Giuseppe


    In the present paper, a General Algorithm is applied to the analysis of high-rise structures. This algorithm is to be used as a calculation tool in preliminary design; it allows to define the interaction between closed and open, straight or curved shear-walls, and the forces exchanged in structures subject to mainly horizontal loads. The analysis can be performed in both static and dynamic regimes, the mode shapes and the natural frequencies being assessed. This general formulation allows analyses of high-rise structures by taking into account the torsional rigidity and the warping deformations of the elements composing the building without gross simplifications. In thisway it is possible to model the structure as a single equivalent cantilever, thus minimising the degrees of freedom of the system, and consequently the calculation time. Finally, potentials of the method proposed are demonstrated by a numerical example which emphasizes the link between global displacements and stresses in the elements composing the structure.

  10. Breakdown in helium in high-voltage open discharge with subnanosecond current front rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweigert, I. V., E-mail:; Alexandrov, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Bokhan, P. A.; Zakrevskiy, Dm. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductors Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)


    Investigations of high-voltage open discharge in helium have shown a possibility of generation of current pulses with subnanosecond front rise, due to ultra-fast breakdown development. The open discharge is ignited between two planar cathodes with mesh anode in the middle between them. For gas pressure 6 Torr and 20 kV applied voltage, the rate of current rise reaches 500 A/(cm{sup 2} ns) for current density 200 A/cm{sup 2} and more. The time of breakdown development was measured for different helium pressures and a kinetic model of breakdown in open discharge is presented, based on elementary reactions for electrons, ions and fast atoms. The model also includes various cathode emission processes due to cathode bombardment by ions, fast atoms, electrons and photons of resonant radiation with Doppler shift of frequency. It is shown, that the dominating emission processes depend on the evolution of the discharge voltage during the breakdown. In the simulations, two cases of voltage behavior were considered: (i) the voltage is kept constant during the breakdown; (ii) the voltage is reduced with the growth of current. For the first case, the exponentially growing current is maintained due to photoemission by the resonant photons with Doppler-shifted frequency. For the second case, the dominating factor of current growth is the secondary electron emission. In both cases, the subnanosecond rise of discharge current was obtained. Also the effect of gas pressure on breakdown development was considered. It was found that for 20 Torr gas pressure the time of current rise decreases to 0.1 ns, which is in agreement with experimental data.

  11. Rising tides or rising stars?: Dynamics of shared attention on Twitter during media events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ru Lin

    Full Text Available "Media events" generate conditions of shared attention as many users simultaneously tune in with the dual screens of broadcast and social media to view and participate. We examine how collective patterns of user behavior under conditions of shared attention are distinct from other "bursts" of activity like breaking news events. Using 290 million tweets from a panel of 193,532 politically active Twitter users, we compare features of their behavior during eight major events during the 2012 U.S. presidential election to examine how patterns of social media use change during these media events compared to "typical" time and whether these changes are attributable to shifts in the behavior of the population as a whole or shifts from particular segments such as elites. Compared to baseline time periods, our findings reveal that media events not only generate large volumes of tweets, but they are also associated with (1 substantial declines in interpersonal communication, (2 more highly concentrated attention by replying to and retweeting particular users, and (3 elite users predominantly benefiting from this attention. These findings empirically demonstrate how bursts of activity on Twitter during media events significantly alter underlying social processes of interpersonal communication and social interaction. Because the behavior of large populations within socio-technical systems can change so dramatically, our findings suggest the need for further research about how social media responses to media events can be used to support collective sensemaking, to promote informed deliberation, and to remain resilient in the face of misinformation.

  12. Rising tides or rising stars?: Dynamics of shared attention on Twitter during media events. (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Keegan, Brian; Margolin, Drew; Lazer, David


    "Media events" generate conditions of shared attention as many users simultaneously tune in with the dual screens of broadcast and social media to view and participate. We examine how collective patterns of user behavior under conditions of shared attention are distinct from other "bursts" of activity like breaking news events. Using 290 million tweets from a panel of 193,532 politically active Twitter users, we compare features of their behavior during eight major events during the 2012 U.S. presidential election to examine how patterns of social media use change during these media events compared to "typical" time and whether these changes are attributable to shifts in the behavior of the population as a whole or shifts from particular segments such as elites. Compared to baseline time periods, our findings reveal that media events not only generate large volumes of tweets, but they are also associated with (1) substantial declines in interpersonal communication, (2) more highly concentrated attention by replying to and retweeting particular users, and (3) elite users predominantly benefiting from this attention. These findings empirically demonstrate how bursts of activity on Twitter during media events significantly alter underlying social processes of interpersonal communication and social interaction. Because the behavior of large populations within socio-technical systems can change so dramatically, our findings suggest the need for further research about how social media responses to media events can be used to support collective sensemaking, to promote informed deliberation, and to remain resilient in the face of misinformation.

  13. Evidence for a substantial West Antarctic ice sheet contribution to meltwater pulses and abrupt global sea level rise (United States)

    Fogwill, C. J.; Turney, C. S.; Golledge, N. R.; Etheridge, D. M.; Rubino, M.; Thornton, D.; Woodward, J.; Winter, K.; van Ommen, T. D.; Moy, A. D.; Curran, M. A.; Rootes, C.; Rivera, A.; Millman, H.


    During the last deglaciation (21,000 to 7,000years ago) global sea level rise was punctuated by several abrupt meltwater spikes triggered by the retreat of ice sheets and glaciers world-wide. However, the debate regarding the relative timing, geographical source and the physical mechanisms driving these rapid increases in sea level has catalyzed debate critical to predicting future sea level rise and climate. Here we present a unique record of West Antarctic Ice Sheet elevation change derived from the Patriot Hills blue ice area, located close to the modern day grounding line of the Institute Ice Stream in the Weddell Sea Embayment. Combined isotopic signatures and gas volume analysis from the ice allows us to develop a record of local ice sheet palaeo-altitude that is assessed against independent regional high-resolution ice sheet modeling studies, allowing us to demonstrate that past ice sheet elevations across this sector of the WSE were considerably higher than those suggested by current terrestrial reconstructions. We argue that ice in the WSE had a significant influence on both pre and post LGM sea level rise including MWP-1A (~14.6 ka) and during MWP-1B (11.7-11.6 ka), reconciling past sea level rise and demonstrating for the first time that this sector of the WAIS made a significant and direct contribution to post LGM sea level rise.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. A. Hamid


    Full Text Available Sea level rise becomes our concern nowadays as a result of variously contribution of climate change that cause by the anthropogenic effects. Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. Due to this change, sea level is now constantly rising and eventually will threaten many low-lying and unprotected coastal areas in many ways. This paper is proposing a significant effort to quantify the sea level trend over Malaysian seas based on the combination of multi-mission satellite altimeters over a period of 23 years. Eight altimeter missions are used to derive the absolute sea level from Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS. Data verification is then carried out to verify the satellite derived sea level rise data with tidal data. Eight selected tide gauge stations from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are chosen for this data verification. The pattern and correlation of both measurements of sea level anomalies (SLA are evaluated over the same period in each area in order to produce comparable results. Afterwards, the time series of the sea level trend is quantified using robust fit regression analysis. The findings clearly show that the absolute sea level trend is rising and varying over the Malaysian seas with the rate of sea level varies and gradually increase from east to west of Malaysia. Highly confident and correlation level of the 23 years measurement data with an astonishing root mean square difference permits the absolute sea level trend of the Malaysian seas has raised at the rate 3.14 ± 0.12 mm yr-1 to 4.81 ± 0.15 mm yr-1 for the chosen sub-areas, with an overall mean of 4.09 ± 0.12 mm yr-1. This study hopefully offers a beneficial sea level information to be applied in a wide range of related environmental and climatology issue such as flood and global warming.

  15. Acceleration of Sea Level Rise Over Malaysian Seas from Satellite Altimeter (United States)

    Hamid, A. I. A.; Din, A. H. M.; Khalid, N. F.; Omar, K. M.


    Sea level rise becomes our concern nowadays as a result of variously contribution of climate change that cause by the anthropogenic effects. Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. Due to this change, sea level is now constantly rising and eventually will threaten many low-lying and unprotected coastal areas in many ways. This paper is proposing a significant effort to quantify the sea level trend over Malaysian seas based on the combination of multi-mission satellite altimeters over a period of 23 years. Eight altimeter missions are used to derive the absolute sea level from Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS). Data verification is then carried out to verify the satellite derived sea level rise data with tidal data. Eight selected tide gauge stations from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are chosen for this data verification. The pattern and correlation of both measurements of sea level anomalies (SLA) are evaluated over the same period in each area in order to produce comparable results. Afterwards, the time series of the sea level trend is quantified using robust fit regression analysis. The findings clearly show that the absolute sea level trend is rising and varying over the Malaysian seas with the rate of sea level varies and gradually increase from east to west of Malaysia. Highly confident and correlation level of the 23 years measurement data with an astonishing root mean square difference permits the absolute sea level trend of the Malaysian seas has raised at the rate 3.14 ± 0.12 mm yr-1 to 4.81 ± 0.15 mm yr-1 for the chosen sub-areas, with an overall mean of 4.09 ± 0.12 mm yr-1. This study hopefully offers a beneficial sea level information to be applied in a wide range of related environmental and climatology issue such as flood and global warming.

  16. Living benthic foraminifera of the Hess Rise and Suiko Seamount, central North Pacific (United States)

    Ohkushi, Ken'ichi; Natori, Hiro'o.


    Rose-Bengal-stained benthic foraminifera in six pilot-core samples and one multicore sample collected from the Hess Rise and Suiko Seamount in August 1994 were studied in order to understand foraminiferal distributions between two areas divided by an oceanic front in the central North Pacific. Samples from the Hess Rise were collected in depths of 2167-3354 m under the warm, saline Kuroshio Extension, while samples from Suiko Seamount came from depths of 1811-1955 m under the cold, less-saline subarctic current. Sediment-trap results for the year prior to our sediment sampling show that organic matter fluxes were about 2.5 times greater at Suiko Seamount than at the Hess Rise. However, the hydrographic structure between 1800 and 3400 m, based on CTD observations, is almost the same at both sites. Temperature decreases from 2.2 to 1.7°C over the depth range of 1800-3400 m, salinity increases from 34.5 to 34.7, and the dissolved oxygen content gradually increases from 1.5 to 3.0 ml l -1. The faunal populations at the Hess Rise are quite different from those at Suiko Seamount. The abundant species at the Hess Rise are Epistominella exigua, Brizalina pacifica, Fursenkoina cedrosensis and Alabaminella weddellensis. These species characteristically inhabit phytodetrital aggregates deposited on an oligotrophic seafloor. The populations at Suiko Seamount are dominated by Triloculina frigida, Lagenammina cf. arenulata, Reophax subfusiformis, and Reophax scorpiurus. The reason for differences between these populations is unclear. However, the typical phytodetritus-dwelling species E. exigua is dominant at the Hess Rise, which is located in a subtropical area that has a pulsed supply of settling organic matter in the spring. On the other hand, E. exigua is rare at Suiko Seamount, a subarctic site where there are more stable and greater fluxes of organic matter in summer and autumn. Occurrences of this species may be related to the seasonally short supply of organic matter

  17. Space-based Observational Constraints for 1-D Plume Rise Models (United States)

    Martin, Maria Val; Kahn, Ralph A.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Paguam, Ronan; Wooster, Martin; Ichoku, Charles


    We use a space-based plume height climatology derived from observations made by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard the NASA Terra satellite to evaluate the ability of a plume-rise model currently embedded in several atmospheric chemical transport models (CTMs) to produce accurate smoke injection heights. We initialize the plume-rise model with assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System and estimated fuel moisture content at the location and time of the MISR measurements. Fire properties that drive the plume-rise model are difficult to estimate and we test the model with four estimates for active fire area and four for total heat flux, obtained using empirical data and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) re radiative power (FRP) thermal anomalies available for each MISR plume. We show that the model is not able to reproduce the plume heights observed by MISR over the range of conditions studied (maximum r2 obtained in all configurations is 0.3). The model also fails to determine which plumes are in the free troposphere (according to MISR), key information needed for atmospheric models to simulate properly smoke dispersion. We conclude that embedding a plume-rise model using currently available re constraints in large-scale atmospheric studies remains a difficult proposition. However, we demonstrate the degree to which the fire dynamical heat flux (related to active fire area and sensible heat flux), and atmospheric stability structure influence plume rise, although other factors less well constrained (e.g., entrainment) may also be significant. Using atmospheric stability conditions, MODIS FRP, and MISR plume heights, we offer some constraints on the main physical factors that drive smoke plume rise. We find that smoke plumes reaching high altitudes are characterized by higher FRP and weaker atmospheric stability conditions than those at low altitude, which tend to remain confined

  18. Implications of sea-level rise in a modern carbonate ramp setting (United States)

    Lokier, Stephen W.; Court, Wesley M.; Onuma, Takumi; Paul, Andreas


    This study addresses a gap in our understanding of the effects of sea-level rise on the sedimentary systems and morphological development of recent and ancient carbonate ramp settings. Many ancient carbonate sequences are interpreted as having been deposited in carbonate ramp settings. These settings are poorly-represented in the Recent. The study documents the present-day transgressive flooding of the Abu Dhabi coastline at the southern shoreline of the Arabian/Persian Gulf, a carbonate ramp depositional system that is widely employed as a Recent analogue for numerous ancient carbonate systems. Fourteen years of field-based observations are integrated with historical and recent high-resolution satellite imagery in order to document and assess the onset of flooding. Predicted rates of transgression (i.e. landward movement of the shoreline) of 2.5 m yr- 1 (± 0.2 m yr- 1) based on global sea-level rise alone were far exceeded by the flooding rate calculated from the back-stepping of coastal features (10-29 m yr- 1). This discrepancy results from the dynamic nature of the flooding with increased water depth exposing the coastline to increased erosion and, thereby, enhancing back-stepping. A non-accretionary transgressive shoreline trajectory results from relatively rapid sea-level rise coupled with a low-angle ramp geometry and a paucity of sediments. The flooding is represented by the landward migration of facies belts, a range of erosive features and the onset of bioturbation. Employing Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Church et al., 2013) predictions for 21st century sea-level rise, and allowing for the post-flooding lag time that is typical for the start-up of carbonate factories, it is calculated that the coastline will continue to retrograde for the foreseeable future. Total passive flooding (without considering feedback in the modification of the shoreline) by the year 2100 is calculated to likely be between 340 and 571 m with a flooding rate of 3

  19. China's rise as a major contributor to science and technology. (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhang, Chunni; Lai, Qing


    In the past three decades, China has become a major contributor to science and technology. China now employs an increasingly large labor force of scientists and engineers at relatively high earnings and produces more science and engineering degrees than the United States at all levels, particularly bachelor's. China's research and development expenditure has been rising. Research output in China has been sharply increasing since 2002, making China the second largest producer of scientific papers after the United States. The quality of research by Chinese scientists has also been improving steadily. However, China's rise in science also faces serious difficulties, partly attributable to its rigid, top-down administrative system, with allegations of scientific misconduct trending upward.

  20. Indonesian residential high rise buildings: A life cycle energy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utama, Agya; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)


    This study evaluates the effect of building envelopes on the life cycle energy consumption of high rise residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia. For high rise residential buildings, the enclosures contribute 10-50% of the total building cost, 14-17% of the total material mass and 20-30% of the total heat gain. The direct as well as indirect influence of the envelope materials plays an important role in the life cycle energy consumption of buildings. The initial embodied energy of typical double wall and single wall envelopes for high residential buildings is 79.5 GJ and 76.3 GJ, respectively. Over an assumed life span of 40 years, double walls have better energy performance than single walls, 283 GJ versus 480 GJ, respectively. Material selection, which depends not only on embodied energy but also thermal properties, should, therefore, play a crucial role during the design of buildings. (author)

  1. Reduction of temperature rise in high-speed photography (United States)

    Slater, Howard A.


    Information is provided on filtration with glass and infrared absorbing and reflecting filters. Glass and infrared filtration is a simple and effective method to reduce the radiation heat transfer associated with continuous high intensity tungsten lamps. The results of a filtration experiment are explained. The figures provide starting points for quantifying the effectiveness of various filters and associated light intensities. The combination of a spectrally selective reflector (hot or cold mirror) based on multilayer thin film principles and heat absorbing or infrared opaque glass results in the maximum reduction in temperature rise with a minimum of incident light loss. Use is recommended of a voltage regulator to further control temperature rise and incident light values.

  2. Bilateral trade agreements and the rise of global supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław W. Puślecki


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of the rise global supply chains on bilateral trade agreements. Given that a few multinational firms are responsible for a major share of world trade, our findings suggest that these firms may support regulatory harmonization across different Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs to lower trade costs or resist harmonization – and encourage certain non-tariff measures – to prevent new competitors from entering markets. The finding partly explains the persistence of regulatory divergence.  Building on institutional and comparative trade hypothesis, the findings of the paper present new tendencies in the foreign trade policy: the impact of the rise global supply chains on the political economy of trade, motivations for countries in cooperating on trade policies, and the increasing importance of bilateral agreements in the foreign trade policy. Additionally, the findings suggest that the political economy of regulatory convergence may be more complex than is sometimes suggested in the prior literature.

  3. Recent acceleration of Sea level rise in Mauritius and Rodrigues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over much of the 20th Century, global mean sea level rose at a rate between 1.3 to 1.7 mm yr−1. In the last dec- ade, satellite and in situ data indicate that global sea level rise (SLR) has been accelerating to around 3.2 mm yr−1 due mainly to temperature increase, enhanced melting of the ice caps, with marked regional ...

  4. Elite Influence? Religion, Economics, and the Rise of the Nazis


    Spenkuch, Jörg; Tillmann, Philipp


    Adolf Hitler's seizure of power was one of the most consequential events of the twentieth century. Yet, our understanding of which factors fueled the astonishing rise of the Nazis remains highly incomplete. This paper shows that religion played an important role in the Nazi party's electoral success -- dwarfing all available socioeconomic variables. To obtain the first causal estimates we exploit plausibly exogenous variation in the geographic distribution of Catholics and Protestants due to ...

  5. Basement structures over Rio Grande Rise from gravity inversion (United States)

    Constantino, Renata Regina; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; de Souza, Iata Anderson; Lima Costa, Iago Sousa


    The basement depth in the Rio Grande Rise (RGR), South Atlantic, is estimated from combining gravity data obtained from satellite altimetry, marine surveys, bathymetry, sediment thickness and crustal thickness information. We formulate a crustal model of the region by inverse gravity modeling. The effect of the sediment layer is evaluated using the global sediment thickness model of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and fitting the sediment compaction model to observed density values from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) reports. The Global Relief Model ETOPO1 and constraining data from seismic interpretation on crustal thickness are integrated in the inversion process. The modeled Moho depth values vary between 6 and 27 km over the area, being thicker under the RGR and also in the direction of São Paulo Plateau. The inversion for the gravity-equivalent basement topography is applied to gravity residual data, which is free from the gravity effect of sediments and from the gravity effect of the estimated Moho interface. We find several short-wavelengths structures not present in the bathymetry data. Our model shows a rift crossing the entire Rio Grande Rise deeper than previously presented in literature, with depths up to 5 km in the East Rio Grande Rise (ERGR) and deeper in the West Rio Grande Rise (WRGR), reaching 6.4 km. An interesting NS structure that goes from 34°S and extends through de São Paulo Ridge may be related to the South Atlantic Opening and could reveal an extinct spreading center.

  6. The rise in F$_{2}^{p}$ at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D.; Forte, S


    We show that the rise in F_2^p at small x and large Q^2 seen at HERA is indeed the non-Regge double asymptotic scaling behaviour expected from the perturbative emission of strongly ordered hard gluons. An alternative explanation, in which there is no strong ordering, and a new hard Reggeon is generated, is also tried but found wanting: its theoretical short-comings are betrayed by its failure to properly account for the HERA data.

  7. From Rising Bubble to RNA/DNA and Bacteria (United States)

    Marks, Roman; Cieszyńska, Agata; Wereszka, Marzena; Borkowski, Wojciech


    In this study we have focused on the movement of rising bubbles in a salty water body. Experiments reviled that free buoyancy movement of bubbles forces displacement of ions, located on the outer side of the bubble wall curvatures. During the short moment of bubble passage, all ions in the vicinity of rising bubble, are separated into anions that are gathered on the bubble upper half sphere and cations that slip along the bottom concave half-sphere of a bubble and develop a sub-bubble vortex. The principle of ions separation bases on the differences in displacement resistance. In this way, relatively heavier and larger, thus more resistant to displacement anions are gathered on the rising bubble upper half sphere, while smaller and lighter cations are assembled on the bottom half sphere and within the sub-bubble vortex. The acceleration of motion generates antiparallel rotary of bi-ionic domains, what implies that anions rotate in clockwise (CW) and cationic in counter-clockwise (CCW) direction. Then, both rotational systems may undergo splicing and extreme condensing by bi-pirouette narrowing of rotary. It is suggested that such double helix motion of bi-ionic domains creates RNA/DNA molecules. Finally, when the bubble reaches the water surface it burst and the preprocessed RNA/DNA matter is ejected into the droplets. Since that stage, droplet is suspended in positively charged troposphere, thus the cationic domain is located in the droplet center, whilst negative ions are attracted to configure the outer areola. According to above, the present study implies that the rising bubbles in salty waters may incept synergistic processing of matter resulting in its rotational/spherical organization that led to assembly of RNA/DNA molecules and bacteria cells.

  8. The Seismic Attenuation Structure of the East Pacific Rise (United States)


    Clawson, S. R., R. B. Smith, and H. M. Benz, P wave attenuation of the Yellowstone caldera from three-dimensional inversion of spectral decay using...measurements obtained at high temperatures are presented by Jackson et al. [19921 for a dunite sample from the same formation as that used by Berckhemer et al...manifested by small offsets of the axial summit caldera and changes in orientation of the rise axis [e.g., Macdonald et al., 1992]. To the extent that

  9. Wind-induced Dynamic Response of High Rise Buildings


    Bjørnland, Karl Hermann Mathias


    This thesis aims to investigate the dynamic response of a high rise concrete structure. Calculations are performed for Lerkendal Hotel, a slender 75 meter high building located in Trondheim. Buffeting response has been the main focus in the calculations, and both displacements, accelerations and cross sectional forces have been obtained.Initially, acceleration demands regarding human comfort in a structure subjected to wind induced vibrations were established using design codes. In addition, ...

  10. The Rise in House Prices in China: Bubbles or Fundamentals?


    Sainan Jin; Wanjun Jiang; Liangjun Su; Jianying Hu


    The dramatic rise of house prices in many cities of China has brought huge attention from both the governmental and academic circles. There is a huge debate on whether the increasing house prices are driven by market fundamentals or just by speculation. Like Levin and Wright (1997a, 1997b), we decompose house prices in China into fundamental and non-fundamental components. We also consider potential nonlinear feedback from the historical growth rate of house prices on the current house prices...

  11. Recruitment and Retention of Indians in Science and Engineering (RISE) (United States)

    Karnawat, Sunil


    Fifteen students from Turtle Mountain Community College were selected to participate in activities of the RISE project last summer. Eight students successfully completed project activities and received stipends for their participation. These eight students are (1) Jamie Gable, (2) John Morin, (3) Patrick Belgarde, (4) Jason Laducer, (5) Alex Johnson, (6) Eric Houle, (7) Gary Renault, and (8) Kenny DeCoteau. In the fall of 1998, Jamie Gable and Gary Renault went to North Dakota State University to pursue their undergraduate degrees in mechanical engineering, and John Morin and Alex Johnson joined the University of North Dakota's electrical engineering and industrial technology programs, respectively. Remaining four students will continue to participate in the RISE activities this year and transfer to the universities next year. Seven students who failed to complete the RISE project activities during the current award period are encouraged to participate again this fall. The RISE students were enrolled in a special course called "Introduction to Engineering Materials." The project director, Dr. Kamawat, taught the course on Saturdays and Sundays. Theoretical and mathematical background on engineering materials and careers in various engineering professions were discussed in this course. The students attended guest lectures given by engineers and professors and visited local industries. In addition, the students went to North Dakota State University (NDSU) at Fargo, ND, and the University of Minnesota (UMN) at Minneapolis, MN, to tour their engineering departments. At NDSU, they conducted laboratory tests on various engineering materials, such as concrete, steel, wood, plastics, and carbon composites. The students investigated the mechanical behavior of these materials under various loading conditions, collected data, interpreted data, identified possible errors, determined the mechanical properties, and wrote reports on their findings. The students created posters

  12. The rise of China and the time of Africa: Gauging Afro-Sino relations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question of whether China's African interest can be seen as tacit colonisation is discussed. Even if these fears are allayed, the question remains whether the Chinese presence on the continent will make a significant difference to African development. To answer this question, the focus shifts to economic models and the ...

  13. Low power, high voltage power supply with fast rise/fall time (United States)

    Bearden, Douglas B. (Inventor)


    A low power, high voltage power supply system includes a high voltage power supply stage and a preregulator for programming the power supply stage so as to produce an output voltage which is a predetermined fraction of a desired voltage level. The power supply stage includes a high voltage, voltage doubler stage connected to receive the output voltage from the preregulator and for, when activated, providing amplification of the output voltage to the desired voltage level. A first feedback loop is connected between the output of the preregulator and an input of the preregulator while a second feedback loop is connected between the output of the power supply stage and the input of the preregulator.

  14. Overdiagnosis and rising rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS): time for reappraisal. (United States)

    Sioutis, D; Thakar, R; Sultan, A H


    To determine the accuracy of clinical diagnosis of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) using three-dimensional (3D) endoanal ultrasound (EA-US) and to compare symptoms and anal manometry measurements between women with anal sphincters adequately repaired and those with persistent anal sphincter defects. The EA-US images of women with clinically diagnosed and repaired OASIS, defined as third- or fourth-degree perineal tear, who attended the perineal clinic at Croydon University Hospital over a 10-year period (2003-2013) were reanalyzed by a single expert blind to symptoms and the results of clinical examination. St Mark's Incontinence Scores (SMIS) and anal manometry measurements were obtained and compared between women with an intact anal sphincter and those with an anal sphincter scar and between those with an intact anal sphincter and those with a defect. Anal manometry measurements were compared between women with an external anal sphincter (EAS) defect and those with an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect. The images of 908 women were reanalyzed. No evidence of OASIS was found in 64 (7.0%) women, an EAS scar alone was detected in 520 (57.3%) and an anal sphincter defect in 324 (35.7%). Of the 324 women with a defect, 112 had an EAS defect, 90 had an IAS defect and 122 had a combined IAS and EAS defect. SMIS results were significantly higher in women with an anal sphincter defect compared with those with no evidence of OASIS (P = 0.018), but there was no significant difference in scores between women with an intact sphincter and those with an EAS scar only. Women with a defect had a significantly lower maximum resting pressure (median (range), 44 (8-106) vs 55 (29-86) mmHg; P anal sphincter. The anal length was significantly shorter in women with a defect compared with those in the intact group (median (range), 20 (10-40) vs 25 (10-40) mm; P = 0.003). Seven percent of women with a clinical diagnosis of OASIS were wrongly diagnosed. We believe that this rate may differ from that of other units but training methods and competency assessment tools for the diagnosis and repair of OASIS need urgent reappraisal. The role of EA-US in the immediate postpartum period needs further evaluation as the accurate interpretation of the images is dependent on the expertise of the staff involved. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The rise of China and the time of Africa: Gauging Afro-Sino relations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 3, 2015 ... The Chinese economic success story of the last 30 years is based on the country's access to abundant and cheap labour. (This is also valid for India, but that country cannot boast the same successes.) Other factors – such as the emergence of economic globalisation, the digital revolution, lower transaction ...

  16. Rise-time of FRET-acceptor fluorescence tracks protein folding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, S.; Westphal, A.H.; Van Mierlo, C.P.M.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Borst, J.W.


    Uniform labeling of proteins with fluorescent donor and acceptor dyes with an equimolar ratio is paramount for accurate determination of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiencies. In practice, however, the labeled protein population contains donor-labeled molecules that have no

  17. Rise-Time of FRET-Acceptor Fluorescence Tracks Protein Folding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, S.; Westphal, A.H.; Mierlo, van C.P.M.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Borst, J.W.


    Uniform labeling of proteins with fluorescent donor and acceptor dyes with an equimolar ratio is paramount for accurate determination of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiencies. In practice, however, the labeled protein population contains donor-labeled molecules that have no

  18. Present-day sea level rise: a synthesis; Hausse actuelle du niveau de la mer: synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, A.; Llovel, W. [Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiales (LEGOS), Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, 31 - Toulouse (France); Lombard, A. [CNES, 31 - Toulouse (France)


    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes have improved considerably in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing data sets have become available. Here we report on the current knowledge of present-day sea level change. We briefly present observational results on sea level change from satellite altimetry since 1993 and tide gauges for the past century. We next discuss recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on time scales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion, land ice mass loss and land water storage change. For the 1993-2003 decade, the sum of climate-related contributions agree well (within the error bars) with the altimetry-based sea level, half of the observed rate of rise being due to ocean thermal expansion, land ice plus land waters explaining the other half. Since about 2003, thermal expansion increase has stopped, whereas the sea level continues to rise, although at a reduced rate compared to the previous decade (2.5 mm/yr versus 3.1 mm/yr). Recent increases in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets appear able to account alone for the rise in sea level reported over the last five years. (authors)

  19. Studies on the post-ictal rise in seizure threshold. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutt, D.J.; Cowen, P.J.; Green, A.R.


    Seizure thresholds were determined by timed infusion of a convulsant drug. Following an electroconvulsive shock (ECS) rats exhibited a raised seizure threshold to infusion of the GABA antagonist drugs, pentylenetetrazol, bicuculline and isopropyl-bicyclophosphate, but not to the glycine antagonist strychnine or the 5-HT agonist, quipazine. The increase in threshold was seen following a bicuculline-induced seizure and 30 min following the last of a course of ECS given once daily for 10 days. The rise in seizure threshold still occurred when animals were pretreated with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (200 mg . kg-1), p-chlorophenylalanine (200 mg . kg-2), naloxone (1 mg . kg-1) or indomethacin (20 mg . kg-1). Diazepam (2 mg . kg-1), flurazepam (10 mg . kg-1) and sodium valproate (400 mg . kg-1) elevated basal seizure threshold and a further rise followed the ECS. Phenytoin (40 mg . kg-1) and carbamazepine (40 mg . kg-1) had no effect on basal seizure threshold or the ECS-induce rise. (

  20. Infrastructure effects on estuarine wetlands increase their vulnerability to sea level rise (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose; Saco, Patricia; Sandi, Steven; Saintilan, Neil; Riccardi, Gerardo


    At the regional and global scales, coastal management and planning for future sea level rise scenarios is typically supported by modelling tools that predict the expected inundation extent. These tools rely on a number of simplifying assumptions that, in some cases, may result in important miscalculation of the inundation effects. One of such cases is estuarine wetlands, where vegetation strongly depends on both the magnitude and the timing of inundation. Many coastal wetlands display flow restrictions due to infrastructure or drainage works, which produce alterations to the inundation patterns that can not be captured by conventional models. In this contribution we explore the effects of flow restrictions on inundation patterns under sea level rise conditions in estuarine wetlands. We use a spatially-distributed dynamic wetland ecogeomorphological model that not only incorporates the effects of flow restrictions due to culverts, bridges and weirs as well as vegetation, but also considers that vegetation changes as a consequence of increasing inundation. We also consider the ability of vegetation to capture sediment and produce accretion. We apply our model to an estuarine wetland in Australia and show that our model predicts a much faster wetland loss due to sea level rise than conventional approaches.

  1. Development of sea level rise scenarios for climate change assessments of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Day, Richard H.; Michot, Thomas C.


    Rising sea level poses critical ecological and economical consequences for the low-lying megadeltas of the world where dependent populations and agriculture are at risk. The Mekong Delta of Vietnam is one of many deltas that are especially vulnerable because much of the land surface is below mean sea level and because there is a lack of coastal barrier protection. Food security related to rice and shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta is currently under threat from saltwater intrusion, relative sea level rise, and storm surge potential. Understanding the degree of potential change in sea level under climate change is needed to undertake regional assessments of potential impacts and to formulate adaptation strategies. This report provides constructed time series of potential sea level rise scenarios for the Mekong Delta region by incorporating (1) aspects of observed intra- and inter-annual sea level variability from tide records and (2) projected estimates for different rates of regional subsidence and accelerated eustacy through the year 2100 corresponding with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate models and emission scenarios.

  2. Robustness Evaluation of Elastoplastic Base-Isolated High-Rise Buildings Subjected to Critical Double Impulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Fujita


    Full Text Available A new method of robustness evaluation is proposed for an elastoplastic base-isolated high-rise building considering simultaneous uncertainties of structural parameters. Since it is difficult to evaluate the robustness of elastoplastic structures due to heavy computational load on the time-history response analysis including elastoplastic response, a double impulse input is used to provide a closed-form solution of the critical response of a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF elastic–perfectly plastic structure under a near-field ground motion. Introducing an equivalent elastoplastic SDOF model of a base-isolated high-rise building, the worst combination of uncertain structural parameters, i.e., the stiffness and yield deformation at the base-isolation story and the stiffness of the superstructure, can be derived which leads to the upper bound of the critical elastoplastic response. It is shown that, by using the derived upper bound of the critical response, the robustness function, a measure of the robustness, of elastoplastic structures can be evaluated efficiently. In numerical examples, the robustness of a 30-story base-isolated high-rise building is compared with those of other models with different yield deformations at the base-isolation story to find a preferable design with larger robustness.

  3. Investigating the ocular temperature rise during femtosecond laser lens fragmentation: an in vitro study. (United States)

    Mencucci, Rita; Matteoli, Sara; Corvi, Andrea; Terracciano, Luca; Favuzza, Eleonora; Gherardini, Stefano; Caruso, Filippo; Bellucci, Roberto


    To investigate the trend of temperature variation during lens fragmentation simulated by a femtosecond laser on an in vitro eye model. In our experimental study, a convex cylinder of gelatinous material, usually employed in femtosecond laser calibration, was used to simulate both an anterior segment and a crystalline lens during fragmentation performed with the Victus femtosecond laser (Technolas Perfect Vision GmbH, Germany; Bausch + Lomb Incorporated, USA). Two radiated energies (7000 nJ and 9000 nJ) and three cutting patterns (crosses, circles and cross + circle) were applied. Trends of temperature variation as a function of time were obtained using a T-type thermocouple. The maximum value of temperature rise during lens fragmentation ranged from 3.53 to 5.13 °C; the rise was directly proportional to the intensity of the radiated energy (7000 nJ or 9000 nJ) and the cutting pattern performed. This behavior was experimentally represented by an asymmetric function with a characteristic bell curve shape, whereas it was mathematically described by a transport diffusive model. Since the temperature rise at the fragmentation volume base resulted to be around 5 °C in our in vitro study, lens fragmentation performed using the Victus femtosecond laser might be considered safe form a thermal point of view.

  4. Assessing the impact of sea-level rise on a vulnerable coastal community in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Appeaning Addo


    Full Text Available Climate change and its associated sea-level rise are expected to significantly affect vulnerable coastal communities. Although the extent of the impact will be localised, its assessment will adopt a monitoring approach that applies globally. The topography of the beach, the type of geological material and the level of human intervention will determine the extent of the area to be flooded and the rate at which the shoreline will move inland. Gleefe, a coastal community in Ghana, has experienced frequent flooding in recent times due to the increasing occurrence of storm surge and sea-level rise. This study used available geospatial data and field measurements to determine how the beach topography has contributed to the incidence of flooding at Gleefe. The topography is generally low-lying. Sections of the beach have elevations of around 1 m, which allows seawater to move inland during very high tide. Accelerated sea-level rise as predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC will destroy homes of the inhabitants and inundate the Densu wetlands behind the beach. Destruction of infrastructure will render the inhabitants homeless, whilst flooding of the wetlands will destroy the habitats of migratory birds and some endangered wildlife species such as marine turtle. Effective adaptation measures should be adopted to protect this very important coastal environment, the ecology of the wetlands and the livelihoods of the community dwellers.

  5. ECOSUSTAINABLE HIGH-RISE : The Environmentally Conscious Architecture of Skyscraper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Priatman


    Full Text Available The term " green architecture " is related to evolving architecture which is sensitive to the environment and emerges from the environmental awareness due to the effects of destruction of air, water, energy and earth. It is characterized by improving energy efficiency, sustainability concept and holistic approach of the entire building enterprise, where all of the environmental factors are regarded as an objective. Although there are many of environmentally conscious architectural works today, but most of the building designers prefer to deal primarily with small-scale buildings (low to medium rise and often only in greenfield, rural or suburban sites. All those large scale, high-rise or tall buildings located in dense urban areas are regarded as avoidable objects that consumes a lot of energy, uses huge amounts of materials, and produces massive volumes of waste discharge into the environment. These intensive buildings deserve greater attention and should be designed by greater part of our expertise and effort to ecologically design than the smaller buildings with fewer problems. The paper discusses "green" dimensions applied to tall buildings/high-rise buildings with their innovative approach that leads to ecosustainable tall buildings.

  6. Pathological Internet Use Is on the Rise Among European Adolescents. (United States)

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Brunner, Romuald; Koenig, Julian; Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W; Sarchiapone, Marco; Bobes, Julio; Cosman, Doina; Värnik, Airi; Resch, Franz; Wasserman, Danuta


    Increased Internet accessibility has been accompanied by an increased awareness of pathological Internet use (PIU). The aim of the study was to investigate a potential increase of PIU among European adolescents. Comparable data from two large cross-sectional multicentre, school-based studies conducted in 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 in five European countries (Estonia, Germany, Italy, Romania, and Spain) were used. The Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of PIU. The comparison of the two samples provides evidence that the prevalence of PIU is on the rise (4.01%-6.87%, odds ratio = 1.69, p Internet accessibility suggests that the rise in prevalence of adolescent PIU may be a consequence of increased Internet accessibility. Our findings are the first data to confirm the rise of PIU among European adolescents. They definitively warrant further efforts in the implementation and evaluation of preventive interventions. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphology of Rising Hydrodynamic and Magnetohydrodynamic Bubbles from Numerical Simulations (United States)

    Robinson, K.; Dursi, L. J.; Ricker, P. M.; Rosner, R.; Calder, A. C.; Zingale, M.; Truran, J. W.; Linde, T.; Caceres, A.; Fryxell, B.; Olson, K.; Riley, K.; Siegel, A.; Vladimirova, N.


    Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of galaxy cluster cooling flows have revealed X-ray emission voids of up to 30 kpc in size that have been identified with buoyant, magnetized bubbles. Motivated by these observations, we have investigated the behavior of rising bubbles in stratified atmospheres using the FLASH9 adaptive-mesh simulation code. We present results from two-dimensional simulations with and without the effects of magnetic fields and with varying bubble sizes and background stratifications. We find purely hydrodynamic bubbles to be unstable; a dynamically important magnetic field is required to maintain a bubble's integrity. This suggests that, even absent thermal conduction, for bubbles to be persistent enough to be regularly observed, they must be supported in large part by magnetic fields. Thermal conduction unmitigated by magnetic fields can dissipate the bubbles even faster. We also observe that the bubbles leave a tail as they rise; the structure of these tails can indicate the history of the dynamics of the rising bubble.

  8. Impact of sea level rise on tide gate function. (United States)

    Walsh, Sean; Miskewitz, Robert


    Sea level rise resulting from climate change and land subsidence is expected to severely impact the duration and associated damage resulting from flooding events in tidal communities. These communities must continuously invest resources for the maintenance of existing structures and installation of new flood prevention infrastructure. Tide gates are a common flood prevention structure for low-lying communities in the tidal zone. Tide gates close during incoming tides to prevent inundation from downstream water propagating inland and open during outgoing tides to drain upland areas. Higher downstream mean sea level elevations reduce the effectiveness of tide gates by impacting the hydraulics of the system. This project developed a HEC-RAS and HEC-HMS model of an existing tide gate structure and its upland drainage area in the New Jersey Meadowlands to simulate the impact of rising mean sea level elevations on the tide gate's ability to prevent upstream flooding. Model predictions indicate that sea level rise will reduce the tide gate effectiveness resulting in longer lasting and deeper flood events. The results indicate that there is a critical point in the sea level elevation for this local area, beyond which flooding scenarios become dramatically worse and would have a significantly negative impact on the standard of living and ability to do business in one of the most densely populated areas of America.

  9. High-rise Buildings versus Outdoor Thermal Environment in Chongqing. (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Chen, Jin-Hua; Tang, Ying; Wang, Jin-Sha


    This paper gives a brief description of the over quick urbanization sinceChongqing, one of the biggest cities in China, has been a municipality directly under theCentral Government in 1997, excessive development and exceeding increase of high-risebuildings because of its special geographical position which finally leads to the worseningof the urban outdoor thermal environment. Then, this paper makes a bright balance to thefield measurement and simulated results of the wind speed field, temperature field of onemultifunctional high-rise building in Chongqing university located in the city center, andthe contrasted results validate the correctness of CFD in the outdoor thermal environmentalsimulation, expose the disadvantages of high-rise buildings on the aspects of blocking thewind field, decreasing wind speed which results in accumulation of the air-conditioningheat revolving around and periscian region where sunshine can not rip into. Finally, inorder to improve the urban outdoor thermal environment near the high-rise buildingsespecially for the angle of natural ventilation, this paper simulates the wind environment indifferent architectural compositions and architectural layouts by CFD, and the simulatedresults show that freestyle and tower buildings which can guarantee the wind speed andtake the air-conditioning heat away are much suitable and reasonable for the specialChongqing geography. These conclusions can also be used as a reference in othermountain cities, especially for the one with a great number of populations.

  10. High-rise Buildings versus Outdoor Thermal Environment in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-sha Wang


    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief description of the over quick urbanization sinceChongqing, one of the biggest cities in China, has been a municipality directly under theCentral Government in 1997, excessive development and exceeding increase of high-risebuildings because of its special geographical position which finally leads to the worseningof the urban outdoor thermal environment. Then, this paper makes a bright balance to thefield measurement and simulated results of the wind speed field, temperature field of onemultifunctional high-rise building in Chongqing university located in the city center, andthe contrasted results validate the correctness of CFD in the outdoor thermal environmentalsimulation, expose the disadvantages of high-rise buildings on the aspects of blocking thewind field, decreasing wind speed which results in accumulation of the air-conditioningheat revolving around and periscian region where sunshine can not rip into. Finally, inorder to improve the urban outdoor thermal environment near the high-rise buildingsespecially for the angle of natural ventilation, this paper simulates the wind environment indifferent architectural compositions and architectural layouts by CFD, and the simulatedresults show that freestyle and tower buildings which can guarantee the wind speed andtake the air-conditioning heat away are much suitable and reasonable for the specialChongqing geography. These conclusions can also be used as a reference in othermountain cities, especially for the one with a great number of populations.

  11. How mangrove forests adjust to rising sea level (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; McKee, Karen L.; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Saintilan, Neil; Reef, Ruth; Chen, Luzhen


    Mangroves are among the most well described and widely studied wetland communities in the world. The greatest threats to mangrove persistence are deforestation and other anthropogenic disturbances that can compromise habitat stability and resilience to sea-level rise. To persist, mangrove ecosystems must adjust to rising sea level by building vertically or become submerged. Mangroves may directly or indirectly influence soil accretion processes through the production and accumulation of organic matter, as well as the trapping and retention of mineral sediment. In this review, we provide a general overview of research on mangrove elevation dynamics, emphasizing the role of the vegetation in maintaining soil surface elevations (i.e. position of the soil surface in the vertical plane). We summarize the primary ways in which mangroves may influence sediment accretion and vertical land development, for example, through root contributions to soil volume and upward expansion of the soil surface. We also examine how hydrological, geomorphological and climatic processes may interact with plant processes to influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with rising sea level. We draw on a variety of studies to describe the important, and often under-appreciated, role that plants play in shaping the trajectory of an ecosystem undergoing change.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcavi, Iair; Howell, D. Andrew [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93111 (United States); Wolf, William M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bildsten, Lars; McCully, Curtis; Valenti, Stefano [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Leloudas, Giorgos; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Katz, Boaz [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel); Hardin, Delphine; Astier, Pierre; Balland, Cristophe [LPNHE, CNRS-IN2P3 and University of Paris VI and VII, F-75005 Paris (France); Prajs, Szymon; Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Perley, Daniel A. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Svirski, Gilad [Racah Institute for Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lidman, Chris [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Carlberg, Ray G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Conley, Alex, E-mail: [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-389 (United States); and others


    We present observations of four rapidly rising (t{sub rise} ≈ 10 days) transients with peak luminosities between those of supernovae (SNe) and superluminous SNe (M{sub peak} ≈ −20)—one discovered and followed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and three by the Supernova Legacy Survey. The light curves resemble those of SN 2011kl, recently shown to be associated with an ultra-long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), though no GRB was seen to accompany our SNe. The rapid rise to a luminous peak places these events in a unique part of SN phase space, challenging standard SN emission mechanisms. Spectra of the PTF event formally classify it as an SN II due to broad Hα emission, but an unusual absorption feature, which can be interpreted as either high velocity Hα (though deeper than in previously known cases) or Si ii (as seen in SNe Ia), is also observed. We find that existing models of white dwarf detonations, CSM interaction, shock breakout in a wind (or steeper CSM), and magnetar spin down cannot readily explain the observations. We consider the possibility that a “Type 1.5 SN” scenario could be the origin of our events. More detailed models for these kinds of transients and more constraining observations of future such events should help to better determine their nature.

  13. Sea-level rise: towards understanding local vulnerability (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan


    Projections of global sea-level rise into the future have become more pessimistic over the past five years or so. A global rise by more than one metre by the year 2100 is now widely accepted as a serious possibility if greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated. That is witnessed by the scientific assessments that were made since the last IPCC report was published in 2007. The Delta Commission of the Dutch government projected up to 1.10 m as a 'high-end' scenario (Vellinga et al 2009). The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) projected up to 1.40 m (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research 2009), and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) gives a range of 0.90-1.60 m in its 2011 report (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 2011). And recently the US Army Corps of Engineers recommends using a 'low', an 'intermediate' and a 'high' scenario for global sea-level rise when planning civil works programmes, with the high one corresponding to a 1.50 m rise by 2100 (US Army Corps of Engineers 2011). This more pessimistic view is based on a number of observations, most importantly perhaps the fact that sea level has been rising at least 50% faster in the past decades than projected by the IPCC (Rahmstorf et al 2007, IPCC 2007). Also, the rate of rise (averaged over two decades) has accelerated threefold, from around 1 mm yr-1 at the start of the 20th century to around 3 mm yr-1 over the past 20 years (Church and White 2006), and this rate increase closely correlates with global warming (Rahmstorf et al 2011). The IPCC projections, which assume almost no further acceleration in the 20th century, thus look less plausible. And finally the observed net mass loss of the two big continental ice sheets (Van den Broeke et al 2011) calls into question the assumption that ice accumulation in Antarctica would largely balance ice loss from Greenland in the course of further global warming (IPCC 2007). With such a serious sea-level rise on the horizon

  14. An examination of land use impacts of flooding induced by sea level rise (United States)

    Song, Jie; Fu, Xinyu; Gu, Yue; Deng, Yujun; Peng, Zhong-Ren


    Coastal regions become unprecedentedly vulnerable to coastal hazards that are associated with sea level rise. The purpose of this paper is therefore to simulate prospective urban exposure to changing sea levels. This article first applied the cellular-automaton-based SLEUTH model (Project Gigalopolis, 2016) to calibrate historical urban dynamics in Bay County, Florida (USA) - a region that is greatly threatened by rising sea levels. This paper estimated five urban growth parameters by multiple-calibration procedures that used different Monte Carlo iterations to account for modeling uncertainties. It then employed the calibrated model to predict three scenarios of urban growth up to 2080 - historical trend, urban sprawl, and compact development. We also assessed land use impacts of four policies: no regulations; flood mitigation plans based on the whole study region and on those areas that are prone to experience growth; and the protection of conservational lands. This study lastly overlaid projected urban areas in 2030 and 2080 with 500-year flooding maps that were developed under 0, 0.2, and 0.9 m sea level rise. The calibration results that a substantial number of built-up regions extend from established coastal settlements. The predictions suggest that total flooded area of new urbanized regions in 2080 would be more than 25 times that under the flood mitigation policy, if the urbanization progresses with few policy interventions. The joint model generates new knowledge in the domain between land use modeling and sea level rise. It contributes to coastal spatial planning by helping develop hazard mitigation schemes and can be employed in other international communities that face combined pressure of urban growth and climate change.

  15. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.


    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10-5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g-1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in the LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g-1) had a negative rise potential (-31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to -6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. These results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.

  16. The Impact of Sea Level Rise on Florida's Everglades (United States)

    Senarath, S. U.


    Global warming and the resulting melting of polar ice sheets could increase global sea levels significantly. Some studies have predicted mean sea level increases in the order of six inches to one foot in the next 25 to 50 years. This could have severe irreversible impacts on low-lying areas of Florida's Everglades. The key objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of a one foot sea level rise on Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (CSSS) nesting areas within the Everglades National Park (ENP). A regional-scale hydrologic model is used to assess the sensitivities of this sea-level rise scenario. Florida's Everglades supports a unique ecosystem. At present, about 50 percent of this unique ecosystem has been lost due to urbanization and farming. Today, the water flow in the remnant Everglades is also regulated to meet a variety of competing environmental, water-supply and flood-control needs. A 30-year, eight billion dollar (1999 estimate) project has been initiated to improve Everglades' water flows. The expected benefits of this restoration project will be short-lived if the predicted sea level rise causes severe impacts on the environmentally sensitive areas of the Everglades. Florida's Everglades is home to many threatened and endangered species of wildlife. The Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow population in the ENP is one such species that is currently listed as endangered. Since these birds build their nests close to the ground surface (the base of the nest is approximately six inches from the ground surface), they are directly affected by any sea level induced ponding depth, frequency or duration change. Therefore, the CSSS population serves as a good indicator species for evaluating the negative impacts of sea level rise on the Everglades' ecosystem. The impact of sea level rise on the CSSS habitat is evaluated using the Regional Simulation Model (RSM) developed by the South Florida Water Management District. The RSM is an implicit, finite-volume, continuous

  17. Coastal marsh response to rising sea levels in the Grand Bay, MS estuary (United States)

    Alizad, K.; Hagen, S. C.; Morris, J. T.; Medeiros, S. C.; Bilskie, M. V.; Passeri, D. L.


    The Grand Bay estuary, situated along the border of Alabama and Mississippi, is a marine dominant estuary. Juncus roemerianus and Spartina alterniflora cover approximately 49% of the estuary (Eleuterius and Criss, 1991); However, this marsh system is prone to erosion more than other marsh systems in the state (Mississippi Department of Marine Resources 1999). Water level and wind-driven waves are critical factors that cause erosion in the Grand Bay estuary. Sediment transport induced by wave forces from the Gulf of Mexico and sea level rise force salt marshes to migrate landward (Schmid 2000). Understanding projected variations in vegetation can aid in productive restoration planning and coastal management decisions. An integrated hydro-marsh model was developed to incorporate the dynamic interaction between tidal hydrodynamics and salt marsh system. This model projects salt marsh productivity by coupling a two-dimensional, depth-integrated ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) finite element model and a parametric marsh model (Morris et al., 2002). The model calculates marsh productivity as a function of mean low water (MLW), mean high water (MHW), and the elevation of the marsh platform. The coupling exchange process is divided into several time intervals that capture the rate of sea level rise, and update the elevation and bottom friction from the computed marsh productivity. Accurate description of salt marsh platform is necessary for calculating accurate biomass results (Hagen et al. 2013). Lidar-derived digital elevation models (DEM) over-estimate marsh platform elevations, but can be corrected with Real Time Kinematic (RTK) survey data (Medeiros et al., 2015). Using RTK data, the salt marsh platform was updated and included in a high resolution hydrodynamic model. Four projections of sea level rise (Parris et al., 2012) were used to project salt marsh productivity for the year 2100 for the Grand Bay, MS estuary. The results showed a higher productivity under low sea

  18. Vulnerability assessment of southern coastal areas of Iran to sea level rise: evaluation of climate change impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Goharnejad


    Full Text Available Recent investigations have demonstrated global sea level rise as being due to climate change impact. Probable changes in sea level rise need to be evaluated so that appropriate adaptive strategies can be implemented. This study evaluates the impact of climate change on sea level rise along the Iranian south coast. Climatic data simulated by a GCM (General Circulation Model named CGCM3 under two-climate change scenarios A1b and A2 are used to investigate the impact of climate change. Among the different variables simulated by this model, those of maximum correlation with sea level changes in the study region and least redundancy among themselves are selected for predicting sea level rise by using stepwise regression. Two Discrete Wavelet artificial Neural Network (DWNN models and a Discrete Wavelet Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference system (DWANFIS are developed to explore the relationship between selected climatic variables and sea level changes. In these models, wavelets are used to disaggregate the time series of input and output data into different components. ANFIS/ANN are then used to relate the disaggregated components of predictors and predictand (sea level to each other. The results show a significant rise in sea level in the study region under climate change impact, which should be incorporated into coastal area management.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Y. I.


    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The present level of construction technology development enhances the choice relevance of the most efficient organizational and technological solutions of high-rise buildings construction. Execution of construction works is associated with many conditions, which greatly complicate their production, which in turn can lead to an actual cost increase of contractors to perform the whole complex of construction works. The process of high-rise buildings construction has specific differences, especially in terms of construction technology and organization, construction-related in conditions of the functioning structures of large cities and the existing infrastructure, the account of which will neutralize or localize the negative impact of destabilizing factors. Therefore, the design of high-rise construction organizations need to consider the influence of various destabilizing factors and implement the most efficient and modern construction methods. Goal. Determination of features and advantages of the method "up - down" in high-rise buildings construction in dense urban areas. Conclusion. Improving of the design solutions efficiency of high-rise buildings construction and their implementation, especially, time and cost reducing of construction, can be achieved by applying the construction method of the "top - down", which requires a higher organization of labor, the use of appropriate construction machinery, equipping and instrumentation, high requirements for health and safety.

  20. Reliability of system identification technique in super high-rise building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi eIkeda


    Full Text Available A smart physical-parameter based system identification method has been proposed in the previous paper. This method deals with time-variant nonparametric identification of natural frequencies and modal damping ratios using ARX (Auto-Regressive eXogenous models and has been applied to high-rise buildings during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake. In this perspective article, the current state of knowledge in this class of system identification methods is explained briefly and the reliability of this smart method is discussed through the comparison with the result by a more confident technique.

  1. The Ford Foundation and the rise of behavioralism in political science. (United States)

    Hauptmann, Emily


    How did behavioralism, one of the most influential approaches to the academic study of politics in the twentieth century, become so prominent so quickly? I argue that many political scientists have either understated or ignored how the Ford Foundation's Behavioral Sciences Program gave form to behavioralism, accelerated its rise, and helped root it in political science. I then draw on archived documents from Ford as well as one of its major grantees, U. C. Berkeley, to present several examples of how Ford used its funds to encourage the behavioral approach at a time when it had few adherents among political scientists. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Skydiving as emotion regulation: the rise and fall of anxiety is moderated by alexithymia. (United States)

    Woodman, Tim; Cazenave, Nicolas; Le Scanff, Christine


    We investigated alexithymia and the fluctuation of anxiety in skydiving women. Alexithymia significantly moderated the pre- to postjump fluctuation of state anxiety such that only alexithymic skydivers' anxiety diminished as a consequence of performing a skydive. This suggests that skydiving is an effective means of emotion regulation for alexithymic women. However, the significant rise in anxiety shortly after landing suggests that any emotional benefits are short-lived. No anxiety fluctuations emerged for nonalexithymic skydivers. The Alexithymia x Time interaction remained significant when controlling for age, experience, and trait anxiety. Results are discussed in terms of the potential dependence on risk-taking activities for alexithymic women.

  3. Multiloop Rapid-Rise/Rapid Fall High-Voltage Power Supply (United States)

    Bearden, Douglas


    A proposed multiloop power supply would generate a potential as high as 1.25 kV with rise and fall times rise-time, and fall-time requirements. The power supply would include a preregulator that would be used to program a voltage 1/30 of the desired output voltage. By means of a circuit that would include a pulse-width modulator (PWM), two voltage doublers, and a transformer having two primary and two secondary windings, the preregulator output voltage would be amplified by a factor of 30. A resistor would limit the current by controlling a drive voltage applied to field-effect transistors (FETs) during turn-on of the PWM. Two feedback loops would be used to regulate the high output voltage. A pulse transformer would be used to turn on four FETs to short-circuit output capacitors when the outputs of the PWM were disabled. Application of a 0-to-5-V square to a PWM shut-down pin would cause a 20-to-1,250-V square wave to appear at the output.

  4. Air ventilation impacts of the "wall effect" resulting from the alignment of high-rise buildings (United States)

    Yim, S. H. L.; Fung, J. C. H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Kot, S. C.

    The objective of this study is to investigate the air ventilation impacts of the so called "wall effect" caused by the alignment of high-rise buildings in complex building clusters. The research method employs the numerical algorithm of computational fluid dynamics (CFD - FLUENT) to simulate the steady-state wind field in a typical Hong Kong urban setting and investigate pollutant dispersion inside the street canyon utilizing a pollutant transport model. The model settings of validation study were accomplished by comparing the simulation wind field around a single building block to wind tunnel data. The results revealed that our model simulation is fairly close to the wind tunnel measurements. In this paper, a typical dense building distribution in Hong Kong with 2 incident wind directions (0° and 22.5°) is studied. Two performance indicators are used to quantify the air ventilation impacts, namely the velocity ratio ( VR) and the retention time ( T r) of pollutants at the street level. The results indicated that the velocity ratio at 2 m above ground was reduced 40% and retention time of pollutants increased 80% inside the street canyon when high-rise buildings with 4 times height of the street canyon were aligned as a "wall" upstream. While this reduction of air ventilation was anticipated, the magnitude is significant and this result clearly has important implications for building and urban planning.

  5. Tooth Whitening And Temperature Rise With Two Bleaching Activation Methods (United States)

    Abu-ElMagd, D. M.; El-Sayad, I. I.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.


    To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and Intrapulpal temperature increase in vitro on freshly extracted upper human central incisors after chemical, Zoom AP light and diode laser activated bleaching. Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n = 10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel, for three applications of 15 min each. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power Zoom activation light (Zoom AP), for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 Watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. The whitening degree was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and Intrapulpal. The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as Zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than Zoom AP light. Diode laser used to activate bleaching gels is not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulp using power settings of 2 W.

  6. Temperature rise at root surface during post-space preparation. (United States)

    Tjan, A H; Abbate, M F


    This study compared the changes in temperature at the root surface of extracted human central incisors during post-space preparation using the following reamers (1) Peeso, (2) Kurer, (3) Gates-Glidden, (4) Para-Post, and (5) diamond burs. A mean temperature rise ranging from 2.3 degrees C to 15.6 degrees C from the baseline of approximately 28 degrees C was recorded. Peeso reamers recorded the highest temperatures followed by Kurer system and diamond burs, whereas Gates-Glidden and Para-Post systems were the lowest.

  7. Path instabilities of air bubbles rising in clean water

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, M; Wu, Mingming; Gharib, Moteza


    Experiments are conducted to study the path and shape of single air bubbles (diameter range 0.10- 0.20cm) rising freely in clean water. The experimental results demonstrate that the bubble shape has a bistable state, i. e. the bubble chooses to be in spherical or ellipsoidal shape depending on its generation mechanism. The path of a spherical/ellipsoidal bubble is found to change from a straight path to a zigzag/spiral path via a supercritical/subcritical bifurcation when the Reynolds number of the bubble exceeds a threshold.

  8. Crisis in the Resurgent City? The Rise of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Thor; Winther, Lars


    are a strong national centre of economic growth. Although one can catch glimpses of the crisis in key variables, urban turn remains strong; for instance, up to now, rising unemployment has been seen mainly outside the large urban areas in Denmark. However, the housing-market bubble has burst and other signs......-city development was characterized by a set of eroding processes that included de-industrialization, suburbanization, high unemployment rates, high welfare costs, an outdated housing market, strong segregation and various other factors. Copenhagen city and its city region have now been revitalized and today...

  9. The Catholic Bishops and the Rise of Evangelical Catholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miller


    Full Text Available White Catholics are increasingly trending toward the Republican Party, both as voters and candidates. Many of these Republican-leaning Catholics are displaying a more outspoken, culture-war oriented form of Catholicism that has been dubbed Evangelical Catholicism. Through their forceful disciplining of pro-choice Catholics and treatment of abortion in their quadrennial voting guides, as well as their emphasis on “religious liberty”, the U.S. bishops have played a major role in the rise of these Evangelical Catholics.

  10. Voltage rise mitigation for solar PV integration at LV grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guangya; Marra, Francesco; Juamperez Goñi, Miguel Angel


    Solar energy from photovoltaic (PV) is among the fastest developing renewable energy systems worldwide. Driven by governmental subsidies and technological development, Europe has seen a fast expansion of solar PV in the last few years. Among the installed PV plants, most of them are situated...... at the distribution systems and bring various operational challenges such as power quality and power flow management. The paper discusses the modelling requirements for PV system integration studies, as well as the possible techniques for voltage rise mitigation at low voltage (LV) grids for increasing PV penetration...

  11. Latin America and the rise of China: a Brazilian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing the impacts of China’s rise on Latin American countries. The literature on the topic has stressed the emergence of an asymmetrical pattern of relationship, where the region would be trapped in a less dynamic status of producer and exporter of raw materials. We focus on identifying the post-global financial crisis trends, providing fresh evidence concerning the characteristics of Sino-Latin American economic relationships, emphasizing the Brazilian experience. Ours results suggest that, particularly in the Brazilian case, there is evidence of the emergence of an increasingly regressive pattern of production and trade specialization.

  12. Population Aging in Iran and Rising Health Care Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirzaie


    Conclusion Based on the results of this research, it can be said that people throughout their life cycle always allocate a percentage of their total spending to health care costs, but the percentage of this allocation is different at different ages. In a way the demand for healthcare costs increases with aging, it rises significantly in the old age. At the macro level, due to an increase in the percentage of elderly in the population over the next decade, there will also be an increase in the share of health care costs.

  13. High-resolution tide projections reveal extinction threshold in response to sea-level rise. (United States)

    Field, Christopher R; Bayard, Trina S; Gjerdrum, Carina; Hill, Jason M; Meiman, Susan; Elphick, Chris S


    Sea-level rise will affect coastal species worldwide, but models that aim to predict these effects are typically based on simple measures of sea level that do not capture its inherent complexity, especially variation over timescales shorter than 1 year. Coastal species might be most affected, however, by floods that exceed a critical threshold. The frequency and duration of such floods may be more important to population dynamics than mean measures of sea level. In particular, the potential for changes in the frequency and duration of flooding events to result in nonlinear population responses or biological thresholds merits further research, but may require that models incorporate greater resolution in sea level than is typically used. We created population simulations for a threatened songbird, the saltmarsh sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus), in a region where sea level is predictable with high accuracy and precision. We show that incorporating the timing of semidiurnal high tide events throughout the breeding season, including how this timing is affected by mean sea-level rise, predicts a reproductive threshold that is likely to cause a rapid demographic shift. This shift is likely to threaten the persistence of saltmarsh sparrows beyond 2060 and could cause extinction as soon as 2035. Neither extinction date nor the population trajectory was sensitive to the emissions scenarios underlying sea-level projections, as most of the population decline occurred before scenarios diverge. Our results suggest that the variation and complexity of climate-driven variables could be important for understanding the potential responses of coastal species to sea-level rise, especially for species that rely on coastal areas for reproduction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Dynamics of dielectric liquid rise between parallel electrodes under capillary and dielectrophoretic forces (United States)

    Lackowski, Marcin; Nowakowska, Helena


    An electric field can affect a dielectric fluid flow and this effect can be used especially in micro-devices. A differential second order equation for a temporal dependence of the liquid height-of-rise in a microchannel made of two parallel plates is modified to account for a liquid dielectrophoretic (LDEP) force, which is a result of an electric field occurring between the plates. This equation takes into account capillary, LDEP, inertial and gravitational forces for viscous, incompressible fluid. It is shown that the LDEP force between parallel electrodes does not depend on the meniscus shape. Time dependences of the height-of-rise, velocity of the liquid front and forces acting on the liquid are obtained for two cases of the initial liquid height and several voltage values applied to the plates, and presented in a dimensionless form. Numerical calculations and experimental verification are performed for isopropanol as a working liquid. We have found that for this liquid, adverse effects such as strong heating and boiling are small enough to observe the LDEP phenomenon between parallel electrodes. Results of the experiment conducted for a 5 mm long and 300 µm wide channel with walls made of copper in the time interval 0–10 s, which is sufficient to achieve a stationary state, are presented. They are consistent with the theory within the voltage range up to 330 V. The highest achieved LDEP height-of-rise was about 13 mm. For higher voltage, Joule heating prevents from reaching a stationary state.

  15. Can community structure track sea-level rise? Stress and competitive controls in tidal wetlands. (United States)

    Schile, Lisa M; Callaway, John C; Suding, Katharine N; Kelly, N Maggi


    Climate change impacts, such as accelerated sea-level rise, will affect stress gradients, yet impacts on competition/stress tolerance trade-offs and shifts in distributions are unclear. Ecosystems with strong stress gradients, such as estuaries, allow for space-for-time substitutions of stress factors and can give insight into future climate-related shifts in both resource and nonresource stresses. We tested the stress gradient hypothesis and examined the effect of increased inundation stress and biotic interactions on growth and survival of two congeneric wetland sedges, Schoenoplectus acutus and Schoenoplectus americanus. We simulated sea-level rise across existing marsh elevations and those not currently found to reflect potential future sea-level rise conditions in two tidal wetlands differing in salinity. Plants were grown individually and together at five tidal elevations, the lowest simulating an 80-cm increase in sea level, and harvested to assess differences in biomass after one growing season. Inundation time, salinity, sulfides, and redox potential were measured concurrently. As predicted, increasing inundation reduced biomass of the species commonly found at higher marsh elevations, with little effect on the species found along channel margins. The presence of neighbors reduced total biomass of both species, particularly at the highest elevation; facilitation did not occur at any elevation. Contrary to predictions, we documented the competitive superiority of the stress tolerator under increased inundation, which was not predicted by the stress gradient hypothesis. Multifactor manipulation experiments addressing plant response to accelerated climate change are integral to creating a more realistic, valuable, and needed assessment of potential ecosystem response. Our results point to the important and unpredicted synergies between physical stressors, which are predicted to increase in intensity with climate change, and competitive forces on biomass as

  16. Does Accessibility to the Central Business District (CBD Have an Impact on High-Rise Condominium Price Gradient in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziauddin Mohd Faris


    Full Text Available This paper uses a spatial econometric method known as Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR to investigate the impact of accessibility to the CBD on the high-rise condominium price gradient in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Using a GWR method, after having controlled other factors, this study clearly reveal the impact of accessibility to the CBD on high-rise condominium varying prices across the study area, having a much larger positive impact in some areas but less and counterintuitive impact in others. In general, the results from this study show accessibility to the CBD measured by the travel times does affect high-rise condominium prices (high-rise condominium prices decrease as travel times to the CBD increase in most part of the areas, hence proved Alonso, Muth and Mills were still right.

  17. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a unique disease on the rise? (United States)

    van Monsjou, Hester S; Balm, Alfons J M; van den Brekel, Michiel M; Wreesmann, Volkert B


    Despite successful efforts to control tobacco and alcohol consumption in the western world, several developed countries report rising oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) incidence figures, specifically in young individuals. Similar to anogenital cancers, a significant proportion of OPSCC (up to 60%) is caused by sexually acquired HPV infection and the rise in OPSCC has been attributed to changing sexual behaviours in the Western World. Accordingly, patients with HPV-positive OPSCC report divergent sexual histories and absence of classical risk factors as tobacco and alcohol exposure compared to patients with HPV-negative OPSCC. The profile of HPV-positive OPSCC differs from HPV-negative OPSCC in several other significant aspects, including a unique molecular biologic tumor characteristics and improved clinical behaviour. Thus, a further increase in HPV-positive OPSCC will impact significantly upon clinical management of OPSCC, unless it is halted by adequate preventive measures aimed at reduction of HPV-associated disease. HPV vaccination has been recently offered to young females in an attempt to reduce HPV-induced cervical cancer and may ultimately result in a decline of OPSCC incidence as well. Until then, close collaboration between otolaryngologists/head and neck surgeons and anogenital/genitourinary specialists is warranted to optimize clinical management of HPV-induced malignancy and improve detection of second primary tumor development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurements of Martian dust devil winds with HiRISE (United States)

    Choi, D.S.; Dundas, C.M.


    We report wind measurements within Martian dust devils observed in plan view from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) orbiting Mars. The central color swath of the HiRISE instrument has three separate charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and color filters that observe the surface in rapid cadence. Active features, such as dust devils, appear in motion when observed by this region of the instrument. Our image animations reveal clear circulatory motion within dust devils that is separate from their translational motion across the Martian surface. Both manual and automated tracking of dust devil clouds reveal tangential winds that approach 20-30 m s -1 in some cases. These winds are sufficient to induce a ???1% decrease in atmospheric pressure within the dust devil core relative to ambient, facilitating dust lifting by reducing the threshold wind speed for particle elevation. Finally, radial velocity profiles constructed from our automated measurements test the Rankine vortex model for dust devil structure. Our profiles successfully reveal the solid body rotation component in the interior, but fail to conclusively illuminate the profile in the outer regions of the vortex. One profile provides evidence for a velocity decrease as a function of r -1/2, instead of r -1, suggestive of surface friction effects. However, other profiles do not support this observation, or do not contain enough measurements to produce meaningful insights. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Investigation of wind behaviour around high-rise buildings (United States)

    Mat Isa, Norasikin; Fitriah Nasir, Nurul; Sadikin, Azmahani; Ariff Hairul Bahara, Jamil


    A study on the investigation of wind behaviour around the high-rise buildings is done through an experiment using a wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamics. High-rise buildings refer to buildings or structures that have more than 12 floors. Wind is invisible to the naked eye; thus, it is hard to see and analyse its flow around and over buildings without the use of proper methods, such as the use of wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamics software.The study was conducted on buildings located in Presint 4, Putrajaya, Malaysia which is the Ministry of Rural and Regional Development, Ministry of Information Communications and Culture, Ministry of Urban Wellbeing, Housing and Local Government and the Ministry of Women, Family, and Community by making scaled models of the buildings. The parameters in which this study is conducted on are, four different wind velocities used based on the seasonal monsoons, and wind direction. ANSYS Fluent workbench software is used to compute the simulations in order to achieve the objectives of this study. The data from the computational fluid dynamics are validated with the experiment done through the wind tunnel. From the results obtained through the use of the computation fluid dynamics, this study can identify the characteristics of wind around buildings, including boundary layer of the buildings, separation flow, wake region and etc. Then analyses is conducted on the occurance resulting from the wind that passes the buildings based on the velocity difference between before and after the wind passes the buildings.

  20. Salt Damage and Rising Damp Treatment in Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. P. Q. Delgado


    Full Text Available Salt damage can affect the service life of numerous building structures, both historical and contemporary, in a significant way. In this review, various damage mechanisms to porous building materials induced by salt action are analyzed. The importance of pretreatment investigations is discussed as well; in combination with the knowledge of salt and moisture transport mechanisms they can give useful indications regarding treatment options. The methods of salt damage treatment are assessed then, including both passive techniques based on environmental control, reduction of water transport, or conversion to less soluble salts and active procedures resulting in the removal of salts from deterioration zones. It is concluded that cellulose can still be considered as the favorite material presently used in desalination poultices but hydrophilic mineral wool can serve as its prospective alternative in future applications. Another important cause of building pathologies is the rising damp and, in this phenomenon, it is particularly severe considering the presence of salts in water. The treatment of rising damp in historic building walls is a very complex procedure and at Laboratory of Building Physics (LFC-FEUP a wall base hygroregulated ventilation system was developed and patented.

  1. Freddi: Fast Rise Exponential Decay accretion Disk model Implementation (United States)

    Malanchev, K. L.; Lipunova, G. V.


    Freddi (Fast Rise Exponential Decay: accretion Disk model Implementation) solves 1-D evolution equations of the Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk. It simulates fast rise exponential decay (FRED) light curves of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The basic equation of the viscous evolution relates the surface density and viscous stresses and is of diffusion type; evolution of the accretion rate can be found on solving the equation. The distribution of viscous stresses defines the emission from the source. The standard model for the accretion disk is implied; the inner boundary of the disk is at the ISCO or can be explicitely set. The boundary conditions in the disk are the zero stress at the inner boundary and the zero accretion rate at the outer boundary. The conditions are suitable during the outbursts in X-ray binary transients with black holes. In a binary system, the accretion disk is radially confined. In Freddi, the outer radius of the disk can be set explicitely or calculated as the position of the tidal truncation radius.

  2. Sirius Rising 139 AD: Hadrian, Tivoli, and the Tazza Farnese (United States)

    Aakhus, P. L.


    The heliacal rising of Sirius in 139 AD, intersecting with the beginning of the Egyptian year after an interval of 1461 years, signaled abundant fertility derived from the flooding of the Nile and the resurrection of Osiris. Hadrian's preparation for this event, which he did not live to see, at his villa in Tivoli was concurrent with the establishment of the cult of Antinoos assimilated to Osiris, Hermes and Master of the Hounds, following his drowning in the Nile. The site of the obelisk marking Antinoos' tomb and describing his resurrection has recently been discovered near the so-called "Canopus" at Tivoli , where the prominent placement of Demeter/Isis/Sothis and Antinoos/Osiris suggests the rising of Sirius on 20 July 139 AD and flooding of the Nile. Furthermore, this astronomical-cultural event shown on coins and gems of the period, may also be represented in the much debated iconography of the Tazza Farnese, a carved Hellenistic sardonyx libation bowl owned by a prince of Samarkand, Lorenzo de' Medici, and Frederick II, and said to have been found in Hadrian's tomb.

  3. Radon action level for high-rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J.K.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.; Ho, C.W. (Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Radioisotope Unit)


    Radon and its progeny are the major contributors to the natural radiation dose received by human beings. Many countries and radiological authorities have recommended radon action levels to limit the indoor radon concentrations, and, hence, the annual doses to the general public. Since the sources of indoor radon and the methods for reducing its concentration are different for different types of buildings, social and economic factors have to be considered when setting the action level. But so far no action levels are specifically recommended for cities that have dwellings and offices all housed in high-rise buildings. In this study, an optimization approach was used to determine an action level for high-rise buildings based on data obtained through previous territory-wide radon surveys. A protection cost of HK $0.044 per unit fresh air change rate per unit volume and a detriment cost of HK $120,000 per person-Sv were used, which gave a minimum total cost at an action level of 200 Bq m[sup [minus]3]. The optimization analyses were repeated for different simulated radon distributions and living environment, which resulted in quite significantly different action levels. Finally, an action level of 200 Bq m[sup [minus]3] was recommended for existing buildings and 150 Bq m[sup [minus]3] for newly built buildings.

  4. Magnetic field management of substations in high rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, A.S.; Al-Shehri, A.M. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Cheng, T.C.; Du, Y.; Hu, L.; Penn, D. [Univ. of Southern California, LADWP, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    The electric and magnetic field issue has become an area of increasing public concern. Utilities have been carrying out extensive projects to characterize and manage the magnetic fields around their substations in an effort to answer public concerns over the possible health hazard caused by these fields. This paper describes various techniques available for managing magnetic field strength levels in substations. The design guideline aids in the planning, design, construction of substation facilities. Low-frequency magnetic field is directly associated with current-carrying sources and its magnitude is proportional to the distance from the sources. Distribution substations in high-rise buildings are very close to public areas and the magnetic fields imposed by these substations might be relatively higher than that imposed by outdoor substations. Options to manage these substations fields are considered in this paper. Techniques to manage magnetic fields in substations such as: source relocation, compaction, rephasing, return-current control, passive and active shielding are discussed. Several techniques were applied to reduce the magnetic fields in the conference room located in the main floor above a substation located in the basement of the main office high-rise building of LADWP. 10 refs, 14 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Radon action level for high-rise buildings. (United States)

    Leung, J K; Tso, M Y; Ho, C W


    Radon and its progeny are the major contributors to the natural radiation dose received by human beings. Many countries and radiological authorities have recommended radon action levels to limit the indoor radon concentrations and, hence, the annual doses to the general public. Since the sources of indoor radon and the methods for reducing its concentration are different for different types of buildings, social and economic factors have to be considered when setting the action level. But so far no action levels are specifically recommended for cities that have dwellings and offices all housed in high-rise buildings. In this study, an optimization approach was used to determine an action level for high-rise buildings based on data obtained through previous territory-wide radon surveys. A protection cost of HK$0.044 per unit fresh air change rate per unit volume and a detriment cost of HK$120,000 per person-Sv were used, which gave a minimum total cost at an action level of 200 Bq m(-3). The optimization analyses were repeated for different simulated radon distributions and living environment, which resulted in quite significantly different action levels. Finally, an action level of 200 Bq m(-3) was recommended for existing buildings and 150 Bq m(-3) for newly built buildings.

  6. Aging With Rising Risk: Have Older Households Experienced Faster-Growing Risk Exposure Than Younger Ones Since the 1990s? (United States)

    Weller, Christian; Bernardo, Sara


    Financial markets have been characterized by boom and bust cycles since the 1980s, while the responsibility for managing retirement wealth has increasingly shifted onto individual households at the same time. Policy makers and experts have expressed concern over rising risk exposure among older householders, who appear to be increasingly exposed to the growing financial risks just as they near retirement. We consider household data from the Federal Reserve's Survey of Consumer Finances from 1989 to 2010 to analyze the correlation between age and risk exposure. We test whether older householders' risk exposure has indeed grown over time, whether it has increased more than that of younger householders, whether changes in the demographic composition of older householders have contributed to older households' rising risk exposure, and the degree to which increases in risk exposure can be traced to a growing concentration of household assets held in stocks and housing and to rising householder indebtedness. Our results indicate that risk exposure has grown more for older householders than for younger ones, that demographic changes among older householders have contributed to additional increases in older householders' risk exposure, and that the growth of older householders' risk exposure is driven more by rising risky asset concentration and less by greater indebtedness.

  7. Long-term trend in potential vorticity intrusion events over the Pacific Ocean: Role of global mean temperature rise (United States)

    Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Lan, Xiaoqing


    In this study, we examine a long-term increasing trend in subtropical potential vorticity (PV) intrusion events over the Pacific Ocean in relation to the global mean temperature rise, based on multiple reanalysis datasets. The frequency of the PV intrusions is closely related to the upper-tropospheric equatorial westerly duct and the subtropical jet (STJ). An overall strengthening of the westerly duct and weakening of the STJ are found to be driven by the warming-induced strengthening of Walker circulation and regional changes in Hadley circulation on multi-decadal timescale, leading to an increase in the PV intrusion frequency over the tropics. The results are robust in all datasets. The multi-decadal strengthening in the Pacific Walker circulation is consistent with the global mean temperature rise. In this way, the PV intrusions are correlated with the warming related global mean temperuate rise. When the interannual variability of ENSO is removed from the intrusion time series, the long-term trend in PV intrusions due to external forcing associated with anthropogenic warming (global mean temperature rise) becomes clearer. The link between the global mean temperature rise and intrusion frequency is further verified by performing a correlation analysis between the two. The significant (> 95%) correlation coefficient is 0.85, 0.94, 0.84, 0.83, and 0.84 for ERA-40, ERA-Interim, NCEP-NCAR, JRA-55, and JRA-25, respectively. This unequivocally indicates that the global mean temperature rise can explain around 69%-88% of the variance related to the long-term increase in PV intrusion frequency over the Pacific Ocean.

  8. Typical rise and fall of troponin in (peri-procedural) myocardial infarction: A systematic review. (United States)

    van Beek, Dianne; van Zaane, Bas; Looije, Marjolein; Peelen, Linda; van Klei, Wilton


    To identify the typical shape of the rise and fall curve of troponin (Tn) following the different types of myocardial infarction (MI). We conducted a systematic search in PubMed and Embase including all studies which focused on the kinetics of Tn in MI type 1, type 4 and type 5. Tn levels were standardized using the 99(th) percentile, a pooled mean with 95%CI was calculated from the weighted means for each time point until 72 h. A total of 34 of the 2528 studies identified in the systematic search were included. The maximum peak level of the Tn was seen after 6 h after successful reperfusion of an acute MI, after 12 h for type 1 MI and after 72 h for type 5 MI. In type 1 MI there were additional smaller peaks at 1 h and at 24 h. After successful reperfusion of an acute MI there was a second peak at 24 h. There was not enough data available to analyze the Tn release after MI associated with percutaneous coronary intervention (type 4). The typical rise and fall of Tn is different for type 1 MI, successful reperfusion of an acute MI and type 5 MI, with different timing of the peak levels and different slopes of the fall phase.

  9. Thermal stratification hinders gyrotactic micro-organism rising in free-surface turbulence (United States)

    Lovecchio, Salvatore; Zonta, Francesco; Marchioli, Cristian; Soldati, Alfredo


    Thermal stratification in water bodies influences the exchange of heat, momentum, and chemical species across the air-water interface by modifying the sub-surface turbulence characteristics. Turbulence modifications may in turn prevent small motile algae (phytoplankton, in particular) from reaching the heated surface. We examine how different regimes of stable thermal stratification affect the motion of these microscopic organisms (modelled as gyrotactic self-propelling cells) in a free-surface turbulent channel flow. This archetypal setup mimics an environmentally plausible situation that can be found in lakes and oceans. Results from direct numerical simulations of turbulence coupled with Lagrangian tracking reveal that rising of bottom-heavy self-propelling cells depends strongly on the strength of stratification, especially near the thermocline where high temperature and velocity gradients occur: Here hydrodynamic shear may disrupt directional cell motility and hamper near-surface accumulation. For all gyrotactic re-orientation times considered in this study (spanning two orders of magnitude), we observe a reduction of the cell rising speed and temporary confinement under the thermocline: If re-orientation is fast, cells eventually trespass the thermocline within the simulated time span; if re-orientation is slow, confinement lasts much longer because cells align in the streamwise direction and their vertical swimming is practically annihilated.

  10. Automated Mapping and Characterization of RSL from HiRISE data with MAARSL (United States)

    Bue, Brian; Wagstaff, Kiri; Stillman, David


    Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are narrow (0.5-5m) low-albedo features on Mars that recur, fade, and incrementally lengthen on steep slopes throughout the year. Determining the processes that generate RSL requires detailed analysis of high-resolution orbital images to measure RSL surface properties and seasonal variation. However, conducting this analysis manually is labor intensive, time consuming, and infeasible given the large number of relevant sites. This abstract describes the Mapping and Automated Analysis of RSL (MAARSL) system, which we designed to aid large-scale analysis of seasonal RSL properties. MAARSL takes an ordered sequence of high spatial resolution, orthorectified, and coregistered orbital image data (e.g., MRO HiRISE images) and a corresponding Digital Terrain Model (DTM) as input and performs three primary functions: (1) detect and delineate candidate RSL in each image, (2) compute statistics of surface morphology and observed radiance for each candidate, and (3) measure temporal variation between candidates in adjacent images.The main challenge in automatic image-based RSL detection is discriminating true RSL from other low-albedo regions such as shadows or changes in surface materials is . To discriminate RSL from shadows, MAARSL constructs a linear illumination model for each image based on the DTM and position and orientation of the instrument at image acquisition time. We filter out any low-albedo regions that appear to be shadows via a least-squares fit between the modeled illumination and the observed intensity in each image. False detections occur in areas where the 1m/pixel HiRISE DTM poorly captures the variability of terrain observed in the 0.25m/pixel HiRISE images. To remove these spurious detections, we developed an interactive machine learning graphical interface that uses expert input to filter and validate the RSL candidates. This tool yielded 636 candidates from a well-studied sequence of 18 HiRISE images of Garni crater in

  11. Will a rising sea sink some estuarine wetland ecosystems? (United States)

    Grenfell, S E; Callaway, R M; Grenfell, M C; Bertelli, C M; Mendzil, A F; Tew, I


    Sea-level rise associated with climate change presents a major challenge to plant diversity and ecosystem service provision in coastal wetlands. In this study, we investigate the effect of sea-level rise on benthos, vegetation, and ecosystem diversity in a tidal wetland in west Wales, the UK. Present relationships between plant communities and environmental variables were investigated through 50 plots at which vegetation (species and coverage), hydrological (surface or groundwater depth, conductivity) and soil (matrix chroma, presence or absence of mottles, organic content, particle size) data were collected. Benthic communities were sampled at intervals along a continuum from saline to freshwater. To ascertain future changes to the wetlands' hydrology, a GIS-based empirical model was developed. Using a LiDAR derived land surface, the relative effect of peat accumulation and rising sea levels were modelled over 200 years to determine how frequently portions of the wetland will be inundated by mean sea level, mean high water spring and mean high water neap conditions. The model takes into account changing extents of peat accumulation as hydrological conditions alter. Model results show that changes to the wetland hydrology will initially be slow. However, changes in frequency and extent of inundation reach a tipping point 125 to 175 years from 2010 due to the extremely low slope of the wetland. From then onwards, large portions of the wetland become flooded at every flood tide and saltwater intrusion becomes more common. This will result in a reduction in marsh biodiversity with plant communities switching toward less diverse and occasionally monospecific communities that are more salt tolerant. While the loss of tidal freshwater wetland is in line with global predictions, simulations suggest that in the Teifi marshes the loss will be slow at first, but then rapid. While there will be a decrease in biodiversity, the model indicated that at least for one ecosystem

  12. Factors accounting for the rise in health-care spending in the United States: the role of rising disease prevalence and treatment intensity. (United States)

    Thorpe, Kenneth E


    To examine the factors responsible for the rise in health- care spending in the United States over the past 15 years. Nationally representative survey data from 1987 and 2003 were used to examine the top medical conditions accounting for the rise in spending. I also estimate how much of the rise is traced to rising treated disease prevalence and rising spending per case. The study finds most of the rise in spending is linked to rising rates of treated disease prevalence. The rise in prevalence is associated with the doubling of obesity in the US and changes in clinical thresholds for treating asymptomatic patients with certain cardiovascular risk factors. Most of the policy solutions offered in the US to slow the growth in spending do not address the fundamental factors accounting for spending growth. More aggressive efforts for slowing the growth in obesity among adults and children should be centre-stage in the efforts to slow the rise in health-care spending.

  13. Chemical and isotopic diversity in basalts dredged from the East Pacific Rise at 10°S, the fossil Galapagos Rise and the Nazca plate (United States)

    Batiza, Rodey; Oestrike, Richard; Futa, Kiyoto


    We present petrographic, chemical and isotopic data for fresh lava samples dredged from three regions: (1) the fossil Galapagos Rise; (2) an elongate volcano near this extinct spreading center; and (3) the East Pacific Rise at 10°S. The samples from the Galapagos Rise are among the first samples from any fossil spreading center to be analyzed. Alkalic picrites from the elongate seamount and transitional basalts from the East Pacific Rise are both somewhat unusual rock types considering their respective tectonic environments.

  14. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturi Maria L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. Results Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans. Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20–188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene and concatenated (supergene. Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%: vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma, Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma, Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma, Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma, Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma, Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma, Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma, Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma, Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma, mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma, Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma, Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma, Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma, Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma, Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma, and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma. By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to ~10

  15. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life (United States)

    Hedges, S. Blair; Blair, Jaime E.; Venturi, Maria L.; Shoe, Jason L.


    BACKGROUND: The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. RESULTS: Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i) animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii) red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii) choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv) diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v) diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans). Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20-188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene) and concatenated (supergene). Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%): vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma), Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma), Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma), Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma), Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma), Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma), Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma), Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma), Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma), mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma), Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma), Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma), Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma), Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma), Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma), and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma). By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to

  16. The Rise of the Professional Field of Medicine in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Carlhed


    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of conditions enabling the rise of the professional field of medicine in Sweden. The analysis is based mainly on second- ary data, while the use of primary data is restricted to official statistics. Primarily, it aims to study the conditions promoting professionalization in medicine. Important exogenous conditions were derived from early emerging nation state administration structures concerning policy and governance of public health, as well as a delegated supervision of professional health activities to the medical profession and the organization of a public national health care system. Professionalization strategies such as social organization of the medical profession and their use of a variety of legitimizing resources as tools for jurisdictional claims are considered as endogenous conditions. Broadly, the analysis shows a close relationship between the growth of professionalization in the field of medicine and the development of state prosperity in the Swedish welfare state. 

  17. [The rise and development of general dentistry in China]. (United States)

    Liu, Hongchen


    General dentistry is an important part of the dental medicine and general dentists and general dentistry form the basis of clinical dental medicine. China's general dentistry has a long history, which started as an independent specialist in the 1990s. At present, the Chinese general dental medicine has received more and more attention as an independent profession. General dental medical model has been rapidly developed in the general hospital department of dentistry, private practice and community dentistry institutions, dental specialist hospitals and so on. In this paper, we will review the rise and development of China's general dentistry, and report its theoretical characteristics, institutional framework, academic progress, member development report, and look forward to its development in the future.

  18. Testing of a DSSSD detector for the stopped RISING project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 110067 (India); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforchung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)], E-mail:; Molina, F.G. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-Univ. Valencia, E 46071 Valencia (Spain); Pietri, S. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Casarejos, E. [Departimento de Fisica de particulas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Algora, A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-Univ. Valencia, E 46071 Valencia (Spain); Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, POB 51, 4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Benlliure, J. [Departimento de Fisica de particulas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Doornenbal, P. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforchung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Gerl, J.; Gorska, M.; Kojouharov, I. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforchung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Podolyak, Zs. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Prokopowicz, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforchung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Regan, P.H. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Rubio, B. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-Univ. Valencia, E 46071 Valencia (Spain); Schaffner, H.; Tashenov, S.; Wollersheim, H.-J. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforchung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)


    An active stopper for the RISING project at GSI has been developed for {beta}-decay studies and conversion electron spectroscopy following projectile fragmentation/fission reactions. This system employs six double-sided silicon strip detectors in the final focal plane of the GSI FRagment Separator (FRS) to detect both the fragment implantations and their subsequent charged-particle ({alpha},{beta}, p) decays. The wide range of energy response required (150 keV up to several GeVs) was covered by the use of a logarithmic preamplifier. Measurements with a {sup 207}Bi conversion electron source yielded an energy resolution of 20 keV at electron energies of {approx}1MeV and a detection threshold of 150 keV. The response to the implantation of 400 AMeV {sup 136}Xe ions in the active stopper is also discussed in the present paper.

  19. The Rise of Web Supremacy in Newspaper Coverage of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergård, Gunver Lystbæk

    Quantitative study of science news in Danish national Newspapers 1999 and 2012. This paper demonstrates how the Internet media has altered newspaper coverage of science in terms of quantity, origin and distribution. Although an overall rise in science coverage is observed, content analysis...... of science news material has also shifted the balance in distribution. Coverage in broadsheet print newspapers is decreasing whereas online and tabloid newspapers are steadily embracing science news. This transfer causes new target groups who have not been previously reachable to be included in science...... communication. The paper includes 693 articles from Danish national newspapers between 1999 and 2012 collected from random weeks. As Danish Internet newspapers only gained popularity after 2000 they were only included in the 2012 sample. All journalistic processed articles with a main focus on any field...

  20. Toxic disputes and the rise of environmental justice in Australia. (United States)

    Lloyd-Smith, Mariann E; Bell, Lee


    The paper examines the rise of environmental justice issues in Australia, evident in two toxic disputes; the first, in a Perth outer suburb in Western Australia where residents faced both a hazardous waste dump and the nation's biggest chemical fire; and the second, in the Sydney suburb of Botany where residents were confronted with the destruction of what is thought to be, the world's largest stockpile of hazardous hexachlorobenzene (HCB) waste. The paper reviews the range of factors that impacted the local communities' fight for environmental justice. It explores the limitations of risk assessment and risk-based policies, as well as the problematic role of the expert and the communication of risk. The informational inequity and resource disparities so evident in toxic disputes are highlighted. The case studies confirmed the inequitable distribution of chemical risk as a failure to secure environmental justice for all Australians.

  1. Windage rise and flowpath gas ingestion in turbine rim cavities (United States)

    Haaser, Fred; Jack, James; McGreehan, William


    A method for modeling the windage rise and flowpath gas ingestion in turbine rim cavities on a macroscopic scale is presented, with application to the minimization of the necessary required cooling air in order to provide optimum turbine cycle performance and hardware durability. Comparison is made between measured and predicted results for: (1) the prediction of critical flow in a turbine aeroperformance rig; (2) a boltless blade retainer design; (3) the impact of instrumentation wire; and (4) a modulated throughflow test. It is noted that the effects of inner and outer flow extraction, rotor and stator drag, rotor and stator bolt drag, leakages, and injection momentum must be accounted for to accurately model the wheel space.

  2. The rise of private health insurande in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, Thomas Engel


    The Danish healthcare system has since the early 1970s been tax financed and with free and equal access to health care. It still is, but within the last decade there has been an exponential growth in the number of private health insurances – from less than 50.000 in 2002 to approximately 1.......1 million in 2010. These private health insurances to great extent cover the same kind of treatments that can be obtained through the public tax financed system, but without the waiting lists that has been the an unsolvable problem for the public health care system over the past two decades. The rise...... of private health insurances in Denmark means that alongside the public healthcare institution there has grown a private institutional layer. The existence of this private institutional layer raises questions of what kind of influence the new private institutions can have on the existing public healthcare...

  3. Dynamics of an initially spherical bubble rising in quiescent liquid (United States)

    Tripathi, Manoj Kumar; Sahu, Kirti Chandra; Govindarajan, Rama


    The beauty and complexity of the shapes and dynamics of bubbles rising in liquid have fascinated scientists for centuries. Here we perform simulations on an initially spherical bubble starting from rest. We report that the dynamics is fully three-dimensional, and provide a broad canvas of behaviour patterns. Our phase plot in the Galilei-Eötvös plane shows five distinct regimes with sharply defined boundaries. Two symmetry-loss regimes are found: one with minor asymmetry restricted to a flapping skirt; and another with marked shape evolution. A perfect correlation between large shape asymmetry and path instability is established. In regimes corresponding to peripheral breakup and toroid formation, the dynamics is unsteady. A new kind of breakup, into a bulb-shaped bubble and a few satellite drops is found at low Morton numbers. The findings are of fundamental and practical relevance. It is hoped that experimenters will be motivated to check our predictions.

  4. Syphilis in the United States: on the rise? (United States)

    Peterman, Thomas A; Su, John; Bernstein, Kyle T; Weinstock, Hillard


    Syphilis rates and trends vary by population subgroup. Among men who have sex with men (MSM), rates of primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis are high throughout the USA (228.8 per 100,000 in 2013). P&S syphilis among women is much less common (0.9 per 100,000 in 2013) and occurs in isolated outbreaks plus in a few counties with persistent low levels of infection. Congenital syphilis trends closely follow P&S trends among women. These trends have implications for prevention. Routine screening among MSM can prevent tertiary syphilis, but despite interventions, rates of infection continue to rise among MSM and will soon approach those last seen in 1982 (estimate: 340.7 per 100,000). Control of syphilis among women is possible and important because it often leads to congenital syphilis. Outbreaks among heterosexuals can be halted by intensive screening, treatment and partner notification.

  5. The Rising Racism in Europe: Example Of Pegida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nail


    Full Text Available The racist approaches has began to take place on international area intensively after Cold-War period in the European Union countries. Generally, when we think about xenophobia and racism in Europe, Germany becomes the first country that comes to mind. However, the European Parliament Election in 2014 has shown that the racist approaches are not restricted to Germany. Xenophobia and racism are increasing day by day in nearly all the European Union countries. So far, the racism has been raised as a form of Islamophobia in expressions of far-right parties in Europe. Today the movement, which arised in September 2014 and called Pegida, has started to use these approaches. In this article the Pegida movement will be examined in the context of rising Islamophobia, racism and xenophobia in the European countries recently.

  6. Dynamics of an initially spherical bubble rising in quiescent liquid. (United States)

    Tripathi, Manoj Kumar; Sahu, Kirti Chandra; Govindarajan, Rama


    The beauty and complexity of the shapes and dynamics of bubbles rising in liquid have fascinated scientists for centuries. Here we perform simulations on an initially spherical bubble starting from rest. We report that the dynamics is fully three-dimensional, and provide a broad canvas of behaviour patterns. Our phase plot in the Galilei-Eötvös plane shows five distinct regimes with sharply defined boundaries. Two symmetry-loss regimes are found: one with minor asymmetry restricted to a flapping skirt; and another with marked shape evolution. A perfect correlation between large shape asymmetry and path instability is established. In regimes corresponding to peripheral breakup and toroid formation, the dynamics is unsteady. A new kind of breakup, into a bulb-shaped bubble and a few satellite drops is found at low Morton numbers. The findings are of fundamental and practical relevance. It is hoped that experimenters will be motivated to check our predictions.

  7. Primary Care Practice Transformation and the Rise of Consumerism. (United States)

    Shrank, William H


    Americans are increasingly demanding the same level of service in healthcare that they receive in other services and products that they buy. This rise in consumerism poses challenges for primary care physicians as they attempt to transform their practices to succeed in a value-based reimbursement landscape, where they are rewarded for managing costs and improving the health of populations. In this paper, three examples of consumer-riven trends are described: retail healthcare, direct and concierge care, and home-based diagnostics and care. For each, the intersection of consumer-driven care and the goals of value-based primary care are explored. If the correct payment and connectivity enablers are in place, some examples of consumer-driven care are well-positioned to support primary care physicians in their mission to deliver high-quality, efficient care for the populations they serve. However, concerns about access and equity make other trends less consistent with that mission.

  8. Ray tracing study of rising tone EMIC-triggered emissions (United States)

    Hanzelka, Miroslav; Santolík, Ondřej; Grison, Benjamin; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, Nicole


    ElectroMagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) triggered emissions have been subject of extensive theoretical and experimental research in last years. These emissions are characterized by high coherence values and a frequency range of 0.5 - 2.0 Hz, close to local helium gyrofrequency. We perform ray tracing case studies of rising tone EMIC-triggered emissions observed by the Cluster spacecraft in both nightside and dayside regions off the equatorial plane. By comparison of simulated and measured wave properties, namely wave vector orientation, group velocity, dispersion and ellipticity of polarization, we determine possible source locations. Diffusive equilibrium density model and other, semi-empirical models are used with ion composition inferred from cross-over frequencies. Ray tracing simulations are done in cold plasma approximation with inclusion of Landau and cyclotron damping. Various widths, locations and profiles of plasmapause are tested.

  9. The Rise of Right-Wing Extremism in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevkovski Ljupcho


    Full Text Available It is a fact that in the European Union there is a strengthening of right-wing extremism, radical right movement, populism and nationalism. The consequences of the economic crisis, such as a decline in living standards, losing of jobs, rising unemployment especially among young people, undoubtedly goes in favor of strengthening the right-wing extremism. In the research, forms of manifestation will be covered of this dangerous phenomenon and response of the institutions. Western Balkan countries, as a result of right-wing extremism, are especially sensitive region on possible consequences that might occur, since there are several unresolved political problems, which can very easily turn into a new cycle of conflicts, if European integration processes get delayed indefinitely.

  10. The rise of working pensioners: the Swedish case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flood Lennart


    Full Text Available According to the Eurostat the old-age dependency (people aged 65 or above relative to those aged 15- 64 in the EU will rise from 28% in 2010 to 58% in 2060. During the same period total hours works are projected to fall contributing to a low projected economic growth over the next half-century. In this paper we argue that this gloomy picture might be challenged by an increase in the employment rates of older workers. Using Sweden as an illustration we show that the ratio of individuals with income from both pension and market work has increased strongly during the last decade. During the same period economic reforms have been introduced creating economic incentives in order to delay the exit from the labor market. In this paper we demonstrate the importance of these economic reforms in explaining increased working hours. The paper also evaluates the fiscal impact of the increase in the employment rates.

  11. Accelerated sea level rise and Florida Current transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park


    Full Text Available The Florida Current is the headwater of the Gulf Stream and is a component of the North Atlantic western boundary current from which a geostrophic balance between sea surface height and mass transport directly influence coastal sea levels along the Florida Straits. A linear regression of daily Florida Current transport estimates does not find a significant change in transport over the last decade; however, a nonlinear trend extracted from empirical mode decomposition (EMD suggests a 3 Sv decline in mean transport. This decline is consistent with observed tide gauge records in Florida Bay and the straits exhibiting an acceleration of mean sea level (MSL rise over the decade. It is not known whether this recent change represents natural variability or the onset of the anticipated secular decline in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC; nonetheless, such changes have direct impacts on the sensitive ecological systems of the Everglades as well as the climate of western Europe and eastern North America.

  12. Temperature rise in plant reproductive organs under low gravity conditions (United States)

    Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Hiroaki

    Excess temperature rise in plant reproductive organs such as anthers and stigmas could cause fertility impediments and thus produce sterile seeds without adequately controlled environ-ments in closed plant growth facilities. There is a possibility such a situation could occur in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems under microgravity conditions in space because there will be little natural convective or thermal mixing. This study was conducted to determine the thermal situation of the plant reproductive organs as affected by gravity levels of 0.01, 1.0 and 2.0 g for 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights and to make an estimation of temperature increases in the reproductive organs in closed plant growth facilities under mi-crogravity in space. Thermal images of reproductive organs of rice and tomato were captured using infrared thermography at an air temperature of 31.5C, a relative humidity of 11

  13. Benjamin Rush, Edinburgh Medicine and the Rise of Physician Autobiography. (United States)

    Jones, Catherine


    This chapter explores the place of Scottish medicine in the autobiographical writing of the Philadelphia physician and signer of the American Declaration of Independence, Benjamin Rush, who studied at the University of Edinburgh from 1766 to 1768. It focuses on Rush's 'Scottish journal' (his account of his period of study in Edinburgh), his protracted feud from 1797 over his treatment of yellow fever with the English journalist, politician and agriculturalist William Cobbett, and his account in 'Travels through Life' of that feud and of the influence of Cullen on his medical theory and practice. The different rhetorical strategies used by Rush to defend his character and practice and his role in the rise of physician autobiography are examined.

  14. The rise of environmental analytical chemistry as an interdisciplinary activity. (United States)

    Brown, Richard


    Modern scientific endeavour is increasingly delivered within an interdisciplinary framework. Analytical environmental chemistry is a long-standing example of an interdisciplinary approach to scientific research where value is added by the close cooperation of different disciplines. This editorial piece discusses the rise of environmental analytical chemistry as an interdisciplinary activity and outlines the scope of the Analytical Chemistry and the Environmental Chemistry domains of TheScientificWorldJOURNAL (TSWJ), and the appropriateness of TSWJ's domain format in covering interdisciplinary research. All contributions of new data, methods, case studies, and instrumentation, or new interpretations and developments of existing data, case studies, methods, and instrumentation, relating to analytical and/or environmental chemistry, to the Analytical and Environmental Chemistry domains, are welcome and will be considered equally.

  15. NOAA Digital Coast Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding Impacts Viewer (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding Impacts Viewer depicts potential sea level rise and its associated impacts on the nation's coastal areas. These coastal areas...

  16. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Kasper, Justin; Maksimovic, Milan; Alibay, Farah; Amiri, Nikta; Bastian, Tim; Cohen, Christina; Landi, Enrico; Manchester, Ward; Reinard, Alysha; Schwadron, Nathan; Cecconi, Baptiste; Hallinan, Gregg; Hegedus, Alex; Krupar, Vratislav; Zaslavsky, Arnaud


    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 RS. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (ν ≳ 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (≲ 3RS). The state-of-the-art for tracking such emission from space is defined by single antennas (Wind/WAVES, Stereo/SWAVES), in which the tracking is accomplished by assuming a frequency-to-density mapping; there has been some success in triangulating the emission between the spacecraft, but considerable uncertainties remain. We describe the Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) mission concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. The Rising Prevalence of Chronic Low Back Pain* (United States)

    Freburger, Janet K.; Holmes, George M.; Agans, Robert P.; Jackman, Anne M.; Darter, Jane D.; Wallace, Andrea S.; Castel, Liana D.; Kalsbeek, William D.; Carey, Timothy S.


    Background National or state-level estimates on trends in the prevalence of chronic low back pain (LBP) are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine whether the prevalence of chronic LBP, and the demographic, health-related, and care-seeking characteristics of individuals with the condition have changed over the past 14 years. Methods A cross-sectional, telephone survey of a representative sample of North Carolina (NC) households was conducted in 1992 and repeated in 2006. 4,437 households were contacted in 1992 and 5,357 households were contacted in 2006 to identify noninstitutionalized, adults 21 years and older with chronic, impairing (pain>3 months that limits daily activities). These individuals were interviewed in more detail about their health and care-seeking. Results The prevalence of chronic, impairing LBP rose significantly over the 14 year interval, from 3.9% (95% CI:3.4–4.4) in 1992 to 10.2% (95% CI:9.3–11.0) in 2006. Increases were seen for all adult age strata, in males and females, and in white and black races. Symptom severity and general health were similar for both years. The proportion of individuals who sought care from a health care provider in the past year increased from 73.1% (95% CI:65.2–79.8) to 84.0% (95% CI:80.8–86.8), while mean number of visits to all providers were similar (19.5 vs 19.4). Conclusions The prevalence of chronic, impairing LBP has risen significantly in NC, with continuing high levels of disability and care utilization. A substantial portion of the rise in LBP care costs over the past two decades may be related to this rising prevalence.. PMID:19204216

  18. Implications of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Flood Hazards (United States)

    Roeber, V.; Li, N.; Cheung, K.; Lane, P.; Evans, R. L.; Donnelly, J. P.; Ashton, A. D.


    Recent global and local projections suggest the sea level will be on the order of 1 m or higher than the current level by the end of the century. Coastal communities and ecosystems in low-lying areas are vulnerable to impacts resulting from hurricane or large swell events in combination with sea-level rise. This study presents the implementation and results of an integrated numerical modeling package to delineate coastal inundation due to storm landfalls at future sea levels. The modeling package utilizes a suite of numerical models to capture both large-scale phenomena in the open ocean and small-scale processes in coastal areas. It contains four components to simulate (1) meteorological conditions, (2) astronomical tides and surge, (3) wave generation, propagation, and nearshore transformation, and (4) surf-zone processes and inundation onto dry land associated with a storm event. Important aspects of this package are the two-way coupling of a spectral wave model and a storm surge model as well as a detailed representation of surf and swash zone dynamics by a higher-order Boussinesq-type wave model. The package was validated with field data from Hurricane Ivan of 2005 on the US Gulf coast and applied to tropical and extratropical storm scenarios respectively at Eglin, Florida and Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The results show a nonlinear increase of storm surge level and nearshore wave energy with a rising sea level. The exacerbated flood hazard can have major consequences for coastal communities with respect to erosion and damage to infrastructure.

  19. Adaptation to the Impacts of Sea Level Rise in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Raey, M.; Dewidar, K.R.; El-Hattab, M. [Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, University of Alexandria, Alexandria (Egypt)


    Assessment of the vulnerability and expected socioeconomic losses over the Nile delta coast due to the impact of sea level rise is carried out in details. Impacts of sea level rise over the Governorates of Alexandria and Port Said in particular, are evaluated quantitatively. Analysis of the results at Alexandria Governorate indicate that, if no action is taken, an area of about 30% of the city will be lost due to inundation. Almost 2 million people will have to abandon their homeland; 195,000 jobs will be lost and an economic loss of over $3.5 Billion is expected over the next century. At Port Said Governorate results indicate that beach areas are most severely affected (hence tourism), followed by urban areas. The agriculture sector is the least affected sector. It is estimated that the economic loss is over $ 2.0 Billion for 0.50 m SLR and may exceed $ 4.4 Billion for 1.25 m SLR. Options and costs of adaptation are analyzed and presented. Multi-criteria and decision matrix approaches, based on questionnaire surveys are carried out to identify priorities for the two cases. Analysis of these techniques of two options; the current policy (hard protection measures on some vulnerable areas) and no action (stopping these activities) have the lowest scores. Beach nourishment and integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) have the highest scores, however ICZM has high cost measures. The most cost effective option is the land-use change, however with relatively very high cost measure. It is recommended that an ICZM approach be adopted since it provides a reasonable trade off between costs and cost effectiveness. 14 refs.

  20. Life After USA300: The Rise and Fall of a Superbug. (United States)

    Planet, Paul J


    The community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) epidemic in the United States is largely attributable to the meteoric rise of a single clone, referred to as USA300. This strain not only spread across the United States in just a few years to become the predominant cause of staphylococcal disease, but it also appears to have increased the overall number of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), increasing the overall disease burden. While USA300 still constitutes a major public health burden, its prevalence may be decreasing in some parts of the United States. Other than an epidemic in South America due to a closely related strain, USA300 also seems to have been largely unable to establish itself as an endemic infection in other geographic locations. While there have been several hypotheses put forward to explain the enormous success of USA300, the reasons for its failures and its potential fall remain obscure. Far from being unique to USA300, the rise and fall of specific clones of S. aureus in human populations seems to be a common process that has occurred multiple times and in multiple locations. This review charts the rise of USA300 and the evidence that suggests that it may be in decline, and it considers how best to understand the future spread, containment, and possible extinction of CA-MRSA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail